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SOCIAL SCIENCES (871 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
IULC Working Papers     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addiction & Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ilahiyat Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Iran Cultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free  
Journal of Mediterranean Knowledge     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 292, SJR: 4.302, CiteScore: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Progressive Research in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Social Science Education : JSSE     Open Access  
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Structure     Open Access  
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Trust Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Kawistara     Open Access  
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Teori dan Praksis Pembelajaran IPS     Open Access  
Jurnal Terapan Abdimas     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access  
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies     Open Access  
Kimün. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente     Open Access  
Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Korean Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Homme. Europäische Zeitschrift für Feministische Geschichtswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
L'Ordinaire des Amériques     Open Access  
La Tercera Orilla     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Lavboratorio : Revista de Estudios sobre Cambio Estructural y Desigualdad Social.     Open Access  
Lectio Socialis     Open Access  
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lex Social : Revista de Derechos Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Liminar. Estudios Sociales y Humanisticos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Literacy Learning: The Middle Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Local-Global: Identity, Security, Community     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lucero     Open Access  
Lúdicamente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lutas Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedon Digest, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Maskana     Open Access  
Mathématiques et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mayéutica Revista Científica de Humanidades y Artes     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meanjin Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Media Information Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Media International Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Media International Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Melbourne Journal of Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mémoire(s), identité(s), marginalité(s) dans le monde occidental contemporain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Memorias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meridional : Revista Chilena de Estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
methaodos.revista de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Methodological Innovations     Open Access  
Methods, Data, Analyses     Open Access  
México y la Cuenca del Pacífico     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Migration Action     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Mikarimin. Revista Científica Multidisciplinaria     Open Access  
Miscelánea Comillas. Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales     Open Access  
Misión Jurídica     Open Access  
Mitologicas     Open Access  
Módulo Arquitectura - CUC     Open Access  
Monthly, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Moving the Social : Journal of Social History and the History of Social Movements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mukaddime     Open Access  
Mütefekkir     Open Access  
Müvészettörténeti Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
National Emergency Response     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
National Observer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Navigations : A First-Year College Composite     Open Access  
New Left Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
New Perspectives on Turkey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand International Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Newsletter of the Gypsy Lore Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nineteenth-Century Contexts: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Noesis. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nómadas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nómadas. Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Social Research     Open Access  
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nouvelles perspectives en sciences sociales : revue internationale de systémique complexe et d'études relationnelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Observatorio Latinoamericano y Caribeño     Open Access  
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
OGIRISI : a New Journal of African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Öneri Dergisi     Open Access  
Opcion     Open Access  
Open Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Open Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Opticon1826     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Orbis. Revista Cientifica Ciencias Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Orbith : Majalah Ilmiah Pengembangan Rekayasa dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oregon Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Outlines. Critical Practice Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pacific Northwest Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Palgrave Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Palimpsesto : Revista Científica de Estudios Sociales Iberoamericanos     Open Access  
Pandora's Box     Full-text available via subscription  
Panggung     Open Access  
Panorama     Open Access  
Papeles de Europa     Open Access  
Papeles de Trabajo     Open Access  
Parity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pecvnia : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de León     Open Access  
Península     Open Access  
Pensamento & Realidade. Revista do Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Administração     Open Access  
People and Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
People and Society (Mens & Maatschappij)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Percurso Acadêmico     Open Access  
Perfiles Latinoamericanos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Periférica. Revista para el análisis de la cultura y el territorio     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Social and Management Sciences     Open Access  
Persona y Bioetica     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Journal Cover
Journal of Cultural Heritage
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 17  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1296-2074
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • An immunomagnetic bead enrichment technique to improve the detection
           efficiency for trace silk protein, its application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Hailing Zheng, Wei Zhang, Hailiang Yang, Chao Ma, Yang Zhou, Xianjun Dai Immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) are a new immunological separation technology for protein purification, etc. In this experiment, to enrich and purify trace silk fibroin from complex soil and cultural relics, an immunomagnetic separation method was developed through coupling anti-fibroin polyclonal antibodies with magnetic beads. The key parameters were optimized to prepare the IMBs and capture the fibroin. Under optimized conditions, the capture rate with 1.2 mg of IMBs against a 100 ng/mL-1 fibroin solution was greater than 99%. The recovery rate of fibroin in soil was over 97% when the silk fibroin additive content was 10 to 50 ng, which showed that the IMB method developed in this study could successfully enrich silk fibroin in soil for indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) detection. The results of the respective analyses of fabric and mineralized textile samples indicated that IMBs could be successfully applied for the detection of trace silk fibroin in archaeological samples.
  • Cultural heritage digitization and related intellectual property issues
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Vladia Borissova The role of cultural heritage for defining the national identity, sustainable development and compatibility of the creative industries is indisputable. In view of the new digital possibilities in preservation, safeguarding and popularization of the cultural heritage, the intellectual property-related issues raise serious challenges. These circumstances call for large-scale strategic planning on cultural policy including the protection of cultural heritage as intellectual property; its digitization as means for its commercial use and its recognition as creative industries’ business asset. The study researched the economic symbiosis between cultural heritage and intellectual property, it reveals the economic characteristics of cultural values and the suitability of the intellectual property system to provide them protection, and it identifies the right's holder of the intellectual property over the digitized cultural values and creates a step by step guidance for intellectual property management via digitization process.
  • Non-destructive method for wood identification using conventional X-ray
           computed tomography data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Kayoko Kobayashi, Sung-Wook Hwang, Takayuki Okochi, Won-Hee Lee, Junji Sugiyama We establish an efficient and reliable method of wood identification that combines a non-destructive and non-invasive laboratory-scale tool, X-ray computed tomography (CT), with machine learning for image recognition. We selected six hardwood species used to create the Tripitaka Koreana and obtained the X-ray CT data of its woodblocks. Image recognition systems using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) or local binary patterns (LBP) were applied to the CT images and the prediction accuracies were evaluated. Because the gray level of the CT data is linearly related with the density, the CT images were preprocessed to calibrate the density. Although the resolution of the images is too low for the anatomical microstructures required for wood identification to be easily recognized visually, the predicted accuracies are quite high in both systems. However, the LBP system has slight advantages over the GLCM system. The results moreover show that the calibration of gray level to density improves the accuracies of the results. If the candidates for the wood species are selected properly and sufficient data for training is available, this technique will provide novel information about the properties of wooden historical objects.
  • A combination of techniques to study Chinese traditional Lajian paper
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Yanbing Luo, Yue Wang, Xiujuan Zhang Although it is a very important Chinese traditional handmade paper, the technique employed to produce Lajian paper has been lost. Unambiguous characterization of this unique paper is essential for its conservation and reservation. A fragment of ancient purple-red Lajian paper, dated from the Qing Dynasty and decorated with flecked Au, was analyzed via non-destructive and/or micro-destructive methods, such as Optical microscopy (OM), SEM-EDS, X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The results showed that the Lajian paper, which was 50–60 μm thick overall, was produced from bamboo fibers that were mixed mainly with wheat and mulberry fibers. The front surface was first filled with kaolin to form a coating that was approximately 10 μm thick and then polished with wax mixed with cochineal dye, minium pigment and animal glue to form a purple-red color to protect it from humidity and mold growth. The back surface was treated the same as the front, except that cochineal was not used. The handmade paper and color were stable because cochineal produced neutral/weak alkaline conditions. This study provides comprehensive information about the production process of this traditional handmade paper.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Similarity and provenance of underpainting chalk grounds based on their
           nannofossil assemblages cluster analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Mariusz Kędzierski, Mirosław P. Kruk The study concerns first analytical approach aiming to determine similarity and possible source market of chalk used as wooden icon underpainting grounds, on the basis of their quantified nannofossil assemblage compositions. The grounds were sampled, among others, from the oldest icons (14th–16th c.) in the collection of National Museum in Krakow. Forty-seven underpainting ground samples contain the Upper Cretaceous nannofossil taxa (eleven, barren in nannofossil, seem to embody gypsum/anhydrite underpainting layers). Forty-five of them yielded the Upper Campanian—Upper Maastrichtian assemblages and the next two, Turonian—Coniacian. The latter may represent Central Russia trade market source regards also on the manner of icon paintings. Three of forty-five of the Campanian—Maastrichtians samples provided the Tethyan nannofossil assemblages and may derive from the southern Carpathians and/or Balkans. The rest, i.e. forty-two samples provide the Boreal assemblages, dominated by Micula decussata, Arkhangelskiella spp. and Prediscosphaera spp. The analytical part of study involving cluster analysis of the distinguished nannofossil assemblages evidenced separation of the Turonian—Coniacian and Tethyan assemblages from the Boreal ones, in different clusters. Furthermore, this analysis also shows the strong affinities between assemblages of Boreal origin. The next cluster analysis combined the icon chalk ground nannofossil assemblages and those from rock samples outcropped nearby the City of Chełm (Lublin Upland, E Poland). That analysis reveals the close relationship of assemblages coming from the Chełm's samples with those found in the icon chalk grounds containing the Campanian—Maastrichtian nannofossil assemblages of the Boreal origin.
  • A complementary spectroscopic approach for the non-invasive in-situ
           identification of synthetic organic pigments in modern reverse paintings
           on glass (1913–1946)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Simon Steger, Heike Stege, Simone Bretz, Oliver Hahn This work addresses the identification of synthetic organic pigments (SOP) in eight modern reverse paintings on glass (1913–1946) by means of an in-situ multi-analytical approach. We combined the complementary properties of mobile Raman spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to overcome the main disadvantages of each method: extensive band overlapping in DRIFT spectra and fluorescence problems in Raman spectra. A collection of DRIFTS reference spectra enables a precise pigment identification by DRIFTS and establishes this method as a serious non-destructive alternative for the identification of SOP. The group of β-naphthol pigments yielded valuable results for both methods, whereas synthetic alizarin (PR83) was preferentially detected by DRIFTS. Finally, uncommon triaryl carbonium pigments and two azo group-based yellows were identified in the paintings by means of Raman spectroscopy.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Terra verde: Overcoming the problem of transparency by crystal engineering
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Duncan Micallef, Rebecca Spiteri, Ulrich Baisch, Liana Vella-Zarb Terra verde, or Green Earth, a naturally-occurring mineral and green pigment consisting of celadonite or glauconite, is one of the most commonly-used pigments in works of art and their conservation. Its widespread use is owed primarily to its insensitivity to light, its neutral pH, and its high stability in air and moisture – attributes that collectively make it virtually unreactive with other components in an artefact. Notwithstanding this, the use of terra verde in the conservation of objects of cultural heritage is hindered due to its minimal tinting strength and hiding power, which makes the pigment effectively transparent when applied on the canvas with the most common binding media. This gives rise to problems in retouching during the restoration process. We report a robust and reliable method to overcome the problem of transparency through the application of crystal engineering techniques on the pigment Verona Green Earth, or Verona Terra Verde (VTV). The purchased pigment was co-crystallised with a selection of different co-formers and analysis was carried out on both starting compound and product via IR and XRF spectroscopy, hot-stage microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The results of the experiments conducted show an increase in the pigment's opacity without affecting its colour intensity.
  • Natural biocides for the conservation of stone cultural heritage: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Maria Rosaria Fidanza, Giulia Caneva The use of traditional biocides to reduce bio-deterioration phenomena of stone monuments is increasingly deterred, due to risks for human health and the environment, as well as for potential interference with materials. Extensive research is now ongoing, aiming to find alternative and eco-friendly substances or methods to halt or reduce bio-deterioration. Here we aim to provide an assessment of the results of scientific tests, in order to evaluate the most promising substances, likewise possible deficiencies and future directions in research. We performed an extensive literature review on natural biocides for controlling bio-deterioration of stone using peer-reviewed articles between 1986 and 2018. The dataset created displays information about the experimentation of a total of 61 natural substances, mostly essential oils (23), or substances of plant origin and other compounds. The methods of application of such biocides were diverse, but the in vitro tests were the prevailing ones. The most tested organisms were fungi, followed by cyanobacteria and algae. The efficacy of the substances resulted highly variable, as did protocols and experimental doses, resulting in a lack of a robust and coherent assessment of best practices. Also, we found a few papers discussing the interference of these substances with the substrate. We believe that this area of research is very promising and necessary, although additional tests with a standardised methodology are still needed.
  • Mediated messages. Periodicals, exhibitions and the shaping of postmodern
           architecture. In: Patteeuw V, Szacka L-C, editors. Bloomsbury Visual Arts
           (2018). ISBN: 9781350046177Italy/Australia. Postmodern in translation. In:
           Micheli S, Macarthur J, editors. Uro Publications (2018). ISBN:
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Macarena de la Vega de León
  • Context-aware risk management for architectural heritage using historic
           building information modeling and virtual reality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): J. Lee, J. Kim, J. Ahn, W. Woo This research proposes a data structure for context-aware risk management for architectural heritage using Historic Building Information Modeling (HBIM) and Virtual Reality (VR). In cultural heritage domain, risk management plays a key role in the preservation and intervention of the heritage. For effective risk management, it is important to share enriched data between people who monitor and diagnose heritages and people who recognize the context of information. The 5W1H (what, when, where, who, why, and how) model-based metadata structure for context-awareness and the framework for linking the HBIM with VR environment which enables sharing and retrieving of risk management information are proposed in this research. Two prototypes were created; an on-site VR application for the heritage managers and a remote VR application for the conservators. The effectiveness of the applications was verified through an experiment including a user survey to compare the paper-based and the VR-based methods regarding on-site VR application, and a focus-group interview regarding the remote VR application. This study enabled to integrate risk management information scattered across a variety of sources and formats, provide contextualized information. Thereby it shortens the time and effort spent to find and share information by heritage managers and conservators.
  • Violon. Céret by Pablo Picasso: The case of a lost painting.
           A methodological approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Eleonora Maria Stella, Susanna Bracci, Roberta Iannaccone, Jacopo La Nasa, Maria Perla Colombini In this paper, the methodological approach used for the study of a painting from Pablo Picasso's cubist period is examined in order to verify its authenticity. In a perspective of a multidisciplinary research and activity, the outcomes obtained made it possible to identify a work of art by the Spanish painter which had always been considered lost. The painting was produced by the artist in 1912 during his second stay in Céret (southern France), and several issues about why all traces of this work of art were lost until it was discovered in Italy in 2013 remain still unresolved. The events related to its collection and the causes that led to the painting's somewhat troubled history from a preservation point of view are unknown, and for this reason its presence in the catalog raisonné by Christian Zervos (edition of 1942) with the title Violon. Céret assumes on importance. The study was based on an integrated protocol that uses both in situ non-invasive and micro-invasive techniques, have demonstrated the compatibility of the constituent materials of the painting with its period of creation–in the year 1912 - confirming the results of expert opinions based on stylistic data and study of documentary sources.
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Francesca Caterina Izzo, Patrizia Tomasin
  • Recommender systems, cultural heritage applications, and the way forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): George Pavlidis Modern recommender systems appeared during the last decade of the 20th century and have already proven their importance in tackling with information overload and content or services personalisation in the modern big-data world. This is markedly suggested by their adoption by major industry parties in a wide variety of domains. The application of recommender systems in the Cultural Heritage domain has appeared relatively recently, particularly during the advent of the 21st century. Nevertheless, a large number of works appeared in the scientific literature, driven primarily from large-scale cultural heritage collaborative projects. This paper presents a review of the current recommender system approaches, including some basic mathematical formalism, and focuses on recommender system applications in Cultural Heritage, to identify the advantages, the benefits and prospects, the disadvantages and pitfalls. The paper discusses the diversity and some common assumptions in the reviewed works, outlines some proposals for future development, and takes a position on the way forward.
  • Stains versus colourants produced by fungi colonising paper
           cultural heritage: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): D. Melo, S.O. Sequeira, J.A. Lopes, M.F. Macedo Books, prints, drawings, watercolours, engravings, as well as all other works of art based on paper, are very susceptible to fungal development. The excreted substances and the fungal structures themselves are often coloured and interfere with the readability of the artefacts, diminishing their artistic and monetary value. In order to direct cleaning methods for specific fungal stains on paper, the colourants (molecules) responsible for those stains need to be assessed. However, the literature regarding fungal stains on paper and colourants produced by those fungi is very dispersed and scarce. Therefore, the main objectives of this work were surveying the most common stains on paper, the colourants present on those stains and the main fungi responsible for these colourants’ production. To achieve these goals, two different but complementary literature reviews were made: one on paper conservation literature, where fungal stains observed on paper cultural heritage are reported; and another survey on the chemical/food/pharmaceutical fields where colourants’ molecules produced by fungi, that can colonise paper cultural heritage, are identified and studied in greater detail. This paper presents the first literature review on this subject. The results show that the fungal genera more frequently related with fungal stains on paper cultural heritage are Aspergillus (29%) and Penicillium (13%). The most common colour of the stains is brown (54%), caused by foxing in most of the cases. However, in the paper conservation literature, no consistent correlation has been observed between stain colour on paper/specific fungal species and colourants/chemical compounds. On the literature review regarding the use of fungal colourants for industrial/commercial purposes, the referred colourants can be mostly classified chemically as carotenoids and polyketides. Biosynthetically, most colourants produced by fungi are polyketide-based and representative classes may include chemical structures such as azaphilones, anthraquinones, hydroxyanthraquinones, naphthoquinones and other structures. From a total of 80 different colourants, the ones mostly produced by paper colonising fungi were polyketide quinones, namely the hydroxyanthraquinoid (HAQN) colourants. This review showed that the most commonly studied colours are yellow and red, followed by orange. The production of these colourants is often associated with the genera Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. which are frequently found on stained paper. Overall, there is no doubt that colourants producing fungi are a serious problem to paper conservators, since there is a great variety of colourants produced by different species of fungi colonising paper. This review catalogues the fungal genera, species and excreted colourants mentioned in the literature as being responsible for staining paper cultural heritage.
  • Classical construction techniques in 17th century Jesuit architecture.
           Tools for the restoration of historic heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Jorge Alberto Durán-Suárez, María Paz Sáez-Pérez, Rafael Peralbo-Cano, Víctor M. Fernández-MartínezGraphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Development of passive controlled atmosphere display cases for the
           conservation of cultural assets
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Marco Samadelli, Albert R. Zink, Graziella Roselli, Serena Gabrielli, Shahin Tabandeh, Vito C. Fernicola This work expands the study of the conservation of organic specimens of historical and artistic interest, assessing both biological and physical-chemical conservation requirements, in order to arrive at the tangible solution, set out herein. The results of the experiment carried out on the prototype demonstrated the performance in terms of gas tightness achieved by the system, as well as the ability to maintain stable storage parameters for a very long period of time. During the course of the study, the chemical compounds emitted by the materials used in construction were taken into consideration, and the effect of the climatic variations present in museum exhibition areas, archives or churches on the physical properties was monitored. This study saw the development of two innovative patented technologies (IT-1398645 and IT-1425729) applied to the construction of two cases, designed to conserve and display the mummies of Rosalia Lombardo (1918–1920 AD) in Palermo, Italy and Princess Anna of Bavaria (1319 AD) in Kastl, Germany.
  • A new mixture of hydroxypropyl cellulose and nanocellulose for wood
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Safa Abd Al Kader Mohamed Hamed, Mohammad Lotfy Hassan Searching and improving eco-friendly new materials with relatively low-cost, low toxicity, from available and renewable sources and compatible with wood is a new trend in wood conservation. This paper presents a new mixture for consolidating wood based on natural polymers and their derivatives. Consolidation of wood with mixtures of hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel E) and nanocellulose of different concentrations before and after aging has been examined in order to evaluate their potential use as consolidants. Additionally, the effect of using different concentration of nanocellulose as an additive to enhance the efficiency of hydroxypropyl cellulose was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Also, the retention of the consolidation solutions within wood structure, the color change measurement and mechanical properties determination were investigated to select the appropriate concentration of nanocellulose. The results suggest that using nanocellulose as an additive is very promising in consolidation of wood without negative effects on its properties even after aging and its appropriate percentage differs according to Klucel E concentration.
  • Methyltrimethoxysilane as a stabilising agent for archaeological
           waterlogged wood differing in the degree of degradation
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Magdalena Broda, Bartłomiej Mazela, Krzysztof Radka Experiments using archaeological wooden remains of a medieval “Poznań” bridge from the Lednica Lake, Wielkopolska Region, Poland, were performed to evaluate the stabilisation effect of methyltrimethoxysilane on waterlogged oak wood varied in the degree of degradation. Moreover, two types of treatment were compared: the soaking method and the oscillating pressure method, preceded by the ethanol dehydration procedure. The results suggest that the silane in question can effectively penetrate wood cell walls, causing their bulking and thus enhancing wood dimensional stability. Exceptionally satisfying results were obtained for severely decayed sapwood (loss of wood substance about 80%), for which an overall anti-shrink efficiency oscillated around 100%, regardless of the applied treatment method. In the case of almost non-degraded heartwood, resistant to impregnation, the obtained anti-shrink efficiency of over 60% could also be considered as quite satisfactory. Comparable values of weight percent gain and anti-shrink efficiency for silane-treated specimens clearly show that there is no significant difference in the efficacy of the soaking and the oscillating pressure method applied. The obtained results show that the methyltrimethoxysilane treatment preceded by wood dehydration could be a reliable method for stabilisation of small archaeological waterlogged wooden artefacts, providing their good dimensional stability of wood differing in the degree of degradation.
  • Organosilicon compounds with various active groups as consolidants for the
           preservation of waterlogged archaeological wood
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Magdalena Broda, Bartłomiej Mazela, Agnieszka Dutkiewicz Waterlogged wood conservation focuses primarily on its dimensional stabilisation to prevent irreversible deformations that occur upon drying. It also aims to solve the concerns regarding wood degradation as well as its physico-mechanical properties, all of which are inextricably connected with wood hygroscopicity. Therefore, the reduction of wood hygroscopicity can provide a solution to some of the conservation problems. Due to the hydrophobising properties and the ability to cell wall bulking, a set of organosilicons with various active groups were selected to evaluate their stabilisation effect on highly degraded medieval waterlogged elm wood. Exceptionally satisfying results were obtained for (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, 1,3-Bis(diethylamino)-3-propoxypropanol)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane and Methyltrimethoxysilane, for which the volumetric anti-shrink efficiency was around 98%, 90% and 81%, respectively. Additionally, the applied treatment resulted in a decrease of wood moisture content from 6.7% for untreated wood to 2.4–3.6% for wood treated with the above-mentioned compounds. Neither the alkoxysilanes with a long alkyl chain, nor those terminated with a highly hydrophilic pyridine ring were found effective for waterlogged wood stabilisation. It can be concluded that the organosilicon compounds with alkoxy groups and a relatively short alkyl chain or containing and additional chemical group enable to form stable bonds with wood components proved to be the most effective wood stabilisers.
  • Consolidating effect of hydroxyapatite on the ancient ivories from Jinsha
           ruins site: Surface morphology and mechanical properties study
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Wei Gong, Sheng Yang, Liang Zheng, Heng Xiao, Jing Zheng, Bin Wu, Zhongrong Zhou In this study, the ancient ivories from Jinsha ruins site have been consolidated through impregnation in aqueous hydroxyapatite (HAP) colloid prepared by the hydrothermal method. Microscopic examinations and nano-indentation/scratch tests were conducted to characterize the morphology and mechanical properties of ivory's surface. After the consolidation treatment, a compact HAP nano-particle layer is formed on the original ivory surface, and the loose and porous surface is repaired. The hardness, elastic modulus, and anti-scratch performance of the repaired ivory surface are significantly improved. Also, the consolidated surface acts as a protective layer, which isolates the ivory from the ambient environment and avoids further deterioration. The consolidation has compatible aesthetics, and does not introduce extraneous substances into the ivory. The results have shown nano-HAP is a promising consolidant for ancient ivories.
  • On-line photoacoustic monitoring of laser cleaning on stone: Evaluation of
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): George J. Tserevelakis, Jose Santiago Pozo-Antonio, Panagiotis Siozos, Teresa Rivas, Paraskevi Pouli, Giannis Zacharakis Laser-assisted removal of unwanted layers is well established in Cultural Heritage (CH), however material extraction and potential side-effects to the substrate must be reliably determined and monitored. Several non-invasive analytical techniques have been employed after cleaning, but on-line assessment of the process itself and its consequences on the authentic surface is still an open issue. In this context, a comprehensive statistical methodology was introduced, which integrates low noise photoacoustic (PA) amplitude measurements in the MHz regime, aiming to establish robust correlations with the onsets that denote three discreet stages of laser cleaning interventions, namely over-layer ablation, effective cleaning and damaged substrate. To demonstrate the monitoring capabilities of this novel approach, a rather simple and straightforward laser cleaning application was selected, involving the removal of black graffiti from white marble. The intrinsic acoustic signals induced through the intense absorption of pulsed infrared radiation by the paint layer, were compared with the cleaning levels obtained at different irradiation conditions, while the treated marble surface was assessed by means of various cutting-edge analytical techniques. Along these lines, a set of color-coded graphs of the normalized PA signal evolution as a function of the number of pulses was generated for different fluence values. The graphs provided an inherent visual representation of the monitoring process, revealing clearly a progressively lower degree of control for higher fluences, since the effective cleaning extent appears to become narrower. It was therefore demonstrated that the proposed analysis could reliably predict both the effective cleaning and substrate's damage onsets, improving significantly the outcome of laser cleaning process for various cases.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Characterisation of surface finishes on ancient historical buildings in
           Salento (Southern Italy): An integrated analytical approach to establish
           the secrets of artisans
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Daniela Fico, Giuseppe Egidio De Benedetto Finishing, i.e. the application of hydrophobic materials is an important treatment for the conservation of stone surfaces and the protection of Cultural Heritage decay. The practice of covering the stone facades of the buildings was also used in the past in Lecce (Puglia, Italy). Historical and oral sources report that natural waterproofing agents were used for aesthetic, protective, hygienic and conservative purposes: walnut oil, caprine, ovine or bovine milk, leaf of the Opuntia ficus-indica, beeswax, and bulb of the Drimia maritima plant. In the present work, it was carried out the first historically accurate reproduction of the ancient finishing techniques used on Lecce historic buildings for scientific research: test specimens of local stones (pietra leccese and carparo), treated according to ancient recipes and subjected to natural and artificial aging, have been studied and the physical and chemical modifications determined. This study permitted to gain knowledge about the ancient finishing techniques and their degradation.
  • Integrated approach for seismic vulnerability analysis of historic massive
           defensive structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Andrea Dall’Asta, Graziano Leoni, Alessandra Meschini, Enrica Petrucci, Alessandro Zona This paper illustrates a multidisciplinary integrated approach for analysing the seismic vulnerability of historical massive defensive structures. To this end, a fortress having massive walls, internal discontinuity surfaces, cavities and internal passages organized in a complex three-dimensional geometry, is used as testbed structure. The presented workflow should be considered as a contribution to define a general framework and foster the development of guidelines for seismic vulnerability analysis of historic massive structures. In fact, massive constructions cannot be modelled as an assembly of vertical panels, horizontal floors, towers and vaults, as is the case of other more common building typologies, such as churches and palaces, for which codified catalogues of collapse mechanisms are available.
  • Luminescence dating of stone wall, tomb and ceramics of Kastrouli (Phokis,
           Greece) Late Helladic settlement: Case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Ioannis Liritzis, George S. Polymeris, Asimina Vafiadou, Athanasios Sideris, Thomas E. Levy The Kastrouli Late Helladic (LH) III fortified inland site is located in central Greece between the gulfs of Kirrha and Antikyra, not far from Delphi, controlling the communication between these sites. Characteristic ceramic typology from a tomb and the fortified wall indicate a Late Helladic period (∼ 1300–1100 BC) with apparent elements of reuse of the site in the Geometric, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic times. The present research refers to the dating by luminescence of the stone wall that circumvents the site, a tomb construction and two ceramics. This approach to applying luminescence dating provides an excellent opportunity to search for the Late Bronze Age (LBA) collapse consequences at the site. The thermoluminescence (TL) measurements of two ceramics were carried out following multiple aliquots made of the polymineral material. For the equivalent dose (ED) estimation of pottery samples, the multiple aliquot, additive dose procedure (MAAD) in TL was applied. Prior to age assessment, the firing temperature was estimated also using TL and it is safe to conclude that the firing temperature of the original ceramic was ca. 400 ± 50 °C. For the case of the rock samples collected from the wall and the tomb, the ED was estimated by applying the Single Aliquot Regenerative OSL (SAR OSL) protocol, after later modifications for polymineralic/mixed quartz-feldspathic samples (‘double SAR’ protocol). The ‘double SAR’ protocol procedure includes an infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) measurement at 50 °C before the main OSL. Individual ED values ranged between 3.2 to 16 Grays and were accepted based on the following acceptance criteria: recycling ratio between 0.90 and 1.05, recuperation 
  • Magnetic measurements as indicator of the equivalent firing temperature of
           ancient baked clays: New results, limits and cautions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Evdokia Tema, Enzo Ferrara We present new experimental results on the variation of the magnetic properties of baked clays as a function of the temperature reached during laboratory treatments. Such experiments, including continuous monitoring of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic moment versus temperature, were applied to a set of natural clays experimentally heated in the laboratory at 200 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C as well as to archaeological baked clays collected from two archaeological sites in Northern Italy (Santhià and Carbonara Scrivia). The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability of the magnetic properties to identify the equivalent firing temperatures of ancient baked clay artefacts based on the reversible behavior of thermomagnetic diagrams. The results obtained indicate that the magnetic properties do not always succeed in estimating the firing temperature of the baked clays, mainly when clays have been heated only once and at relatively low temperatures, e.g. less than 300–400 °C. On the contrary, magnetic properties of ancient clays that have been repeatedly heated at the past at temperatures higher than 400 °C appear to be more stable and representative of the equivalent firing temperature. This study confirms that the reversibility of thermomagnetic curves can be a useful indicator of ancient firing temperatures in the case of baked clays that have experienced multiple heatings at the past while caution should be paid on its general use as archaeo-temperature marker.
  • Diagnosis of design and defects in radiography of ceramic antique objects
           using the wavelet-domain hidden Markov models
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Eissa Negahdarzadeh, Effat Yahaghi, Behrouz Rokrok, Amir Movafeghi, Abolfazl Keshavarz Khani Radiography is often the method of choice for detection of hidden design details and defects in antique ceramic objects. To maximize information extraction from the images, as well as to optimize the operators’ image interpretation, the design and defect regions should be revealed. Development of effective image enhancement methods is an important research area in industrial radiographic testing. In this study, the wavelet-domain hidden Markov models were used to improve the hidden design detail and defect(s) visualization from the radiographs of the ceramic antique objects of Samiran region. The method relies on generating the frequency components of the image and removing noise from the low contrast component by means of the Markov method. The proposed algorithm was successfully applied to the radiographic images of the antique and cultural heritage objects. The design detail visualization and defect region detection were improved whilst preserving the object edge and fine detail imaging information. Experts’ reviews showed that the design details from the dual domain reconstructed images were better visualized than the original images. Also, different defects were better detected by the application of the method to the images.
  • Ceramic morphological organisation in the Southern Caddo Area: The
           Clarence H. Webb collections
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Robert Z. Selden, Analyses of ceramic vessel shape are neither new or novel; however, the relatively recent adoption of geometric morphometric (GM) methods by archaeologists provides a preview of the contribution of GM to the systematic and rigorous study of morphology as applied to material culture. This study is focused upon an analysis of Caddo bottle shapes for Belcher Engraved, Hickory Fine Engraved, Keno Trailed, Smithport Plain, and Taylor Engraved vessels from the Allen Plantation, Belcher Mound, Gahagan Mound, and Smithport Landing sites in the Clarence H. Webb collections from northwest Louisiana. Results indicate some significant relationships between bottle shape and size (allometry), bottle shape and type, and bottle shape and site. A test of morphological integration indicates that the bottles are significantly integrated, meaning that those discrete traits used to characterise their shape (rim, neck, body, and base) vary in a coordinated manner, highlighting significant integration between suites of attributes. The Smithport Plain and Hickory (Fine) Engraved bottles found at the Belcher Mound, Smithport Landing, and Gahagan Mound sites also provide evidence for two discrete (north–south) base and body shapes.
  • Automatic 3D muqarnas architectural patterns reconstruction using plane
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Mohammed Senhaji, Rachid Benslimane The main objective of this paper is to propose an algorithmic way to build the three-dimensional Islamic architectural muqarnas ornament directly from its plane representations (2D Design pattern). Thus, this paper focus on the extraction from the 2D representation of all the structure information needed for the reconstruction of the 3D muqarnas model. For this purpose, the proposed algorithm is based on two main phases. The first one consists to match each 2D-shape with each possible corresponding 3D-model element by using a 2D-to-3D shape matching approach. The second phase concerns the 3D spatial composition which is based on the neighboring properties of each 2D-shape and its identified 3D-element. Another contribution of this paper concerns the construction of a database of the 3D models corresponding to the set of different 2D-shapes which can be found in a 2D plane representation. The proposed algorithm focuses on the reconstruction of the Moroccan-Andalusian muqarnas style. The performance of this algorithm is assessed by reconstructing old muqarnas patterns and also by generating new ones, which preserve its styles’ authenticity.
  • Automated markerless registration of point clouds from TLS and structured
           light scanner for heritage documentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Jie Shao, Wuming Zhang, Nicolas Mellado, Pierre Grussenmeyer, Renju Li, Yiming Chen, Peng Wan, Xintong Zhang, Shangshu Cai Three-dimensional (3D) model is a major form of cultural heritage documentation. In most cases, the properties of digital artefacts (e.g. readability, coverage) are affected by the acquisition procedure (e.g. device, workflow, conditions) and the characteristics of the physical artefact (e.g. shape, size and materials). In this paper, we study how to combine two acquisition techniques to acquire detailed 3D models of large physical objects. Specifically, we combine two laser scanning instruments: terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and structured light scanner (SLS). TLS provides millimeter-scale resolution with large field of view, while SLS provides sub-millimeter resolution for limited field of view. This paper focuses on the registration of SLS and TLS point clouds, a critical step, which aims at aligning the acquired point clouds in a common frame. Existing registration systems mostly rely on manual post-processing or marker-based alignment. Manual registration is however time consuming and tedious, while markers increase the complexity of scanning and are not always acceptable in cultural site documentation. Therefore, we propose an automated markerless registration and fusion pipeline for point clouds. Firstly, we replace the marker-based coarse alignment by an automated registration of SLS and TLS point clouds; secondly, we refine the alignment of SLS point clouds on TLS data using the Iterative Corresponding Point algorithm; finally, we seamless stitch the SLS and TLS point clouds by globally regularizing the registration error for the all the point clouds at once. Our experiments show the efficiency of the proposed approach on two real-world cases, involving detailed point clouds correctly aligned without requiring markers or manual tuning. This paper provides an operational process reference for automated markerless registration of multi-source point clouds.
  • Macroscopic reflectance spectral imaging to reveal multiple and
           complementary types of information for the non-invasive study of an entire
           polychromatic manuscript
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Fabien Pottier, Anne Michelin, Salomon Kwimang, Christine Andraud, Fabrice Goubard, Bertrand Lavédrine In the last decade, Mesoamerican codices have been the subjects of numerous characterization studies. Due to their large sizes, a limited number of areas were effectively analyzed, but considered representative of the manuscripts material constituents. In order to overcome this necessary assumption, a complementary approach is presented here, with the use of macroscopic diffuse reflectance spectral imaging (also known as “hyperspectral” imaging), in the visible to short wave infrared range (400–2500 nm). It allowed to study the entire surface of the Codex Borbonicus, a 16th century Aztec manuscript, used as an example of application for our innovative methodology. Numerous types of information (colorimetric data, visualization of underdrawings, spectral segmentation and chemical mappings) were obtained, and the entire document material composition was examined. These new data enrich the current knowledge on traditional Mesoamerican manuscript manufacturing techniques. More importantly, this demonstrates the great potential of this approach for the non-invasive study of large polychromatic surfaces. For the first time, an entire manuscript is analyzed using this approach providing several types of information on the same document with a single analytical technique.
  • Investigation of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate plastics in
           museum collections using ion chromatography and size exclusion
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Joy Mazurek, Anna Laganà, Vincent Dion, Suzanna Etyemez, Carolyn Carta, Michael R. Schilling One of the goals of the Preservation of Plastics Project at the Getty Conservation Institute is to investigate preventative and conservation strategies for objects made of cellulose ester plastics. To achieve this goal, several analytical protocols were developed and applied to cellulose ester sculptures, design art objects and reference materials. Ion chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were employed to measure nitric and acetic acids, molecular weight and plasticizer content. The degree of substitution and degree of polymerization for cellulose ester plastics were determined and compared to condition surveys. Cellulose nitrate sculptures by Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner, combs from the Harald Szeemann archival collection of the Getty Research Institute, and cellulose acetate sculptures by László Moholy-Nagy and Marcel Duchamp were included in this study.
  • Disclosing the composition of historical commercial felt-tip pens used in
           art by integrated vibrational spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas
           chromatography/mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Patrizia Moretti, Giulia Germinario, Brenda Doherty, Inez Dorothé van der Werf, Luigia Sabbatini, Antonio Mirabile, Antonio Sgamellotti, Costanza Miliani In this work the formulation of 20 Johann Faber felt-tip pens commercialized in the 1960s and belonging to and used by the architect and designer Lina Bo Bardi have been investigated by an integrated analytical methodology. Minimally destructive vibrational spectroscopic methods permitted a qualitative interpretation of constituents which could be corroborated and ulteriorly supplemented by more destructive chromatographic techniques. This combined approach constitutes an effective collaboration for an in-depth study chronicling the chemical characterization of the first era of commercially viable felt-tip pen inks by providing for the identification of dyes and separation of their mixtures (triarylmethanes, xanthenes, indigoids, azo dyes, azines), binders (plant gums) and additives (diethylene glycol, phenols/antioxidant, diisoctyl phthalate/plasticizer). The comparison between the early and more recent commercial felt-tip pens has allowed to differentiate dyes, pigments and binders, which may provide a useful reference for future studies on the chemical characterization of historical samples.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • The deterioration of Apuan white marble in contemporary architectural
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Francesca Gherardi, Chrysi Kapridaki, Marco Roveri, Davide Gulotta, Pagona Noni Maravelaki, Lucia TonioloHighlights•Assessment of the state of conservation of the marble slabs of the Oslo Opera House and investigation of the causes of their discoloration;.•Ongoing phenomenon of calcite grains detachment, with inter- and intra-granular corrosion, due to the atmospheric conditions to which the marble slabs are exposed;.•Presence of siloxanes and oxidized by-products of a mixture of treatments identified by micro-FTIR spectroscopy;.•No migration phenomena from the cementitious bedding mortars used for cladding towards the surface. The conservation of contemporary buildings is particularly challenging as only few information about their degradation and guidelines for their maintenance are available and at the same time, despite their architectural importance, the attention and caring procedures are nοt adequate to safeguard standards. The Oslo Opera House is a high-standing contemporary architecture (opening 2008) characterized by a large ornamental pavement mainly made of Apuan marble slabs. After a few years, large parts of the marble surface suffered from a marked yellow discoloration and dirt accumulation. In this context, the current research was carried out aiming at assessing the state of conservation of the marble slabs and investigating the causes of their discoloration, to suggest possible remediation and adequate maintenance procedures. Due to the extreme microclimatic conditions, a severe inter- and intra-granular decohesion of the calcite grains can be observed by microscopic analyses, while a surface corrosion phenomenon of the crystals is in progress. The chemical analyses of surface stone material from the slabs allow the detection of deteriorated organic by-products, as a result of the degradation of previous protective treatments, excluding the correlation of iron ions concentration with the discoloration. The state of conservation gathered so far was the starting point for the development of a tailor-made cleaning methodology of the marble cladding and a complete revision of the protective treatments and ordinary maintenance protocol.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Historical azo pigments: Synthesis and characterization
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 35Author(s): Suzanne Quillen Lomax, Joseph F. Lomax, Trevor K. Graham, Thomas J.T. Moore, Carly G. Knapp Synthetic organic pigments have been used in works of art for well over 130 years. During this time, many have been introduced and some have been removed from production. Historical pigments are synthetic organic pigments that are no longer commercially produced. Because of their limited range of time of commercial availability, they are of particular interest to art historians and conservators because, if identified in a painting, they can provide valuable information about artist materials and methods. In addition, once the pigment has been identified, conservators will be better informed in treatment and display conditions of the works of art. A number of azo-pigments are historical, and many of these have not been characterized by modern analytical techniques. We synthesized a series of azopigments, specifically members of the pigment classes: arylide (Hansa) yellow, diarylide yellow and oranges,as well as the red Naphthol AS. The pigments were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDI-MS). The pigments synthesized and characterize include: PR7, PR11, PR18, PR19, PY49, PY203, PY113, PY124, PO14and PO15.
  • Terrestial laser scanning digitalization in underground constructions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): César Porras-Amores, Fernando R. Mazarrón, Ignacio Cañas, Paola Villoria Sáez Spain has a large heritage in vernacular architecture among which the underground constructions can be highlighted. On many occasions these constructions were excavated hundreds of years ago and there is lack of technical information about their geometry or visual characteristics. Among the existing survey techniques, the terrestrial laser scanning technology seems one of the most appropriate and effective for these constructions. Given the high underground heritage in Spain and the lack of graphic documentation with good quality, there is a need to establish a quick and effective methodology aiming to classify these constructions in order to be included in the national heritage registers. To do so, the first step was to assess how aspects such as the scanner resolution, color and meshing strategy (post-processing phase) affect the quality of the graphic results generated. Then, the most adequate survey strategy was selected (based on a reference case study) and was further applied in seven representative underground constructions in order to validate the methodology and verify its effectiveness. Results indicate that a higher density of points is not always associated with a higher graphic quality in both the digital model and graphic information. The type of mesh used in the post-processing stage affects insignificantly the meshing surface, the graphic quality and the processing time of the digital model. On the contrary, it helps to filter unnecessary points in the cloud and thus obtain less heavy digital models. The resolution strategy can considerably increase the processing time of the models, however a lower resolution strategy combined with a higher number of shots is recommended to improve the graphic quality of the results.
  • Wet treatment of 19th century albumen photographs with Gellan gum
           hydrogel: A comparison to water treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Zinaida S. Vakhovskaya, Tolganay B. Egorova, Georgy B. Meshkov, Alexander V. Egorov In the conservation practice of albumen photographs, wet cleaning techniques were long used to remove pollutions, gluing components, cellulose degradation products, and to reduce highlight yellowing. However, water immersion, as well as surface cleaning, enhances the cracking of the albumen layer surface. These cleaning methods are suitable for paper artworks. Whereas the conventional water treatment may cause irreversible damage of the paper structure, the use of rigid hydrogel of Gellan gum had been proposed as an alternative technique that is less destructive to the paper structure. Two wet treatments, water and Gellan gum hydrogel, were applied to the samples of original 19th century albumen photoprints. Their effect was assessed using instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and pH measurements. The effect of wet treatments on the albumen photograph surface cracking was quantified. Despite that Gellan hydrogel is very gentle and efficient tool for the restoration of paper artworks, it is as harmful for the albumen photographs surface as the conventional water surface cleaning, and therefore may be applied on the verso of the photographs solely.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • GIS and Geomatics for archive documentation of an architectural project:
           The case of the big Arc of entrance to the Vittorio Emanuele II Gallery of
           Milan, by Giuseppe Mengoni (1877)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Gabriele Bitelli, Giorgia Gatta, Anna-Maria Guccini, Alberto Zaffagnini Today, Geomatics science can provide modern techniques of acquisition, visualization, measurement and data management, useful for preservation, documentation and analysis of Cultural Heritage, in all its variety. Very interesting is the case for which both the project documentation of an object and the object itself are Cultural Heritage. A perfect example is the big Arc of entrance to the Vittorio Emanuele II Gallery of Milan (Italy), by Giuseppe Mengoni (1877), whose project documents are today kept at the “Museum-Archive Giuseppe Mengoni” of Fontanelice (province of Bologna). Exploiting this case, in the present study it was tested the utilization of geomatic techniques – photogrammetry and GIS (Geographic Information System) technology in particular – for archive documentation, developing an innovative tool able to allow intuitive and immediate searches among the archive documents (once made measurable) and the catalogue records, and let an innovative reading of the big Arc, in each step of its project development.
  • Mapping degradation pathways of natural and synthetic dyes with LC-MS:
           Influence of solvent on degradation mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Bob W.J. Pirok, Giacomo Moro, Nienke Meekel, Sanne V.J. Berbers, Peter J. Schoenmakers, Maarten R. van Bommel To help conserve the vast array of (combinations of) dyestuffs and pigments encountered in cultural-heritage objects and application materials, a rapid and convenient method for dye-degradation research is required. In-solution degradation studies of dyes in a strong solvent, such as the commonly used dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), are potentially of interest, in addition to studies involving other solvents, such as water. The degradation of eosin and carminic acid under the influence of light was investigated in two solvents, i.e. in a mixture of DMSO and acetonitrile and in pure water. A liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for analysis of the degraded samples and identification of the individual components. The presence of DMSO generally facilitated faster degradation, which, in combination with its universal solvating properties are advantageous. However, different products were formed in the presence of DMSO. Degradation pathways for eosin and carminic acid in these solvents are proposed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • A hybrid photogrammetry approach for archaeological sites: Block alignment
           issues in a case study (the Roman camp of A Cidadela)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Marcos Arza-García, Mariluz Gil-Docampo, Juan Ortiz-Sanz Photogrammetry is a cost-effective and versatile technique used for the three-dimensional (3D) registration of archaeological heritage sites. Managing datasets of heterogeneous images in terms of camera type, elevation platform, position or acquisition time can now be addressed by structure from motion (SfM) software via bundle adjustment in a single block based on collinearity principles. This development enables new possibilities with regard to data completeness assurance for 3D documentation, even for complex sites with occlusive elements and hidden areas. However, hybrid photogrammetry in large datasets often requires multiple photogrammetric blocks that must be processed individually and subsequently aligned to obtain a unified point cloud. In this paper, we discuss the steps required to homogenize the information and the methods used to perform block alignment in these cases. A case study of low-altitude aerial photogrammetry with several cameras and platforms is presented for the Roman camp of A Cidadela in NW Spain as a representative example of an archaeological site that is difficult to survey using a single photogrammetric platform. The relatively large expanse of the area and the fact that it is partially covered by a protective structure constitute an ideal framework for the fusion of multiplatform imagery. The most accurate digital surface model (DSM) was obtained via point-based method fusion, during which subsets are aligned based on automatically extracted tie points (TPs) between the dense point clouds; however, point-based method fusion is very time consuming. When hardware capabilities allow, conducting the process in a single block is preferable, which is a noticeably more accurate procedure than independent block fusion.
  • Saponification in egg yolk-based tempera paintings with lead-tin yellow
           type I
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Silvie Švarcová, Eva Kočí, Jiří Plocek, Assel Zhankina, Janka Hradilová, Petr Bezdička Saponification occurring in paint layers of artworks represents a serious degradation process affecting the appearance and stability of paintings. Formation of metal soaps is mostly reported as a consequence of the interaction of lead white or zinc white with oil binder. We found the distinct symptoms of saponification in paint layers consisting of lead-tin yellow type I and egg yolk binder in a panel painting from the 15th century. This scarce finding induced the study of interactions between lead-tin yellow type I with three different binders: (i) egg yolk tempera, (ii) emulsion of egg yolk and oil, and (iii) oil. The interactions were studied in long-term model experiments using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results, a set of mixed lead carboxylates of the series Pb(C16)2-x(C18)x, where x = 0; 0.25; 0.5; 0,75; 1; 1.5 and 2, was synthesised as reference materials suitable as a basis for proper identification of neo-formed lead soaps by FTIR and XRD. The formation of lead soaps was detected already within 1 month of reaction in egg yolk containing binders, whereas no soap was formed during 6 months of the experiment in the oil mixture. The neo-formed soaps are various mixed lead carboxylates containing both palmitate (C16) and stearate (C18) in one crystal structure and the proportion of carboxylate anions is affected by the type of the binder. We found the C16:C18 ratio in mixed lead carboxylates is higher in egg yolk tempera samples in accordance with the more abundant palmitic acid in egg yolk fat. On the other hand, the lower C16:C18 ratio in emulsion binder correlates with increased content of stearic acid, suggesting contribution of both binders, i.e. egg yolk and oil, to the soap formation.
  • Digging into the past of nature carpets. The evaluation of treatments on
           artworks by Piero Gilardi made from polyurethane ether foam
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Carien van Aubel, Suzan de Groot, Henk van Keulen, Evelyne Snijders This study evaluates two research projects and treatments performed ten and twenty years ago by the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE) on two artworks made of flexible polyurethane ether foam (PUR foam) by Piero Gilardi; Natura Morta (1967) of the collection of Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (NL) and Zuccaia (1991) of the collection of Zoetermeer City hall (NL). These projects and treatments on the objects involved the treatment of mechanical damages present in the works, and the development and performing of the consolidation of PUR ether foam with Tinuvin B75/Impranil DLV mixture. The condition of an untreated nature carpet Cavoli e Neve (1967, 1988) from the collection S.M.A.K., Gent (BE) was used as a control reference in this study. The techniques from the two former RCE researches, such as determination of cell strut size and hydroxyl index, are used for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the past treatments. Besides that, empirical research, i.e. resilience and rubbing tests, are performed on all case studies. Also, the consolidation method used in the treatment of the abovementioned artworks was evaluated and refined. Finally, consolidation tests on artificially aged and severely degraded PUR-foam samples were carried out to see whether the condition of already degraded foam could also be reinforced. This study showed that the effectiveness of the former treatments was best assessed by the measurement of the cell strut size and empirical research. The past treatments proved to be very successful and can therefore be suggested for similar artworks. After the promising results of this study, Cavoli e Neve was treated. However, preliminary consolation tests on the artwork itself showed, viewing the foam under microscope, the skeleton still broke during consolidation and therefore did not improve the skeleton strength. Therefore, besides cleaning the work and structural treatment of the damages, a consolidation on this artwork was not performed. Ongoing research will focus on this issue.
  • A lead-framed glass mirror from a Roman woman's grave in Padua/Patavium
           (north-eastern Italy) – investigating its function and production with a
           multidisciplinary approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Cecilia Rossi, Elena Pettenò, Sara Emanuele, Emanuela Faresin, Giuseppe Salemi, Mosè Mariotti, Gianmario Molin A small Roman mirror, made up of a square lead frame and a convex reflective glass surface, was recently recovered in Padua in a grave dating back to the second half of the 2nd century AD. It was investigated with a multidisciplinary approach. During restoration, the artefact was dismantled, its individual components cleaned, consolidated and then reassembled. Chemical and isotopic analyses were carried out on microscopic fragments from both the glass and the lead components to identify their origin and production technologies. Structured-light 3D scanning was used both to produce a model of the artefact and to reconstruct its optical properties. Archaeometric results show that the 200 μm thick reflective glass surface, coated with a thin lead film, belongs to the Sb-colourless group. The lead frame is now totally oxidised. The lead isotope ratios of both the glass coating and the frame show a common composition, statistically close to some Romanian ores. These data suggest a multistep production process, most likely carried out in the same workshop. The distribution of similar finds mainly between the Northern-Adriatic basin and the Danube could indicate that these products were manufactured in the central-eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, presumably in the Southern Carpathian area, close to the local lead ore deposits. The typology is well defined thanks to the 3D model that is an important tool for morphometric investigations. The optical properties of the mirror, given by its convex spherical surface with a 9 cm radius, suggest the object was actually used as a makeup tool.In conclusion, this multidisciplinary approach reveals that despite its non-precious materials, the mirror can be considered a product of superior technological and scientific skills.
  • A Byzantine connection: Eastern Mediterranean glasses in medieval Bari
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Elisabetta Neri, Nadine Schibille, Michele Pellegrino, Donatella Nuzzo The transition from the Roman natron-based glass industry to the medieval ash-based tradition in Italy in the latter part of the first millennium CE is still poorly documented. The compositional data of eighteen glass fragments excavated from the Byzantine praetorium in Bari suggest that the development in the southern part of the Peninsula differs from that in the north. Analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) identified the first significant group of glasses in Italy that were produced in and imported from the eastern Mediterranean during the last two centuries of the first millennium CE. Some samples exhibit the characteristics of early Islamic natron and plant-ash glasses, while two specimens are similar in major and trace element composition to post-Roman glasses most likely manufactured in Byzantine Asia Minor. These represent the only known vessels made from the Byzantine high lithium, high boron glass found so far in the western Mediterranean. The analytical results thus show that being under Byzantine hegemony was advantageous for trade connections in the medieval Mediterranean.
  • Identification of gilding techniques on Roman marble sarcophagi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Eliana Siotto Several Roman marble sarcophagi (2nd–4th centuries AD) have been investigated in a first systematic research effort to detect (pigments and) gilding techniques employed in the Imperial Rome. A comparative study was performed on a conspicuous group (no. eighty) of Roman sarcophagi identified in the Vatican Museums, the Capitoline Museums and the National Roman Museum collections. A focused in situ campaign of non-invasive analytical investigations have performed by multispectral imaging, spectroscopic and elemental analysis, followed by aimed micro-invasive techniques. As for the main issue of the gilding and its application techniques, the microscopy still remains one of the most efficient tools for their characterization. Therefore, some micro-samples of three sarcophagi chosen as case studies were examined by means of optical petrographic microscopy (OPM) and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM–EDS). The results of archaeological data and scientific analyses show that the leaf gold was applied by two different techniques. In the most attested method, the gold leaf was applied on a ground layer of colour (yellow and/or red ochre, Egyptian blue, etc.); on the other hand, in the other technique, the gold leaf was applied directly onto the marble surface or more probably on top of a thin ground layer of kaolin.
  • An insight into the mechanical properties of selected commercial oil and
           alkyd paint films containing cobalt blue
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Laura Fuster-López, Francesca Caterina Izzo, Valentina Damato, Dolores J. Yusà-Marco, Elisabetta Zendri Pigments and binders are known to influence drying and ageing mechanisms of paint films. However, the study of the long-term mechanical behaviour of paint films and its relationship with paint degradation and conservation still needs further investigation. This paper presents an insight into the role of cobalt blue pigment in the mechanical properties of some modern paint films by studying selected commercial oil and alkyd paint films containing cobalt blue. In addition, several representative mock-ups containing cobalt blue mixed with drying and semi-drying oils and some common additives were also tested for comparison purposes. Optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, XRF, VIS-reflectance spectroscopy, FTIR-ATR and GC-MS analysis were carried out to identify pigments, binders, additives and fillers. Uniaxial tensile measurements were run to test the mechanical performance of the studied paint films. The differences in the mechanical behaviour led to the evaluation of the discrepancies found in the chemical and physical properties of the different formulations studied.
  • The chemistry of pastels: Investigation of the organic materials in a
           drawing by Umberto Boccioni
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Anna Lluveras Tenorio, Jacopo La Nasa, Barbara Ferriani, Maria Perla Colombini, Francesca Modugno Although many prominent artists have experimented with pastels, this technique has been the subject of very limited scientific research. The first known recipes of pastels date back to the 16th century, but only during the 18th century did the pastel technique become more common. Identifying and characterising the organic constituents in pastels materials is challenging given that they are present in extremely low concentrations and could be produced using many organic substances, whose chemical composition alters during ageing. The chemical-physical behaviour of organic media in artworks is often crucial in causing the degradation problems, which need to be addressed by conservation. We evaluated the applicability of an analytical approach based on chromatography and mass spectrometry to investigate the composition of the pastels used by Umberto Boccioni in a drawing dated 1908 and conserved at the Museo del Novecento in Milan (Italy). The investigation of the formulation of artists’ pastels used in the first decade of the 20th century is particularly important in order to improve the knowledge of this technique. The analysis highlighted the presence of proteins and plant gums in the artwork samples, with differences in the composition for the different samples.
  • Characterization of Rembrandt self-portraits through digital-chiaroscuro
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): John Asmus, Vadim Parfenov In order to develop an analytical tool to aid connoisseurs in authentication of paintings we introduce a digital computational technique based on luminosity histograms of high-resolution digitized images of paintings. This exploratory approach emerged from the widely-held hypothesis that every individual artist (master, student, copier, or forger) will tend to have a personal hand/eye spatial “signature” in shading and contrast (e.g., chiaroscuro and sfumato) that may be revealed and quantified by means of histogram statistics. A preliminary database library is built of amplitude histogram data of the digital images of authenticated works by the Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn against which copies and forgeries then are compared. It illuminates the individual chiaroscuro or spatial-blending characteristics of the master-created paintings to be analyzed. We show preliminary results from our analyses of 36 self-portraits that at various times have been attributed to Rembrandt and were chosen by us as a consequence of the prodigious historical, scientific, and stylistic scrutiny that have focused on these works in recent decades. Our statistical results demonstrate probative conformity for paintings that have been established as authentic self-portraits by Rembrandt and reveal statistical differences when compared to copies and forgeries as well as paintings of the Rembrandt workshop.
  • Using Raman spectroscopy to estimate the dates of carbon-based inks from
           Ancient Egypt
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Sarah Goler, Alexis Hagadorn, David M. Ratzan, Roger Bagnall, Angela Cacciola, James McInerney, James T. Yardley In the first study of its kind, we previously investigated Raman spectra of 17 papyri from the Columbia University Libraries collection, written in carbon-based black ink with well-established dates between 400 BCE and 1000 CE. Using a simple two-peak spectral model for the Raman spectrum of carbonaceous materials, we discovered small but statistically significant systematic variations in the spectral parameters with manuscript date. The purposes of this report are to present: (1) more-powerful statistical examinations of the correlation based on the two-peak spectral model and on a new three-peak model which includes spectral effects for amorphous carbon; (2) new data for additional ancient manuscripts, broadening the investigation; (3) a method for potentially exploiting the observed correlation to predict the dates of undated manuscripts of similar character; and (4) a hypothesis as to the underlying chemical basis of the observed spectral changes. We apply both linear and multiple linear regression analyses to the spectral models. We show that the three-peak model fits the experimental data much better than the two-peak model. Through the use of multiple linear regression, the three-peak model reduces significantly the overall correlation error. We find that our ability to predict dates for manuscripts that are similar to those of the study over the date range 400 BCE to 1000 CE is limited by intrinsic variations in the character of the pigments to about ± 118 years with 68% statistical confidence (or ± 236 years with 95% confidence). We confirm the observed correlation and prediction capabilities through a blind study of six additional ancient manuscripts and two late 19th- or early 20th-century fakes in the Columbia University collection. The data suggest that chemical degradation of amorphous carbon and chemical modification of graphitic crystals may both contribute to the observed spectral differences. This would also account for the magnitude of the variance in spectral character we observe, which possibly reflects differences in pigment manufacture processes as well as the effects of differences in chemical micro-environments after writing. The chemical degradation hypothesis receives additional support from previously unreported examination of two manuscripts from the collection of the Brooklyn Museum. The older of these, dated through conventional papyrological methods to 2323-2150 BCE, deviates from the linear regression models, but in a way consistent with chemical (i.e., non-linear) degradation. For comparison, we report Raman scattering for 8 different modern inks using the same protocol we developed for the ancient inks. Using statistical techniques based on Gaussian Mixture Modeling, we demonstrate differences between the spectral character of the inks of our base study and those prepared from modern reference pigments. This allows us to define a mathematical quantity that can distinguish between spectra of pigments that are spectrally similar to the ancient pigments studied here and those that are not. This new and non-destructive method produces a statistically robust indication of the antiquity and rough period (e.g., Ptolemaic, Roman, etc.) of the inks in question, if not the precise date. We hypothesize that the potential for greater precision is likely limited by the intrinsic variations in the spectral characteristics of the inks from manuscript to manuscript.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • New insights into the fading problems of safflower red dyed textiles
           through a HPLC-PDA and colorimetric study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rosa Costantini, Ina Vanden Berghe, Francesca Caterina Izzo Safflower is well-known by textile conservators and restorers as the red dye source that produces a nice, though very delicate pink colour that is extremely light-sensitive. The fading due to light sensitivity can be seen in many historical silk fabrics from the most renowned museums and it is a major challenge for textile conservators. However, the fading is not only a result of light exposure, as fabrics stored for many years in dark museum storage also exhibit gradual decolouration. The aim of this study is to increase knowledge on the environmental parameters involved in the degradation processes of carthamin, the main red dye constituent of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The newly gained information will contribute to a more realistic perspective on the problems of fading of safflower-dyed textiles, possibly helping their conservation. To evaluate the stability of safflower red, specific ageing tests were carried out on new silk samples, dyed with safflower through modern recipes deriving from traditional ones. For the artificial ageing, the effects of simulated sunlight, temperature, humidity and ozone were separately investigated through HPLC-PDA analysis and colorimetric examinations. The results confirmed that safflower red degrades most rapidly under light exposure. They also revealed an important instability of the carthamin dye constituent in a dark environment, especially when subjected to high humidity conditions. Moreover, the HPLC-PDA study was able to provide new insight into the different markers (e.g. Ct components) that are commonly revealed in historic objects dyed with safflower red, but that still have unclarified origins.
  • Adoption and use of emerging cultural technologies in China's museums
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Eugene Ch’ng, Shengdan Cai, Fui-Theng Leow, Tong Evelyn Zhang Our article maps the well-being of the adoption and use of digital technologies in museums in China. Digital technologies used here are termed ‘cultural technology’ in top-level national policies for the creative cultural industry, with culture and heritage at the core of all such activities. Our investigation aims to understand the present state of adoption and use of cultural technologies with the goal of identifying limitations so as to provide a roadmap for the informed design and development of museum-based digital exhibits that are appropriate for visitors. Whilst our study is focused on China's museums, our evaluation model and lessons learned can be used as comparative studies for museums globally. This highlights the novelty of our article, for the scale of which we carried out our evaluation has never been conducted before. We travelled 22 sites over 15 cities and collected over 800 samples of data. We evaluated 36 digital systems used by over 800 visitors and observed how users interacted and engaged with the systems with a record of 21 variables related to the length of interaction, engagement, quality of contents and types of systems, age groups, sexes, and the number of participants and whether they were individuals or in groups. Our investigation revealed important findings in both digital systems and visitor engagement.
  • Deacidification of aged papers using dispersion of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles
           in subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jiajia Weng, Xiaogang Zhang, Minghao Jia, Jie Zhang An effective and integrated method for deacidification has become an urgent issue in the conversation of paper-based materials with natural aging of books, archives and paper relics. In this research, an efficiency of innovative method for paper deacidification using subcritical R134a combined with pre-synthetic Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles was evaluated by pH, alkaline reserve, colorimetry and tensile strength. The physicochemical properties of the deacidifying agents and paper samples before and after deacidification were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. Compared with traditional spraying method for Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the subcritical R134a deacidification system (due to its good solvent diffusivity and compatibility) had an obvious advantage in evaluations for all the paper samples. The innovative deacidification was expected to realize the integration of cleaning and deacidification in one working procedure.
  • Semantic-based 3D information modelling and documentation of rockeries in
           Chinese classical gardens: A case study on the rockery at Huanxiu
           Shanzhuang, Suzhou, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Huilin Liang, Weizheng Li, Qingping Zhang Rockery, or Jia Shan, representing a high level of artistic achievement and aiming to show Chinese landscapes and culture, is an essential part of Chinese classical gardens. Taking the rockery in the backyard of Huanxiu Shanzhuang as an example, this study undertook digital measurements and 3D reality-based modelling, carried out semantic-based analysis and modelling, and built a 3D information system. The digital survey applied the integrated techniques of terrestrial digital photogrammetry and laser scanning. Once the integrated 3D digital data had been obtained, the rockery was systematically and clearly analyzed for its structure on the base of its relationship with mountains in nature. By obtaining the hierarchical and spatial relationships between rockery components, the rockery and its components were semantically named and modelled. According to the rockery analysis results, the 3D reality-based models were segmented into numbers of rockery components, and a 3D information system was built on the basis of a 3D geographic information systems (3D GIS). Through these methods, all the data and information obtained from the rockery on the study site were documented, stored, managed, and visualized. This research showed that rockeries in Chinese classical gardens and cultural heritage sites with similar characteristics can be digitally, informationally, and systematically documented, studied, and preserved.
  • Computer simulation of archaeological drawings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jingwen Zhang, Ziqi Liu, Shiguang Liu Archaeologists usually produce archaeological drawings through complicated steps including painting with hands, scanning and redrawing, etc. We aim at simplifying the process of traditional archaeological drawings by automatically generating line drawings, helping archaeologists produce ideal archaeological drawings flexibly and conveniently. However, traditional methods for generating line drawings cannot be directly used for archaeological drawings because of special purposes in drawings. So, we take into account the characteristics of archaeological drawings and put forward an effective method for generating line drawings especially for archaeological drawings. In this way, archaeologists can get ideal line drawings by taking photos of implements, processing them with this method automatically and modifying line drawings flexibly. Specifically, we first smooth the input pictures, based on which we extract lines that meet the rules of archaeological drawings by edge tracking. Then we determine the location of central axis and generate curves of lines to get line drawings. Finally, we integrate the above techniques and build an archaeological drawing system with friendly interface. Various experimental results and evaluations verify that our method and the archaeological drawings system are effective.
  • Study of the degradation of beeswax taken from a real artefact
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Katarína Čížová, Katarína Vizárová, Aleš Ház, Anna Vykydalová, Zuzana Cibulková, Peter Šimon This study is devoted to the statue of St. Ursula from the depositary to the Slovak National Museum–Červený Kameň Castle. It is a heavily damaged, slightly under life-size seated female statue from the 2nd half of 19th century. The artefact is very heterogeneous and degraded. The wax parts have been examined with the aim of detecting and quantifying degradation products using FTIR spectroscopy, Py - GC/MS analysis and DSC measurement. The results obtained were compared with the degradation studies from available literary sources. The most important achievement is that the results support the theory of sublimation of n-alkanes from beeswax during ageing. The degradation mechanisms taking part during ageing are hydrolysis and oxidation. The suggested methods of accelerated ageing could be a suitable simulation of natural ageing. The experimental methods employed are complementary and enable to follow the progress of beeswax degradation.
  • A method to obtain precise determinations of relative humidity using thin
           film capacitive sensors under normal or extreme humidity conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Camuffo Dario Dampness is one of the worst, and most common problems found in heritage buildings and sites. However, despite its relevance, sensors do not operate satisfactorily in extremely humid environments. The paper analyses the performance of heated capacitive sensors conceived to operate at ambient temperature (T) and very high relative humidity (RH) after having been demisted with short heating. Even if they show better performances than traditional, unheated sensors, they operate at the limit of their range, with severe limitations affecting their time response and accuracy, reducing but not excluding false readings. A method is proposed to combine temperature and relative humidity sensors, and warm-up them in order to reach the best performance interval of the RH sensor, and take measurements in such conditions, i.e. at higher temperature and lower relative humidity. From the combined temperature and relative humidity readings it is possible to calculate the dew point that is invariant to temperature changes. Combining the dew point with an additional measurement of the actual air temperature, it is possible to calculate the actual relative humidity. The use of this method is not necessarily limited to taking more accurate relative humidity readings under extreme dampness, but it may be also applied to improve the quality of readings with sensors that operate in their best performance interval. The same strategy can be used in too dry environments with cooling to raise relative humidity and bring the sensor into the best performance interval.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • A comparison of standard and realistic curing conditions of natural
           hydraulic lime repointing mortar for damp masonry: Impact on laboratory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Lucie Fusade, Heather A. Viles Environmental conditions can affect the curing and performance of lime mortars. Especially in the case of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) mortars to be used for repointing in exposed conditions, it is essential to assess what if any differences these environmental conditions would make to mortar properties through laboratory evaluations before repointing work begins. This study considers a specific historic environment: traditional masonry exposed to high humidity and rainfall, with a particular focus on Devon. Realistic curing conditions (as likely found on-site) of 15 °C, 85% RH, representing an average of summer climate in Devon were compared with standard recommended laboratory conditions of 20 °C, 65% RH. A range of mixes, representing some conservation pointing mortars, was prepared using NHL 2 (St Astier), quartz sand, and crushed Portland limestone in 1:3 and 1:2 binder to aggregate ratios. The influence of curing conditions on carbonation depth, strength development, internal textural structure, pore structure and water uptake at 28 and 90 days is discussed (called here early and medium ages) and the response of NHL mortars to this humid environment during evaporation and salt crystallisation have been assessed. Results show that significant differences are found in laboratory evaluations of mechanical properties of the same NHL mortar exposed to different curing conditions especially at an early age and for mortar made with quartz sand. Laboratory evaluation should be made on samples cured under realistic conditions if information on the early to medium-term (up to 90 days) characteristics of NHL mortar is required. Overall, realistic humid curing conditions help NHL mortars gain good internal structure more quickly, minimising the risk of early failure of pointing mortar exposed in a harsh humid environment.
  • A multi-scalar approach for assessing the impact of dams on the cultural
           heritage in the Middle East and North Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Nicolò Marchetti, Antonio Curci, Maria Carmela Gatto, Serena Nicolini, Simone Mühl, Federico Zaina This paper provides a detailed assessment on the impact of dams on archaeological sites in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and emphasizes the lack of established protocols for documenting and preserving cultural heritage at the local, national and international level.We considered four case studies at different scales – Turkey, the Euphrates river, the two Aswan dams and the planned Makhul dam – in order to identify different issues related to the construction of dams as well as to propose some best practices for pre-flooding assessment of dam impact on cultural heritage. Our method integrates archaeological and geo-spatial open-access datasets, organized in a GIS environment made available through the online platform in order to foster data sharing and research replicability.We have mapped almost 2500 flooded archaeological sites and approximately 1300 km of ancient rivers submerged by dam reservoirs in the selected case studies across the MENA area. These numbers are actually incomplete, since large portions of the reservoir areas have not been systematically investigated.We conclude by underlining the urgent need for strategies for the documentation and protection of archaeological sites and monuments in the planning of hydraulic infrastructures at the international, national and local levels, as well as the need for a general operative protocol. Funders of development works, first and foremost the World Bank, should review their current policies, which do not offer sufficient protection of cultural heritage.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Cuban Cultural Heritage: A Rebel Past for a Revolutionary Nation, Pablo
           Alonso González, University of Florida, Gainesville (2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Joseph R. Hartman
  • Effective Raman spectra identification with tree-based methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Vasileios Sevetlidis, George Pavlidis Treatment of spectral information is an essential tool for the examination of various cultural heritage materials. Raman spectroscopy has become an everyday practice for compound identification due to its non-intrusive nature, but often it can be a complex operation. Spectral identification and analysis on artists’ materials is being done with the aid of already existing spectral databases and spectrum matching algorithms. We demonstrate that with a machine learning method called Extremely Randomised Trees, we can learn a model in a supervised learning fashion, able to accurately match an entire-spectrum range into its respective mineral. Our approach was tested and was found to outperform the state-of-the-art methods on the corrected RRUFF dataset, while maintaining low computational complexity and inherently supporting parallelisation.
  • The Origin of overglaze-blue enameling in Japan: New discoveries and a
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Riccardo Montanari, Nobuyuki Murakami, Maria Francesca Alberghina, Claudia Pelosi, Salvatore Schiavone The production of overglaze-blue decorated porcelains in Japan has traditionally been associated with Chinese technology, but the puzzling issue of the early firing of a striking overglaze-blue enamel has remained unresolved for almost a century. This work presents the first systematic scientific study of shards excavated at kiln sites in Arita, the center of porcelain production in Japan. The study was carried out in an attempt to resolve the issue of the origin of overglaze-blue enameling on early polychrome Imari wares (Shoki Iro-e) which started around 1640, way before the same technology spread in Jingdezhen in the late Kangxi period (1700). In particular shards excavated at the Yanbeta kiln site, where it has recently been discovered that polychrome overglaze decoration started, and shards from other early kilns were analyzed for the first time. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) was used to identify the chemical composition of the coloring agents present in the overglaze-blue enamels in order to determine their geographical area of origin. Experimental results provide groundbreaking information regarding the materials and technologies used in the different kilns, and show how the earliest attempts at firing overglaze-blue enamels in Arita involved the use of imported cobalt ores. For the first time, it has been scientifically proved that the successful use of an overglaze-blue decoration was a precise effect Japanese potters aimed at achieving by means of selected materials and technologies obtained from Europe, thus resolving the issues that emerged from the traditional approach of a Chinese origin for all technologies. Furthermore, comparisons between scientific analysis of late-16th and early-17th century Japanese paintings in Western style and the results presented in this work revealed that materials used for overglaze-enameling were also used for pigments employed in traditional paintings. Technologies from distant geographical areas proved crucial in pre-modern Japan.
  • Daraki-Chattan rock art constrained OSL chronology and multianalytical
           techniques: A first pilot investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Ioannis Liritzis, Robert Bednarik, Giriraj Kumar, George Polymeris, Ioannis Iliopoulos, Vayia Xanthopoulou, Nikos Zacharias, Asimina Vafiadou, Maria Bratitsi The cave of Daraki-Chattan (in Rewa river, India) bears important palaeolithic rock art (petroglyphs), while the environs is exceptionally rich in stone tools, mostly of the Acheulian. The field survey and excavations in the area found cupule panel fragments almost down to bedrock; Acheulian industry to Oldowan-like industry including several hammerstones. Early work demonstrated that at least some of the petroglyphs were of the earliest documented occupation of the region. Exfoliated pieces and boulders from the rock surface were found in the sediments, some bearing cupules and grooves. Here a detailed methodological procedure is enacted consisting of luminescence dating reinforced by mineralogical issues, where the latter secures credibility of the former. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), of the luminescence versus depth profiles, following blue LED and Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) technique of quartz, was applied following the surface luminescence dating versions to date this fallen rock. The two dose profiles from the sandstone studies provided an average date for the fallen boulder in the 13th millennium, providing a constrained terminus post quem. Surface patina and intrusion of (Fe, Mn) aluminosilicate weathering solution was examined in both luminescence profiles, properly dealt with issues of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), X-Ray Florescence-Energy Dispersive mode (XRF/ED), Cathodoluminescence, stereomicroscope, thin sections optical microscopy (OM) and microdosimetry. Analytical petrographic results aided interpretation of luminescence data obtained.From the above rationale the two ages obtained from the two profiles can be considered close within errors, that coincide with the drastic change from last glaciation transition to the milder climate of the Holocene and the sudden end of colder Younger Dryas in ∼13th Ka BP, having an impact on the weathering, erosion and exfoliation of rock surfaces caused by the significant temperature change and the resulted thermal differential expansion of rocks (onset of the Holocene).
  • Review of environmental and air pollution impacts on built heritage: 10
           questions on corrosion and soiling effects for urban intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Fábio Vidal, Romeu Vicente, J. Mendes Silva For many decades, countless studies have been performed regarding the effects of the environment on traditional building materials, presenting methods to mostly quantify phenomena such as the corrosion of metals, stone degradation and soiling. Driven by concerning levels of air pollution in the late 1980's, many large international programmes such as the ICP-Materials, MICAT and ISOCORRAG have been testing worldwide material behaviour when exposed to acidifying pollutants, causing corrosion of metals and stone recession. Numerous individual studies have also contributed to a higher understanding of pollution effects on materials, including soiling studies. The methodologies mostly consist of open exposure of standard samples, either for short, mid or long periods, followed by a statistical analysis of the results, in order to develop accurate prediction formulations used for mapping exercises and to determine areas at risk. Considering all the available information, the contribution of this work is to perform an extensive bibliographic review, organized in the form of 10 basic questions that attempt to present and describe the effects of pollution on materials and practical ways to determine risk areas at urban scales and implement well-supported pollution mitigation strategies. The answers to these questions always take into consideration a more practical approach towards the identification of potential risk and subsequent intervention. Additionally, a new methodology regarding the assessment of environmental effects on actual buildings is discussed for the preservation of historic city centres, through the identification of potentially vulnerable buildings regarding deterioration effects by atmospheric corrosion, soiling and stone degradation.
  • Digital stone rubbing from 3D models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rongjiang Pan, Zhongming Tang, Weijia Da Stone rubbing is a traditional method to record surface features of a stone on paper. It has a long history and is still used by Chinese archaeologists and artists up to now. However, stone rubbing can cause permanent damage to precious cultural heritage due to abrasion. We propose a new method to create digital stone rubbing from 3D digital models. We assume the surface of a stone is flat locally and fit a least-squares plane to each point's neighbors individually. To prevent the local plane from being fitted across sharp edges or corners of the model, we make use of the smoothed point normals in the selection of local surface region. The height of a point is defined as the signed distance between the point and its local approximation plane. The estimated height of each point is then mapped to its grey value by a nonlinear transformation function. Finally, we render the 3D model into a rubbing image using orthogonal projection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on real experimental dataset in archaeology.
  • Alkoxysilane-based sols for consolidation of carbonate stones: Impact of
           the carbonate medium in the sol-gel processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Bruno Sena da Fonseca, Maria João Ferreira, Maryna G. Taryba, Susana Piçarra, Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto, Maria de Fátima Montemor This investigation addresses the impact of the carbonate medium in the sol-gel processes of stone consolidants and the possible detrimental effects in practical applications. The results demonstrate that the carbonate medium influences the sol-gel paths and that silicate materials developed in the carbonate stone pores can be structurally different from those formed within “inert” conditions, as a consequence of the combined effect of pH and ionic interactions between Si-O− and Ca2+. The trend is that the formation of the silica films around stone grains (silica growth mechanism through typical condensation) evolves into less advantageous growth processes (Oswald ripening and/or coagulation), resulting in a material that is unlikely to consolidate carbonate stone. Furthermore, pH measurements and different ratios between NMR Q3:Q4 species along stone depth showed that this effect seems more important at greater depths.The results underline the importance of the carbonate medium in the failure of alkoxysilane-based treatments and, accordingly, that an efficient design and development of new alkoxysilane-based consolidants must consider this effect.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • The special iron making in Southwest China around the 10th CE: Scientific
           evidence from an iron smelting site in Erhai lake area, Yunnan province
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Guisen Zou, Rui Min, Jianfeng Cui, Renjie Ma, Xueqi Zhou, Changcheng Yang This study analyzed metallurgical remains from the Fengweiqing iron smelting site at Wase Town, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwest China. Radiocarbon dating showed that the site was occupied approximately between 890 and 1025 CE, corresponding to the late Nanzhao Kingdom and the early Dali Kingdom. Analyses of slag and ore samples from the site revealed that bloomery iron smelting was performed at this site. Metallographic observation of the primary products and metal particles in the slag showed that they were mainly steel, making Fengweiqing the only archeological site currently known in China to produce steel directly through the bloomery process. This study adds new knowledge on iron metallurgy in ancient Yunnan, which is essential for investigating ancient iron production in this region and the technological and cultural exchange with surrounding areas during the Nanzhao Kingdom and early Dali Kingdom period.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Lime render, shrinkage cracks and craftsmanship in building restoration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jonny Eriksson, Jan Erik Lindqvist The present project concerns early shrinkage cracks in renders. This problem relates to the type of lime and rendering methods used in Sweden during the 19th and early 20th century as well as in current restoration practice. Results from different render restoration projects have indicated that a high frequency of shrinkage cracks could be related to the slaking procedure and the reworking of the slaked lime putty. The aim of the project was to investigate whether there is a connection between different handling procedures for wet-slaked lime putty and early shrinkage cracks in render. An investigation involving practical application and a laboratory test programme was initiated to examine the problem of early shrinkage cracks in renders based on wet-slaked sub-hydraulic lime. This type of lime was commonly used in Sweden in the 19th century. The laboratory work in the project included 3 different mix proportions based on reworked and non-reworked lime putty. The renders were applied after 1, 8, 15, 32 and 68 days storage of the lime putty. This gave 30 mortar mixes applied as rendered test surfaces. The flow number of the fresh mortars was determined and the workability, mixability and open time were assessed. The frequency of shrinkage cracks in the rendered surfaces was measured. The results showed that the frequency of shrinkage cracks was related to the methods applied in the slaking process and the storage time. Reworking and storage of the lime putty increased the frequency of shrinkage cracks. The properties of the fresh mortar were also influenced.
  • LED illumination-induced fading of traditional Korean pigments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Soomin Jo, Soo Ryeon Ryu, Wonhyeong Jang, Oh-Sun Kwon, Boa Rhee, Young Eun Lee, Dongmin Kim, Jungsik Kim, Kwanwoo Shin Light is an important factor in the conservation of museum collections because of its strong electromagnetic characteristic that can degrade artifacts. To investigate the effects of illumination on paintings, particularly in museums equipped with popular light emitting diode (LED) lamp systems, we investigated the fading process of traditional Korean pigments. We used four illumination conditions: a combination of high and low color rendering index (CRI) at two light temperatures of Tcold = 5600 K and Twarm = 3200 K. Among all samples tested, realgar, also known as Wunghwang in Korea, showed the most marked change in color. UV spectrometric analyses after 100 h of exposure at 11 000 and at 5500 lux showed high color differences exceeding the color change threshold under all illumination conditions. When the illumination intensity was reduced to 300 lux, Tcold lamps showed a faster fading process than Twarm lamps did, suggesting that appropriate illuminating conditions can reduce the adverse effects of museum lighting systems. A further experiment using narrow-band, single-color, LED lamps showed how specific wavelength bands could influence the fading of artifacts In particular, we newly confirmed that discoloration of Wunghwang could be induced by the illumination of green light, in addition to blue light generally known to induce discoloration. These results demonstrate that the fading of a specific pigment of the artifacts in museum collections can be minimized by tuning the intensities of the wavelengths of light emitted by the museums’ lighting systems.
  • Pigment palette study of the XIX century plafond painting by Raman
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Olga Petrova, Dmitrii Pankin, Anastasia Povolotckaia, Evgenii Borisov, Timur Krivul’ko, Nikolai Kurganov, Alexey Kurochkin Within the framework of the restoration painted plafond performed in the distemper technique at the first half of the 19th century were investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy, UV photography, optical microscopy. One hundred and fifty artistic composition fragments samples were studied from the different parts of plafond. The presence of the following basic pigments: emerald green, Scheele's green; ultramarine, indigo blue, azurites, vermilion, ferric oxide based pigments were observed. Lead white, calcite and gypsum were identified. It's ownership of the author's record is discussed. The places of pigments application in the author's layer of painting were localized, basic and auxiliary materials were identified.
  • Raman/XRF/EDX microanalysis of 2nd-century stuccoes from Domus
    in Rome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Salvatore Almaviva, Stefano Lecci, Adriana Puiu, Valeria Spizzichino, Roberta Fantoni, Mauro Falconieri, Serena Gagliardi, Massimo Chiari, Anna Mazzinghi, Chiara Ruberto, Giacomo Casaril, Giovanna Bandini, Simona Morretta 2nd-century stucco fragments from the roman Domus Valeriorum were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy (Raman), imaging X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in order to identify the pigments and materials thereon. Cinnabar, malachite, hematite, goethite and Egyptian blue were detected by the synergistic use of these techniques whereas calcite, with some traces of gypsum, was detected as materials for the bas-relief figures and the pictorial background. This non-destructive characterization is the first carried out on the Domus Valeriorum finds. The multi-analytical approach highlighted the complementarity and versatility of these techniques, suitable for both laboratory and in-situ analysis, on macroscopic or microscopic fragments without preliminary manipulation.
  • A procedure for identifying chemical and biological risks for books in
           historic libraries based on microclimate analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Eva Schito, Luisa Dias Pereira, Daniele Testi, Manuel Gameiro da Silva The study presents a new procedure for identifying possible risks for books kept in historic libraries. It is addressed to all those historic libraries where large collections of old and rare books are stored and preserved. These libraries were rarely used by people, but, nowadays, many of them have become touristic attractions. Consequently, their indoor microclimate may have changed, possibly leading to risks for books conservation. The proposed methodology is based on an intensive monitoring campaign, followed by an in-depth data analysis. Handy indices are also proposed to guide the researchers in the identification of possible risks. Problems related to too-high daily or spatial hygrothermal variations or problems related to specific risks (e.g., biological or chemical risks) can be identified. If a problem is observed, the identification of the most suitable solutions is more straightforward. The application of the proposed procedure to a real case study (the Baroque Library of the University of Coimbra, Portugal) has highlighted its handiness. A 6-month monitoring campaign and its consequent data analysis has pointed out potentially risky situations. Thus, measures should be taken to avoid books damage. Primarily, local actions are suggested.
  • Non-destructive analytical techniques for the evaluation of cleaning and
           protection processes on white marble surfaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Fábio Luiz Melquiades, Carlos Roberto Appoloni, Avacir Casanova Andrello, Eduardo Spagnuolo Stone conservation and protection is the focus of several researches, especially for historical buildings, monuments and artworks. The objective of this study is to verify the impact of a helical vortex cleaning process in the surface of white marble samples. Powder abrasive material was used in the cleaning process with posterior application of different nano-compound products like water-repellent, anti-graffiti coating and consolidant. The thickness of the damage layer, the porous size distribution and the surface composition were evaluated with non-destructive techniques: X-ray micro-tomography and X-ray Fluorescence. The results indicated that the marble damage layer ranged from 80 to 180 μm due to the cleaning process with garnet as abrasive material. The estimation of the average thickness of the dirt layer by X-ray attenuation was 16 μm. Marble surface porous size distribution indicates that porous links were still present in the surface after the treatment with each one of the nano-compund products and have kept it permeable to air. Silicon, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr were identified in the marble surface. Calcium and Sr are from the marble composition, Si from protective solutions applied and the other elements from the dirt layer.
  • Collaborative projects in cultural heritage conservation –
           management challenges and risks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Helena Hirsenberger, Jonjaua Ranogajec, Snezana Vucetic, Bojan Lalic, Danijela Gracanin The concept of cultural heritage has been increasingly enlarged over decades. Many professions are invited to work together in a holistic attempt to preserve inherited tangible and intangible assets. This complexity brings more challenges in organization of collaborative conservation works. Since 1960s project management approach has become prevalent way in which contemporary, non-routine tasks are organized, despite of the industry. A survey was conducted in order to examine how increased complexity of cross-disciplinary setting influences project management challenges and risks in heritage conservation. The findings of the survey outline that there is a number of challenges/risks associated with extremely cross-disciplinary setting of conservation projects, while the practice already provides some useful references how these can be managed and mitigated. This paper offers systematic overview of the most common challenges/risks, some good practice examples and guidelines observed among countries of former Yugoslavia region, which could be further investigated in a call for a tailored approach aimed to reduce project management risks in collaborative conservation projects.
  • An integrated approach to the study of heritage sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Denis Cutajar, Pierre-Sandre Farrugia, Alfred Micallef This work describes the integrated multidisciplinary approach taken in the study of the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were analysed and cross-compared to identify common trends. In the process, the environmental variables were treated as passive transport scalars in order to identify flow patterns. Subsequently, the measurements were used to set up a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the site. Comparisons between simulated results and measured data allowed not only the identification of the limits of the simulations but also revealed flow patterns that would be hard to recognise otherwise.
  • The influence of selected efficient compounds of essential oils for paper
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Iveta Čabalová, Břetislav Češek, Ondřej Mikala, Jan Gojný, František Kačík, Tereza Tribulová The most common negative influences on lignocellulosic materials from biological point of view include invading of microorganisms, which have in humid environments of porous materials favourable conditions for growth and reproduction. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected compounds present in essential oils- EOs (linalyl acetate-LA and citral-C) and the accelerated ageing process on the chemical (cellulose degree of polymerization, content of saccharides), mechanical (tensile index) and physical (fibres length distribution) properties of papers. LA and C were evaluated as the compounds with the highest antimicrobial activity and therefore, they were applied into the paper mass in form of their vapours. Paper samples were prepared from five types of material. Chemical changes were evaluated by wet chemical methods, size exclusion chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, mechanical property according to ISO 1924-2 standard and morphological properties of fibres by using Fiber Tester equipment. In the view of followed properties, the protecting impact of these EOs efficient compounds has a greater importance in their application before the ageing process itself, especially at wood pulp papers and papers produced from sulphate deciduous pulp. The contents of both holocellulose and a cellulose degree of polymerization were significantly correlated with the tensile index of the paper.
  • Date-palm (Phoenix, Arecaceae) iconography in coins from the Mediterranean
           and West Asia (485 BC–1189 AD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Diego Rivera, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Emilio Laguna, Dennis Johnson Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) yields food, medicines, and materials for buildings and crafts in the Middle East, the Mediterranean and North Africa. There, date palms were represented on coins from 485 BC until 1189 AD. These palm-tree images furnish agricultural, botanical and geographical information on Phoenix. We aim to analyze the evolution over time of the diversity of these images and their relationship with climatic episodes favorable to their cultivation. We selected variables for analysis based on date-palm taxonomy, standardized descriptors and observation of the coins. Image types, realism and age, and relationships with climatic events were analyzed using multivariate techniques. Ten main palm-image types were recognized. Three geographically and chronologically differentiated periods are distinguished associated with favorable climate episodes. First, the western period of Carthage and Sicily (485–100 BC) with highly realistic date palm-tree images, followed by a bottleneck 100 BC–50 AD, a second period with lesser diversity of palm images (50–150 AD) centered in the eastern Mediterranean, and a third medieval period (430–1189 AD) with schematic images of palm trees. From a cultural viewpoint, our results are consistent with ancient texts for morphology, cultivation, management techniques, sterility and fertility, and tree longevity. Several image types from present-day Israel most likely represent specific ancient cultivars such as the “Caryotae”. Ancient coins offer valuable information, to better knowing characteristics of date palm trees and date-palm cultivation, from the first millennium BC to the beginning of second millennium AD. Western Mediterranean presents greatest diversity and realism related to different domestication events.Graphic abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Decision support criteria and the development of a decision support tool
           for the selection of conservation materials for the built cultural
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Janez Turk, Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Andrew Hursthouse, Robert Turner, John J. Hughes Significant criteria for choosing materials (consolidants and protective coatings) for the conservation of the built cultural heritage were gathered from the literature and by consultation with experts working on the preservation of cultural heritage. Ten criteria were chosen from these, and a questionnaire was prepared and sent to stakeholders in the cultural heritage conservation domain in order to evaluate, score and rank the importance of the proposed criteria. Based on the results obtained a decision support tool was developed, aimed at conservators and other stakeholders, to help them to make sustainable decisions with regard to the selection of conservation materials for treatment of the built cultural heritage. Performance characteristics and health and safety were identified to be the most important criteria. A preliminary decision can be made based on these two criteria, however, reversibility, minimum intervention and re-treatability are also of very high importance and additional information about these characteristics of the material are required to support decisions. Information about environmental performance, peer recommendation, the application techniques, the price and availability of the materials, which are also integrated in decision support tools, can help conservators and stakeholders to reach a final decision on interventions. The study also provides feedback for the manufacturers of conservation materials. For the users of material, it is very important that the manufacturers clearly identify key characteristics (i.e. criteria) on the product, including those related with environmental performance of the materials.
  • Estudios para la configuración de las facies cerámicas altoimperiales en
           el sur de la Península Ibérica.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Màrius Vendrell Saz
  • Professional SfM and TLS vs a simple SfM photogrammetry for 3D modelling
           of rock art and radiance scaling shading in engraving detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Simón Peña-Villasenín, Mariluz Gil-Docampo, Juan Ortiz-Sanz The geometric inventory and documentation of rock art present great challenges due to the high number of petroglyphs present in a territory, the distance between them, the state of abandonment of forest areas in many cases, limitations to access, and the geometric characteristics of such art. Structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry was positioned as an ideal technique for its documentation, but this technique has great variability in its methodology and cost. In this study, an extremely simple and effective method based on SfM photogrammetry with low cost cloud computing software is compared to the use of a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and professional SfM workflow to generate 3D models for documenting petroglyphs. The comparison is made on the 3D documentation of the Castriño de Conxo petroglyph in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and extrapolated to two practical experiments on other petroglyphs. The meshes are compared by analysing visual, geometrical and operational criteria and how they influence the radiance scaling shading. The results show that with a SfM photogrammetry methodology, which is extremely simple and accessible to everyone, it is possible to obtain better results in geometric and visual aspects than those obtained with TLS, and they are valid for a detailed analysis of this type of rock art in a massively social approach of documentation that is not possible through other approaches.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Thermal stress and damage risk in the stones of Al-Ziggurat in Al-Nimrud
           city, Iraq
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Asaad Al-Omari, Xavier Brunetaud, Kevin Beck, Muzahim Al-Mukhtar The aim of this paper is to assess the risk of climate-induced damage to stone through the calculation of thermal stresses. The stone studied is white limestone, the building stone of the walls of Al-Ziggurat in Al-Nimrud city, Iraq. In order to assess the effect of climate on stone behavior, we measured the stone surface temperature and the extreme values of air temperature (i.e. actual stone dataset). As these parameters were measured for short period, they were completed with weather data recorded from Mosul station for three years (i.e. weather dataset). The actual stone data were used to estimate the statistical difference between stone surface temperature and air temperature. The weather data were treated with respect to actual stone data in order to estimate the thermal stress for a statistically relevant duration. The mechanical properties required for stress calculation are the elastic modulus, the Poisson's ratio and the thermal expansion coefficient. A simple mechanical model was applied to estimate the stress generated by restrained thermal strain. Results show that the risk of damage to the stone exposed to climate fluctuations can be significant. The damage risk is higher to the stone in the south wall orientation than in the north one. The combined use of both datasets proved to be usefull, since the damage risk is significantly higher with the resulting estimation compared to the exclusive use of actual stone data.
  • The metallography and corrosion of an ancient chinese bimetallic bronze
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Wei Huang, Kockelmann Winfried, Godfrey Evelyne, A Scott David A bimetal bronze sword, unearthed from Hunan Province China, dating to the Warring States period (476–221BC) was examined analytically by optical metallography, neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the tin content of the blade is 16%, not higher as previously reported. The bimetallic bronze sword possesses a typical cast structure with annealing on the edge of spine. Distinct corrosion compounds pyromorphite was identified, with pseudomorphic malachite having replaced the original alpha phase. Redeposited copper and unusual phosphorus-containing corrosion products were analysed to investigate the mechanism of formation.
  • A multi-level and multi-sensor documentation approach of the Treblinka
           extermination and labor camps
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Dante Abate, Caroline Sturdy-Colls At Treblinka extermination camp, almost one million of people were killed during the Holocaust. A further 10,000 people are estimated to have been murdered at the nearby labor camp. Since 2007, the Centre of Archaeology of Staffordshire University (UK) has been involved in the study and research of the evidence of these atrocities in order to demonstrate how an archaeological approach to Treblinka has, and will continue to, enhance contemporary discussions about the camps and provide a richer, more accurate record of events. This study focuses on the use of digital 3D technologies and web visualization tools for the analysis of the sites, providing a digital interactive platform, which can be used both by professional users and a public audience. It proposes a pyramidal multi-level and multi-sensor approach – providing a 3D resolution spanning from a few centimetres in the landscape Digital Terrain Model to few millimetres in the layer-by-layer archaeological test trench.
  • Documenting carved stones by 3D modelling – Example of
           Mongolian deer stones
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Fabrice Monna, Yury Esin, Jérome Magail, Ludovic Granjon, Nicolas Navarro, Josef Wilczek, Laure Saligny, Sébastien Couette, Anthony Dumontet, Carmela Chateau Rock art studies are facing major technical challenges for extensive documentation. Nowadays, recording is essentially obtained from time-consuming tracing and rubbing, techniques that also require a high level of expertise. Recent advances in 3D modelling of natural objects and computational treatment of the modelled surfaces may provide an alternative, and reduce the current documentation bottleneck. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which such treatments can be applied. The case study presented here concerns the famous deer stones erected by ancient Mongolian nomad populations. The 3D acquisition workflow is based on structure-from-motion, a versatile photogrammetric technique, well adapted to various field conditions. From the 3D geometry of objects of interest, elevation raster maps are produced by projection on four sides of the stela. These digital elevation models are then tested using algorithms based on differential geometry, sky visibility and local morphology, the general principles of which are briefly exposed. All these approaches may be appropriate with essentially planar surfaces. However, in the case of irregular carved surfaces, such as those of deer stones, the most efficient algorithm appears to be positive openness. In favourable cases, the incisions can be automatically delineated, facilitating the final drawing. Results obtained at the end of the process are comparable to the best drawings available in the literature, and can also include archaeological information about rock surface conditions. The procedure considerably accelerates the workflow in comparison with traditional techniques, reduces the level of expertise required, and provides 3D models, which can easily be shared, or further analysed by morphometric methods, for instance.
  • An AHP-based method for choosing the best 3D scanner for cultural heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Luca Di Angelo, Paolo Di Stefano, Luciano Fratocchi, Antonio Marzola In this paper, a method for determining the best choice of the 3D scanner for cultural heritage applications is presented. Generally speaking, this activity is not trivial since a 3D scanner that matches all the requirements of a typical preservation activity in cultural heritage does not exist. Thus, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the choice of compromise is typically performed in an unstructured way. In order to structure this choice, a method based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is proposed. In the proposed method, the three levels of the AHP hierarchy structure are the selection of the best 3D scanner for a specific cultural heritage application (goal), the most important technical parameters that mainly affect the choice of a 3D scanner (criteria), and the devices matching the required resolution (alternatives). Having defined the goal, prioritization of the type and quality of information is performed by the team leader of the research group (typically a skilled archaeologist), while the priority of the pairwise comparison among alternatives is decided by an expert on 3D scanners.The application of the proposed method in two contrasting situations concerning pottery fragments highlights its ease of use, its robustness (confirmed by the consistency analysis), and the completeness of the technical and economic assessment (since all relevant elements are taken into account), which put together, in a structured way, competences in very different fields (archaeology and 3D digital devices).
  • A no-reference method of geometric content quality analysis of 3D models
           generated from laser scanning point clouds for hBIM
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Anna Fryskowska, Julita Stachelek Laser scanning technology and modern photogrammetry have become very popular techniques in cultural heritage data acquisition. In the majority of architectural applications of these methods for historic buildings, relatively less attention is paid to the quality of the visualisation. However, when it is necessary to reconstruct the structure, materials, or form of a given heritage building or object, geometrical quality is key in the process of rebuilding or reconstruction. This paper proposes an assessment of geometrical content of 3D models for Heritage Building Information Modelling (hBIM) without reference measurements and independently of the data acquiring method or point cloud resolution. The point cloud analysed in this paper was obtained by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS); however, the analysis could be applied to point clouds of other origins (e.g. ALS, UAV imagery). The inner characteristics of measurement methods are not considered, with the focus on answering the following questions: How much will the point cloud allow us to see' and Is too much data always a good thing' The quality can simply be defined as the suitability of a specific dataset for a specific purpose. It is very important to clarify in advance for what kind of outcome a dataset might be or not be suitable, and which are the results expected.
  • Structural and geotechnical engineering assessment of Huaca de la
           Luna – A massive earthen Moche culture pyramid in Northern Peru
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Rafael Aguilar, Miguel A. Pando, Carolina Briceño, Guillermo Zavala, Benjamín Castañeda, Renato Perucchio, Santiago Uceda The present paper presents results of a comprehensive engineering analysis for understanding the current structural damage condition of a sector of one of the most representative archaeological complexes in Perú: the main Moche culture pyramid of Huaca de la Luna. It is estimated that this pyramid was built in stages with adobe masonry between 100 and 600 A.D. Severe structural damage was identified near the NW corner during the archeological excavation in the form of damaged walls, fissures, cracks, compressed adobe blocks, and incomplete geometry of perimeter walls. An interdisciplinary team carried out an engineering diagnosis involving: detailed surveying and mapping of the geometry of the complex, multi-scale characterization of the material components, geotechnical assessment of foundation conditions, and advanced numerical modeling to help evaluate the possible reasons for the observed structural damage. The results indicate that the origin for the observed damage is uneven foundation settlements related to a variable foundation layer thickness that is associated to the sloping bedrock at the site of this complex. The complex soil-structure interaction issues associated to the foundation conditions and high foundation pressures in the NW corner of the complex, coupled with the high internal stresses in the lower part of this structure that reach the strength capacity of this fragile material, appear to be the main reasons for the observed damage. This interdisciplinary study provided an effective approach to find a valid and scientific-based explanation for the observed archaeological evidence and open up new engineering and archaeological discussions for finding the most appropriate strategies for future conservation and structural consolidation works at this invaluable Moche culture heritage site.
  • The assessment of environmental conditioning techniques and their energy
           performance in historic churches located in Mediterranean climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Carmen Ma Muñoz-González, A.L. León-Rodríguez, M. Campano-Laborda, C. Teeling, R. Baglioni There is a particular approach to the energy performance and indoor microclimate of historic buildings. However, the implementation of energy efficiency in historic buildings is limited, given that the materials, structure, geometry and artworks to be conserved inhibit the improvement of microclimate parameters or energy performance. The main aim of this work is to study the use of environmental conditioning techniques in a historic building and its impact on the conservation of artworks prior to the refurbishment project. This study describes experimental research carried out on the church of Nuestra Señora de la Merced, a historic building in a Mediterranean climate. The building was monitored and measured to validate numerical codes using Design Builder 4.7.027 and Energy Plus 8.3. Software building models made it possible to evaluate the implementation of different environmental techniques – passive, active and combined – in the church with a view to conserving artworks. This study concluded that the use of passive environmental techniques does not completely eliminate the mechanical risk or bio-deterioration that are inherent to movable heritage. Proposals for the use of active systems in combination with passive techniques improve the initial conservation of artworks and decrease the risk of biological degradation. Although energy consumption is high due to the large size and thermal inertia of the building, consumption is considerably reduced when active and passive systems are combined.
  • A multi-analytical study on the Mango Longo Guitar, a Baroque masterpiece
           from the Castello Sforzesco, Milan, Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Mauro Bernabei, Nicola Macchioni, Maria Ricetti Valentina, Luigi Sisto The study of an ancient musical instrument should take into account various approaches, which include historical sources, study of materials and dendrochronological analysis. Very often, an ancient musical instrument has been subject to repairs, substitutions and restorations that have modified its original setting. This study takes into account the “Mango Longo guitar”, a masterpiece of 17th century Neapolitan art. It has been analysed from a historical, organological and xylo-chronological perspective to investigate and describe the cultural context of its creation, the wood species used for its construction and various restoration works to which it has been subjected. The Mango Longo guitar belongs to the typology of the Baroque guitars of the seventeenth century, attributed to the lute-maker of German origin Magnus Lang, from which the name derives. The most recent tree-ring identified on the instrument belly is dated dendrochronologically to 1737, terminus post quem. This means that the actual soundboard may be considered a replacement, due to a restoration in the first half of 18th century. The analysis of dendroprovenance of the actual soundboard shows strong analogies with Italian production of the period and identifies the probable sources for wood as being in the Alps. Our results confirm the intensive and well-organized trade of valuable timber used for musical instruments at that time.
  • Conservation of acidic papers using a dispersion of oleic acid-modified
           MgO nanoparticles in a non-polar solvent
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Jie Huang, Guozhou Liang, Gang Lu, Jinping Zhang In this study, a new method was developed for the deacidification of acidic papers, by using a deacidifying dispersion of oleic acid-modified magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles in cyclohexane. We reported that oleic acid-modified MgO nanoparticles were prepared by using a surface modification method. The results showed that the carboxylic group of oleic acid could react with the hydroxyl group on the surface of nanoparticles and the reaction was esterification. MgO nanoparticles were transformed from hydrophilic to lipophilic, with well dispersibility in cyclohexane for 6 h. Pure MgO nanoparticles all sank in cyclohexane after 30 s, so the deacidifying agents of pure MgO nanoparticles in cyclohexane could not be prepared for the deacidification of papers. The stable dispersion of oleic acid-modified MgO nanoparticles in cyclohexane then was used for the deacidification of papers. The accelerated aging tests were also used to evaluate the effect of the new method. Results showed that the surface pH of all types of papers were alkaline after the deacidification treatment and tensile strength values of those remained stable after accelerated aging. The deacidification treatment had ignorable influence on the appearance of papers, as well as inks and pigments on the paper surface. As the use of hydrophobic oleic acid-modified MgO nanoparticles, hydrophobicity of papers changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic.
  • Adhesives used in paper conservation: Chemical stability and fungal
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Inês da Silva Borges, Maria Helena Casimiro, Maria Filomena Macedo, Sílvia Oliveira Sequeira In paper conservation practice, adhesives are used for several purposes, such as mending tears and gaps, or paper consolidation. The criteria to choose one or another adhesive should be based on the knowledge of the properties and stability of those adhesives. However, the several different adhesives available on the market still lack enough information to help the process of a rational decision-making. In the present work, five adhesives currently used in the paper conservation field (starch paste, unsupported ArchibondTM, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose and methylcellulose) were analyzed for their chemical stability and fungal bioreceptivity (the ability of a material to be colonized by fungi). Bioreceptivity of products used in conservation and restoration is a still poorly explored subject, despite its great relevance for the preservation of objects.The chemical and physical properties of the adhesives, before and after moist heat artificial ageing, were analyzed by thermogravimetry, capillary viscometry, measurement of water absorption capacity, colourimetry, and pH measurement.Fungal bioreceptivity of the adhesives was tested on two different substrates (paper and glass) against three fungal species: Aspergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans and Penicillium pinophilum. Along 56 days of incubation, the colonization area on the adhesives was measured through digital photo analysis.Starch paste was the most bioreceptive adhesive, but on other hand was also the most stable adhesive to artificial ageing, regarding colour alteration, degree of polymerization and pH. Carboxymethylcellulose and ArchibondTM showed chemical deterioration with ageing. Nevertheless, these two adhesives presented only scarce bioreceptivity to the tested fungi. Methylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose showed the best relationship between higher chemical stability with artificial ageing and lower fungal bioreceptivity.
  • Celebrating centuries: Pink-pigmented bacteria from rosy patinas in the
           House of Bicentenary (Herculaneum, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Marco Tescari, Paolo Visca, Emanuela Frangipani, Flavia Bartoli, Leslie Rainer, Giulia Caneva The archaeological site of Herculaneum (Campania, Italy), which was buried as a result of the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in the first Century C.E., was first excavated in the XVIII century. It has been included on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1997, and in 2001 the Herculaneum Conservation Project (HCP) was started, which has carried out, among other activities, studies and conservation interventions across the site. Up until this time, little data has been available on the growth of biological agents that could cause biodeterioration of wall paintings and archaeological structures. Particularly, the presence of rosy discoloration is frequent on ancient monuments of the Vesuvian area, even if such phenomenon has so far been largely neglected. In this study, we describe, for the first time, the pink patina distribution and the microbial species isolated from the House of the Bicentenary in Herculaneum. By combining culture-based approaches with molecular and phylogenetic analyses we reliably isolated the pink-producing bacterial species and attributed them primarily to Arthrobacter agilis, and secondarily to Rhodococcus corynebacterioides, and Methylobacterium extorquens. Strains closely related to Dietzia maris and Gordonia rubripertincta were also isolated. With the exception of M. extorquens, a proteobacterium, all of the other isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria. All isolates produced carotenoid pigments, suggesting that they can participate in the development of such peculiar coloration. Our data indicate the presence of a large number of pink-pigmented bacterial species in the community, even if the presence of bacteria in viable but not-culturable state, such as Rubrobacter radiotolerans, is not excludible. The culture-based approach had the advantage of (i) obtaining bacterial isolates, (ii) showing their differential ability to produce pink discolorations, and (iii) testing conditions for in vitro growth. Moreover, field observations showed an association of pink patinas with dry conditions, saline efflorescence and moderate solar radiation. Some seasonal variations were also detected, with an increase in late spring and summer.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Biocide efficacy and consolidant effect on the mycoflora of historical
           stuccos in indoor environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Sergio Enrico Favero-Longo, Francesco Brigadeci, Alessandro Segimiro, Samuele Voyron, Michela Cardinali, Mariangela Girlanda, Rosanna Piervittori Investigations are needed to address and optimize the use of biocides and restoration materials with reference to the fungal diversity, which often characterizes cultural heritage surfaces. This work aimed to examine the diversity of fungi responsible of aesthetic decay on the stuccos of the vault of a religious building in Torino (NW-Italy), and to evaluate the sensitivity of the detected set of species to widely used biocidal products (benzalkonium chloride, isothiazolinones, sulphamide derivatives) and their application solvents. The effect of four commercial consolidants on their potential (re-)colonization following restoration interventions was also assessed. Four different deterioration phenomena were related to the occurrence of Chaetomium murale, Stachybotrys chartarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Sarocladium kiliense, respectively. Surface receptivity to the different species – identified on morphological and molecular bases – was related to slightly different thermo-hygrometric conditions, the distribution of painted surfaces, salts, and local remnants of cellulose poultice used in past restoration interventions. Specific sensitivity to two solvents and ten different biocide treatments was evaluated in terms of inhibition of mycelial growth from transplanted inocula at 9 (T1) and 27 (T2) days after the incubation. The different solvents and biocide products differently affected growth and/or pigmentation of the four species. Only 40% of the ten performed biocide treatments determined the growth inhibition of all the examined species at both T1 and T2. In other cases, inhibition observed at T1 for C. murorum, S. chartharum and S. kiliense, was followed at T2 by the colonization of inhibition zones. The mycelial growth on an oligotrophic culture medium poured with four commercial consolidants was evaluated one year after the incubation. All the species displayed some growth from the inocula, with a scarce biomass being only observed in negative (water) controls and upon one consolidant treatment. The three other products strongly supported a higher growth of at least two of the examined fungal species with respect to negative controls. In conclusion, different sensitivity of each fungal species for most biocidal treatments and stimulation by consolidants indicate that species-specific assays of products are necessary to calibrate and optimize restoration works. In particular, effective inhibition of fungi by biocides, and potential stimulation by consolidants, should be evaluated after several weeks and months, respectively, since short-term monitoring may be misleading.
  • First insights on the mineral composition of “stucco” devotional
           reliefs from Italian Renaissance Masters: investigating technological
           practices and raw material sourcing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Gianluca Gariani, Patrice Lehuédé, Lise Leroux, Gilles Wallez, Fabrice Goubard, Anne Bouquillon, Marc Bormand The production of devotional reliefs particularly flourished in 15th century Florence, where models from Renaissance Masters actually became the object of a serial-production. One of the materials mostly used to this purpose was the so-called “stucco”. This preliminary work focuses on the multiscale structural and compositional analysis of micro samples from 22 representative stucco low reliefs attributed to the workshops of renowned Masters. The identification and characterisation of main mineralogical phases showed that the material used to make these reliefs consists in a gypsum-based plaster. Data from both X-ray diffraction and Particle induced X-ray emission allowed to gather also information on secondary mineral phases (sulphates, carbonates and clay minerals, together in few weight percentage maximum) and trace elements. Through an extensive comparison of all the mineralogical and compositional data collected on the corpus of artworks, first insights on workshop practices and raw material used have been enlightened.
  • PVA hydrogel as polymer electrolyte for electrochemical impedance analysis
           on archaeological metals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Francesca Di Turo, Pietro Matricardi, Chiara Di Meo, Franco Mazzei, Gabriele Favero, Daniela Zane The development of an electrochemical cell based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel as polymer electrolyte for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis (EIS) is discussed. PVA hydrogel is prepared with different cycles of freeze/thawing (F/T) employing distillated and mineral water as solutions. The PVA-disks obtained are compared for their conductivities in order to employ it in an appropriate cell for diagnostic purposes, reducing the invasiveness of the analysis on the sample. The test of the self-consistent disk of PVA is carried out on a modern sample of copper and on an archaeological bronze coin, obtaining an alternative of the classical electrochemical cell for EIS measurements on ancient metals.
  • Elucidating the composition and the state of conservation of
           nitrocellulose-based animation cells by means of non-invasive and
           micro-destructive techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Francesca Caterina Izzo, Alessandra Carrieri, Giovanni Bartolozzi, Henk van Keulen, Irene Lorenzon, Eleonora Balliana, Costanza Cucci, Francesco Grazzi, Marcello Picollo This paper presents the first study on Rodovetri, animation cels produced between the 1950s and the 1970s for the Italian television and conserved at the Museum of Industry and Labour “Musil” (Italy). Although these cels are considered as works of art and witnesses of Italian animation design, they have never been studied before. The study of one of the most endangered cel groups of the Musil collection is presented here. The main aims were to investigate the composition of these animation cels, to identify the materials used for painting the characters, and to assess the state of conservation of the cels. The results, which were obtained by means of a multi-analytical non-invasive and micro-destructive approach, underline the composition of the plastic substrate as nitrocellulose, while the painted layers – which contain a variety of pigments and dyes – were found to be bound with a mixture of plant gum and animal glue. This study also provides information on their state of conservation, in particular in relation to the de-nitration of plastic sheets. Important issues on the preventive conservation are also raised.
  • Changing surface features, weeping and metal soap formation in paintings
           by Karel Appel and Asger Jorn from 1946–1971
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Ida Antonia Tank Bronken, Jaap J. Boon, Robert Corkery, Calin Constantin Steindal This paper presents results from ongoing investigations of soft and dripping oil paint in art works by CoBrA's Karel Appel (1921–2006) and Asger Jorn (1914–1973). The work is part of the PhD-project Investigation of soft and dripping paint in paintings from 1946–1971 where twenty-four paintings are being investigated. The paintings were chosen to represent a large variety of conditions: some with slightly soft and mainly stable paints, and others with deforming and dripping paints. All paintings chosen had some paint with uneven fluorescence emitted from specific paint colours. Earlier studies have shown that fluorescence can be an indicator of softening paint. The softening paints and drips on the surface of some of these paintings show similar polarity features with mid-chain functionalized stearic acids and azelaic acid moieties. Our findings show there are several physical and chemical alterations within one degradation symptom that have to be understood when conservation treatments are considered in the future.
  • Sustainable interventions in historic buildings: A developing decision
           making tool
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Chiara Bertolin, Arian Loli Integrating multi-criteria approaches for reducing greenhouse gas emissions while, at the same time, ensuring long-term maintenance of existing buildings, is a challenge that needs to be faced by both the present and future generations. The core objective of this paper is to integrate a life cycle approach within the framework of building conservation principles to help decision makers dealing with “green” maintenance and adaptation interventions of historic buildings. The proposed approach identifies conservation principles to respect, it considers low, medium, high levels of intervention, and it analyses the impact of interventions in terms of emissions and energy consumptions that should be compensated – while the historic building is in use – with on-site renewables. The method, in the whole, allows the comparison of different intervention scenarios and the selection of the most sustainable one over a long-term management perspective of the historic building. The benefits are twofold: under the conservative perspective, for helping in choosing the right time of interventions, in reducing the decay rate, in using materials that endure longer and are compatible with existing fabrics; under the environmental perspective, for helping in reducing the carbon footprint, in supporting conservation needs through a minimal intervention approach, and in encouraging materials reuse and renewable energy systems.
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Heriot-Watt University
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