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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1660 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (248 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (88 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (53 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (973 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (170 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (973 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Growth and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Information, Diversity, & Inclusion     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovative Research in Social and Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Education and Development     Open Access  
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Korean Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Language and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social and Allied Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Synergy and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal Pedagogy of Social Studies     Open Access  
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access  
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review of Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 215)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
IULC Working Papers     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access  
Izvestia Ural Federal University Journal. Series 3. Social and Political Sciences     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addiction & Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Burirum Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Community Development and Life Quality     Open Access  
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Computational Social Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Economy Culture and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Geography, Politics and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate School Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies in Northern Rajabhat Universities     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Surin Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajapruk University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ilahiyat Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free  
Journal of Mediterranean Knowledge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Multicultural Affairs     Open Access  
Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 329, SJR: 4.302, CiteScore: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Progressive Research in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Social Science Education : JSSE     Open Access  
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Review     Open Access  
Journal of Social Structure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Trust Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Biometrika dan Kependudukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Kawistara     Open Access  
Jurnal Lakon     Open Access  
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Teori dan Praksis Pembelajaran IPS     Open Access  
Jurnal Terapan Abdimas     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access  
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies     Open Access  
Kimün. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente     Open Access  
Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Korea : Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft     Open Access  
Korean Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Kulttuurintutkimus     Open Access  
Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Homme. Europäische Zeitschrift für Feministische Geschichtswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
L'Ordinaire des Amériques     Open Access  
La Tercera Orilla     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Lambda Nordica     Open Access  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Lavboratorio : Revista de Estudios sobre Cambio Estructural y Desigualdad Social.     Open Access  
Lectio Socialis     Open Access  
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lex Social : Revista de Derechos Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Liminar. Estudios Sociales y Humanisticos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Literacy Learning: The Middle Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Local-Global: Identity, Security, Community     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lucero     Open Access  
Lúdicamente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lutas Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedon Digest, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Maskana     Open Access  
Mathématiques et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mayéutica Revista Científica de Humanidades y Artes     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meanjin Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Media Information Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Media International Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Media International Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Melbourne Journal of Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mémoire(s), identité(s), marginalité(s) dans le monde occidental contemporain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Memorias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meridional : Revista Chilena de Estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
methaodos.revista de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Methodological Innovations     Open Access  
Methods, Data, Analyses     Open Access  
México y la Cuenca del Pacífico     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Migration Action     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Mikarimin. Revista Científica Multidisciplinaria     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Cultural Heritage
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1296-2074
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Imported or indigenous' The earliest forged tin foil found in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Yingchen Wang, Jianjun Mei, Yongbin Yu, Chengyun Xiao, Guanghua Xiang, Dexiang Zhao, Kunlong Chen It was during the early Eastern Zhou period (7th–5th centuries BCE) that forged tin foil turned up suddenly as an “exotic” novelty. This paper investigates archaeological finds of tin foil with decorating patterns from Caojiagang and Zhaoxiang, the two Eastern Zhou tombs found in Dangyang, Hubei, Central China. The results of scientific examination reveal the application of remarkable forging and working techniques to manufacturing the patterned tin foil, demonstrating a new trend toward diversity in metalwork in Eastern Zhou China, signalling a departure from the dominance of piece-mould casting bronze technology in the earlier periods of the Shang and Western Zhou. It is argued that the appearance of tin foil and the widespread adaption of forging technology in the Eastern Zhou period were most likely motivated by the desire to pursue social distinction or display individual preference. The cultural links to the Eurasian steppe could have played a role in the process also.
       
  • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic SiO2-based hybrids in the protection of
           sandstone for anti-salt damage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Mengjun Jia, Junyan Liang, Ling He, Xiang Zhao, Stefan Simon The anti-salt damage of sandstone protected by hydrophobic and hydrophilic SiO2-based hybrids is evaluated in NaCl, Na2SO4 and NaCl-Na2SO4 salt-loaded hydrothermal aging (SLHA) cycles. Although both hydrophobic and hydrophilic SiO2-based hybrids could prevent the sandstone from salt damage through improving the matrix strength, the hydrophobic hybrid performs much better protection than hydrophilic one. The sandstone protected by hydrophobic SiO2-based hybrid shows nearly no salt-damage, which is attributed to its excellent water repellence, high adhesive strength and good compatibility with sandstone matrix. However, the hydrophilic SiO2-based hybrid tends to induce an exterior-to-interior salt-damage behaviour due to the frequent circulation movement of water with salt to result in the formation of surface efflorescence and interior sub-efflorescence in the protected sandstone. Furthermore, the hydrophobic-protective effect is also confirmed by another alternative hydrophobic POSS-based hybrid to offer stronger protection in anti-salt damage than that protected by hydrophilic hybrid. Nevertheless, there lies the difference, the hydrophobic SiO2-based hybrid penetrates into the inner pores of the sandstone and develops a strong cohesion with sand-grain through the formation of Si-O bonds, but the hydrophobic POSS-based hybrid protects the sandstone with a weaker physical interaction between hybrid and sand-grains resulting in a fractured damage. Therefore, SiO2-based hybrid is superior to POSS-based hybrid in promoting the anti-salt ability of sandstone. It is believed that these results could contribute much to the future protection of stone monuments by different hybrids.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Unveiling the underprintings of a late-fifteenth-early-sixteenth century
           illuminated French incunabulum by infrared reflectography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Catarina Miguel, Silvia Bottura, Teresa Ferreira, Antónia Fialho Conde, Cristina Barrocas-Dias, António Candeias For the first time, IR reflectography was used for analysing the production technique of incunabula, unveiling impressive results concerning the identification of underprintings and the relation with its coloured illuminated representations. In this work, the procedures followed for producing a late-fifteenth-early-sixteenth century incunabulum produced in the Parisian workshop of Germain Hardouyn held by the Biblioteca Pública de Évora (Inc.438) were characterized by IR reflectography. Unexpected features concerning the creative process of the hand-coloured procedures were achieved, reflecting an illuminator strongly influenced by the devotions that were in fashion at the time, unlike the engraving plates used on the incunabulum, whose representations faithfully followed the references of the Holy Scriptures. For the evaluation of the originality of the painted surfaces, a representative painted illustration — the Adoration of the Magi, f.11 — was full characterized using a microscopic and spectroscopic approach (OM, SEM-EDS, Raman microscopy, μ-FTIR). Three representative coloured-paints (white, blue and gilding) of the painted illustrations from the Adoration of the Magi (f.11), the Pietà (f.47v) and the Pentecost (f.65v) were characterized and compared to infer on the contemporaneity of these painted illustrations.
       
  • Using Raman spectroscopy to estimate the dates of carbon-based inks from
           Ancient Egypt
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Sarah Goler, Alexis Hagadorn, David M. Ratzan, Roger Bagnall, Angela Cacciola, James McInerney, James T. Yardley In the first study of its kind, we previously investigated Raman spectra of 17 papyri from the Columbia University Libraries collection, written in carbon-based black ink with well-established dates between 400 BCE and 1000 CE. Using a simple two-peak spectral model for the Raman spectrum of carbonaceous materials, we discovered small but statistically significant systematic variations in the spectral parameters with manuscript date. The purposes of this report are to present: (1) more-powerful statistical examinations of the correlation based on the two-peak spectral model and on a new three-peak model which includes spectral effects for amorphous carbon; (2) new data for additional ancient manuscripts, broadening the investigation; (3) a method for potentially exploiting the observed correlation to predict the dates of undated manuscripts of similar character; and (4) a hypothesis as to the underlying chemical basis of the observed spectral changes. We apply both linear and multiple linear regression analyses to the spectral models. We show that the three-peak model fits the experimental data much better than the two-peak model. Through the use of multiple linear regression, the three-peak model reduces significantly the overall correlation error. We find that our ability to predict dates for manuscripts that are similar to those of the study over the date range 400 BCE to 1000 CE is limited by intrinsic variations in the character of the pigments to about ± 118 years with 68% statistical confidence (or ± 236 years with 95% confidence). We confirm the observed correlation and prediction capabilities through a blind study of six additional ancient manuscripts and two late 19th- or early 20th-century fakes in the Columbia University collection. The data suggest that chemical degradation of amorphous carbon and chemical modification of graphitic crystals may both contribute to the observed spectral differences. This would also account for the magnitude of the variance in spectral character we observe, which possibly reflects differences in pigment manufacture processes as well as the effects of differences in chemical micro-environments after writing. The chemical degradation hypothesis receives additional support from previously unreported examination of two manuscripts from the collection of the Brooklyn Museum. The older of these, dated through conventional papyrological methods to 2323-2150 BCE, deviates from the linear regression models, but in a way consistent with chemical (i.e., non-linear) degradation. For comparison, we report Raman scattering for 8 different modern inks using the same protocol we developed for the ancient inks. Using statistical techniques based on Gaussian Mixture Modeling, we demonstrate differences between the spectral character of the inks of our base study and those prepared from modern reference pigments. This allows us to define a mathematical quantity that can distinguish between spectra of pigments that are spectrally similar to the ancient pigments studied here and those that are not. This new and non-destructive method produces a statistically robust indication of the antiquity and rough period (e.g., Ptolemaic, Roman, etc.) of the inks in question, if not the precise date. We hypothesize that the potential for greater precision is likely limited by the intrinsic variations in the spectral characteristics of the inks from manuscript to manuscript.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Mediated messages. Periodicals, exhibitions and the shaping of postmodern
           architecture. In: Patteeuw V, Szacka L-C, editors. Bloomsbury Visual Arts
           (2018). ISBN: 9781350046177Italy/Australia. Postmodern in translation. In:
           Micheli S, Macarthur J, editors. Uro Publications (2018). ISBN:
           9780994396624.
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Macarena de la Vega de León
       
  • Context-aware risk management for architectural heritage using historic
           building information modeling and virtual reality
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Jongwook Lee, Junki Kim, Jaehong Ahn, Woontack Woo This research proposes a data structure for context-aware risk management for architectural heritage using Historic Building Information Modeling (HBIM) and Virtual Reality (VR). In cultural heritage domain, risk management plays a key role in the preservation and intervention of the heritage. For effective risk management, it is important to share enriched data between people who monitor and diagnose heritages and people who recognize the context of information. The 5W1H (what, when, where, who, why, and how) model-based metadata structure for context-awareness and the framework for linking the HBIM with VR environment which enables sharing and retrieving of risk management information are proposed in this research. Two prototypes were created; an on-site VR application for the heritage managers and a remote VR application for the conservators. The effectiveness of the applications was verified through an experiment including a user survey to compare the paper-based and the VR-based methods regarding on-site VR application, and a focus-group interview regarding the remote VR application. This study enabled to integrate risk management information scattered across a variety of sources and formats, provide contextualized information. Thereby it shortens the time and effort spent to find and share information by heritage managers and conservators.
       
  • Terrestial laser scanning digitalization in underground constructions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): César Porras-Amores, Fernando R. Mazarrón, Ignacio Cañas, Paola Villoria Sáez Spain has a large heritage in vernacular architecture among which the underground constructions can be highlighted. On many occasions these constructions were excavated hundreds of years ago and there is lack of technical information about their geometry or visual characteristics. Among the existing survey techniques, the terrestrial laser scanning technology seems one of the most appropriate and effective for these constructions. Given the high underground heritage in Spain and the lack of graphic documentation with good quality, there is a need to establish a quick and effective methodology aiming to classify these constructions in order to be included in the national heritage registers. To do so, the first step was to assess how aspects such as the scanner resolution, color and meshing strategy (post-processing phase) affect the quality of the graphic results generated. Then, the most adequate survey strategy was selected (based on a reference case study) and was further applied in seven representative underground constructions in order to validate the methodology and verify its effectiveness. Results indicate that a higher density of points is not always associated with a higher graphic quality in both the digital model and graphic information. The type of mesh used in the post-processing stage affects insignificantly the meshing surface, the graphic quality and the processing time of the digital model. On the contrary, it helps to filter unnecessary points in the cloud and thus obtain less heavy digital models. The resolution strategy can considerably increase the processing time of the models, however a lower resolution strategy combined with a higher number of shots is recommended to improve the graphic quality of the results.
       
  • GIS and Geomatics for archive documentation of an architectural project:
           The case of the big Arc of entrance to the Vittorio Emanuele II Gallery of
           Milan, by Giuseppe Mengoni (1877)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Gabriele Bitelli, Giorgia Gatta, Anna-Maria Guccini, Alberto Zaffagnini Today, Geomatics science can provide modern techniques of acquisition, visualization, measurement and data management, useful for preservation, documentation and analysis of Cultural Heritage, in all its variety. Very interesting is the case for which both the project documentation of an object and the object itself are Cultural Heritage. A perfect example is the big Arc of entrance to the Vittorio Emanuele II Gallery of Milan (Italy), by Giuseppe Mengoni (1877), whose project documents are today kept at the “Museum-Archive Giuseppe Mengoni” of Fontanelice (province of Bologna). Exploiting this case, in the present study it was tested the utilization of geomatic techniques – photogrammetry and GIS (Geographic Information System) technology in particular – for archive documentation, developing an innovative tool able to allow intuitive and immediate searches among the archive documents (once made measurable) and the catalogue records, and let an innovative reading of the big Arc, in each step of its project development.
       
  • A hybrid photogrammetry approach for archaeological sites: Block alignment
           issues in a case study (the Roman camp of A Cidadela)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Marcos Arza-García, Mariluz Gil-Docampo, Juan Ortiz-Sanz Photogrammetry is a cost-effective and versatile technique used for the three-dimensional (3D) registration of archaeological heritage sites. Managing datasets of heterogeneous images in terms of camera type, elevation platform, position or acquisition time can now be addressed by structure from motion (SfM) software via bundle adjustment in a single block based on collinearity principles. This development enables new possibilities with regard to data completeness assurance for 3D documentation, even for complex sites with occlusive elements and hidden areas. However, hybrid photogrammetry in large datasets often requires multiple photogrammetric blocks that must be processed individually and subsequently aligned to obtain a unified point cloud. In this paper, we discuss the steps required to homogenize the information and the methods used to perform block alignment in these cases. A case study of low-altitude aerial photogrammetry with several cameras and platforms is presented for the Roman camp of A Cidadela in NW Spain as a representative example of an archaeological site that is difficult to survey using a single photogrammetric platform. The relatively large expanse of the area and the fact that it is partially covered by a protective structure constitute an ideal framework for the fusion of multiplatform imagery. The most accurate digital surface model (DSM) was obtained via point-based method fusion, during which subsets are aligned based on automatically extracted tie points (TPs) between the dense point clouds; however, point-based method fusion is very time consuming. When hardware capabilities allow, conducting the process in a single block is preferable, which is a noticeably more accurate procedure than independent block fusion.
       
  • Identification of gilding techniques on Roman marble sarcophagi
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Eliana Siotto Several Roman marble sarcophagi (2nd–4th centuries AD) have been investigated in a first systematic research effort to detect (pigments and) gilding techniques employed in the Imperial Rome. A comparative study was performed on a conspicuous group (no. eighty) of Roman sarcophagi identified in the Vatican Museums, the Capitoline Museums and the National Roman Museum collections. A focused in situ campaign of non-invasive analytical investigations have performed by multispectral imaging, spectroscopic and elemental analysis, followed by aimed micro-invasive techniques. As for the main issue of the gilding and its application techniques, the microscopy still remains one of the most efficient tools for their characterization. Therefore, some micro-samples of three sarcophagi chosen as case studies were examined by means of optical petrographic microscopy (OPM) and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM–EDS). The results of archaeological data and scientific analyses show that the leaf gold was applied by two different techniques. In the most attested method, the gold leaf was applied on a ground layer of colour (yellow and/or red ochre, Egyptian blue, etc.); on the other hand, in the other technique, the gold leaf was applied directly onto the marble surface or more probably on top of a thin ground layer of kaolin.
       
  • Characterization of Rembrandt self-portraits through digital-chiaroscuro
           statistics
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): John Asmus, Vadim Parfenov In order to develop an analytical tool to aid connoisseurs in authentication of paintings we introduce a digital computational technique based on luminosity histograms of high-resolution digitized images of paintings. This exploratory approach emerged from the widely-held hypothesis that every individual artist (master, student, copier, or forger) will tend to have a personal hand/eye spatial “signature” in shading and contrast (e.g., chiaroscuro and sfumato) that may be revealed and quantified by means of histogram statistics. A preliminary database library is built of amplitude histogram data of the digital images of authenticated works by the Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn against which copies and forgeries then are compared. It illuminates the individual chiaroscuro or spatial-blending characteristics of the master-created paintings to be analyzed. We show preliminary results from our analyses of 36 self-portraits that at various times have been attributed to Rembrandt and were chosen by us as a consequence of the prodigious historical, scientific, and stylistic scrutiny that have focused on these works in recent decades. Our statistical results demonstrate probative conformity for paintings that have been established as authentic self-portraits by Rembrandt and reveal statistical differences when compared to copies and forgeries as well as paintings of the Rembrandt workshop.
       
  • A Byzantine connection: Eastern Mediterranean glasses in medieval Bari
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Elisabetta Neri, Nadine Schibille, Michele Pellegrino, Donatella Nuzzo The transition from the Roman natron-based glass industry to the medieval ash-based tradition in Italy in the latter part of the first millennium CE is still poorly documented. The compositional data of eighteen glass fragments excavated from the Byzantine praetorium in Bari suggest that the development in the southern part of the Peninsula differs from that in the north. Analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) identified the first significant group of glasses in Italy that were produced in and imported from the eastern Mediterranean during the last two centuries of the first millennium CE. Some samples exhibit the characteristics of early Islamic natron and plant-ash glasses, while two specimens are similar in major and trace element composition to post-Roman glasses most likely manufactured in Byzantine Asia Minor. These represent the only known vessels made from the Byzantine high lithium, high boron glass found so far in the western Mediterranean. The analytical results thus show that being under Byzantine hegemony was advantageous for trade connections in the medieval Mediterranean.
       
  • A lead-framed glass mirror from a Roman woman's grave in Padua/Patavium
           (north-eastern Italy) – investigating its function and production with a
           multidisciplinary approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Cecilia Rossi, Elena Pettenò, Sara Emanuele, Emanuela Faresin, Giuseppe Salemi, Mosè Mariotti, Gianmario Molin A small Roman mirror, made up of a square lead frame and a convex reflective glass surface, was recently recovered in Padua in a grave dating back to the second half of the 2nd century AD. It was investigated with a multidisciplinary approach. During restoration, the artefact was dismantled, its individual components cleaned, consolidated and then reassembled. Chemical and isotopic analyses were carried out on microscopic fragments from both the glass and the lead components to identify their origin and production technologies. Structured-light 3D scanning was used both to produce a model of the artefact and to reconstruct its optical properties. Archaeometric results show that the 200 μm thick reflective glass surface, coated with a thin lead film, belongs to the Sb-colourless group. The lead frame is now totally oxidised. The lead isotope ratios of both the glass coating and the frame show a common composition, statistically close to some Romanian ores. These data suggest a multistep production process, most likely carried out in the same workshop. The distribution of similar finds mainly between the Northern-Adriatic basin and the Danube could indicate that these products were manufactured in the central-eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, presumably in the Southern Carpathian area, close to the local lead ore deposits. The typology is well defined thanks to the 3D model that is an important tool for morphometric investigations. The optical properties of the mirror, given by its convex spherical surface with a 9 cm radius, suggest the object was actually used as a makeup tool.In conclusion, this multidisciplinary approach reveals that despite its non-precious materials, the mirror can be considered a product of superior technological and scientific skills.
       
  • Non-destructive method for wood identification using conventional X-ray
           computed tomography data
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Kayoko Kobayashi, Sung-Wook Hwang, Takayuki Okochi, Won-Hee Lee, Junji Sugiyama We establish an efficient and reliable method of wood identification that combines a non-destructive and non-invasive laboratory-scale tool, X-ray computed tomography (CT), with machine learning for image recognition. We selected six hardwood species used to create the Tripitaka Koreana and obtained the X-ray CT data of its woodblocks. Image recognition systems using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) or local binary patterns (LBP) were applied to the CT images and the prediction accuracies were evaluated. Because the gray level of the CT data is linearly related with the density, the CT images were preprocessed to calibrate the density. Although the resolution of the images is too low for the anatomical microstructures required for wood identification to be easily recognized visually, the predicted accuracies are quite high in both systems. However, the LBP system has slight advantages over the GLCM system. The results moreover show that the calibration of gray level to density improves the accuracies of the results. If the candidates for the wood species are selected properly and sufficient data for training is available, this technique will provide novel information about the properties of wooden historical objects.
       
  • Wet treatment of 19th century albumen photographs with Gellan gum
           hydrogel: A comparison to water treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Zinaida S. Vakhovskaya, Tolganay B. Egorova, Georgy B. Meshkov, Alexander V. Egorov In the conservation practice of albumen photographs, wet cleaning techniques were long used to remove pollutions, gluing components, cellulose degradation products, and to reduce highlight yellowing. However, water immersion, as well as surface cleaning, enhances the cracking of the albumen layer surface. These cleaning methods are suitable for paper artworks. Whereas the conventional water treatment may cause irreversible damage of the paper structure, the use of rigid hydrogel of Gellan gum had been proposed as an alternative technique that is less destructive to the paper structure. Two wet treatments, water and Gellan gum hydrogel, were applied to the samples of original 19th century albumen photoprints. Their effect was assessed using instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and pH measurements. The effect of wet treatments on the albumen photograph surface cracking was quantified. Despite that Gellan hydrogel is very gentle and efficient tool for the restoration of paper artworks, it is as harmful for the albumen photographs surface as the conventional water surface cleaning, and therefore may be applied on the verso of the photographs solely.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A combination of techniques to study Chinese traditional Lajian paper
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Yanbing Luo, Yue Wang, Xiujuan Zhang Although it is a very important Chinese traditional handmade paper, the technique employed to produce Lajian paper has been lost. Unambiguous characterization of this unique paper is essential for its conservation and reservation. A fragment of ancient purple-red Lajian paper, dated from the Qing Dynasty and decorated with flecked Au, was analyzed via non-destructive and/or micro-destructive methods, such as Optical microscopy (OM), SEM-EDS, X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The results showed that the Lajian paper, which was 50–60 μm thick overall, was produced from bamboo fibers that were mixed mainly with wheat and mulberry fibers. The front surface was first filled with kaolin to form a coating that was approximately 10 μm thick and then polished with wax mixed with cochineal dye, minium pigment and animal glue to form a purple-red color to protect it from humidity and mold growth. The back surface was treated the same as the front, except that cochineal was not used. The handmade paper and color were stable because cochineal produced neutral/weak alkaline conditions. This study provides comprehensive information about the production process of this traditional handmade paper.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An immunomagnetic bead enrichment technique to improve the detection
           efficiency for trace silk protein, its application
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Hailing Zheng, Wei Zhang, Hailiang Yang, Chao Ma, Yang Zhou, Xianjun Dai Immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) are a new immunological separation technology for protein purification, etc. In this experiment, to enrich and purify trace silk fibroin from complex soil and cultural relics, an immunomagnetic separation method was developed through coupling anti-fibroin polyclonal antibodies with magnetic beads. The key parameters were optimized to prepare the IMBs and capture the fibroin. Under optimized conditions, the capture rate with 1.2 mg of IMBs against a 100 ng/mL-1 fibroin solution was greater than 99%. The recovery rate of fibroin in soil was over 97% when the silk fibroin additive content was 10 to 50 ng, which showed that the IMB method developed in this study could successfully enrich silk fibroin in soil for indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) detection. The results of the respective analyses of fabric and mineralized textile samples indicated that IMBs could be successfully applied for the detection of trace silk fibroin in archaeological samples.
       
  • New insights into the fading problems of safflower red dyed textiles
           through a HPLC-PDA and colorimetric study
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Rosa Costantini, Ina Vanden Berghe, Francesca Caterina Izzo Safflower is well-known by textile conservators and restorers as the red dye source that produces a nice, though very delicate pink colour that is extremely light-sensitive. The fading due to light sensitivity can be seen in many historical silk fabrics from the most renowned museums and it is a major challenge for textile conservators. However, the fading is not only a result of light exposure, as fabrics stored for many years in dark museum storage also exhibit gradual decolouration. The aim of this study is to increase knowledge on the environmental parameters involved in the degradation processes of carthamin, the main red dye constituent of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The newly gained information will contribute to a more realistic perspective on the problems of fading of safflower-dyed textiles, possibly helping their conservation. To evaluate the stability of safflower red, specific ageing tests were carried out on new silk samples, dyed with safflower through modern recipes deriving from traditional ones. For the artificial ageing, the effects of simulated sunlight, temperature, humidity and ozone were separately investigated through HPLC-PDA analysis and colorimetric examinations. The results confirmed that safflower red degrades most rapidly under light exposure. They also revealed an important instability of the carthamin dye constituent in a dark environment, especially when subjected to high humidity conditions. Moreover, the HPLC-PDA study was able to provide new insight into the different markers (e.g. Ct components) that are commonly revealed in historic objects dyed with safflower red, but that still have unclarified origins.
       
  • Mapping degradation pathways of natural and synthetic dyes with LC-MS:
           Influence of solvent on degradation mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Bob W.J. Pirok, Giacomo Moro, Nienke Meekel, Sanne V.J. Berbers, Peter J. Schoenmakers, Maarten R. van Bommel To help conserve the vast array of (combinations of) dyestuffs and pigments encountered in cultural-heritage objects and application materials, a rapid and convenient method for dye-degradation research is required. In-solution degradation studies of dyes in a strong solvent, such as the commonly used dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), are potentially of interest, in addition to studies involving other solvents, such as water. The degradation of eosin and carminic acid under the influence of light was investigated in two solvents, i.e. in a mixture of DMSO and acetonitrile and in pure water. A liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for analysis of the degraded samples and identification of the individual components. The presence of DMSO generally facilitated faster degradation, which, in combination with its universal solvating properties are advantageous. However, different products were formed in the presence of DMSO. Degradation pathways for eosin and carminic acid in these solvents are proposed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A complementary spectroscopic approach for the non-invasive in-situ
           identification of synthetic organic pigments in modern reverse paintings
           on glass (1913–1946)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Simon Steger, Heike Stege, Simone Bretz, Oliver Hahn This work addresses the identification of synthetic organic pigments (SOP) in eight modern reverse paintings on glass (1913–1946) by means of an in-situ multi-analytical approach. We combined the complementary properties of mobile Raman spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to overcome the main disadvantages of each method: extensive band overlapping in DRIFT spectra and fluorescence problems in Raman spectra. A collection of DRIFTS reference spectra enables a precise pigment identification by DRIFTS and establishes this method as a serious non-destructive alternative for the identification of SOP. The group of β-naphthol pigments yielded valuable results for both methods, whereas synthetic alizarin (PR83) was preferentially detected by DRIFTS. Finally, uncommon triaryl carbonium pigments and two azo group-based yellows were identified in the paintings by means of Raman spectroscopy.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Saponification in egg yolk-based tempera paintings with lead-tin yellow
           type I
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Silvie Švarcová, Eva Kočí, Jiří Plocek, Assel Zhankina, Janka Hradilová, Petr Bezdička Saponification occurring in paint layers of artworks represents a serious degradation process affecting the appearance and stability of paintings. Formation of metal soaps is mostly reported as a consequence of the interaction of lead white or zinc white with oil binder. We found the distinct symptoms of saponification in paint layers consisting of lead-tin yellow type I and egg yolk binder in a panel painting from the 15th century. This scarce finding induced the study of interactions between lead-tin yellow type I with three different binders: (i) egg yolk tempera, (ii) emulsion of egg yolk and oil, and (iii) oil. The interactions were studied in long-term model experiments using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results, a set of mixed lead carboxylates of the series Pb(C16)2-x(C18)x, where x = 0; 0.25; 0.5; 0,75; 1; 1.5 and 2, was synthesised as reference materials suitable as a basis for proper identification of neo-formed lead soaps by FTIR and XRD. The formation of lead soaps was detected already within 1 month of reaction in egg yolk containing binders, whereas no soap was formed during 6 months of the experiment in the oil mixture. The neo-formed soaps are various mixed lead carboxylates containing both palmitate (C16) and stearate (C18) in one crystal structure and the proportion of carboxylate anions is affected by the type of the binder. We found the C16:C18 ratio in mixed lead carboxylates is higher in egg yolk tempera samples in accordance with the more abundant palmitic acid in egg yolk fat. On the other hand, the lower C16:C18 ratio in emulsion binder correlates with increased content of stearic acid, suggesting contribution of both binders, i.e. egg yolk and oil, to the soap formation.
       
  • Terra verde: Overcoming the problem of transparency by crystal engineering
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 38Author(s): Duncan Micallef, Rebecca Spiteri, Ulrich Baisch, Liana Vella-Zarb Terra verde, or Green Earth, a naturally-occurring mineral and green pigment consisting of celadonite or glauconite, is one of the most commonly-used pigments in works of art and their conservation. Its widespread use is owed primarily to its insensitivity to light, its neutral pH, and its high stability in air and moisture – attributes that collectively make it virtually unreactive with other components in an artefact. Notwithstanding this, the use of terra verde in the conservation of objects of cultural heritage is hindered due to its minimal tinting strength and hiding power, which makes the pigment effectively transparent when applied on the canvas with the most common binding media. This gives rise to problems in retouching during the restoration process. We report a robust and reliable method to overcome the problem of transparency through the application of crystal engineering techniques on the pigment Verona Green Earth, or Verona Terra Verde (VTV). The purchased pigment was co-crystallised with a selection of different co-formers and analysis was carried out on both starting compound and product via IR and XRF spectroscopy, hot-stage microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The results of the experiments conducted show an increase in the pigment's opacity without affecting its colour intensity.
       
  • Evolution of properties under realistic curing conditions of calcined
           ginger nut grouting mortars used in anchoring conservation of earthen
           sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Nan Wang, Wenwu Chen, Jingke Zhang, Ruxue Liao, Jinfeng Li, Linyi Zhao, Zongren Yu Calcined ginger nut (CGN) has been applied in grouting mortars for anchoring unstable earthen sites, but the lack of scientific research limits its application. In this study, CGN-based grouts admixed with fly ash (F), quartz sand (S), or both are evaluated. To explore the optimal mixture ratios, three types of mixing groups (five proportion gradients in each group) are established. All the grout specimens are buried and maintained outdoors, and their physical (shrinkage rate, density, elastic wave velocity, and permeability) and mechanical properties are continuously examined over 180 days. The solidification processes at different ages are simultaneously observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The results indicate that the physical properties of grouts are influenced significantly by initial moisture content but then remain steady for approximately 15 days. Quartz sand can effectively reduce the shrinkage rate of grouts as well as adjust their density and permeability, and might be considered as an ideal mixing material for CGN. In the solidification process, grouts are rapidly solidified after the initial hydration reaction, and the carbonation reaction in the later stage constantly improves their mechanical strength, with physical properties kept relatively stable. SEM images show fly ash and quartz sand particles are cemented by CaCO3 crystals. Through comprehensive comparison, the grouts with the mass ratio of CGN and S at 1:1 are found to better satisfy requirements that grouts should be compatible with earthen sites.
       
  • Calcium oxalate films on works of art: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Laura Rampazzi This work presents a review of the findings of calcium oxalate films, a widespread decay phenomenon recovered on stone and other substrates (mortars, wall and easel paintings, written materials, glass). The specific attention given to the issue in the 1990s has decreased, although articles have documented films until the present day. The review provides critical insights into the literature, focusing on the general properties of films, numerous case studies, the instrumental techniques used to characterise and date films, insights into the possible origin of the decay phenomenon, and an evaluation of the protective role of calcium oxalate layers. The practice of creating artificial films on stone surfaces for protective purposes is also considered. An evaluation of the literature over the last few decades shows various open issues. The origin is still up for debate, and the issue is still of major concern to conservation scientists, conservators, and restorers. The scientific community tends to attribute a biological origin to these films, however further studies are needed to study exactly how they form, focusing for example on simulation tests of the chemical and atmospheric pathway. How these films protect the artwork in terms of the mechanical properties of the surface underneath deserves more study. This would also help restorers to reproduce the calcium oxalate. The bibliography highlights the prevalence of calcium oxalate findings in the Mediterranean Basin and the formation of the least stable form, i.e. weddellite, which has yet to be explained.
       
  • Virtual reality in maritime archaeology legacy data for a virtual diving
           on the shipwreck of the Mercurio (1812)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Massimiliano Secci, Carlo Beltrame, Stefania Manfio, Francesco Guerra Virtual Reality is becoming a complete and original way to leverage the enormous potential of the underwater cultural heritage world. In this paper, we illustrate how we used this tool and other 3D reconstruction to create a virtual experience on the Mercurio shipwreck. The brig Mercurio, sunk during the Battle of Grado (1812), currently lies at a depth of 17 m in the northern Adriatic Sea. Artifacts recovered during investigations made by the Università Ca’ Foscari are now exposed in the Museum of the Sea in Caorle where a multimedia station has been installed. In order to create the virtual dive on this site, it was necessary to process legacy data from the photogrammetry surveys made during the excavation campaigns carried out when VR was unknown in archaeology. The paper presents this original way to create a virtual dive on an ancient shipwreck from archival and heterogeneous data.
       
  • Microstructure imaging of Florentine stuccoes through X-ray tomography: A
           new insight on ancient plaster-making techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Florian Beaugnon, Gianluca Gariani, Emmanuelle Gouillart, Anne Bouquillon, Marc Bormand, Gilles Wallez Gypsum-based plasters or stuccoes, in spite of their importance and diffusion, received little attention in cultural heritage materials studies. This work introduces a new, non-destructive methodology, using micro-tomography to measure the water/plaster ratio and the morphology of the hemihydrate powder used to make plasters on 
       
  • Application of imaging polarimeters to enhanced detection of stone carving
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Haifeng Wang, Yongquan Luo, Caidan An, Songnan Chu, Zhixue Shen, Lixian Huang, Dayong Zhang The enhanced detection and identification of stone carvings is significant for the remote sensing and digital museum project of cultural relic. In addition, imaging polarimeters have the potential to be efficient detectors owing to their superiority in terms of their capability of recognizing object contours and surface roughness. In this paper, the polarization changes of stone materials with different angles and varying degrees of roughness are theoretically analyzed and detected by a high-precision imaging polarimeter based on the liquid crystal variable retarder (LCVR) innovatively. It is observed that the detection of carving characteristics is enhanced in polarized imaging owing to the depressed background and enhanced contrast. The experimental finding indicates that polarized imaging has an exciting function in the remote sensing of stone carvings and enhanced detecting of the fuzzy inscriptions. This kind of specialized photography complements other, equally important recording techniques in the quest for comprehensive documentation of faint carvings.
       
  • The pigments of the frigidarium in the Sarno Baths, Pompeii:
           Identification, stratigraphy and weathering
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Ivana Angelini, Yotam Asscher, Michele Secco, Matteo Parisatto, Gilberto Artioli In the present research is used a multi-analytical approach to study the wall paintings from the Sarno Baths, located in the southern part of Pompeii. In particular the investigation is focused on the frescos of the frigidarium, though a few samples from other rooms were also analysed. Twenty wall paintings fragments were analysed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), optical microscopy (OM), μ-Raman, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (p-XRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD data were used for the mineralogical semi-quantitative phase analyses (SQPA) and the estimation of the hematite crystals size. The obtained data allow the identification of the pigments and the techniques used, and address new question such as whether talc and aragonite were used routinely in the formulation of pigments. The chemical composition of red and yellow pigments is also discussed and compared with data available from the recent literature. The wall paintings are badly preserved and weathering products occur on the pictorial surface. Eight samples of efflorescence salts and patinas were analysed by XRPD: all the samples are composed mainly by alkali sulphates. The systematic difference between the salts present on the northern and the western walls is likely related to the materials inserted during the 19th century restauration.
       
  • The deposition from the Cross in the church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
           (France): A masterpiece of Romanesque sculpture' Materials
           characterization to solve a 20th c. mystery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Alessia Coccato, Luciana Mantovani, Romano Ferrari, Danilo Bersani, Mario Tribaudino, Pier Paolo Lottici Dating and authenticating stone-sculpted works of art is a challenging aspect of cultural heritage studies. In fact, it is often possible to provenance the rock, by comparison of petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data, but no dating of the sculpture can be obtained. Also, stylistic observations need to be considered with care. However, in the case of mastic incrustation sculptures, the applied polychromy can support dating studies, based on pigments and binders. In the church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, a haut-relief representing the Deposition from the Cross is exposed. The calcareous slab is decorated with red and black mastics. It resembles closely the Deposition from the Cross in the transept of Parma Cathedral, dated 1178 and “signed” by Benedictus Antelami. However, the St-Germain Deposition appeared in 1994, when it was donated to the parish by the descendants of Julien Auguste Duperrier, marble worker and collector of Italian antiquities. His last trip to Italy took place in 1924. No information is available on his deal, neither on the transport means arranged, nor on the sculpture itself (author, contractor, date, etc.). Art historical and historical considerations propose either a 12th or 19th–20th c. context for the creation of the sculpture. Chemical analyses of the pigments and binders are therefore proposed to clarify the dating the work of art. Microscopic samples are characterized by a multi-analytical approach: vibrational spectroscopies and X-ray powder diffraction are used to characterize the rock and the polychrome mastic. The rock is identified as a micritic limestone, and shows sulphation issues. Through Raman scattering measurements, the pigments were identified: carbon in the black mastic, and a mixture of red lead and a modern synthetic pigment (PR49:1) in the red areas. This information sheds new light on the chronology and manufacture of the Deposition from the Cross of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. These results allow for a better definition of further lines of research, and to finally propose an authorship for the sculpture.
       
  • Erratum to “Investigation of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate
           plastics in museum collections using ion chromatography and size exclusion
           chromatography” [J. Cult. Herit. (2019) 263–70]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Joy Mazurek, Anna Laganà, Vincent Dion, Suzanna Etyemez, Carolyn Carta, Michael R. Schilling
       
  • Mitigating salt damage in building materials by the use of crystallization
           modifiers – a review and outlook
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Sanne J.C. Granneman, Barbara Lubelli, Rob P.J. van Hees Salt crystallization damage in porous building materials is a widespread phenomenon. Several solutions to prevent, or mitigate, salt damage in building materials, prolonging thereby their service-life have been proposed. One of the latest approaches is the use of crystallization modifiers, aiming at reducing the crystallization pressure and/or favouring the crystallization of salts at the surface (efflorescence) instead of in the pores of the materials (crypto-florescence1). This paper summarizes the working mechanisms of crystallization modifiers and critically reviews the available literature on their use in building materials; finally, it provides an outlook on the potentials of modifiers for the mitigation of salt crystallization damage in building materials.
       
  • Visual information retrieval from historical document images
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Sara Zhalehpour, Ehsan Arabnejad, Chad Wellmon, Andrew Piper, Mohamed Cheriet Information retrieval from documentary heritage is considered a challenging issue because of the documents’ unique structures and level of degradation. Text characters in printed documents historically are accompanied by typographical objects. Retrieving and pursuing these visual typographical elements, which inform the content of historical manuscripts can help us better understand our documentary cultural heritage. Extracting these visual objects aids us in understanding and conveying more information about different practices of representation in historical documents and their effects on the current trends of publishing. Two important typographical objects related to the history of knowledge and information are footnotes and tables; the former are one of the critical elements that demonstrate authority and link the manuscript to its sources, and the latter summarize information in a compact and organized manner essential to the growth of scientific knowledge. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no work that considers in depth the automated detection of these two typographical objects from the large collections of historical documents that would allow further historical study. This article focuses on the problem of detecting the presence of these two visual elements from historical printed documents and establishes two frameworks. The footnote detection framework uses a set of layout-based methods to extract some features regarding the font and appearance, and the table detection framework extracts spectral-based features from the images. These frameworks are tested on a large collection of 18th-century printed documents with more than 32 million images, and the results show their effectiveness and generalization power.
       
  • Bio-based consolidants for waterlogged archaeological wood: Assessment of
           the performance and optimization of the diagnostic protocol
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Alessandra Papacchini, Simona Dominici, Giuseppina Di Giulio, Marco Fioravanti, Antonella Salvini New bio-based polymers used as consolidants for waterlogged archaeological wood were studied and their performance on real wooden samples was assessed. In particular, three oligoamides (oligo ethylene-l-tartaramide, oligo esamethylene-l-tartaramide and copolymer between ethylenediamine, adipic and tartaric acids) and allyl α,α′-trehalose/vinyl alcohol (ATR/VOH) copolymer were selected as consolidants. The affinity for wood and the reversibility of the treatments were evaluated together with certain physical properties of treated wood, i.e. maximum water content (MWC), basic density (ρb) and volumetric shrinkage (βv). A specific diagnostic protocol was optimized in order to obtain reproducible and reliable results. A good affinity for a degraded wood rich in lignin was demonstrated for all tested consolidants. For what concerns the reversibility of the treatments, the oligoamides showed higher reversibility than the ATR/VOH copolymer. The penetration ability was good for all selected products. Good results in terms of MWC reduction and ρb increase were obtained with the oligo esamethylene-L-tartaramide, the oligo ethylene-L-tartaramide and the ATR/VOH copolymer.
       
  • The ancient pozzolanic mortars of the Thermal complex of Baia (Campi
           Flegrei, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Concetta Rispoli, Alberto De Bonis, Vincenza Guarino, Sossio Fabio Graziano, Claudia Di Benedetto, Renata Esposito, Vincenzo Morra, Piergiulio Cappelletti Ancient pozzolanic mortars show the high technological quality achieved by Roman construction workers, due to their ‘excellent state’ of preservation in every environment. These workers well knew that thanks to the combination of lime with specific volcanic products (pozzolana), mortar and concrete become hydraulic, allowing underwater hardening and increasing mechanical strength. The use of pozzolana in a mortar provides the underwater curing (hydraulic limes) of whatever construction with higher speed compared to carbonation processes of slaked lime. Whenever pozzolana is not available, it is substituted by ceramic fragments, which possess similar hydraulic properties. This research focuses, for the first time, on the detailed characterization of mortars coming from the Thermal Complex of Baia, which represents one of the most important archaeological sites in the Campania region. Thanks to several thermal springs, the ancient city of Baiae (Campi Flegrei) was the holiday resort of the Roman aristocracy. The former Soprintendenza Archeologia della Campania, allowed us to perform non-invasive, but representative, sampling of mortars that were characterised by multianalytical methodologies (POM, XRPD, SEM-EDS, TGA, and MIP) providing useful information on possible future activities of restoration. Results confirmed the expertise of Roman workers, who skilfully combined volcanic tuff aggregate, hydrated lime, and ceramic fragments. In particular, the typical zeolitic mineral association of phillipsite > chabazite > analcime found in the tuff aggregate pointed out their provenance from the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff related to the volcanic activity of Campi Flegrei of ca. 15 ka BP. The most relevant characteristic detected in all studied samples is the mortar hydraulicity testified by evidences such as reaction rims between pozzolana and binder, Hydraulicity Index (HI), and thermal analyses investigation. Also, composition of secondary mineralogical phases in the cementiceous matrix is particularly relevant. Distinctive is the contemporary presence of C-A-S-H gel, calcite and gypsum. C-A-S-H gel is derived from lime/ceramic fragments reaction; calcite is likely related to the partial reaction of underburned lime; and gypsum could be ascribable to the sulphation process of calcite. These secondary minerogenetic products fill pore space and enhance bonding in pumice fragments, thus contributing to long-term durability of mortars.
       
  • Tool development for digital reconstruction: A framework for a database of
           historic Roman construction materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rebecca Napolitano, Catherine Jennings, Sophia Feist, Abigail Rettew, Grace Sommers, Hannah Smagh, Benjamin Hicks, Branko Glisic Despite the fact that digital reconstructions of historic structures and sites are a rich asset for understanding both humanistic and scientific facets of the past, tools to ease the generation of accurate models are lacking. This work presents an interactive database of historic Roman construction materials which was designed specifically for the purposes of aiding in digital reconstructions. For the scope of this work, only ancient Roman timber and stone construction materials were agglomerated. However, the framework for the database was constructed so that it could be easily expanded to other geographic locations, materials, and time periods. Based on the results of a survey, the user interface and schema for the database were developed. The information in the database can be searched in two main ways: (1) a user can click on an interactive geographic map to find pertinent materials if they know their location and (2) a user can search for where a material was found based on its name. Additionally, the database was generated in a flexible manner so that new information can be added by registered users. This promotes further development of the database and encourages future tools for digital reconstruction to be designed in a similarly dynamic manner.
       
  • Mineralogical clustering of the structural mortars from the Sarno Baths,
           Pompeii: A tool to interpret construction techniques and relative
           chronologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Michele Secco, Caterina Previato, Anna Addis, Giulia Zago, Angelique Kamsteeg, Simone Dilaria, Caterina Canovaro, Gilberto Artioli, Jacopo Bonetto Structural mortars constitute one of the most diffuse geomaterials, with stones and bricks, in ancient monuments and architectural complexes, especially related to the Roman civilization, which pushed the binder technology to technical levels unsurpassed until post-industrial revolution times. The archaeometric study of mortars is an essential tool to extrapolate great amounts of information concerning supply of raw materials, technological skills of the ancient civilizations and, finally, relative and absolute chronologies of diachronic construction phases, both related to ancient and modern architectural modifications of the buildings. In this contribution, a novel approach for the quantitative mineralogical analysis of ancient mortars is proposed. The analytical process is based on the integrated application of quantitative phase analysis (QPA) of mineral components by means of the Rietveld method applied to X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data and multivariate statistical treatment of the obtained results by means of the principal component analysis. The methodology has been applied on a wide set of binding materials sampled from different structural elements of the Sarno Baths, a five-storey building located in the Pompeii archaeological site. The building is characterized by a marked complexity both in terms of structural layout and constructive techniques, being the result of several modifications in ancient times from the Late Republican age up to the Vesuvius eruption in 79 AD. Furthermore, several poorly documented restorations have been performed between the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century AD. In this perspective, a quantitative characterization of the employed mortars resulted useful not only to define ancient constructive technologies and relative chronologies, but also to discriminate between the original and restored parts of the building for the execution of adequate restoration procedures. The statistical clustering of the quantitative XRPD data clearly defined two ancient constructive phases and allowed a precise definition of the structural elements rebuilt in recent times. Furthermore, the obtained results have been cross-checked with additional analyses, namely XRD analyses on the separated binder fractions, petrographic analyses and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive microanalyses. Such multi-analytical approach allowed the detailed characterization of the employed raw materials, of the pozzolanic reactions between binder and aggregate and of the textural and microstructural characteristics of the mortars. The data interpretation yielded interesting insights both on the advanced optimization of mix designs of binding materials in Roman times, to improve the structural properties of the architectural elements according to their functions, and on the formulation of the restoration products during the historic excavations in Pompeii.
       
  • Discrimination between the authentic and fake Egyptian funerary figurines
           “Ushabtis” via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Amal Khedr, Hamada Sadek, Olodia Aied Nassef, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Mohamed Abdel Harith The potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in differentiating between types of genuine and fake Ushabtis was studied. For this goal, the present study was initiated by a comprehensive spectrochemical analytical study of four archeological Ushabti statues, dated back to the late Ptolemaic period (332–330 B.C), which have been excavated south of El-Shawaf pyramid in Saqqara, Giza, Egypt. This study was followed by performing the same investigations on several imitated Ushabtis, which were purchased from the touristic marketplace in the region of the pyramids. For the archeological samples, optimization of LIBS experimental parameters in terms of temporal detection conditions along with laser wavelengths and their corresponding ablation rate was performed. The spectrochemical analyses of the genuine archaeological samples were carried out both superficially and stratigraphically. Main surface elements such as Ca, Na, Al, Si, Cu, Fe, and Mn were detected while large amounts of Ca and Sr represent their bulk elements. The LIBS results were validated by results obtained by SEM-EDX technique, which provided complementary information such as surface morphological images and quantitative composition of the samples’ constituents. Under the optimum experimental conditions, LIBS spectral emission of the imitated samples was acquired and compared to those for true archeological ones for the sake of possible discrimination between them. Successful utilization of LIBS in examining the authenticity of suspect Ushabtis has been accomplished and presented. This study may suggest the need for archeologists to be equipped with portable LIBS systems in the excavation sites or museums, which facilitate the immediate discrimination process when LIBS data of genuine samples are initially available.
       
  • Development of integrated innovative techniques for paintings examination:
           The case studies of The Resurrection of Christ attributed to Andrea
           Mantegna and the Crucifixion of Viterbo attributed to Michelangelo's
           workshop
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Stefano Laureti, Claudia Colantonio, Pietro Burrascano, Marcello Melis, Giuseppe Calabrò, Hamid Malekmohammadi, Stefano Sfarra, Marco Ricci, Claudia Pelosi This paper presents the contextual use of Pulse-Compression Thermography and Hypercolorimetric Multispectral Imaging for the diagnostic study of historical heritage paintings. The comparison and the integration of images provided by the two techniques allows the conservation state of both the painting layers and wooden support to be investigated. Relevant information on the painting technique and figurative scene can be obtained as well. The proposed approach was applied to two Italian Renaissance panel paintings. The first object tested was a 16th century panel painting representing a Crucifixion, exposed in the Museum of Colle del Duomo in Viterbo, Italy, and attributed to the workshop of the master Michelangelo Buonarroti. The second artwork was a late 15th century panel painting, representing The Resurrection of Christ, currently preserved at Museo Carrara in Bergamo, Italy, and recently re-attributed to Andrea Mantegna; it was identified as being the upper half of a whole composition together with the Descent into Limbo painting. HMI acquisitions and digital image processing tools allowed to investigate the upper painting layer, while PuCT imaging data gave relevant information on the structure of the wooden support proving to be an innovative stratigraphic investigation method. The combination of HMI and PuCT imaging techniques supplied information on the whole structure of the artworks, identifying surface degradation, different layers, wood defects and their position in the inner layers of the object. The integration of the above-mentioned techniques might stand as a new reference diagnostic method to evaluate conservative needs and support decisions for restoration.
       
  • Stone consolidation by biomineralisation. Contribution for a new
           conceptual and practical approach to consolidate soft decayed limestones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): José Delgado Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto The consolidation of soft limestones has since long been practiced by using various products applied by different procedures, both for laboratory conditions and as real conservation actions. However, the actual performances of these consolidants have always left doubts, mostly as regards to their long-term – and, in some situations, short-term – behaviour when used for outdoor objects. The encouraging results that have been reported for the biomineralisation process in limestones, both for laboratory conditions and in trial tests, led to test it under onsite conditions to assess the operational aspects, as well as on a conservation intervention carried out for a limestone portal in the south of Portugal. The biotechnology approach reported here resorts to the activation of carbonatogenic bacteria present in the substrate’s microbiota. In this paper, the main steps and logistics requirements for this consolidation treatment - environmental control, product transport and application conditions – are summarised, onsite test results are presented and discussed, and its application in a conservation intervention is described and commented. The onset of this new consolidation treatment led us to revisit past experiences on Portuguese heritage objects as an opportunity to discuss the practical significance and applicability of the concepts of effectiveness and compatibility in the consolidation of soft calcareous stone materials. A new conceptual and practical approach to deal with the very complex and difficult problem posed by the consolidation of real outdoor exposed and decayed objects is proposed. The discussion is based on the authors’ experience on four Portuguese monuments: the Santa Cruz church (Coimbra), the Porta Especiosa of the Old Cathedral of Coimbra, the National Palace of Queluz, and the Main Portal of the Loulé church. The potential of the method and its encouraging results may represent the crossing of a new technological and practical frontier to consolidate decayed highly porous limestones.
       
  • Stones of the façade of the Sarno Baths, Pompeii: A mindful
           construction choice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rebecca Piovesan, Lara Maritan, Giulia Meneghin, Caterina Previato, Siwar Baklouti, Raffaele Sassi, Claudio Mazzoli The lithological analysis of the southern façade of the Sarno Baths, a complex building located in the south-western part of the ancient city of Pompeii (Naples, southern Italy), was addressed to define the types of stone used as blocks and ashlars of the three nearly completely preserved levels. Lithological analysis, coupled with petrographic (optical and electron microscopy) and mineralogical study of the lithotypes macroscopically defined, revealed the use mainly of volcanic and volcano-clastic rocks, and in particular of: (i) yellow tuff supplied from the yellow facies of the Campanian Ignimbrite (about 39 ky BP); (ii) grey tuff from the Campanian Ignimbrite; (iii) leucite phonolitic tephrite from the lava flows of Somma Vesuvius; (iv) travertine from the Sarno limestone (Calcare del Sarno) (Cretaceous). On the basis of the lithological mapping, the basement results mainly composed of leucite phonolitic tephrite, associated to travertine and sporadically to yellow tuff, whereas the other two overhead levels are mainly constituted by tuff and travertine, respectively. In particular, the tuff distribution on the level upon the basement shows a prevalence of grey tuff on the western portion, yellow tuff on the eastern one and in the opus reticulatum band running all along the façade, and marked at the top by a trachyte stringcourse. Travertine blocks in the uppermost façade were probably placed as integration during the restoration works carried out at the end of the 19th century. The distribution on the façade of elements made of different rock types, characterised by different bulk density and mechanical properties, confirms ancient Roman builders’ deep knowledge on the technical features of these materials and their structural behaviour.
       
  • Integrated methods for reconstructing the decoration and production
           process of the frigidarium wall-paintings, at the Sarno Baths, Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Monica Salvadori, Cristina Boschetti, Paolo Baronio, Clelia Sbrolli This paper explores the potentiality of investigating Roman wall decorations by integrating the visual examination of the technical aspects of wall paintings and plasterworks, to the virtual reconstruction. It also aims at reconstructing the process of making wall decorations and at identifying the decorators, as an occasional group of workers or a properly organized workshop. The frigidarium (i.e. the room with a cold-water pool) in the Sarno Baths was selected as case study, to apply this approach. The presence of several missing parts allowed the observation of the full stratigraphic sequence of paintings and plasterworks. The visual analysis and the identification of the tool-marks provided the necessary elements, to reconstruct the sequence of operations performed by the artisans, during the process of making. Features suitable to identify the contribute of different artisans to the decoration project were also identified. The accurate survey of the preserved portions of decoration and the archival records allowed to reconstruct the geometry of the decorative scheme, completing the missing parts, both on the walls and the vaults. The fully reconstructed decorations were subsequently elaborated in a sequence of intermediate stages, corresponding to the main phases of the productive process. A sample of the surviving wall-paintings was selected to test the application of virtual conservation, digitally cleaning the surface from salt deposits, and integrating small abrasions in the paint layers. Lastly, the potentiality of virtual reconstruction was stretched further, reconstructing a set of plaster-workers’ tools, on the basis of tool marks. The investigation identified the decorations of the frigidarium as a high-quality product, reflecting the technical skills mastered by a well-organized workshop, active at Pompeii, during the last two decades of its life.
       
  • A general methodology for identifying the writer of codices. Application
           to the celebrated “twins”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): DDimitrios Arabadjis, Fotios Giannopoulos, Michail Panagopoulos, Michail Exarchos, Christopher Blackwell, Constantin Papaodysseus In the present work, a method of general applicability is introduced for classifying a given set of ancient documents to their writer. A principal motive and, at the same time, a main result of this work was to test if two sets of documents preserving the Homeric Iliad have been written by the same hand or not. To achieve this, the authors have developed and/or improved two dedicated methods, which may be described very briefly as follows: the first method compares all realizations of the same alphabet symbol appearing in two documents and it offers related quantitative criteria. The second method aims at determining the ideal form(s) of each alphabet symbol the writer had in his/her mind when writing a document. In both methods, decision is made by means of novel statistical criteria. Application of this methodology furnished the following results in a fully quantitative manner: 1) all twenty-six (26) Byzantine codices kept at Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial or at the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice that have been studied, have been written by four (4) distinct writers only. 2) The codices written by each one of the four hands have been spotted with maximum likelihood and 3) the celebrated “twins” have indeed been written by the same hand. We once more emphasize that the approach introduced here may be immediately applied to classifying any set of documents to the distinct hands that have written them.
       
  • SmART_scan: A method to produce composition maps using any elemental,
           molecular and image data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): J. Daniel Martin-Ramos, Giacomo Chiari XRF scanners recently have become the most effective tools for analyzing the distribution of pigments on paintings. They are noninvasive and portable and can be used on flat surfaces of notable dimensions. Powerful miniaturized X-Ray tubes combined with more sensitive detectors make it possible to mount instruments on sturdy motorized X,Y devices, and reduce time needed for a scan. The high-resolution results obtained are of the utmost interest for conservators, art historians and conservation scientists. Drawbacks of XRF scanners are the elevated cost and the bulk of the X,Y devices, which makes them more difficult to transport. It is our opinion that the amount of information collected by a scanner is somewhat redundant. Uniform portions of the painting may be treated as a unity. Following this basic idea, a procedure is proposed to combine a high-resolution visible image with compositional measurement carried out on a grid with a much smaller number of points. Different types of images, spatially registered with respect to the visible one, can be used to increase the amount of information available. A computer program, named SmART_scan, statistically combines all available data, and generates false color maps that show the distribution of elements (XRF), or of compounds [XRD or Raman (Tracey et al., 2006)] over the surface. Even so, the collected information still seemed overabundant. For this reason, the program was adapted to work with a limited number of representative points selected by the user. The measuring time was enormously reduced, and the results were reasonably good. The program can be applied retroactively to previously collected data, provided that a good image, the accurate position of the measurements and their numerical results are available. Examples of maps relative to mockups, real paintings, cross sections and three-dimensional objects are shown.
       
  • The Sarno Baths in Pompeii: Context and state of the art
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Leonardo Bernardi, Maria Stella Busana The Sarno Bath complex (Regio VIII, Insula 2, modern house nos. 17–21) occupies the southernmost part of the city of Pompeii and it is unique in terms of size, architectural structure and functional aspects. The analysis of all published studies and documentation, available in the archives of the Archaeological Park of Pompeii, was the starting point of the project and it allowed to retrace the history of excavation and research from 1887 to this day. The study of Mau's and Sogliano's publications have led to know the course of excavations, the finds brought to light, the first functional interpretations of the building, its architectural evolution and, overall, a major structural failure that involved the westernmost part of the building. Because of this collapse, most of the vaults and the walls of levels −3 and −4 were reconstructed and the decorative apparatus was relocated. In the past decades, the research has focused on refining the interpretation of the first scholars in terms of construction techniques, usually with the goal of dating in absolute terms the architectural development, of defining the decorative apparatus and the function of each level, the ownership and the usability of the building, themes still unsolved. Unfortunately, most recent studies did not give due attention to the reconstruction carried out at the end of nineteenth century. Some examinations notice the different building materials, but they do not doubt the originality of today's plan. Some others relegate this news to the margin.
       
  • Combining multispectral images with X-ray fluorescence to quantify the
           distribution of pigments in the frigidarium of the Sarno Baths, Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Yotam Asscher, Ivana Angelini, Michele Secco, Matteo Parisatto, Antonina Chaban, Rita Deiana, Gilberto Artioli Multispectral imaging is used to identify and semi-quantify the distribution of pigments in wall paintings based on mineral-specific band ratios. The western wall in the frigidarium of the Sarno baths in Pompeii was imaged using VIS-IR band-pass filters, stacked as multispectral data, and different pigments were measured using portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and fiber optic reflected spectroscopy (FORS) to determine their chemical composition and spectral signature. Cuprorivaite and hematite were found to be the main minerals in blue and red pigments, with higher amounts of copper and iron respectively. Proportional relations were found between cuprorivaite specific band ratios from multispectral and FORS data and the intensity of copper in pXRF spectra, allowing to map the mineral content on a large scale and determine their relative concentrations. These results were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thin section analysis on painted fragments that were detached from the wall paintings and found below. This contribute indicates that on-site portable instrumentation could identify specific pigments and determine their 2D distributions based on non-invasive diagnostics of chemical composition and spectral reflectance in wall paintings.
       
  • Investigation of organic additives in Italian Renaissance devotion stucco
           reliefs from French collections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Amra Aksamija, Witold Nowik, Patrice Lehuédé, Anne-Solenn Le Hô, Marc Bormand, Anne Bouquillon A series of Italian Renaissance stucco artworks from Museum of Fine Arts of Strasbourg and Louvre Museum in Paris were investigated with the aim of revealing and characterizing possible organic additives. As the stucco and its additives are little known but, according to the literature, could be complex and contain many different matters, the methodology was first tuned on the laboratory models prepared with gypsum or gypsum/lime plaster with various quantities of organic matter: animal glue or gum Arabic. The methodology consisted of observation of the surfaces of sampled fragments by optical and electronic microscopy, preliminary investigation of the presence of organic compounds by infrared spectroscopy, then extraction of the organic matters from the samples, preparation, and analysis by gas chromatography. The adopted sample preparation scheme allows screening the substances from various classes of organic products from one sample. The optimized analytical approach was applied to the samples from historical objects, showing the presence of proteins, oils, wax and sugars in reliefs. The interpretation of obtained results is not straightforward because of the low response of these substances in the samples, their possible mixture, or unknown origin. In some cases, the protein matter response varies with the deepness of sampling in the matter of stucco, which could be connected with its layered structure or particular surface treatment.
       
  • 3D survey of Sarno Baths (Pompeii) by integrated geomatic methodologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Michele Monego, Andrea Menin, Massimo Fabris, Vladimiro Achilli The main aim of this work is to present the results of the geomatic survey, data collection and data processing that were conducted as part of the MACH project (MACH – Multidisciplinary methodological Approaches to the knowledge, conservation and valorization of Cultural Heritage) of the University of Padua. This wide research has regarded the study of Sarno Baths, an architectural complex located in the south-western part of Pompeii, and has involved different disciplines. Many of these groups of work could benefit the fundamental base of data that the integrated geomatic survey has provided, from the point cloud 3D models to plans and section, from the high resolution orthophotos to the monitoring of the façade subsidence. The complex is built on the southern rocky front of Pompeii and consists of a five floors structure that develops from the base outside the urban complex until the road level of the city and is articulated in different buildings with rooms, galleries, corridors and outdoor areas. The Archaeological Park of Pompeii has provided 3D data of the internal parts of the building, that were unified with the data obtained from the new surveys of the façade, in order to create a model with high metric reliability and geometrical completeness. It was made using laser scanning, classic photogrammetry and structure from motion photogrammetric technique, topographic and GNSS measurements of a reference network and high precision levelling for the monitoring of the deformations of the façade. All the new data were georeferenced thanks to the integration of new vertices with the topographic reference network of the Pompeii site. The complete spatial dataset allowed an up-to-date and accurate geometrical knowledge of the complex and had a fundamental role in the architectural study, in the planning of the intervention and in all the investigation activities of the MACH project that aimed at the conservation and valorization of the building.
       
  • The Sarno Baths, Pompeii: Architecture development and 3D reconstruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Leonardo Bernardi, Maria Stella Busana, Vanessa Centola, Claudia Marson, Luca Sbrogiò The paper focuses on the architectural study of the so called Sarno Bath complex at its final phase, a six-storey building located at the edge of the city (Regio VIII, Insula 2, nos. 17–21). The complete 3D survey of the complex, obtained from the surveys already carried out by the Archaeological Park of Pompeii and by new surveys of the University of Padua (MACH Project), was the fundamental work tool. The research has several aims: (i) to provide a proposal of reconstruction of the partially collapsed southern façade and of the upper levels; (ii) to define the numerous passages within the building complex, useful for understanding how it was used; (iii) to propose a preliminary hypothesis on the function of the different levels and areas, based on the planimetric analysis and on the materials found (the study is ongoing) as well as on the graffiti still in situ; (iv) to provide a “quantitative” architectural evaluation of the complex, facilitated by the digital survey. The understanding of this extraordinary architectural and multifunctional complex, where public functions, residential areas, a public–private bath and storage areas – all interconnected – might coexist, is only at the beginning.
       
  • Non-destructive investigations for structural qualification of the Sarno
           Baths, Pompeii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Maria Rosa Valluzzi, Filippo Lorenzoni, Rita Deiana, Sabrina Taffarel, Claudio Modena A series of non-destructive techniques were applied to the masonry building of the Sarno Baths in Pompeii, Italy, aimed at improving knowledge of the condition of the site, to integrate and identify its construction and to provide data for structural evaluations. In particular: i) the current conditions of the various masonry types were identified through sonic pulse velocity tests and tomographic processing; ii) inner cross-sections were reconstructed by videoscope and, where possible, by direct measurements; iii) infrared thermography was applied to qualify the connections among structural elements (i.e., walls, vaults) and to detect any structural anomalies; iv) the dynamic properties of the structure were identified by ambient vibration tests. None of the tests required any sampling, drilling or damage to the historical materials, and no forces were imposed on the structures. In the view of the preservation and usability of the site, integration of the above tests with the results obtained by the other experts involved in the project contributed to better understanding of the current state of the structure and its possible evolution in terms of seismic vulnerability.
       
  • Monitoring earthen archaeological heritage using multi-temporal
           terrestrial laser scanning and surface change detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Nicola Lercari Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a three-dimensional survey technique proven successful for in-field stratigraphic and site-wide documentation or damage assessment of archaeological heritage. This study explores the potential utility of TLS and the Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison (M3C2) surface change detection method for monitoring and preserving ancient earthen architecture, and for creating comprehensive site monitoring programs in compliance with UNESCO periodic reporting guidelines. The proposed methodology was tested using 3-D TLS datasets spanning a period of six years to assess the decay of mud brick structures at Çatalhöyük, Turkey in order to understand material loss in walls and buildings, identify potential underlying causes, and create a plan for physical interventions. This paper explains how a multi-temporal laser scanning workflow using the M3C2 method can be leveraged successfully to quantify – with millimeter-level accuracy – the decay of large earthen sites and inform future conservation interventions. This approach allows for the identification of the wall features with the most immediate risk of deterioration based on the detection of patterns of change and calculation of its significance as a preventative measure. Results presented in this paper suggest that the proposed method can be used effectively to enhance site monitoring and perform preventative on-site interventions at large earthen sites earthen sites in the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and the Americas.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Menthol-based eutectic mixtures: Novel potential temporary consolidants
           for archaeological excavation applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Yarong Yu, Wenjin Zhang, Xiangna Han, Xiao Huang, Jing Zhao, Qinghua Ren, Hongjie Luo Temporary consolidation technique becomes more and more popular in archaeological excavation. Cyclododecane and menthol are the mostly studied and used temporary consolidants. However, their best applying temperatures are about 20-40 °C higher than their melting points, which can be a problem for temperature-sensitive artifacts or excavation in cold environment. In this work, we take advantage of the concept of eutectic mixtures. Menthyl lactate, a menthol derivative, which can also sublime at ambient conditions, is introduced into menthol to form binary eutectic mixtures. Their potentials as temporary consolidants are carefully and systematically examined. The results indicate the eutectic mixtures are good temporary consolidants and their performances at very low temperatures are much better than the parent compounds. Through this work, a list of temporary consolidants whose melting points range from below 0 to 45 °C are built up for conservators to choose based on their needs.
       
  • Generating a virtual tour for the preservation of the (in)tangible
           cultural heritage of Tampines Chinese Temple in Singapore
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Osten Bang Ping Mah, Yingwei Yan, Jonathan Song Yi Tan, Yi-Xuan Tan, Geralyn Qi Ying Tay, Da Jian Chiam, Yi-Chen Wang, Kenneth Dean, Chen-Chieh Feng There is a growing use of digital and visualisation technologies in the documentation and preservation of cultural heritage sites. Using the Tampines Chinese Temple in Singapore as a case study, this paper presents a detailed methodological framework to create virtual tours for the preservation of both the physical built environment and intangible historical and sociocultural elements within the space of cultural heritage sites. Tangible data used in the creation of the virtual tour produced for the temple comprise spherical images collected via a 360° camera and two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution images obtained via a digital single-lens reflex camera. The tour also showcases intangible aspects of the temples cultural heritage, derived from references made to multiple sources, namely interviews with personnel involved in the management of heritage sites (e.g. the temple secretary) as well as historical archives (e.g. National Archives of Singapore and publications produced by the temple). In so doing, this paper promotes the importance of incorporating intangible elements of cultural heritage sites into a unified interface. This method is advantageous as the relatively low pricing of the chosen software, and the use of a 360° camera and digital single-lens reflex camera enhances accessibility for heritage practitioners and facilitate future applications.
       
  • Absorption edge sensitive radiography and tomography of Egyptian Papyri
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Tobias Arlt, Heinz-Eberhard Mahnke, Tzulia Siopi, Eve Menei, Cristina Aibéo, Regine-Ricarda Pausewein, Ina Reiche, Ingo Manke, Verena Lepper In the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, Berlin, a multitude of papyrus manuscripts are stored. Papyri found on Elephantine island are of special interest. No other settlement in Egypt has been so well documented through texts over four millennia. However, 80% of the Elephantine texts are yet to be documented and published. As part of the “Elephantine” project, funded by an ERC starting grant, we attempt to gain access to hidden text. Most of the fragments are very fragile, deformed, with some rolled or folded. Papyri from the Old and Middle Kingdom were typically written with carbon ink. Consequently, these fragments show no absorption sensitivity for hard X-rays. Also, other inks have been used in those times. If small traces of high-Z elements, like Fe or Pb, are found, absorption may be sensitive enough for radiography and tomography to distinguish between writing and base material. We sorted out suitable fragments and papyrus packages by X-ray fluorescence mapping. When promising high-Z elements were detected, absorption tomography was applied using micro-CT laboratory systems or synchrotron X-rays at the BAMline at BESSY II. The sensitivity can be enhanced by element-sensitive absorption edge imaging, where transmission data taken above and below the edge are compared. This technique was applied at the absorption edges of the elements known to be used as ink and pigment material – Iron, Antimony and Lead. These X-ray results were complemented by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) measurements showing that the lead is found in the form of lead carboxylate. In the future, the presented methodology will be applied to folded or rolled papyri, allowing for analysis of the text without manually opening the fragments.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Identifying archaeological leather – discussing the potential of grain
           pattern analysis and zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) through a
           case study involving medieval shoe parts from Denmark
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jannie Amsgaard Ebsen, Kirstine Haase, René Larsen, Dorte Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Luise Ørsted Brandt In this paper, two species identification methods are compared and discussed based on a case study of medieval archaeological leather shoe parts from the Danish cities of Ribe, Viborg and Odense. The species identifications are performed by both morphological grain pattern analysis using stereomicroscopy and zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS), which identifies species based on small structural differences in collagen type I, creating unique fingerprints of genera and in some cases species. Of the 105 shoe parts analysed and sampled, only 37 shoe parts were found to have preserved grain patterns. Grain pattern analysis was in some cases complicated by the lack of hair holes, degraded grain and the presence of soil particles. The varying morphological appearance and condition of the grain patterns are demonstrated through a series of stereomicroscope colour photos at 10x enlargement. The microscope photos reveal considerable complexity and variety in the morphological appearance of the decayed archaeological leather in comparison with well-preserved modern leather. The colour photo examples of the grain pattern and ZooMS-identified leather may help to improve the grain pattern analysis of archaeological leather in future. Where grain patterns were preserved, a good correlation between the two methods was observed. ZooMS had a high overall success rate and has a large potential for species identification of archaeological leather. In the cases where grain pattern analysis was problematic, ZooMS was found superior for species identification. Even though grain pattern analysis had a lower success rate, in a few cases it did produce results at a higher taxonomic level than ZooMS identification. Moreover, grain pattern analysis provided additional contextual information. In conclusion, an interdisciplinary approach is recommended for conservators, archaeologists and other researchers of cultural heritage wishing to find the most potential way to identify different species. The identification method used should be tailored to suit each given archaeological leather assemblage depending on the degree of preservation, object type and context of the material in question, as well as the available expertise, time and budget.
       
  • Cuban Cultural Heritage: A Rebel Past for a Revolutionary Nation, Pablo
           Alonso González, University of Florida, Gainesville (2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Joseph R. Hartman
       
  • The metallography and corrosion of an ancient chinese bimetallic bronze
           sword
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Wei Huang, Kockelmann Winfried, Godfrey Evelyne, A Scott David A bimetal bronze sword, unearthed from Hunan Province China, dating to the Warring States period (476–221BC) was examined analytically by optical metallography, neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the tin content of the blade is 16%, not higher as previously reported. The bimetallic bronze sword possesses a typical cast structure with annealing on the edge of spine. Distinct corrosion compounds pyromorphite was identified, with pseudomorphic malachite having replaced the original alpha phase. Redeposited copper and unusual phosphorus-containing corrosion products were analysed to investigate the mechanism of formation.
       
  • Collaborative projects in cultural heritage conservation –
           management challenges and risks
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Helena Hirsenberger, Jonjaua Ranogajec, Snezana Vucetic, Bojan Lalic, Danijela Gracanin The concept of cultural heritage has been increasingly enlarged over decades. Many professions are invited to work together in a holistic attempt to preserve inherited tangible and intangible assets. This complexity brings more challenges in organization of collaborative conservation works. Since 1960s project management approach has become prevalent way in which contemporary, non-routine tasks are organized, despite of the industry. A survey was conducted in order to examine how increased complexity of cross-disciplinary setting influences project management challenges and risks in heritage conservation. The findings of the survey outline that there is a number of challenges/risks associated with extremely cross-disciplinary setting of conservation projects, while the practice already provides some useful references how these can be managed and mitigated. This paper offers systematic overview of the most common challenges/risks, some good practice examples and guidelines observed among countries of former Yugoslavia region, which could be further investigated in a call for a tailored approach aimed to reduce project management risks in collaborative conservation projects.
       
  • Date-palm (Phoenix, Arecaceae) iconography in coins from the Mediterranean
           and West Asia (485 BC–1189 AD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Diego Rivera, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Emilio Laguna, Dennis Johnson Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) yields food, medicines, and materials for buildings and crafts in the Middle East, the Mediterranean and North Africa. There, date palms were represented on coins from 485 BC until 1189 AD. These palm-tree images furnish agricultural, botanical and geographical information on Phoenix. We aim to analyze the evolution over time of the diversity of these images and their relationship with climatic episodes favorable to their cultivation. We selected variables for analysis based on date-palm taxonomy, standardized descriptors and observation of the coins. Image types, realism and age, and relationships with climatic events were analyzed using multivariate techniques. Ten main palm-image types were recognized. Three geographically and chronologically differentiated periods are distinguished associated with favorable climate episodes. First, the western period of Carthage and Sicily (485–100 BC) with highly realistic date palm-tree images, followed by a bottleneck 100 BC–50 AD, a second period with lesser diversity of palm images (50–150 AD) centered in the eastern Mediterranean, and a third medieval period (430–1189 AD) with schematic images of palm trees. From a cultural viewpoint, our results are consistent with ancient texts for morphology, cultivation, management techniques, sterility and fertility, and tree longevity. Several image types from present-day Israel most likely represent specific ancient cultivars such as the “Caryotae”. Ancient coins offer valuable information, to better knowing characteristics of date palm trees and date-palm cultivation, from the first millennium BC to the beginning of second millennium AD. Western Mediterranean presents greatest diversity and realism related to different domestication events.Graphic abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Digital stone rubbing from 3D models
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Rongjiang Pan, Zhongming Tang, Weijia Da Stone rubbing is a traditional method to record surface features of a stone on paper. It has a long history and is still used by Chinese archaeologists and artists up to now. However, stone rubbing can cause permanent damage to precious cultural heritage due to abrasion. We propose a new method to create digital stone rubbing from 3D digital models. We assume the surface of a stone is flat locally and fit a least-squares plane to each point's neighbors individually. To prevent the local plane from being fitted across sharp edges or corners of the model, we make use of the smoothed point normals in the selection of local surface region. The height of a point is defined as the signed distance between the point and its local approximation plane. The estimated height of each point is then mapped to its grey value by a nonlinear transformation function. Finally, we render the 3D model into a rubbing image using orthogonal projection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on real experimental dataset in archaeology.
       
  • Computer simulation of archaeological drawings
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Jingwen Zhang, Ziqi Liu, Shiguang Liu Archaeologists usually produce archaeological drawings through complicated steps including painting with hands, scanning and redrawing, etc. We aim at simplifying the process of traditional archaeological drawings by automatically generating line drawings, helping archaeologists produce ideal archaeological drawings flexibly and conveniently. However, traditional methods for generating line drawings cannot be directly used for archaeological drawings because of special purposes in drawings. So, we take into account the characteristics of archaeological drawings and put forward an effective method for generating line drawings especially for archaeological drawings. In this way, archaeologists can get ideal line drawings by taking photos of implements, processing them with this method automatically and modifying line drawings flexibly. Specifically, we first smooth the input pictures, based on which we extract lines that meet the rules of archaeological drawings by edge tracking. Then we determine the location of central axis and generate curves of lines to get line drawings. Finally, we integrate the above techniques and build an archaeological drawing system with friendly interface. Various experimental results and evaluations verify that our method and the archaeological drawings system are effective.
       
  • Adoption and use of emerging cultural technologies in China's museums
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Eugene Ch’ng, Shengdan Cai, Fui-Theng Leow, Tong Evelyn Zhang Our article maps the well-being of the adoption and use of digital technologies in museums in China. Digital technologies used here are termed ‘cultural technology’ in top-level national policies for the creative cultural industry, with culture and heritage at the core of all such activities. Our investigation aims to understand the present state of adoption and use of cultural technologies with the goal of identifying limitations so as to provide a roadmap for the informed design and development of museum-based digital exhibits that are appropriate for visitors. Whilst our study is focused on China's museums, our evaluation model and lessons learned can be used as comparative studies for museums globally. This highlights the novelty of our article, for the scale of which we carried out our evaluation has never been conducted before. We travelled 22 sites over 15 cities and collected over 800 samples of data. We evaluated 36 digital systems used by over 800 visitors and observed how users interacted and engaged with the systems with a record of 21 variables related to the length of interaction, engagement, quality of contents and types of systems, age groups, sexes, and the number of participants and whether they were individuals or in groups. Our investigation revealed important findings in both digital systems and visitor engagement.
       
  • A method to obtain precise determinations of relative humidity using thin
           film capacitive sensors under normal or extreme humidity conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Camuffo Dario Dampness is one of the worst, and most common problems found in heritage buildings and sites. However, despite its relevance, sensors do not operate satisfactorily in extremely humid environments. The paper analyses the performance of heated capacitive sensors conceived to operate at ambient temperature (T) and very high relative humidity (RH) after having been demisted with short heating. Even if they show better performances than traditional, unheated sensors, they operate at the limit of their range, with severe limitations affecting their time response and accuracy, reducing but not excluding false readings. A method is proposed to combine temperature and relative humidity sensors, and warm-up them in order to reach the best performance interval of the RH sensor, and take measurements in such conditions, i.e. at higher temperature and lower relative humidity. From the combined temperature and relative humidity readings it is possible to calculate the dew point that is invariant to temperature changes. Combining the dew point with an additional measurement of the actual air temperature, it is possible to calculate the actual relative humidity. The use of this method is not necessarily limited to taking more accurate relative humidity readings under extreme dampness, but it may be also applied to improve the quality of readings with sensors that operate in their best performance interval. The same strategy can be used in too dry environments with cooling to raise relative humidity and bring the sensor into the best performance interval.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A procedure for identifying chemical and biological risks for books in
           historic libraries based on microclimate analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Eva Schito, Luisa Dias Pereira, Daniele Testi, Manuel Gameiro da Silva The study presents a new procedure for identifying possible risks for books kept in historic libraries. It is addressed to all those historic libraries where large collections of old and rare books are stored and preserved. These libraries were rarely used by people, but, nowadays, many of them have become touristic attractions. Consequently, their indoor microclimate may have changed, possibly leading to risks for books conservation. The proposed methodology is based on an intensive monitoring campaign, followed by an in-depth data analysis. Handy indices are also proposed to guide the researchers in the identification of possible risks. Problems related to too-high daily or spatial hygrothermal variations or problems related to specific risks (e.g., biological or chemical risks) can be identified. If a problem is observed, the identification of the most suitable solutions is more straightforward. The application of the proposed procedure to a real case study (the Baroque Library of the University of Coimbra, Portugal) has highlighted its handiness. A 6-month monitoring campaign and its consequent data analysis has pointed out potentially risky situations. Thus, measures should be taken to avoid books damage. Primarily, local actions are suggested.
       
  • The influence of selected efficient compounds of essential oils for paper
           protection
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Iveta Čabalová, Břetislav Češek, Ondřej Mikala, Jan Gojný, František Kačík, Tereza Tribulová The most common negative influences on lignocellulosic materials from biological point of view include invading of microorganisms, which have in humid environments of porous materials favourable conditions for growth and reproduction. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected compounds present in essential oils- EOs (linalyl acetate-LA and citral-C) and the accelerated ageing process on the chemical (cellulose degree of polymerization, content of saccharides), mechanical (tensile index) and physical (fibres length distribution) properties of papers. LA and C were evaluated as the compounds with the highest antimicrobial activity and therefore, they were applied into the paper mass in form of their vapours. Paper samples were prepared from five types of material. Chemical changes were evaluated by wet chemical methods, size exclusion chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, mechanical property according to ISO 1924-2 standard and morphological properties of fibres by using Fiber Tester equipment. In the view of followed properties, the protecting impact of these EOs efficient compounds has a greater importance in their application before the ageing process itself, especially at wood pulp papers and papers produced from sulphate deciduous pulp. The contents of both holocellulose and a cellulose degree of polymerization were significantly correlated with the tensile index of the paper.
       
  • Deacidification of aged papers using dispersion of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles
           in subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Jiajia Weng, Xiaogang Zhang, Minghao Jia, Jie Zhang An effective and integrated method for deacidification has become an urgent issue in the conversation of paper-based materials with natural aging of books, archives and paper relics. In this research, an efficiency of innovative method for paper deacidification using subcritical R134a combined with pre-synthetic Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles was evaluated by pH, alkaline reserve, colorimetry and tensile strength. The physicochemical properties of the deacidifying agents and paper samples before and after deacidification were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. Compared with traditional spraying method for Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the subcritical R134a deacidification system (due to its good solvent diffusivity and compatibility) had an obvious advantage in evaluations for all the paper samples. The innovative deacidification was expected to realize the integration of cleaning and deacidification in one working procedure.
       
  • LED illumination-induced fading of traditional Korean pigments
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Soomin Jo, Soo Ryeon Ryu, Wonhyeong Jang, Oh-Sun Kwon, Boa Rhee, Young Eun Lee, Dongmin Kim, Jungsik Kim, Kwanwoo Shin Light is an important factor in the conservation of museum collections because of its strong electromagnetic characteristic that can degrade artifacts. To investigate the effects of illumination on paintings, particularly in museums equipped with popular light emitting diode (LED) lamp systems, we investigated the fading process of traditional Korean pigments. We used four illumination conditions: a combination of high and low color rendering index (CRI) at two light temperatures of Tcold = 5600 K and Twarm = 3200 K. Among all samples tested, realgar, also known as Wunghwang in Korea, showed the most marked change in color. UV spectrometric analyses after 100 h of exposure at 11 000 and at 5500 lux showed high color differences exceeding the color change threshold under all illumination conditions. When the illumination intensity was reduced to 300 lux, Tcold lamps showed a faster fading process than Twarm lamps did, suggesting that appropriate illuminating conditions can reduce the adverse effects of museum lighting systems. A further experiment using narrow-band, single-color, LED lamps showed how specific wavelength bands could influence the fading of artifacts In particular, we newly confirmed that discoloration of Wunghwang could be induced by the illumination of green light, in addition to blue light generally known to induce discoloration. These results demonstrate that the fading of a specific pigment of the artifacts in museum collections can be minimized by tuning the intensities of the wavelengths of light emitted by the museums’ lighting systems.
       
  • Effective Raman spectra identification with tree-based methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Vasileios Sevetlidis, George Pavlidis Treatment of spectral information is an essential tool for the examination of various cultural heritage materials. Raman spectroscopy has become an everyday practice for compound identification due to its non-intrusive nature, but often it can be a complex operation. Spectral identification and analysis on artists’ materials is being done with the aid of already existing spectral databases and spectrum matching algorithms. We demonstrate that with a machine learning method called Extremely Randomised Trees, we can learn a model in a supervised learning fashion, able to accurately match an entire-spectrum range into its respective mineral. Our approach was tested and was found to outperform the state-of-the-art methods on the corrected RRUFF dataset, while maintaining low computational complexity and inherently supporting parallelisation.
       
  • PVA hydrogel as polymer electrolyte for electrochemical impedance analysis
           on archaeological metals
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Francesca Di Turo, Pietro Matricardi, Chiara Di Meo, Franco Mazzei, Gabriele Favero, Daniela Zane The development of an electrochemical cell based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel as polymer electrolyte for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis (EIS) is discussed. PVA hydrogel is prepared with different cycles of freeze/thawing (F/T) employing distillated and mineral water as solutions. The PVA-disks obtained are compared for their conductivities in order to employ it in an appropriate cell for diagnostic purposes, reducing the invasiveness of the analysis on the sample. The test of the self-consistent disk of PVA is carried out on a modern sample of copper and on an archaeological bronze coin, obtaining an alternative of the classical electrochemical cell for EIS measurements on ancient metals.
       
  • Study of the degradation of beeswax taken from a real artefact
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Katarína Čížová, Katarína Vizárová, Aleš Ház, Anna Vykydalová, Zuzana Cibulková, Peter Šimon This study is devoted to the statue of St. Ursula from the depositary to the Slovak National Museum–Červený Kameň Castle. It is a heavily damaged, slightly under life-size seated female statue from the 2nd half of 19th century. The artefact is very heterogeneous and degraded. The wax parts have been examined with the aim of detecting and quantifying degradation products using FTIR spectroscopy, Py - GC/MS analysis and DSC measurement. The results obtained were compared with the degradation studies from available literary sources. The most important achievement is that the results support the theory of sublimation of n-alkanes from beeswax during ageing. The degradation mechanisms taking part during ageing are hydrolysis and oxidation. The suggested methods of accelerated ageing could be a suitable simulation of natural ageing. The experimental methods employed are complementary and enable to follow the progress of beeswax degradation.
       
  • The Origin of overglaze-blue enameling in Japan: New discoveries and a
           reassessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Riccardo Montanari, Nobuyuki Murakami, Maria Francesca Alberghina, Claudia Pelosi, Salvatore Schiavone The production of overglaze-blue decorated porcelains in Japan has traditionally been associated with Chinese technology, but the puzzling issue of the early firing of a striking overglaze-blue enamel has remained unresolved for almost a century. This work presents the first systematic scientific study of shards excavated at kiln sites in Arita, the center of porcelain production in Japan. The study was carried out in an attempt to resolve the issue of the origin of overglaze-blue enameling on early polychrome Imari wares (Shoki Iro-e) which started around 1640, way before the same technology spread in Jingdezhen in the late Kangxi period (1700). In particular shards excavated at the Yanbeta kiln site, where it has recently been discovered that polychrome overglaze decoration started, and shards from other early kilns were analyzed for the first time. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) was used to identify the chemical composition of the coloring agents present in the overglaze-blue enamels in order to determine their geographical area of origin. Experimental results provide groundbreaking information regarding the materials and technologies used in the different kilns, and show how the earliest attempts at firing overglaze-blue enamels in Arita involved the use of imported cobalt ores. For the first time, it has been scientifically proved that the successful use of an overglaze-blue decoration was a precise effect Japanese potters aimed at achieving by means of selected materials and technologies obtained from Europe, thus resolving the issues that emerged from the traditional approach of a Chinese origin for all technologies. Furthermore, comparisons between scientific analysis of late-16th and early-17th century Japanese paintings in Western style and the results presented in this work revealed that materials used for overglaze-enameling were also used for pigments employed in traditional paintings. Technologies from distant geographical areas proved crucial in pre-modern Japan.
       
  • A comparison of standard and realistic curing conditions of natural
           hydraulic lime repointing mortar for damp masonry: Impact on laboratory
           evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Lucie Fusade, Heather A. Viles Environmental conditions can affect the curing and performance of lime mortars. Especially in the case of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) mortars to be used for repointing in exposed conditions, it is essential to assess what if any differences these environmental conditions would make to mortar properties through laboratory evaluations before repointing work begins. This study considers a specific historic environment: traditional masonry exposed to high humidity and rainfall, with a particular focus on Devon. Realistic curing conditions (as likely found on-site) of 15 °C, 85% RH, representing an average of summer climate in Devon were compared with standard recommended laboratory conditions of 20 °C, 65% RH. A range of mixes, representing some conservation pointing mortars, was prepared using NHL 2 (St Astier), quartz sand, and crushed Portland limestone in 1:3 and 1:2 binder to aggregate ratios. The influence of curing conditions on carbonation depth, strength development, internal textural structure, pore structure and water uptake at 28 and 90 days is discussed (called here early and medium ages) and the response of NHL mortars to this humid environment during evaporation and salt crystallisation have been assessed. Results show that significant differences are found in laboratory evaluations of mechanical properties of the same NHL mortar exposed to different curing conditions especially at an early age and for mortar made with quartz sand. Laboratory evaluation should be made on samples cured under realistic conditions if information on the early to medium-term (up to 90 days) characteristics of NHL mortar is required. Overall, realistic humid curing conditions help NHL mortars gain good internal structure more quickly, minimising the risk of early failure of pointing mortar exposed in a harsh humid environment.
       
  • Lime render, shrinkage cracks and craftsmanship in building restoration
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Jonny Eriksson, Jan Erik Lindqvist The present project concerns early shrinkage cracks in renders. This problem relates to the type of lime and rendering methods used in Sweden during the 19th and early 20th century as well as in current restoration practice. Results from different render restoration projects have indicated that a high frequency of shrinkage cracks could be related to the slaking procedure and the reworking of the slaked lime putty. The aim of the project was to investigate whether there is a connection between different handling procedures for wet-slaked lime putty and early shrinkage cracks in render. An investigation involving practical application and a laboratory test programme was initiated to examine the problem of early shrinkage cracks in renders based on wet-slaked sub-hydraulic lime. This type of lime was commonly used in Sweden in the 19th century. The laboratory work in the project included 3 different mix proportions based on reworked and non-reworked lime putty. The renders were applied after 1, 8, 15, 32 and 68 days storage of the lime putty. This gave 30 mortar mixes applied as rendered test surfaces. The flow number of the fresh mortars was determined and the workability, mixability and open time were assessed. The frequency of shrinkage cracks in the rendered surfaces was measured. The results showed that the frequency of shrinkage cracks was related to the methods applied in the slaking process and the storage time. Reworking and storage of the lime putty increased the frequency of shrinkage cracks. The properties of the fresh mortar were also influenced.
       
  • Alkoxysilane-based sols for consolidation of carbonate stones: Impact of
           the carbonate medium in the sol-gel processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Bruno Sena da Fonseca, Maria João Ferreira, Maryna G. Taryba, Susana Piçarra, Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto, Maria de Fátima Montemor This investigation addresses the impact of the carbonate medium in the sol-gel processes of stone consolidants and the possible detrimental effects in practical applications. The results demonstrate that the carbonate medium influences the sol-gel paths and that silicate materials developed in the carbonate stone pores can be structurally different from those formed within “inert” conditions, as a consequence of the combined effect of pH and ionic interactions between Si-O− and Ca2+. The trend is that the formation of the silica films around stone grains (silica growth mechanism through typical condensation) evolves into less advantageous growth processes (Oswald ripening and/or coagulation), resulting in a material that is unlikely to consolidate carbonate stone. Furthermore, pH measurements and different ratios between NMR Q3:Q4 species along stone depth showed that this effect seems more important at greater depths.The results underline the importance of the carbonate medium in the failure of alkoxysilane-based treatments and, accordingly, that an efficient design and development of new alkoxysilane-based consolidants must consider this effect.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Non-destructive analytical techniques for the evaluation of cleaning and
           protection processes on white marble surfaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Fábio Luiz Melquiades, Carlos Roberto Appoloni, Avacir Casanova Andrello, Eduardo Spagnuolo Stone conservation and protection is the focus of several researches, especially for historical buildings, monuments and artworks. The objective of this study is to verify the impact of a helical vortex cleaning process in the surface of white marble samples. Powder abrasive material was used in the cleaning process with posterior application of different nano-compound products like water-repellent, anti-graffiti coating and consolidant. The thickness of the damage layer, the porous size distribution and the surface composition were evaluated with non-destructive techniques: X-ray micro-tomography and X-ray Fluorescence. The results indicated that the marble damage layer ranged from 80 to 180 μm due to the cleaning process with garnet as abrasive material. The estimation of the average thickness of the dirt layer by X-ray attenuation was 16 μm. Marble surface porous size distribution indicates that porous links were still present in the surface after the treatment with each one of the nano-compund products and have kept it permeable to air. Silicon, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr were identified in the marble surface. Calcium and Sr are from the marble composition, Si from protective solutions applied and the other elements from the dirt layer.
       
  • Decision support criteria and the development of a decision support tool
           for the selection of conservation materials for the built cultural
           heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Janez Turk, Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Andrew Hursthouse, Robert Turner, John J. Hughes Significant criteria for choosing materials (consolidants and protective coatings) for the conservation of the built cultural heritage were gathered from the literature and by consultation with experts working on the preservation of cultural heritage. Ten criteria were chosen from these, and a questionnaire was prepared and sent to stakeholders in the cultural heritage conservation domain in order to evaluate, score and rank the importance of the proposed criteria. Based on the results obtained a decision support tool was developed, aimed at conservators and other stakeholders, to help them to make sustainable decisions with regard to the selection of conservation materials for treatment of the built cultural heritage. Performance characteristics and health and safety were identified to be the most important criteria. A preliminary decision can be made based on these two criteria, however, reversibility, minimum intervention and re-treatability are also of very high importance and additional information about these characteristics of the material are required to support decisions. Information about environmental performance, peer recommendation, the application techniques, the price and availability of the materials, which are also integrated in decision support tools, can help conservators and stakeholders to reach a final decision on interventions. The study also provides feedback for the manufacturers of conservation materials. For the users of material, it is very important that the manufacturers clearly identify key characteristics (i.e. criteria) on the product, including those related with environmental performance of the materials.
       
  • DARAKI-CHATTAN ROCK ART CONSTRAINED OSL CHRONOLOGY AND MULTIANALYTICAL
           TECHNIQUES: A FIRST PILOT INVESTIGATION
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): I. Liritzis, R.G. Bednarik, G. Kumar, G. Polymeris, I. Iliopoulos, V Xanthopoulou, N. Zacharias, A. Vafiadou, M. BratitsiABSTRACTThe cave of Daraki-Chattan (in Rewa river, India) bears important palaeolithic rock art (petroglyphs), while the environs is exceptionally rich in stone tools, mostly of the Acheulian. The field survey and excavations in the area found cupule panel fragments almost down to bedrock; Acheulian industry to Oldowan-like industry including several hammerstones. Early work demonstrated that at least some of the petroglyphs were of the earliest documented occupation of the region. Exfoliated pieces and boulders from the rock surface were found in the sediments, some bearing cupules and grooves. Here a detailed methodological procedure is enacted consisting of luminescence dating reinforced by mineralogical issues, where the latter secures credibility of the former. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), of the luminescence versus depth profiles, following blue LED and Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) technique of quartz, was applied following the surface luminescence dating versions to date this fallen rock. The two dose profiles from the sandstone studies provided an average date for the fallen boulder in the 13th millennium, providing a constrained terminus post quem. Surface patina and intrusion of (Fe, Mn) aluminosilicate weathering solution was examined in both luminescence profiles, properly dealt with issues of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy- Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Florescence-Energy Dispersive mode (XRF/ED), Cathodoluminescence, stereomicroscope, thin sections optical microscopy (OM) and microdosimetry. Analytical petrographic results aided interpretation of luminescence data obtained.From the above rationale the two ages obtained from the two profiles can be considered close within errors, that coincide with the drastic change from last glaciation transition to the milder climate of the Holocene and the sudden end of colder Younger Dryas in ~13th Ka BP, having an impact on the weathering, erosion and exfoliation of rock surfaces caused by the significant temperature change and the resulted thermal differential expansion of rocks (onset of the Holocene).
       
  • A multi-scalar approach for assessing the impact of dams on the cultural
           heritage in the Middle East and North Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Nicolò Marchetti, Antonio Curci, Maria Carmela Gatto, Serena Nicolini, Simone Mühl, Federico Zaina This paper provides a detailed assessment on the impact of dams on archaeological sites in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and emphasizes the lack of established protocols for documenting and preserving cultural heritage at the local, national and international level.We considered four case studies at different scales – Turkey, the Euphrates river, the two Aswan dams and the planned Makhul dam – in order to identify different issues related to the construction of dams as well as to propose some best practices for pre-flooding assessment of dam impact on cultural heritage. Our method integrates archaeological and geo-spatial open-access datasets, organized in a GIS environment made available through the online platform http://www.orientlab.net/orientdams/ in order to foster data sharing and research replicability.We have mapped almost 2500 flooded archaeological sites and approximately 1300 km of ancient rivers submerged by dam reservoirs in the selected case studies across the MENA area. These numbers are actually incomplete, since large portions of the reservoir areas have not been systematically investigated.We conclude by underlining the urgent need for strategies for the documentation and protection of archaeological sites and monuments in the planning of hydraulic infrastructures at the international, national and local levels, as well as the need for a general operative protocol. Funders of development works, first and foremost the World Bank, should review their current policies, which do not offer sufficient protection of cultural heritage.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Thermal stress and damage risk in the stones of Al-Ziggurat in Al-Nimrud
           city, Iraq
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Asaad Al-Omari, Xavier Brunetaud, Kevin Beck, Muzahim Al-Mukhtar The aim of this paper is to assess the risk of climate-induced damage to stone through the calculation of thermal stresses. The stone studied is white limestone, the building stone of the walls of Al-Ziggurat in Al-Nimrud city, Iraq. In order to assess the effect of climate on stone behavior, we measured the stone surface temperature and the extreme values of air temperature (i.e. actual stone dataset). As these parameters were measured for short period, they were completed with weather data recorded from Mosul station for three years (i.e. weather dataset). The actual stone data were used to estimate the statistical difference between stone surface temperature and air temperature. The weather data were treated with respect to actual stone data in order to estimate the thermal stress for a statistically relevant duration. The mechanical properties required for stress calculation are the elastic modulus, the Poisson's ratio and the thermal expansion coefficient. A simple mechanical model was applied to estimate the stress generated by restrained thermal strain. Results show that the risk of damage to the stone exposed to climate fluctuations can be significant. The damage risk is higher to the stone in the south wall orientation than in the north one. The combined use of both datasets proved to be usefull, since the damage risk is significantly higher with the resulting estimation compared to the exclusive use of actual stone data.
       
  • An integrated approach to the study of heritage sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Denis Cutajar, Pierre-Sandre Farrugia, Alfred Micallef This work describes the integrated multidisciplinary approach taken in the study of the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were analysed and cross-compared to identify common trends. In the process, the environmental variables were treated as passive transport scalars in order to identify flow patterns. Subsequently, the measurements were used to set up a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the site. Comparisons between simulated results and measured data allowed not only the identification of the limits of the simulations but also revealed flow patterns that would be hard to recognise otherwise.
       
  • The special iron making in Southwest China around the 10th CE: Scientific
           evidence from an iron smelting site in Erhai lake area, Yunnan province
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Guisen Zou, Rui Min, Jianfeng Cui, Renjie Ma, Xueqi Zhou, Changcheng Yang This study analyzed metallurgical remains from the Fengweiqing iron smelting site at Wase Town, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwest China. Radiocarbon dating showed that the site was occupied approximately between 890 and 1025 CE, corresponding to the late Nanzhao Kingdom and the early Dali Kingdom. Analyses of slag and ore samples from the site revealed that bloomery iron smelting was performed at this site. Metallographic observation of the primary products and metal particles in the slag showed that they were mainly steel, making Fengweiqing the only archeological site currently known in China to produce steel directly through the bloomery process. This study adds new knowledge on iron metallurgy in ancient Yunnan, which is essential for investigating ancient iron production in this region and the technological and cultural exchange with surrounding areas during the Nanzhao Kingdom and early Dali Kingdom period.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Review of environmental and air pollution impacts on built heritage: 10
           questions on corrosion and soiling effects for urban intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 37Author(s): Fábio Vidal, Romeu Vicente, J. Mendes Silva For many decades, countless studies have been performed regarding the effects of the environment on traditional building materials, presenting methods to mostly quantify phenomena such as the corrosion of metals, stone degradation and soiling. Driven by concerning levels of air pollution in the late 1980's, many large international programmes such as the ICP-Materials, MICAT and ISOCORRAG have been testing worldwide material behaviour when exposed to acidifying pollutants, causing corrosion of metals and stone recession. Numerous individual studies have also contributed to a higher understanding of pollution effects on materials, including soiling studies. The methodologies mostly consist of open exposure of standard samples, either for short, mid or long periods, followed by a statistical analysis of the results, in order to develop accurate prediction formulations used for mapping exercises and to determine areas at risk. Considering all the available information, the contribution of this work is to perform an extensive bibliographic review, organized in the form of 10 basic questions that attempt to present and describe the effects of pollution on materials and practical ways to determine risk areas at urban scales and implement well-supported pollution mitigation strategies. The answers to these questions always take into consideration a more practical approach towards the identification of potential risk and subsequent intervention. Additionally, a new methodology regarding the assessment of environmental effects on actual buildings is discussed for the preservation of historic city centres, through the identification of potentially vulnerable buildings regarding deterioration effects by atmospheric corrosion, soiling and stone degradation.
       
  • A mathematical, experimental study on iron rings formation in porous
           stones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rita Reale, Luigi Campanella, Maria Pia Sammartino, Giovanni Visco, Gabriella Bretti, Maurizio Ceseri, Roberto Natalini, Filippo Notarnicola In this interdisciplinary paper, we study the formation of iron precipitates – the so-called Liesegang rings – in Lecce stones in contact with iron source. These phenomena are responsible of exterior damages of lapideous artifacts, but also in the weakening of their structure. They originate in presence of water, determining the flow of carbonate compounds mixing with the iron ions and then, after a sequence of reactions and precipitation, leading to the formation of Liesegang rings. In order to model these phenomena observed in situ and in laboratory experiments, we propose a modification of the classical Keller–Rubinow model and show the results obtained with some numerical simulations, in comparison with the experimental tests. Our model is of interest for a better understanding of damage processes in monumental stones.
       
  • Insight into the orientation behavior of thermal-aged and historic silk
           fabrics by polarized FTIR microspectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Xiaoning Zhang, Decai Gong, Yuxuan Gong Understanding the mechanism of silk degradation and evaluating the deterioration status is always a challenge, but fundamental for silk conservation and preservation. Polarized attenuated total reflection (Pol-ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy was employed to study the orientation behaviour of artificial-aged silk fibres in molecular level. Combined with wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) study, the effect of crystal size and crystallinity on the orientation behavior of beta-sheets was investigated. It proved that the orientation structure of β-sheets fibrous was disrupted and greatly depend on the ageing degree. A comprehensive ageing mechanism of silk fibrous upon heat treatment was also proposed. In addition, the molecular order parameter of β-sheets crystallites (approximately at 1515 ± 3 cm−1) could be a degradation marker to reveal the orientation degree of β-sheets in silk fibrous. This hypothesis was also validated by examining the ageing of Chinese historic silk fragments unearthed from two archaeological sites. Component at 1616 ± 4 cm−1 would be potentially helpful to elucidate the molecular orientation for historic silk. Combined with thermal stability study, the ageing characteristics of two historic silk were compared.This research could provide with inspirations in obtaining a better understanding of silk degradation mechanism, evaluating the ageing status and providing with appropriate treatment for artificial aged and natural aged silk (historic silk).
       
  • Monitoring of the Garisenda Tower through GNSS using advanced approaches
           toward the frame of reference stations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Luca Poluzzi, Maurizio Barbarella, Luca Tavasci, Stefano Gandolfi, Nicola Cenni The Garisenda tower in Bologna is a symbol of the city and one of the most valuable heritages of the medieval age. The tower is leaning markedly since the XIV century because of a foundation failure and its stability is nowadays under constant monitoring through many sensors. In 2013 a GNSS permanent station was installed on the top of the tower with the aim to test the satellite technology for this particular kind of structural monitoring. Being the leaning of the Garisenda the subject of the investigation and being the sensor placed on its top, one fundamental hypothesis is the stationarity of the ground under the tower with respect to the reference system used for the GNSS measures. This hypothesis has demonstrated to be unreliable considered the high precision of the survey and the Earth crust dynamics, therefore opening interesting issues concerning the reference to be used in such kind of monitoring. The proposed solution rely on a strain model of the area surrounding the Garisenda tower, estimated using data from four other GNSS permanent stations already present in Bologna. The method is described and results are shown in terms of trend over time of the Garisenda's leaning. Nevertheless, the methodology can be generalized for every kind of structural monitoring based on GNSS data for which millimetre level of precision is needed.
       
  • Heritage-fueled gentrification: A cautionary tale from Chicago
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Ted Grevstad-Nordbrock, Igor Vojnovic This article contests the view that heritage preservation programs, in their present form, provide an unqualified community good. Anointing certain places as ‘historic’, and therefore different from other places and intrinsically special, can create demand and provide a catalyst for revitalization. We suggest that such preservation-driven revitalization is not always beneficial to a neighborhood and can, perhaps counterintuitively, work against the long-term sustainability of heritage preservation. Focusing on Chicago's Lincoln Park neighborhood and its National Register of Historic Places-listed sites, we explore the relationship between preservation activity and gentrification, the physical and social upgrading of a neighborhood. We identify a three-stage revitalization process that can lead to the degradation of a neighborhood's historic character. In a sense, a gentrifying historic neighborhood can become a victim of its own success as redevelopment pressures encourage physical change and the gradual loss of its historic integrity—the very reason for preservation to begin with. The public framework that supports heritage preservation in the US, while vitally important for protecting irreplaceable cultural heritage, is outdated. Simply, it has not kept pace with changes in American cities over the last fifty years, particularly those with strong real estate markets. An updated and more nuanced framework is in order, one that recognizes that honorific heritage programs and public subsidies for private rehabilitation can have significant adverse impacts on a neighborhood, both physical and social.
       
  • CNN-based statistics and location estimation of missing components in
           routine inspection of historic buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Zheng Zou, Xuefeng Zhao, Peng Zhao, Fei Qi, Niannian Wang Ancient buildings have a high cultural and historical value. In the process of their protection and maintenance, it is crucial to conduct regular routine inspections on them. During the regular routine inspections, the identification and statistics for components on historic buildings are of great significance to conservators, managers and visitors. However, the current identification and statistics work is almost carried out by human eyes, which is time consuming and labor intensive. Actually, this work can be done by artificial intelligence. In order to promote the intelligent development of routine inspections of historic buildings, this paper proposes a methodology in the case of the Forbidden City to identify and count the numbers of intact and impaired components based on Convolutional Neural Network. The applied algorithm is Faster R-CNN, which is an effective object detection algorithm for 2D images. In addition, the positions of the missing components can be inferred and marked in the images as their regularity of the positional arrangement. This methodology can lay the foundation for the subsequent intelligent inspection system of the historic buildings.
       
  • The bricks of Hagia Sophia (Istanbul, Turkey): a new hypothesis to explain
           their compositional difference
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Mirco Taranto, Luis Barba, Jorge Blancas, Andrea Bloise, Marco Cappa, Francesco Chiaravalloti, Gino Mirocle Crisci, Murat Cura, Daniela De Angelis, Raffaella De Luca, Marco Lezzerini, Alessandra Pecci, Domenico Miriello The work shows the results of a multi-analytical study performed on twenty-nine brick samples taken from Hagia Sophia in Istanbul (Turkey). Hagia Sophia, one of the most important historical buildings in the world, has a very complex construction history. This complexity is also reflected in the materials that were used for its construction. The main purpose of this work is to verify whether there are any compositional differences in the bricks used in different historical periods, but also to understand the reasons for any compositional differences between one period and another. The samples were studied by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), coupled with a new approach, based on the micro-chemical EDS analysis used to obtain information on the clay fraction of the matrix. The study showed that, most probably, the differences between the bricks belonging to the different construction phases are due to the composition of the clays used for their preparation.
       
  • Protective coating of paper works: ZnO/cellulose nanocrystal composites
           and analytical characterization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Minghao Jia, Xiaogang Zhang, Jiajia Weng, Jie Zhang, Meifang Zhang Coating of ZnO-cellulose composites on paper surface has potential technological applications. With this motivation, a simple approach of synthesizing ZnO nanoparticles in cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) by in-situ solution casting is reported in this work. The surface morphology of ZnO nanoparticles combined with cellulose fibers and the distribution of these ZnO-cellulose composites on the paper surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that ZnO nanoparticles are easily and uniformly dispersed in the CNC. The ZnO-cellulose composite nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the composites in isopropanol as a base fluid. To determine the protective potential of these coatings, the chemical and mechanical properties of coated papers after dry heat and UV accelerated aging were measured. Also, a good color stability of the paper coated by the nanocomposites was observed through colorimetric measurements. The paper coated with ZnO-cellulose composites was found to possess antibacterial and antifungal activity against five common fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus Versicolor, Rhizopus nigricans, Saccharomycetes, Mucor) observed in the archive or museum and two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) in common life.
       
  • Evaluation of the applicability of nano-biocide treatments on limestones
           used in cultural heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Javier Becerra, Maripaz Mateo, Pilar Ortiz, Ginés Nicolás, Ana Paula Zaderenko One of the main problems in the conservation of historical buildings and archaeological sites is the one caused by biodeterioration. Biopatina, biocrust or biofouling generate aesthetical changes and induce degradation processes within the stone matrix. In this work, three treatments based on silver nanoparticles and silver/titanium dioxide nanocomposites have been studied as potential biocides for limestones: citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles, silver/TiO2 nanocomposites and citrate-stabilized silver/TiO2 nanocomposites. These treatments were synthesized following a bottom-up method, using or not a stabilizing agent (citrate), and have been characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering and Raman spectroscopy. These treatments were applied on limestones from three different Spanish quarries located in Utrera (Seville), El Puerto de Santa María (Cadiz) and Novelda (Alicante). The aesthetical modification of limestone surfaces was studied by colorimetric techniques and the effectiveness of protection against biofouling formation was tested using an accelerated biofouling growth assay. The best results were obtained for the treatments based on citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles. The effectiveness of the treatments depends on their penetration depth in the stone matrix and in this study, we have used Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to determine the depth profiles of nanocomposite presence in the stone matrix. Our results demonstrate that nanocomposites based on citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles can be useful for the treatment of historical buildings and archaeological sites made of limestone, without producing high colour increments. Additionally, we have demonstrated the suitability of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for the detection of silver/TiO2 nanocomposites and for the generation of depth profiles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Biogenic deterioration of Egyptian limestone monuments: treatment and
           conservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Khaled Z. Baghdady, Sahar T. Tolba, Soha S. Houssien The aim of this research was to study the biodeterioration activity of bacteria on ancient Egyptian limestone monuments and their treatments. Specimens and swabs were collected from seven different archeological sites along Egypt. According to the results of bacterial count, high bacterial load was detected at Senusret I obelisk and Mosque of Elkadi Abd El Basset. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of calcium carbonate degradation showed that the most damaging isolates were Bacillus safensis 9K (MH370265) and Streptomyces rochei 50 (MH370266) with 20.9 and 25.6% of total amounts of CaCO3 degradation, respectively. Environmental scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM/EDX) and physical characters of stone simulation model revealed that these isolates caused morphological, physical and chemical changes. Among the natural and chemical antimicrobial agents applied directly on the infected models as simulators of treatment and conservation processes, cetrimonium (1 mg/mL), tetra ethyl ammonium bromide (0.6 mg/mL), cinnamon (1 mg/mL) and cinnamon (5 mg/mL) were found to be effective against the two bacterial isolates. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis for artificially deteriorated stones revealed that the compounds were safe for direct application on limestone monuments when no visual or chemical changes in the stone structure were observed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Artificial neural network for the provenance study of archaeological
           ceramics using clay sediment database
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Germana Barone, Paolo Mazzoleni, Grazia Vera Spagnolo, Simona Raneri An artificial neural network (ANN) for archaeometric studies was created to facilitate provenance attribution of archaeological ceramics. A multilayer perceptron model (MLP) was applied to construct the network, including only one hidden layer. Moreover, correction parameters based on historical and archaeological evidences were applied to Bayesian probability factor. The ANN was trained by using clays mixings mathematically constructed based on a reference chemical database of Sicilian sediments. The clay mixing takes in consideration compositional variability within the same geological site and the extent of the ceramic manufacture processes. Test was performed by querying the ANN with compositional data of ceramics found in archaeological sites coherent with clays sampling areas. Up to 88% correct attribution was verified, with good correspondence between geological and archaeological contexts. Finally, merits of ANN were highlighted by comparing the extent of successfully provisional attribution with classical statistical methods (PCA and LDA).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
 
 
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