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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1540 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (255 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (18 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (91 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (51 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (845 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (170 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (845 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ilahiyat Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Iran Cultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free  
Journal of Mediterranean Knowledge     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 278, SJR: 4.302, CiteScore: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Progressive Research in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Social Science Education : JSSE     Open Access  
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Structure     Open Access  
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Trust Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Kawistara     Open Access  
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Teori dan Praksis Pembelajaran IPS     Open Access  
Jurnal Terapan Abdimas     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access  
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies     Open Access  
Kimün. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente     Open Access  
Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Korean Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Homme. Europäische Zeitschrift für Feministische Geschichtswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
L'Ordinaire des Amériques     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Lectio Socialis     Open Access  
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lex Social : Revista de Derechos Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Liminar. Estudios Sociales y Humanisticos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Literacy Learning: The Middle Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Local-Global: Identity, Security, Community     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lucero     Open Access  
Lúdicamente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lutas Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedon Digest, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mathématiques et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mayéutica Revista Científica de Humanidades y Artes     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Meanjin Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Media Information Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Media International Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Media International Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Melbourne Journal of Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mémoire(s), identité(s), marginalité(s) dans le monde occidental contemporain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Memorias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meridional : Revista Chilena de Estudios Latinoamericanos     Open Access  
methaodos.revista de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Methodological Innovations     Open Access  
Methods, Data, Analyses     Open Access  
México y la Cuenca del Pacífico     Open Access  
Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Migration Action     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Mikarimin. Revista Científica Multidisciplinaria     Open Access  
Miscelánea Comillas. Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales     Open Access  
Misión Jurídica     Open Access  
Mitologicas     Open Access  
Módulo Arquitectura - CUC     Open Access  
Monthly, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Moving the Social : Journal of Social History and the History of Social Movements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mukaddime     Open Access  
Mütefekkir     Open Access  
Müvészettörténeti Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
National Emergency Response     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
National Observer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Navigations : A First-Year College Composite     Open Access  
New Left Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
New Perspectives on Turkey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand International Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Newsletter of the Gypsy Lore Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nineteenth-Century Contexts: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Noesis. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nómadas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nómadas. Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Social Research     Open Access  
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nouvelles perspectives en sciences sociales : revue internationale de systémique complexe et d'études relationnelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
OGIRISI : a New Journal of African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Öneri Dergisi     Open Access  
Opcion     Open Access  
Open Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Open Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Opticon1826     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Orbis. Revista Cientifica Ciencias Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Orbith : Majalah Ilmiah Pengembangan Rekayasa dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oregon Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Outlines. Critical Practice Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pacific Northwest Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Palgrave Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Palimpsesto : Revista Científica de Estudios Sociales Iberoamericanos     Open Access  
Pandora's Box     Full-text available via subscription  
Panggung     Open Access  
Panorama     Open Access  
Papeles de Europa     Open Access  
Papeles de Trabajo     Open Access  
Parity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pecvnia : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de León     Open Access  
Península     Open Access  
Pensamento & Realidade. Revista do Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Administração     Open Access  
People and Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
People and Society (Mens & Maatschappij)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Percurso Acadêmico     Open Access  
Perfiles Latinoamericanos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Periférica. Revista para el análisis de la cultura y el territorio     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Social and Management Sciences     Open Access  
Persona y Bioetica     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Perspectivas em Diálogo : Revista de Educação e Sociedade     Open Access  
Perspective Youth Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives on Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Philippine Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Philosophy & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Planning News     Full-text available via subscription  
Poblacion de Buenos Aires     Open Access  
Polêm!ca     Open Access  
Polis : Revista Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Polisemia     Open Access  
Ponto-e-Vírgula. Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Population Horizons. Analysis and debate on policy questions raised by population change     Open Access  
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Journal Cover
Journal of Cultural Heritage
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1296-2074
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • A lead-framed glass mirror from a Roman woman's grave in Padua/Patavium
           (north-eastern Italy) – investigating its function and production with a
           multidisciplinary approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Cecilia Rossi, Elena Pettenò, Sara Emanuele, Emanuela Faresin, Giuseppe Salemi, Mosè Mariotti, Gianmario Molin A small Roman mirror, made up of a square lead frame and a convex reflective glass surface, was recently recovered in Padua in a grave dating back to the second half of the 2nd century AD. It was investigated with a multidisciplinary approach. During restoration, the artefact was dismantled, its individual components cleaned, consolidated and then reassembled. Chemical and isotopic analyses were carried out on microscopic fragments from both the glass and the lead components to identify their origin and production technologies. Structured-light 3D scanning was used both to produce a model of the artefact and to reconstruct its optical properties. Archaeometric results show that the 200 μm thick reflective glass surface, coated with a thin lead film, belongs to the Sb-colourless group. The lead frame is now totally oxidised. The lead isotope ratios of both the glass coating and the frame show a common composition, statistically close to some Romanian ores. These data suggest a multistep production process, most likely carried out in the same workshop. The distribution of similar finds mainly between the Northern-Adriatic basin and the Danube could indicate that these products were manufactured in the central-eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, presumably in the Southern Carpathian area, close to the local lead ore deposits. The typology is well defined thanks to the 3D model that is an important tool for morphometric investigations. The optical properties of the mirror, given by its convex spherical surface with a 9 cm radius, suggest the object was actually used as a makeup tool.In conclusion, this multidisciplinary approach reveals that despite its non-precious materials, the mirror can be considered a product of superior technological and scientific skills.
       
  • A Byzantine connection: Eastern Mediterranean glasses in medieval Bari
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Elisabetta Neri, Nadine Schibille, Michele Pellegrino, Donatella Nuzzo The transition from the Roman natron-based glass industry to the medieval ash-based tradition in Italy in the latter part of the first millennium CE is still poorly documented. The compositional data of eighteen glass fragments excavated from the Byzantine praetorium in Bari suggest that the development in the southern part of the Peninsula differs from that in the north. Analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) identified the first significant group of glasses in Italy that were produced in and imported from the eastern Mediterranean during the last two centuries of the first millennium CE. Some samples exhibit the characteristics of early Islamic natron and plant-ash glasses, while two specimens are similar in major and trace element composition to post-Roman glasses most likely manufactured in Byzantine Asia Minor. These represent the only known vessels made from the Byzantine high lithium, high boron glass found so far in the western Mediterranean. The analytical results thus show that being under Byzantine hegemony was advantageous for trade connections in the medieval Mediterranean.
       
  • Identification of gilding techniques on Roman marble sarcophagi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Eliana Siotto Several Roman marble sarcophagi (2nd–4th centuries AD) have been investigated in a first systematic research effort to detect (pigments and) gilding techniques employed in the Imperial Rome. A comparative study was performed on a conspicuous group (no. eighty) of Roman sarcophagi identified in the Vatican Museums, the Capitoline Museums and the National Roman Museum collections. A focused in situ campaign of non-invasive analytical investigations have performed by multispectral imaging, spectroscopic and elemental analysis, followed by aimed micro-invasive techniques. As for the main issue of the gilding and its application techniques, the microscopy still remains one of the most efficient tools for their characterization. Therefore, some micro-samples of three sarcophagi chosen as case studies were examined by means of optical petrographic microscopy (OPM) and scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM–EDS). The results of archaeological data and scientific analyses show that the leaf gold was applied by two different techniques. In the most attested method, the gold leaf was applied on a ground layer of colour (yellow and/or red ochre, Egyptian blue, etc.); on the other hand, in the other technique, the gold leaf was applied directly onto the marble surface or more probably on top of a thin ground layer of kaolin.
       
  • An insight into the mechanical properties of selected commercial oil and
           alkyd paint films containing cobalt blue
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Laura Fuster-López, Francesca Caterina Izzo, Valentina Damato, Dolores J. Yusà-Marco, Elisabetta Zendri Pigments and binders are known to influence drying and ageing mechanisms of paint films. However, the study of the long-term mechanical behaviour of paint films and its relationship with paint degradation and conservation still needs further investigation. This paper presents an insight into the role of cobalt blue pigment in the mechanical properties of some modern paint films by studying selected commercial oil and alkyd paint films containing cobalt blue. In addition, several representative mock-ups containing cobalt blue mixed with drying and semi-drying oils and some common additives were also tested for comparison purposes. Optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, XRF, VIS-reflectance spectroscopy, FTIR-ATR and GC-MS analysis were carried out to identify pigments, binders, additives and fillers. Uniaxial tensile measurements were run to test the mechanical performance of the studied paint films. The differences in the mechanical behaviour led to the evaluation of the discrepancies found in the chemical and physical properties of the different formulations studied.
       
  • The chemistry of pastels: Investigation of the organic materials in a
           drawing by Umberto Boccioni
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Anna Lluveras Tenorio, Jacopo La Nasa, Barbara Ferriani, Maria Perla Colombini, Francesca Modugno Although many prominent artists have experimented with pastels, this technique has been the subject of very limited scientific research. The first known recipes of pastels date back to the 16th century, but only during the 18th century did the pastel technique become more common. Identifying and characterising the organic constituents in pastels materials is challenging given that they are present in extremely low concentrations and could be produced using many organic substances, whose chemical composition alters during ageing. The chemical-physical behaviour of organic media in artworks is often crucial in causing the degradation problems, which need to be addressed by conservation. We evaluated the applicability of an analytical approach based on chromatography and mass spectrometry to investigate the composition of the pastels used by Umberto Boccioni in a drawing dated 1908 and conserved at the Museo del Novecento in Milan (Italy). The investigation of the formulation of artists’ pastels used in the first decade of the 20th century is particularly important in order to improve the knowledge of this technique. The analysis highlighted the presence of proteins and plant gums in the artwork samples, with differences in the composition for the different samples.
       
  • Characterization of Rembrandt self-portraits through digital-chiaroscuro
           statistics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): John Asmus, Vadim Parfenov In order to develop an analytical tool to aid connoisseurs in authentication of paintings we introduce a digital computational technique based on luminosity histograms of high-resolution digitized images of paintings. This exploratory approach emerged from the widely-held hypothesis that every individual artist (master, student, copier, or forger) will tend to have a personal hand/eye spatial “signature” in shading and contrast (e.g., chiaroscuro and sfumato) that may be revealed and quantified by means of histogram statistics. A preliminary database library is built of amplitude histogram data of the digital images of authenticated works by the Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn against which copies and forgeries then are compared. It illuminates the individual chiaroscuro or spatial-blending characteristics of the master-created paintings to be analyzed. We show preliminary results from our analyses of 36 self-portraits that at various times have been attributed to Rembrandt and were chosen by us as a consequence of the prodigious historical, scientific, and stylistic scrutiny that have focused on these works in recent decades. Our statistical results demonstrate probative conformity for paintings that have been established as authentic self-portraits by Rembrandt and reveal statistical differences when compared to copies and forgeries as well as paintings of the Rembrandt workshop.
       
  • Using Raman spectroscopy to estimate the dates of carbon-based inks from
           Ancient Egypt
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Sarah Goler, Alexis Hagadorn, David M. Ratzan, Roger Bagnall, Angela Cacciola, James McInerney, James T. Yardley In the first study of its kind, we previously investigated Raman spectra of 17 papyri from the Columbia University Libraries collection, written in carbon-based black ink with well-established dates between 400 BCE and 1000 CE. Using a simple two-peak spectral model for the Raman spectrum of carbonaceous materials, we discovered small but statistically significant systematic variations in the spectral parameters with manuscript date. The purposes of this report are to present: (1) more-powerful statistical examinations of the correlation based on the two-peak spectral model and on a new three-peak model which includes spectral effects for amorphous carbon; (2) new data for additional ancient manuscripts, broadening the investigation; (3) a method for potentially exploiting the observed correlation to predict the dates of undated manuscripts of similar character; and (4) a hypothesis as to the underlying chemical basis of the observed spectral changes. We apply both linear and multiple linear regression analyses to the spectral models. We show that the three-peak model fits the experimental data much better than the two-peak model. Through the use of multiple linear regression, the three-peak model reduces significantly the overall correlation error. We find that our ability to predict dates for manuscripts that are similar to those of the study over the date range 400 BCE to 1000 CE is limited by intrinsic variations in the character of the pigments to about ± 118 years with 68% statistical confidence (or ± 236 years with 95% confidence). We confirm the observed correlation and prediction capabilities through a blind study of six additional ancient manuscripts and two late 19th- or early 20th-century fakes in the Columbia University collection. The data suggest that chemical degradation of amorphous carbon and chemical modification of graphitic crystals may both contribute to the observed spectral differences. This would also account for the magnitude of the variance in spectral character we observe, which possibly reflects differences in pigment manufacture processes as well as the effects of differences in chemical micro-environments after writing. The chemical degradation hypothesis receives additional support from previously unreported examination of two manuscripts from the collection of the Brooklyn Museum. The older of these, dated through conventional papyrological methods to 2323-2150 BCE, deviates from the linear regression models, but in a way consistent with chemical (i.e., non-linear) degradation. For comparison, we report Raman scattering for 8 different modern inks using the same protocol we developed for the ancient inks. Using statistical techniques based on Gaussian Mixture Modeling, we demonstrate differences between the spectral character of the inks of our base study and those prepared from modern reference pigments. This allows us to define a mathematical quantity that can distinguish between spectra of pigments that are spectrally similar to the ancient pigments studied here and those that are not. This new and non-destructive method produces a statistically robust indication of the antiquity and rough period (e.g., Ptolemaic, Roman, etc.) of the inks in question, if not the precise date. We hypothesize that the potential for greater precision is likely limited by the intrinsic variations in the spectral characteristics of the inks from manuscript to manuscript.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • New insights into the fading problems of safflower red dyed textiles
           through a HPLC-PDA and colorimetric study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rosa Costantini, Ina Vanden Berghe, Francesca Caterina Izzo Safflower is well-known by textile conservators and restorers as the red dye source that produces a nice, though very delicate pink colour that is extremely light-sensitive. The fading due to light sensitivity can be seen in many historical silk fabrics from the most renowned museums and it is a major challenge for textile conservators. However, the fading is not only a result of light exposure, as fabrics stored for many years in dark museum storage also exhibit gradual decolouration. The aim of this study is to increase knowledge on the environmental parameters involved in the degradation processes of carthamin, the main red dye constituent of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The newly gained information will contribute to a more realistic perspective on the problems of fading of safflower-dyed textiles, possibly helping their conservation. To evaluate the stability of safflower red, specific ageing tests were carried out on new silk samples, dyed with safflower through modern recipes deriving from traditional ones. For the artificial ageing, the effects of simulated sunlight, temperature, humidity and ozone were separately investigated through HPLC-PDA analysis and colorimetric examinations. The results confirmed that safflower red degrades most rapidly under light exposure. They also revealed an important instability of the carthamin dye constituent in a dark environment, especially when subjected to high humidity conditions. Moreover, the HPLC-PDA study was able to provide new insight into the different markers (e.g. Ct components) that are commonly revealed in historic objects dyed with safflower red, but that still have unclarified origins.
       
  • Adoption and use of emerging cultural technologies in China's museums
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Eugene Ch’ng, Shengdan Cai, Fui-Theng Leow, Tong Evelyn Zhang Our article maps the well-being of the adoption and use of digital technologies in museums in China. Digital technologies used here are termed ‘cultural technology’ in top-level national policies for the creative cultural industry, with culture and heritage at the core of all such activities. Our investigation aims to understand the present state of adoption and use of cultural technologies with the goal of identifying limitations so as to provide a roadmap for the informed design and development of museum-based digital exhibits that are appropriate for visitors. Whilst our study is focused on China's museums, our evaluation model and lessons learned can be used as comparative studies for museums globally. This highlights the novelty of our article, for the scale of which we carried out our evaluation has never been conducted before. We travelled 22 sites over 15 cities and collected over 800 samples of data. We evaluated 36 digital systems used by over 800 visitors and observed how users interacted and engaged with the systems with a record of 21 variables related to the length of interaction, engagement, quality of contents and types of systems, age groups, sexes, and the number of participants and whether they were individuals or in groups. Our investigation revealed important findings in both digital systems and visitor engagement.
       
  • Deacidification of aged papers using dispersion of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles
           in subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jiajia Weng, Xiaogang Zhang, Minghao Jia, Jie Zhang An effective and integrated method for deacidification has become an urgent issue in the conversation of paper-based materials with natural aging of books, archives and paper relics. In this research, an efficiency of innovative method for paper deacidification using subcritical R134a combined with pre-synthetic Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles was evaluated by pH, alkaline reserve, colorimetry and tensile strength. The physicochemical properties of the deacidifying agents and paper samples before and after deacidification were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. Compared with traditional spraying method for Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the subcritical R134a deacidification system (due to its good solvent diffusivity and compatibility) had an obvious advantage in evaluations for all the paper samples. The innovative deacidification was expected to realize the integration of cleaning and deacidification in one working procedure.
       
  • Semantic-based 3D information modelling and documentation of rockeries in
           Chinese classical gardens: A case study on the rockery at Huanxiu
           Shanzhuang, Suzhou, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Huilin Liang, Weizheng Li, Qingping Zhang Rockery, or Jia Shan, representing a high level of artistic achievement and aiming to show Chinese landscapes and culture, is an essential part of Chinese classical gardens. Taking the rockery in the backyard of Huanxiu Shanzhuang as an example, this study undertook digital measurements and 3D reality-based modelling, carried out semantic-based analysis and modelling, and built a 3D information system. The digital survey applied the integrated techniques of terrestrial digital photogrammetry and laser scanning. Once the integrated 3D digital data had been obtained, the rockery was systematically and clearly analyzed for its structure on the base of its relationship with mountains in nature. By obtaining the hierarchical and spatial relationships between rockery components, the rockery and its components were semantically named and modelled. According to the rockery analysis results, the 3D reality-based models were segmented into numbers of rockery components, and a 3D information system was built on the basis of a 3D geographic information systems (3D GIS). Through these methods, all the data and information obtained from the rockery on the study site were documented, stored, managed, and visualized. This research showed that rockeries in Chinese classical gardens and cultural heritage sites with similar characteristics can be digitally, informationally, and systematically documented, studied, and preserved.
       
  • Computer simulation of archaeological drawings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jingwen Zhang, Ziqi Liu, Shiguang Liu Archaeologists usually produce archaeological drawings through complicated steps including painting with hands, scanning and redrawing, etc. We aim at simplifying the process of traditional archaeological drawings by automatically generating line drawings, helping archaeologists produce ideal archaeological drawings flexibly and conveniently. However, traditional methods for generating line drawings cannot be directly used for archaeological drawings because of special purposes in drawings. So, we take into account the characteristics of archaeological drawings and put forward an effective method for generating line drawings especially for archaeological drawings. In this way, archaeologists can get ideal line drawings by taking photos of implements, processing them with this method automatically and modifying line drawings flexibly. Specifically, we first smooth the input pictures, based on which we extract lines that meet the rules of archaeological drawings by edge tracking. Then we determine the location of central axis and generate curves of lines to get line drawings. Finally, we integrate the above techniques and build an archaeological drawing system with friendly interface. Various experimental results and evaluations verify that our method and the archaeological drawings system are effective.
       
  • Study of the degradation of beeswax taken from a real artefact
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Katarína Čížová, Katarína Vizárová, Aleš Ház, Anna Vykydalová, Zuzana Cibulková, Peter Šimon This study is devoted to the statue of St. Ursula from the depositary to the Slovak National Museum–Červený Kameň Castle. It is a heavily damaged, slightly under life-size seated female statue from the 2nd half of 19th century. The artefact is very heterogeneous and degraded. The wax parts have been examined with the aim of detecting and quantifying degradation products using FTIR spectroscopy, Py - GC/MS analysis and DSC measurement. The results obtained were compared with the degradation studies from available literary sources. The most important achievement is that the results support the theory of sublimation of n-alkanes from beeswax during ageing. The degradation mechanisms taking part during ageing are hydrolysis and oxidation. The suggested methods of accelerated ageing could be a suitable simulation of natural ageing. The experimental methods employed are complementary and enable to follow the progress of beeswax degradation.
       
  • A method to obtain precise determinations of relative humidity using thin
           film capacitive sensors under normal or extreme humidity conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Camuffo Dario Dampness is one of the worst, and most common problems found in heritage buildings and sites. However, despite its relevance, sensors do not operate satisfactorily in extremely humid environments. The paper analyses the performance of heated capacitive sensors conceived to operate at ambient temperature (T) and very high relative humidity (RH) after having been demisted with short heating. Even if they show better performances than traditional, unheated sensors, they operate at the limit of their range, with severe limitations affecting their time response and accuracy, reducing but not excluding false readings. A method is proposed to combine temperature and relative humidity sensors, and warm-up them in order to reach the best performance interval of the RH sensor, and take measurements in such conditions, i.e. at higher temperature and lower relative humidity. From the combined temperature and relative humidity readings it is possible to calculate the dew point that is invariant to temperature changes. Combining the dew point with an additional measurement of the actual air temperature, it is possible to calculate the actual relative humidity. The use of this method is not necessarily limited to taking more accurate relative humidity readings under extreme dampness, but it may be also applied to improve the quality of readings with sensors that operate in their best performance interval. The same strategy can be used in too dry environments with cooling to raise relative humidity and bring the sensor into the best performance interval.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A comparison of standard and realistic curing conditions of natural
           hydraulic lime repointing mortar for damp masonry: Impact on laboratory
           evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Lucie Fusade, Heather A. Viles Environmental conditions can affect the curing and performance of lime mortars. Especially in the case of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) mortars to be used for repointing in exposed conditions, it is essential to assess what if any differences these environmental conditions would make to mortar properties through laboratory evaluations before repointing work begins. This study considers a specific historic environment: traditional masonry exposed to high humidity and rainfall, with a particular focus on Devon. Realistic curing conditions (as likely found on-site) of 15 °C, 85% RH, representing an average of summer climate in Devon were compared with standard recommended laboratory conditions of 20 °C, 65% RH. A range of mixes, representing some conservation pointing mortars, was prepared using NHL 2 (St Astier), quartz sand, and crushed Portland limestone in 1:3 and 1:2 binder to aggregate ratios. The influence of curing conditions on carbonation depth, strength development, internal textural structure, pore structure and water uptake at 28 and 90 days is discussed (called here early and medium ages) and the response of NHL mortars to this humid environment during evaporation and salt crystallisation have been assessed. Results show that significant differences are found in laboratory evaluations of mechanical properties of the same NHL mortar exposed to different curing conditions especially at an early age and for mortar made with quartz sand. Laboratory evaluation should be made on samples cured under realistic conditions if information on the early to medium-term (up to 90 days) characteristics of NHL mortar is required. Overall, realistic humid curing conditions help NHL mortars gain good internal structure more quickly, minimising the risk of early failure of pointing mortar exposed in a harsh humid environment.
       
  • A multi-scalar approach for assessing the impact of dams on the cultural
           heritage in the Middle East and North Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Nicolò Marchetti, Antonio Curci, Maria Carmela Gatto, Serena Nicolini, Simone Mühl, Federico Zaina This paper provides a detailed assessment on the impact of dams on archaeological sites in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and emphasizes the lack of established protocols for documenting and preserving cultural heritage at the local, national and international level.We considered four case studies at different scales – Turkey, the Euphrates river, the two Aswan dams and the planned Makhul dam – in order to identify different issues related to the construction of dams as well as to propose some best practices for pre-flooding assessment of dam impact on cultural heritage. Our method integrates archaeological and geo-spatial open-access datasets, organized in a GIS environment made available through the online platform http://www.orientlab.net/orientdams/ in order to foster data sharing and research replicability.We have mapped almost 2500 flooded archaeological sites and approximately 1300 km of ancient rivers submerged by dam reservoirs in the selected case studies across the MENA area. These numbers are actually incomplete, since large portions of the reservoir areas have not been systematically investigated.We conclude by underlining the urgent need for strategies for the documentation and protection of archaeological sites and monuments in the planning of hydraulic infrastructures at the international, national and local levels, as well as the need for a general operative protocol. Funders of development works, first and foremost the World Bank, should review their current policies, which do not offer sufficient protection of cultural heritage.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Cuban Cultural Heritage: A Rebel Past for a Revolutionary Nation, Pablo
           Alonso González, University of Florida, Gainesville (2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Joseph R. Hartman
       
  • Effective Raman spectra identification with tree-based methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Vasileios Sevetlidis, George Pavlidis Treatment of spectral information is an essential tool for the examination of various cultural heritage materials. Raman spectroscopy has become an everyday practice for compound identification due to its non-intrusive nature, but often it can be a complex operation. Spectral identification and analysis on artists’ materials is being done with the aid of already existing spectral databases and spectrum matching algorithms. We demonstrate that with a machine learning method called Extremely Randomised Trees, we can learn a model in a supervised learning fashion, able to accurately match an entire-spectrum range into its respective mineral. Our approach was tested and was found to outperform the state-of-the-art methods on the corrected RRUFF dataset, while maintaining low computational complexity and inherently supporting parallelisation.
       
  • The Origin of overglaze-blue enameling in Japan: New discoveries and a
           reassessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Riccardo Montanari, Nobuyuki Murakami, Maria Francesca Alberghina, Claudia Pelosi, Salvatore Schiavone The production of overglaze-blue decorated porcelains in Japan has traditionally been associated with Chinese technology, but the puzzling issue of the early firing of a striking overglaze-blue enamel has remained unresolved for almost a century. This work presents the first systematic scientific study of shards excavated at kiln sites in Arita, the center of porcelain production in Japan. The study was carried out in an attempt to resolve the issue of the origin of overglaze-blue enameling on early polychrome Imari wares (Shoki Iro-e) which started around 1640, way before the same technology spread in Jingdezhen in the late Kangxi period (1700). In particular shards excavated at the Yanbeta kiln site, where it has recently been discovered that polychrome overglaze decoration started, and shards from other early kilns were analyzed for the first time. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) was used to identify the chemical composition of the coloring agents present in the overglaze-blue enamels in order to determine their geographical area of origin. Experimental results provide groundbreaking information regarding the materials and technologies used in the different kilns, and show how the earliest attempts at firing overglaze-blue enamels in Arita involved the use of imported cobalt ores. For the first time, it has been scientifically proved that the successful use of an overglaze-blue decoration was a precise effect Japanese potters aimed at achieving by means of selected materials and technologies obtained from Europe, thus resolving the issues that emerged from the traditional approach of a Chinese origin for all technologies. Furthermore, comparisons between scientific analysis of late-16th and early-17th century Japanese paintings in Western style and the results presented in this work revealed that materials used for overglaze-enameling were also used for pigments employed in traditional paintings. Technologies from distant geographical areas proved crucial in pre-modern Japan.
       
  • Daraki-Chattan rock art constrained OSL chronology and multianalytical
           techniques: A first pilot investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Ioannis Liritzis, Robert Bednarik, Giriraj Kumar, George Polymeris, Ioannis Iliopoulos, Vayia Xanthopoulou, Nikos Zacharias, Asimina Vafiadou, Maria Bratitsi The cave of Daraki-Chattan (in Rewa river, India) bears important palaeolithic rock art (petroglyphs), while the environs is exceptionally rich in stone tools, mostly of the Acheulian. The field survey and excavations in the area found cupule panel fragments almost down to bedrock; Acheulian industry to Oldowan-like industry including several hammerstones. Early work demonstrated that at least some of the petroglyphs were of the earliest documented occupation of the region. Exfoliated pieces and boulders from the rock surface were found in the sediments, some bearing cupules and grooves. Here a detailed methodological procedure is enacted consisting of luminescence dating reinforced by mineralogical issues, where the latter secures credibility of the former. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), of the luminescence versus depth profiles, following blue LED and Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) technique of quartz, was applied following the surface luminescence dating versions to date this fallen rock. The two dose profiles from the sandstone studies provided an average date for the fallen boulder in the 13th millennium, providing a constrained terminus post quem. Surface patina and intrusion of (Fe, Mn) aluminosilicate weathering solution was examined in both luminescence profiles, properly dealt with issues of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), X-Ray Florescence-Energy Dispersive mode (XRF/ED), Cathodoluminescence, stereomicroscope, thin sections optical microscopy (OM) and microdosimetry. Analytical petrographic results aided interpretation of luminescence data obtained.From the above rationale the two ages obtained from the two profiles can be considered close within errors, that coincide with the drastic change from last glaciation transition to the milder climate of the Holocene and the sudden end of colder Younger Dryas in ∼13th Ka BP, having an impact on the weathering, erosion and exfoliation of rock surfaces caused by the significant temperature change and the resulted thermal differential expansion of rocks (onset of the Holocene).
       
  • Review of environmental and air pollution impacts on built heritage: 10
           questions on corrosion and soiling effects for urban intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Fábio Vidal, Romeu Vicente, J. Mendes Silva For many decades, countless studies have been performed regarding the effects of the environment on traditional building materials, presenting methods to mostly quantify phenomena such as the corrosion of metals, stone degradation and soiling. Driven by concerning levels of air pollution in the late 1980's, many large international programmes such as the ICP-Materials, MICAT and ISOCORRAG have been testing worldwide material behaviour when exposed to acidifying pollutants, causing corrosion of metals and stone recession. Numerous individual studies have also contributed to a higher understanding of pollution effects on materials, including soiling studies. The methodologies mostly consist of open exposure of standard samples, either for short, mid or long periods, followed by a statistical analysis of the results, in order to develop accurate prediction formulations used for mapping exercises and to determine areas at risk. Considering all the available information, the contribution of this work is to perform an extensive bibliographic review, organized in the form of 10 basic questions that attempt to present and describe the effects of pollution on materials and practical ways to determine risk areas at urban scales and implement well-supported pollution mitigation strategies. The answers to these questions always take into consideration a more practical approach towards the identification of potential risk and subsequent intervention. Additionally, a new methodology regarding the assessment of environmental effects on actual buildings is discussed for the preservation of historic city centres, through the identification of potentially vulnerable buildings regarding deterioration effects by atmospheric corrosion, soiling and stone degradation.
       
  • Digital stone rubbing from 3D models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rongjiang Pan, Zhongming Tang, Weijia Da Stone rubbing is a traditional method to record surface features of a stone on paper. It has a long history and is still used by Chinese archaeologists and artists up to now. However, stone rubbing can cause permanent damage to precious cultural heritage due to abrasion. We propose a new method to create digital stone rubbing from 3D digital models. We assume the surface of a stone is flat locally and fit a least-squares plane to each point's neighbors individually. To prevent the local plane from being fitted across sharp edges or corners of the model, we make use of the smoothed point normals in the selection of local surface region. The height of a point is defined as the signed distance between the point and its local approximation plane. The estimated height of each point is then mapped to its grey value by a nonlinear transformation function. Finally, we render the 3D model into a rubbing image using orthogonal projection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on real experimental dataset in archaeology.
       
  • Alkoxysilane-based sols for consolidation of carbonate stones: Impact of
           the carbonate medium in the sol-gel processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Bruno Sena da Fonseca, Maria João Ferreira, Maryna G. Taryba, Susana Piçarra, Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto, Maria de Fátima Montemor This investigation addresses the impact of the carbonate medium in the sol-gel processes of stone consolidants and the possible detrimental effects in practical applications. The results demonstrate that the carbonate medium influences the sol-gel paths and that silicate materials developed in the carbonate stone pores can be structurally different from those formed within “inert” conditions, as a consequence of the combined effect of pH and ionic interactions between Si-O− and Ca2+. The trend is that the formation of the silica films around stone grains (silica growth mechanism through typical condensation) evolves into less advantageous growth processes (Oswald ripening and/or coagulation), resulting in a material that is unlikely to consolidate carbonate stone. Furthermore, pH measurements and different ratios between NMR Q3:Q4 species along stone depth showed that this effect seems more important at greater depths.The results underline the importance of the carbonate medium in the failure of alkoxysilane-based treatments and, accordingly, that an efficient design and development of new alkoxysilane-based consolidants must consider this effect.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The special iron making in Southwest China around the 10th CE: Scientific
           evidence from an iron smelting site in Erhai lake area, Yunnan province
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Guisen Zou, Rui Min, Jianfeng Cui, Renjie Ma, Xueqi Zhou, Changcheng Yang This study analyzed metallurgical remains from the Fengweiqing iron smelting site at Wase Town, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwest China. Radiocarbon dating showed that the site was occupied approximately between 890 and 1025 CE, corresponding to the late Nanzhao Kingdom and the early Dali Kingdom. Analyses of slag and ore samples from the site revealed that bloomery iron smelting was performed at this site. Metallographic observation of the primary products and metal particles in the slag showed that they were mainly steel, making Fengweiqing the only archeological site currently known in China to produce steel directly through the bloomery process. This study adds new knowledge on iron metallurgy in ancient Yunnan, which is essential for investigating ancient iron production in this region and the technological and cultural exchange with surrounding areas during the Nanzhao Kingdom and early Dali Kingdom period.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Lime render, shrinkage cracks and craftsmanship in building restoration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jonny Eriksson, Jan Erik Lindqvist The present project concerns early shrinkage cracks in renders. This problem relates to the type of lime and rendering methods used in Sweden during the 19th and early 20th century as well as in current restoration practice. Results from different render restoration projects have indicated that a high frequency of shrinkage cracks could be related to the slaking procedure and the reworking of the slaked lime putty. The aim of the project was to investigate whether there is a connection between different handling procedures for wet-slaked lime putty and early shrinkage cracks in render. An investigation involving practical application and a laboratory test programme was initiated to examine the problem of early shrinkage cracks in renders based on wet-slaked sub-hydraulic lime. This type of lime was commonly used in Sweden in the 19th century. The laboratory work in the project included 3 different mix proportions based on reworked and non-reworked lime putty. The renders were applied after 1, 8, 15, 32 and 68 days storage of the lime putty. This gave 30 mortar mixes applied as rendered test surfaces. The flow number of the fresh mortars was determined and the workability, mixability and open time were assessed. The frequency of shrinkage cracks in the rendered surfaces was measured. The results showed that the frequency of shrinkage cracks was related to the methods applied in the slaking process and the storage time. Reworking and storage of the lime putty increased the frequency of shrinkage cracks. The properties of the fresh mortar were also influenced.
       
  • LED illumination-induced fading of traditional Korean pigments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Soomin Jo, Soo Ryeon Ryu, Wonhyeong Jang, Oh-Sun Kwon, Boa Rhee, Young Eun Lee, Dongmin Kim, Jungsik Kim, Kwanwoo Shin Light is an important factor in the conservation of museum collections because of its strong electromagnetic characteristic that can degrade artifacts. To investigate the effects of illumination on paintings, particularly in museums equipped with popular light emitting diode (LED) lamp systems, we investigated the fading process of traditional Korean pigments. We used four illumination conditions: a combination of high and low color rendering index (CRI) at two light temperatures of Tcold = 5600 K and Twarm = 3200 K. Among all samples tested, realgar, also known as Wunghwang in Korea, showed the most marked change in color. UV spectrometric analyses after 100 h of exposure at 11 000 and at 5500 lux showed high color differences exceeding the color change threshold under all illumination conditions. When the illumination intensity was reduced to 300 lux, Tcold lamps showed a faster fading process than Twarm lamps did, suggesting that appropriate illuminating conditions can reduce the adverse effects of museum lighting systems. A further experiment using narrow-band, single-color, LED lamps showed how specific wavelength bands could influence the fading of artifacts In particular, we newly confirmed that discoloration of Wunghwang could be induced by the illumination of green light, in addition to blue light generally known to induce discoloration. These results demonstrate that the fading of a specific pigment of the artifacts in museum collections can be minimized by tuning the intensities of the wavelengths of light emitted by the museums’ lighting systems.
       
  • Pigment palette study of the XIX century plafond painting by Raman
           spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Olga Petrova, Dmitrii Pankin, Anastasia Povolotckaia, Evgenii Borisov, Timur Krivul’ko, Nikolai Kurganov, Alexey Kurochkin Within the framework of the restoration painted plafond performed in the distemper technique at the first half of the 19th century were investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy, UV photography, optical microscopy. One hundred and fifty artistic composition fragments samples were studied from the different parts of plafond. The presence of the following basic pigments: emerald green, Scheele's green; ultramarine, indigo blue, azurites, vermilion, ferric oxide based pigments were observed. Lead white, calcite and gypsum were identified. It's ownership of the author's record is discussed. The places of pigments application in the author's layer of painting were localized, basic and auxiliary materials were identified.
       
  • Raman/XRF/EDX microanalysis of 2nd-century stuccoes from Domus
           Valeriorum
    in Rome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Salvatore Almaviva, Stefano Lecci, Adriana Puiu, Valeria Spizzichino, Roberta Fantoni, Mauro Falconieri, Serena Gagliardi, Massimo Chiari, Anna Mazzinghi, Chiara Ruberto, Giacomo Casaril, Giovanna Bandini, Simona Morretta 2nd-century stucco fragments from the roman Domus Valeriorum were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy (Raman), imaging X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in order to identify the pigments and materials thereon. Cinnabar, malachite, hematite, goethite and Egyptian blue were detected by the synergistic use of these techniques whereas calcite, with some traces of gypsum, was detected as materials for the bas-relief figures and the pictorial background. This non-destructive characterization is the first carried out on the Domus Valeriorum finds. The multi-analytical approach highlighted the complementarity and versatility of these techniques, suitable for both laboratory and in-situ analysis, on macroscopic or microscopic fragments without preliminary manipulation.
       
  • A procedure for identifying chemical and biological risks for books in
           historic libraries based on microclimate analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Eva Schito, Luisa Dias Pereira, Daniele Testi, Manuel Gameiro da Silva The study presents a new procedure for identifying possible risks for books kept in historic libraries. It is addressed to all those historic libraries where large collections of old and rare books are stored and preserved. These libraries were rarely used by people, but, nowadays, many of them have become touristic attractions. Consequently, their indoor microclimate may have changed, possibly leading to risks for books conservation. The proposed methodology is based on an intensive monitoring campaign, followed by an in-depth data analysis. Handy indices are also proposed to guide the researchers in the identification of possible risks. Problems related to too-high daily or spatial hygrothermal variations or problems related to specific risks (e.g., biological or chemical risks) can be identified. If a problem is observed, the identification of the most suitable solutions is more straightforward. The application of the proposed procedure to a real case study (the Baroque Library of the University of Coimbra, Portugal) has highlighted its handiness. A 6-month monitoring campaign and its consequent data analysis has pointed out potentially risky situations. Thus, measures should be taken to avoid books damage. Primarily, local actions are suggested.
       
  • Non-destructive analytical techniques for the evaluation of cleaning and
           protection processes on white marble surfaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Fábio Luiz Melquiades, Carlos Roberto Appoloni, Avacir Casanova Andrello, Eduardo Spagnuolo Stone conservation and protection is the focus of several researches, especially for historical buildings, monuments and artworks. The objective of this study is to verify the impact of a helical vortex cleaning process in the surface of white marble samples. Powder abrasive material was used in the cleaning process with posterior application of different nano-compound products like water-repellent, anti-graffiti coating and consolidant. The thickness of the damage layer, the porous size distribution and the surface composition were evaluated with non-destructive techniques: X-ray micro-tomography and X-ray Fluorescence. The results indicated that the marble damage layer ranged from 80 to 180 μm due to the cleaning process with garnet as abrasive material. The estimation of the average thickness of the dirt layer by X-ray attenuation was 16 μm. Marble surface porous size distribution indicates that porous links were still present in the surface after the treatment with each one of the nano-compund products and have kept it permeable to air. Silicon, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr were identified in the marble surface. Calcium and Sr are from the marble composition, Si from protective solutions applied and the other elements from the dirt layer.
       
  • Collaborative projects in cultural heritage conservation –
           management challenges and risks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Helena Hirsenberger, Jonjaua Ranogajec, Snezana Vucetic, Bojan Lalic, Danijela Gracanin The concept of cultural heritage has been increasingly enlarged over decades. Many professions are invited to work together in a holistic attempt to preserve inherited tangible and intangible assets. This complexity brings more challenges in organization of collaborative conservation works. Since 1960s project management approach has become prevalent way in which contemporary, non-routine tasks are organized, despite of the industry. A survey was conducted in order to examine how increased complexity of cross-disciplinary setting influences project management challenges and risks in heritage conservation. The findings of the survey outline that there is a number of challenges/risks associated with extremely cross-disciplinary setting of conservation projects, while the practice already provides some useful references how these can be managed and mitigated. This paper offers systematic overview of the most common challenges/risks, some good practice examples and guidelines observed among countries of former Yugoslavia region, which could be further investigated in a call for a tailored approach aimed to reduce project management risks in collaborative conservation projects.
       
  • An integrated approach to the study of heritage sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Denis Cutajar, Pierre-Sandre Farrugia, Alfred Micallef This work describes the integrated multidisciplinary approach taken in the study of the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were analysed and cross-compared to identify common trends. In the process, the environmental variables were treated as passive transport scalars in order to identify flow patterns. Subsequently, the measurements were used to set up a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the site. Comparisons between simulated results and measured data allowed not only the identification of the limits of the simulations but also revealed flow patterns that would be hard to recognise otherwise.
       
  • The influence of selected efficient compounds of essential oils for paper
           protection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Iveta Čabalová, Břetislav Češek, Ondřej Mikala, Jan Gojný, František Kačík, Tereza Tribulová The most common negative influences on lignocellulosic materials from biological point of view include invading of microorganisms, which have in humid environments of porous materials favourable conditions for growth and reproduction. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected compounds present in essential oils- EOs (linalyl acetate-LA and citral-C) and the accelerated ageing process on the chemical (cellulose degree of polymerization, content of saccharides), mechanical (tensile index) and physical (fibres length distribution) properties of papers. LA and C were evaluated as the compounds with the highest antimicrobial activity and therefore, they were applied into the paper mass in form of their vapours. Paper samples were prepared from five types of material. Chemical changes were evaluated by wet chemical methods, size exclusion chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, mechanical property according to ISO 1924-2 standard and morphological properties of fibres by using Fiber Tester equipment. In the view of followed properties, the protecting impact of these EOs efficient compounds has a greater importance in their application before the ageing process itself, especially at wood pulp papers and papers produced from sulphate deciduous pulp. The contents of both holocellulose and a cellulose degree of polymerization were significantly correlated with the tensile index of the paper.
       
  • Date-palm (Phoenix, Arecaceae) iconography in coins from the Mediterranean
           and West Asia (485 BC–1189 AD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Diego Rivera, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Emilio Laguna, Dennis Johnson Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) yields food, medicines, and materials for buildings and crafts in the Middle East, the Mediterranean and North Africa. There, date palms were represented on coins from 485 BC until 1189 AD. These palm-tree images furnish agricultural, botanical and geographical information on Phoenix. We aim to analyze the evolution over time of the diversity of these images and their relationship with climatic episodes favorable to their cultivation. We selected variables for analysis based on date-palm taxonomy, standardized descriptors and observation of the coins. Image types, realism and age, and relationships with climatic events were analyzed using multivariate techniques. Ten main palm-image types were recognized. Three geographically and chronologically differentiated periods are distinguished associated with favorable climate episodes. First, the western period of Carthage and Sicily (485–100 BC) with highly realistic date palm-tree images, followed by a bottleneck 100 BC–50 AD, a second period with lesser diversity of palm images (50–150 AD) centered in the eastern Mediterranean, and a third medieval period (430–1189 AD) with schematic images of palm trees. From a cultural viewpoint, our results are consistent with ancient texts for morphology, cultivation, management techniques, sterility and fertility, and tree longevity. Several image types from present-day Israel most likely represent specific ancient cultivars such as the “Caryotae”. Ancient coins offer valuable information, to better knowing characteristics of date palm trees and date-palm cultivation, from the first millennium BC to the beginning of second millennium AD. Western Mediterranean presents greatest diversity and realism related to different domestication events.Graphic abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Decision support criteria and the development of a decision support tool
           for the selection of conservation materials for the built cultural
           heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Janez Turk, Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Andrew Hursthouse, Robert Turner, John J. Hughes Significant criteria for choosing materials (consolidants and protective coatings) for the conservation of the built cultural heritage were gathered from the literature and by consultation with experts working on the preservation of cultural heritage. Ten criteria were chosen from these, and a questionnaire was prepared and sent to stakeholders in the cultural heritage conservation domain in order to evaluate, score and rank the importance of the proposed criteria. Based on the results obtained a decision support tool was developed, aimed at conservators and other stakeholders, to help them to make sustainable decisions with regard to the selection of conservation materials for treatment of the built cultural heritage. Performance characteristics and health and safety were identified to be the most important criteria. A preliminary decision can be made based on these two criteria, however, reversibility, minimum intervention and re-treatability are also of very high importance and additional information about these characteristics of the material are required to support decisions. Information about environmental performance, peer recommendation, the application techniques, the price and availability of the materials, which are also integrated in decision support tools, can help conservators and stakeholders to reach a final decision on interventions. The study also provides feedback for the manufacturers of conservation materials. For the users of material, it is very important that the manufacturers clearly identify key characteristics (i.e. criteria) on the product, including those related with environmental performance of the materials.
       
  • Estudios para la configuración de las facies cerámicas altoimperiales en
           el sur de la Península Ibérica.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Màrius Vendrell Saz
       
  • Professional SfM and TLS vs a simple SfM photogrammetry for 3D modelling
           of rock art and radiance scaling shading in engraving detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Simón Peña-Villasenín, Mariluz Gil-Docampo, Juan Ortiz-Sanz The geometric inventory and documentation of rock art present great challenges due to the high number of petroglyphs present in a territory, the distance between them, the state of abandonment of forest areas in many cases, limitations to access, and the geometric characteristics of such art. Structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry was positioned as an ideal technique for its documentation, but this technique has great variability in its methodology and cost. In this study, an extremely simple and effective method based on SfM photogrammetry with low cost cloud computing software is compared to the use of a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and professional SfM workflow to generate 3D models for documenting petroglyphs. The comparison is made on the 3D documentation of the Castriño de Conxo petroglyph in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and extrapolated to two practical experiments on other petroglyphs. The meshes are compared by analysing visual, geometrical and operational criteria and how they influence the radiance scaling shading. The results show that with a SfM photogrammetry methodology, which is extremely simple and accessible to everyone, it is possible to obtain better results in geometric and visual aspects than those obtained with TLS, and they are valid for a detailed analysis of this type of rock art in a massively social approach of documentation that is not possible through other approaches.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Thermal stress and damage risk in the stones of Al-Ziggurat in Al-Nimrud
           city, Iraq
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Asaad Al-Omari, Xavier Brunetaud, Kevin Beck, Muzahim Al-Mukhtar The aim of this paper is to assess the risk of climate-induced damage to stone through the calculation of thermal stresses. The stone studied is white limestone, the building stone of the walls of Al-Ziggurat in Al-Nimrud city, Iraq. In order to assess the effect of climate on stone behavior, we measured the stone surface temperature and the extreme values of air temperature (i.e. actual stone dataset). As these parameters were measured for short period, they were completed with weather data recorded from Mosul station for three years (i.e. weather dataset). The actual stone data were used to estimate the statistical difference between stone surface temperature and air temperature. The weather data were treated with respect to actual stone data in order to estimate the thermal stress for a statistically relevant duration. The mechanical properties required for stress calculation are the elastic modulus, the Poisson's ratio and the thermal expansion coefficient. A simple mechanical model was applied to estimate the stress generated by restrained thermal strain. Results show that the risk of damage to the stone exposed to climate fluctuations can be significant. The damage risk is higher to the stone in the south wall orientation than in the north one. The combined use of both datasets proved to be usefull, since the damage risk is significantly higher with the resulting estimation compared to the exclusive use of actual stone data.
       
  • The metallography and corrosion of an ancient chinese bimetallic bronze
           sword
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Wei Huang, Kockelmann Winfried, Godfrey Evelyne, A Scott David A bimetal bronze sword, unearthed from Hunan Province China, dating to the Warring States period (476–221BC) was examined analytically by optical metallography, neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the tin content of the blade is 16%, not higher as previously reported. The bimetallic bronze sword possesses a typical cast structure with annealing on the edge of spine. Distinct corrosion compounds pyromorphite was identified, with pseudomorphic malachite having replaced the original alpha phase. Redeposited copper and unusual phosphorus-containing corrosion products were analysed to investigate the mechanism of formation.
       
  • Similarity and provenance of underpainting chalk grounds based on their
           nannofossil assemblages cluster analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Mariusz Kędzierski, Mirosław P. Kruk The study concerns first analytical approach aiming to determine similarity and possible source market of chalk used as wooden icon underpainting grounds, on the basis of their quantified nannofossil assemblage compositions. The grounds were sampled, among others, from the oldest icons (14th–16th c.) in the collection of National Museum in Krakow. Forty-seven underpainting ground samples contain the Upper Cretaceous nannofossil taxa (eleven, barren in nannofossil, seem to embody gypsum/anhydrite underpainting layers). Forty-five of them yielded the Upper Campanian—Upper Maastrichtian assemblages and the next two, Turonian—Coniacian. The latter may represent Central Russia trade market source regards also on the manner of icon paintings. Three of forty-five of the Campanian—Maastrichtians samples provided the Tethyan nannofossil assemblages and may derive from the southern Carpathians and/or Balkans. The rest, i.e. forty-two samples provide the Boreal assemblages, dominated by Micula decussata, Arkhangelskiella spp. and Prediscosphaera spp. The analytical part of study involving cluster analysis of the distinguished nannofossil assemblages evidenced separation of the Turonian—Coniacian and Tethyan assemblages from the Boreal ones, in different clusters. Furthermore, this analysis also shows the strong affinities between assemblages of Boreal origin. The next cluster analysis combined the icon chalk ground nannofossil assemblages and those from rock samples outcropped nearby the City of Chełm (Lublin Upland, E Poland). That analysis reveals the close relationship of assemblages coming from the Chełm's samples with those found in the icon chalk grounds containing the Campanian—Maastrichtian nannofossil assemblages of the Boreal origin.
       
  • Underwater photogrammetric monitoring techniques for mid-depth shipwrecks
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Enrique Aragón, Sebastia Munar, Javier Rodríguez, Kotaro Yamafune Over the last few years there have been advances in technical diving, which have made it more accessible (including financially), making it possible to dive to greater depths and, consequently, reach underwater archaeological sites in deeper waters, which were previously considered “untouchable”. As these sites are now at potential risk of anthropic interference, new approaches to monitoring techniques are therefore considered necessary to ensure the protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage. This paper presents a protocol for monitoring techniques to be applied to ‘mid-depth archaeological remains’. The proposed technique is based on a combination of low-cost photogrammetric methods. Using as a case study a Roman era shipwreck from Majorca, off the east coast of Spain, this paper presents an ideal protocol for the essential first stages in protecting and managing the archaeological record of an underwater site at medium depth. The process gives immediate results, using photogrammetric and orthophoto coverage of the site to build up a highly accurate site map, as well as recording high-definition images in order to create a computer model of the site.
       
  • Using in situ gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) exploration of buried
           archaeological structures: A case study from NW Spain
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez, Carlos Arce Chamorro, Carlos Alves, Jose Carlos Sánchez-Pardo, Rebeca Blanco-Rotea, Jose Manuel Costa-García Geophysical exploration methods allow the detection of archaeological features before any excavation is carried out on these sites. This is due to the contrast of properties between the buried archaeological structures and objects and the surrounding soil, sediment, or rock. Although Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) is [widely] used for geological exploration and mapping, it has been scarcely used in archaeology so far, despite the successful results of previous studies on the matter. In situ GRS is a non-destructive method that allows direct assessment of uranium-238 (238U) and thorium-232 (232Th) from daughter radionuclides of their decay chains, as well as potassium-40 (40K), on soils and rock outcrops. The technique documents the concentration of these isotope concentrations in the topsoil by surface measurements and this enhances its potential for archaeological exploration. However, two assumptions must be made: the archaeological objects must contain a different concentration of radionuclides than the surrounding sediment or soil, and they must be buried in the terrain less than 25–30 cm deep. In this work, we present the results of the use of in situ GRS for the study of a buried structure in the archaeological site of Cidadela (Galicia, NW Spain). Firstly, we have tested in situ spot GRS measurements to detect rock-built structures buried in the sediments; secondly, we have excavated the surveyed area. The results are reliable despite the low radioactive content of the rocks used as building materials, given that the burying and sediments also have low amounts of radioactive isotopes. Although the direct use of the estimates of K, U and Th has not proved successful, the use of U/Th, Th/K and U/K ratios provided reliable results.
       
  • Alkyl carbonate solvents confined in poly (ethyl methacrylate) organogels
           for the removal of pressure sensitive tapes (PSTs) from contemporary
           drawings
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Pamela Ferrari, David Chelazzi, Nicole Bonelli, Antonio Mirabile, Rodorico Giorgi, Piero Baglioni The removal of aged pressure sensitive tapes (PSTs) from contemporary drawings is a frequent and challenging task for paper conservators: in this work, an innovative method to overcome this issue is presented. Aged PSTs are largely found on paper artworks due to their use for mending, mounting and framing operations. Nevertheless, they may provoke several drawbacks on artworks (e.g. media bleeding and adhesive mass migration): the necessity of their removal promoted the development of several methodologies, but they all pose risks to both artefacts and conservation professionals. We propose a method involving polymeric gels able to load a “green” solvent, pertaining to the class of alkyl carbonates, which efficiently interacts with PSTs components; the embedment of the solvent into the gel network allows a feasible and effective intervention where the gel is directly applied on the top surface of the PST: the solvent gradually penetrates through the plastic layer of the PST (as proved by laser scanning confocal microscopy measures), swelling the underlying adhesive. In this way, the solvent-artwork contact is controlled. In order to optimize the processing costs and final properties of the gels, three formulations of poly (ethyl methacrylate)-diethyl carbonate (PEMA-DEC) organogels were synthesized, using different diluents and additives. A thorough physicochemical investigation of the systems was performed by means of rheology, gravimetric analysis, thermogravimetry, and IR Spectroscopy. After assessment on representative mock-up samples, the developed systems were successfully used for the removal of six aged PSTs from a drawing on paper by Keith Haring.
       
  • Nanostructured fluids for the removal of graffiti – A survey on 17
           commercial spray-can paints
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Michele Baglioni, Giovanna Poggi, Yareli Jaidar Benavides, Fernanda Martínez Camacho, Rodorico Giorgi, Piero Baglioni Graffiti removal from monuments, such as statues or architecture, is becoming a priority for conservators and restorers. This operation is further complicated when the vandalism is carried out on surfaces that should be preserved, as in the case of writings or tags on historical wall paintings, or even on modern or contemporary pieces of street art. Several methods exist for graffiti removal, which include chemical, physical or biological approaches. However, traditional methodologies, such as the use of neat organic solvents, are often unsuitable. Moreover, due to the great variability of brands and formulation of commercial paints, a thorough study of materials used for graffiti and a deep knowledge of their behavior when exposed to cleaning media is currently lacking. In this contribution, we report a systematic laboratory survey on 17 different spray-can paints available on the market and commonly used for graffiti and vandalism in the Mexican area. These paints were analyzed by means of ATR FT–IR spectroscopy to characterize their composition. Several solvents, having different nature and polarity, were then used to remove the paints from glass slides. On the basis of these results, two different amphiphile-based nanostructured fluids, which present several advantages with respect to traditional cleaning methodologies, were formulated and tested on the same paint samples. Finally, the two nanostructured cleaning systems were used for the removal of vandalistic graffiti from stones decorated with red pre-Hispanic paintings in the archeological site of Ba’ Cuana, Asunciòn Ixtalpetec, Oaxaca, Mexico.
       
  • Long-term effectiveness, under a coastal environment, of a novel
           conservation nanomaterial applied on sandstone from a Roman archaeological
           site
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Farid Elhaddad, Luis A.M. Carrascosa, Maria J. Mosquera Water is the main factor of degradation in most stone monuments and buildings, and especially in those located next to the sea, since it acts as a vehicle for decay agents. The continuous exposure of the Baelo Claudia Roman archaeological site to marine aerosol has produced severe weathering. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a novel consolidant/hydrophobic nanomaterial applied on sandstones from this archaeological site. The product durability was evaluated for three years of exposure at the archaeological site. For comparison, two commercial products (a consolidant and a hydrophobic product) were also evaluated. The obtained results showed that the product synthesised in our laboratory maintained the consolidant and hydrophobic properties, after three years of exposure, due to the production of a homogeneous coating with a penetration depth of 20 mm. The commercial consolidant was completely cracked and the hydrophobic product generated a superficial coating without penetration into the pores of the sandstone, which promoted a reduction in durability in both cases.
       
  • Deterioration caused by dimensional change in stone (EBD pathology): the
           role of the organic matter — pore network — salt combination
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Josep Gisbert Aguilar, Oscar Buj Fandos, Blanca Bauluz Lázaro, Fausto Peddis, Francesco Cuccuru We have studied a pathology produced by dimensional changes in Miocene lacustrine limestones of the Ebro basin with very low clay content (Briviesca and Tudela stone). The samples studied come from stone blocks of the Cathedrals of Burgos and Tudela and their respective original quarries. Three additional rocks that present a pattern of similar deterioration are also characterised. The pathology, known as “Expansion by Drying (EBD)”, looks like a mechanical fracture and is produced by important dimensional changes of the material. We have carried out a detailed study of the rocks with Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) and establish four different porous systems in the materials studied. A relationship is found between the type of porous system and the presence of the pathology. In order to develop, EBD pathology needs a porosimetry like the one defined for group IV. On the other hand, oxidation of the organic matter present in the rock (proven by aging the rock with ozone) changes the porosimetry of group IV rocks, converting them into a porous network of group III. These facts explain why EBD pathology develops in oxidized rocks of historical buildings and not in fresh quarry rocks. In addition, we characterise dimensional changes of the rock by the intrusion of liquid water (conventional hydric expansion) and water vapour adsorption. These data have been relevant to understand the mechanisms of the dimensional change in the rocks studied.
       
  • A study on the state of conservation of the Roman Necropolis of Carmona
           (Sevilla, Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Sergio Sanchez-Moral, Juan Carlos Cañaveras, David Benavente, Angel Fernandez-Cortes, Soledad Cuezva, Javier Elez, Valme Jurado, Miguel Angel Rogerio-Candelera, Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez The Roman Necropolis of Carmona (Sevilla, Spain) has experienced a severe deterioration since the accidental discovery in 1868 and subsequent archaeological excavations starting in 1882. To this deterioration contributed the location in a soft calcarenite rock quarry, the adverse environmental conditions and the numerous and extensive wrong archaeological and managing interventions along more than a century. The cultural, artistic and religious importance of this Necropolis converts the protection and conservation of this archaeological site in a major issue. This work present the data obtained in a multidisciplinary research were geology, geomorphology, micro-environmental and climatic monitoring, rock petrophysical characterization, description of weathering forms and biological colonization were considered in order to propose corrective measures to minimize deterioration.
       
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Maria J. Mosquera, Patrizia Tomasin
       
  • The conservation of stained-glass windows in Latin America: A literature
           overview
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Amanda M. Corrêa Pinto, Maria Filomena Macedo, Márcia G. Vilarigues This work brings the first inventory of existing literature on stained-glass windows from Latin America. Literature dating from 1989 to 2018 was compiled and analysed in order to summarise the current knowledge and to facilitate a better understanding of the subject. From the 22 Latin America countries, it was noticed that the majority of the studies came from Brazil, followed by Argentina and Mexico. A total of 68 studies related to stained-glass windows were analyzed and from these several works were related to the panels’ general studies (70%), while a few focused on their conservation and restoration (30%). In order to clarify this work, data concerning general studies of stained glass was classified in five typologies: artistic; documental; economic; historic and iconographic. Moreover, data regarding conservation studies of stained glass windows was divided in four typologies: intervention report, material characterization, state of conservation and methodology. Within conservation studies, both state of conservation and intervention reports are the predominant categories, with only 8 works. A synthesis of the main identified damages and restoration treatments made on stained glass window was done in order to access the knowledge gaps regarding protective measures. Finally, only few studies present an environmental approach. Therefore, further research should have this under consideration.
       
  • Design and evaluation of concrete for restoration interventions on
           Byzantine monuments
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Eleni Aggelakopoulou, Asterios Bakolas, Antonia Moropoulou The aim of this research is to design and produce concrete for the restoration of Byzantine monuments. Mixes with different binders, pozzolanic additions and aggregates were produced. The chemical (hydraulic products, consumption of Ca[OH]2), the physical characteristics (apparent density, porosity accessible to water through capillaries and capillary rise coefficient), the compressive and flexural strength, the static and dynamic modulus of elasticity were evaluated. From the obtained results, it is drawn that a light-weight concrete with low value of elasticity modulus was produced by mixing hydrated lime, artificial pozzolan (2.5% p.w.), ceramic fragments and sand. The chemical and the physico-mechanical characteristics of this concrete fit with the ones of the authentic concrete, ensuring the compatibility to building materials.
       
  • Integrating spatial and spectral information for enhancing spatial
           features in the Gough map of Great Britain
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Leidy Dorado-Munoz, David W. Messinger, Damien Bove The Gough map has been recognized as the earliest surviving map of Great Britain. The map, dated to late 14th or early 15th century, depicts many and sophisticated cartographical local details, which was unusual in European medieval maps. Moreover, the rewriting and re-inking of some names or areas could indicate the map was re-touched after its original production. The Gough map, today with restricted access and in a conservation environment, was displayed for some time at the Bodleian Library in Oxford, where it was frequently in contact with scholars. Despite this familiarization, the Gough map has not been widely researched and inquiries about the original purpose of the map or the context in which it was made remain unknown. Recent interest in the map has lead to the use of new technologies to image the map and produce sophisticated data that allows scholars and scientists to examine it taking advantage of the new information. In this paper, a technique for Pan-sharpening hyperspectral images (HSI) is introduced to the cultural heritage community. The Pan-sharpening process is applied specifically to HSI images of the Gough map of Great Britain with the purpose of using relatively low spatial resolution hyperspectral analysis techniques on its very fine features. The Pan-sharpening technique is based on Nearest-neighbor diffusion (NNDiffuse) and the spatial enhancing is aimed at faded features such as handwriting and some distinctive details that are only visible in high-resolution conservation photographs. It is shown here that the use of the NNDiffuse Pan-sharpening improves spatial features in HSI of historical artifacts without impacting the spectral fidelity, and that the findings in the analysis of these features could contribute to the understanding of the Gough map and its importance in the historical context of Great Britain.
       
  • The aesthetics of the Bayreuth Festspielhaus explained by means of
           acoustic measurements and simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Dario D’Orazio, Simona De Cesaris, Federica Morandi, Massimo Garai The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (BF) is unique; the theatre was conceived by Richard Wagner to host the complex of Ring and it was opened in 1876. After this date, the BF played a key role in the development of the modern opera house and no other opera house is so discussed among non acousticians for its acoustics. Some solutions applied for the first time in this theatre influenced later opera houses: the position of all seats within the line of sight of the stage, the dimming of the lights during representations, the double proscenium arch and–the most relevant one–the use of a deep orchestra pit (mystic gulf). However, in spite of the worldwide fame of the BF, the values assumed by the main room acoustics criteria in this hall have been reported and analysed in few works. The aim of the present work is to analyse the key role played by BF in the history of the opera basing on acoustic measurements and then propose tools for an immersive virtual experience of this space. All the main acoustic room criteria have been extracted and commented taking into account the peculiarity of the Wagnerian opera. Measured criteria have been related to the subjective impressions reported in the non technical literature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the theatre has been created. The model was calibrated by using the measured room criteria, following state-of-the-art techniques. A whole orchestra (105 musicians) plus singers (3 singers and a choir of 10 persons) was simulated on a computer. The present and the original acoustics of the hall were recreated by rendering binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) for three listener positions in the audience. These tools allow to experience the Wagner's idea of a “new opera” from a perceptual point of view. The CAD model and the simulated BRIRs of the BF are freely available for academic uses.
       
  • Cultural heritage digitization and related intellectual property issues
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Vladia Borissova The role of cultural heritage for defining the national identity, sustainable development and compatibility of the creative industries is indisputable. In view of the new digital possibilities in preservation, safeguarding and popularization of the cultural heritage, the intellectual property-related issues raise serious challenges. These circumstances call for large-scale strategic planning on cultural policy including the protection of cultural heritage as intellectual property; its digitization as means for its commercial use and its recognition as creative industries’ business asset. The study researched the economic symbiosis between cultural heritage and intellectual property, it reveals the economic characteristics of cultural values and the suitability of the intellectual property system to provide them protection, and it identifies the right's holder of the intellectual property over the digitized cultural values and creates a step by step guidance for intellectual property management via digitization process.
       
  • Virtual restoration of stains on ancient paintings with maximum noise
           fraction transformation based on the hyperspectral imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Miaole Hou, Pingping Zhou, Shuqiang Lv, Yungang Hu, Xuesheng Zhao, Wangting Wu, Haiping He, Songnian Li, Li Tan Ancient paintings, as one of the most important forms of artistic expression of Chinese traditional culture, are the most valuable and non-renewable treasure of human civilization. However, unfortunate situations occur, causing stains on paintings. Stains disfigure their artistry and values, and it is desirable to remove them. Traditional removal methods using physical means or chemicals may damage the original paintings. Recent virtual restoration effort may cause inconsistent content when applied to larger regions. This paper proposes a new virtual restoration method of stains based on the maximum noise fraction (MNF) transformation with the hyperspectral imaging. The method has two steps. Firstly, it carries out the forward MNF transformation to concentrate the main features of ancient paintings into the several top principal components. Secondly, it determines the principal component that contains the large spectral information of stains, and applies the inverse MNF transformation to several top components except for the chosen components to reduce the stain effect on the image and restore the original spectral information and color as much as possible. This paper selects a paper painting of the Qing Dynasty as the experiment data, and the results show that the method has the effect of diluting or eliminating image spots, and can restore the style of ancient paintings to a large extent without causing a large loss of data information.
       
  • A multi-level and multi-sensor documentation approach of the Treblinka
           extermination and labor camps
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Dante Abate, Caroline Sturdy-Colls At Treblinka extermination camp, almost one million of people were killed during the Holocaust. A further 10,000 people are estimated to have been murdered at the nearby labor camp. Since 2007, the Centre of Archaeology of Staffordshire University (UK) has been involved in the study and research of the evidence of these atrocities in order to demonstrate how an archaeological approach to Treblinka has, and will continue to, enhance contemporary discussions about the camps and provide a richer, more accurate record of events. This study focuses on the use of digital 3D technologies and web visualization tools for the analysis of the sites, providing a digital interactive platform, which can be used both by professional users and a public audience. It proposes a pyramidal multi-level and multi-sensor approach – providing a 3D resolution spanning from a few centimetres in the landscape Digital Terrain Model to few millimetres in the layer-by-layer archaeological test trench.
       
  • Documenting carved stones by 3D modelling – Example of
           Mongolian deer stones
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Fabrice Monna, Yury Esin, Jérome Magail, Ludovic Granjon, Nicolas Navarro, Josef Wilczek, Laure Saligny, Sébastien Couette, Anthony Dumontet, Carmela Chateau Rock art studies are facing major technical challenges for extensive documentation. Nowadays, recording is essentially obtained from time-consuming tracing and rubbing, techniques that also require a high level of expertise. Recent advances in 3D modelling of natural objects and computational treatment of the modelled surfaces may provide an alternative, and reduce the current documentation bottleneck. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which such treatments can be applied. The case study presented here concerns the famous deer stones erected by ancient Mongolian nomad populations. The 3D acquisition workflow is based on structure-from-motion, a versatile photogrammetric technique, well adapted to various field conditions. From the 3D geometry of objects of interest, elevation raster maps are produced by projection on four sides of the stela. These digital elevation models are then tested using algorithms based on differential geometry, sky visibility and local morphology, the general principles of which are briefly exposed. All these approaches may be appropriate with essentially planar surfaces. However, in the case of irregular carved surfaces, such as those of deer stones, the most efficient algorithm appears to be positive openness. In favourable cases, the incisions can be automatically delineated, facilitating the final drawing. Results obtained at the end of the process are comparable to the best drawings available in the literature, and can also include archaeological information about rock surface conditions. The procedure considerably accelerates the workflow in comparison with traditional techniques, reduces the level of expertise required, and provides 3D models, which can easily be shared, or further analysed by morphometric methods, for instance.
       
  • An AHP-based method for choosing the best 3D scanner for cultural heritage
           applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Luca Di Angelo, Paolo Di Stefano, Luciano Fratocchi, Antonio Marzola In this paper, a method for determining the best choice of the 3D scanner for cultural heritage applications is presented. Generally speaking, this activity is not trivial since a 3D scanner that matches all the requirements of a typical preservation activity in cultural heritage does not exist. Thus, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the choice of compromise is typically performed in an unstructured way. In order to structure this choice, a method based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is proposed. In the proposed method, the three levels of the AHP hierarchy structure are the selection of the best 3D scanner for a specific cultural heritage application (goal), the most important technical parameters that mainly affect the choice of a 3D scanner (criteria), and the devices matching the required resolution (alternatives). Having defined the goal, prioritization of the type and quality of information is performed by the team leader of the research group (typically a skilled archaeologist), while the priority of the pairwise comparison among alternatives is decided by an expert on 3D scanners.The application of the proposed method in two contrasting situations concerning pottery fragments highlights its ease of use, its robustness (confirmed by the consistency analysis), and the completeness of the technical and economic assessment (since all relevant elements are taken into account), which put together, in a structured way, competences in very different fields (archaeology and 3D digital devices).
       
  • A no-reference method of geometric content quality analysis of 3D models
           generated from laser scanning point clouds for hBIM
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Anna Fryskowska, Julita Stachelek Laser scanning technology and modern photogrammetry have become very popular techniques in cultural heritage data acquisition. In the majority of architectural applications of these methods for historic buildings, relatively less attention is paid to the quality of the visualisation. However, when it is necessary to reconstruct the structure, materials, or form of a given heritage building or object, geometrical quality is key in the process of rebuilding or reconstruction. This paper proposes an assessment of geometrical content of 3D models for Heritage Building Information Modelling (hBIM) without reference measurements and independently of the data acquiring method or point cloud resolution. The point cloud analysed in this paper was obtained by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS); however, the analysis could be applied to point clouds of other origins (e.g. ALS, UAV imagery). The inner characteristics of measurement methods are not considered, with the focus on answering the following questions: How much will the point cloud allow us to see' and Is too much data always a good thing' The quality can simply be defined as the suitability of a specific dataset for a specific purpose. It is very important to clarify in advance for what kind of outcome a dataset might be or not be suitable, and which are the results expected.
       
  • Structural and geotechnical engineering assessment of Huaca de la
           Luna – A massive earthen Moche culture pyramid in Northern Peru
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Rafael Aguilar, Miguel A. Pando, Carolina Briceño, Guillermo Zavala, Benjamín Castañeda, Renato Perucchio, Santiago Uceda The present paper presents results of a comprehensive engineering analysis for understanding the current structural damage condition of a sector of one of the most representative archaeological complexes in Perú: the main Moche culture pyramid of Huaca de la Luna. It is estimated that this pyramid was built in stages with adobe masonry between 100 and 600 A.D. Severe structural damage was identified near the NW corner during the archeological excavation in the form of damaged walls, fissures, cracks, compressed adobe blocks, and incomplete geometry of perimeter walls. An interdisciplinary team carried out an engineering diagnosis involving: detailed surveying and mapping of the geometry of the complex, multi-scale characterization of the material components, geotechnical assessment of foundation conditions, and advanced numerical modeling to help evaluate the possible reasons for the observed structural damage. The results indicate that the origin for the observed damage is uneven foundation settlements related to a variable foundation layer thickness that is associated to the sloping bedrock at the site of this complex. The complex soil-structure interaction issues associated to the foundation conditions and high foundation pressures in the NW corner of the complex, coupled with the high internal stresses in the lower part of this structure that reach the strength capacity of this fragile material, appear to be the main reasons for the observed damage. This interdisciplinary study provided an effective approach to find a valid and scientific-based explanation for the observed archaeological evidence and open up new engineering and archaeological discussions for finding the most appropriate strategies for future conservation and structural consolidation works at this invaluable Moche culture heritage site.
       
  • The assessment of environmental conditioning techniques and their energy
           performance in historic churches located in Mediterranean climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Carmen Ma Muñoz-González, A.L. León-Rodríguez, M. Campano-Laborda, C. Teeling, R. Baglioni There is a particular approach to the energy performance and indoor microclimate of historic buildings. However, the implementation of energy efficiency in historic buildings is limited, given that the materials, structure, geometry and artworks to be conserved inhibit the improvement of microclimate parameters or energy performance. The main aim of this work is to study the use of environmental conditioning techniques in a historic building and its impact on the conservation of artworks prior to the refurbishment project. This study describes experimental research carried out on the church of Nuestra Señora de la Merced, a historic building in a Mediterranean climate. The building was monitored and measured to validate numerical codes using Design Builder 4.7.027 and Energy Plus 8.3. Software building models made it possible to evaluate the implementation of different environmental techniques – passive, active and combined – in the church with a view to conserving artworks. This study concluded that the use of passive environmental techniques does not completely eliminate the mechanical risk or bio-deterioration that are inherent to movable heritage. Proposals for the use of active systems in combination with passive techniques improve the initial conservation of artworks and decrease the risk of biological degradation. Although energy consumption is high due to the large size and thermal inertia of the building, consumption is considerably reduced when active and passive systems are combined.
       
  • A multi-analytical study on the Mango Longo Guitar, a Baroque masterpiece
           from the Castello Sforzesco, Milan, Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Mauro Bernabei, Nicola Macchioni, Maria Ricetti Valentina, Luigi Sisto The study of an ancient musical instrument should take into account various approaches, which include historical sources, study of materials and dendrochronological analysis. Very often, an ancient musical instrument has been subject to repairs, substitutions and restorations that have modified its original setting. This study takes into account the “Mango Longo guitar”, a masterpiece of 17th century Neapolitan art. It has been analysed from a historical, organological and xylo-chronological perspective to investigate and describe the cultural context of its creation, the wood species used for its construction and various restoration works to which it has been subjected. The Mango Longo guitar belongs to the typology of the Baroque guitars of the seventeenth century, attributed to the lute-maker of German origin Magnus Lang, from which the name derives. The most recent tree-ring identified on the instrument belly is dated dendrochronologically to 1737, terminus post quem. This means that the actual soundboard may be considered a replacement, due to a restoration in the first half of 18th century. The analysis of dendroprovenance of the actual soundboard shows strong analogies with Italian production of the period and identifies the probable sources for wood as being in the Alps. Our results confirm the intensive and well-organized trade of valuable timber used for musical instruments at that time.
       
  • Conservation of acidic papers using a dispersion of oleic acid-modified
           MgO nanoparticles in a non-polar solvent
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Jie Huang, Guozhou Liang, Gang Lu, Jinping Zhang In this study, a new method was developed for the deacidification of acidic papers, by using a deacidifying dispersion of oleic acid-modified magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles in cyclohexane. We reported that oleic acid-modified MgO nanoparticles were prepared by using a surface modification method. The results showed that the carboxylic group of oleic acid could react with the hydroxyl group on the surface of nanoparticles and the reaction was esterification. MgO nanoparticles were transformed from hydrophilic to lipophilic, with well dispersibility in cyclohexane for 6 h. Pure MgO nanoparticles all sank in cyclohexane after 30 s, so the deacidifying agents of pure MgO nanoparticles in cyclohexane could not be prepared for the deacidification of papers. The stable dispersion of oleic acid-modified MgO nanoparticles in cyclohexane then was used for the deacidification of papers. The accelerated aging tests were also used to evaluate the effect of the new method. Results showed that the surface pH of all types of papers were alkaline after the deacidification treatment and tensile strength values of those remained stable after accelerated aging. The deacidification treatment had ignorable influence on the appearance of papers, as well as inks and pigments on the paper surface. As the use of hydrophobic oleic acid-modified MgO nanoparticles, hydrophobicity of papers changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic.
       
  • Adhesives used in paper conservation: Chemical stability and fungal
           bioreceptivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Inês da Silva Borges, Maria Helena Casimiro, Maria Filomena Macedo, Sílvia Oliveira Sequeira In paper conservation practice, adhesives are used for several purposes, such as mending tears and gaps, or paper consolidation. The criteria to choose one or another adhesive should be based on the knowledge of the properties and stability of those adhesives. However, the several different adhesives available on the market still lack enough information to help the process of a rational decision-making. In the present work, five adhesives currently used in the paper conservation field (starch paste, unsupported ArchibondTM, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose and methylcellulose) were analyzed for their chemical stability and fungal bioreceptivity (the ability of a material to be colonized by fungi). Bioreceptivity of products used in conservation and restoration is a still poorly explored subject, despite its great relevance for the preservation of objects.The chemical and physical properties of the adhesives, before and after moist heat artificial ageing, were analyzed by thermogravimetry, capillary viscometry, measurement of water absorption capacity, colourimetry, and pH measurement.Fungal bioreceptivity of the adhesives was tested on two different substrates (paper and glass) against three fungal species: Aspergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans and Penicillium pinophilum. Along 56 days of incubation, the colonization area on the adhesives was measured through digital photo analysis.Starch paste was the most bioreceptive adhesive, but on other hand was also the most stable adhesive to artificial ageing, regarding colour alteration, degree of polymerization and pH. Carboxymethylcellulose and ArchibondTM showed chemical deterioration with ageing. Nevertheless, these two adhesives presented only scarce bioreceptivity to the tested fungi. Methylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose showed the best relationship between higher chemical stability with artificial ageing and lower fungal bioreceptivity.
       
  • Celebrating centuries: Pink-pigmented bacteria from rosy patinas in the
           House of Bicentenary (Herculaneum, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Marco Tescari, Paolo Visca, Emanuela Frangipani, Flavia Bartoli, Leslie Rainer, Giulia Caneva The archaeological site of Herculaneum (Campania, Italy), which was buried as a result of the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in the first Century C.E., was first excavated in the XVIII century. It has been included on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1997, and in 2001 the Herculaneum Conservation Project (HCP) was started, which has carried out, among other activities, studies and conservation interventions across the site. Up until this time, little data has been available on the growth of biological agents that could cause biodeterioration of wall paintings and archaeological structures. Particularly, the presence of rosy discoloration is frequent on ancient monuments of the Vesuvian area, even if such phenomenon has so far been largely neglected. In this study, we describe, for the first time, the pink patina distribution and the microbial species isolated from the House of the Bicentenary in Herculaneum. By combining culture-based approaches with molecular and phylogenetic analyses we reliably isolated the pink-producing bacterial species and attributed them primarily to Arthrobacter agilis, and secondarily to Rhodococcus corynebacterioides, and Methylobacterium extorquens. Strains closely related to Dietzia maris and Gordonia rubripertincta were also isolated. With the exception of M. extorquens, a proteobacterium, all of the other isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria. All isolates produced carotenoid pigments, suggesting that they can participate in the development of such peculiar coloration. Our data indicate the presence of a large number of pink-pigmented bacterial species in the community, even if the presence of bacteria in viable but not-culturable state, such as Rubrobacter radiotolerans, is not excludible. The culture-based approach had the advantage of (i) obtaining bacterial isolates, (ii) showing their differential ability to produce pink discolorations, and (iii) testing conditions for in vitro growth. Moreover, field observations showed an association of pink patinas with dry conditions, saline efflorescence and moderate solar radiation. Some seasonal variations were also detected, with an increase in late spring and summer.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Biocide efficacy and consolidant effect on the mycoflora of historical
           stuccos in indoor environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Sergio Enrico Favero-Longo, Francesco Brigadeci, Alessandro Segimiro, Samuele Voyron, Michela Cardinali, Mariangela Girlanda, Rosanna Piervittori Investigations are needed to address and optimize the use of biocides and restoration materials with reference to the fungal diversity, which often characterizes cultural heritage surfaces. This work aimed to examine the diversity of fungi responsible of aesthetic decay on the stuccos of the vault of a religious building in Torino (NW-Italy), and to evaluate the sensitivity of the detected set of species to widely used biocidal products (benzalkonium chloride, isothiazolinones, sulphamide derivatives) and their application solvents. The effect of four commercial consolidants on their potential (re-)colonization following restoration interventions was also assessed. Four different deterioration phenomena were related to the occurrence of Chaetomium murale, Stachybotrys chartarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Sarocladium kiliense, respectively. Surface receptivity to the different species – identified on morphological and molecular bases – was related to slightly different thermo-hygrometric conditions, the distribution of painted surfaces, salts, and local remnants of cellulose poultice used in past restoration interventions. Specific sensitivity to two solvents and ten different biocide treatments was evaluated in terms of inhibition of mycelial growth from transplanted inocula at 9 (T1) and 27 (T2) days after the incubation. The different solvents and biocide products differently affected growth and/or pigmentation of the four species. Only 40% of the ten performed biocide treatments determined the growth inhibition of all the examined species at both T1 and T2. In other cases, inhibition observed at T1 for C. murorum, S. chartharum and S. kiliense, was followed at T2 by the colonization of inhibition zones. The mycelial growth on an oligotrophic culture medium poured with four commercial consolidants was evaluated one year after the incubation. All the species displayed some growth from the inocula, with a scarce biomass being only observed in negative (water) controls and upon one consolidant treatment. The three other products strongly supported a higher growth of at least two of the examined fungal species with respect to negative controls. In conclusion, different sensitivity of each fungal species for most biocidal treatments and stimulation by consolidants indicate that species-specific assays of products are necessary to calibrate and optimize restoration works. In particular, effective inhibition of fungi by biocides, and potential stimulation by consolidants, should be evaluated after several weeks and months, respectively, since short-term monitoring may be misleading.
       
  • First insights on the mineral composition of “stucco” devotional
           reliefs from Italian Renaissance Masters: investigating technological
           practices and raw material sourcing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Gianluca Gariani, Patrice Lehuédé, Lise Leroux, Gilles Wallez, Fabrice Goubard, Anne Bouquillon, Marc Bormand The production of devotional reliefs particularly flourished in 15th century Florence, where models from Renaissance Masters actually became the object of a serial-production. One of the materials mostly used to this purpose was the so-called “stucco”. This preliminary work focuses on the multiscale structural and compositional analysis of micro samples from 22 representative stucco low reliefs attributed to the workshops of renowned Masters. The identification and characterisation of main mineralogical phases showed that the material used to make these reliefs consists in a gypsum-based plaster. Data from both X-ray diffraction and Particle induced X-ray emission allowed to gather also information on secondary mineral phases (sulphates, carbonates and clay minerals, together in few weight percentage maximum) and trace elements. Through an extensive comparison of all the mineralogical and compositional data collected on the corpus of artworks, first insights on workshop practices and raw material used have been enlightened.
       
  • Fungal contamination of paintings and wooden sculptures inside the storage
           room of a museum: Are current norms and reference values adequate'
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Hugo Paiva de Carvalho, Nuno Mesquita, João Trovão, Santiago Fernández Rodríguez, Ana Catarina Pinheiro, Virgínia Gomes, Ana Alcoforado, Francisco Gil, António Portugal Biodeterioration is a topic of ever-growing concern and is particularly relevant in the context of cultural heritage conservation, since artworks and monuments provide diversified ecological niches for microorganism colonization. Despite all the gathered knowledge in recent years, current established norms and accepted contamination thresholds have a prominent focus on human health and air quality preservation. Nonetheless they still are not enough or are not adequately applied for cultural heritage preservation. In the light of this study within a very important Museum from Coimbra (Portugal), the current knowledge and accepted norms are discussed. Despite the meticulous control of environmental parameters inside this art repository, the presence of fungal colonies was unexpectedly detected on wooden sculptures and paintings that were deposited inside a custom-built room. Contaminated art objects were sampled for fungal isolation and identification, along with seasonal indoor air sampling, for a one-year period. Molecular biology methods complemented with morphological observation were used for the identification of fungal organisms. Direct sampling of 8 contaminated paintings allowed the retrieval of 10 fungal isolates (3 different genera and 4 different species). In addition, 19 fungal isolates (5 different genera and 9 different species) were retrieved from 7 contaminated wooden sculptures. The air sampling process provided a total of 150 isolates (24 different genera and 43 different species), from which the most common genera were Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium, and the most frequent species were Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium copticola and P. corylophilum. Although the number of airborne CFU was considerably low in all seasons, some fungal species with known biodeterioration capability and adverse human health effects were found. The relevance of air contamination monitoring as a single tool for biodeterioration risk assessment is discussed, as are the currently available norms and recommendations. Preventive measures are advised and considerations are made regarding potentially more effective approaches.
       
  • The marly limestone, a difficult material to restore: The case of the San
           Fruttuoso di Capodimonte Abbey (Genoa, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Rita Vecchiattini, Fabio Fratini, Silvia Rescic, Cristiano Riminesi, Marco Mauri, Silvia Vicini The on-site assessment of the effectiveness and durability of conservation treatments have several drawbacks which have their origin in the demands of the owners (both from the aesthetical point of view and with the need to conclude the restoration as soon as possible), and in the requirements of the restorer related with the logistic of the yard and with the need to satisfy the owner demands. These aspects are often in conflict with the methodological approach used in the scientific framework for evaluate the performance of applied treatments. The aims of this paper is to suggest practical solutions, capable to overcome the previous problems in the assessment of the efficiency of the consolidating and protective treatments applied on the marly limestone ashlars of the Abbey of San Fruttuoso di Capodimonte (Genoa, Italy). The abbey is located at the bottom of a bay few meters from the see, therefore strongly exposed to the action of the marine aerosol and wave erosion. The consolidation and protection of the marly limestone building material was performed by testing several products both inorganic and organic. Preliminary tests were performed on laboratory samples. Afterwards, the same products were applied on selected ashlars of the façade in order to study their performance in a real condition. The products were ethyl silicate, ethyl silicate with polysiloxane, litium silicate, nanosilica, ammonium oxalate, ammonium phosphate, silane/siloxane, fluorelastomers and acrylic polymers and acrylic/siloxane. The study of the effect of the treatments on the stone samples was performed by non-destructive and micro-destructive methods, and an assessment procedure has been proposed.
       
  • Air tightness and RH control in museum showcases: Concepts and testing
           procedures
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Marco Perino This paper analyses the use of museum showcases as a means of improving the control of the indoor environment for the conservation of works of art. It presents and discusses the influence of the air and gas tightness of a showcase on variations of the relative humidity. Attention is first focused on the basic mechanisms that drive the exchange of water vapour and gas between the inside and outside of the showcase. Testing procedures to characterize their performance (e.g. pressurization tests, tracer gas measurements) are then described and critically reviewed. Finally, examples of laboratory and field measurement results are presented and discussed in order to abstract general recommendations about: how to test the air tightness of showcases and how to choose the most suitable air tightness value, in relation to the desired level of control of the RH.
       
  • Construction and comparison of 3D multi-source multi-band models for
           cultural heritage applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 34Author(s): Emanuela Grifoni, Stefano Legnaioli, Pierluigi Nieri, Beatrice Campanella, Giulia Lorenzetti, Stefano Pagnotta, Francesco Poggialini, Vincenzo Palleschi 3D multi-band/multi-spectral reconstruction is a technique, which allows the use of images taken in different spectral bands for the reconstruction of spectrally-resolved 3D models of paintings. In this work, we propose a procedure for constructing and comparing 3D multi-band models obtained starting from a variety of input data (RGB and IR images, UV-induced fluorescence images, etc.) and/or acquired with different instruments. The procedure has been tested on two case studies, with the aim to highlight the critical issues associated to the specificities of the subject and of the environmental constrains: a 14th century panel painting signed by Barnaba from Modena, preserved at the Museum of San Matteo in Pisa, Italy and a 15th century panel painting preserved at the Regional Gallery of Palazzo Bellomo in Syracuse, Italy. RGB, IR and UV–VIS fluorescence models obtained with a conventional digital camera (RGB and UV) and a multisband camera (IR) were realized and compared, for revealing differences at sub-millimeter level.
       
  • PVA hydrogel as polymer electrolyte for electrochemical impedance analysis
           on archaeological metals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Francesca Di Turo, Pietro Matricardi, Chiara Di Meo, Franco Mazzei, Gabriele Favero, Daniela Zane The development of an electrochemical cell based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel as polymer electrolyte for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis (EIS) is discussed. PVA hydrogel is prepared with different cycles of freeze/thawing (F/T) employing distillated and mineral water as solutions. The PVA-disks obtained are compared for their conductivities in order to employ it in an appropriate cell for diagnostic purposes, reducing the invasiveness of the analysis on the sample. The test of the self-consistent disk of PVA is carried out on a modern sample of copper and on an archaeological bronze coin, obtaining an alternative of the classical electrochemical cell for EIS measurements on ancient metals.
       
  • Using the terrestrial laser scanner and simple methodologies for
           geometrically assessing complex masonry vaults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Agustí Costa-Jover, Josep Lluis i Ginovart, Sergio Coll-Pla, Mónica López Piquer In recent years, the development of massive data capture techniques, such as the Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), has raised the possibility of developing new procedures for assessing architectural heritage. The 3D models that can be obtained through these techniques are a tool of great potential for both conservation purposes and historical and architectural studies. This paper proposes a simple, non-invasive methodology for assessing masonry vaults from the point clouds, making it possible to obtain relevant data on formal anomalies. The methodology was tested in the Gothic Tortosa Cathedral's vaults. This study found geometrical differences between vaults, a priori equal, which were related to the partially-known construction phases. The procedure can be applied easily to other vaulted constructions of any kind but is especially useful in dealing with the complex geometry of Gothic masonry vaults.
       
  • Advances damage detection techniques in historical buildings using digital
           photogrammetry and 3D surface analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Rosella Alessia Galantucci, Fabio Fatiguso In the last twenty years, advances in technology led to a progressive digitalization in photography and photogrammetry and to the development of a considerable number of image processing software. In several fields, Digital Image Processing techniques began to spread. For example, in Civil Engineering there are many methodologies for the monitoring of reinforced concrete structures or road pavements. In most cases they involve the application of mathematical and morphological filters to two-dimensional images, to obtain quantitative information about the decay of the analyzed structures. Instead in Architectural Restoration there are still few researches focused on these methodologies, because of the great complexity and uniqueness of historical buildings. Furthermore, until now architectural photogrammetry mainly concerned geometric survey and it was not widely used to diagnose the presence of alterations on buildings, despite the great potential of a non-invasive, contactless survey technique. Therefore, the aim of this research is to create an analysis approach, to detect damages on three-dimensional models, richer in information about depth and volume. The analysis can be carried out through a specific set of spatial and morphological filters for advanced surface analysis, adopting software tools mostly used for three-dimensional metrology and surface topography. A sequence of operations can be executed, allowing to obtain quantitative information about some kinds of alterations (cracks or features induced by material loss) from three-dimensional models like point clouds or polygonal meshes. The procedure was tested and validated on a case study (Palazzo Palmieri, Monopoli – Italy). The result of the research is a low interaction approach, through which it is possible to identify and quantify damages on the surfaces.
       
  • The Giotto's workshop in the XXI century: looking inside the “God the
           Father with Angels” gable
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Marco Gargano, Anna Galli, Letizia Bonizzoni, Roberto Alberti, Nicola Aresi, Michele Caccia, Isabella Castiglioni, Matteo Interlenghi, Christian Salvatore, Nicola Ludwig, Marco Martini God the Father with Angels (about 1330, tempera on panel) by Giotto is the Gable of the altarpiece of Baroncelli Chapel in the church of Santa Croce in Florence. Very little is known about its history since the separation from the so-called Baroncelli Polyptych. Now at the San Diego Museum of Art, the Gable had never been studied by means of scientific methods before our team took the opportunity to during the exhibition “Giotto, l’Italia”, held in Milan. Exploiting the integration of different knowledge, technologies and resources of our team, we were able to provide data for understanding the organizational model of Giotto's workshop performing non-invasive analyses with portable instruments during closing hours of exhibition (four diagnostic campaigns, six hours of work/campaign, no interruption of the exhibition). The achieved results confirm the painting technique based on different layers of pigments, a technique already used by Giotto. Combining the effectiveness of scanning MA-XRF with the responsive of IR reflectography and IR false colour, we moved step by step toward the discovery of Giotto's palette for the flesh tones in God the Father with Angels. FORS and XRF single point analyses were performed on some selected areas too. The IR reflectography results support the hypothesis of a detailed underdrawing with both thin and flat brushstrokes. By applying image-processing algorithms to the collected reflectograms, we obtained quantitative objective measures supporting the hypothesis that a guide could have been used in the realization of human figures; this means the use of sketches for the face of “God the Father” and for the faces of angels.
       
  • Mapping historic urban landscape values through social media
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Manal Ginzarly, Ana Pereira Roders, Jacques Teller Social media provides big data for researchers to perform real-time analytics, as digital ethnographers, on what places and attributes people value in the historic urban landscapes they live or visit, enough to share with their social network. However, the use of these data to further our knowledge on heritage and their values, or to support heritage planning and management is still very limited. This article proposes a methodology for the analysis of viewpoints location-view scenes-tags data for photos posted on Flickr to provide insights into all facets of the perceived landscape character that identifies people-centered heritage at the city level. The analysis visualizes convergence and divergence between locals’ and tourists’ preferences. It also reveals heritage concerns in the context of daily-life practices and everyday landscape, as well as political and religious concerns in post-conflict areas. Additionally, the analysis questions the limits of heritage areas and categories used for identifying cultural values. Results showed that the different analyses complement one another to eventually provide insights into everyday encounters with the historic urban landscape. They also show the difference between experts’ and users’ documentation and characterization languages when defining heritage. When the first apply domain-specific classification models, the latter express personal reflections without following a specific hierarchy or a closed categorical system. It is believed that the outcome can help heritage scholars to further our understanding for the diversity of heritage places and attributes, as well as, heritage professionals, to inform decision-making processes in heritage planning and management on both experts’ and users’ understanding of heritage.
       
  • Laboratory analyses and numerical simulation for sound absorption of
           plasters in historical buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Tarik Serhat Bozkurt, Sevtap Yilmaz Demirkale During the restoration of historical buildings, it is very important for the maintenance of the authenticity of the building that decisions related to the selection of materials and the plaster mortar mixtures, determined through plaster analyses, are in accordance with those of the historical structure. In restoration of the historical buildings, there are also some important parameters related with interior room acoustics such as propagating sound properly, ensuring speech intelligibility, preventing from undesirable interior noise and maintaining of auditory comfort conditions. The present study investigates how the sound-absorption coefficient of existing plaster layers can be increased and describes the means of ensuring the newly applied plaster layers are in accordance with the historical structure. Within the study, three different plaster mixtures containing three different type of binder, with plaster layers of 3 cm, 6 cm, 9 cm and 12 cm thickness were produced with each mixture type. The sound-absorption coefficient tests were carried out according to mixtures type and plaster layer thickness. The sound absorption coefficients were modeled using MATLAB software for different plaster thicknesses based on the results obtained from the sound-absorption coefficient measurements. In following stage, to show the effect of the measurement results of the sound-absorption coefficient within the place, a historical place was selected and reverberation time analyses were carried out in the direction of the measurement results. In this research, it is demonstrated that the sound absorption can be increased by means of increasing plaster layer thickness and changing mortar mixture types. It is concluded that the sound absorption research for historical buildings systematically carried out in order to show the role of importance sound absorption material selection in accordance with historical plaster analysis in restoration process.
       
  • Geophysical surveys for the dynamic characterization of a cultural
           heritage building and its subsoil: The S. Michele Arcangelo Church
           (Acireale, eastern Sicily)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Sabrina Grassi, Sebastiano Imposa, Graziano Patti, Domenico Boso, Giuseppe Lombardo, Francesco Panzera Geophysical surveys are useful tools to characterize the buildings making up the cultural heritage and to monitor the subsoil features on which they are constructed. The information obtained is necessary for planning future restoration work.The aim of this study is to characterize the dynamic features of both the San Michele Arcangelo Church and of the area where it is located.Non-invasive geophysical surveys, including electromagnetic and seismic surveys, were performed to acquire this information. Such techniques enabled us to highlight the seismic wave velocity distribution in the subsoil, and the presence of electromagnetic reflectors probably linked to the existence of remains belonging to the old edifice. The comparison and integration of different methods allowed us to validate the results.Moreover, ambient seismic noise measurements were carried out outside and inside the church to obtain information on the site resonance frequency and to assess the vibration frequencies of the church. The results do not point out any site amplifications in the vibration frequency range of the church. It is therefore unlikely that soil-to-structure resonance phenomena can take place.
       
  • Determination of the layered structure of baryta based heritage
           photographs by infrared ellipsometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): J.M. Flores-Camacho, A. Nieto-Villena, J.R. Martínez, J.A. de la Cruz-Mendoza, G. Ortega-Zarzosa, Á. Solbes-García, R.E. Balderas-Navarro, A. Lastras-Martínez Variable angle-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry is proposed as a reliable tool for the characterization of heritage photographic prints. It is shown that the proposed technique has access to both the chemical composition and the physical structure of the photograph. In particular, the physical structure can be determined by interference related spectral oscillations and the behavior, for different angles of incidence, of the peaks corresponding to different chemical components. Emphasis is made on gelatin/baryta samples, and particularly, in the role of the baryta layer. A relatively simple model is used to simulate the ellipsometric spectra. It shows that the thickness and location of different layers in photographic prints can be assessed by optical means.
       
  • On the way to the New Kingdom. Analytical study of Queen Ahhotep's gold
           jewellery (17th Dynasty of Egypt)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Maria F. Guerra, Sandrine Pagès-Camagna The gold jewellery in the collection of the Department of Egyptian Antiquities of the Louvre Museum bearing the names of Queen Ahhotep and King Ahmose I (17th–18th Dynasties, 16th c. B.C.) was analysed using µPIXE, XRF, and SEM-EDS. The items were formed by casting, hammering and rolling, were decorated by chasing, and were mounted using hard-solders obtained by adding copper to the base-alloys. The jewellery bearing the name of Ahhotep is made essentially from cast gold alloys, but the elements of an armband found on the mummy of King Kamose and bearing the name of his brother Ahmose are a skilled goldsmith's work using whitish Ag-rich electrum alloys. The armband and one of Ahhotep's rings with marks of intense wear-use were worn in day-life; the other items could be funerary. The gold employed is alluvial, because the alloys contain PGE inclusions. The composition of the alloys matches the composition of gold grains from the Eastern Desert mines. The analytical data published so far for the scarce Second Intermediate Period jewellery items were compared to the data obtained in this work, showing that the alloys during this period split into two groups: those that are yellowish (containing up to 99 wt% Au) and those that are whitish (containing more than 20 wt% Ag). All the items with marks of intense wear-use except one are contained in the second group. Among them, the armband bearing the name of King Ahmose that is inscribed with the hieroglyphic sign of the moon in its oldest written form. As this change occurred under Ahmose I, it suggests that new and old objects coexisted during that difficult period of struggles in Egypt. Gold jewellery and weapons recovered during the campaigns against the Hycsos, leaded by King Kamose, Queen Ahhotep and King Ahmose, could have also been recycled in Egyptian workshops. This could justify the presence of Os-Ir-Ru-Pt inclusions in the two items with marks of intense wear-use, instead of the Ru-Os-Ir inclusions usually found in Egyptian productions.
       
  • The optimal design of the retaining walls built by the Incas in their
           agricultural terraces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jaime Castro, Luis E. Vallejo, Nicolas Estrada The stability of the retaining walls built by the Incas was analyzed using images obtained from Google Street View and Google Earth Pro combined with a simple mechanical model. The study was conducted using ten retaining walls from the Lower Agricultural Sector of Machu Picchu, Peru, which were analyzed under drained and saturated conditions. The analysis revealed that the Inca retaining walls are both functional and highly optimized, exhibiting a safety factor that is remarkably close to those recommended in modern geotechnical design standards. This is mainly due to two factors: (1) the mechanical role played by the large blocks, many of which weigh several tons; and (2) the excellent drainage conditions in both the inner structure and the wall face.
       
  • Recovering illegible writings in fire-damaged medieval manuscripts through
           data treatment of UV-fluorescence photography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Fabien Pottier, Anne Michelin, Laurianne Robinet When faced with legibility issues on a historical document, several approaches can be explored to recover the degraded contents, such as hyperspectral imaging, XRF scanning or X-ray tomography. Unfortunately due to the time, costs and technical skills required, these imaging techniques cannot be applied to the numerous faded/altered documents present in library collections. Hence, there is a need for a simple imaging procedure that could be applied on a large scale, in the same way libraries and archives are being digitized. The great sensitivity of modern digital camera sensors used for digitization campaigns added to the development of simple image post-treatment tools offer new potentialities regarding this issue. This paper presents a fast and low-cost methodology to archive current aspect and reveal hidden contents of documents: UV-fluorescence photography used in combination with contrast enhancement treatments (principal component analysis, color space conversion and decorrelation stretch). The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated on the fire-damaged medieval manuscripts collection from Chartres in France.
       
  • Effects of IR heating on distribution and transport of gaseous air
           pollutants in urban and mountain churches in Poland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): László Bencs, Zoya Spolnik, Anna Worobiec, Lucyna Samek, Bernhard A.H.G. Jütte, René Van Grieken The spatial distribution and temporal concentration variation of a set of gaseous air components (e.g., CO2, CO, H2CO, H2O) have been monitored with a multi-channel photoacoustic gas-analyzer in an urban church (Saint Catherine's, Cracow) and a mountain church (Saint Michaels Archangel, Szalowa) of Poland, in order to assess the likely effects of air pollution indoors under the influence of provisory electrical infrared (IR) heaters and without heating. Likewise, the ventilation characteristic and the leakage of these buildings with different constructions (i.e., plastered stone and wooden structures) with the assistance of decay curves of SF6 tracer gas was evaluated and compared. The wooden building in Szalowa, due to its more open structure, developed about one order higher ventilation rates (e.g., 0.9–1.3 h−1) than the stone church in Cracow (e.g., 0.1 h−1). The IR-heating affected only modestly the ventilation rate of the wooden church (e.g., 1.2–1.6 h−1), but it increased significantly that of the plastered stone church (e.g., 0.27 h−1). The ventilation rates were also assessed with the use of the CO2 curve decay method, and satisfactory agreement was found with those observed by the use of SF6 tracer. The spatial distribution of the studied gaseous pollutants (CO2, H2O) was found to be in some occasions nonhomogeneous in both buildings, due to the active usage of the IR-heating, especially, during a couple of consecutive liturgical services. Besides the pollution events due to ingress of gaseous air pollutants, present at enhanced levels outdoors, increased CO, CO2 and H2CO peaks were observed indoors too, which, in most cases, could be associated with incense burning.
       
  • Mining painted cultural relic patterns based on principal component images
           selection and image fusion of hyperspectral images
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Jinye Peng, Kai Yu, Jun Wang, Qunxi Zhang, Lin Wang, Ping Fan Because painted cultural relics are fragile and precious, traditional methods aren’t suitable for analyzing them. A new domain is proposed to resolve this question: hyperspectral imaging technology can observe images when the range of the image is from visible to near infrared light. Further, this can be done without damaging the painted cultural relics. This paper presents a method that can automatically mine painted cultural relic patterns. With this method, the principal component images are obtained via the minimum noise fraction method. A salient object detection method is used to obtain the striking images of the principal component images. The principal component image corresponding to the salient image with the largest average gradient value is selected as the optimal principal component image. The optimal principal component image and true color image are fused, in order to obtain a painted culture relic image so that the patterns are mined. Experimental data includes pottery and murals. The results show that the proposed method can automatically and effectively mine painted cultural relic pattern information that is not easily observed by the human eye.
       
  • Degradation processes of historic metal threads used in some Spanish and
           Portuguese ornamentation pieces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Adrian Duran, Rafael Perez-Maqueda, Jose Luis Perez-Rodriguez The degradation processes that occurred on metal threads applied in the embroidery used for clothing and in the ornamentation of sculptures, the Sevillian Holy Week processions, and Portuguese and Spanish palace and museum are thoroughly analyzed. Some threads from the 14th and 18–19th centuries were considered. In the metal threads, sulphur- and chlorine-based compounds were detected either individually or together, depending on the degradation process. Basic silver carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and copper-based compounds were also observed. The different degradation processes were attributed to different factors, such as environmental contamination, degradation of the fibrous cores, and inadequate cleaning and/or mechanical treatments.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Elucidating the composition and the state of conservation of
           nitrocellulose-based animation cells by means of non-invasive and
           micro-destructive techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Francesca Caterina Izzo, Alessandra Carrieri, Giovanni Bartolozzi, Henk van Keulen, Irene Lorenzon, Eleonora Balliana, Costanza Cucci, Francesco Grazzi, Marcello Picollo This paper presents the first study on Rodovetri, animation cels produced between the 1950s and the 1970s for the Italian television and conserved at the Museum of Industry and Labour “Musil” (Italy). Although these cels are considered as works of art and witnesses of Italian animation design, they have never been studied before. The study of one of the most endangered cel groups of the Musil collection is presented here. The main aims were to investigate the composition of these animation cels, to identify the materials used for painting the characters, and to assess the state of conservation of the cels. The results, which were obtained by means of a multi-analytical non-invasive and micro-destructive approach, underline the composition of the plastic substrate as nitrocellulose, while the painted layers – which contain a variety of pigments and dyes – were found to be bound with a mixture of plant gum and animal glue. This study also provides information on their state of conservation, in particular in relation to the de-nitration of plastic sheets. Important issues on the preventive conservation are also raised.
       
  • Geophysical anomalies detected by electrical resistivity tomography in the
           area surrounding Tutankhamun's tomb
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Federico Fischanger, Gianluca Catanzariti, Cesare Comina, Luigi Sambuelli, Gianfranco Morelli, Filippo Barsuglia, Ahmed Ellaithy, Francesco Porcelli Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) of the area surrounding Tutankhamun's tomb (KV62) in the Valley of the Kings (Luxor, Egypt) reveals the presence of two anomalies located a few meters from Tutankhamun's funerary chamber. The strategy for ERT data acquisition and the adopted methods for data analysis are discussed in detail in this article, together with the possible archaeological significance of the detected anomalies.
       
  • How much temperature will increase the efficiency of electro-osmosis'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Dario Camuffo Electro-osmosis is popularly used as a pump to dry soils or to reduce rising damp in buildings, but the literature results are contradictory. The basic formula of electro-osmosis has been analysed to point out its dependence on temperature, which is masked behind two coefficients, i.e. the dielectric ‘constant’ of water (that is not constant), and the coefficient of dynamic viscosity. These two physical quantities have been calculated with the accurate formulae by Malmberg and Maryott (the dielectric constant) and Voegel (the dynamic viscosity). The electro-osmosis formula includes the ratio between these two coefficients. Although the two formulae that represent them are formulated with equations having a formally different mathematical apparatus, their ratio strictly follows a straight line with values increasing with temperature. Dividing this equation by its initial value (i.e. considered at 0.1 °C) one obtains the Temperature Magnification Factor (TMF) that indicates how much the effectiveness of the system may vary with temperature. TMF is linearly increasing and has been calculated for the whole range of liquid water, i.e. from 0.1 to 99.9 °C. In the interval of the most common wall temperatures, from 0 to 50 °C, TMF increases from 1 to 2.5, showing that in summer, or in warm climate, the efficiency of this method is much higher (e.g. 2.5 times) than in winter or in cold regions. A comparison of the effectiveness of electro-osmotic interventions against rising damp can only be made for buildings under the same climate conditions. This explains the contradictory results found in the literature when case studies from different geographic areas, and different climates, are compared.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Changing surface features, weeping and metal soap formation in paintings
           by Karel Appel and Asger Jorn from 1946–1971
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Ida Antonia Tank Bronken, Jaap J. Boon, Robert Corkery, Calin Constantin Steindal This paper presents results from ongoing investigations of soft and dripping oil paint in art works by CoBrA's Karel Appel (1921–2006) and Asger Jorn (1914–1973). The work is part of the PhD-project Investigation of soft and dripping paint in paintings from 1946–1971 where twenty-four paintings are being investigated. The paintings were chosen to represent a large variety of conditions: some with slightly soft and mainly stable paints, and others with deforming and dripping paints. All paintings chosen had some paint with uneven fluorescence emitted from specific paint colours. Earlier studies have shown that fluorescence can be an indicator of softening paint. The softening paints and drips on the surface of some of these paintings show similar polarity features with mid-chain functionalized stearic acids and azelaic acid moieties. Our findings show there are several physical and chemical alterations within one degradation symptom that have to be understood when conservation treatments are considered in the future.
       
  • Naphthol Green – a forgotten artists’ pigment of the early 20th
           century. History, chemistry and analytical identification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Wibke Neugebauer, Clarimma Sessa, Christoph Steuer, Thorsten Allscher, Heike Stege The synthetic nitroso dyestuff Acid Green 1 (hereafter AG1, C.I. 10020) and its lake (C.I. Pigment Green 12, hereafter PG12), today known under the trade name Naphthol Green B, was identified for the first time on six historical colour charts of commercial brands of artists’ paints. These comprise water and oil colours produced between 1910 and 1932 by the companies Winsor & Newton (London), G. Wagner (Hannover), Fr. Schoenfeld (Düsseldorf), Redeker & Hennis (Nürnberg) and Talens & Zoon (Apeldoorn). Because the use of AG1 (first synthesis in 1883) is well-known for textile dyeing, but not at all as a lake pigment for artists’ paints, these findings stimulated a comprehensive source research on the early production history, fastness properties and acceptance of the lakes of AG1 in the chemical and paint-technological literature from its invention to c. 1950. To summarize the findings, lakes of AG1 are regularly mentioned for paint purposes soon after the dyestuff's invention, mainly for house paints, paints for wall papers or as pigment for printing inks. In 1892, a lead lake of AG1 is described explicitly also for artists’ paints and a certain use in artists’ water colours, but also oil paints of higher quality could be proved until at least the 1930ies by the source research presented here. However, the pigment's fastness to light is unsatisfactory according to modern standards, and lakes of AG1, since 1956 denoted as PG12 (barium lake), are no longer of relevance in artists’ paints. It was presumably replaced by more stable organic green pigments such as those from the copper phthalocyanine group that have been introduced since the mid-1930ies. In this work, the non-destructive or minimally invasive analytical identification of AG1/PG12 in works of art is shown to be possible by Raman spectroscopy, SERS, FTIR and/or UV/VIS/NIR reflectance spectroscopy, accomplished by XRF for the lake substrate characterisation. Reference spectra of modern and historical specimens of AG1 (as lake and dye) produced in 1893 and 1900 are also presented here. Knowledge of the application and chronology of this today almost unknown pigment in art is of importance e.g. for dating purposes in authentication cases as well as under preventive conservation aspects, e.g. to define appropriate conditions for lightning conditions.
       
  • A characterization of the palette of Rafał Hadziewicz (1803–1886)
           through the following techniques: Infrared false colour (IRFC), XRF, FTIR,
           RS and SEM-EDS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Ewa Doleżyńska-Sewerniak, Anna Klisińska-Kopacz The aim of this work was to research 21 oil paintings created in the nineteenth century by Polish painter and academic professor Rafał Hadziewicz (1803–1886). The recognition of the artist's palette and the pigments used was significant due to Hadziewicz's influence on subsequent generations of Polish painters. The studies were based mainly on the use of non-invasive techniques, supplemented with a complementary physicochemical analysis. On the basis of the studies carried out, it can be stated that the artist's palette consisted of 20 paints. Like many other nineteenth-century painters, he used the typical paints available on the market of his time. The obtained results can provide support in authentication studies.
       
  • Hygro-mechanical investigations of clavichord replica at cyclic climate
           load: Experiments and simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Daniel Konopka, Stefan Ehricht, Michael Kaliske A long-term experiment on the load bearing structure of two identical replica of a clavichord from 1807 is carried out. One clavichord is stored in a showcase with nearly constant exhibition room climate. The other one is stored in a climate chamber and loaded by a weekly changing climate of about 30% and 80% relative humidity. By photogrammetric methods, the instruments’ displacements are measured every week over a period of two years. Within a numerical study, the first humidity cycles are simulated by the finite element method applying multi-Fickian hygro-mechanical material models with respect to short-term response and without viscous phenomena for the first instance.
       
  • Investigation and modification of two kinds of Chinese traditional lime in
           cultural building relics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Mingshen Shao, Li Li, Weichang Chen, Jianhui Liu As the earliest cementing materials, lime, divided into aerial lime and hydraulic lime according to reaction mechanism, has been widely applied to heritages. Previous studies revealed that hydraulic lime mortars satisfy the conservation principles and high early strength demands of conservation because they have better mechanic strength and higher environmental adaptability than aerial lime. In this research, Chinese traditional hydraulic lime (ginger nut, AGA clay and shell lime) were modified and designed to restore San-he Tu buildings (composing of clay, sands and aerial lime). The result reveal that modified ginger nut showed optimal mechanic properties and weather resistance abilities than other lime mortars, and it is possibly due to the structure between aggregates and hydration or carbonation products. Conservation application using modified ginger nut mortar on the restoration of cracks were carried out and the restoration effect was discussed in detail. The conservation results indicated that the Chinese traditional hydraulic lime mortars are proper to restoring limes in ancient buildings.
       
  • Preserving typographic cultural heritage using contemporary digital
           technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Klementina Možina, Anja Podlesek, Sabina Bračko The digitisation of an old inscription, lettering, calligraphy or handmade typography (i.e. metal or wood typeface) represents an important procedure for the permanence of cultural heritage. It can contribute to the national awareness, local economy or even add international recognition. The old typography from the 19th century used by the prominent Slovenian printer Jožef Blaznik was analysed. It was digitised with some optimisations for contemporary use. Moreover, its usability was tested, since this typeface had an important contribution to the use and preservation of the Slovenian language by means of advanced printing technology and high quality of the work. In order to study the differences among various typefaces, the digitised typeface was compared with the other two widely used in printed publications. The influence of type size, substrate and digital printing (NIP) technology on legibility and preserved information was compared by analysing chemical, physical and colorimetric properties of the paper and prints, along with the typographic properties and legibility testing, using standard methods and the unconventional non-invasive testing methods, e.g. image analysis. The results show that the digitisation of old typography from the 19th century was an appropriate method, and that it is necessary to consider the chosen typeface and its size to ensure information permanence and legibility of a text. The selected (Blaznic) typeface could be used in printed publications, still ensuring satisfied legibility. Furthermore, information permanence was satisfactory even when this typeface was used in small type sizes. Therefore, the Blaznic typeface could be recommended even today for the use in different graphic design solutions.
       
  • Reconstructing settlement evolution from neolithic to Shang dynasty in
           Songshan mountain area of central China based on self-organizing feature
           map
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Peng Lu, Panpan Chen, Yan Tian, Yang He, Duowen Mo, Ruixia Yang, Rosa Lasaponara, Nicola Masini The Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOFM) is one of the most popular neural network models, recently also adopted in archaeology to improve and enhance, on the basis of the availability of information and archaeological records, our understanding of the long-term human settlements and their evolution. In this paper, SOFM has been applied to classify prehistoric settlement size-grade in the Songshan Mountain Region in China, mainly focusing on the following four periods: Peiligang (9000–7000aBP), Yangshao (7000–5000aBP), Longshan (5000–4000aBP) and Xia-Shang (4000–3000aBP). Outputs from the SOFM analysis enabled us to capture the spatial relation between higher and lower grade settlements and to identify specific morphological patterns. This brought new light on the human settlements and their evolution in relations with the nature, environmental features, and cultural attitude in the Songshan Mountain Region where the Chinese civilization emerged and developed.
       
  • Corrigendum to “Meteoritic origin and manufacturing process of iron
           blades in two Bronze Age bimetallic objects from China” [J. Cult. Herit.
           30 (2018) 45–50]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Kunlong Chen, Yingchen Wang, Yaxiong Liu, Jianjun Mei, Tao Jiang
       
  • Sustainable interventions in historic buildings: A developing decision
           making tool
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Chiara Bertolin, Arian Loli Integrating multi-criteria approaches for reducing greenhouse gas emissions while, at the same time, ensuring long-term maintenance of existing buildings, is a challenge that needs to be faced by both the present and future generations. The core objective of this paper is to integrate a life cycle approach within the framework of building conservation principles to help decision makers dealing with “green” maintenance and adaptation interventions of historic buildings. The proposed approach identifies conservation principles to respect, it considers low, medium, high levels of intervention, and it analyses the impact of interventions in terms of emissions and energy consumptions that should be compensated – while the historic building is in use – with on-site renewables. The method, in the whole, allows the comparison of different intervention scenarios and the selection of the most sustainable one over a long-term management perspective of the historic building. The benefits are twofold: under the conservative perspective, for helping in choosing the right time of interventions, in reducing the decay rate, in using materials that endure longer and are compatible with existing fabrics; under the environmental perspective, for helping in reducing the carbon footprint, in supporting conservation needs through a minimal intervention approach, and in encouraging materials reuse and renewable energy systems.
       
  • Measurement of water content and salinity index in concrete by evanescent
           field dielectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Journal of Cultural HeritageAuthor(s): Myriam Bouichou, Elisabeth Marie-Victoire, Héloïse Jourdan, Benoit Thauvin, Ronan Queguigner, Roberto Olmi, Cristiano Riminesi Water and chloride ions are key parameters in the corrosion processes of reinforced concrete. Consequently, rebar corrosion is the first cause of decay in historical monuments made of concrete. Thus, developing new techniques to be able to detect or quantify water and chloride ions seems to be an interesting approach in the diagnosis of historical reinforced-concrete buildings, especially if these new techniques are non-destructive. SUSI-R© is a non-invasive microwave system based on the evanescent field dielectrometry technique. The SUSI system is equipped with a resonant probe able to analyze the tested material down to 2 cm in depth. The water content and salinity index are calculated from the resonance properties of the probe, which are a function of the material permittivity. Initially developed to quantify the moisture content and to detect the presence of salts in mural paintings, SUSI-R© was considered in this study for the analysis of concrete. In a first phase, the SUSI-R© technique was tested to follow the moisture and salt content in reinforced concrete slabs, made with CEM I or CEM III cements, after their semi-immersion in water or in a sodium chloride solution. Several series of measurements were then carried out before and during the rise of the capillary absorption front. In the second phase, the calibration of SUSI-R© was undertaken in a laboratory on prisms made with the same concretes as those used for the slabs, and which had undergone the same curing conditions. The resonance parameters were correlated to the moisture content contained in these samples, with various saturation rates, in plain water and salted water. The first results of this study showed that the technique makes it possible to follow the hydric changes in the material but also to differentiate between the two types of capillary absorption solution: plain water or salted water. Distinct evolutions of the salinity index were also distinguished according to the type of cement. The calibration in laboratory allowed the resonance parameters of the probe to be correlated with the moisture content values, and thus to quantify the moisture content of the concrete slabs investigated during the first phase of the study.
       
 
 
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