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SOCIAL SCIENCES (911 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
International Journal of Synergy and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal Pedagogy of Social Studies     Open Access  
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access  
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review of Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 202)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
IULC Working Papers     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addiction & Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Economy Culture and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ilahiyat Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Iran Cultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free  
Journal of Mediterranean Knowledge     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 306, SJR: 4.302, CiteScore: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Progressive Research in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Social Science Education : JSSE     Open Access  
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Structure     Open Access  
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Trust Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Biometrika dan Kependudukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Kawistara     Open Access  
Jurnal Lakon     Open Access  
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Teori dan Praksis Pembelajaran IPS     Open Access  
Jurnal Terapan Abdimas     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access  
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies     Open Access  
Kimün. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente     Open Access  
Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Korea : Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft     Open Access  
Korean Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Kulttuurintutkimus     Open Access  
Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Homme. Europäische Zeitschrift für Feministische Geschichtswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
L'Ordinaire des Amériques     Open Access  
La Tercera Orilla     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Lavboratorio : Revista de Estudios sobre Cambio Estructural y Desigualdad Social.     Open Access  
Lectio Socialis     Open Access  
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lex Social : Revista de Derechos Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Liminar. Estudios Sociales y Humanisticos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Literacy Learning: The Middle Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Local-Global: Identity, Security, Community     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lucero     Open Access  
Lúdicamente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lutas Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedon Digest, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Maskana     Open Access  
Mathématiques et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mayéutica Revista Científica de Humanidades y Artes     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meanjin Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Media Information Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Media International Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Media International Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Melbourne Journal of Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mémoire(s), identité(s), marginalité(s) dans le monde occidental contemporain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Memorias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meridional : Revista Chilena de Estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
methaodos.revista de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Methodological Innovations     Open Access  
Methods, Data, Analyses     Open Access  
México y la Cuenca del Pacífico     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Migration Action     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Mikarimin. Revista Científica Multidisciplinaria     Open Access  
Mirai : Estudios Japoneses     Open Access  
Miscelánea Comillas. Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales     Open Access  
Misión Jurídica     Open Access  
Mitologicas     Open Access  
Módulo Arquitectura - CUC     Open Access  
Monthly, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Moving the Social : Journal of Social History and the History of Social Movements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mukaddime     Open Access  
Mütefekkir     Open Access  
Müvészettörténeti Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
National Emergency Response     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
National Observer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Navigations : A First-Year College Composite     Open Access  
New Left Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
New Perspectives on Turkey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand International Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Newsletter of the Gypsy Lore Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nineteenth-Century Contexts: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Noesis. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nómadas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nómadas. Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Social Research     Open Access  
Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidsskrift     Open Access  
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nouvelles perspectives en sciences sociales : revue internationale de systémique complexe et d'études relationnelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift     Full-text available via subscription  
Observatorio Latinoamericano y Caribeño     Open Access  
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
OGIRISI : a New Journal of African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Öneri Dergisi     Open Access  
Opcion     Open Access  
Open Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Family Studies Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Orbis. Revista Cientifica Ciencias Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Orbith : Majalah Ilmiah Pengembangan Rekayasa dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oregon Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Cultural Heritage
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1296-2074
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • SmART_scan: A method to produce composition maps using any elemental,
           molecular and image data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): J. Daniel Martin-Ramos, Giacomo Chiari XRF scanners recently have become the most effective tools for analyzing the distribution of pigments on paintings. They are noninvasive and portable and can be used on flat surfaces of notable dimensions. Powerful miniaturized X-Ray tubes combined with more sensitive detectors make it possible to mount instruments on sturdy motorized X,Y devices, and reduce time needed for a scan. The high-resolution results obtained are of the utmost interest for conservators, art historians and conservation scientists. Drawbacks of XRF scanners are the elevated cost and the bulk of the X,Y devices, which makes them more difficult to transport. It is our opinion that the amount of information collected by a scanner is somewhat redundant. Uniform portions of the painting may be treated as a unity. Following this basic idea, a procedure is proposed to combine a high-resolution visible image with compositional measurement carried out on a grid with a much smaller number of points. Different types of images, spatially registered with respect to the visible one, can be used to increase the amount of information available. A computer program, named SmART_scan, statistically combines all available data, and generates false color maps that show the distribution of elements (XRF), or of compounds [XRD or Raman (Tracey et al., 2006)] over the surface. Even so, the collected information still seemed overabundant. For this reason, the program was adapted to work with a limited number of representative points selected by the user. The measuring time was enormously reduced, and the results were reasonably good. The program can be applied retroactively to previously collected data, provided that a good image, the accurate position of the measurements and their numerical results are available. Examples of maps relative to mockups, real paintings, cross sections and three-dimensional objects are shown.
  • The Sarno Baths in Pompeii: Context and state of the art
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Leonardo Bernardi, Maria Stella Busana The Sarno Bath complex (Regio VIII, Insula 2, modern house nos. 17–21) occupies the southernmost part of the city of Pompeii and it is unique in terms of size, architectural structure and functional aspects. The analysis of all published studies and documentation, available in the archives of the Archaeological Park of Pompeii, was the starting point of the project and it allowed to retrace the history of excavation and research from 1887 to this day. The study of Mau's and Sogliano's publications have led to know the course of excavations, the finds brought to light, the first functional interpretations of the building, its architectural evolution and, overall, a major structural failure that involved the westernmost part of the building. Because of this collapse, most of the vaults and the walls of levels −3 and −4 were reconstructed and the decorative apparatus was relocated. In the past decades, the research has focused on refining the interpretation of the first scholars in terms of construction techniques, usually with the goal of dating in absolute terms the architectural development, of defining the decorative apparatus and the function of each level, the ownership and the usability of the building, themes still unsolved. Unfortunately, most recent studies did not give due attention to the reconstruction carried out at the end of nineteenth century. Some examinations notice the different building materials, but they do not doubt the originality of today's plan. Some others relegate this news to the margin.
  • Combining multispectral images with X-ray fluorescence to quantify the
           distribution of pigments in the frigidarium of the Sarno Baths, Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Yotam Asscher, Ivana Angelini, Michele Secco, Matteo Parisatto, Antonina Chaban, Rita Deiana, Gilberto Artioli Multispectral imaging is used to identify and semi-quantify the distribution of pigments in wall paintings based on mineral-specific band ratios. The western wall in the frigidarium of the Sarno baths in Pompeii was imaged using VIS-IR band-pass filters, stacked as multispectral data, and different pigments were measured using portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and fiber optic reflected spectroscopy (FORS) to determine their chemical composition and spectral signature. Cuprorivaite and hematite were found to be the main minerals in blue and red pigments, with higher amounts of copper and iron respectively. Proportional relations were found between cuprorivaite specific band ratios from multispectral and FORS data and the intensity of copper in pXRF spectra, allowing to map the mineral content on a large scale and determine their relative concentrations. These results were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thin section analysis on painted fragments that were detached from the wall paintings and found below. This contribute indicates that on-site portable instrumentation could identify specific pigments and determine their 2D distributions based on non-invasive diagnostics of chemical composition and spectral reflectance in wall paintings.
  • Investigation of organic additives in Italian Renaissance devotion stucco
           reliefs from French collections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Amra Aksamija, Witold Nowik, Patrice Lehuédé, Anne-Solenn Le Hô, Marc Bormand, Anne Bouquillon A series of Italian Renaissance stucco artworks from Museum of Fine Arts of Strasbourg and Louvre Museum in Paris were investigated with the aim of revealing and characterizing possible organic additives. As the stucco and its additives are little known but, according to the literature, could be complex and contain many different matters, the methodology was first tuned on the laboratory models prepared with gypsum or gypsum/lime plaster with various quantities of organic matter: animal glue or gum Arabic. The methodology consisted of observation of the surfaces of sampled fragments by optical and electronic microscopy, preliminary investigation of the presence of organic compounds by infrared spectroscopy, then extraction of the organic matters from the samples, preparation, and analysis by gas chromatography. The adopted sample preparation scheme allows screening the substances from various classes of organic products from one sample. The optimized analytical approach was applied to the samples from historical objects, showing the presence of proteins, oils, wax and sugars in reliefs. The interpretation of obtained results is not straightforward because of the low response of these substances in the samples, their possible mixture, or unknown origin. In some cases, the protein matter response varies with the deepness of sampling in the matter of stucco, which could be connected with its layered structure or particular surface treatment.
  • 3D survey of Sarno Baths (Pompeii) by integrated geomatic methodologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Michele Monego, Andrea Menin, Massimo Fabris, Vladimiro Achilli The main aim of this work is to present the results of the geomatic survey, data collection and data processing that were conducted as part of the MACH project (MACH – Multidisciplinary methodological Approaches to the knowledge, conservation and valorization of Cultural Heritage) of the University of Padua. This wide research has regarded the study of Sarno Baths, an architectural complex located in the south-western part of Pompeii, and has involved different disciplines. Many of these groups of work could benefit the fundamental base of data that the integrated geomatic survey has provided, from the point cloud 3D models to plans and section, from the high resolution orthophotos to the monitoring of the façade subsidence. The complex is built on the southern rocky front of Pompeii and consists of a five floors structure that develops from the base outside the urban complex until the road level of the city and is articulated in different buildings with rooms, galleries, corridors and outdoor areas. The Archaeological Park of Pompeii has provided 3D data of the internal parts of the building, that were unified with the data obtained from the new surveys of the façade, in order to create a model with high metric reliability and geometrical completeness. It was made using laser scanning, classic photogrammetry and structure from motion photogrammetric technique, topographic and GNSS measurements of a reference network and high precision levelling for the monitoring of the deformations of the façade. All the new data were georeferenced thanks to the integration of new vertices with the topographic reference network of the Pompeii site. The complete spatial dataset allowed an up-to-date and accurate geometrical knowledge of the complex and had a fundamental role in the architectural study, in the planning of the intervention and in all the investigation activities of the MACH project that aimed at the conservation and valorization of the building.
  • The Sarno Baths, Pompeii: Architecture development and 3D reconstruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Leonardo Bernardi, Maria Stella Busana, Vanessa Centola, Claudia Marson, Luca Sbrogiò The paper focuses on the architectural study of the so called Sarno Bath complex at its final phase, a six-storey building located at the edge of the city (Regio VIII, Insula 2, nos. 17–21). The complete 3D survey of the complex, obtained from the surveys already carried out by the Archaeological Park of Pompeii and by new surveys of the University of Padua (MACH Project), was the fundamental work tool. The research has several aims: (i) to provide a proposal of reconstruction of the partially collapsed southern façade and of the upper levels; (ii) to define the numerous passages within the building complex, useful for understanding how it was used; (iii) to propose a preliminary hypothesis on the function of the different levels and areas, based on the planimetric analysis and on the materials found (the study is ongoing) as well as on the graffiti still in situ; (iv) to provide a “quantitative” architectural evaluation of the complex, facilitated by the digital survey. The understanding of this extraordinary architectural and multifunctional complex, where public functions, residential areas, a public–private bath and storage areas – all interconnected – might coexist, is only at the beginning.
  • Non-destructive investigations for structural qualification of the Sarno
           Baths, Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Maria Rosa Valluzzi, Filippo Lorenzoni, Rita Deiana, Sabrina Taffarel, Claudio Modena A series of non-destructive techniques were applied to the masonry building of the Sarno Baths in Pompeii, Italy, aimed at improving knowledge of the condition of the site, to integrate and identify its construction and to provide data for structural evaluations. In particular: i) the current conditions of the various masonry types were identified through sonic pulse velocity tests and tomographic processing; ii) inner cross-sections were reconstructed by videoscope and, where possible, by direct measurements; iii) infrared thermography was applied to qualify the connections among structural elements (i.e., walls, vaults) and to detect any structural anomalies; iv) the dynamic properties of the structure were identified by ambient vibration tests. None of the tests required any sampling, drilling or damage to the historical materials, and no forces were imposed on the structures. In the view of the preservation and usability of the site, integration of the above tests with the results obtained by the other experts involved in the project contributed to better understanding of the current state of the structure and its possible evolution in terms of seismic vulnerability.
  • Monitoring earthen archaeological heritage using multi-temporal
           terrestrial laser scanning and surface change detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Nicola Lercari Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a three-dimensional survey technique proven successful for in-field stratigraphic and site-wide documentation or damage assessment of archaeological heritage. This study explores the potential utility of TLS and the Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison (M3C2) surface change detection method for monitoring and preserving ancient earthen architecture, and for creating comprehensive site monitoring programs in compliance with UNESCO periodic reporting guidelines. The proposed methodology was tested using 3-D TLS datasets spanning a period of six years to assess the decay of mud brick structures at Çatalhöyük, Turkey in order to understand material loss in walls and buildings, identify potential underlying causes, and create a plan for physical interventions. This paper explains how a multi-temporal laser scanning workflow using the M3C2 method can be leveraged successfully to quantify – with millimeter-level accuracy – the decay of large earthen sites and inform future conservation interventions. This approach allows for the identification of the wall features with the most immediate risk of deterioration based on the detection of patterns of change and calculation of its significance as a preventative measure. Results presented in this paper suggest that the proposed method can be used effectively to enhance site monitoring and perform preventative on-site interventions at large earthen sites earthen sites in the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and the Americas.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Menthol-based eutectic mixtures: Novel potential temporary consolidants
           for archaeological excavation applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Yarong Yu, Wenjin Zhang, Xiangna Han, Xiao Huang, Jing Zhao, Qinghua Ren, Hongjie Luo Temporary consolidation technique becomes more and more popular in archaeological excavation. Cyclododecane and menthol are the mostly studied and used temporary consolidants. However, their best applying temperatures are about 20-40 °C higher than their melting points, which can be a problem for temperature-sensitive artifacts or excavation in cold environment. In this work, we take advantage of the concept of eutectic mixtures. Menthyl lactate, a menthol derivative, which can also sublime at ambient conditions, is introduced into menthol to form binary eutectic mixtures. Their potentials as temporary consolidants are carefully and systematically examined. The results indicate the eutectic mixtures are good temporary consolidants and their performances at very low temperatures are much better than the parent compounds. Through this work, a list of temporary consolidants whose melting points range from below 0 to 45 °C are built up for conservators to choose based on their needs.
  • Generating a virtual tour for the preservation of the (in)tangible
           cultural heritage of Tampines Chinese Temple in Singapore
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Osten Bang Ping Mah, Yingwei Yan, Jonathan Song Yi Tan, Yi-Xuan Tan, Geralyn Qi Ying Tay, Da Jian Chiam, Yi-Chen Wang, Kenneth Dean, Chen-Chieh Feng There is a growing use of digital and visualisation technologies in the documentation and preservation of cultural heritage sites. Using the Tampines Chinese Temple in Singapore as a case study, this paper presents a detailed methodological framework to create virtual tours for the preservation of both the physical built environment and intangible historical and sociocultural elements within the space of cultural heritage sites. Tangible data used in the creation of the virtual tour produced for the temple comprise spherical images collected via a 360° camera and two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution images obtained via a digital single-lens reflex camera. The tour also showcases intangible aspects of the temples cultural heritage, derived from references made to multiple sources, namely interviews with personnel involved in the management of heritage sites (e.g. the temple secretary) as well as historical archives (e.g. National Archives of Singapore and publications produced by the temple). In so doing, this paper promotes the importance of incorporating intangible elements of cultural heritage sites into a unified interface. This method is advantageous as the relatively low pricing of the chosen software, and the use of a 360° camera and digital single-lens reflex camera enhances accessibility for heritage practitioners and facilitate future applications.
  • Absorption edge sensitive radiography and tomography of Egyptian Papyri
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Tobias Arlt, Heinz-Eberhard Mahnke, Tzulia Siopi, Eve Menei, Cristina Aibéo, Regine-Ricarda Pausewein, Ina Reiche, Ingo Manke, Verena Lepper In the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, Berlin, a multitude of papyrus manuscripts are stored. Papyri found on Elephantine island are of special interest. No other settlement in Egypt has been so well documented through texts over four millennia. However, 80% of the Elephantine texts are yet to be documented and published. As part of the “Elephantine” project, funded by an ERC starting grant, we attempt to gain access to hidden text. Most of the fragments are very fragile, deformed, with some rolled or folded. Papyri from the Old and Middle Kingdom were typically written with carbon ink. Consequently, these fragments show no absorption sensitivity for hard X-rays. Also, other inks have been used in those times. If small traces of high-Z elements, like Fe or Pb, are found, absorption may be sensitive enough for radiography and tomography to distinguish between writing and base material. We sorted out suitable fragments and papyrus packages by X-ray fluorescence mapping. When promising high-Z elements were detected, absorption tomography was applied using micro-CT laboratory systems or synchrotron X-rays at the BAMline at BESSY II. The sensitivity can be enhanced by element-sensitive absorption edge imaging, where transmission data taken above and below the edge are compared. This technique was applied at the absorption edges of the elements known to be used as ink and pigment material – Iron, Antimony and Lead. These X-ray results were complemented by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) measurements showing that the lead is found in the form of lead carboxylate. In the future, the presented methodology will be applied to folded or rolled papyri, allowing for analysis of the text without manually opening the fragments.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Identifying archaeological leather – discussing the potential of grain
           pattern analysis and zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) through a
           case study involving medieval shoe parts from Denmark
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jannie Amsgaard Ebsen, Kirstine Haase, René Larsen, Dorte Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Luise Ørsted Brandt In this paper, two species identification methods are compared and discussed based on a case study of medieval archaeological leather shoe parts from the Danish cities of Ribe, Viborg and Odense. The species identifications are performed by both morphological grain pattern analysis using stereomicroscopy and zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS), which identifies species based on small structural differences in collagen type I, creating unique fingerprints of genera and in some cases species. Of the 105 shoe parts analysed and sampled, only 37 shoe parts were found to have preserved grain patterns. Grain pattern analysis was in some cases complicated by the lack of hair holes, degraded grain and the presence of soil particles. The varying morphological appearance and condition of the grain patterns are demonstrated through a series of stereomicroscope colour photos at 10x enlargement. The microscope photos reveal considerable complexity and variety in the morphological appearance of the decayed archaeological leather in comparison with well-preserved modern leather. The colour photo examples of the grain pattern and ZooMS-identified leather may help to improve the grain pattern analysis of archaeological leather in future. Where grain patterns were preserved, a good correlation between the two methods was observed. ZooMS had a high overall success rate and has a large potential for species identification of archaeological leather. In the cases where grain pattern analysis was problematic, ZooMS was found superior for species identification. Even though grain pattern analysis had a lower success rate, in a few cases it did produce results at a higher taxonomic level than ZooMS identification. Moreover, grain pattern analysis provided additional contextual information. In conclusion, an interdisciplinary approach is recommended for conservators, archaeologists and other researchers of cultural heritage wishing to find the most potential way to identify different species. The identification method used should be tailored to suit each given archaeological leather assemblage depending on the degree of preservation, object type and context of the material in question, as well as the available expertise, time and budget.
  • Design and implementation of an augmented reality application for rock art
           visualization in Cova dels Cavalls (Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Silvia Blanco-Pons, Berta Carrión-Ruiz, José Luis Lerma, Valentín Villaverde Prehistoric rock art paintings, specifically rock-shelters exposed to environmental and anthropogenic factors, are usually faint and severely damaged, being them difficult to identify and understand by visitors. Augmented Reality (AR) supplements reality with virtual information superimposed onto the real world. This sensor-based technology in smartphones/tablets can improve the paintings experience displaying the 2D digital tracings overlapped onto the real scene (rock with faint paintings). This paper presents an AR application (app) developed in Cova dels Cavalls that shows a recreation of a possible original composition full of motifs with descriptive information to improve current guided tour user experiences. This case study aims to evaluate the rock art AR app targeting non-expert visitors as a means of improving rock art knowledge and sensibility of a fragile archaeological UNESCO Work Heritage site. To achieve this, a variety of participants with different backgrounds and interests tested the AR app on site and answered a complete questionnaire about the use of AR mobile apps. Overall, the results showed great acceptance of this AR app, mainly because in addition to adding new information interactively, it helps to identify the rock art motifs, as well as to recognise them quickly, improving their understanding.
  • Cuban Cultural Heritage: A Rebel Past for a Revolutionary Nation, Pablo
           Alonso González, University of Florida, Gainesville (2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Joseph R. Hartman
  • The metallography and corrosion of an ancient chinese bimetallic bronze
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Wei Huang, Kockelmann Winfried, Godfrey Evelyne, A Scott David A bimetal bronze sword, unearthed from Hunan Province China, dating to the Warring States period (476–221BC) was examined analytically by optical metallography, neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the tin content of the blade is 16%, not higher as previously reported. The bimetallic bronze sword possesses a typical cast structure with annealing on the edge of spine. Distinct corrosion compounds pyromorphite was identified, with pseudomorphic malachite having replaced the original alpha phase. Redeposited copper and unusual phosphorus-containing corrosion products were analysed to investigate the mechanism of formation.
  • Semantic-based 3D information modelling and documentation of rockeries in
           Chinese classical gardens: A case study on the rockery at Huanxiu
           Shanzhuang, Suzhou, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Huilin Liang, Weizheng Li, Qingping Zhang Rockery, or Jia Shan, representing a high level of artistic achievement and aiming to show Chinese landscapes and culture, is an essential part of Chinese classical gardens. Taking the rockery in the backyard of Huanxiu Shanzhuang as an example, this study undertook digital measurements and 3D reality-based modelling, carried out semantic-based analysis and modelling, and built a 3D information system. The digital survey applied the integrated techniques of terrestrial digital photogrammetry and laser scanning. Once the integrated 3D digital data had been obtained, the rockery was systematically and clearly analyzed for its structure on the base of its relationship with mountains in nature. By obtaining the hierarchical and spatial relationships between rockery components, the rockery and its components were semantically named and modelled. According to the rockery analysis results, the 3D reality-based models were segmented into numbers of rockery components, and a 3D information system was built on the basis of a 3D geographic information systems (3D GIS). Through these methods, all the data and information obtained from the rockery on the study site were documented, stored, managed, and visualized. This research showed that rockeries in Chinese classical gardens and cultural heritage sites with similar characteristics can be digitally, informationally, and systematically documented, studied, and preserved.
  • Professional SfM and TLS vs a simple SfM photogrammetry for 3D modelling
           of rock art and radiance scaling shading in engraving detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Simón Peña-Villasenín, Mariluz Gil-Docampo, Juan Ortiz-Sanz The geometric inventory and documentation of rock art present great challenges due to the high number of petroglyphs present in a territory, the distance between them, the state of abandonment of forest areas in many cases, limitations to access, and the geometric characteristics of such art. Structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry was positioned as an ideal technique for its documentation, but this technique has great variability in its methodology and cost. In this study, an extremely simple and effective method based on SfM photogrammetry with low cost cloud computing software is compared to the use of a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and professional SfM workflow to generate 3D models for documenting petroglyphs. The comparison is made on the 3D documentation of the Castriño de Conxo petroglyph in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and extrapolated to two practical experiments on other petroglyphs. The meshes are compared by analysing visual, geometrical and operational criteria and how they influence the radiance scaling shading. The results show that with a SfM photogrammetry methodology, which is extremely simple and accessible to everyone, it is possible to obtain better results in geometric and visual aspects than those obtained with TLS, and they are valid for a detailed analysis of this type of rock art in a massively social approach of documentation that is not possible through other approaches.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Pigment palette study of the XIX century plafond painting by Raman
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Olga Petrova, Dmitrii Pankin, Anastasia Povolotckaia, Evgenii Borisov, Timur Krivul’ko, Nikolai Kurganov, Alexey Kurochkin Within the framework of the restoration painted plafond performed in the distemper technique at the first half of the 19th century were investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy, UV photography, optical microscopy. One hundred and fifty artistic composition fragments samples were studied from the different parts of plafond. The presence of the following basic pigments: emerald green, Scheele's green; ultramarine, indigo blue, azurites, vermilion, ferric oxide based pigments were observed. Lead white, calcite and gypsum were identified. It's ownership of the author's record is discussed. The places of pigments application in the author's layer of painting were localized, basic and auxiliary materials were identified.
  • Raman/XRF/EDX microanalysis of 2nd-century stuccoes from Domus
    in Rome
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Salvatore Almaviva, Stefano Lecci, Adriana Puiu, Valeria Spizzichino, Roberta Fantoni, Mauro Falconieri, Serena Gagliardi, Massimo Chiari, Anna Mazzinghi, Chiara Ruberto, Giacomo Casaril, Giovanna Bandini, Simona Morretta 2nd-century stucco fragments from the roman Domus Valeriorum were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy (Raman), imaging X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in order to identify the pigments and materials thereon. Cinnabar, malachite, hematite, goethite and Egyptian blue were detected by the synergistic use of these techniques whereas calcite, with some traces of gypsum, was detected as materials for the bas-relief figures and the pictorial background. This non-destructive characterization is the first carried out on the Domus Valeriorum finds. The multi-analytical approach highlighted the complementarity and versatility of these techniques, suitable for both laboratory and in-situ analysis, on macroscopic or microscopic fragments without preliminary manipulation.
  • Collaborative projects in cultural heritage conservation –
           management challenges and risks
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Helena Hirsenberger, Jonjaua Ranogajec, Snezana Vucetic, Bojan Lalic, Danijela Gracanin The concept of cultural heritage has been increasingly enlarged over decades. Many professions are invited to work together in a holistic attempt to preserve inherited tangible and intangible assets. This complexity brings more challenges in organization of collaborative conservation works. Since 1960s project management approach has become prevalent way in which contemporary, non-routine tasks are organized, despite of the industry. A survey was conducted in order to examine how increased complexity of cross-disciplinary setting influences project management challenges and risks in heritage conservation. The findings of the survey outline that there is a number of challenges/risks associated with extremely cross-disciplinary setting of conservation projects, while the practice already provides some useful references how these can be managed and mitigated. This paper offers systematic overview of the most common challenges/risks, some good practice examples and guidelines observed among countries of former Yugoslavia region, which could be further investigated in a call for a tailored approach aimed to reduce project management risks in collaborative conservation projects.
  • Date-palm (Phoenix, Arecaceae) iconography in coins from the Mediterranean
           and West Asia (485 BC–1189 AD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Diego Rivera, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Emilio Laguna, Dennis Johnson Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) yields food, medicines, and materials for buildings and crafts in the Middle East, the Mediterranean and North Africa. There, date palms were represented on coins from 485 BC until 1189 AD. These palm-tree images furnish agricultural, botanical and geographical information on Phoenix. We aim to analyze the evolution over time of the diversity of these images and their relationship with climatic episodes favorable to their cultivation. We selected variables for analysis based on date-palm taxonomy, standardized descriptors and observation of the coins. Image types, realism and age, and relationships with climatic events were analyzed using multivariate techniques. Ten main palm-image types were recognized. Three geographically and chronologically differentiated periods are distinguished associated with favorable climate episodes. First, the western period of Carthage and Sicily (485–100 BC) with highly realistic date palm-tree images, followed by a bottleneck 100 BC–50 AD, a second period with lesser diversity of palm images (50–150 AD) centered in the eastern Mediterranean, and a third medieval period (430–1189 AD) with schematic images of palm trees. From a cultural viewpoint, our results are consistent with ancient texts for morphology, cultivation, management techniques, sterility and fertility, and tree longevity. Several image types from present-day Israel most likely represent specific ancient cultivars such as the “Caryotae”. Ancient coins offer valuable information, to better knowing characteristics of date palm trees and date-palm cultivation, from the first millennium BC to the beginning of second millennium AD. Western Mediterranean presents greatest diversity and realism related to different domestication events.Graphic abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Digital stone rubbing from 3D models
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Rongjiang Pan, Zhongming Tang, Weijia Da Stone rubbing is a traditional method to record surface features of a stone on paper. It has a long history and is still used by Chinese archaeologists and artists up to now. However, stone rubbing can cause permanent damage to precious cultural heritage due to abrasion. We propose a new method to create digital stone rubbing from 3D digital models. We assume the surface of a stone is flat locally and fit a least-squares plane to each point's neighbors individually. To prevent the local plane from being fitted across sharp edges or corners of the model, we make use of the smoothed point normals in the selection of local surface region. The height of a point is defined as the signed distance between the point and its local approximation plane. The estimated height of each point is then mapped to its grey value by a nonlinear transformation function. Finally, we render the 3D model into a rubbing image using orthogonal projection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on real experimental dataset in archaeology.
  • Computer simulation of archaeological drawings
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Jingwen Zhang, Ziqi Liu, Shiguang Liu Archaeologists usually produce archaeological drawings through complicated steps including painting with hands, scanning and redrawing, etc. We aim at simplifying the process of traditional archaeological drawings by automatically generating line drawings, helping archaeologists produce ideal archaeological drawings flexibly and conveniently. However, traditional methods for generating line drawings cannot be directly used for archaeological drawings because of special purposes in drawings. So, we take into account the characteristics of archaeological drawings and put forward an effective method for generating line drawings especially for archaeological drawings. In this way, archaeologists can get ideal line drawings by taking photos of implements, processing them with this method automatically and modifying line drawings flexibly. Specifically, we first smooth the input pictures, based on which we extract lines that meet the rules of archaeological drawings by edge tracking. Then we determine the location of central axis and generate curves of lines to get line drawings. Finally, we integrate the above techniques and build an archaeological drawing system with friendly interface. Various experimental results and evaluations verify that our method and the archaeological drawings system are effective.
  • Adoption and use of emerging cultural technologies in China's museums
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Eugene Ch’ng, Shengdan Cai, Fui-Theng Leow, Tong Evelyn Zhang Our article maps the well-being of the adoption and use of digital technologies in museums in China. Digital technologies used here are termed ‘cultural technology’ in top-level national policies for the creative cultural industry, with culture and heritage at the core of all such activities. Our investigation aims to understand the present state of adoption and use of cultural technologies with the goal of identifying limitations so as to provide a roadmap for the informed design and development of museum-based digital exhibits that are appropriate for visitors. Whilst our study is focused on China's museums, our evaluation model and lessons learned can be used as comparative studies for museums globally. This highlights the novelty of our article, for the scale of which we carried out our evaluation has never been conducted before. We travelled 22 sites over 15 cities and collected over 800 samples of data. We evaluated 36 digital systems used by over 800 visitors and observed how users interacted and engaged with the systems with a record of 21 variables related to the length of interaction, engagement, quality of contents and types of systems, age groups, sexes, and the number of participants and whether they were individuals or in groups. Our investigation revealed important findings in both digital systems and visitor engagement.
  • A method to obtain precise determinations of relative humidity using thin
           film capacitive sensors under normal or extreme humidity conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Camuffo Dario Dampness is one of the worst, and most common problems found in heritage buildings and sites. However, despite its relevance, sensors do not operate satisfactorily in extremely humid environments. The paper analyses the performance of heated capacitive sensors conceived to operate at ambient temperature (T) and very high relative humidity (RH) after having been demisted with short heating. Even if they show better performances than traditional, unheated sensors, they operate at the limit of their range, with severe limitations affecting their time response and accuracy, reducing but not excluding false readings. A method is proposed to combine temperature and relative humidity sensors, and warm-up them in order to reach the best performance interval of the RH sensor, and take measurements in such conditions, i.e. at higher temperature and lower relative humidity. From the combined temperature and relative humidity readings it is possible to calculate the dew point that is invariant to temperature changes. Combining the dew point with an additional measurement of the actual air temperature, it is possible to calculate the actual relative humidity. The use of this method is not necessarily limited to taking more accurate relative humidity readings under extreme dampness, but it may be also applied to improve the quality of readings with sensors that operate in their best performance interval. The same strategy can be used in too dry environments with cooling to raise relative humidity and bring the sensor into the best performance interval.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • A procedure for identifying chemical and biological risks for books in
           historic libraries based on microclimate analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Eva Schito, Luisa Dias Pereira, Daniele Testi, Manuel Gameiro da Silva The study presents a new procedure for identifying possible risks for books kept in historic libraries. It is addressed to all those historic libraries where large collections of old and rare books are stored and preserved. These libraries were rarely used by people, but, nowadays, many of them have become touristic attractions. Consequently, their indoor microclimate may have changed, possibly leading to risks for books conservation. The proposed methodology is based on an intensive monitoring campaign, followed by an in-depth data analysis. Handy indices are also proposed to guide the researchers in the identification of possible risks. Problems related to too-high daily or spatial hygrothermal variations or problems related to specific risks (e.g., biological or chemical risks) can be identified. If a problem is observed, the identification of the most suitable solutions is more straightforward. The application of the proposed procedure to a real case study (the Baroque Library of the University of Coimbra, Portugal) has highlighted its handiness. A 6-month monitoring campaign and its consequent data analysis has pointed out potentially risky situations. Thus, measures should be taken to avoid books damage. Primarily, local actions are suggested.
  • The influence of selected efficient compounds of essential oils for paper
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Iveta Čabalová, Břetislav Češek, Ondřej Mikala, Jan Gojný, František Kačík, Tereza Tribulová The most common negative influences on lignocellulosic materials from biological point of view include invading of microorganisms, which have in humid environments of porous materials favourable conditions for growth and reproduction. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected compounds present in essential oils- EOs (linalyl acetate-LA and citral-C) and the accelerated ageing process on the chemical (cellulose degree of polymerization, content of saccharides), mechanical (tensile index) and physical (fibres length distribution) properties of papers. LA and C were evaluated as the compounds with the highest antimicrobial activity and therefore, they were applied into the paper mass in form of their vapours. Paper samples were prepared from five types of material. Chemical changes were evaluated by wet chemical methods, size exclusion chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, mechanical property according to ISO 1924-2 standard and morphological properties of fibres by using Fiber Tester equipment. In the view of followed properties, the protecting impact of these EOs efficient compounds has a greater importance in their application before the ageing process itself, especially at wood pulp papers and papers produced from sulphate deciduous pulp. The contents of both holocellulose and a cellulose degree of polymerization were significantly correlated with the tensile index of the paper.
  • Deacidification of aged papers using dispersion of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles
           in subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Jiajia Weng, Xiaogang Zhang, Minghao Jia, Jie Zhang An effective and integrated method for deacidification has become an urgent issue in the conversation of paper-based materials with natural aging of books, archives and paper relics. In this research, an efficiency of innovative method for paper deacidification using subcritical R134a combined with pre-synthetic Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles was evaluated by pH, alkaline reserve, colorimetry and tensile strength. The physicochemical properties of the deacidifying agents and paper samples before and after deacidification were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. Compared with traditional spraying method for Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the subcritical R134a deacidification system (due to its good solvent diffusivity and compatibility) had an obvious advantage in evaluations for all the paper samples. The innovative deacidification was expected to realize the integration of cleaning and deacidification in one working procedure.
  • LED illumination-induced fading of traditional Korean pigments
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Soomin Jo, Soo Ryeon Ryu, Wonhyeong Jang, Oh-Sun Kwon, Boa Rhee, Young Eun Lee, Dongmin Kim, Jungsik Kim, Kwanwoo Shin Light is an important factor in the conservation of museum collections because of its strong electromagnetic characteristic that can degrade artifacts. To investigate the effects of illumination on paintings, particularly in museums equipped with popular light emitting diode (LED) lamp systems, we investigated the fading process of traditional Korean pigments. We used four illumination conditions: a combination of high and low color rendering index (CRI) at two light temperatures of Tcold = 5600 K and Twarm = 3200 K. Among all samples tested, realgar, also known as Wunghwang in Korea, showed the most marked change in color. UV spectrometric analyses after 100 h of exposure at 11 000 and at 5500 lux showed high color differences exceeding the color change threshold under all illumination conditions. When the illumination intensity was reduced to 300 lux, Tcold lamps showed a faster fading process than Twarm lamps did, suggesting that appropriate illuminating conditions can reduce the adverse effects of museum lighting systems. A further experiment using narrow-band, single-color, LED lamps showed how specific wavelength bands could influence the fading of artifacts In particular, we newly confirmed that discoloration of Wunghwang could be induced by the illumination of green light, in addition to blue light generally known to induce discoloration. These results demonstrate that the fading of a specific pigment of the artifacts in museum collections can be minimized by tuning the intensities of the wavelengths of light emitted by the museums’ lighting systems.
  • Effective Raman spectra identification with tree-based methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Vasileios Sevetlidis, George Pavlidis Treatment of spectral information is an essential tool for the examination of various cultural heritage materials. Raman spectroscopy has become an everyday practice for compound identification due to its non-intrusive nature, but often it can be a complex operation. Spectral identification and analysis on artists’ materials is being done with the aid of already existing spectral databases and spectrum matching algorithms. We demonstrate that with a machine learning method called Extremely Randomised Trees, we can learn a model in a supervised learning fashion, able to accurately match an entire-spectrum range into its respective mineral. Our approach was tested and was found to outperform the state-of-the-art methods on the corrected RRUFF dataset, while maintaining low computational complexity and inherently supporting parallelisation.
  • PVA hydrogel as polymer electrolyte for electrochemical impedance analysis
           on archaeological metals
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Francesca Di Turo, Pietro Matricardi, Chiara Di Meo, Franco Mazzei, Gabriele Favero, Daniela Zane The development of an electrochemical cell based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel as polymer electrolyte for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis (EIS) is discussed. PVA hydrogel is prepared with different cycles of freeze/thawing (F/T) employing distillated and mineral water as solutions. The PVA-disks obtained are compared for their conductivities in order to employ it in an appropriate cell for diagnostic purposes, reducing the invasiveness of the analysis on the sample. The test of the self-consistent disk of PVA is carried out on a modern sample of copper and on an archaeological bronze coin, obtaining an alternative of the classical electrochemical cell for EIS measurements on ancient metals.
  • Study of the degradation of beeswax taken from a real artefact
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Katarína Čížová, Katarína Vizárová, Aleš Ház, Anna Vykydalová, Zuzana Cibulková, Peter Šimon This study is devoted to the statue of St. Ursula from the depositary to the Slovak National Museum–Červený Kameň Castle. It is a heavily damaged, slightly under life-size seated female statue from the 2nd half of 19th century. The artefact is very heterogeneous and degraded. The wax parts have been examined with the aim of detecting and quantifying degradation products using FTIR spectroscopy, Py - GC/MS analysis and DSC measurement. The results obtained were compared with the degradation studies from available literary sources. The most important achievement is that the results support the theory of sublimation of n-alkanes from beeswax during ageing. The degradation mechanisms taking part during ageing are hydrolysis and oxidation. The suggested methods of accelerated ageing could be a suitable simulation of natural ageing. The experimental methods employed are complementary and enable to follow the progress of beeswax degradation.
  • The Origin of overglaze-blue enameling in Japan: New discoveries and a
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Riccardo Montanari, Nobuyuki Murakami, Maria Francesca Alberghina, Claudia Pelosi, Salvatore Schiavone The production of overglaze-blue decorated porcelains in Japan has traditionally been associated with Chinese technology, but the puzzling issue of the early firing of a striking overglaze-blue enamel has remained unresolved for almost a century. This work presents the first systematic scientific study of shards excavated at kiln sites in Arita, the center of porcelain production in Japan. The study was carried out in an attempt to resolve the issue of the origin of overglaze-blue enameling on early polychrome Imari wares (Shoki Iro-e) which started around 1640, way before the same technology spread in Jingdezhen in the late Kangxi period (1700). In particular shards excavated at the Yanbeta kiln site, where it has recently been discovered that polychrome overglaze decoration started, and shards from other early kilns were analyzed for the first time. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) was used to identify the chemical composition of the coloring agents present in the overglaze-blue enamels in order to determine their geographical area of origin. Experimental results provide groundbreaking information regarding the materials and technologies used in the different kilns, and show how the earliest attempts at firing overglaze-blue enamels in Arita involved the use of imported cobalt ores. For the first time, it has been scientifically proved that the successful use of an overglaze-blue decoration was a precise effect Japanese potters aimed at achieving by means of selected materials and technologies obtained from Europe, thus resolving the issues that emerged from the traditional approach of a Chinese origin for all technologies. Furthermore, comparisons between scientific analysis of late-16th and early-17th century Japanese paintings in Western style and the results presented in this work revealed that materials used for overglaze-enameling were also used for pigments employed in traditional paintings. Technologies from distant geographical areas proved crucial in pre-modern Japan.
  • A comparison of standard and realistic curing conditions of natural
           hydraulic lime repointing mortar for damp masonry: Impact on laboratory
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Lucie Fusade, Heather A. Viles Environmental conditions can affect the curing and performance of lime mortars. Especially in the case of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) mortars to be used for repointing in exposed conditions, it is essential to assess what if any differences these environmental conditions would make to mortar properties through laboratory evaluations before repointing work begins. This study considers a specific historic environment: traditional masonry exposed to high humidity and rainfall, with a particular focus on Devon. Realistic curing conditions (as likely found on-site) of 15 °C, 85% RH, representing an average of summer climate in Devon were compared with standard recommended laboratory conditions of 20 °C, 65% RH. A range of mixes, representing some conservation pointing mortars, was prepared using NHL 2 (St Astier), quartz sand, and crushed Portland limestone in 1:3 and 1:2 binder to aggregate ratios. The influence of curing conditions on carbonation depth, strength development, internal textural structure, pore structure and water uptake at 28 and 90 days is discussed (called here early and medium ages) and the response of NHL mortars to this humid environment during evaporation and salt crystallisation have been assessed. Results show that significant differences are found in laboratory evaluations of mechanical properties of the same NHL mortar exposed to different curing conditions especially at an early age and for mortar made with quartz sand. Laboratory evaluation should be made on samples cured under realistic conditions if information on the early to medium-term (up to 90 days) characteristics of NHL mortar is required. Overall, realistic humid curing conditions help NHL mortars gain good internal structure more quickly, minimising the risk of early failure of pointing mortar exposed in a harsh humid environment.
  • Lime render, shrinkage cracks and craftsmanship in building restoration
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Jonny Eriksson, Jan Erik Lindqvist The present project concerns early shrinkage cracks in renders. This problem relates to the type of lime and rendering methods used in Sweden during the 19th and early 20th century as well as in current restoration practice. Results from different render restoration projects have indicated that a high frequency of shrinkage cracks could be related to the slaking procedure and the reworking of the slaked lime putty. The aim of the project was to investigate whether there is a connection between different handling procedures for wet-slaked lime putty and early shrinkage cracks in render. An investigation involving practical application and a laboratory test programme was initiated to examine the problem of early shrinkage cracks in renders based on wet-slaked sub-hydraulic lime. This type of lime was commonly used in Sweden in the 19th century. The laboratory work in the project included 3 different mix proportions based on reworked and non-reworked lime putty. The renders were applied after 1, 8, 15, 32 and 68 days storage of the lime putty. This gave 30 mortar mixes applied as rendered test surfaces. The flow number of the fresh mortars was determined and the workability, mixability and open time were assessed. The frequency of shrinkage cracks in the rendered surfaces was measured. The results showed that the frequency of shrinkage cracks was related to the methods applied in the slaking process and the storage time. Reworking and storage of the lime putty increased the frequency of shrinkage cracks. The properties of the fresh mortar were also influenced.
  • Alkoxysilane-based sols for consolidation of carbonate stones: Impact of
           the carbonate medium in the sol-gel processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Bruno Sena da Fonseca, Maria João Ferreira, Maryna G. Taryba, Susana Piçarra, Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto, Maria de Fátima Montemor This investigation addresses the impact of the carbonate medium in the sol-gel processes of stone consolidants and the possible detrimental effects in practical applications. The results demonstrate that the carbonate medium influences the sol-gel paths and that silicate materials developed in the carbonate stone pores can be structurally different from those formed within “inert” conditions, as a consequence of the combined effect of pH and ionic interactions between Si-O− and Ca2+. The trend is that the formation of the silica films around stone grains (silica growth mechanism through typical condensation) evolves into less advantageous growth processes (Oswald ripening and/or coagulation), resulting in a material that is unlikely to consolidate carbonate stone. Furthermore, pH measurements and different ratios between NMR Q3:Q4 species along stone depth showed that this effect seems more important at greater depths.The results underline the importance of the carbonate medium in the failure of alkoxysilane-based treatments and, accordingly, that an efficient design and development of new alkoxysilane-based consolidants must consider this effect.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Non-destructive analytical techniques for the evaluation of cleaning and
           protection processes on white marble surfaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Fábio Luiz Melquiades, Carlos Roberto Appoloni, Avacir Casanova Andrello, Eduardo Spagnuolo Stone conservation and protection is the focus of several researches, especially for historical buildings, monuments and artworks. The objective of this study is to verify the impact of a helical vortex cleaning process in the surface of white marble samples. Powder abrasive material was used in the cleaning process with posterior application of different nano-compound products like water-repellent, anti-graffiti coating and consolidant. The thickness of the damage layer, the porous size distribution and the surface composition were evaluated with non-destructive techniques: X-ray micro-tomography and X-ray Fluorescence. The results indicated that the marble damage layer ranged from 80 to 180 μm due to the cleaning process with garnet as abrasive material. The estimation of the average thickness of the dirt layer by X-ray attenuation was 16 μm. Marble surface porous size distribution indicates that porous links were still present in the surface after the treatment with each one of the nano-compund products and have kept it permeable to air. Silicon, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr were identified in the marble surface. Calcium and Sr are from the marble composition, Si from protective solutions applied and the other elements from the dirt layer.
  • Decision support criteria and the development of a decision support tool
           for the selection of conservation materials for the built cultural
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Janez Turk, Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Andrew Hursthouse, Robert Turner, John J. Hughes Significant criteria for choosing materials (consolidants and protective coatings) for the conservation of the built cultural heritage were gathered from the literature and by consultation with experts working on the preservation of cultural heritage. Ten criteria were chosen from these, and a questionnaire was prepared and sent to stakeholders in the cultural heritage conservation domain in order to evaluate, score and rank the importance of the proposed criteria. Based on the results obtained a decision support tool was developed, aimed at conservators and other stakeholders, to help them to make sustainable decisions with regard to the selection of conservation materials for treatment of the built cultural heritage. Performance characteristics and health and safety were identified to be the most important criteria. A preliminary decision can be made based on these two criteria, however, reversibility, minimum intervention and re-treatability are also of very high importance and additional information about these characteristics of the material are required to support decisions. Information about environmental performance, peer recommendation, the application techniques, the price and availability of the materials, which are also integrated in decision support tools, can help conservators and stakeholders to reach a final decision on interventions. The study also provides feedback for the manufacturers of conservation materials. For the users of material, it is very important that the manufacturers clearly identify key characteristics (i.e. criteria) on the product, including those related with environmental performance of the materials.
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): I. Liritzis, R.G. Bednarik, G. Kumar, G. Polymeris, I. Iliopoulos, V Xanthopoulou, N. Zacharias, A. Vafiadou, M. BratitsiABSTRACTThe cave of Daraki-Chattan (in Rewa river, India) bears important palaeolithic rock art (petroglyphs), while the environs is exceptionally rich in stone tools, mostly of the Acheulian. The field survey and excavations in the area found cupule panel fragments almost down to bedrock; Acheulian industry to Oldowan-like industry including several hammerstones. Early work demonstrated that at least some of the petroglyphs were of the earliest documented occupation of the region. Exfoliated pieces and boulders from the rock surface were found in the sediments, some bearing cupules and grooves. Here a detailed methodological procedure is enacted consisting of luminescence dating reinforced by mineralogical issues, where the latter secures credibility of the former. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), of the luminescence versus depth profiles, following blue LED and Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) technique of quartz, was applied following the surface luminescence dating versions to date this fallen rock. The two dose profiles from the sandstone studies provided an average date for the fallen boulder in the 13th millennium, providing a constrained terminus post quem. Surface patina and intrusion of (Fe, Mn) aluminosilicate weathering solution was examined in both luminescence profiles, properly dealt with issues of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy- Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Florescence-Energy Dispersive mode (XRF/ED), Cathodoluminescence, stereomicroscope, thin sections optical microscopy (OM) and microdosimetry. Analytical petrographic results aided interpretation of luminescence data obtained.From the above rationale the two ages obtained from the two profiles can be considered close within errors, that coincide with the drastic change from last glaciation transition to the milder climate of the Holocene and the sudden end of colder Younger Dryas in ~13th Ka BP, having an impact on the weathering, erosion and exfoliation of rock surfaces caused by the significant temperature change and the resulted thermal differential expansion of rocks (onset of the Holocene).
  • A multi-scalar approach for assessing the impact of dams on the cultural
           heritage in the Middle East and North Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Nicolò Marchetti, Antonio Curci, Maria Carmela Gatto, Serena Nicolini, Simone Mühl, Federico Zaina This paper provides a detailed assessment on the impact of dams on archaeological sites in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and emphasizes the lack of established protocols for documenting and preserving cultural heritage at the local, national and international level.We considered four case studies at different scales – Turkey, the Euphrates river, the two Aswan dams and the planned Makhul dam – in order to identify different issues related to the construction of dams as well as to propose some best practices for pre-flooding assessment of dam impact on cultural heritage. Our method integrates archaeological and geo-spatial open-access datasets, organized in a GIS environment made available through the online platform in order to foster data sharing and research replicability.We have mapped almost 2500 flooded archaeological sites and approximately 1300 km of ancient rivers submerged by dam reservoirs in the selected case studies across the MENA area. These numbers are actually incomplete, since large portions of the reservoir areas have not been systematically investigated.We conclude by underlining the urgent need for strategies for the documentation and protection of archaeological sites and monuments in the planning of hydraulic infrastructures at the international, national and local levels, as well as the need for a general operative protocol. Funders of development works, first and foremost the World Bank, should review their current policies, which do not offer sufficient protection of cultural heritage.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Thermal stress and damage risk in the stones of Al-Ziggurat in Al-Nimrud
           city, Iraq
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Asaad Al-Omari, Xavier Brunetaud, Kevin Beck, Muzahim Al-Mukhtar The aim of this paper is to assess the risk of climate-induced damage to stone through the calculation of thermal stresses. The stone studied is white limestone, the building stone of the walls of Al-Ziggurat in Al-Nimrud city, Iraq. In order to assess the effect of climate on stone behavior, we measured the stone surface temperature and the extreme values of air temperature (i.e. actual stone dataset). As these parameters were measured for short period, they were completed with weather data recorded from Mosul station for three years (i.e. weather dataset). The actual stone data were used to estimate the statistical difference between stone surface temperature and air temperature. The weather data were treated with respect to actual stone data in order to estimate the thermal stress for a statistically relevant duration. The mechanical properties required for stress calculation are the elastic modulus, the Poisson's ratio and the thermal expansion coefficient. A simple mechanical model was applied to estimate the stress generated by restrained thermal strain. Results show that the risk of damage to the stone exposed to climate fluctuations can be significant. The damage risk is higher to the stone in the south wall orientation than in the north one. The combined use of both datasets proved to be usefull, since the damage risk is significantly higher with the resulting estimation compared to the exclusive use of actual stone data.
  • An integrated approach to the study of heritage sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Denis Cutajar, Pierre-Sandre Farrugia, Alfred Micallef This work describes the integrated multidisciplinary approach taken in the study of the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were analysed and cross-compared to identify common trends. In the process, the environmental variables were treated as passive transport scalars in order to identify flow patterns. Subsequently, the measurements were used to set up a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the site. Comparisons between simulated results and measured data allowed not only the identification of the limits of the simulations but also revealed flow patterns that would be hard to recognise otherwise.
  • The special iron making in Southwest China around the 10th CE: Scientific
           evidence from an iron smelting site in Erhai lake area, Yunnan province
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Guisen Zou, Rui Min, Jianfeng Cui, Renjie Ma, Xueqi Zhou, Changcheng Yang This study analyzed metallurgical remains from the Fengweiqing iron smelting site at Wase Town, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwest China. Radiocarbon dating showed that the site was occupied approximately between 890 and 1025 CE, corresponding to the late Nanzhao Kingdom and the early Dali Kingdom. Analyses of slag and ore samples from the site revealed that bloomery iron smelting was performed at this site. Metallographic observation of the primary products and metal particles in the slag showed that they were mainly steel, making Fengweiqing the only archeological site currently known in China to produce steel directly through the bloomery process. This study adds new knowledge on iron metallurgy in ancient Yunnan, which is essential for investigating ancient iron production in this region and the technological and cultural exchange with surrounding areas during the Nanzhao Kingdom and early Dali Kingdom period.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Review of environmental and air pollution impacts on built heritage: 10
           questions on corrosion and soiling effects for urban intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Fábio Vidal, Romeu Vicente, J. Mendes Silva For many decades, countless studies have been performed regarding the effects of the environment on traditional building materials, presenting methods to mostly quantify phenomena such as the corrosion of metals, stone degradation and soiling. Driven by concerning levels of air pollution in the late 1980's, many large international programmes such as the ICP-Materials, MICAT and ISOCORRAG have been testing worldwide material behaviour when exposed to acidifying pollutants, causing corrosion of metals and stone recession. Numerous individual studies have also contributed to a higher understanding of pollution effects on materials, including soiling studies. The methodologies mostly consist of open exposure of standard samples, either for short, mid or long periods, followed by a statistical analysis of the results, in order to develop accurate prediction formulations used for mapping exercises and to determine areas at risk. Considering all the available information, the contribution of this work is to perform an extensive bibliographic review, organized in the form of 10 basic questions that attempt to present and describe the effects of pollution on materials and practical ways to determine risk areas at urban scales and implement well-supported pollution mitigation strategies. The answers to these questions always take into consideration a more practical approach towards the identification of potential risk and subsequent intervention. Additionally, a new methodology regarding the assessment of environmental effects on actual buildings is discussed for the preservation of historic city centres, through the identification of potentially vulnerable buildings regarding deterioration effects by atmospheric corrosion, soiling and stone degradation.
  • Assessment of the impact of particulate dry deposition on soiling of
           indoor cultural heritage objects found in churches and museums/libraries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Sofia Eirini Chatoutsidou, Mihalis Lazaridis The impact from the indoor dry deposition of size-resolved particles was investigated in the present study. Published data from a baroque library in Prague, two medieval churches in Cyprus and two historical churches in Poland were used in the present study. Values of the deposition velocity vd obtained in literature from these studies were used to examine the comparative impact on the preservation of indoor collections in relation to particle size and indoor concentrations. The number of deposited particles was estimated at different particle sizes for cases where number concentration data were available whilst the mass flux towards indoor surfaces was obtained from the particle mass size distribution. Additionally, a dose-response function was implemented to investigate the acceptable level of soiling regarding the aesthetic impact from the deposition of indoor particulate matter. The results demonstrate that higher number of deposited particles are found in the lower part of the size distribution (fine particles), whereas, an opposite behavior was obtained for the mass flux where higher flux was obtained for coarse particles. These findings were directly associated with indoor particle dynamics at the different sizes and the corresponding concentrations. Particularly, higher accumulation on indoor surfaces by fine particles was linked with a relative effect of these particles for deposition on vertical-oriented surfaces whereas the large amount of deposited mass arising from coarse particles was attributed to a potential impact on horizontal surfaces. Furthermore, the dose-response function showed a proportional relationship between the soiling constant and the PM10 concentration, with indoor sites characterized by elevated concentrations being more risky for the preservation of indoor works of art. In general, the results of the present study highlight the necessity of a common assessment of the indoor particle size distribution and the corresponding chemical composition for better analysis of the effect due to dry particle deposition.
  • Development of non-destructive methodology using ATR-FTIR with PCA to
           differentiate between historical Pacific barkcloth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Margaret J. Smith, A. Sheila Holmes-Smith, Frances Lennard Barkcloths, non-woven textiles originating from the Pacific Islands, form part of many museum collections and date back to the 18th and 19th centuries. The ability to determine different plant species which have been used for producing barkcloth is required by art historians to help understand the origin and use of the cloths and by conservators for whom the species type may have an impact on textile durability, deterioration and hence conservation. However, to date the development of a non-destructive, robust analytical technique has been elusive. This article describes the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (ATR-FTIR) and principal component analysis (PCA) todifferentiation between historic barkcloths. Three distinct groups of historic cloths were identified using PCA of the FTIR region between 1200 and 1600 cm−1 where molecular vibrations associated with tannins and lignins are dominant. Analysis of contemporary cloths only identified Pipturus albidus cloth as different and highlighted the difficulties around producing a representative textile sample to mimic the historic cloths. While the methodology does not itself identify species, the use of historically well-provenanced samples allows cloths showing similarities to group together and is a significant aid to identification.
  • Partial solvation parameters in conservation science for works of art
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Dimitra Lazidou, Ioanna Teknetzi, Dimitra Aslanidou, Stella K. Papadopoulou, Costas Panayiotou A large portion of solvent selection and solubility calculations by Conservators of Works of Art are still done with solubility parameters or its Teas variation scheme. In spite its empirical character entailing the risk of notable failures, this is a simple and often successful scheme. The central objective of the present work is to provide with an alternative simple method for the above and related calculations but with sound thermodynamic basis for more reliable estimations. The method is known in the literature as the Partial Solvation Parameter (PSP) approach. With the Conservator in mind, the method is simplified and the working equations are reported in their simplest analytical form. Examples of calculations are reported which will facilitate understanding and efficient use of the method. The calculations cover bulk phases as well as interfaces and may be used for the rational design of conservation and numerous other processes.
  • Performance of alkaline activation for the consolidation of earthen
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Kerstin Elert, Pedro Bel-Anzué, Luis Monasterio-Guillot, Sebastian Pardo Earth has been an important building material in many cultures over the course of history. However, it is quite fragile compared with other building materials, requiring permanent maintenance and frequently consolidation. Conventional consolidation treatments often had drawbacks due to limited penetration and long-term effectiveness. In order to improve the earthen structure´s water resistance and mechanical properties, an alternative consolidation treatment based on highly alkaline KOH solution has been evaluated on outdoor-exposed adobe walls and was compared to a standard ethyl silicate treatment. The KOH treatment showed superior penetration and long-term effectiveness, causing partial dissolution of soil minerals and the formation of an amorphous phase with cementing properties. These mineralogical changes reduced the soils swelling capacity and improved its weathering resistance and mechanical properties. The consolidation treatment did not induce the formation of harmful salts but caused important color changes. Results indicate that lower concentrated KOH solution could be used, which would reduce consolidation-induced color changes, potential salt crystallization, treatment costs, and environmental risks. Overall, alkaline consolidation appears to be a valid alternative to conventional treatments.
  • Restoration and conservation of old low-quality book paper using aqueous
           colloids of magnesium oxyhydroxide obtained by pulsed laser ablation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Anna L. Nemoykina, Anastasiia V. Shabalina, Valery A. Svetlichnyi Magnesium-containing nanocolloids were synthesized by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation (PLAL) of a Mg target in water. As-prepared colloids contained 2-D lamellar nanostructures of magnesium oxyhydroxide Mg5O(OH)8 (Mg-NSs) with a thickness of 5–10 nm and a length/width up to one micron. The colloids obtained were used for the first time to restore old, low-quality paper (a Russian book from the beginning of the 20th century). All results were compared to conventional treatment with basic magnesium carbonate. It was found that Mg-NSs facilitated effective deacidification and conservation treatment of the paper. Paper pH increased after treatment and remained stable upon artificial aging. Moreover, treatment led to an increase in paper whiteness of up to 10% and paper strengthening up to 25%. In general, the treated paper became more resistant to the deterioration processes during aging. Thus, colloid of Mg5O(OH)8 lamellar nanostructures obtained by PLAL in water is a promising agent for paper restoration and conservation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • The role of geoenvironmental sciences in Cultural Heritage preservation:
           the case of 1000 year old leaning bell tower of Caorle (Venice)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Giordano Teza, Sebastiano Trevisani, Arianna Pesci A historical building is often a vulnerable system exposed to multiple natural and/or anthropic hazards. It seems to be the case of the 1000-year-old leaning bell tower of Caorle (Venice), whose leaning angle increased during the XX century up to 1.4°. The main interactions between this building and its environment were studied by means of a cost-effective approach based on soil stratigraphy and geomorphological data, geophysical measurements, surveying and historical information on the bell tower and the landscape. The results suggest a probable connection between tilt and overexploitation of water resources in the mid-XX century for agricultural use. In order to exclude other factors, the soil-structure resonant coupling and the effects of the bell ringing were also studied. The results highlight the importance of geoenvironmental sciences in Cultural Heritage preservation. Moreover, the proposed approach can be easily used in every similar context and could be further developed.
  • Stress mechanism for the rammed layer interfaces of earthen heritage sites
           with different treatments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Xu-dong Wang, Qiang-qiang Pei, Qing-lin Guo, Zhi-peng Li, Yan-wu Wang, Jian-zhong Zhao Layer interfaces are the weakest parts of traditional rammed earthen structures. Different ramming technologies for the interfaces between layers were found to have a significant effect on the level of destruction. Accordingly, four interface treatment methods were simulated to reveal the mechanism and damage mode for the interfaces between different layers: no interface, fine interface, coarse interface and rammed pit interface. Moreover, elastic wave velocity, tensile strength, compressive strength and shear strength tests were performed to explore the effects of different interface treatment technologies on different layers. The results showed that the tensile and shear strengths of the rammed earthen layer interfaces were much lower than the compressive strength. The tensile strength was only 1/30 of the compressive strength, which was the decisive factor in the ultimate destruction of such sites. An effective measure to improve the shear strength of rammed earthen sites is to increase the depth and uniform area of friction of the layer interface, and the roughness of the contact surface between layers. The interface treatment with the rammed pit layer provided superior results to the coarse and fine layers. The abovementioned results provide a theoretical basis for the scientific cognition of traditional ramming and consolidation technologies of earthen sites.
  • Understanding the function of bonding courses in masonry construction: An
           investigation with mixed numerical methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rebecca Napolitano, Branko Glisic Bonding courses, also called leveling courses, are ubiquitous in historical masonry structures. While this technique is common, there is no clear understanding of their structural function. Many works have postulated that this construction typology denotes the end of a workday or the height of one shuttering. Additionally, many sources contradict each other about the structural functionality of bonding courses. While some works have claimed that they create a structural weakness, others have asserted that they must be a structural advantage since they are ubiquitous. The aim of this paper is to study the behavior of bonding courses to understand their potential structural functionality. Using a mixed numerical method, i.e., combining finite element modeling and distinct element modeling, the structural response of the bonding courses is simulated. Under differential settlement of foundations, damages were seen to be localized in the walls with bonding courses. Performed analysis indicates that bonding courses had a positive contribution to the structural safety of the walls. A study of how the height of the bonding course affects this performance was also carried out.
  • Marble decoration of the Roman theatre of Urvinum Mataurense (Urbino,
           Marche region, Italy): An archaeological and archaeometric multi-method
           provenance study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Devi Taelman, Chiara Delpino, Fabrizio Antonelli This paper presents the results of the characterisation, provenance determination, quantification (by count and weight) and contextualisation of the white and coloured marbles used for decorating the Roman theatre of Urbino (Marche region, Italy). The main goals of the paper are to contribute to a better understanding of the trade and use of marble in the region of central Adriatic Italy in Roman times, and to demonstrate the socio-cultural importance of architectural décor in Roman society, especially through comparison of the Urbino case with contemporary theatres in the Western Mediterranean. Macroscopic characterisation of white and coloured marbles was followed by thin section petrography, X-ray diffraction and stable isotopic analysis (∂18O and ∂13C) for eight marble samples. In total, twenty-six marble varieties have been identified in the Urbino theatre assemblage. Mineralogical-petrographic and archaeometric analysis shows the presence of white marbles from Carrara (Italy) and Proconnesos (Asia Minor), and greco scritto from Hasançavuslar (Ephesos, Turkey). Coloured marbles, mainly africano, breccia di sciro, breccia medicea, cipollino verde, pavonazzetto and giallo antico, as well more prestigious lithotypes as granito misio, porfido rosso and serpentino, can be traced back to Italy, Greece (mainland and Aegean islands), Asia Minor, Egypt and North Africa. Particularly important is the earliest Roman in situ identification of breccia medicea. Compared to other Roman theatres in the Western Mediterranean, the Urbino theatre stands out for the sumptuousness of its marble renovation, especially in terms of the number of marble varieties. Like other Roman towns in central Adriatic Italy (e.g. Suasa, Trea and Urbs Salvia), Urvinum Mataurense shows a strong integration in the Roman Mediterranean marble trade, with a clear connection with the Greek/Eastern world.
  • Environmental risk mapping of physical cultural heritage using an unmanned
           aerial remote sensing system: A case study of the Huang-Wei monument in
           Kinmen, Taiwan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Tung-Ching Su Many studies have discussed the multiple risks to cultural heritage sites, however literature that discusses the threat of soil moisture penetrating into physical cultural heritage sites are extremely rare. In this paper, an unmanned aerial remote sensing system (UARSS) was employed to acquire images of the surroundings of the Huang-Wei monument, a physical cultural heritage site in Kinmen, Taiwan, which was coupled with a soil moisture examination in situ to produce thematic maps of soil moisture. The relationships among weather factors, including temperature, relative humidity, wind, and precipitation, as well as terrain factors, were analyzed to establish an environmental risk assessment model. A spatial analysis based on the environmental risk assessment model was implemented in a GIS environment to produce environmental risk maps for the Huang-Wei monument. A field survey demonstrated that the environmental risk maps were reliable and displayed the potential environmental risks to the Huang-Wei monument.
  • Interpretative mapping in cultural heritage context: Looking at the
           historic settlement of Khan Jahan in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Shajjad Hossain, Filipe Themudo Barata In the process of establishing the identity of a historic settlement, Interpretative Mapping might be unique and powerful tool to analyze tangible and intangible indicators of inheritance. Despite being a very useful and inexpensive tool, it has not yet been extensively used in the context of cultural heritage. In this kind of mapping, landscape, architecture and the layers of change that have been deposited on them throughout ages are considered as tangible indicators, while toponymy, story, memory and ancient local sayings are considered as intangible indicators. Information produced from both tangible and intangible indicators in a scientific and mathematical manner, supported by history, artefacts and vestiges, principles of urbanism, inscriptions and manuscripts, can reveal many unknown aspects of historic sites. Interpretative mapping can be accomplished either by a derivation from cartographic reference or an independent form of sense or impression (in case of intangibles). The aim of the paper is to demonstrate how interpretative mapping can combine chronological information of history, landscape, monuments and cultures of a historic site, exhibit transformation of indicators, provide evidence for hypothesis, authenticate claims of historians and manifest facts that can aid actions of Cultural Heritage agencies. For the demonstration, examples from different parts of the world and exercises on the ancient townships of Khalifatabad and Barobazar in Bangladesh, are explored.
  • Impact of environmental factors on the deterioration of the Wall of
           Cartagena de Indias
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Manuel Saba, Edgar E. Quiñones-Bolaños, Hermes F. Martínez Batista To evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the deterioration of the historical defensive walls of Cartagena de Indias, a comprehensive analysis of stone and mortars of the structure has been carried out, furthermore through a physicochemical characterization, the role of rainwater and the groundwater on the structural deterioration has been studied as well as for drains and rising damp. SO2, NO2 and PM10 were monitored in order to assess whether air quality is accelerating the deterioration of the structure. Moreover, deposited salts on the walls surface and the distribution of humidity in the structure were studied. Has been shown that limestone is the main stone type of the structure, and mortars probably due to a deficiency on the production process are weak and easily removable. Finally, humidity boundary conditions generated by drainage and rising damp, along with air salinity are the factors that determine the slow decay of the general conditions of the structure.
  • Investigating a Byzantine technology: experimental replicas of
           Ca-phosphate opacified glass
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Sarah Maltoni, Alberta Silvestri The Byzantine glass opacification technique based on the use of animal bones is here investigated by means of experimental replicas, aiming to shed light on the production technologies of Ca-phosphate opacified glass. To minimize the variables depending on the species or individuals, a single piece of bovine bone was selected. The current replicas were produced by mixing the piece of bone with silica-soda-lime glass having a chemical composition that is quite comparable to that of ancient natron glass. The bovine bone was used both in an untreated state and after its preliminary firing at different temperatures (350, 450, 600 and 800 °C) and analysed by means of ICP-OES and XRPD. Two sets of experiments were carried out in order to obtain an opaque glass that was texturally and mineralogically similar to ancient samples. A first set of replicas was produced by maintaining a constant melting time (5 hours), temperature (700 °C), and cooling rate (quenching) and by using differently pre-treated bone samples (untreated and fired at the above temperatures); a second set of experiments was conducted by using a single bone sample (fired at 800 °C) and by varying melting times (18 and 36 hours) and temperatures (700 and 1100 °C) as well as cooling rates (quenching and slow cooling). The replicas were all characterised by means of SEM-EDS and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the production of Ca-phosphate opacified glass requires a preliminary firing of the bone, a melting temperature of approximately 700 °C and long melting times (up to 36 hours). The use of unfired bone did not give satisfactory results, nor did short (5 hours) or very long melting times (> 36 hours), because the micro-textures obtained are not similar to those identified in ancient samples. The use of a higher melting temperature (1100 °C) can also be excluded, independent of the melting times and cooling rates, as it produced a transparent glass.
  • Spatial analysis and heritage conservation: Leveraging 3-D data and GIS
           for monitoring earthen architecture
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Arianna Campiani, Ashley Lingle, Nicola Lercari This paper discusses new advances in heritage site monitoring using a geo-spatial method for assessing the state of preservation of earthen architecture overtime as a preventive conservation measure. The proposed method leverages a comprehensive (quantitative–qualitative) approach that gathers multi-temporal data including environmental information collected by means of environmental loggers, qualitative vulnerability assessment of mud-brick walls, and surface change detection information obtained by comparing terrestrial laser scanning point cloud capturing the decay of building's wall features over time. Producing a detailed spatial understanding of the conservation issues that affect mud-brick walls in large earthen sites, this method can be used by conservators to rapidly identify which buildings require immediate intervention and lay the basis for future evaluation of the conservation actions undertaken. To test the effectiveness of the proposed geospatial model in producing a comprehensive view of the environmental risk and pattern of decay that affect mudbrick structures, this paper presents analyses and results obtained in a six-year study at Çatalhöyük, Turkey. Our results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed method and prove that it can be successfully employed to create preventive conservation measures at other earthen sites inside and outside the Near East.
  • Typological characterisation and territorial distribution of traditional
           rural buildings in the Apulian territory (Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Giuseppe Ruggiero, Marco Parlavecchia, Pasquale Dal Sasso This paper is aimed at analysing the rural building heritage present in the region of Apulia in Southern Italy, focusing on the constructions that can be defined minor in terms of size and functions unlike the best known masserie, large multi – functional vernacular farmhouses. A list was preliminarily drawn-up that contains typological macro categories of both residential and operating type buildings, which is able to represent the varied Apulian rural building heritage. Each of the groups defined in this manner was examined by outlining the building and functional characteristics of each category. The numeric and distributional assessment of the rural constructions present in the Apulian territory was subsequently carried out, based on the Military Geographic Institute (IGM) cartography – scale ratio 1:25,000 – that is the most effective historical information source in the national and regional context. The comparison between construction typologies and territorial areas has shown a clear correlation between forms, functions and characteristics of the territorial context.Research aimThe work aims to deepen the knowledge of rural historical buildings of Apulia region in Italy since most of the studies and official sources have been mainly focusing on large building structures called masserie and substantially ignore the minor rural buildings. The work develops a methodology suitable to acknowledge the different types of the historical rural constructions widespread in the Apulian landscape for a better and effective census. The results showed a close relationship between typological variability and the territory.
  • Yellowing of laser-cleaned artworks: Formation of residual hydrocarbon
           compounds after Nd:YAG laser cleaning of gypsum plates covered by lamp
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jeremie Berthonneau, Philippe Parent, Olivier Grauby, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Alain Colombini, Blandine Courtois, Philippe Bromblet The removal of black crusts decaying the surface of artworks is an important concern for the conservation of cultural heritage. Nd:YAG laser cleaning of encrusted stones and plasters at 1064 nm is widely recognized as an effective restoration technique, but induces a noticeable yellowing of the treated surface. Several researches carried out on the effects of laser cleaning have been focused on the induced yellowing and how to visually mitigate this phenomenon. To this end, UV-B radiations were successfully used to lessen the laser-induced yellowing due to the removal of lamp black particles on gypsum. The mechanism at play for both the formation of the compounds yellowing the surface and their disappearance upon UV-B exposure remains, however, poorly understood. Within the frame of this research, we apply surface-sensitive characterization techniques to analyze the yellowed surface produced after Nd:YAG Q-Switched laser cleaning of lamp black deposit on a gypsum plate, and the same surface after UV-B exposure. A combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy has been used to identify the residual carbon compounds responsible for the yellow coloration of the substrate. A nanoscale structural description of the ejected particles collected during the laser cleaning was finally performed with transmission electron microscopy. We found that the yellowing is due to partially oxidized hydrocarbons compounds deposited at the surface of the gypsum substrate. We propose that they form by reactions between carbon species emitted by the vaporization of the carbon particles, with hydrogen and oxygen produced by the dissociation of water molecules coming together from dehydration of the gypsum surface and from the water sprayed by the operator during cleaning.
  • Valuing the socio-economic benefits of built heritage: Local context and
           mathematical modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Kastytis Rudokas, Mantas Landauskas, Indrė Gražulevičiūtė-Vilneiškė, Odeta Viliūnienė Socio-economic benefits of built heritage are undoubtable and identified in many research works and reports. However, their integration into actual heritage preservation processes remains a challenge due to the lack of comprehensive application methodologies. This research aims at developing the methodology for the assessment of socio-economic benefits of built heritage. As built heritage is linked with its context, the case of Lithuania was selected as an exemplary ground for methodology development. The methodology development process involves the analysis of the cost-benefit approach in heritage assessment, the analysis of classifications of social-economic benefits and values of the built heritage, the analysis of the existing institutionalized heritage assessment tools and the legal context for the built heritage assessment in Lithuania, the development of the classification of socio-economic benefits of the built heritage for the Lithuanian context and the proposals for their estimation. The proposed mathematical model for calculation of socio-economic benefits of the built heritage is spatial technique enabling to capture the synergetic effects of co-existing heritage objects using sum of scaled kernel functions that can be used in cost-benefit analysis in different contexts. The methodology was developed based on the example of Lithuania; however, the overall approach can be adapted to various contexts.
  • Archaeometallurgical characterization of a 16th century suit of armour
           made by Valentin Siebenbürger
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jakob Kraner, Tomaž Lazar, Borut Zorc, Peter Fajfar, Matjaž Knap This paper presents a detailed analyses of a 16th century suit of armour made by Valentin Siebenbürger, one of the most skilled and talented German armour makers of the period. The studied harness is kept at the National Museum of Slovenia. Our research focused on evaluating the individual parts of the armour in terms of protection, workmanship precision, quality, the composition of the steel used and authenticity. By accurately measuring the thickness of the individual parts of the armour, a clear distinction may be seen between the sections protecting the vital areas of the body and those covering the extremities. Furthermore, the measurements clearly indicate the level of manufacturing precision achieved in Siebenbürger's workshop, as well as the relative importance of various elements in terms of their protective qualities. Apart from thickness measurements, metallographic and radiographic analyses were also performed. The results indicated that the suit of armour was made from three different types of steel: pure carbon steel, steel containing manganese, steel containing cobalt.Because the visor was made from pure carbon steel without major non-metallic inclusions, it may be concluded that it was added at a later date during restoration. The exceptionally even, uniform shaping and tapering of sheet thickness observed during the measurements indicates a high level of mastery in the forging of steel sheet.
  • A mathematical, experimental study on iron rings formation in porous
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rita Reale, Luigi Campanella, Maria Pia Sammartino, Giovanni Visco, Gabriella Bretti, Maurizio Ceseri, Roberto Natalini, Filippo Notarnicola In this interdisciplinary paper, we study the formation of iron precipitates – the so-called Liesegang rings – in Lecce stones in contact with iron source. These phenomena are responsible of exterior damages of lapideous artifacts, but also in the weakening of their structure. They originate in presence of water, determining the flow of carbonate compounds mixing with the iron ions and then, after a sequence of reactions and precipitation, leading to the formation of Liesegang rings. In order to model these phenomena observed in situ and in laboratory experiments, we propose a modification of the classical Keller–Rubinow model and show the results obtained with some numerical simulations, in comparison with the experimental tests. Our model is of interest for a better understanding of damage processes in monumental stones.
  • Insight into the orientation behavior of thermal-aged and historic silk
           fabrics by polarized FTIR microspectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Xiaoning Zhang, Decai Gong, Yuxuan Gong Understanding the mechanism of silk degradation and evaluating the deterioration status is always a challenge, but fundamental for silk conservation and preservation. Polarized attenuated total reflection (Pol-ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy was employed to study the orientation behaviour of artificial-aged silk fibres in molecular level. Combined with wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) study, the effect of crystal size and crystallinity on the orientation behavior of beta-sheets was investigated. It proved that the orientation structure of β-sheets fibrous was disrupted and greatly depend on the ageing degree. A comprehensive ageing mechanism of silk fibrous upon heat treatment was also proposed. In addition, the molecular order parameter of β-sheets crystallites (approximately at 1515 ± 3 cm−1) could be a degradation marker to reveal the orientation degree of β-sheets in silk fibrous. This hypothesis was also validated by examining the ageing of Chinese historic silk fragments unearthed from two archaeological sites. Component at 1616 ± 4 cm−1 would be potentially helpful to elucidate the molecular orientation for historic silk. Combined with thermal stability study, the ageing characteristics of two historic silk were compared.This research could provide with inspirations in obtaining a better understanding of silk degradation mechanism, evaluating the ageing status and providing with appropriate treatment for artificial aged and natural aged silk (historic silk).
  • Monitoring of the Garisenda Tower through GNSS using advanced approaches
           toward the frame of reference stations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Luca Poluzzi, Maurizio Barbarella, Luca Tavasci, Stefano Gandolfi, Nicola Cenni The Garisenda tower in Bologna is a symbol of the city and one of the most valuable heritages of the medieval age. The tower is leaning markedly since the XIV century because of a foundation failure and its stability is nowadays under constant monitoring through many sensors. In 2013 a GNSS permanent station was installed on the top of the tower with the aim to test the satellite technology for this particular kind of structural monitoring. Being the leaning of the Garisenda the subject of the investigation and being the sensor placed on its top, one fundamental hypothesis is the stationarity of the ground under the tower with respect to the reference system used for the GNSS measures. This hypothesis has demonstrated to be unreliable considered the high precision of the survey and the Earth crust dynamics, therefore opening interesting issues concerning the reference to be used in such kind of monitoring. The proposed solution rely on a strain model of the area surrounding the Garisenda tower, estimated using data from four other GNSS permanent stations already present in Bologna. The method is described and results are shown in terms of trend over time of the Garisenda's leaning. Nevertheless, the methodology can be generalized for every kind of structural monitoring based on GNSS data for which millimetre level of precision is needed.
  • Heritage-fueled gentrification: A cautionary tale from Chicago
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Ted Grevstad-Nordbrock, Igor Vojnovic This article contests the view that heritage preservation programs, in their present form, provide an unqualified community good. Anointing certain places as ‘historic’, and therefore different from other places and intrinsically special, can create demand and provide a catalyst for revitalization. We suggest that such preservation-driven revitalization is not always beneficial to a neighborhood and can, perhaps counterintuitively, work against the long-term sustainability of heritage preservation. Focusing on Chicago's Lincoln Park neighborhood and its National Register of Historic Places-listed sites, we explore the relationship between preservation activity and gentrification, the physical and social upgrading of a neighborhood. We identify a three-stage revitalization process that can lead to the degradation of a neighborhood's historic character. In a sense, a gentrifying historic neighborhood can become a victim of its own success as redevelopment pressures encourage physical change and the gradual loss of its historic integrity—the very reason for preservation to begin with. The public framework that supports heritage preservation in the US, while vitally important for protecting irreplaceable cultural heritage, is outdated. Simply, it has not kept pace with changes in American cities over the last fifty years, particularly those with strong real estate markets. An updated and more nuanced framework is in order, one that recognizes that honorific heritage programs and public subsidies for private rehabilitation can have significant adverse impacts on a neighborhood, both physical and social.
  • CNN-based statistics and location estimation of missing components in
           routine inspection of historic buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Zheng Zou, Xuefeng Zhao, Peng Zhao, Fei Qi, Niannian Wang Ancient buildings have a high cultural and historical value. In the process of their protection and maintenance, it is crucial to conduct regular routine inspections on them. During the regular routine inspections, the identification and statistics for components on historic buildings are of great significance to conservators, managers and visitors. However, the current identification and statistics work is almost carried out by human eyes, which is time consuming and labor intensive. Actually, this work can be done by artificial intelligence. In order to promote the intelligent development of routine inspections of historic buildings, this paper proposes a methodology in the case of the Forbidden City to identify and count the numbers of intact and impaired components based on Convolutional Neural Network. The applied algorithm is Faster R-CNN, which is an effective object detection algorithm for 2D images. In addition, the positions of the missing components can be inferred and marked in the images as their regularity of the positional arrangement. This methodology can lay the foundation for the subsequent intelligent inspection system of the historic buildings.
  • The bricks of Hagia Sophia (Istanbul, Turkey): a new hypothesis to explain
           their compositional difference
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Mirco Taranto, Luis Barba, Jorge Blancas, Andrea Bloise, Marco Cappa, Francesco Chiaravalloti, Gino Mirocle Crisci, Murat Cura, Daniela De Angelis, Raffaella De Luca, Marco Lezzerini, Alessandra Pecci, Domenico Miriello The work shows the results of a multi-analytical study performed on twenty-nine brick samples taken from Hagia Sophia in Istanbul (Turkey). Hagia Sophia, one of the most important historical buildings in the world, has a very complex construction history. This complexity is also reflected in the materials that were used for its construction. The main purpose of this work is to verify whether there are any compositional differences in the bricks used in different historical periods, but also to understand the reasons for any compositional differences between one period and another. The samples were studied by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), coupled with a new approach, based on the micro-chemical EDS analysis used to obtain information on the clay fraction of the matrix. The study showed that, most probably, the differences between the bricks belonging to the different construction phases are due to the composition of the clays used for their preparation.
  • Protective coating of paper works: ZnO/cellulose nanocrystal composites
           and analytical characterization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Minghao Jia, Xiaogang Zhang, Jiajia Weng, Jie Zhang, Meifang Zhang Coating of ZnO-cellulose composites on paper surface has potential technological applications. With this motivation, a simple approach of synthesizing ZnO nanoparticles in cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) by in-situ solution casting is reported in this work. The surface morphology of ZnO nanoparticles combined with cellulose fibers and the distribution of these ZnO-cellulose composites on the paper surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that ZnO nanoparticles are easily and uniformly dispersed in the CNC. The ZnO-cellulose composite nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the composites in isopropanol as a base fluid. To determine the protective potential of these coatings, the chemical and mechanical properties of coated papers after dry heat and UV accelerated aging were measured. Also, a good color stability of the paper coated by the nanocomposites was observed through colorimetric measurements. The paper coated with ZnO-cellulose composites was found to possess antibacterial and antifungal activity against five common fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus Versicolor, Rhizopus nigricans, Saccharomycetes, Mucor) observed in the archive or museum and two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) in common life.
  • Evaluation of the applicability of nano-biocide treatments on limestones
           used in cultural heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Javier Becerra, Maripaz Mateo, Pilar Ortiz, Ginés Nicolás, Ana Paula Zaderenko One of the main problems in the conservation of historical buildings and archaeological sites is the one caused by biodeterioration. Biopatina, biocrust or biofouling generate aesthetical changes and induce degradation processes within the stone matrix. In this work, three treatments based on silver nanoparticles and silver/titanium dioxide nanocomposites have been studied as potential biocides for limestones: citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles, silver/TiO2 nanocomposites and citrate-stabilized silver/TiO2 nanocomposites. These treatments were synthesized following a bottom-up method, using or not a stabilizing agent (citrate), and have been characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering and Raman spectroscopy. These treatments were applied on limestones from three different Spanish quarries located in Utrera (Seville), El Puerto de Santa María (Cadiz) and Novelda (Alicante). The aesthetical modification of limestone surfaces was studied by colorimetric techniques and the effectiveness of protection against biofouling formation was tested using an accelerated biofouling growth assay. The best results were obtained for the treatments based on citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles. The effectiveness of the treatments depends on their penetration depth in the stone matrix and in this study, we have used Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to determine the depth profiles of nanocomposite presence in the stone matrix. Our results demonstrate that nanocomposites based on citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles can be useful for the treatment of historical buildings and archaeological sites made of limestone, without producing high colour increments. Additionally, we have demonstrated the suitability of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for the detection of silver/TiO2 nanocomposites and for the generation of depth profiles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Biogenic deterioration of Egyptian limestone monuments: treatment and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Khaled Z. Baghdady, Sahar T. Tolba, Soha S. Houssien The aim of this research was to study the biodeterioration activity of bacteria on ancient Egyptian limestone monuments and their treatments. Specimens and swabs were collected from seven different archeological sites along Egypt. According to the results of bacterial count, high bacterial load was detected at Senusret I obelisk and Mosque of Elkadi Abd El Basset. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of calcium carbonate degradation showed that the most damaging isolates were Bacillus safensis 9K (MH370265) and Streptomyces rochei 50 (MH370266) with 20.9 and 25.6% of total amounts of CaCO3 degradation, respectively. Environmental scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM/EDX) and physical characters of stone simulation model revealed that these isolates caused morphological, physical and chemical changes. Among the natural and chemical antimicrobial agents applied directly on the infected models as simulators of treatment and conservation processes, cetrimonium (1 mg/mL), tetra ethyl ammonium bromide (0.6 mg/mL), cinnamon (1 mg/mL) and cinnamon (5 mg/mL) were found to be effective against the two bacterial isolates. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis for artificially deteriorated stones revealed that the compounds were safe for direct application on limestone monuments when no visual or chemical changes in the stone structure were observed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Artificial neural network for the provenance study of archaeological
           ceramics using clay sediment database
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Germana Barone, Paolo Mazzoleni, Grazia Vera Spagnolo, Simona Raneri An artificial neural network (ANN) for archaeometric studies was created to facilitate provenance attribution of archaeological ceramics. A multilayer perceptron model (MLP) was applied to construct the network, including only one hidden layer. Moreover, correction parameters based on historical and archaeological evidences were applied to Bayesian probability factor. The ANN was trained by using clays mixings mathematically constructed based on a reference chemical database of Sicilian sediments. The clay mixing takes in consideration compositional variability within the same geological site and the extent of the ceramic manufacture processes. Test was performed by querying the ANN with compositional data of ceramics found in archaeological sites coherent with clays sampling areas. Up to 88% correct attribution was verified, with good correspondence between geological and archaeological contexts. Finally, merits of ANN were highlighted by comparing the extent of successfully provisional attribution with classical statistical methods (PCA and LDA).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Determination of the layered structure of baryta based heritage
           photographs by infrared ellipsometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): J.M. Flores-Camacho, A. Nieto-Villena, J.R. Martínez, J.A. de la Cruz-Mendoza, G. Ortega-Zarzosa, Á. Solbes-García, R.E. Balderas-Navarro, A. Lastras-Martnez Variable angle-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry is proposed as a reliable tool for the characterization of heritage photographic prints. It is shown that the proposed technique has access to both the chemical composition and the physical structure of the photograph. In particular, the physical structure can be determined by interference related spectral oscillations and the behavior, for different angles of incidence, of the peaks corresponding to different chemical components. Emphasis is made on gelatin/baryta samples, and particularly, in the role of the baryta layer. A relatively simple model is used to simulate the ellipsometric spectra. It shows that the thickness and location of different layers in photographic prints can be assessed by optical means.
  • Preserving typographic cultural heritage using contemporary digital
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Klementina Možina, Anja Podlesek, Sabina Bračko The digitisation of an old inscription, lettering, calligraphy or handmade typography (i.e. metal or wood typeface) represents an important procedure for the permanence of cultural heritage. It can contribute to the national awareness, local economy or even add international recognition. The old typography from the 19th century used by the prominent Slovenian printer Jožef Blaznik was analysed. It was digitised with some optimisations for contemporary use. Moreover, its usability was tested, since this typeface had an important contribution to the use and preservation of the Slovenian language by means of advanced printing technology and high quality of the work. In order to study the differences among various typefaces, the digitised typeface was compared with the other two widely used in printed publications. The influence of type size, substrate and digital printing (NIP) technology on legibility and preserved information was compared by analysing chemical, physical and colorimetric properties of the paper and prints, along with the typographic properties and legibility testing, using standard methods and the unconventional non-invasive testing methods, e.g. image analysis. The results show that the digitisation of old typography from the 19th century was an appropriate method, and that it is necessary to consider the chosen typeface and its size to ensure information permanence and legibility of a text. The selected (Blaznic) typeface could be used in printed publications, still ensuring satisfied legibility. Furthermore, information permanence was satisfactory even when this typeface was used in small type sizes. Therefore, the Blaznic typeface could be recommended even today for the use in different graphic design solutions.
  • Naphthol Green – a forgotten artists’ pigment of the early 20th
           century. History, chemistry and analytical identification
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Wibke Neugebauer, Clarimma Sessa, Christoph Steuer, Thorsten Allscher, Heike Stege The synthetic nitroso dyestuff Acid Green 1 (hereafter AG1, C.I. 10020) and its lake (C.I. Pigment Green 12, hereafter PG12), today known under the trade name Naphthol Green B, was identified for the first time on six historical colour charts of commercial brands of artists’ paints. These comprise water and oil colours produced between 1910 and 1932 by the companies Winsor & Newton (London), G. Wagner (Hannover), Fr. Schoenfeld (Düsseldorf), Redeker & Hennis (Nürnberg) and Talens & Zoon (Apeldoorn). Because the use of AG1 (first synthesis in 1883) is well-known for textile dyeing, but not at all as a lake pigment for artists’ paints, these findings stimulated a comprehensive source research on the early production history, fastness properties and acceptance of the lakes of AG1 in the chemical and paint-technological literature from its invention to c. 1950. To summarize the findings, lakes of AG1 are regularly mentioned for paint purposes soon after the dyestuff's invention, mainly for house paints, paints for wall papers or as pigment for printing inks. In 1892, a lead lake of AG1 is described explicitly also for artists’ paints and a certain use in artists’ water colours, but also oil paints of higher quality could be proved until at least the 1930ies by the source research presented here. However, the pigment's fastness to light is unsatisfactory according to modern standards, and lakes of AG1, since 1956 denoted as PG12 (barium lake), are no longer of relevance in artists’ paints. It was presumably replaced by more stable organic green pigments such as those from the copper phthalocyanine group that have been introduced since the mid-1930ies. In this work, the non-destructive or minimally invasive analytical identification of AG1/PG12 in works of art is shown to be possible by Raman spectroscopy, SERS, FTIR and/or UV/VIS/NIR reflectance spectroscopy, accomplished by XRF for the lake substrate characterisation. Reference spectra of modern and historical specimens of AG1 (as lake and dye) produced in 1893 and 1900 are also presented here. Knowledge of the application and chronology of this today almost unknown pigment in art is of importance e.g. for dating purposes in authentication cases as well as under preventive conservation aspects, e.g. to define appropriate conditions for lightning conditions.
  • On the way to the New Kingdom. Analytical study of Queen Ahhotep's gold
           jewellery (17th Dynasty of Egypt)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Maria F. Guerra, Sandrine Pagès-Camagna The gold jewellery in the collection of the Department of Egyptian Antiquities of the Louvre Museum bearing the names of Queen Ahhotep and King Ahmose I (17th–18th Dynasties, 16th c. B.C.) was analysed using µPIXE, XRF, and SEM-EDS. The items were formed by casting, hammering and rolling, were decorated by chasing, and were mounted using hard-solders obtained by adding copper to the base-alloys. The jewellery bearing the name of Ahhotep is made essentially from cast gold alloys, but the elements of an armband found on the mummy of King Kamose and bearing the name of his brother Ahmose are a skilled goldsmith's work using whitish Ag-rich electrum alloys. The armband and one of Ahhotep's rings with marks of intense wear-use were worn in day-life; the other items could be funerary. The gold employed is alluvial, because the alloys contain PGE inclusions. The composition of the alloys matches the composition of gold grains from the Eastern Desert mines. The analytical data published so far for the scarce Second Intermediate Period jewellery items were compared to the data obtained in this work, showing that the alloys during this period split into two groups: those that are yellowish (containing up to 99 wt% Au) and those that are whitish (containing more than 20 wt% Ag). All the items with marks of intense wear-use except one are contained in the second group. Among them, the armband bearing the name of King Ahmose that is inscribed with the hieroglyphic sign of the moon in its oldest written form. As this change occurred under Ahmose I, it suggests that new and old objects coexisted during that difficult period of struggles in Egypt. Gold jewellery and weapons recovered during the campaigns against the Hycsos, leaded by King Kamose, Queen Ahhotep and King Ahmose, could have also been recycled in Egyptian workshops. This could justify the presence of Os-Ir-Ru-Pt inclusions in the two items with marks of intense wear-use, instead of the Ru-Os-Ir inclusions usually found in Egyptian productions.
  • Degradation processes of historic metal threads used in some Spanish and
           Portuguese ornamentation pieces
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Adrian Duran, Rafael Perez-Maqueda, Jose Luis Perez-Rodriguez The degradation processes that occurred on metal threads applied in the embroidery used for clothing and in the ornamentation of sculptures, the Sevillian Holy Week processions, and Portuguese and Spanish palace and museum are thoroughly analyzed. Some threads from the 14th and 18–19th centuries were considered. In the metal threads, sulphur- and chlorine-based compounds were detected either individually or together, depending on the degradation process. Basic silver carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and copper-based compounds were also observed. The different degradation processes were attributed to different factors, such as environmental contamination, degradation of the fibrous cores, and inadequate cleaning and/or mechanical treatments.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Single-sided NMR as a non-destructive method for quality evaluation of
           hydrophobic treatments on natural stones
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Stephanie Keine, Robert Schulte Holthausen, Michael Raupach Moisture is a main cause for weathering effects in historical façades made of natural stones. If applied correctly, hydrophobic agents can successfully protect these façades without altering the appearance. The major challenge is to ensure the required surface penetration. In-situ measurements for quality assurance on historical façades are still mainly done destructively through the extraction of core samples or superficially through the measurement of water ingress. An alternative approach has been found in nuclear magnetic resonance, which is able to visualize pore water. Applying this, single-sided NMR sensors provide a non-destructive tool for use at the building site. For this paper, four sandstones of different porosity and one limestone have been treated with two hydrophobic agents of different composition. The ingress of water in the treated samples has been measured by the single-sided sensor using three criteria for quality assessment, namely the hydrophobic depth, the hydrophobic efficiency, and the water absorption coefficient. The results are compared to those of common quality assurance measurements: the visual assessment and the gravimetrical water ingress on core samples as well as the superficial Karsten tube penetration test. It is shown that the single-sided NMR sensor provides a tool for the non-destructive quality evaluation of hydrophobic treatments, which is generally applicable to the building site using the quality criteria now found.
  • Investigation and modification of two kinds of Chinese traditional lime in
           cultural building relics
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Mingshen Shao, Li Li, Weichang Chen, Jianhui Liu As the earliest cementing materials, lime, divided into aerial lime and hydraulic lime according to reaction mechanism, has been widely applied to heritages. Previous studies revealed that hydraulic lime mortars satisfy the conservation principles and high early strength demands of conservation because they have better mechanic strength and higher environmental adaptability than aerial lime. In this research, Chinese traditional hydraulic lime (ginger nut, AGA clay and shell lime) were modified and designed to restore San-he Tu buildings (composing of clay, sands and aerial lime). The result reveal that modified ginger nut showed optimal mechanic properties and weather resistance abilities than other lime mortars, and it is possibly due to the structure between aggregates and hydration or carbonation products. Conservation application using modified ginger nut mortar on the restoration of cracks were carried out and the restoration effect was discussed in detail. The conservation results indicated that the Chinese traditional hydraulic lime mortars are proper to restoring limes in ancient buildings.
  • Laboratory analyses and numerical simulation for sound absorption of
           plasters in historical buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Tarik Serhat Bozkurt, Sevtap Yilmaz Demirkale During the restoration of historical buildings, it is very important for the maintenance of the authenticity of the building that decisions related to the selection of materials and the plaster mortar mixtures, determined through plaster analyses, are in accordance with those of the historical structure. In restoration of the historical buildings, there are also some important parameters related with interior room acoustics such as propagating sound properly, ensuring speech intelligibility, preventing from undesirable interior noise and maintaining of auditory comfort conditions. The present study investigates how the sound-absorption coefficient of existing plaster layers can be increased and describes the means of ensuring the newly applied plaster layers are in accordance with the historical structure. Within the study, three different plaster mixtures containing three different type of binder, with plaster layers of 3 cm, 6 cm, 9 cm and 12 cm thickness were produced with each mixture type. The sound-absorption coefficient tests were carried out according to mixtures type and plaster layer thickness. The sound absorption coefficients were modeled using MATLAB software for different plaster thicknesses based on the results obtained from the sound-absorption coefficient measurements. In following stage, to show the effect of the measurement results of the sound-absorption coefficient within the place, a historical place was selected and reverberation time analyses were carried out in the direction of the measurement results. In this research, it is demonstrated that the sound absorption can be increased by means of increasing plaster layer thickness and changing mortar mixture types. It is concluded that the sound absorption research for historical buildings systematically carried out in order to show the role of importance sound absorption material selection in accordance with historical plaster analysis in restoration process.
  • A comparative study of reinforcement materials for waterlogged wood relics
           in laboratory
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Luqi Liu, Lu Zhang, Bingjian Zhang, Yulan Hu Most unearthed waterlogged wood relics need to be reinforced by dehydration and strengthening, otherwise the dry shrinkage and deformation would severely damage the value of these cultural relics. Till now, a variety of materials, such as trehalose, xylitol, lactitol, glyoxal, and polyethylene glycol, have been reported to be applied in the reinforcement of wood relics, however, the comparison of their effects on wood relics has not been reported yet. In this work, these materials were applied in the reinforcement of waterlogged wood. Firstly, chemically degraded medical tongue depressors and rice paper were prepared and used to simulate wood relics, while aged raw lacquer piece was used to simulate lacquerware relics. Then, samples were dehydrated and reinforced by different reinforcement materials including trehalose, xylitol, chito-oligosaccharide, lactitol, glyoxal, glycerol and polyethylene glycol. Finally, properties including deformation, strength and antimicrobial property were tested successively. From the results, we can conclude that xylitol was the best reinforcement material in the concentration range from 40% (w/v) to 60% (w/v). In some cases, lactitol and trehalose were also proved to be the good reinforcement materials. Besides, adding more than 0.5% (w/v) of chito-oligosaccharide could obviously improve resistance to Gloeophyllum terbium of reinforcement materials such as xylitol. This is the first report on the comparison of different reinforcement materials for the waterlogged wood relics. Our work will give insight into the selection of more effective reinforcement materials for waterlogged wood relics and screening better reinforcement formula with different concentrations.
  • The wooden foundations of Rialto Bridge (Ponte di Rialto) in Venice:
           Technological characterisation and dating
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Mauro Bernabei, Nicola Macchioni, Benedetto Pizzo, Lorena Sozzi, Simona Lazzeri, Luigi Fiorentino, Elisa Pecoraro, Gianluca Quarta, Lucio Calcagnile The wooden foundations of Ponte di Rialto (Rialto Bridge), the oldest and most famous of the four bridges spanning the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy, were analysed in order to determine the tree species used to construct the foundation, to examine the timber's present-day physical and mechanical properties and to identify construction periods. The material recovered during geotechnical surveys underwent micro-morphological, physical, chemical and mechanical analyses. The radiocarbon method was used for dating purposes. The footings of the bridge's foundations, mostly consisting of alder wood, were shown to be in good overall condition generally. A comparison of normal and polarised light images of wooden cross-sections showed abundant crystalline cellulose within the cell walls, indicating that the state of conservation of the waterlogged samples is very close to that of sound alder wood. Only one alder sample showed signs of severe bacterial attack, mostly concentrated in the fibre cell walls. Radiocarbon dating identified two distinct construction periods. One sample dates to 1570 AD ± 85, whilst another dates to the year 960 AD ± 59. The later dating corresponds to the construction of the stone bridge that still exists today. The earlier period, around the year 1000, likely refers to the foundations of the first bridge, built after several pontoon bridges, and corresponding to the initial Ponte della Moneta.
  • Geophysical surveys for the dynamic characterization of a cultural
           heritage building and its subsoil: The S. Michele Arcangelo Church
           (Acireale, eastern Sicily)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Sabrina Grassi, Sebastiano Imposa, Graziano Patti, Domenico Boso, Giuseppe Lombardo, Francesco Panzera Geophysical surveys are useful tools to characterize the buildings making up the cultural heritage and to monitor the subsoil features on which they are constructed. The information obtained is necessary for planning future restoration work.The aim of this study is to characterize the dynamic features of both the San Michele Arcangelo Church and of the area where it is located.Non-invasive geophysical surveys, including electromagnetic and seismic surveys, were performed to acquire this information. Such techniques enabled us to highlight the seismic wave velocity distribution in the subsoil, and the presence of electromagnetic reflectors probably linked to the existence of remains belonging to the old edifice. The comparison and integration of different methods allowed us to validate the results.Moreover, ambient seismic noise measurements were carried out outside and inside the church to obtain information on the site resonance frequency and to assess the vibration frequencies of the church. The results do not point out any site amplifications in the vibration frequency range of the church. It is therefore unlikely that soil-to-structure resonance phenomena can take place.
  • Geophysical anomalies detected by electrical resistivity tomography in the
           area surrounding Tutankhamun's tomb
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Federico Fischanger, Gianluca Catanzariti, Cesare Comina, Luigi Sambuelli, Gianfranco Morelli, Filippo Barsuglia, Ahmed Ellaithy, Francesco Porcelli Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) of the area surrounding Tutankhamun's tomb (KV62) in the Valley of the Kings (Luxor, Egypt) reveals the presence of two anomalies located a few meters from Tutankhamun's funerary chamber. The strategy for ERT data acquisition and the adopted methods for data analysis are discussed in detail in this article, together with the possible archaeological significance of the detected anomalies.
  • Advanced damage detection techniques in historical buildings using digital
           photogrammetry and 3D surface anlysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Rosella Alessia Galantucci, Fabio Fatiguso In the last twenty years, advances in technology led to a progressive digitalization in photography and photogrammetry and to the development of a considerable number of image processing software. In several fields, Digital Image Processing techniques began to spread. For example, in Civil Engineering there are many methodologies for the monitoring of reinforced concrete structures or road pavements. In most cases they involve the application of mathematical and morphological filters to two-dimensional images, to obtain quantitative information about the decay of the analyzed structures. Instead in Architectural Restoration there are still few researches focused on these methodologies, because of the great complexity and uniqueness of historical buildings. Furthermore, until now architectural photogrammetry mainly concerned geometric survey and it was not widely used to diagnose the presence of alterations on buildings, despite the great potential of a non-invasive, contactless survey technique. Therefore, the aim of this research is to create an analysis approach, to detect damages on three-dimensional models, richer in information about depth and volume. The analysis can be carried out through a specific set of spatial and morphological filters for advanced surface analysis, adopting software tools mostly used for three-dimensional metrology and surface topography. A sequence of operations can be executed, allowing to obtain quantitative information about some kinds of alterations (cracks or features induced by material loss) from three-dimensional models like point clouds or polygonal meshes. The procedure was tested and validated on a case study (Palazzo Palmieri, Monopoli – Italy). The result of the research is a low interaction approach, through which it is possible to identify and quantify damages on the surfaces.
  • Average-face-based virtual inpainting for severely damaged statues of Dazu
           Rock Carvings
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Haiyan Wang, Zhongshi He, Yiman He, Dingding Chen, Yongwen Huang Numerous image inpainting algorithms are guided by a basic assumption that the known region in the original image itself can provide sufficient prior information for the guess recovery of the unknown part, which is not often the case in actual art image inpainting. In order to solve the challenging inpainting case that there is little image prior in the remainder of the original image, we propose an average-face-based inpainting method based on a sample database with 3 steps: reference images selection, average image generation and exemplar-based image inpainting. In which, average image generation is crucial. In the inpainting framework, the average image can be directly viewed as an inpainting proposal for the severely damaged or absolutely lost image. Moreover, the average image can be applied to exemplar-based inpainting algorithm as a sample image to extend the searching region for match patch, so as to perform the restoration for images with large-scale or irregularly damaged holes. The inpainting experiments over some facial images of Dazu Rock Carvings demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of our method. It is first utilized for two extremely challenging inpainting tasks: reconstruction for the stolen head of Willow Avalokitesvara in Shimenshan No. 6 and the absolutely broken heads of two Avalokitesvaras in Beishan No. 180. Compared to the failure of the exemplar-based inpainting algorithm within the original image and the directly duplication of a similar image, the generated average image can be as a more reliable inpainting proposal. The comparative experiments also show the efficiency and advantage of the average face applied to exemplar-based inpainting framework. Compared with some related inpainting algorithms, our method is more competitive when there is little prior information in the original image. The efficient virtual inpainting results are valuable references for both cave art historians and conservators.
  • Mining painted cultural relic patterns based on principal component images
           selection and image fusion of hyperspectral images
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Jinye Peng, Kai Yu, Jun Wang, Qunxi Zhang, Lin Wang, Ping Fan Because painted cultural relics are fragile and precious, traditional methods aren’t suitable for analyzing them. A new domain is proposed to resolve this question: hyperspectral imaging technology can observe images when the range of the image is from visible to near infrared light. Further, this can be done without damaging the painted cultural relics. This paper presents a method that can automatically mine painted cultural relic patterns. With this method, the principal component images are obtained via the minimum noise fraction method. A salient object detection method is used to obtain the striking images of the principal component images. The principal component image corresponding to the salient image with the largest average gradient value is selected as the optimal principal component image. The optimal principal component image and true color image are fused, in order to obtain a painted culture relic image so that the patterns are mined. Experimental data includes pottery and murals. The results show that the proposed method can automatically and effectively mine painted cultural relic pattern information that is not easily observed by the human eye.
  • Reconstructing settlement evolution from neolithic to Shang dynasty in
           Songshan mountain area of central China based on self-organizing feature
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Peng Lu, Panpan Chen, Yan Tian, Yang He, Duowen Mo, Ruixia Yang, Rosa Lasaponara, Nicola Masini The Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOFM) is one of the most popular neural network models, recently also adopted in archaeology to improve and enhance, on the basis of the availability of information and archaeological records, our understanding of the long-term human settlements and their evolution. In this paper, SOFM has been applied to classify prehistoric settlement size-grade in the Songshan Mountain Region in China, mainly focusing on the following four periods: Peiligang (9000–7000aBP), Yangshao (7000–5000aBP), Longshan (5000–4000aBP) and Xia-Shang (4000–3000aBP). Outputs from the SOFM analysis enabled us to capture the spatial relation between higher and lower grade settlements and to identify specific morphological patterns. This brought new light on the human settlements and their evolution in relations with the nature, environmental features, and cultural attitude in the Songshan Mountain Region where the Chinese civilization emerged and developed.
  • Digital storytelling and audience engagement in cultural heritage
           management: A collaborative model based on the Digital City of
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Ofilia I. Psomadaki, Charalampos A. Dimoulas, George M. Kalliris, Gregory Paschalidis Cities are complex, networked and continuously changing social ecosystems, shaped and transformed through the interaction of different interests and ambitions. They are linked to places, where various aspects of past events are projected and expressed by means of personal memories and narrations (urban memory), representing a promise for future: a vision of freedom, creativity, opportunity and prosperity. At the same time, technology is currently promoting unprecedented changes in urban areas, which are often marked as smart city developments. This paper studies the history of cultural and creative industries, bringing forward the dedicated digital storytelling strategies that promote active audience engagement in urban cultural heritage. A collaborative model is proposed and analyzed (in multiple perspectives), aiming at providing an integrated manner for heritage documentation, management and dissemination. The development deals with the Digital City of Thessaloniki, Greece, a big city, not a boundless one, rich in culture, but with rather poor heritage management mechanisms. The research focuses on theoretical and practical aspects for the citizens’ collection and interpretation of “digital heritage” documents (artifacts, places, etc.), resulting in a model that fuels audience engagement and collaboration of cultural organizations. Model-design is validated through state-of-the-art review and formative evaluation processes (both qualitative and quantitative), with an associated SWOT analysis that points out strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Although the proposed methodology has been adapted to the needs of a particular (digital) city, the current paper goes beyond a case study, as it brings forward novel technological and methodological guidelines, which could be successfully deployed in districts with similar cultural, geographical, and technical features.
  • Mapping historic urban landscape values through social media
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Manal Ginzarly, Ana Pereira Roders, Jacques Teller Social media provides big data for researchers to perform real-time analytics, as digital ethnographers, on what places and attributes people value in the historic urban landscapes they live or visit, enough to share with their social network. However, the use of these data to further our knowledge on heritage and their values, or to support heritage planning and management is still very limited. This article proposes a methodology for the analysis of viewpoints location-view scenes-tags data for photos posted on Flickr to provide insights into all facets of the perceived landscape character that identifies people-centered heritage at the city level. The analysis visualizes convergence and divergence between locals’ and tourists’ preferences. It also reveals heritage concerns in the context of daily-life practices and everyday landscape, as well as political and religious concerns in post-conflict areas. Additionally, the analysis questions the limits of heritage areas and categories used for identifying cultural values. Results showed that the different analyses complement one another to eventually provide insights into everyday encounters with the historic urban landscape. They also show the difference between experts’ and users’ documentation and characterization languages when defining heritage. When the first apply domain-specific classification models, the latter express personal reflections without following a specific hierarchy or a closed categorical system. It is believed that the outcome can help heritage scholars to further our understanding for the diversity of heritage places and attributes, as well as, heritage professionals, to inform decision-making processes in heritage planning and management on both experts’ and users’ understanding of heritage.
  • Application of micro-indentation tests to assess the consolidation
           procedure of historic wall paintings
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Zofia Kaszowska, Marcin Kot, Dorota Białek-Kostecka, Anna Forczek-Sajdak The article defines one of the basic conservation procedures, i.e. the fixation of wall paintings, also known as paint layer consolidation. In Polish post-war conservation practice, this has been carried out almost routinely using various binding agents; at the same time, nearly ¾ of the cases recorded during search query involved synthetic resins in the form of weak solutions or dispersions. Extensive research was conducted with the aim of determining/estimating/measuring the actual impact of synthetic binders on paint layer properties. The article discusses the results from only one group of tests associated with micromechanical properties: hardness, Young's modulus performed using the indentation method and scratch resistance. According to our knowledge, they have been used for similar purposes in the area of cultural heritage research for the first time. Three painting techniques were selected for the study, representing a variety of techniques, which are common in historic paintings in Poland: lime, lime casein and animal glue, as well as five commercial products predominantly employed for painting consolidation by the Polish conservation community.
  • Exploring confocal microscopy to analyze ancient photography
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Alejandra Nieto-Villena, José Refugio Martínez Mendoza, María Ángeles Ramírez-Saito, José Luis Arauz-Lara, José Ángel de la Cruz-Mendoza, Azdrubal Lobo Guerrero-Serrano, Gerardo Ortega-Zarzosa, Álvaro Solbes-García In this work, we explore the use of confocal microscopy to identify the composition of ancient photographs, taking advantage of the binders’ fluorescence and the organic materials nature used as protective coating in their respective manufacture processes. At the same time, the feasibility of using confocal technologies for the analysis of different photographic strata has been proposed. It is found that such technique provides relevant information about morphological features of the photographic surface as well as on the inner layers; thus, confocal microscopy provides useful images on the stratigraphic structure of photographs. In that sense, the technique is capable to determine the binder nature, the presence of intermediate layers such baryta layer, the presence of protective organic coating on photographic surface and inferred print typologies.
  • Recovering illegible writings in fire-damaged medieval manuscripts through
           data treatment of UV-fluorescence photography
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Fabien Pottier, Anne Michelin, Laurianne Robinet When faced with legibility issues on a historical document, several approaches can be explored to recover the degraded contents, such as hyperspectral imaging, XRF scanning or X-ray tomography. Unfortunately due to the time, costs and technical skills required, these imaging techniques cannot be applied to the numerous faded/altered documents present in library collections. Hence, there is a need for a simple imaging procedure that could be applied on a large scale, in the same way libraries and archives are being digitized. The great sensitivity of modern digital camera sensors used for digitization campaigns added to the development of simple image post-treatment tools offer new potentialities regarding this issue. This paper presents a fast and low-cost methodology to archive current aspect and reveal hidden contents of documents: UV-fluorescence photography used in combination with contrast enhancement treatments (principal component analysis, color space conversion and decorrelation stretch). The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated on the fire-damaged medieval manuscripts collection from Chartres in France.
  • Limestone biodeterioration: A review on the Portuguese cultural heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 36Author(s): Ana Catarina. Pinheiro, Nuno Mesquita, João Trovão, Fabiana Soares, Igor Tiago, Catarina Coelho, Hugo Paiva de Carvalho, Francisco Gil, Lidia Catarino, Guadalupe Piñar, António Portugal Stone, one of the earliest testimonies of human artistic expression, is susceptible to biodeterioration by microorganisms. The most frequent stone colonizing agents are algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, fungi and lichens, each with their own set of adaptive traits, which allow them to prosper and consequently damage the stone substrate. Limestone is particularly susceptible to biological agents; therefore, in order to act towards the protection and prevention of colonization by microorganisms, it is crucial to understand the microbial communities thriving in limestone heritage buildings. Data regarding the biodiversity and biological activity in Portuguese limestone monuments is, however, still scarce and the scattered knowledge on the subject impairs a full comprehension of the complex and relevant phenomena associated with this particular setting. This review presents and discusses the available studies performed in Portuguese limestone. In addition, the state of the art methodologies to be used, as well as the future studies to be considered, in order to effectively protect such invaluable witnesses of our history, are discussed.
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