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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1610 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (21 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (251 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (17 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (91 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (52 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (917 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (171 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (917 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
International Journal of Synergy and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal Pedagogy of Social Studies     Open Access  
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access  
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review of Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 204)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
IULC Working Papers     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addiction & Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Economy Culture and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ilahiyat Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Iran Cultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free  
Journal of Mediterranean Knowledge     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 304, SJR: 4.302, CiteScore: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Progressive Research in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Social Science Education : JSSE     Open Access  
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Structure     Open Access  
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Trust Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Biometrika dan Kependudukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Kawistara     Open Access  
Jurnal Lakon     Open Access  
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Teori dan Praksis Pembelajaran IPS     Open Access  
Jurnal Terapan Abdimas     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access  
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies     Open Access  
Kimün. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente     Open Access  
Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Korea : Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft     Open Access  
Korean Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Kulttuurintutkimus     Open Access  
Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Homme. Europäische Zeitschrift für Feministische Geschichtswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
L'Ordinaire des Amériques     Open Access  
La Tercera Orilla     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Lavboratorio : Revista de Estudios sobre Cambio Estructural y Desigualdad Social.     Open Access  
Lectio Socialis     Open Access  
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lex Social : Revista de Derechos Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Liminar. Estudios Sociales y Humanisticos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Literacy Learning: The Middle Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Local-Global: Identity, Security, Community     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lucero     Open Access  
Lúdicamente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lutas Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedon Digest, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Maskana     Open Access  
Mathématiques et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mayéutica Revista Científica de Humanidades y Artes     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meanjin Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Media Information Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Media International Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Media International Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Melbourne Journal of Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mémoire(s), identité(s), marginalité(s) dans le monde occidental contemporain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Memorias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meridional : Revista Chilena de Estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
methaodos.revista de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Methodological Innovations     Open Access  
Methods, Data, Analyses     Open Access  
México y la Cuenca del Pacífico     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Migration Action     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Mikarimin. Revista Científica Multidisciplinaria     Open Access  
Mirai : Estudios Japoneses     Open Access  
Miscelánea Comillas. Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales     Open Access  
Misión Jurídica     Open Access  
Mitologicas     Open Access  
Módulo Arquitectura - CUC     Open Access  
Monthly, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Moving the Social : Journal of Social History and the History of Social Movements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mukaddime     Open Access  
Mütefekkir     Open Access  
Müvészettörténeti Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
National Emergency Response     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
National Observer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Navigations : A First-Year College Composite     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Left Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
New Perspectives on Turkey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand International Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Newsletter of the Gypsy Lore Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nineteenth-Century Contexts: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Noesis. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nómadas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nómadas. Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Social Research     Open Access  
Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidsskrift     Open Access  
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nouvelles perspectives en sciences sociales : revue internationale de systémique complexe et d'études relationnelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift     Full-text available via subscription  
Observatorio Latinoamericano y Caribeño     Open Access  
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
OGIRISI : a New Journal of African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Öneri Dergisi     Open Access  
Opcion     Open Access  
Open Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Family Studies Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Orbis. Revista Cientifica Ciencias Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Orbith : Majalah Ilmiah Pengembangan Rekayasa dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oregon Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Philosophy & Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.233
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 12  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2210-5433 - ISSN (Online) 2210-5441
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • What the Near Future of Artificial Intelligence Could Be
    • PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Dark Data as the New Challenge for Big Data Science and the Introduction
           of the Scientific Data Officer
    • Abstract: Abstract Many studies in big data focus on the uses of data available to researchers, leaving without treatment data that is on the servers but of which researchers are unaware. We call this dark data, and in this article, we present and discuss it in the context of high-performance computing (HPC) facilities. To this end, we provide statistics of a major HPC facility in Europe, the High-Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). We also propose a new position tailor-made for coping with dark data and general data management. We call it the scientific data officer (SDO) and we distinguish it from other standard positions in HPC facilities such as chief data officers, system administrators, and security officers. In order to understand the role of the SDO in HPC facilities, we discuss two kinds of responsibilities, namely, technical responsibilities and ethical responsibilities. While the former are intended to characterize the position, the latter raise concerns—and proposes solutions—to the control and authority that the SDO would acquire.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • The Ethics of Biomedical ‘Big Data’ Analytics
    • PubDate: 2019-03-08
  • Sympathy for Dolores: Moral Consideration for Robots Based on Virtue and
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper motivates the idea that social robots should be credited as moral patients, building on an argumentative approach that combines virtue ethics and social recognition theory. Our proposal answers the call for a nuanced ethical evaluation of human-robot interaction that does justice to both the robustness of the social responses solicited in humans by robots and the fact that robots are designed to be used as instruments. On the one hand, we acknowledge that the instrumental nature of robots and their unsophisticated social capabilities prevent any attribution of rights to robots, which are devoid of intrinsic moral dignity and personal status. On the other hand, we argue that another form of moral consideration—not based on rights attribution—can and must be granted to robots. The reason is that relationships with robots offer to the human agents important opportunities to cultivate both vices and virtues, like social interaction with other human beings. Our argument appeals to social recognition to explain why social robots, unlike other technological artifacts, are capable of establishing with their human users quasi-social relationships as pseudo-persons. This recognition dynamic justifies seeing robots as worthy of moral consideration from a virtue ethical standpoint as it predicts the pre-reflective formation of persistent affective dispositions and behavioral habits that are capable of corrupting the human user’s character. We conclude by drawing attention to a potential paradox drawn forth by our analysis and by examining the main conceptual conundrums that our approach has to face.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
  • Understanding Error Rates in Software Engineering: Conceptual, Empirical,
           and Experimental Approaches
    • Abstract: Abstract Software-intensive systems are ubiquitous in the industrialized world. The reliability of software has implications for how we understand scientific knowledge produced using software-intensive systems and for our understanding of the ethical and political status of technology. The reliability of a software system is largely determined by the distribution of errors and by the consequences of those errors in the usage of that system. We select a taxonomy of software error types from the literature on empirically observed software errors and compare that taxonomy to Giuseppe Primiero’s Minds and Machines 24: 249–273, (2014) taxonomy of error in information systems. Because Primiero’s taxonomy is articulated in terms of a coherent, explicit model of computation and is more fine-grained than the empirical taxonomy we select, we might expect Primiero’s taxonomy to provide insights into how to reduce the frequency of software error better than the empirical taxonomy. Whether using one software error taxonomy can help to reduce the frequency of software errors better than another taxonomy is ultimately an empirical question.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
  • The Transparency Game: Government Information, Access, and Actionability
    • Abstract: Abstract Democratic governments might be required by law to disseminate information to the people. This is called governmental transparency. What is the burden of transparency' We propose a “pragmatic information theory of communication” that places information accessibility as a foundation of transparency. Using a game model—the Transparency Game—we show that the pragmatic theory is the only one that makes it difficult for governments to appear transparent (transparency de vidi) while not actually being transparent (transparency de facto). There are two important consequences of understanding transparency through the theory: (1) Accessible information must be actionable, and (2) cognitive science plays a vital role in assessing the accessibility of information. These consequences can have implications for public policies that promote transparency.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • The Design of Socially Sustainable Ontologies
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper describes the role of information architecture in the design of socially sustainable pervasive information spaces. The framing of information architecture as an essential part of Design Thinking extends current and historic notions of the field of information architecture. The discussion introduces the notion of the ‘contrived ontology’ which can be understood as the intentional meaning that design infuses in its artefacts, services and systems. Further, we argue that contrived ontology aligns with central themes within humanistic frameworks which view reality as subjective construct. This forms the central theoretical meditation herein: we contend that while design is always an act of interpreted cultural determination, at the scale of Floridi’s infosphere, the immediacy and immersive social reality of technology will become frictionless within our human experience. As this occurs, there is a moral and ethical imperative to ensure social sustainability and to this end that the meanings and intentions that inform the mature design of our human-made world are visible and accountable. It is towards this end that information architecture can make a valuable contribution.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
  • Mutual Recognition in Human-Robot Interaction: a Deflationary Account
    • Abstract: Abstract Mutually adaptive interaction involves the robot as a partner as opposed to a tool, and requires that the robot is susceptible to similar environmental cues and behavior patterns as humans are. Recognition, or the acknowledgement of the other as individual, is fundamental to mutually adaptive interaction between humans. We discuss what recognition involves and its behavioral manifestations, and describe the benefits of implementing it in HRI.
      PubDate: 2018-12-19
  • An Information Architecture Framework for the Internet of Things
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper formalizes an approach to the Internet of Things as a socio-technical system of systems and a part of the infosphere. It introduces a principle-based, human-centered approach to designing Internet of Things artifacts as elements of contextual cross-channel ecosystems. It connects the Internet of Things to the conceptualization of cross-channel ecosystems from current information architecture theory and practice, positing that the Internet of Things is both a formal, objective superset of any given ecosystem and a contextual, subjective subset of specifically instantiated ecosystems. The paper argues for the necessity of a transdisciplinary theoretical framework to promote a human-centered generative understanding of the Internet of Things phenomena and their consequences, in accordance with the Metamodel Methodology (M3). It proposes a phenomenology-grounded information architecture model detailing a set of 16 principles and secondary heuristics grouped according to an architectural perspective, which identifies guidelines that support the design of Internet of Things artifacts considering their objective characteristics; a human perspective, which identifies guidelines that support the design of Internet of Things artifacts considering subject/object relationships and the production of meaning; and a systemic perspective, which identifies guidelines that support the design of Internet of Things artifacts as relational parts of information-based ecosystems. These principles and guidelines are meant to provide the foundations for a practice-based approach to designing the Internet of Things–enabled information ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
  • Introduction: the Governance of Algorithms
    • Abstract: Abstract In our information societies, tasks and decisions are increasingly outsourced to automated systems, machines, and artificial agents that mediate human relationships, by taking decisions and acting on the basis of algorithms. This raises a critical issue: how are algorithmic procedures and applications to be appraised and governed' This question needs to be investigated, if one wishes to avoid the traps of ICTs ending up in isolating humans behind their screens and digital delegates, or harnessing them in a passive role, by curtailing their freedom and autonomy.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Digital Technologies, Ethical Questions, and the Need of an Informational
    • Abstract: Abstract Technologies have always been bearers of profound changes in science, society, and any other aspect of life. The latest technological revolution—the digital revolution—is no exception in this respect. This paper presents the revolution brought about by digital technologies through the lenses of a specific approach: the philosophy of information. It is argued that the adoption of an informational approach helps avoiding utopian or dystopian approaches to (digital) technology, both expressions of technological determinism. Such an approach provides a conceptual framework able to address the ethical challenges that digital technologies pose, without getting stuck in the dichotomous thinking of technological determinism, and to bring together ethics, ontology, and epistemology into a coherent account.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • From Impact to Importance: The Current State of the Wisdom-of-Crowds
           Justification of Link-Based Ranking Algorithms
    • Abstract: Abstract In a legendary technical report, the Google founders sketched a wisdom-of-crowds justification for PageRank arguing that the algorithm, by aggregating incoming links to webpages in a sophisticated way, tracks importance (quality, relevance, etc.) on the web. On this reading of the report, webpages that have a high impact as measured by PageRank are supposed to be important webpages in a sense of importance that is not reducible to mere impact or popularity. In this paper, we look at the state of the art regarding the more precise statement of the thesis that PageRank and other similar in-link-based ranking algorithms can be justified by reference to the wisdom of crowds. We argue that neither the influential preferential attachment models due to Barabási and Albert in (Science 286:509-512, 1999) nor the recent model introduced by Masterton et al. in (Scientometrics 106:945–966, 2016) allows for a satisfactory wisdom-of-crowds justification of PageRank. As a remedy, we suggest that future work should explore “dual models” of linking on the web, i.e., models that combine the two previous approaches. Dual models view links as being attracted to both popularity and importance.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Toward an Ethics of AI Assistants: an Initial Framework
    • Abstract: Abstract Personal AI assistants are now nearly ubiquitous. Every leading smartphone operating system comes with a personal AI assistant that promises to help you with basic cognitive tasks: searching, planning, messaging, scheduling and so on. Usage of such devices is effectively a form of algorithmic outsourcing: getting a smart algorithm to do something on your behalf. Many have expressed concerns about this algorithmic outsourcing. They claim that it is dehumanising, leads to cognitive degeneration, and robs us of our freedom and autonomy. Some people have a more subtle view, arguing that it is problematic in those cases where its use may degrade important interpersonal virtues. In this article, I assess these objections to the use of AI assistants. I will argue that the ethics of their use is complex. There are no quick fixes or knockdown objections to the practice, but there are some legitimate concerns. By carefully analysing and evaluating the objections that have been lodged to date, we can begin to articulate an ethics of personal AI use that navigates those concerns. In the process, we can locate some paradoxes in our thinking about outsourcing and technological dependence, and we can think more clearly about what it means to live a good life in the age of smart machines.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Ethics and Artificial Intelligence: Suicide Prevention on Facebook
    • Abstract: Abstract There is a death by suicide in the world every 40 seconds, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for 15–29-year-olds. Experts say that one of the best ways to prevent suicide is for those in distress to hear from people who care about them. Facebook is in a unique position—through its support for networks and friendships on the site—to help connect a person in these difficult situations with people who can support them. Connecting people with the resources they need is part of Facebook’s ongoing efforts to help build a safe community inside and outside of Facebook. This article provides a brief overview of how Facebook’s work to develop suicide prevention tools started and evolved, and the ethical considerations which surfaced during the process in the form of concrete product decisions around the implementation of these tools. This article is structured into three sections. Section 1 reviews what has been done in this space and lists and briefly describes other suicide prevention apps and tools. Section 2 describes Facebook’s overall approach to suicide prevention. Here, we’ll delve first into how that approach originated and how it was influenced by the external community’s proactive interactions with Facebook, highlighting our unique position to help address the problem. Afterwards, we’ll explain how that approach evolved, describing its various stages and iterations: understanding, reactive reporting, queue prioritization, and proactive reporting. This section describes the tools and resources Facebook has developed for people who may be at risk. Particular attention is devoted to the use of ArtificiaI Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) to detect posts or live videos where someone might be expressing thoughts of suicide. Section 3 will elaborate on the ethical questions addressed when developing our approach and when making concrete product decisions to implement our suicide prevention tools. In this last section, we’ll expound the competing values and interests that were at stake during the product development process, and how we reached ethical balances between them.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Fair, Transparent, and Accountable Algorithmic Decision-making Processes
    • Abstract: Abstract The combination of increased availability of large amounts of fine-grained human behavioral data and advances in machine learning is presiding over a growing reliance on algorithms to address complex societal problems. Algorithmic decision-making processes might lead to more objective and thus potentially fairer decisions than those made by humans who may be influenced by greed, prejudice, fatigue, or hunger. However, algorithmic decision-making has been criticized for its potential to enhance discrimination, information and power asymmetry, and opacity. In this paper, we provide an overview of available technical solutions to enhance fairness, accountability, and transparency in algorithmic decision-making. We also highlight the criticality and urgency to engage multi-disciplinary teams of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers, and citizens to co-develop, deploy, and evaluate in the real-world algorithmic decision-making processes designed to maximize fairness and transparency. In doing so, we describe the Open Algortihms (OPAL) project as a step towards realizing the vision of a world where data and algorithms are used as lenses and levers in support of democracy and development.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Forecasting in Light of Big Data
    • Abstract: Abstract Predicting the future state of a system has always been a natural motivation for science and practical applications. Such a topic, beyond its obvious technical and societal relevance, is also interesting from a conceptual point of view. This owes to the fact that forecasting lends itself to two equally radical, yet opposite methodologies. A reductionist one, based on first principles, and the naïve-inductivist one, based only on data. This latter view has recently gained some attention in response to the availability of unprecedented amounts of data and increasingly sophisticated algorithmic analytic techniques. The purpose of this note is to assess critically the role of big data in reshaping the key aspects of forecasting and in particular the claim that bigger data leads to better predictions. Drawing on the representative example of weather forecasts we argue that this is not generally the case. We conclude by suggesting that a clever and context-dependent compromise between modelling and quantitative analysis stands out as the best forecasting strategy, as anticipated nearly a century ago by Richardson and von Neumann.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Algorithmic Decision-Making Based on Machine Learning from Big Data: Can
           Transparency Restore Accountability'
    • Abstract: Abstract Decision-making assisted by algorithms developed by machine learning is increasingly determining our lives. Unfortunately, full opacity about the process is the norm. Would transparency contribute to restoring accountability for such systems as is often maintained' Several objections to full transparency are examined: the loss of privacy when datasets become public, the perverse effects of disclosure of the very algorithms themselves (“gaming the system” in particular), the potential loss of companies’ competitive edge, and the limited gains in answerability to be expected since sophisticated algorithms usually are inherently opaque. It is concluded that, at least presently, full transparency for oversight bodies alone is the only feasible option; extending it to the public at large is normally not advisable. Moreover, it is argued that algorithmic decisions preferably should become more understandable; to that effect, the models of machine learning to be employed should either be interpreted ex post or be interpretable by design ex ante.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Algo-Rhythms and the Beat of the Legal Drum
    • Abstract: Abstract The paper focuses on concerns and legal challenges brought on by the use of algorithms. A particular class of algorithms that augment or replace analysis and decision-making by humans, i.e. data analytics and machine learning, is under scrutiny. Taking into account Balkin’s work on “the laws of an algorithmic society”, attention is drawn to obligations of transparency, matters of due process, and accountability. This US-centric analysis on drawbacks and loopholes of current legal systems is complemented with the analysis of norms and principles of the EU data protection law, or “GDPR”. The aim is twofold. On the one hand, the intent is to shed light on some crucial differences between the US and EU law on the regulation of algorithmic operators, both public and private. Whereas, in the USA, scholars debate whether and to what extent new duties and responsibilities of algorithmic operators, e.g. information fiduciaries, have to amend the current framework of self-regulation and light government—as shown by the White House’s Office of Science and Technology Policy report from November 2016—in EU law much of the new duties and responsibilities of algorithmic operators have been passed upon them as data controllers. Whether such approaches will successfully tackle the normative challenges of the algorithmic society is, on the other hand, an open issue that will likely represent the main topic of debate over the next years. Disagreement may concern: (i) the terms framing the legal question in e.g. statistical purposes of the data processing; (ii) how such terms are related to each other in legal reasoning (e.g. a right to explanation as valid law in the EU); and (iii) legal hard cases that will increasingly have to do with the principles that are at stake also but not only in data protection (e.g. informational self-determination). By entrusting such legal hard cases to algorithms, or some sort of smart artificial agent, humans still bear full responsibility for the judgment of what is socially, ethically, and legally “plain” and “hard” in social affairs. The balance between delegation of decisions to algorithms and non-delegation will be the leitmotiv of the algorithmic society. Since the devil is in the detail, the current paper is devoted to some of them.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Appraising Black-Boxed Technology: the Positive Prospects
    • Abstract: Abstract One staple of living in our information society is having access to the web. Web-connected devices interpret our queries and retrieve information from the web in response. Today’s web devices even purport to answer our queries directly without requiring us to comb through search results in order to find the information we want. How do we know whether a web device is trustworthy' One way to know is to learn why the device is trustworthy by inspecting its inner workings (Lehrer The Monist, 78(2), 156–170 1995; Humphreys 2004, Episteme, 6(2), 221–229 2009). But ordinary users of web devices cannot inspect their inner workings because of their scale, complexity, and the corporate secrecy which enshrouds both the procedures by which the devices operate and the companies that make them (Pasquale 2015). Further piling on this predicament, authors have criticized web technology on the grounds that the invisibility of the web devices’ inner workings prevents users from critically assessing the procedures that produce a given output, in some cases, barring users from fulfilling their epistemic responsibilities (Simon Ethics and Information Technology, 12(4), 343–355 2010; Miller and Record Episteme, 10(2), 117–134 2013). I consider four broad kinds of reasons which we can acquire without inspecting the inner workings of black-boxed technology: individual understanding, expert testimony, testing through experience, and social vetting; and show how each is a viable method of appraising black-boxed technology. By deploying these methods, we can remain responsible inquirers while nonetheless benefitting from today’s epistemic resources on the web.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Algorithmic Accountability and Public Reason
    • Abstract: Abstract The ever-increasing application of algorithms to decision-making in a range of social contexts has prompted demands for algorithmic accountability. Accountable decision-makers must provide their decision-subjects with justifications for their automated system’s outputs, but what kinds of broader principles should we expect such justifications to appeal to' Drawing from political philosophy, I present an account of algorithmic accountability in terms of the democratic ideal of ‘public reason’. I argue that situating demands for algorithmic accountability within this justificatory framework enables us to better articulate their purpose and assess the adequacy of efforts toward them.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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