Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1714 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (252 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (90 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (53 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (1018 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (173 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (1018 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Interações : Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Development Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences (IJASOS)     Open Access  
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bahamian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business and Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Canadian Studies / Revue internationale d’études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Cultural and Social Studies (IntJCSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cultural Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Growth and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Information, Diversity, & Inclusion     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovative Research in Social and Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Education and Development     Open Access  
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Korean Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Language and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social and Allied Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Synergy and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal Pedagogy of Social Studies     Open Access  
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access  
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review of Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 215)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intersticios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
IULC Working Papers     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access  
Iztapalapa : Revista de ciencias sociales y humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Izvestia Ural Federal University Journal. Series 3. Social and Political Sciences     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
JISIP-UNJA : Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Fisipol Universitas Jambi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addiction & Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Burirum Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Community Development and Life Quality     Open Access  
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Computational Social Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Economy Culture and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Geography, Politics and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate School Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies in Northern Rajabhat Universities     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Surin Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajapruk University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ilahiyat Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Social Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free  
Journal of Mediterranean Knowledge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Multicultural Affairs     Open Access  
Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 333, SJR: 4.302, CiteScore: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Population and Sustainability     Open Access  
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Progressive Research in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Social Science Education : JSSE     Open Access  
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Review     Open Access  
Journal of Social Structure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Trust Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Biometrika dan Kependudukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Karya Abdi Masyarakat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Kawistara     Open Access  
Jurnal Lakon     Open Access  
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Teori dan Praksis Pembelajaran IPS     Open Access  
Jurnal Terapan Abdimas     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access  
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies     Open Access  
Kimün. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente     Open Access  
Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Korea : Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft     Open Access  
Korean Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Kulttuurintutkimus     Open Access  
Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Homme. Europäische Zeitschrift für Feministische Geschichtswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
L'Ordinaire des Amériques     Open Access  
La Tercera Orilla     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Lambda Nordica     Open Access  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Lavboratorio : Revista de Estudios sobre Cambio Estructural y Desigualdad Social.     Open Access  
Lectio Socialis     Open Access  
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lex Social : Revista de Derechos Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Liminar. Estudios Sociales y Humanisticos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Literacy Learning: The Middle Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Local-Global: Identity, Security, Community     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lucero     Open Access  
Lúdicamente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Cultural Heritage
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1296-2074
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3147 journals]
  • Machine learning for rapid mapping of archaeological structures made of
           dry stones – Example of burial monuments from the Khirgisuur culture,
           Mongolia –
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Fabrice Monna, Jérôme Magail, Tanguy Rolland, Nicolas Navarro, Josef Wilczek, Jamiyan-Ombo Gantulga, Yury Esin, Ludovic Granjon, Anne-Caroline Allard, Carmela Chateau-SmithAbstractThe present study proposes a workflow to extract from orthomosaics the enormous amount of dry stones used by past societies to construct funeral complexes in the Mongolian steppes. Several different machine learning algorithms for binary pixel classification (i.e. stone vs non-stone) were evaluated. Input features were extracted from high-resolution orthomosaics and digital elevation models (both derived from aerial imaging). Comparative analysis used two colour spaces (RGB and HSV), texture features (contrast, homogeneity and entropy raster maps), and the topographic position index, combined with nine supervised learning algorithms (nearest centroid, naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbours, logistic regression, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses, support vector machine, random forest, and artificial neural network). When features are processed together, excellent output maps, very close to or outperforming current standards in archaeology, are observed for almost all classifiers. The size of the training set can be drastically reduced (to ca. 300 samples) by majority voting, while maintaining performance at the highest level (about 99.5% for all performance scores). Note, however, that if the training set is inadequate or not fully representative, the classification results are poor. That said, the methods applied and tested here are extremely rapid. Extensive mapping, which would have been difficult with traditional, manual, or semi-automatic delineation of stones using a vector graphics editor, now becomes possible. This workflow generally surpasses pedestrian surveys using differential GPS or a total station.
       
  • Ancient Romans and daylighting: the case of Villa of the mysteries in
           Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Juan Manuel Monteoliva, Laura Bellia, Francesca Fragliasso, Andrea PattiniAbstractThe goal of the paper is to analyse the daylighting design criteria in ancient Roman domus, by using as case study a famous ancient Roman building: the villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii. At this purpose the work is divided in two sections: a typological analysis of the roman houses, aiming at understanding the link between the ancient building criteria and the daylight harvesting ones; a dynamic simulation of the daylight conditions inside the Villa of the Mysteries. In this regard, to assess the indoor daylight availability an ad-hoc methodology, based on the proposal of a new set of performance metrics (the Characteristic Daylight Illuminance -CDI-; the minimum CDI - CDImin-; the spatial CDI -sCDI-) is introduced in order to process simulation results. Results demonstrate that in the past there was a strong correlation between building criteria and daylighting ones: the choices about the dimensions of the windows and the use of static shading systems (porches and peristyles) were wise and reasoned. Moreover, there was a correspondence between daylighting criteria and the functions of the spaces: the more prestigious a room was, the more daylight entrance was permitted. Daylight levels were generally higher in representative spaces like atria, triclinia and tablina, with CDImin values generally comprised between 200 lx and 500 lx, and lower in cubicula and service/working spaces, with CDImin values generally comprised between 0 lx and 100 lx. The obtained results can be useful to design the modern electric lighting system in the villa. Moreover, the proposed analysis methodology can be easily exported to other applications (both ancient and modern buildings). Further studies should apply the same methodology to other case studies to verify if the outcomes of the research are generalizable.
       
  • Non-invasive mapping methods for pigments analysis of Roman mural
           paintings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Alice Dal Fovo, Anna Mazzinghi, Sergio Omarini, Enrico Pampaloni, Chiara Ruberto, Jana Striova, Raffaella FontanaAbstractThe analysis of archaeological mural paintings may provide relevant information on the artistic techniques and the pictorial materials used in the past, expanding the knowledge of customs and technologies of ancient societies. Given their location, fragility and value, it is generally required to analyze mural paintings in situ, avoiding contact measurements, sampling or pre-treatments.In this work, a number of polychrome fragments from two recently discovered Roman villas have been studied with three non-invasive techniques, making use of transportable devices: Macro X-ray Fluorescence (MA-XRF) elemental mapping, multispectral scanning reflectography, and Fibre Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS). Specifically, the MA-XRF elemental maps were compared with the spectral correlation maps (SCM) computed from the Vis-NIR images acquired with the multispectral scanner, with the aim of displaying the distributions of the different pictorial materials, while assessing the chemical composition of the pigments present. The combined application of the two former mapping/imaging techniques represents a valid tool for the chemical and spectral characterization of archaeological paintings, providing easy-to-interpret data for the professionals involved in the conservation of Cultural Heritage.
       
  • Geosciences for cultural heritage: an overview
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Fabrizio Antonelli, Alberto De Bonis, Domenico Miriello, Simona Raneri, Alberta Silvestri
       
  • Study of identification results of proteinous binding agents in Chinese
           painted cultural relics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jiajia Li, Bingjian ZhangAbstractBinding material is a key component of painted cultural relics, and research on binding agents (“binders”) is of great significance for the study of the history and preservation of cultural artefacts. In this work, our team collected 129 painted samples from 28 ancient cultural relics located in 9 provinces of China. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as well as immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) to identify proteinous binders in these samples. Our results show that 51 painted samples were found to contain animal glue, 13 samples were found to contain egg ovalbumin, and 2 samples were found to contain casein. Two mural painting samples prepared in the Ming and Qing Dynasties (14–20 century AD) from the Jiazaerjia Mountain Grottoes in Sichuan province were found to contain casein, and this is the first time that casein binders were found in Chinese painted cultural relics. On top of our detection results, this paper also reports statistics on the chronology, geographical distribution, and artwork types in which organic binders are found, and provides evidence of the use of proteinous binders in Chinese painted cultural relics.
       
  • Influence of the geometric model on the structural analysis of
           architectural heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Domenico Giaccone, Pierluigi Fanelli, Ulderico SantamariaAbstractGeometric models employed for structural analyses are usually strongly simplified, in order to make easier and faster the numerical solving. Sometimes this approach is valid and convenient as far as it does not influence the analysis results. However, depending on the circumstances and the objectives of the analysis, the model has to be accurately and precisely represented to capture the necessary outputs. This is the case with architectural heritage. In fact, in this field, the surveyed objects are often characterised by complex forms and remarkable damages, which can affect the geometry significantly. Nowadays, many techniques are available to obtain very detailed models of the surface of the object, but they do not allow to consider also interior damages or the constructive features. This information can be obtained through a careful knowledge and anamnesis of the object to study, based on visual inspection and instrumental measures. In this way, the creation of the model to undergoes to a structural analysis, consists in a synthetic operation conducted by the operator in a conscious way. This paper aims to prove that the results of a structural analyses can change significantly, depending on the accuracy and the level of detail of the model. The study was conducted on a basic building element, that is a column, really existing and belonging to a monumental fountain. The column was modelled in five different ways which differ in the level of detail. An ultrasonic test was conducted on the real object to characterise cracks which were taken into account in the most accurate models. A comparison among the five models was done from a static and dynamic perspective, through the following analyses: static, buckling, modal and dynamic with response spectrum.
       
  • Compositional variability of pigments and related materials used in stone
           reliefs from the Tula Archaeological Zone, Mexico: Overcoming challenges
           of a highly restored site
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Luis Abel Jiménez, Nora A. Pérez, Armando Arciniega, Mariana Díaz de León, Yareli Jáidar, Edgar Casanova-GonzálezAbstractTula is a monumental complex arranged in terraces and platforms, where the stone architecture is decorated with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic carvings, and polychromed stone reliefs. As a first step for designing appropriate restoration and conservation strategies, the characterization of the color palette of the reliefs was performed. The simultaneous occurrence of salts, conservation materials and pollution represented a major challenge that required a combination of non-destructive in situ analyses and laboratory tests on a limited number of samples. The pigments identified include Maya blue, hematite, jarosite, black earth and calcite, while gypsum was present both as part of the pictorial technique and as an alteration product. Finally, environmental pollution together with water availability was found responsible for the salt damage of the painted surfaces.
       
  • Nanolime consolidation of the main building stone of the archaeological
           site of Volubilis (Morocco)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Dalal Badreddine, Kévin Beck, Xavier Brunetaud, Ali Chaaba, Muzahim Al-MukhtarAbstractVolubilis is the most important archaeological site in Morocco, considered as a UNESCO world heritage site since 1997. Unfortunately, the sustainability of the site is in danger by the many degradation patterns detected on the site. Urgent interventions are required in order to consolidate and restore the monuments of the site.In this paper, the efficiency of nanolime as a consolidation treatment for calcarenite stone, the main construction stone of the site, was assessed. To create degraded reference samples, calcarenite samples were subjected to two accelerated aging tests: a thermal shock test and a salt crystallization test. The two tests created damage quite similar to that of the site, namely cracking and surface degradation respectively. These samples were then treated with nanolime according to a protocol defined in relation to the stone properties and the concentration of the product used. After the application of nanolime, the samples were characterized using non-destructive tests (P-wave velocity, capillary absorption, surface hardness, and colorimetric tests) depending on the type of stone damage. On cracked samples, the treatment acted on the surface of the stone while cracks were still present in depth. On salt crystallized samples, the treatment was efficient as it helped recover the lost surface cohesion. Therefore, the nanolime treatment is efficient for stones that are degraded at the surface (sanding, alveolization, scaling) but less so for cracked stones of the Volubilis site.
       
  • 3D reconstruction and validation of historical background for immersive VR
           applications and games: The case study of the Forum of Augustus in Rome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Daniele Ferdani, Bruno Fanini, Maria Claudia Piccioli, Fabiana Carboni, Paolo VigliaroloAbstractIn the last decades, thanks to the success of the video games industry, the sector of technologies applied to cultural heritage has begun to envisage, in this domain, new possibilities for the dissemination of heritage and the study of the past through edutainment models. More recently, experimentation in the field of virtual archaeology has led to the development of virtual museums and interactive applications. Among these, the “serious game” segment – the application of interactive technologies to the cultural heritage domain – is rapidly growing, also including immersive VR technologies. Applied VR games and applications are characterized by a thorough historical background and a validated 3D reconstruction. Indeed, producing such products requires a tailored workflow and large effort in terms of time and professionals involved to guarantee such faithfulness. Drawing on our previous work in the field of virtual archaeology and referring to recent experiences related to the deployment of applied VR games on PlayStation VR ©, we describe and assess a workflow for the production of historically accurate 3D assets, targeting interactive, immersive VR products. The workflow is supported by the case study of the Forum of Augustus and different output applications, highlighting peculiarities and issues emerging from a multi and interdisciplinary approach.
       
  • Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry characterization of wall
           mortars with principal component analysis: Phasing and ex situ versus in
           situ sampling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Mary Kate Donais, Mina Alrais, Kaliopi Konomi, David George, William H. Ramundt, Eric SmithAbstractMortared stone walls at the Coriglia, Castel Viscardo archaeological excavation site near Orvieto, Italy were analyzed via portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to better understand their construction sequence and phasing. Data were collected ex situ for intact, ground, and fused bead samples and in situ at the site and evaluated through principal component analysis. Elements identified in the mortars included calcium, manganese, iron, nickel, zinc, rubidium, and strontium. Conclusions regarding wall associations agreed among the three ex situ sample forms, demonstrating that sample form does not matter when applying portable XRF spectrometry for mortar analysis. Conclusions drawn from the ex situ and in situ data and from visual observations by the site archaeologists also agreed and provides additional support for the use of XRF spectrometry for phasing of mortared walls. Lastly, this study demonstrates that in situ data collection for archaeological mortars is valid while also ensuring the preservation of cultural heritage objects.
       
  • Novel “Ionology Art for Art Ionology Methods” in 4π plasma focus
           device space: Bridging art, science and technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Mehdi Sohrabi, Arefe ZarrinshadAbstractNovel “Ionology Art for Art Ionology (IAAI) Methods” were invented by us and presented for the first time in this paper by successfully bridging art, science and technology for producing “Positive and Negative Art Ionograms” or “Art Ion Shadowgrams” using 4π ion beams of a plasma focus device (PFD). As recently discovered by us, a PFD emits 4π high intensity heavy charged ions isotropically in PFD space which was used for the first time in this study for producing “Art Ionograms” which is a wide-scale wide-angle application. Art patterns to be ionographed were transferred and cut on vinyl decal sheet which was stuck onto a panorama polycarbonate ion image detector, and then bombarded by helium ions in 4π PFD space in order to form “Hidden Art Patterns”. The polycarbonate detectors with “Hidden Art Patterns” have been developed in panorama single-cell mega-size electrochemical ion image processing systems. High resolution “Art Ionograms” such as thin flat art patterns, poems and even portraits were produced, sharply observed by the unaided eyes and framed as beautiful art pieces. This study while introduced novel “IAAI Methods” by using full-scale 4π PFD ion beams, it also demonstrated how scientifically and efficiently ion beams in 4π PFD space can be used for large-scale wide-angle applications with a high prospect for applications in medicine, industry, science and technology. On the other hand, it is hoped that the novel inventions made, the unique framed art pieces produced as presented here and those being further produced for setting up a “Gallery of Particle-bombarded Arts” are remained as a worldwide cultural heritage of bridged art, science and technology.
       
  • The restoration of severely damaged churches – Implications and
           opportunities on cultural heritage conservation, thermal comfort and
           energy efficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Tullio de Rubeis, Iole Nardi, Mirco Muttillo, Domenica PaolettiAbstractIndoor microclimate and energy performance analyses of historic buildings require tailored methodologies, because of their complexities, e.g. presence of artworks, lack of documents or project data and employed structure and materials. Given such difficulties, there are a few interdisciplinary methodologies, capable of carrying out multi-objective analyses for this kind of buildings, and they are often based on in situ monitoring that, however, may not be able to predict the effects deriving from different conceivable technologies and control strategies. In this work, an interdisciplinary methodology is employed for evaluating cultural heritage conservation conditions, occupants ‘thermal comfort and energy performance of a specific historic building category, such as churches, on the basis of experimental and numerical approach. The methodology was applied to the case study of an ancient Italian church, recently restored following the earthquake that hit L’Aquila in 2009. After the refurbishment of the church, the statistical analysis of temperature and relative humidity experimental data allowed to observe that the conservation conditions of artistic heritage just restored may be non-correct, due to remarkable thermo-hygrometric fluctuations of the indoor microclimate. Therefore, starting from the current condition of absence of HVAC system, calibrated dynamic simulation models of the church allowed to hypothesize different technological solutions able to control the indoor microclimate and to evaluate the effects on artworks preservation, thermal comfort, and energy performance. The results of the multi-scenario analysis showed that suitable conservation conditions (PIs > 90%) and thermal comfort can be obtained by employing a complex heating/cooling and humidification/dehumidification system which determines a significant increase in energy consumption.
       
  • BIM as a resource in heritage management: An application for the National
           Palace of Sintra, Portugal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Márcia Godinho, Rita Machete, Madalena Ponte, Ana Paula Falcão, Alexandre B. Gonçalves, Rita BentoAbstractThis paper describes the development of a Building Information Model (BIM) that constitutes a resource for the management of the National Palace of Sintra, Portugal. The complex geometry of this large palace, which has heterogeneous modules built in distinct architectural styles, was acquired with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) techniques, and modeled using Autodesk Revit®software. Decisions on the level of detail and on the application of parametric modeling for the decorated architectural Manueline style were critical to achieve a manageable model.The requisites for the management model specified the inclusion of historical data, daily activity recording and properties and composition of the constructive and structural elements as attributes, which is possible due to the capability of the in-built database and its relation with the individual BIM elements. This way, the developed model simultaneously supports the seismic structural analyses by providing key parameters and incorporates their results as attributes, enabling a coherent and seamless workflow, enhancing the capabilities of BIM as a useful decision support tool within the heritage management framework.
       
  • Heritage significance and the identification of attributes to preserve in
           a sustainable refurbishment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Lisanne Havinga, Bernard Colenbrander, Henk SchellenAbstractThe refurbishment of the historical building stock is of key importance to meet the climate goals set by the EU for 2050. When aiming to reduce the environmental impact of the historical building stock, special attention is required in relation to the conservation of cultural values and heritage significance. This is often referred to as a “balancing act” or “trade-off” of retaining heritage significance while implementing sustainability measures. The definition of heritage is continuously expanding; it is incorporating a wider range of heritage values, involving more stakeholders in identifying such values, moving from objects to landscapes, and now includes tangible and intangible assets. While the identification of values (the “why”) associated with heritage significance has resulted in a wide range of frameworks and typologies, the clear and transparent identification of the attributes (the “what”) that are associated with heritage significance is often lacking. Many authors and projects that have focused on the development of decision-support-systems for the “balancing-act” of implementing sustainability measures while preserving heritage significance underscore the need for a specific and sufficiently detailed understanding of what needs to be preserved, and what can potentially be altered and to what degree. This need is in line with the notion of management of change; the clear identification of the extent to which change is considered acceptable is imperative in its application. The aim of this research is to develop a method to determine, analyse and represent the heritage significance of attributes in sufficient detail to assess the heritage impact of refurbishment strategies. The method was developed through an evaluation of the recent developments of the heritage management discourse from the perspective of the balancing act of allowing sustainability measures while retaining heritage significance.
       
  • Advances in Raman spectroscopy for the non-destructive subsurface analysis
           of artworks: Micro-SORS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Claudia Conti, Alessandra Botteon, Chiara Colombo, Daniela Pinna, Marco Realini, Pavel MatousekAbstractA new analysis modality in Raman microscopy, Micro-Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (micro-SORS) to explore the subsurface of materials in non-destructive and non-invasive way has been developed recently at ISPC - CNR. Micro-SORS facilitates the investigation of the chemical composition of subsurface, micrometre-scale-thick diffusely scattering layers at depths more than an order of magnitude larger than those accessible with the depth resolving power of conventional confocal Raman microscopy, avoiding need to resort to cross sectional analysis or sampling. First, an overall overview of research carried out at ISPC - CNR in the last five years concerning the development, optimization and application of micro-SORS to Cultural Heritage materials is provided. Additionally, we present new data achieved from the application of micro-SORS to illustrative micro-samples obtained from mediaeval polychrome sculptures of the Parma baptistery and Ferrara cathedral, highlighting further its potential in Cultural Heritage science.
       
  • Investigating the mechanical behaviour of the lining system for Raphael's
           Cartoon “The School of Athens”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Davide Gulotta, Tomaso Villa, Lucia TonioloAbstractLining of canvases and paper artworks is a diffused conservation methodology developed to ensure the safe and long-term preservation of weakened supports. Lining systems are generally constituted by a new supporting material or a package of new materials glued to the original artefact. This paper reports on the study of the mechanical behaviour of four multi-layered paper and canvas composites, proposed as lining systems for a large drawing on paper: the “School of Athens” by Raffaello Sanzio, dated 1508. This masterpiece is the 1:1 preparatory cartoon for the wall-painting in the Vatican rooms. Uniaxial tensile testing has been employed in this study to characterize both the single layer materials and the overall mechanical behaviour of the composites. The mechanical tests have been performed before and after artificial ageing with high humidity regime. The complex testing protocol allowed selecting the best performing composite for the final lining, and to assess a safety threshold in terms of stress value for the framing and display of the restored artwork in the new showcase. The results constitute a quantitative evaluation of the different systems, and therefore they can effectively support the conservators’ activity and methodological choices.
       
  • Bronze production in the Ancient Chengdu Plains: A diachronic
           metallurgical perspective on a separate cultural region
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Haichao Li, Zhiqiang Zuo, Jianfeng Cui, Jianbo Tian, Yingdong Yang, Li Yi, Zhiqing Zhou, Jianan FanAbstractAs one of the most important separate cultural regions in ancient China, the Chengdu Plains provide a unique example to explore the development of bronze production. We analysed 37 bronze objects from the Western Zhou period to the Tang Dynasty in the Chengdu Plains for elemental compositions, microstructure, and lead isotope ratios. We referred to bronze data from the Sanxingdui sacrificial pits to compare results that demonstrated that most samples from the Chengdu Plains were Cu-Pb-Sn alloys with variable tin and lead content. The alloy technique used in the Warring States period bronzes, which were uncovered in the Baishoulu cemetery, differed from the techniques used in other samples. Casting is the major technique used for all types of objects in different periods. The only cold-worked and annealed sample found so far was a Chu-style vessel. Different lead sources and a possible single copper source were constantly used in local bronze production from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Warring States period (more than 600 years). Some coins in Han and Tang Dynasty potentially also used these same lead sources. Comparison with Sanxingdui bronze suggests that both lead and copper sources of Sanxingdui bronzes are different from the later metal sources. We therefore propose that the Sanxingdui bronze might not have been locally made or was made with outside materials. Our study suggests that diachronic study on bronze production could provide clues to solve more archaeological questions other than the development of bronze production.
       
  • Flood risk assessment of cultural heritage at large spatial scales:
           Framework and application to mainland Portugal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rui Figueiredo, Xavier Romão, Esmeralda PaupérioAbstractIn a global context of increasing flood risk, the development of risk assessments that can effectively support disaster risk management strategies and policies is crucial. This is particularly relevant in the case of cultural heritage, given its socioeconomic value. Although there is a substantial body of literature on the topics of cultural heritage preservation and natural hazard impact mitigation in cultural heritage, the applicability of such studies is usually limited to single assets or sites. The assessment of cultural heritage flood risk at large spatial scales has received little research attention, which contrasts with the importance of the topic. This paper proposes a novel framework to perform semi-quantitative flood risk assessments to immovable cultural heritage assets in a large region, such as a country. The proposed framework employs various scientifically established concepts from the field of natural hazard risk in order to support the computation of coherent and comparable flood risk indices for each exposed asset. This framework can be used to provide a preliminary assessment of risk for a large number of cultural heritage assets with limited resources, as well as to identify those that warrant a more detailed evaluation of risk. The framework is illustrated through an application to immovable cultural heritage assets exposed to fluvial floods in mainland Portugal. This case study is used to discuss various issues related with data requirements, availability and reliability.
       
  • Insect pests of the Herbarium of the Palermo botanical garden and
           evaluation of semiochemicals for the control of the key pest Lasioderma
           serricorne F. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Salvatore Guarino, Sara Basile, Marco Caimi, Alfredo Carratello, Barbara Manachini, Ezio PeriAbstractThe herbaria are scientific tools of great importance that preserve extinct, rare, endemic, and common plant species and also have importance as Cultural Heritage for their historical and esthetical value. Herbaria can be infested by several insect pests feeding on dried plants, and their management is often complicated and difficult as the use of chemical insecticides can have negative drawbacks. This suggests a strong need for alternative control tools such as the use of semiochemicals to develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. In order to identify the main insect pests that determine the damages on the exsiccata stored in the Palermo Botanical Garden's Herbarium, one of the largest in the world, a survey of the botanical samples and their infestations was carried out. The survey pointed out that Lasioderma serricorne was the key pest of the herbarium. Consequently, experiments were conducted to evaluate and optimize the use of semiochemicals for monitoring and mass trapping L. serricorne. Two sex pheromone dispensers (polyethylene tubes and patch dispensers, made by tissue-not tissue glued with pheromone) were evaluated for their efficacy in terms of emission and insect attraction. A food attractant, Capsicum annuum dried fruit powder, was also evaluated as synergist of the pheromone. Results indicated that polyethylene tubes determined a pheromone emission more constant with time and attracted a higher number of insects in traps in comparison with patch dispensers. Moreover, the use of C. annuum fruit powder in the pheromone traps determined a significant increase of catches compared with the traps loaded with pheromone alone, suggesting the possibility that accumulation or synergist effects occur.
       
  • Alkoxysilane-based sols for consolidation of carbonate stones: Proposal of
           methodology to support the design and development of new consolidants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Bruno Sena da Fonseca, Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto, Susana Piçarra, Maria Fátima MontemorThe need of a thoughtful methodology to support the design and development of new consolidation products in built heritage is consequence of the demanding requirements that consolidation treatments in built heritage should fulfill; of physical and chemical specificities of porous carbonate stones and of sol–gel processes complexity. Absence of well-defined planning strategies and systematic studies poses serious difficulties in what concerns validation of new sols for consolidation purposes.This work aims at discussing and to propose a methodology to support the design, development, screening and tailoring of alkoxysilane-based sols to consolidate porous carbonate stones. This methodology addresses three important steps and propose criteria to validate or exclude sols, while the knowledge acquired during the process contribute to the improvement of initial sols. The first step concerns selection of most promising sols from a set of theoretically designed “mixtures”; sols with potential to act as consolidants are assessed in the second step and, in the third step, sols for consolidation of porous carbonate stones are finally proposed.The methodology herein presented contributes to a more systematic and critical design and development of alkoxysilane-based products. It reduces the probability of failure and avoids unnecessary and time-consuming testing plans, often based on trial and error approaches.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Building a step by step result in archaeometry. Raw materials, provenance
           and production technology of Apulian Red Figure pottery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Lorena Carla Giannossa, Italo Maria Muntoni, Rocco Laviano, Annarosa Mangone
       
  • Evaluation of efficiency of six biocides against microorganisms commonly
           found on Feilaifeng Limestone, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Tianxiao Li, Yulan Hu, Bingjian ZhangAbstractFeilaifeng is listed as a cultural heritage site because of its abundant Buddhist statues possibly dating back to the Five Dynasties period (907 AD–960 AD). However, microorganism growth on the surface of stone results in esthetic and structural damage.Biocide treatment is commonly used to eradicate the microorganisms, and we assessed the effectiveness of four chemicals (benzalkonium chloride, octhilinone, tebuconazole, and thiabendazole) and two commercial biocides (ACTICIDE® 50 X (A) and AW-600) in inhibiting microbial colonization.The minimal inhibitory concentrations of various biocides were determined, and their efficacies were compared using the inhibition zone method. The most effective biocides were applied in situ to Feilaifeng Limestone, and the overall effects were monitored by photographic recordings and microbial cultures for a month. The factors affecting the efficacy of each biocide, such as thermal stability and loss-resistance, were also evaluated.The biocides varied markedly in their ability to inhibit the proliferation of different microorganisms. The three species of fungi tested herein demonstrated the highest susceptibility to octhilinone, but benzalkonium chloride showed the best antibacterial activity to the bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. Based on the results of in vitro assays, octhilinone, as well as its respective commercial product AW-600, were the best biocides for treating microorganisms, and 0.5% was the optimal concentration. Although the biocides on disc papers could be easily diluted by water, they were resistant to degradation by high temperatures. These findings suggest that frequent rainfall might have been the reason for the recolonization of microorganisms in a short time after octhilinone and AW-600 treatment in situ. Our results provide new insights on how to protect Feilaifeng Limestone, which is prone to damage caused by various microorganisms.
       
  • Effect of coating systems as a barrier to humidity for lutherie woods
           studied by neutron radiography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Giulia Festa, Sarah Louise Lämmlein, Roberto Senesi, Jason Price, Carlo Chiesa, Claudia Scatigno, David Mannes, Laura Arcidiacono, Robert A. Robinson, Carla AndreaniAbstractIn order to understand the effect of varnishes that act as a barrier to water adsorption by wood – in terms of moisture content – in humid atmospheres, modern maple replica samples have been manufactured by a practicing luthier. They are coated with a variety of recipes thought to have been used in either the original manufacture from the 17th to 18th centuries, or in subsequent restorations. The effects of humidity were monitored via thermal neutron radiography using the NEUTRA imaging instrument at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The consequences for understanding ancient violins, and their repair or restoration are discussed.
       
  • An integrated diagnostic approach to Max Ernst's painting materials in his
           Attirement of the Bride
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Martina Zuena, Luciano Pensabene Buemi, Lena Stringari, Stefano Legnaioli, Giulia Lorenzetti, Vincenzo Palleschi, Luca Nodari, Patrizia TomasinThe Attirement of the Bride, painted by Max Ernst in 1940, is permanently on display in the Peggy Guggenheim Collection (PGC) in Venice. Within the framework of a larger study of materials and techniques of works by Ernst at the PGC, researchers carried out a series of non-invasive analyses. A combined approach based on Vis-NIR multispectral imaging, Raman Spectroscopy, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and External Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ER-FTIR), was conducted insitu in the museum galleries. In addition, two micro-samples were analysed with SEM-EDS and μ-Raman. This approach produced vital information on the preparatory drawing, the pentimenti, the pigments, the extenders and the alteration products present in the painting. The results showed also the presence of a white preparatory layer, under the pictorial one and above the canvas, composed by lithopone (a mixture of zinc sulphide and barium sulphate), basic lead carbonate and calcium carbonate. The latter compound is probably present also as an extender. The palette included both traditional and new synthetic, commercial pigments, used as primary colours or in mixtures. Moreover, in several areas of the painting, zinc oxalates have been identified as alteration products and more rarely, zinc metal soaps, which could also be present as additives in the paint tube. These analyses revealed the masterful and innovative painting technique of this pioneer of Surrealism.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The use of glass particles and its consequences in late 16th century oil
           painting: A Portuguese case based on the analytical results and the
           technical treatises
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Helena P. Melo, António João Cruz, Sara Valadas, Ana Margarida Cardoso, António CandeiasAbstractColourless glass particles were identified for the first time in Portuguese paintings in two altarpieces attributed to the painter Francisco João, active between 1558 and 1595. They were found in red glazes with conservation problems. The glass was analysed by SEM-EDX and the binder by μ-FTIR. Portuguese 17th century painting treatises, which record earlier practices, were examined providing additional information. The glass particles had a vegetable silica-soda-lime composition, different in the two altarpieces, and a medium to very high alumina content. Although the provenance of the glass could not be determined, the use of local glass is suggested, as archaeological glass of the same period and similar composition has been found in southern Europe, notably Portugal. Furthermore, the glass from one of the altarpieces closely matches the composition of glass found in a painting by the Spaniard Luis de Morales. As a result, it is possible that the painter deliberately added a local glass to his red lakes, as advised in the two Portuguese painting treatises of this period. The exclusive presence of glass in the uppermost medium-rich glazes suggests that it was mainly used for its transparency and assumed siccative role. Although the siccative properties of glass have not been proved, by lowering the oil concentration in the paint, the addition of glass might have indirectly assisted the drying of the glazes. The glass particles were subject to a severe leaching of the alkali, a degradation that might explain the disruption of the glaze layers in these paintings.
       
  • Dating trials of wooden historic artefacts through FT-IR spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Nicola Macchioni, Benedetto Pizzo, Mauro Bernabei, Giovanna VisintinAbstractThis paper constitutes an attempt at using FT-IR spectroscopy for the dating of historical and artistic artefacts made of poplar wood. It was decided to do the tests only on poplar (Populus spp.) to reduce a part of the typical wood variability, while poplar was chosen because it is widely present in Italian heritage, such as panel paintings, statues and furniture, and these objects cannot be dated by dendrochronology; also because 14C methodology has major limitations. Poplar artefacts from the fourteenth to the nineteenth century were selected, dated by means of documents, by attributions, or stylistically. In addition, recent poplar samples were selected as a reference. Wood flour were taken from the selected samples, discarding the surface layers that could have been influenced by oxidation phenomena. Before taking measurements with FT-IR, the wood meal was dried and the chemical extractives were removed. The results show the presence of a time-related trend, but the time factor is certainly not the only one that causes the variations within the spectra. After a discussion, it is therefore considered that the results do not allow at the current state to definitely produce a reliable reference for dating poplar wood artefacts through this methodology.
       
  • A new method for locating Roman transport infrastructure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jesús María Romera, Heriberto Pérez-AceboAbstractRoman cities and roads, once correctly identified, can be appropriately conserved. Moreover, the correct identification of Roman transport routes will vindicate the accuracy of recent studies on the network of Roman transport infrastructure and its connectivity, functionality, and impact. With this aim in mind, a novel method is presented for computing the most likely location, from among the various proposed locations that may exist, of any Roman city that is cited both in a Roman itinerary and in Ptolemy's Geographia. In the first phase, the geographical area where the city was located is demarcated by means of the itinerary. In the second phase, Ptolemy's coordinates of well-known Roman cities from the province of the Roman Empire that is under consideration are correlated with those of the WGS 84 reference system by means of simple linear regressions. Having confirmed the normality of the regression error distribution, the bivariate normal distribution is computed, and the confidence intervals are determined. This method is implemented, to identify the most probable location of the Vaccaean city of Intercatia in Hispania, and to propose a new route for the Roman road that once passed through it.
       
  • Post-depositional alterations of terrestrial and marine finds of Roman
           ceramics from Crikvenica production centre (NE Adriatic, Croatia) – A
           contribution towards chemometric classification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Tea Zubin Ferri, Sanda Rončević, Goranka Lipovac Vrkljan, Ana KonestraDifferent post-depositional conditions and after-recovery treatments may provoke pronounced physicochemical alterations that can make archaeological ceramics’ classification and comparison difficult even when its provenance is known. The present study describes the differences in the chemical composition verified on sherds of Roman ceramics produced in Crikvenica (NE Adriatic, Croatia). Inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to characterise the chemical composition and post-depositional alterations in ceramics recovered onshore and underwater. Chemometrical treatment of ICP-MS results of elemental composition and FT-IR absorption bands was performed using univariate and multivariate statistical tools. Principal component analysis (PCA) led to clear distinction of several clusters of examined samples, i.e. samples from the mainland, samples from the sea bottom, and desalinated samples. All sherds that have undergone desalination represent a distinct sub-group by means of changes in the ratio of accumulated chemical elements. It was established that accumulation of Ca, Mg and Na and formation of salts such as FeS, Mg6Al2CO3(OH)16·4(H2O), and CaCO3 reflect post-depositional environments and post-recovery treatments in terms of desalination and specific marine underwater conditions (oxic and anoxic). Our results outlined a pattern of post-depositional alterations that could be applied in upcoming classification studies. Roman ceramics produced in Crikvenica and excavated from the workshop possess attributes of a reference group, revealing that Ho, Ce, La, Lu, Tb, Gd, Eu and Sm are the elements least susceptible to post-depositional alterations.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Limits and perspectives of archaeometric analysis of archaeological
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Francesca Di TuroAbstractThis review aims to collect the recent literature about the archaeometric analysis on ancient metals focusing on the electrochemical techniques: the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the voltammetry of immobilized microparticles (VIMP) method. A special look will be given to the analysis of bronze coins, very common finds in the archaeological contests. It will be discussed the importance of the characterization analysis and the archaeometric research to solve archaeological questions. In this regard, the studies about the potentialities of EIS and VIMP for dating these objects will be examined , highlighting the state of the art in the application of electrochemical techniques in the archaeometric field.
       
  • Distorted oil paintings and wax-resin impregnation – A kinetic study
           of moisture sorption and tension in canvas
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 40Author(s): Cecilia Gregers-Høegh, Martin N. Mortensen, Marie E. Christensen, Cecil K. AndersenAbstractWax-resin impregnation and lining are former widely used conservation methods. It is well-known that these methods slow down moisture diffusion into the canvas and changes the corresponding development of tension. However, the rate at which these processes happen are not well characterized and it is therefore unclear how long treated paintings are protected from high moisture environments. In the present work, moisture sorption characteristics of wax-resin impregnated linen samples were measured using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) and tensile tests. Samples of untreated linen, wax-resin impregnated linen and Berger's Ethyl Vinyl Alcohol (BEVA) treated linen as well as an aged wax-resin treated lining canvas from 1958 were measured. The samples were in equilibrium at 42% relative humidity at 23 °C in DVS and tensiometer when the relative humidity was stepped to 69% RH while monitoring the development of mass and tension respectively in the canvases. This showed that there is no or little delay from the time moisture is taken up by linen fibers until swelling and the possible tension build up sets in. Both wax-resin impregnated and non-impregnated samples took up moisture when the relative humidity was stepped up, but the wax-resin impregnated samples did so at a much slower pace than the non-impregnated ones. Tension built up in some canvas samples already at 69% relative humidity whereas others stayed unaffected until a relative humidity of 82% was reached. The findings confirmed that a fine weave canvas, tightly spun thread and the presence of wax-resin matrix in the voids between fibers all are factors that characterize a painting at risk of climate related shrinkage damage. It was also demonstrated that BEVA gel treatment had very little effect on the rate of moisture sorption as there was no penetration of the canvas. In the aged lining canvas, moisture was taken up at a rate that was intermediate between untreated and wax-resin impregnated linen, which was ascribed to cracks in the wax-resin coating.
       
  • Seismic assessment and numerical modelling of the Sarno Baths, Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 40Author(s): Filippo Lorenzoni, Maria Rosa Valluzzi, Claudio ModenaAbstractSeismic assessment of archaeological sites has an increasing role in the definition of reliable conservation strategies of such vulnerable structures, with the combined objectives of verifying the structural safety to code standards and preserving the cultural heritage significance. Aging of materials, anthropogenic and environmental factors may cause in fact rapid loss of the structural capacity once ruins and ‘remaining structures’ are discovered and excavated. This paper reports the seismic vulnerability assessment of the Sarno Baths in Pompeii. After a detailed diagnostic phase (through non-destructive on-site tests) to increase the knowledge of masonry structures regarding the quality of materials, connections and dynamic behavior, various methods of structural analyses are applied and compared. Both analytical and numerical approaches are tested to understand the structural behavior against design actions, identify the original causes of the detected damage pattern, identify the resisting mechanisms, and predict the response for exceptional events (i.e. earthquakes). Outcomes of ambient vibration tests are used to calibrate the properties of the constitutive materials (mass density, elastic modulus), to clarify the interaction with surrounding domains (the building is placed on a slope), and to highlight any damage conditions in the building (diffuse cracking, decay of materials, etc.) influencing its seismic performance.
       
  • Foreword: Multidisciplinary study of the Sarno Baths in Pompeii (Naples,
           Italy): Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 40Author(s): Lara Maritan, Caterina Previato, Filippo Lorenzoni
       
  • Foreword: The MACH Project and the case study of the Sarno Baths in
           Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 40Author(s): Gilberto Artioli, Elena Francesca Ghedini, Claudio Modena, Jacopo Bonetto, Maria Stella Busana
       
  • Pompeii and its second life throughout the multidisciplinary researches
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 40Author(s): Massimo Osanna
       
  • The chemical analysis of Southeast Asian lacquers collected from forests
           and workshops in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Myanmar
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 40Author(s): Hanna Szczepanowska, Rebecca PloegerAbstractFor centuries lacquer has been used for utilitarian, decorative, and ceremonial objects throughout Southeast Asia. In this work, the current harvesting methods and workshop uses of lacquer in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Myanmar are documented. It combines and links observations from known forest and workshop provenances, and analytical characterization results of the lacquers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), and scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Lacquers from three different tree species were identified, including laccol from Toxicodendron succedanea in Vietnam, and thitsiol from Gluta usitata (Myanmar) and Gluta laccifera (Cambodia). As well, several organic and inorganic additives were characterized. The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of regional differences in lacquer sourcing and working methods in Southeast Asia.
       
  • MA-XRF imaging as a tool to characterize the 16th century heraldic
           stained-glass panels in Ghent Saint Bavo Cathedral
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 40Author(s): Stijn Legrand, Geert Van der Snickt, Simone Cagno, Joost Caen, Koen JanssensAbstractMA-XRF is a novel macroscopic imaging technique originally developed for easel paintings and recently made available to glass conservators. This paper discusses the first real-life contribution of MA-XRF imaging to a conservation intervention of stained-glass panels. The six panels under study belong to the cathedral building since their creation in 1555–1559 AD. MA-XRF appeared an outstanding tool for first-line screening of stained-glass windows, providing readily interpretable information on glass type, coloring and alteration processes. In particular, the chemical imaging technique allowed distinguishing unambiguously the surviving original glass panes from later additions, thereby ensuring a correct historical understanding. From a more practical point of view, the experiments supplied accurate schemes that can be directly incorporated in condition reports and assist designing the ensuing conservation approach.
       
  • Microanalytical investigations on a Byzantine fresco of the Dormitio
           Virginis
    from Sicily
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 40Author(s): Giuliana Taglieri, Davide Rigaglia, Lorenzo Arrizza, Valeria Daniele, Ludovico Macera, Gianluigi Rosatelli, Valentina Romè, Grazia MusolinoAbstractThis paper represents an interdisciplinary research focused on the microscopic and mineralogical investigations of the original fragments of a precious medieval painting, a rare byzantine Dormition of the Virgin in Italy. The painting has discovered in the rural monastery of Santa Maria del Rogato (Sicily), thanks to a recent restoration work. In order to obtain an exhaustive description of both the original mortars and pigments, several investigation methods are employed, from optical, polarization-fluorescence and electron microscopies, elemental analyses and X-ray diffraction as well. The experimental analyses, useful as a guideline in the restoration, allowed to the knowledge of the original materials as well as of the techniques used to realize the artwork. The paintings are realized by a fresco technique, by using lime and a simple color palette, based on natural earth, as typical of the Byzantine pictorial tradition.
       
  • An evaluation model to assess the communication effects of intangible
           cultural heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 40Author(s): Ke Xue, Yifei Li, Xiaoxiao MengAbstractIntangible cultural heritage is confronted with the communication dilemma of a narrow audience and a lack of inheritor. With the development of digital technologies, the use of digital communication methods to reduce the communication gap has become a vital approach. Therefore, the process of changing the current conventional communication of intangible cultural heritage and improving the presentation of traditional treasures to the public, combined with digital communication technologies, has become the focus of the academic field. Based on the technology acceptance model and the attention-interest-desire-memory-action audience response model, this paper defines three layers of key factors that influence the digital communication effects of intangible cultural heritage and their respective weights. In-depth interviews with 50 experienced experts from six major areas related to this research are conducted with the assistance of the Delphi method. A theoretical evaluation model of the digital communication effects of intangible cultural heritage is constructed using the analytic hierarchy process. Through its findings, this research expects to provide academic references and operative guidelines for the practical application of digital communication technologies in cultural communication and to aid in the communication and safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage.
       
  • Partial solvation parameters in conservation science for works of art
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Dimitra Lazidou, Ioanna Teknetzi, Dimitra Aslanidou, Stella K. Papadopoulou, Costas PanayiotouAbstractA large portion of solvent selection and solubility calculations by Conservators of Works of Art are still done with solubility parameters or its Teas variation scheme. In spite its empirical character entailing the risk of notable failures, this is a simple and often successful scheme. The central objective of the present work is to provide with an alternative simple method for the above and related calculations but with sound thermodynamic basis for more reliable estimations. The method is known in the literature as the Partial Solvation Parameter (PSP) approach. With the Conservator in mind, the method is simplified and the working equations are reported in their simplest analytical form. Examples of calculations are reported which will facilitate understanding and efficient use of the method. The calculations cover bulk phases as well as interfaces and may be used for the rational design of conservation and numerous other processes.
       
  • Development of non-destructive methodology using ATR-FTIR with PCA to
           differentiate between historical Pacific barkcloth
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Margaret J. Smith, A. Sheila Holmes-Smith, Frances LennardAbstractBarkcloths, non-woven textiles originating from the Pacific Islands, form part of many museum collections and date back to the 18th and 19th centuries. The ability to determine different plant species which have been used for producing barkcloth is required by art historians to help understand the origin and use of the cloths and by conservators for whom the species type may have an impact on textile durability, deterioration and hence conservation. However, to date the development of a non-destructive, robust analytical technique has been elusive. This article describes the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (ATR-FTIR) and principal component analysis (PCA) todifferentiation between historic barkcloths. Three distinct groups of historic cloths were identified using PCA of the FTIR region between 1200 and 1600 cm−1 where molecular vibrations associated with tannins and lignins are dominant. Analysis of contemporary cloths only identified Pipturus albidus cloth as different and highlighted the difficulties around producing a representative textile sample to mimic the historic cloths. While the methodology does not itself identify species, the use of historically well-provenanced samples allows cloths showing similarities to group together and is a significant aid to identification.
       
  • Restoration and conservation of old low-quality book paper using aqueous
           colloids of magnesium oxyhydroxide obtained by pulsed laser ablation
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Anna L. Nemoykina, Anastasiia V. Shabalina, Valery A. SvetlichnyiMagnesium-containing nanocolloids were synthesized by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation (PLAL) of a Mg target in water. As-prepared colloids contained 2-D lamellar nanostructures of magnesium oxyhydroxide Mg5O(OH)8 (Mg-NSs) with a thickness of 5–10 nm and a length/width up to one micron. The colloids obtained were used for the first time to restore old, low-quality paper (a Russian book from the beginning of the 20th century). All results were compared to conventional treatment with basic magnesium carbonate. It was found that Mg-NSs facilitated effective deacidification and conservation treatment of the paper. Paper pH increased after treatment and remained stable upon artificial aging. Moreover, treatment led to an increase in paper whiteness of up to 10% and paper strengthening up to 25%. In general, the treated paper became more resistant to the deterioration processes during aging. Thus, colloid of Mg5O(OH)8 lamellar nanostructures obtained by PLAL in water is a promising agent for paper restoration and conservation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Archaeometallurgical characterization of a 16th century suit of armour
           made by Valentin Siebenbürger
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Jakob Kraner, Tomaž Lazar, Borut Zorc, Peter Fajfar, Matjaž KnapAbstractThis paper presents a detailed analyses of a 16th century suit of armour made by Valentin Siebenbürger, one of the most skilled and talented German armour makers of the period. The studied harness is kept at the National Museum of Slovenia. Our research focused on evaluating the individual parts of the armour in terms of protection, workmanship precision, quality, the composition of the steel used and authenticity. By accurately measuring the thickness of the individual parts of the armour, a clear distinction may be seen between the sections protecting the vital areas of the body and those covering the extremities. Furthermore, the measurements clearly indicate the level of manufacturing precision achieved in Siebenbürger's workshop, as well as the relative importance of various elements in terms of their protective qualities. Apart from thickness measurements, metallographic and radiographic analyses were also performed. The results indicated that the suit of armour was made from three different types of steel: pure carbon steel, steel containing manganese, steel containing cobalt.Because the visor was made from pure carbon steel without major non-metallic inclusions, it may be concluded that it was added at a later date during restoration. The exceptionally even, uniform shaping and tapering of sheet thickness observed during the measurements indicates a high level of mastery in the forging of steel sheet.
       
  • Yellowing of laser-cleaned artworks: Formation of residual hydrocarbon
           compounds after Nd:YAG laser cleaning of gypsum plates covered by lamp
           black
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Jeremie Berthonneau, Philippe Parent, Olivier Grauby, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Alain Colombini, Blandine Courtois, Philippe BrombletAbstractThe removal of black crusts decaying the surface of artworks is an important concern for the conservation of cultural heritage. Nd:YAG laser cleaning of encrusted stones and plasters at 1064 nm is widely recognized as an effective restoration technique, but induces a noticeable yellowing of the treated surface. Several researches carried out on the effects of laser cleaning have been focused on the induced yellowing and how to visually mitigate this phenomenon. To this end, UV-B radiations were successfully used to lessen the laser-induced yellowing due to the removal of lamp black particles on gypsum. The mechanism at play for both the formation of the compounds yellowing the surface and their disappearance upon UV-B exposure remains, however, poorly understood. Within the frame of this research, we apply surface-sensitive characterization techniques to analyze the yellowed surface produced after Nd:YAG Q-Switched laser cleaning of lamp black deposit on a gypsum plate, and the same surface after UV-B exposure. A combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy has been used to identify the residual carbon compounds responsible for the yellow coloration of the substrate. A nanoscale structural description of the ejected particles collected during the laser cleaning was finally performed with transmission electron microscopy. We found that the yellowing is due to partially oxidized hydrocarbons compounds deposited at the surface of the gypsum substrate. We propose that they form by reactions between carbon species emitted by the vaporization of the carbon particles, with hydrogen and oxygen produced by the dissociation of water molecules coming together from dehydration of the gypsum surface and from the water sprayed by the operator during cleaning.
       
  • Performance of alkaline activation for the consolidation of earthen
           architecture
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Kerstin Elert, Pedro Bel-Anzué, Luis Monasterio-Guillot, Sebastian PardoAbstractEarth has been an important building material in many cultures over the course of history. However, it is quite fragile compared with other building materials, requiring permanent maintenance and frequently consolidation. Conventional consolidation treatments often had drawbacks due to limited penetration and long-term effectiveness. In order to improve the earthen structure´s water resistance and mechanical properties, an alternative consolidation treatment based on highly alkaline KOH solution has been evaluated on outdoor-exposed adobe walls and was compared to a standard ethyl silicate treatment. The KOH treatment showed superior penetration and long-term effectiveness, causing partial dissolution of soil minerals and the formation of an amorphous phase with cementing properties. These mineralogical changes reduced the soils swelling capacity and improved its weathering resistance and mechanical properties. The consolidation treatment did not induce the formation of harmful salts but caused important color changes. Results indicate that lower concentrated KOH solution could be used, which would reduce consolidation-induced color changes, potential salt crystallization, treatment costs, and environmental risks. Overall, alkaline consolidation appears to be a valid alternative to conventional treatments.
       
  • Stress mechanism for the rammed layer interfaces of earthen heritage sites
           with different treatments
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Xu-dong Wang, Qiang-qiang Pei, Qing-lin Guo, Zhi-peng Li, Yan-wu Wang, Jian-zhong ZhaoAbstractLayer interfaces are the weakest parts of traditional rammed earthen structures. Different ramming technologies for the interfaces between layers were found to have a significant effect on the level of destruction. Accordingly, four interface treatment methods were simulated to reveal the mechanism and damage mode for the interfaces between different layers: no interface, fine interface, coarse interface and rammed pit interface. Moreover, elastic wave velocity, tensile strength, compressive strength and shear strength tests were performed to explore the effects of different interface treatment technologies on different layers. The results showed that the tensile and shear strengths of the rammed earthen layer interfaces were much lower than the compressive strength. The tensile strength was only 1/30 of the compressive strength, which was the decisive factor in the ultimate destruction of such sites. An effective measure to improve the shear strength of rammed earthen sites is to increase the depth and uniform area of friction of the layer interface, and the roughness of the contact surface between layers. The interface treatment with the rammed pit layer provided superior results to the coarse and fine layers. The abovementioned results provide a theoretical basis for the scientific cognition of traditional ramming and consolidation technologies of earthen sites.
       
  • Understanding the function of bonding courses in masonry construction: An
           investigation with mixed numerical methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Rebecca Napolitano, Branko GlisicAbstractBonding courses, also called leveling courses, are ubiquitous in historical masonry structures. While this technique is common, there is no clear understanding of their structural function. Many works have postulated that this construction typology denotes the end of a workday or the height of one shuttering. Additionally, many sources contradict each other about the structural functionality of bonding courses. While some works have claimed that they create a structural weakness, others have asserted that they must be a structural advantage since they are ubiquitous. The aim of this paper is to study the behavior of bonding courses to understand their potential structural functionality. Using a mixed numerical method, i.e., combining finite element modeling and distinct element modeling, the structural response of the bonding courses is simulated. Under differential settlement of foundations, damages were seen to be localized in the walls with bonding courses. Performed analysis indicates that bonding courses had a positive contribution to the structural safety of the walls. A study of how the height of the bonding course affects this performance was also carried out.
       
  • Environmental risk mapping of physical cultural heritage using an unmanned
           aerial remote sensing system: A case study of the Huang-Wei monument in
           Kinmen, Taiwan
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Tung-Ching SuAbstractMany studies have discussed the multiple risks to cultural heritage sites, however literature that discusses the threat of soil moisture penetrating into physical cultural heritage sites are extremely rare. In this paper, an unmanned aerial remote sensing system (UARSS) was employed to acquire images of the surroundings of the Huang-Wei monument, a physical cultural heritage site in Kinmen, Taiwan, which was coupled with a soil moisture examination in situ to produce thematic maps of soil moisture. The relationships among weather factors, including temperature, relative humidity, wind, and precipitation, as well as terrain factors, were analyzed to establish an environmental risk assessment model. A spatial analysis based on the environmental risk assessment model was implemented in a GIS environment to produce environmental risk maps for the Huang-Wei monument. A field survey demonstrated that the environmental risk maps were reliable and displayed the potential environmental risks to the Huang-Wei monument.
       
  • Spatial analysis and heritage conservation: Leveraging 3-D data and GIS
           for monitoring earthen architecture
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Arianna Campiani, Ashley Lingle, Nicola LercariAbstractThis paper discusses new advances in heritage site monitoring using a geo-spatial method for assessing the state of preservation of earthen architecture overtime as a preventive conservation measure. The proposed method leverages a comprehensive (quantitative–qualitative) approach that gathers multi-temporal data including environmental information collected by means of environmental loggers, qualitative vulnerability assessment of mud-brick walls, and surface change detection information obtained by comparing terrestrial laser scanning point cloud capturing the decay of building's wall features over time. Producing a detailed spatial understanding of the conservation issues that affect mud-brick walls in large earthen sites, this method can be used by conservators to rapidly identify which buildings require immediate intervention and lay the basis for future evaluation of the conservation actions undertaken. To test the effectiveness of the proposed geospatial model in producing a comprehensive view of the environmental risk and pattern of decay that affect mudbrick structures, this paper presents analyses and results obtained in a six-year study at Çatalhöyük, Turkey. Our results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed method and prove that it can be successfully employed to create preventive conservation measures at other earthen sites inside and outside the Near East.
       
  • Design and implementation of an augmented reality application for rock art
           visualization in Cova dels Cavalls (Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Silvia Blanco-Pons, Berta Carrión-Ruiz, José Luis Lerma, Valentín VillaverdeAbstractPrehistoric rock art paintings, specifically rock-shelters exposed to environmental and anthropogenic factors, are usually faint and severely damaged, being them difficult to identify and understand by visitors. Augmented Reality (AR) supplements reality with virtual information superimposed onto the real world. This sensor-based technology in smartphones/tablets can improve the paintings experience displaying the 2D digital tracings overlapped onto the real scene (rock with faint paintings). This paper presents an AR application (app) developed in Cova dels Cavalls that shows a recreation of a possible original composition full of motifs with descriptive information to improve current guided tour user experiences. This case study aims to evaluate the rock art AR app targeting non-expert visitors as a means of improving rock art knowledge and sensibility of a fragile archaeological UNESCO Work Heritage site. To achieve this, a variety of participants with different backgrounds and interests tested the AR app on site and answered a complete questionnaire about the use of AR mobile apps. Overall, the results showed great acceptance of this AR app, mainly because in addition to adding new information interactively, it helps to identify the rock art motifs, as well as to recognise them quickly, improving their understanding.
       
  • Assessment of the impact of particulate dry deposition on soiling of
           indoor cultural heritage objects found in churches and museums/libraries
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Sofia Eirini Chatoutsidou, Mihalis LazaridisAbstractThe impact from the indoor dry deposition of size-resolved particles was investigated in the present study. Published data from a baroque library in Prague, two medieval churches in Cyprus and two historical churches in Poland were used in the present study. Values of the deposition velocity vd obtained in literature from these studies were used to examine the comparative impact on the preservation of indoor collections in relation to particle size and indoor concentrations. The number of deposited particles was estimated at different particle sizes for cases where number concentration data were available whilst the mass flux towards indoor surfaces was obtained from the particle mass size distribution. Additionally, a dose-response function was implemented to investigate the acceptable level of soiling regarding the aesthetic impact from the deposition of indoor particulate matter. The results demonstrate that higher number of deposited particles are found in the lower part of the size distribution (fine particles), whereas, an opposite behavior was obtained for the mass flux where higher flux was obtained for coarse particles. These findings were directly associated with indoor particle dynamics at the different sizes and the corresponding concentrations. Particularly, higher accumulation on indoor surfaces by fine particles was linked with a relative effect of these particles for deposition on vertical-oriented surfaces whereas the large amount of deposited mass arising from coarse particles was attributed to a potential impact on horizontal surfaces. Furthermore, the dose-response function showed a proportional relationship between the soiling constant and the PM10 concentration, with indoor sites characterized by elevated concentrations being more risky for the preservation of indoor works of art. In general, the results of the present study highlight the necessity of a common assessment of the indoor particle size distribution and the corresponding chemical composition for better analysis of the effect due to dry particle deposition.
       
  • Valuing the socio-economic benefits of built heritage: Local context and
           mathematical modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Kastytis Rudokas, Mantas Landauskas, Indrė Gražulevičiūtė-Vilneiškė, Odeta ViliūnienėAbstractSocio-economic benefits of built heritage are undoubtable and identified in many research works and reports. However, their integration into actual heritage preservation processes remains a challenge due to the lack of comprehensive application methodologies. This research aims at developing the methodology for the assessment of socio-economic benefits of built heritage. As built heritage is linked with its context, the case of Lithuania was selected as an exemplary ground for methodology development. The methodology development process involves the analysis of the cost-benefit approach in heritage assessment, the analysis of classifications of social-economic benefits and values of the built heritage, the analysis of the existing institutionalized heritage assessment tools and the legal context for the built heritage assessment in Lithuania, the development of the classification of socio-economic benefits of the built heritage for the Lithuanian context and the proposals for their estimation. The proposed mathematical model for calculation of socio-economic benefits of the built heritage is spatial technique enabling to capture the synergetic effects of co-existing heritage objects using sum of scaled kernel functions that can be used in cost-benefit analysis in different contexts. The methodology was developed based on the example of Lithuania; however, the overall approach can be adapted to various contexts.
       
  • Marble decoration of the Roman theatre of Urvinum Mataurense (Urbino,
           Marche region, Italy): An archaeological and archaeometric multi-method
           provenance study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Devi Taelman, Chiara Delpino, Fabrizio AntonelliAbstractThis paper presents the results of the characterisation, provenance determination, quantification (by count and weight) and contextualisation of the white and coloured marbles used for decorating the Roman theatre of Urbino (Marche region, Italy). The main goals of the paper are to contribute to a better understanding of the trade and use of marble in the region of central Adriatic Italy in Roman times, and to demonstrate the socio-cultural importance of architectural décor in Roman society, especially through comparison of the Urbino case with contemporary theatres in the Western Mediterranean. Macroscopic characterisation of white and coloured marbles was followed by thin section petrography, X-ray diffraction and stable isotopic analysis (∂18O and ∂13C) for eight marble samples. In total, twenty-six marble varieties have been identified in the Urbino theatre assemblage. Mineralogical-petrographic and archaeometric analysis shows the presence of white marbles from Carrara (Italy) and Proconnesos (Asia Minor), and greco scritto from Hasançavuslar (Ephesos, Turkey). Coloured marbles, mainly africano, breccia di sciro, breccia medicea, cipollino verde, pavonazzetto and giallo antico, as well more prestigious lithotypes as granito misio, porfido rosso and serpentino, can be traced back to Italy, Greece (mainland and Aegean islands), Asia Minor, Egypt and North Africa. Particularly important is the earliest Roman in situ identification of breccia medicea. Compared to other Roman theatres in the Western Mediterranean, the Urbino theatre stands out for the sumptuousness of its marble renovation, especially in terms of the number of marble varieties. Like other Roman towns in central Adriatic Italy (e.g. Suasa, Trea and Urbs Salvia), Urvinum Mataurense shows a strong integration in the Roman Mediterranean marble trade, with a clear connection with the Greek/Eastern world.
       
  • Investigating a Byzantine technology: experimental replicas of
           Ca-phosphate opacified glass
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Sarah Maltoni, Alberta SilvestriAbstractThe Byzantine glass opacification technique based on the use of animal bones is here investigated by means of experimental replicas, aiming to shed light on the production technologies of Ca-phosphate opacified glass. To minimize the variables depending on the species or individuals, a single piece of bovine bone was selected. The current replicas were produced by mixing the piece of bone with silica-soda-lime glass having a chemical composition that is quite comparable to that of ancient natron glass. The bovine bone was used both in an untreated state and after its preliminary firing at different temperatures (350, 450, 600 and 800 °C) and analysed by means of ICP-OES and XRPD. Two sets of experiments were carried out in order to obtain an opaque glass that was texturally and mineralogically similar to ancient samples. A first set of replicas was produced by maintaining a constant melting time (5 hours), temperature (700 °C), and cooling rate (quenching) and by using differently pre-treated bone samples (untreated and fired at the above temperatures); a second set of experiments was conducted by using a single bone sample (fired at 800 °C) and by varying melting times (18 and 36 hours) and temperatures (700 and 1100 °C) as well as cooling rates (quenching and slow cooling). The replicas were all characterised by means of SEM-EDS and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the production of Ca-phosphate opacified glass requires a preliminary firing of the bone, a melting temperature of approximately 700 °C and long melting times (up to 36 hours). The use of unfired bone did not give satisfactory results, nor did short (5 hours) or very long melting times (> 36 hours), because the micro-textures obtained are not similar to those identified in ancient samples. The use of a higher melting temperature (1100 °C) can also be excluded, independent of the melting times and cooling rates, as it produced a transparent glass.
       
  • The role of geoenvironmental sciences in Cultural Heritage preservation:
           the case of 1000 year old leaning bell tower of Caorle (Venice)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Giordano Teza, Sebastiano Trevisani, Arianna PesciAbstractA historical building is often a vulnerable system exposed to multiple natural and/or anthropic hazards. It seems to be the case of the 1000-year-old leaning bell tower of Caorle (Venice), whose leaning angle increased during the XX century up to 1.4°. The main interactions between this building and its environment were studied by means of a cost-effective approach based on soil stratigraphy and geomorphological data, geophysical measurements, surveying and historical information on the bell tower and the landscape. The results suggest a probable connection between tilt and overexploitation of water resources in the mid-XX century for agricultural use. In order to exclude other factors, the soil-structure resonant coupling and the effects of the bell ringing were also studied. The results highlight the importance of geoenvironmental sciences in Cultural Heritage preservation. Moreover, the proposed approach can be easily used in every similar context and could be further developed.
       
  • Typological characterisation and territorial distribution of traditional
           rural buildings in the Apulian territory (Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Giuseppe Ruggiero, Marco Parlavecchia, Pasquale Dal SassoAbstractThis paper is aimed at analysing the rural building heritage present in the region of Apulia in Southern Italy, focusing on the constructions that can be defined minor in terms of size and functions unlike the best known masserie, large multi – functional vernacular farmhouses. A list was preliminarily drawn-up that contains typological macro categories of both residential and operating type buildings, which is able to represent the varied Apulian rural building heritage. Each of the groups defined in this manner was examined by outlining the building and functional characteristics of each category. The numeric and distributional assessment of the rural constructions present in the Apulian territory was subsequently carried out, based on the Military Geographic Institute (IGM) cartography – scale ratio 1:25,000 – that is the most effective historical information source in the national and regional context. The comparison between construction typologies and territorial areas has shown a clear correlation between forms, functions and characteristics of the territorial context.Research aimThe work aims to deepen the knowledge of rural historical buildings of Apulia region in Italy since most of the studies and official sources have been mainly focusing on large building structures called masserie and substantially ignore the minor rural buildings. The work develops a methodology suitable to acknowledge the different types of the historical rural constructions widespread in the Apulian landscape for a better and effective census. The results showed a close relationship between typological variability and the territory.
       
  • Interpretative mapping in cultural heritage context: Looking at the
           historic settlement of Khan Jahan in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Shajjad Hossain, Filipe Themudo BarataAbstractIn the process of establishing the identity of a historic settlement, Interpretative Mapping might be unique and powerful tool to analyze tangible and intangible indicators of inheritance. Despite being a very useful and inexpensive tool, it has not yet been extensively used in the context of cultural heritage. In this kind of mapping, landscape, architecture and the layers of change that have been deposited on them throughout ages are considered as tangible indicators, while toponymy, story, memory and ancient local sayings are considered as intangible indicators. Information produced from both tangible and intangible indicators in a scientific and mathematical manner, supported by history, artefacts and vestiges, principles of urbanism, inscriptions and manuscripts, can reveal many unknown aspects of historic sites. Interpretative mapping can be accomplished either by a derivation from cartographic reference or an independent form of sense or impression (in case of intangibles). The aim of the paper is to demonstrate how interpretative mapping can combine chronological information of history, landscape, monuments and cultures of a historic site, exhibit transformation of indicators, provide evidence for hypothesis, authenticate claims of historians and manifest facts that can aid actions of Cultural Heritage agencies. For the demonstration, examples from different parts of the world and exercises on the ancient townships of Khalifatabad and Barobazar in Bangladesh, are explored.
       
  • Impact of environmental factors on the deterioration of the Wall of
           Cartagena de Indias
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 39Author(s): Manuel Saba, Edgar E. Quiñones-Bolaños, Hermes F. Martínez BatistaAbstractTo evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the deterioration of the historical defensive walls of Cartagena de Indias, a comprehensive analysis of stone and mortars of the structure has been carried out, furthermore through a physicochemical characterization, the role of rainwater and the groundwater on the structural deterioration has been studied as well as for drains and rising damp. SO2, NO2 and PM10 were monitored in order to assess whether air quality is accelerating the deterioration of the structure. Moreover, deposited salts on the walls surface and the distribution of humidity in the structure were studied. Has been shown that limestone is the main stone type of the structure, and mortars probably due to a deficiency on the production process are weak and easily removable. Finally, humidity boundary conditions generated by drainage and rising damp, along with air salinity are the factors that determine the slow decay of the general conditions of the structure.
       
  • Imported or indigenous' The earliest forged tin foil found in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Yingchen Wang, Jianjun Mei, Yongbin Yu, Chengyun Xiao, Guanghua Xiang, Dexiang Zhao, Kunlong ChenAbstractIt was during the early Eastern Zhou period (7th–5th centuries BCE) that forged tin foil turned up suddenly as an “exotic” novelty. This paper investigates archaeological finds of tin foil with decorating patterns from Caojiagang and Zhaoxiang, the two Eastern Zhou tombs found in Dangyang, Hubei, Central China. The results of scientific examination reveal the application of remarkable forging and working techniques to manufacturing the patterned tin foil, demonstrating a new trend toward diversity in metalwork in Eastern Zhou China, signalling a departure from the dominance of piece-mould casting bronze technology in the earlier periods of the Shang and Western Zhou. It is argued that the appearance of tin foil and the widespread adaption of forging technology in the Eastern Zhou period were most likely motivated by the desire to pursue social distinction or display individual preference. The cultural links to the Eurasian steppe could have played a role in the process also.
       
  • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic SiO2-based hybrids in the protection of
           sandstone for anti-salt damage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Mengjun Jia, Junyan Liang, Ling He, Xiang Zhao, Stefan SimonThe anti-salt damage of sandstone protected by hydrophobic and hydrophilic SiO2-based hybrids is evaluated in NaCl, Na2SO4 and NaCl-Na2SO4 salt-loaded hydrothermal aging (SLHA) cycles. Although both hydrophobic and hydrophilic SiO2-based hybrids could prevent the sandstone from salt damage through improving the matrix strength, the hydrophobic hybrid performs much better protection than hydrophilic one. The sandstone protected by hydrophobic SiO2-based hybrid shows nearly no salt-damage, which is attributed to its excellent water repellence, high adhesive strength and good compatibility with sandstone matrix. However, the hydrophilic SiO2-based hybrid tends to induce an exterior-to-interior salt-damage behaviour due to the frequent circulation movement of water with salt to result in the formation of surface efflorescence and interior sub-efflorescence in the protected sandstone. Furthermore, the hydrophobic-protective effect is also confirmed by another alternative hydrophobic POSS-based hybrid to offer stronger protection in anti-salt damage than that protected by hydrophilic hybrid. Nevertheless, there lies the difference, the hydrophobic SiO2-based hybrid penetrates into the inner pores of the sandstone and develops a strong cohesion with sand-grain through the formation of Si-O bonds, but the hydrophobic POSS-based hybrid protects the sandstone with a weaker physical interaction between hybrid and sand-grains resulting in a fractured damage. Therefore, SiO2-based hybrid is superior to POSS-based hybrid in promoting the anti-salt ability of sandstone. It is believed that these results could contribute much to the future protection of stone monuments by different hybrids.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Unveiling the underprintings of a late-fifteenth-early-sixteenth century
           illuminated French incunabulum by infrared reflectography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Catarina Miguel, Silvia Bottura, Teresa Ferreira, Antónia Fialho Conde, Cristina Barrocas-Dias, António CandeiasAbstractFor the first time, IR reflectography was used for analysing the production technique of incunabula, unveiling impressive results concerning the identification of underprintings and the relation with its coloured illuminated representations. In this work, the procedures followed for producing a late-fifteenth-early-sixteenth century incunabulum produced in the Parisian workshop of Germain Hardouyn held by the Biblioteca Pública de Évora (Inc.438) were characterized by IR reflectography. Unexpected features concerning the creative process of the hand-coloured procedures were achieved, reflecting an illuminator strongly influenced by the devotions that were in fashion at the time, unlike the engraving plates used on the incunabulum, whose representations faithfully followed the references of the Holy Scriptures. For the evaluation of the originality of the painted surfaces, a representative painted illustration — the Adoration of the Magi, f.11 — was full characterized using a microscopic and spectroscopic approach (OM, SEM-EDS, Raman microscopy, μ-FTIR). Three representative coloured-paints (white, blue and gilding) of the painted illustrations from the Adoration of the Magi (f.11), the Pietà (f.47v) and the Pentecost (f.65v) were characterized and compared to infer on the contemporaneity of these painted illustrations.
       
  • Evolution of properties under realistic curing conditions of calcined
           ginger nut grouting mortars used in anchoring conservation of earthen
           sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Nan Wang, Wenwu Chen, Jingke Zhang, Ruxue Liao, Jinfeng Li, Linyi Zhao, Zongren YuAbstractCalcined ginger nut (CGN) has been applied in grouting mortars for anchoring unstable earthen sites, but the lack of scientific research limits its application. In this study, CGN-based grouts admixed with fly ash (F), quartz sand (S), or both are evaluated. To explore the optimal mixture ratios, three types of mixing groups (five proportion gradients in each group) are established. All the grout specimens are buried and maintained outdoors, and their physical (shrinkage rate, density, elastic wave velocity, and permeability) and mechanical properties are continuously examined over 180 days. The solidification processes at different ages are simultaneously observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The results indicate that the physical properties of grouts are influenced significantly by initial moisture content but then remain steady for approximately 15 days. Quartz sand can effectively reduce the shrinkage rate of grouts as well as adjust their density and permeability, and might be considered as an ideal mixing material for CGN. In the solidification process, grouts are rapidly solidified after the initial hydration reaction, and the carbonation reaction in the later stage constantly improves their mechanical strength, with physical properties kept relatively stable. SEM images show fly ash and quartz sand particles are cemented by CaCO3 crystals. Through comprehensive comparison, the grouts with the mass ratio of CGN and S at 1:1 are found to better satisfy requirements that grouts should be compatible with earthen sites.
       
  • Calcium oxalate films on works of art: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Laura RampazziAbstractThis work presents a review of the findings of calcium oxalate films, a widespread decay phenomenon recovered on stone and other substrates (mortars, wall and easel paintings, written materials, glass). The specific attention given to the issue in the 1990s has decreased, although articles have documented films until the present day. The review provides critical insights into the literature, focusing on the general properties of films, numerous case studies, the instrumental techniques used to characterise and date films, insights into the possible origin of the decay phenomenon, and an evaluation of the protective role of calcium oxalate layers. The practice of creating artificial films on stone surfaces for protective purposes is also considered. An evaluation of the literature over the last few decades shows various open issues. The origin is still up for debate, and the issue is still of major concern to conservation scientists, conservators, and restorers. The scientific community tends to attribute a biological origin to these films, however further studies are needed to study exactly how they form, focusing for example on simulation tests of the chemical and atmospheric pathway. How these films protect the artwork in terms of the mechanical properties of the surface underneath deserves more study. This would also help restorers to reproduce the calcium oxalate. The bibliography highlights the prevalence of calcium oxalate findings in the Mediterranean Basin and the formation of the least stable form, i.e. weddellite, which has yet to be explained.
       
  • Virtual reality in maritime archaeology legacy data for a virtual diving
           on the shipwreck of the Mercurio (1812)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Massimiliano Secci, Carlo Beltrame, Stefania Manfio, Francesco GuerraAbstractVirtual Reality is becoming a complete and original way to leverage the enormous potential of the underwater cultural heritage world. In this paper, we illustrate how we used this tool and other 3D reconstruction to create a virtual experience on the Mercurio shipwreck. The brig Mercurio, sunk during the Battle of Grado (1812), currently lies at a depth of 17 m in the northern Adriatic Sea. Artifacts recovered during investigations made by the Università Ca’ Foscari are now exposed in the Museum of the Sea in Caorle where a multimedia station has been installed. In order to create the virtual dive on this site, it was necessary to process legacy data from the photogrammetry surveys made during the excavation campaigns carried out when VR was unknown in archaeology. The paper presents this original way to create a virtual dive on an ancient shipwreck from archival and heterogeneous data.
       
  • Microstructure imaging of Florentine stuccoes through X-ray tomography: A
           new insight on ancient plaster-making techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Florian Beaugnon, Gianluca Gariani, Emmanuelle Gouillart, Anne Bouquillon, Marc Bormand, Gilles WallezAbstractGypsum-based plasters or stuccoes, in spite of their importance and diffusion, received little attention in cultural heritage materials studies. This work introduces a new, non-destructive methodology, using micro-tomography to measure the water/plaster ratio and the morphology of the hemihydrate powder used to make plasters on 
       
  • Application of imaging polarimeters to enhanced detection of stone carving
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Haifeng Wang, Yongquan Luo, Caidan An, Songnan Chu, Zhixue Shen, Lixian Huang, Dayong ZhangAbstractThe enhanced detection and identification of stone carvings is significant for the remote sensing and digital museum project of cultural relic. In addition, imaging polarimeters have the potential to be efficient detectors owing to their superiority in terms of their capability of recognizing object contours and surface roughness. In this paper, the polarization changes of stone materials with different angles and varying degrees of roughness are theoretically analyzed and detected by a high-precision imaging polarimeter based on the liquid crystal variable retarder (LCVR) innovatively. It is observed that the detection of carving characteristics is enhanced in polarized imaging owing to the depressed background and enhanced contrast. The experimental finding indicates that polarized imaging has an exciting function in the remote sensing of stone carvings and enhanced detecting of the fuzzy inscriptions. This kind of specialized photography complements other, equally important recording techniques in the quest for comprehensive documentation of faint carvings.
       
  • The pigments of the frigidarium in the Sarno Baths, Pompeii:
           Identification, stratigraphy and weathering
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Ivana Angelini, Yotam Asscher, Michele Secco, Matteo Parisatto, Gilberto ArtioliAbstractIn the present research is used a multi-analytical approach to study the wall paintings from the Sarno Baths, located in the southern part of Pompeii. In particular the investigation is focused on the frescos of the frigidarium, though a few samples from other rooms were also analysed. Twenty wall paintings fragments were analysed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), optical microscopy (OM), μ-Raman, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (p-XRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD data were used for the mineralogical semi-quantitative phase analyses (SQPA) and the estimation of the hematite crystals size. The obtained data allow the identification of the pigments and the techniques used, and address new question such as whether talc and aragonite were used routinely in the formulation of pigments. The chemical composition of red and yellow pigments is also discussed and compared with data available from the recent literature. The wall paintings are badly preserved and weathering products occur on the pictorial surface. Eight samples of efflorescence salts and patinas were analysed by XRPD: all the samples are composed mainly by alkali sulphates. The systematic difference between the salts present on the northern and the western walls is likely related to the materials inserted during the 19th century restauration.
       
  • The deposition from the Cross in the church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
           (France): A masterpiece of Romanesque sculpture' Materials
           characterization to solve a 20th c. mystery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Alessia Coccato, Luciana Mantovani, Romano Ferrari, Danilo Bersani, Mario Tribaudino, Pier Paolo LotticiAbstractDating and authenticating stone-sculpted works of art is a challenging aspect of cultural heritage studies. In fact, it is often possible to provenance the rock, by comparison of petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data, but no dating of the sculpture can be obtained. Also, stylistic observations need to be considered with care. However, in the case of mastic incrustation sculptures, the applied polychromy can support dating studies, based on pigments and binders. In the church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, a haut-relief representing the Deposition from the Cross is exposed. The calcareous slab is decorated with red and black mastics. It resembles closely the Deposition from the Cross in the transept of Parma Cathedral, dated 1178 and “signed” by Benedictus Antelami. However, the St-Germain Deposition appeared in 1994, when it was donated to the parish by the descendants of Julien Auguste Duperrier, marble worker and collector of Italian antiquities. His last trip to Italy took place in 1924. No information is available on his deal, neither on the transport means arranged, nor on the sculpture itself (author, contractor, date, etc.). Art historical and historical considerations propose either a 12th or 19th–20th c. context for the creation of the sculpture. Chemical analyses of the pigments and binders are therefore proposed to clarify the dating the work of art. Microscopic samples are characterized by a multi-analytical approach: vibrational spectroscopies and X-ray powder diffraction are used to characterize the rock and the polychrome mastic. The rock is identified as a micritic limestone, and shows sulphation issues. Through Raman scattering measurements, the pigments were identified: carbon in the black mastic, and a mixture of red lead and a modern synthetic pigment (PR49:1) in the red areas. This information sheds new light on the chronology and manufacture of the Deposition from the Cross of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. These results allow for a better definition of further lines of research, and to finally propose an authorship for the sculpture.
       
  • Erratum to “Investigation of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate
           plastics in museum collections using ion chromatography and size exclusion
           chromatography” [J. Cult. Herit. (2019) 263–70]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Joy Mazurek, Anna Laganà, Vincent Dion, Suzanna Etyemez, Carolyn Carta, Michael R. Schilling
       
  • Mitigating salt damage in building materials by the use of crystallization
           modifiers – a review and outlook
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Sanne J.C. Granneman, Barbara Lubelli, Rob P.J. van HeesAbstractSalt crystallization damage in porous building materials is a widespread phenomenon. Several solutions to prevent, or mitigate, salt damage in building materials, prolonging thereby their service-life have been proposed. One of the latest approaches is the use of crystallization modifiers, aiming at reducing the crystallization pressure and/or favouring the crystallization of salts at the surface (efflorescence) instead of in the pores of the materials (crypto-florescence1). This paper summarizes the working mechanisms of crystallization modifiers and critically reviews the available literature on their use in building materials; finally, it provides an outlook on the potentials of modifiers for the mitigation of salt crystallization damage in building materials.
       
  • Visual information retrieval from historical document images
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Sara Zhalehpour, Ehsan Arabnejad, Chad Wellmon, Andrew Piper, Mohamed CherietAbstractInformation retrieval from documentary heritage is considered a challenging issue because of the documents’ unique structures and level of degradation. Text characters in printed documents historically are accompanied by typographical objects. Retrieving and pursuing these visual typographical elements, which inform the content of historical manuscripts can help us better understand our documentary cultural heritage. Extracting these visual objects aids us in understanding and conveying more information about different practices of representation in historical documents and their effects on the current trends of publishing. Two important typographical objects related to the history of knowledge and information are footnotes and tables; the former are one of the critical elements that demonstrate authority and link the manuscript to its sources, and the latter summarize information in a compact and organized manner essential to the growth of scientific knowledge. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no work that considers in depth the automated detection of these two typographical objects from the large collections of historical documents that would allow further historical study. This article focuses on the problem of detecting the presence of these two visual elements from historical printed documents and establishes two frameworks. The footnote detection framework uses a set of layout-based methods to extract some features regarding the font and appearance, and the table detection framework extracts spectral-based features from the images. These frameworks are tested on a large collection of 18th-century printed documents with more than 32 million images, and the results show their effectiveness and generalization power.
       
  • Bio-based consolidants for waterlogged archaeological wood: Assessment of
           the performance and optimization of the diagnostic protocol
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Alessandra Papacchini, Simona Dominici, Giuseppina Di Giulio, Marco Fioravanti, Antonella SalviniAbstractNew bio-based polymers used as consolidants for waterlogged archaeological wood were studied and their performance on real wooden samples was assessed. In particular, three oligoamides (oligo ethylene-l-tartaramide, oligo esamethylene-l-tartaramide and copolymer between ethylenediamine, adipic and tartaric acids) and allyl α,α′-trehalose/vinyl alcohol (ATR/VOH) copolymer were selected as consolidants. The affinity for wood and the reversibility of the treatments were evaluated together with certain physical properties of treated wood, i.e. maximum water content (MWC), basic density (ρb) and volumetric shrinkage (βv). A specific diagnostic protocol was optimized in order to obtain reproducible and reliable results. A good affinity for a degraded wood rich in lignin was demonstrated for all tested consolidants. For what concerns the reversibility of the treatments, the oligoamides showed higher reversibility than the ATR/VOH copolymer. The penetration ability was good for all selected products. Good results in terms of MWC reduction and ρb increase were obtained with the oligo esamethylene-L-tartaramide, the oligo ethylene-L-tartaramide and the ATR/VOH copolymer.
       
  • The ancient pozzolanic mortars of the Thermal complex of Baia (Campi
           Flegrei, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Concetta Rispoli, Alberto De Bonis, Vincenza Guarino, Sossio Fabio Graziano, Claudia Di Benedetto, Renata Esposito, Vincenzo Morra, Piergiulio CappellettiAbstractAncient pozzolanic mortars show the high technological quality achieved by Roman construction workers, due to their ‘excellent state’ of preservation in every environment. These workers well knew that thanks to the combination of lime with specific volcanic products (pozzolana), mortar and concrete become hydraulic, allowing underwater hardening and increasing mechanical strength. The use of pozzolana in a mortar provides the underwater curing (hydraulic limes) of whatever construction with higher speed compared to carbonation processes of slaked lime. Whenever pozzolana is not available, it is substituted by ceramic fragments, which possess similar hydraulic properties. This research focuses, for the first time, on the detailed characterization of mortars coming from the Thermal Complex of Baia, which represents one of the most important archaeological sites in the Campania region. Thanks to several thermal springs, the ancient city of Baiae (Campi Flegrei) was the holiday resort of the Roman aristocracy. The former Soprintendenza Archeologia della Campania, allowed us to perform non-invasive, but representative, sampling of mortars that were characterised by multianalytical methodologies (POM, XRPD, SEM-EDS, TGA, and MIP) providing useful information on possible future activities of restoration. Results confirmed the expertise of Roman workers, who skilfully combined volcanic tuff aggregate, hydrated lime, and ceramic fragments. In particular, the typical zeolitic mineral association of phillipsite > chabazite > analcime found in the tuff aggregate pointed out their provenance from the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff related to the volcanic activity of Campi Flegrei of ca. 15 ka BP. The most relevant characteristic detected in all studied samples is the mortar hydraulicity testified by evidences such as reaction rims between pozzolana and binder, Hydraulicity Index (HI), and thermal analyses investigation. Also, composition of secondary mineralogical phases in the cementiceous matrix is particularly relevant. Distinctive is the contemporary presence of C-A-S-H gel, calcite and gypsum. C-A-S-H gel is derived from lime/ceramic fragments reaction; calcite is likely related to the partial reaction of underburned lime; and gypsum could be ascribable to the sulphation process of calcite. These secondary minerogenetic products fill pore space and enhance bonding in pumice fragments, thus contributing to long-term durability of mortars.
       
  • Tool development for digital reconstruction: A framework for a database of
           historic Roman construction materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rebecca Napolitano, Catherine Jennings, Sophia Feist, Abigail Rettew, Grace Sommers, Hannah Smagh, Benjamin Hicks, Branko GlisicAbstractDespite the fact that digital reconstructions of historic structures and sites are a rich asset for understanding both humanistic and scientific facets of the past, tools to ease the generation of accurate models are lacking. This work presents an interactive database of historic Roman construction materials which was designed specifically for the purposes of aiding in digital reconstructions. For the scope of this work, only ancient Roman timber and stone construction materials were agglomerated. However, the framework for the database was constructed so that it could be easily expanded to other geographic locations, materials, and time periods. Based on the results of a survey, the user interface and schema for the database were developed. The information in the database can be searched in two main ways: (1) a user can click on an interactive geographic map to find pertinent materials if they know their location and (2) a user can search for where a material was found based on its name. Additionally, the database was generated in a flexible manner so that new information can be added by registered users. This promotes further development of the database and encourages future tools for digital reconstruction to be designed in a similarly dynamic manner.
       
  • Mineralogical clustering of the structural mortars from the Sarno Baths,
           Pompeii: A tool to interpret construction techniques and relative
           chronologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Michele Secco, Caterina Previato, Anna Addis, Giulia Zago, Angelique Kamsteeg, Simone Dilaria, Caterina Canovaro, Gilberto Artioli, Jacopo BonettoAbstractStructural mortars constitute one of the most diffuse geomaterials, with stones and bricks, in ancient monuments and architectural complexes, especially related to the Roman civilization, which pushed the binder technology to technical levels unsurpassed until post-industrial revolution times. The archaeometric study of mortars is an essential tool to extrapolate great amounts of information concerning supply of raw materials, technological skills of the ancient civilizations and, finally, relative and absolute chronologies of diachronic construction phases, both related to ancient and modern architectural modifications of the buildings. In this contribution, a novel approach for the quantitative mineralogical analysis of ancient mortars is proposed. The analytical process is based on the integrated application of quantitative phase analysis (QPA) of mineral components by means of the Rietveld method applied to X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data and multivariate statistical treatment of the obtained results by means of the principal component analysis. The methodology has been applied on a wide set of binding materials sampled from different structural elements of the Sarno Baths, a five-storey building located in the Pompeii archaeological site. The building is characterized by a marked complexity both in terms of structural layout and constructive techniques, being the result of several modifications in ancient times from the Late Republican age up to the Vesuvius eruption in 79 AD. Furthermore, several poorly documented restorations have been performed between the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century AD. In this perspective, a quantitative characterization of the employed mortars resulted useful not only to define ancient constructive technologies and relative chronologies, but also to discriminate between the original and restored parts of the building for the execution of adequate restoration procedures. The statistical clustering of the quantitative XRPD data clearly defined two ancient constructive phases and allowed a precise definition of the structural elements rebuilt in recent times. Furthermore, the obtained results have been cross-checked with additional analyses, namely XRD analyses on the separated binder fractions, petrographic analyses and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive microanalyses. Such multi-analytical approach allowed the detailed characterization of the employed raw materials, of the pozzolanic reactions between binder and aggregate and of the textural and microstructural characteristics of the mortars. The data interpretation yielded interesting insights both on the advanced optimization of mix designs of binding materials in Roman times, to improve the structural properties of the architectural elements according to their functions, and on the formulation of the restoration products during the historic excavations in Pompeii.
       
  • Discrimination between the authentic and fake Egyptian funerary figurines
           “Ushabtis” via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Amal Khedr, Hamada Sadek, Olodia Aied Nassef, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Mohamed Abdel HarithAbstractThe potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in differentiating between types of genuine and fake Ushabtis was studied. For this goal, the present study was initiated by a comprehensive spectrochemical analytical study of four archeological Ushabti statues, dated back to the late Ptolemaic period (332–330 B.C), which have been excavated south of El-Shawaf pyramid in Saqqara, Giza, Egypt. This study was followed by performing the same investigations on several imitated Ushabtis, which were purchased from the touristic marketplace in the region of the pyramids. For the archeological samples, optimization of LIBS experimental parameters in terms of temporal detection conditions along with laser wavelengths and their corresponding ablation rate was performed. The spectrochemical analyses of the genuine archaeological samples were carried out both superficially and stratigraphically. Main surface elements such as Ca, Na, Al, Si, Cu, Fe, and Mn were detected while large amounts of Ca and Sr represent their bulk elements. The LIBS results were validated by results obtained by SEM-EDX technique, which provided complementary information such as surface morphological images and quantitative composition of the samples’ constituents. Under the optimum experimental conditions, LIBS spectral emission of the imitated samples was acquired and compared to those for true archeological ones for the sake of possible discrimination between them. Successful utilization of LIBS in examining the authenticity of suspect Ushabtis has been accomplished and presented. This study may suggest the need for archeologists to be equipped with portable LIBS systems in the excavation sites or museums, which facilitate the immediate discrimination process when LIBS data of genuine samples are initially available.
       
  • Development of integrated innovative techniques for paintings examination:
           The case studies of The Resurrection of Christ attributed to Andrea
           Mantegna and the Crucifixion of Viterbo attributed to Michelangelo's
           workshop
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Stefano Laureti, Claudia Colantonio, Pietro Burrascano, Marcello Melis, Giuseppe Calabrò, Hamid Malekmohammadi, Stefano Sfarra, Marco Ricci, Claudia PelosiAbstractThis paper presents the contextual use of Pulse-Compression Thermography and Hypercolorimetric Multispectral Imaging for the diagnostic study of historical heritage paintings. The comparison and the integration of images provided by the two techniques allows the conservation state of both the painting layers and wooden support to be investigated. Relevant information on the painting technique and figurative scene can be obtained as well. The proposed approach was applied to two Italian Renaissance panel paintings. The first object tested was a 16th century panel painting representing a Crucifixion, exposed in the Museum of Colle del Duomo in Viterbo, Italy, and attributed to the workshop of the master Michelangelo Buonarroti. The second artwork was a late 15th century panel painting, representing The Resurrection of Christ, currently preserved at Museo Carrara in Bergamo, Italy, and recently re-attributed to Andrea Mantegna; it was identified as being the upper half of a whole composition together with the Descent into Limbo painting. HMI acquisitions and digital image processing tools allowed to investigate the upper painting layer, while PuCT imaging data gave relevant information on the structure of the wooden support proving to be an innovative stratigraphic investigation method. The combination of HMI and PuCT imaging techniques supplied information on the whole structure of the artworks, identifying surface degradation, different layers, wood defects and their position in the inner layers of the object. The integration of the above-mentioned techniques might stand as a new reference diagnostic method to evaluate conservative needs and support decisions for restoration.
       
  • Stone consolidation by biomineralisation. Contribution for a new
           conceptual and practical approach to consolidate soft decayed limestones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): José Delgado Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ferreira PintoAbstractThe consolidation of soft limestones has since long been practiced by using various products applied by different procedures, both for laboratory conditions and as real conservation actions. However, the actual performances of these consolidants have always left doubts, mostly as regards to their long-term – and, in some situations, short-term – behaviour when used for outdoor objects. The encouraging results that have been reported for the biomineralisation process in limestones, both for laboratory conditions and in trial tests, led to test it under onsite conditions to assess the operational aspects, as well as on a conservation intervention carried out for a limestone portal in the south of Portugal. The biotechnology approach reported here resorts to the activation of carbonatogenic bacteria present in the substrate’s microbiota. In this paper, the main steps and logistics requirements for this consolidation treatment - environmental control, product transport and application conditions – are summarised, onsite test results are presented and discussed, and its application in a conservation intervention is described and commented. The onset of this new consolidation treatment led us to revisit past experiences on Portuguese heritage objects as an opportunity to discuss the practical significance and applicability of the concepts of effectiveness and compatibility in the consolidation of soft calcareous stone materials. A new conceptual and practical approach to deal with the very complex and difficult problem posed by the consolidation of real outdoor exposed and decayed objects is proposed. The discussion is based on the authors’ experience on four Portuguese monuments: the Santa Cruz church (Coimbra), the Porta Especiosa of the Old Cathedral of Coimbra, the National Palace of Queluz, and the Main Portal of the Loulé church. The potential of the method and its encouraging results may represent the crossing of a new technological and practical frontier to consolidate decayed highly porous limestones.
       
  • Stones of the façade of the Sarno Baths, Pompeii: A mindful
           construction choice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rebecca Piovesan, Lara Maritan, Giulia Meneghin, Caterina Previato, Siwar Baklouti, Raffaele Sassi, Claudio MazzoliAbstractThe lithological analysis of the southern façade of the Sarno Baths, a complex building located in the south-western part of the ancient city of Pompeii (Naples, southern Italy), was addressed to define the types of stone used as blocks and ashlars of the three nearly completely preserved levels. Lithological analysis, coupled with petrographic (optical and electron microscopy) and mineralogical study of the lithotypes macroscopically defined, revealed the use mainly of volcanic and volcano-clastic rocks, and in particular of: (i) yellow tuff supplied from the yellow facies of the Campanian Ignimbrite (about 39 ky BP); (ii) grey tuff from the Campanian Ignimbrite; (iii) leucite phonolitic tephrite from the lava flows of Somma Vesuvius; (iv) travertine from the Sarno limestone (Calcare del Sarno) (Cretaceous). On the basis of the lithological mapping, the basement results mainly composed of leucite phonolitic tephrite, associated to travertine and sporadically to yellow tuff, whereas the other two overhead levels are mainly constituted by tuff and travertine, respectively. In particular, the tuff distribution on the level upon the basement shows a prevalence of grey tuff on the western portion, yellow tuff on the eastern one and in the opus reticulatum band running all along the façade, and marked at the top by a trachyte stringcourse. Travertine blocks in the uppermost façade were probably placed as integration during the restoration works carried out at the end of the 19th century. The distribution on the façade of elements made of different rock types, characterised by different bulk density and mechanical properties, confirms ancient Roman builders’ deep knowledge on the technical features of these materials and their structural behaviour.
       
  • Integrated methods for reconstructing the decoration and production
           process of the frigidarium wall-paintings, at the Sarno Baths, Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Monica Salvadori, Cristina Boschetti, Paolo Baronio, Clelia SbrolliAbstractThis paper explores the potentiality of investigating Roman wall decorations by integrating the visual examination of the technical aspects of wall paintings and plasterworks, to the virtual reconstruction. It also aims at reconstructing the process of making wall decorations and at identifying the decorators, as an occasional group of workers or a properly organized workshop. The frigidarium (i.e. the room with a cold-water pool) in the Sarno Baths was selected as case study, to apply this approach. The presence of several missing parts allowed the observation of the full stratigraphic sequence of paintings and plasterworks. The visual analysis and the identification of the tool-marks provided the necessary elements, to reconstruct the sequence of operations performed by the artisans, during the process of making. Features suitable to identify the contribute of different artisans to the decoration project were also identified. The accurate survey of the preserved portions of decoration and the archival records allowed to reconstruct the geometry of the decorative scheme, completing the missing parts, both on the walls and the vaults. The fully reconstructed decorations were subsequently elaborated in a sequence of intermediate stages, corresponding to the main phases of the productive process. A sample of the surviving wall-paintings was selected to test the application of virtual conservation, digitally cleaning the surface from salt deposits, and integrating small abrasions in the paint layers. Lastly, the potentiality of virtual reconstruction was stretched further, reconstructing a set of plaster-workers’ tools, on the basis of tool marks. The investigation identified the decorations of the frigidarium as a high-quality product, reflecting the technical skills mastered by a well-organized workshop, active at Pompeii, during the last two decades of its life.
       
  • A general methodology for identifying the writer of codices. Application
           to the celebrated “twins”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): DDimitrios Arabadjis, Fotios Giannopoulos, Michail Panagopoulos, Michail Exarchos, Christopher Blackwell, Constantin PapaodysseusAbstractIn the present work, a method of general applicability is introduced for classifying a given set of ancient documents to their writer. A principal motive and, at the same time, a main result of this work was to test if two sets of documents preserving the Homeric Iliad have been written by the same hand or not. To achieve this, the authors have developed and/or improved two dedicated methods, which may be described very briefly as follows: the first method compares all realizations of the same alphabet symbol appearing in two documents and it offers related quantitative criteria. The second method aims at determining the ideal form(s) of each alphabet symbol the writer had in his/her mind when writing a document. In both methods, decision is made by means of novel statistical criteria. Application of this methodology furnished the following results in a fully quantitative manner: 1) all twenty-six (26) Byzantine codices kept at Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial or at the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice that have been studied, have been written by four (4) distinct writers only. 2) The codices written by each one of the four hands have been spotted with maximum likelihood and 3) the celebrated “twins” have indeed been written by the same hand. We once more emphasize that the approach introduced here may be immediately applied to classifying any set of documents to the distinct hands that have written them.
       
  • SmART_scan: A method to produce composition maps using any elemental,
           molecular and image data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): J. Daniel Martin-Ramos, Giacomo ChiariAbstractXRF scanners recently have become the most effective tools for analyzing the distribution of pigments on paintings. They are noninvasive and portable and can be used on flat surfaces of notable dimensions. Powerful miniaturized X-Ray tubes combined with more sensitive detectors make it possible to mount instruments on sturdy motorized X,Y devices, and reduce time needed for a scan. The high-resolution results obtained are of the utmost interest for conservators, art historians and conservation scientists. Drawbacks of XRF scanners are the elevated cost and the bulk of the X,Y devices, which makes them more difficult to transport. It is our opinion that the amount of information collected by a scanner is somewhat redundant. Uniform portions of the painting may be treated as a unity. Following this basic idea, a procedure is proposed to combine a high-resolution visible image with compositional measurement carried out on a grid with a much smaller number of points. Different types of images, spatially registered with respect to the visible one, can be used to increase the amount of information available. A computer program, named SmART_scan, statistically combines all available data, and generates false color maps that show the distribution of elements (XRF), or of compounds [XRD or Raman (Tracey et al., 2006)] over the surface. Even so, the collected information still seemed overabundant. For this reason, the program was adapted to work with a limited number of representative points selected by the user. The measuring time was enormously reduced, and the results were reasonably good. The program can be applied retroactively to previously collected data, provided that a good image, the accurate position of the measurements and their numerical results are available. Examples of maps relative to mockups, real paintings, cross sections and three-dimensional objects are shown.
       
  • The Sarno Baths in Pompeii: Context and state of the art
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Leonardo Bernardi, Maria Stella BusanaAbstractThe Sarno Bath complex (Regio VIII, Insula 2, modern house nos. 17–21) occupies the southernmost part of the city of Pompeii and it is unique in terms of size, architectural structure and functional aspects. The analysis of all published studies and documentation, available in the archives of the Archaeological Park of Pompeii, was the starting point of the project and it allowed to retrace the history of excavation and research from 1887 to this day. The study of Mau's and Sogliano's publications have led to know the course of excavations, the finds brought to light, the first functional interpretations of the building, its architectural evolution and, overall, a major structural failure that involved the westernmost part of the building. Because of this collapse, most of the vaults and the walls of levels −3 and −4 were reconstructed and the decorative apparatus was relocated. In the past decades, the research has focused on refining the interpretation of the first scholars in terms of construction techniques, usually with the goal of dating in absolute terms the architectural development, of defining the decorative apparatus and the function of each level, the ownership and the usability of the building, themes still unsolved. Unfortunately, most recent studies did not give due attention to the reconstruction carried out at the end of nineteenth century. Some examinations notice the different building materials, but they do not doubt the originality of today's plan. Some others relegate this news to the margin.
       
  • Combining multispectral images with X-ray fluorescence to quantify the
           distribution of pigments in the frigidarium of the Sarno Baths, Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Yotam Asscher, Ivana Angelini, Michele Secco, Matteo Parisatto, Antonina Chaban, Rita Deiana, Gilberto ArtioliAbstractMultispectral imaging is used to identify and semi-quantify the distribution of pigments in wall paintings based on mineral-specific band ratios. The western wall in the frigidarium of the Sarno baths in Pompeii was imaged using VIS-IR band-pass filters, stacked as multispectral data, and different pigments were measured using portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and fiber optic reflected spectroscopy (FORS) to determine their chemical composition and spectral signature. Cuprorivaite and hematite were found to be the main minerals in blue and red pigments, with higher amounts of copper and iron respectively. Proportional relations were found between cuprorivaite specific band ratios from multispectral and FORS data and the intensity of copper in pXRF spectra, allowing to map the mineral content on a large scale and determine their relative concentrations. These results were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thin section analysis on painted fragments that were detached from the wall paintings and found below. This contribute indicates that on-site portable instrumentation could identify specific pigments and determine their 2D distributions based on non-invasive diagnostics of chemical composition and spectral reflectance in wall paintings.
       
  • Investigation of organic additives in Italian Renaissance devotion stucco
           reliefs from French collections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Amra Aksamija, Witold Nowik, Patrice Lehuédé, Anne-Solenn Le Hô, Marc Bormand, Anne BouquillonAbstractA series of Italian Renaissance stucco artworks from Museum of Fine Arts of Strasbourg and Louvre Museum in Paris were investigated with the aim of revealing and characterizing possible organic additives. As the stucco and its additives are little known but, according to the literature, could be complex and contain many different matters, the methodology was first tuned on the laboratory models prepared with gypsum or gypsum/lime plaster with various quantities of organic matter: animal glue or gum Arabic. The methodology consisted of observation of the surfaces of sampled fragments by optical and electronic microscopy, preliminary investigation of the presence of organic compounds by infrared spectroscopy, then extraction of the organic matters from the samples, preparation, and analysis by gas chromatography. The adopted sample preparation scheme allows screening the substances from various classes of organic products from one sample. The optimized analytical approach was applied to the samples from historical objects, showing the presence of proteins, oils, wax and sugars in reliefs. The interpretation of obtained results is not straightforward because of the low response of these substances in the samples, their possible mixture, or unknown origin. In some cases, the protein matter response varies with the deepness of sampling in the matter of stucco, which could be connected with its layered structure or particular surface treatment.
       
  • 3D survey of Sarno Baths (Pompeii) by integrated geomatic methodologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Michele Monego, Andrea Menin, Massimo Fabris, Vladimiro AchilliAbstractThe main aim of this work is to present the results of the geomatic survey, data collection and data processing that were conducted as part of the MACH project (MACH – Multidisciplinary methodological Approaches to the knowledge, conservation and valorization of Cultural Heritage) of the University of Padua. This wide research has regarded the study of Sarno Baths, an architectural complex located in the south-western part of Pompeii, and has involved different disciplines. Many of these groups of work could benefit the fundamental base of data that the integrated geomatic survey has provided, from the point cloud 3D models to plans and section, from the high resolution orthophotos to the monitoring of the façade subsidence. The complex is built on the southern rocky front of Pompeii and consists of a five floors structure that develops from the base outside the urban complex until the road level of the city and is articulated in different buildings with rooms, galleries, corridors and outdoor areas. The Archaeological Park of Pompeii has provided 3D data of the internal parts of the building, that were unified with the data obtained from the new surveys of the façade, in order to create a model with high metric reliability and geometrical completeness. It was made using laser scanning, classic photogrammetry and structure from motion photogrammetric technique, topographic and GNSS measurements of a reference network and high precision levelling for the monitoring of the deformations of the façade. All the new data were georeferenced thanks to the integration of new vertices with the topographic reference network of the Pompeii site. The complete spatial dataset allowed an up-to-date and accurate geometrical knowledge of the complex and had a fundamental role in the architectural study, in the planning of the intervention and in all the investigation activities of the MACH project that aimed at the conservation and valorization of the building.
       
  • The Sarno Baths, Pompeii: Architecture development and 3D reconstruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Leonardo Bernardi, Maria Stella Busana, Vanessa Centola, Claudia Marson, Luca SbrogiòAbstractThe paper focuses on the architectural study of the so called Sarno Bath complex at its final phase, a six-storey building located at the edge of the city (Regio VIII, Insula 2, nos. 17–21). The complete 3D survey of the complex, obtained from the surveys already carried out by the Archaeological Park of Pompeii and by new surveys of the University of Padua (MACH Project), was the fundamental work tool. The research has several aims: (i) to provide a proposal of reconstruction of the partially collapsed southern façade and of the upper levels; (ii) to define the numerous passages within the building complex, useful for understanding how it was used; (iii) to propose a preliminary hypothesis on the function of the different levels and areas, based on the planimetric analysis and on the materials found (the study is ongoing) as well as on the graffiti still in situ; (iv) to provide a “quantitative” architectural evaluation of the complex, facilitated by the digital survey. The understanding of this extraordinary architectural and multifunctional complex, where public functions, residential areas, a public–private bath and storage areas – all interconnected – might coexist, is only at the beginning.
       
  • Non-destructive investigations for structural qualification of the Sarno
           Baths, Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Maria Rosa Valluzzi, Filippo Lorenzoni, Rita Deiana, Sabrina Taffarel, Claudio ModenaAbstractA series of non-destructive techniques were applied to the masonry building of the Sarno Baths in Pompeii, Italy, aimed at improving knowledge of the condition of the site, to integrate and identify its construction and to provide data for structural evaluations. In particular: i) the current conditions of the various masonry types were identified through sonic pulse velocity tests and tomographic processing; ii) inner cross-sections were reconstructed by videoscope and, where possible, by direct measurements; iii) infrared thermography was applied to qualify the connections among structural elements (i.e., walls, vaults) and to detect any structural anomalies; iv) the dynamic properties of the structure were identified by ambient vibration tests. None of the tests required any sampling, drilling or damage to the historical materials, and no forces were imposed on the structures. In the view of the preservation and usability of the site, integration of the above tests with the results obtained by the other experts involved in the project contributed to better understanding of the current state of the structure and its possible evolution in terms of seismic vulnerability.
       
  • Monitoring earthen archaeological heritage using multi-temporal
           terrestrial laser scanning and surface change detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Nicola LercariTerrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a three-dimensional survey technique proven successful for in-field stratigraphic and site-wide documentation or damage assessment of archaeological heritage. This study explores the potential utility of TLS and the Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison (M3C2) surface change detection method for monitoring and preserving ancient earthen architecture, and for creating comprehensive site monitoring programs in compliance with UNESCO periodic reporting guidelines. The proposed methodology was tested using 3-D TLS datasets spanning a period of six years to assess the decay of mud brick structures at Çatalhöyük, Turkey in order to understand material loss in walls and buildings, identify potential underlying causes, and create a plan for physical interventions. This paper explains how a multi-temporal laser scanning workflow using the M3C2 method can be leveraged successfully to quantify – with millimeter-level accuracy – the decay of large earthen sites and inform future conservation interventions. This approach allows for the identification of the wall features with the most immediate risk of deterioration based on the detection of patterns of change and calculation of its significance as a preventative measure. Results presented in this paper suggest that the proposed method can be used effectively to enhance site monitoring and perform preventative on-site interventions at large earthen sites earthen sites in the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and the Americas.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Menthol-based eutectic mixtures: Novel potential temporary consolidants
           for archaeological excavation applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Yarong Yu, Wenjin Zhang, Xiangna Han, Xiao Huang, Jing Zhao, Qinghua Ren, Hongjie LuoAbstractTemporary consolidation technique becomes more and more popular in archaeological excavation. Cyclododecane and menthol are the mostly studied and used temporary consolidants. However, their best applying temperatures are about 20-40 °C higher than their melting points, which can be a problem for temperature-sensitive artifacts or excavation in cold environment. In this work, we take advantage of the concept of eutectic mixtures. Menthyl lactate, a menthol derivative, which can also sublime at ambient conditions, is introduced into menthol to form binary eutectic mixtures. Their potentials as temporary consolidants are carefully and systematically examined. The results indicate the eutectic mixtures are good temporary consolidants and their performances at very low temperatures are much better than the parent compounds. Through this work, a list of temporary consolidants whose melting points range from below 0 to 45 °C are built up for conservators to choose based on their needs.
       
  • Absorption edge sensitive radiography and tomography of Egyptian Papyri
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Tobias Arlt, Heinz-Eberhard Mahnke, Tzulia Siopi, Eve Menei, Cristina Aibéo, Regine-Ricarda Pausewein, Ina Reiche, Ingo Manke, Verena LepperIn the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, Berlin, a multitude of papyrus manuscripts are stored. Papyri found on Elephantine island are of special interest. No other settlement in Egypt has been so well documented through texts over four millennia. However, 80% of the Elephantine texts are yet to be documented and published. As part of the “Elephantine” project, funded by an ERC starting grant, we attempt to gain access to hidden text. Most of the fragments are very fragile, deformed, with some rolled or folded. Papyri from the Old and Middle Kingdom were typically written with carbon ink. Consequently, these fragments show no absorption sensitivity for hard X-rays. Also, other inks have been used in those times. If small traces of high-Z elements, like Fe or Pb, are found, absorption may be sensitive enough for radiography and tomography to distinguish between writing and base material. We sorted out suitable fragments and papyrus packages by X-ray fluorescence mapping. When promising high-Z elements were detected, absorption tomography was applied using micro-CT laboratory systems or synchrotron X-rays at the BAMline at BESSY II. The sensitivity can be enhanced by element-sensitive absorption edge imaging, where transmission data taken above and below the edge are compared. This technique was applied at the absorption edges of the elements known to be used as ink and pigment material – Iron, Antimony and Lead. These X-ray results were complemented by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) measurements showing that the lead is found in the form of lead carboxylate. In the future, the presented methodology will be applied to folded or rolled papyri, allowing for analysis of the text without manually opening the fragments.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Identifying archaeological leather – discussing the potential of grain
           pattern analysis and zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) through a
           case study involving medieval shoe parts from Denmark
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jannie Amsgaard Ebsen, Kirstine Haase, René Larsen, Dorte Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Luise Ørsted BrandtAbstractIn this paper, two species identification methods are compared and discussed based on a case study of medieval archaeological leather shoe parts from the Danish cities of Ribe, Viborg and Odense. The species identifications are performed by both morphological grain pattern analysis using stereomicroscopy and zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS), which identifies species based on small structural differences in collagen type I, creating unique fingerprints of genera and in some cases species. Of the 105 shoe parts analysed and sampled, only 37 shoe parts were found to have preserved grain patterns. Grain pattern analysis was in some cases complicated by the lack of hair holes, degraded grain and the presence of soil particles. The varying morphological appearance and condition of the grain patterns are demonstrated through a series of stereomicroscope colour photos at 10x enlargement. The microscope photos reveal considerable complexity and variety in the morphological appearance of the decayed archaeological leather in comparison with well-preserved modern leather. The colour photo examples of the grain pattern and ZooMS-identified leather may help to improve the grain pattern analysis of archaeological leather in future. Where grain patterns were preserved, a good correlation between the two methods was observed. ZooMS had a high overall success rate and has a large potential for species identification of archaeological leather. In the cases where grain pattern analysis was problematic, ZooMS was found superior for species identification. Even though grain pattern analysis had a lower success rate, in a few cases it did produce results at a higher taxonomic level than ZooMS identification. Moreover, grain pattern analysis provided additional contextual information. In conclusion, an interdisciplinary approach is recommended for conservators, archaeologists and other researchers of cultural heritage wishing to find the most potential way to identify different species. The identification method used should be tailored to suit each given archaeological leather assemblage depending on the degree of preservation, object type and context of the material in question, as well as the available expertise, time and budget.
       
 
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