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  Subjects -> METEOROLOGY (Total: 110 journals)
Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Meteorologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Atmósfera     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Atmosphere-Ocean     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atmospheric Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Atmospheric Science Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Boundary-Layer Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin of Atmospheric Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Climate Change Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Responses     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Climate Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Climate law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Climate of the Past (CP)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Climate of the Past Discussions (CPD)     Open Access  
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Climate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Climate Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Climate Services     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Climate Summary of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Current Climate Change Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Dynamics and Statistics of the Climate System     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access  
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Biometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural Meteorology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Climatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Meteorological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Weather Modification     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mediterranean Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meteorologica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Meteorological Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meteorological Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Meteorologische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Mètode Science Studies Journal : Annual Review     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Monthly Weather Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Nature Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 125)
Nature Reports Climate Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Nīvār     Open Access  
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Atmospheric Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático     Open Access  
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Space Weather     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica     Hybrid Journal  
Tellus A     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Tellus B     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
The Cryosphere (TC)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Cryosphere Discussions (TCD)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Theoretical and Applied Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Weather     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Weather and Climate Dynamics     Open Access  
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Weatherwise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Boundary-Layer Meteorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.262
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 31  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-1472 - ISSN (Online) 0006-8314
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Investigating the Sensitivity of Marine Fog to Physical and Microphysical
           Processes Using Large-Eddy Simulation
    • Abstract: Abstract Over the past few years large-eddy simulation (LES) has demonstrated success in modelling continental radiation fog, and several recent studies have used LES to investigate the sensitivity of fog formation to physical processes such as turbulent mixing and surface heat and moisture exchange, as well as to the parametrization of microphysical processes such as cloud droplet activation. Here we extend these sensitivity studies to marine fog. There are several important differences in the formation of marine and continental fog, however moisture availability is no longer a decisive factor, and surface temperature changes over a much longer time scale. Here LES is used to examine the sensitivity of simulated marine-fog formation and maintenance to the cloud-droplet number concentration, turbulent mixing, and air–sea temperature difference. The strength of the fog (in terms of liquid water content) is found to be highly sensitive to all three factors. Varying only the cloud-droplet number concentration, even within a range of physically realistic values for marine regions, can mean the difference between fog halving or doubling in liquid water content. The sensitivities demonstrated herein indicate the great need and challenge for constraining these parameters in numerical weather prediction. Similarities and differences to the findings for continental radiation fog are examined, and important considerations for future improvements in marine-fog forecasting are discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-01-17
  • Investigation of Spatial and Temporal Wind-Speed Variability During Open
           Cellular Convection with the Model for Prediction Across Scales in
           Comparison with Measurements
    • Abstract: Abstract Open cellular convection (OCC) over, for example, the North Sea is often observed in connection with cold-air outbreaks. It is accompanied by large temporal and spatial variability in wind speed, which affects offshore wind energy in the area. This study uses the global Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS), with regional mesh refinement down to convection-permitting scales of 2 km, to simulate an OCC episode in the North Sea, with a focus on wind-speed variability. Modelled data are combined with wind speeds retrieved from satellite data and in situ measurements to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of offshore wind speeds under OCC conditions from a synoptic to mesoscale perspective, and to examine the model’s ability to represent the OCC structures and wind-speed variability. The model can simulate realistic OCC structures and mesoscale wind-speed variability within the limits set by the effective model resolution. Under OCC conditions, significant differences from climatological conditions are found in the spatial wind-speed power spectrum and in 10-min wind-speed step changes. The very high horizontal mesh-cell spacing in the refinement region of 2 km, and the focus on OCC wind-speed variability, makes this the first investigation of this kind using the MPAS modelling framework with mesh refinement.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • Coupling Mesoscale Budget Components to Large-Eddy Simulations for
           Wind-Energy Applications
    • Abstract: Abstract To simulate the airflow through a wind farm across a wide range of atmospheric conditions, microscale models (e.g., large-eddy simulation, LES, models) have to be coupled with mesoscale models, because microscale models lack the atmospheric physical processes to represent time-varying local forcing. Here we couple mesoscale model outputs to a LES solver by applying mesoscale momentum- and temperature-budget components from the Weather Research and Forecasting model to the governing equations of the Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications model. We test whether averaging the budget components affects the LES results with regard to quantities of interest to wind energy. Our study focuses on flat terrain during a quiescent diurnal cycle. The simulation results are compared with observations from a 200-m tall meteorological tower and a wind-profiling radar, by analyzing time series, profiles, rotor-averaged quantities, and spectra. While results show that averaging reduces the spatio-temporal variability of the mesoscale momentum-budget components, when coupled with the LES model, the mesoscale bias (in comparison with observations of wind speed and direction, and potential temperature) is not reduced. In contrast, the LES technique can correct for shear and veer. In both cases, however, averaging the budget components shows no significant impact on the mean flow quantities in the microscale and is not necessary when coupling mesocale budget components to the LES model.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • Gravel-Desert Surface Properties and Their Influences on the Wind-Erosion
           Threshold Friction Velocity in North-West China
    • Abstract: Abstract In north-west China, extensive areas of gravel desert exist, whose surface properties have an important effect on the wind-erosion threshold friction velocity \( u_{*t} \) . In this study, we use four models and field observations of gravel mass fraction, soil physical crust, and soil clay content to assess the effect of gravel-surface properties on the value of \( u_{*t} \) . Results show that gravel coverage in north-west China ranges between 0.07 and 1.00 (with a mean of 0.67), and about 81% of the sites investigated are covered by soil physical crust. Clay content is 2.4% on average in the study region, less than 2% in 52.1% of that region, and between 2 and 4% in the remaining study regions. The four regions where clay content is greater than the mean include the western Alxa Plain, the alluvial fan of the western Alxa Plain, the northern Alxa Plain, and the Hexi Corridor. In the study region, the value of \( u_{*t} \) ranges between 0.12 and 0.78 m s−1 (with a mean of 0.45 m s−1). Soil moisture, gravel coverage, and soil physical crust all affect the magnitude of \( u_{*t} \) . A principal component analysis indicates that the soil crust contributes of about 62% of the \( u_{{*{\text{t}}}} \) variations, soil moisture 25%, and surface roughness 9%. A variance analysis shows clear spatial differences in the magnitude of \( u_{*t} \) in north-west China due to the spatial variations in gravel land-surface properties.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • Direct Solution of Various Micrometeorological Problems via the Lambert-W
    • Abstract: Abstract For a family of relatively common problems in micrometeorology, whose forms previously required iterative or indirect treatment, analytical solution is possible via the Lambert-W function. Use of this function reduces computational time and the need for approximations, while offering a clearer view of the character and solution of such problems. This note provides a generalized form for such problems, and demonstrates its use for three applications: internal boundary-layer growth due to a change in surface roughness; flow displacement over a canopy; and determination of friction velocity and roughness length over the sea.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • Revisiting Raupach’s Flow-Sheltering Paradigm
    • Abstract: Abstract In this commentary, we revisit Raupach’s flow-sheltering paradigm that asserts reduced wall-shear stress behind a surface roughness element (MR Raupach in Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 60(4):375–395, 1992). Direct numerical simulations of a turbulent boundary layer over a wall-mounted rectangular roughness are conducted we consider roughness with three different aspect ratios and flows at two Reynolds numbers. A large computational domain is used to study the behaviours of the wall-shear stress in both the near-wake and the far-wake regions. Aside from a low wall-shear stress region in the near-wake as one would expect from the flow-sheltering paradigm, a high-stress region is found in the far-wake. The presence of such a high-stress region challenges the well-established flow sheltering paradigm and is also counter-intuitive. Detailed analysis of the vortical structures shows that the high wall-shear stress region is a consequence of the horse-shoe-vortex-induced downwash motion in the far-wake.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • A Lagrangian Cloud Model for the Study of Marine Fog
    • Abstract: Abstract A large-eddy simulation model is coupled with a Lagrangian cloud model to study marine fog. In this model, aerosols and droplets are treated from a Lagrangian frame of reference, in contrast to the traditional bulk and bin microphysical models. Droplet growth via condensation is governed by Köhler theory and environmental conditions local to the droplet. Coupling to the vapour and temperature fields of the flow ensures mass, momentum, and energy conservation between the air and droplet phases. Based on the recent C-FOG field campaign, a simulation is performed which highlights the benefits and potential of this type of model. By initializing the simulation with the measured aerosol size distribution and making assumptions about the chemical composition of the multiple peaks, the simulations provide a clear explanation for the observed bimodal droplet distribution during C-FOG: high supersaturation levels cause condensational growth of nearly all coarse-mode aerosols (presumed to be composed of marine salt), as well as a large number of accumulation model aerosols (presumed to be of continental origin with a lower hygroscopicity). The largest peak in the resulting droplet distribution is created from coarse-mode aerosols with high hygroscopicity, while the secondary peak is only possible due to the limited impact of the largest peak on saturation levels inside the fog. Thus, for the simulated levels of supersaturation, it is the limited number of coarse-mode aerosols which is responsible for the emergence of a larger second peak.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • Improving Numerical Dispersion Modelling in Built Environments with Data
           Assimilation Using the Iterative Ensemble Kalman Smoother
    • Abstract: Abstract Air-pollution modelling at the local scale requires accurate meteorological inputs such as from the velocity field. These meteorological fields are generally simulated with microscale models (here Code_Saturne), which are forced with boundary conditions provided by larger scale models or observations. Local atmospheric simulations are very sensitive to the boundary conditions, whose accurate estimation is difficult but crucial. When observations of the wind speed and turbulence or pollutant concentration are available inside the domain, they provide supplementary information via data assimilation, to enhance the simulation accuracy by modifying the boundary conditions. Among the existing data assimilation methods, the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS) is adapted to urban-scale simulations. This method has already been found to increase the accuracy of wind-resource assessment. Here we assess the ability of the IEnKS method to improve scalar-dispersion modelling—an important component of air-quality modelling—by assimilating perturbed measurements inside the urban canopy. To test the data assimilation method in urban conditions, we use the observations provided by the Mock Urban Setting Test field campaign and consider cases with neutral and stable conditions, and the boundary conditions consisting of the horizontal velocity components and turbulence. We prove the capacity of the IEnKS method to assimilate observations of velocity as well as pollutant concentration. In both cases, the accuracy of pollutant concentration estimates is enhanced by 40–60%. We also show that assimilating both types of observations allows further improvements of turbulence predictions by the model.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • Using Machine-Learning Methods to Improve Surface Wind Speed from the
           Outputs of a Numerical Weather Prediction Model
    • Abstract: Abstract The relationship between the wind speed derived from the outputs of a numerical-weather-prediction model and from observations is explored using statistical and machine-learning models. Eight years of wind-speed measurements at a height of 10 m (from 2010 to 2017) from 171 stations spread over mainland France and Corsica are used for reference. Operational analyses from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) provide the model information not only on the surface flow, but on other aspects of the atmospheric state at the location (or above) each station. In a first step, a large number of explanatory variables are used as input to several models (linear regressions, k-nearest neighbours, random forests, and gradient boosting). The modelled wind speed in the ECMWF analyses, by itself, has root-mean-square errors over all stations distributed widely around a median of 1.42 m s \(^{-1}\) . Using statistical post-processing and making use of a historical dataset for training, the median of the root-mean-square errors at all stations can be reduced down to 1.07 m s \(^{-1}\) when modelled with linear regressions, and down to 0.94 m s \(^{-1}\) with the machine-learning models (random forests or gradient boosting). Yet more significant decreases are found for coastal stations where the errors are largest. The random-forest models are further explored to reduce the list of explanatory variables: a list of 25 explanatory variables, mainly consisting of flow variables (wind speed, velocity components, horizontal gradients of geopotential on different isobaric surfaces, wind shear between 10 and 100 m) and including marginally some temperature variables, appears as a good compromise between performance and simplicity. Finally, as a preliminary test for further work, the relation thus captured between the model outputs and the observed wind speed at a given time is applied to forecasts of the numerical-weather-prediction model, for lead times up to 24 h. The machine-learning model is found to be essentially as relevant on the forecasts as it was on the analyses, encouraging further use and development of these approaches for local wind-speed forecasts.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • Neighbourhood-Scale Flow Regimes and Pollution Transport in Cities
    • Abstract: Abstract Cities intimately intermingle people and air pollution. It is very difficult to monitor or model neighbourhood-scale pollutant transport explicitly. One computationally efficient way is to treat neighbourhoods as patches of porous media to which the flow adjusts. Here we use conceptual arguments and large-eddy simulation to formulate two flow regimes based on the size of patches of different frontal-area density within neighbourhoods. One of these flow regimes distributes pollutants in counter-intuitive ways, such as producing pollution ‘hot spots’ in patches of lower frontal-area density. The regimes provide the first quantitative definition of the ‘urban background’, which can be used for more precisely targeted pollution monitoring. They also provide a conceptual basis for further research into neighbourhood-scale air-pollution problems, such as parametrizations in mesoscale models, and the transport of fluid constituents in other porous media.
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
  • Warm-Air Advection Over Melting Sea-Ice: A Lagrangian Case Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Observations from the 2014 Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment indicate that, in summer, warm-air advection over melting sea-ice results in a strong surface melting feedback forced by a very strong surface-based temperature inversion and fog formation exerting additional heat flux on the surface. Here, we analyze this case further using a combination of reanalysis dataset and satellite products in a Lagrangian framework, thereby extending the view spatially from the local icebreaker observations into a Langrangian perspective. The results confirm that warm-air advection induces a positive net surface-energy-budget anomaly, exerting positive longwave radiation and turbulent heat flux on the surface. Additionally, as warm and moist air penetrates farther into the Arctic, cloud-top cooling and surface mixing eventually erode the surface inversion downstream. The initial surface inversion splits into two elevated inversions while the air columns below the elevated inversions transform into well-mixed layers.
      PubDate: 2020-12-17
  • Correction to: Transition Periods in the Diurnally-Varying Atmospheric
           Boundary Layer Over Land
    • Abstract: In the original publication, Figures 1 and 2 are subject to Crown Copyright.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
  • Fifty Years of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Research at Cabauw Serving
           Weather, Air Quality and Climate
    • Abstract: Abstract An overview is given of 50-year Cabauw observations and research on the structure and dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer. It is shown that over time this research site with its 200-m meteorological tower has grown into an atmospheric observatory with a comprehensive observational program encompassing almost all aspects of the atmospheric column including its boundary conditions. This is accomplished by the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) a consortium of research institutes. CESAR plays an important role in the educational programs of the CESAR universities. The current boundary-layer observational program is described in detail, and other parts of the CESAR observational program discussed more briefly. Due to an open data policy the CESAR datasets are used by researchers all over the world. Examples are given of the use of the long time series for model evaluation, satellite validation, and process studies. The role of tall towers is discussed in relation to the development of more and better ground-based remote sensing techniques. CESAR is now incorporated into the Ruisdael observatory, the large-scale atmospheric research infrastructure in the Netherlands. With Ruisdael the embedding of the Dutch atmospheric community in national policy landscape, and in the European atmospheric research infrastructures is assured for the coming decade.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
  • Large-Eddy Simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
    • Abstract: Abstract Over the last 50 years the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique has developed into one of the most prominent numerical tools used to study transport processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This review examines development of the technique as a tool for ABL research, integration with state-of-the-art scientific computing resources, and some key application areas. Analysis of the published literature indicates that LES research across a broad range of applications accelerated starting around 1990. From that point in time, robust research using LES developed in several different application areas and based on a review of the papers published in this journal, we identify seven major areas of intensive ABL–LES research: convective boundary layers, stable boundary layers, transitional boundary layers, plant canopy flows, urban meteorology and dispersion, surface heterogeneity, and the testing and development of subgrid-scale (SGS) models. We begin with a general overview of LES and then proceed to examine the SGS models developed for use in ABL–LES. After this overview of the technique itself, we review the specific model developments tailored to the identified application areas and the scientific advancements realized using the LES technique in each area. We conclude by examining the computational trends in published ABL–LES research and identify some resource underutilization. Future directions and research needs are identified from a synthesis of the reviewed literature.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
  • Commentaries on Top-Cited Boundary - Layer Meteorology Articles
    • PubDate: 2020-12-01
  • The Persistent Challenge of Surface Heterogeneity in Boundary-Layer
           Meteorology: A Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Atmospheric boundary-layer dynamics over heterogeneous surfaces is significant to a wide array of geophysical and engineering applications. Yet, despite over five decades of intense efforts by the research community, numerous open research questions remain. This underlines the complexity of the physical processes that are excited by heterogeneity, the multitude of patterns and manifestations that it can display, and the importance of the implications to research in the atmospheric sciences and beyond. Here, existing knowledge is reviewed and a path forward for research is proposed, starting with the smaller scales near a surface transition and proceeding to the influence on large-scale dynamics and their forecasting.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
  • Concentration Fluctuations from Localized Atmospheric Releases
    • Abstract: Abstract We review the efforts made by the scientific community in more than seventy years to elucidate the behaviour of concentration fluctuations arising from localized atmospheric releases of dynamically passive and non-reactive scalars. Concentration fluctuations are relevant in many fields including the evaluation of toxicity, flammability, and odour nuisance. Characterizing concentration fluctuations requires not just the mean concentration but also at least the variance of the concentration in the location of interest. However, for most purposes the characterization of the concentration fluctuations requires knowledge of the concentration probability density function (PDF) in the point of interest and even the time evolution of the concentration. We firstly review the experimental works made both in the field and in the laboratory, and cover both point sources and line sources. Regarding modelling approaches, we cover analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical methods. For clarity of presentation we subdivide the models in two groups, models linked to a transport equation, which usually require a numerical resolution, and models mainly based on phenomenological aspects of dispersion, often providing analytical or semi-analytical relations. The former group includes: large-eddy simulations, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes methods, two-particle Lagrangian stochastic models, PDF transport equation methods, and heuristic Lagrangian single-particle methods. The latter group includes: fluctuating plume models, semi-empirical models for the concentration moments, analytical models for the concentration PDF, and concentration time-series models. We close the review with a brief discussion highlighting possible useful additions to experiments and improvements to models.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
  • Representation of Boundary-Layer Processes in Numerical Weather Prediction
           and Climate Models
    • Abstract: Abstract Boundary-layer schemes are essential components of numerical weather-forecasting and climate models. From simple beginnings 50 years ago, they have grown in sophistication and detail. Here, we review development and discuss the key processes to be represented and how they have most commonly been parametrized. We conclude by discussing the challenges posed by ever-increasing model resolution and a growing emphasis on the forecasting of extreme events. Throughout, we emphasize the place of the boundary-layer scheme within the whole model and its interactions with other components of the model.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
  • Turbulent Flow in Plant Canopies: Historical Perspective and Overview
    • Abstract: Abstract Studying the microclimate of plant canopies has long motivated scientists in various research fields such as agronomy, ecology or silviculture, and almost a century has passed since the first measurements of wind speed in a forest stand were published in the scientific literature. The behaviour of wind in canopies is an essential component of their microclimate, which largely conditions the rate of exchange of heat, water vapour, and other gases and particles of interest with the atmosphere. This review examines the evolution of our understanding of turbulent flow in plant canopies, focussing on the period that covers the last fifty years (1970–2020). We first describe how our knowledge and ideas have evolved since canopy flow became a topic of interest, and show how the 1970s was a pivotal decade in this field. Until then, canopy turbulence was considered to result from the superposition of standard surface-layer turbulence and small-scale turbulence generated in the wakes of plant elements. However, it was progressively found that the flow in plant canopies is dominated by large coherent structures, giving canopy turbulence unique characteristics. We thus describe the particular nature and structure of canopy flows, based on experimental observations accumulated over several decades. We show how canopy turbulence was reconsidered on the basis of a now widely-accepted analogy with a plane mixing layer, and we examine the significance of a key parameter, the “canopy-shear length scale”. Investigating the effects of canopy density and atmospheric stability, we then discuss the extent of the mixing-layer analogy and the limits of our current understanding of canopy turbulence. Finally, we review the modelling tools used in this field and show how their development has evolved to date to meet our needs. In conclusion, we present a historical summary of the evolution of this research field and suggest future directions.
      PubDate: 2020-09-25
  • 50th Anniversary Issue of Boundary - Layer Meteorology
    • PubDate: 2020-09-12
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