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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1350 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (239 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (28 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (17 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (89 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (52 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (686 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (42 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (161 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (686 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 148)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access  
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access  
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access  
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access  
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
e-Gnosis     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)     Open Access  
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExT : Revista de Extensión de la UNC     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover European Journal of Social Psychology
  [SJR: 1.625]   [H-I: 78]   [31 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0046-2772 - ISSN (Online) 1099-0992
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Advancing the social identity approach to health and well-being:
           Progressing the social cure research agenda
    • Authors: Jolanda Jetten; S. Alexander Haslam, Tegan Cruwys, Katharine H. Greenaway, Catherine Haslam, Niklas K. Steffens
      Abstract: The health of people's body and mind is powerfully conditioned by social factors that affect their social identity. Consistent with this notion, there is a growing interest in the way that group memberships (and the social identities derived from belonging to these groups) affect health and well-being. To the extent that group memberships provide individuals with meaning, support, and agency (i.e., a positive sense of social identity), health is positively impacted, constituting a “social cure”. However, when group membership is not associated with these positive psychological resources or when social identity is challenged in other ways (e.g., group membership is devalued or stigmatised), social identities may become a curse, threatening and potentially harming health and well-being. In a range of social contexts, novel examples of these processes are brought together in the contributions to this special issue. In this editorial, we link the findings from these contributions to a set of hypotheses that emerge from the social identity approach to highlight the nuanced ways in which social identity processes are key to understanding health and well-being (Haslam, Jetten, Cruwys, Dingle, & Haslam, forthcoming). The contributions in this special issue point to fruitful ways to develop the social cure agenda. Together they highlight the importance of social identities as powerful psychological resources that have an important role to play in managing and improving health.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T01:30:21.539538-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2333
  • Cultural Variation in Individuals’ Responses to Incivility by
           Perpetrators of Different Rank: The Mediating Role of Descriptive and
           Injunctive Norms
    • Authors: Chanki Moon; Mario Weick, Ayse K. Uskul
      Abstract: The present research sought to establish how cultural settings create a normative context that determines individuals’ reactions to subtle forms of mistreatment. Two experimental studies (n = 449) examined individuals’ perceptions of high- and low-ranking individuals’ incivility in two national (Study 1) and two organizational (Study 2) cultural settings that varied in power distance. Consistent across studies, the uncivil actions of a high-ranking perpetrator were deemed more acceptable than the uncivil actions of a low-ranking perpetrator in the large power distance cultural settings, but not in a small power distance cultural setting. Differing injunctive norms (acceptability), but not descriptive norms (perceived likelihood of occurrence), contributed to cultural variations in the level of discomfort caused by incivility. In addition, perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms coincided, but differed markedly in their associations with discomfort. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T22:15:25.932545-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2344
  • Gaming Motivation and Problematic Video Gaming: The Role of Needs
    • Authors: Devin J. Mills; Marina Milyavskaya, Nancy L. Heath, Jeffrey L. Derevensky
      Abstract: Motivation is often used as a predictor of a problematic style of video game engagement, implying that individuals’ gaming undermines optimal functioning. Drawing from recent advances in Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the present study explores the links between gaming motivations, the daily frustration of basic psychological needs, and reports of problematic video gaming (PVG). A sample of 1,029 participants (72.8% male; M = 22.96 years; SD = 4.13 years) completed items regarding their gaming engagement and gaming motivation as well as their experience of needs frustration and PVG symptoms. Results revealed positive associations between gaming motivations and PVG, and between daily needs frustration and PVG. Finally, after comparing several competing models, a mediational model whereby needs frustration explained the association between individuals’ gaming motivation and PVG emerged as best fitting the data. The discussion addresses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings in the context of recent research.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T18:30:22.229756-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2343
  • "Poor is Pious": Distinctiveness Threat Increases Glorification of Poverty
           among the Poor
    • Authors: Nechumi Yaffe; Nevin Solak, Eran Halperin, Tamar Saguy
      Abstract: The current study examines whether a threat to group distinctiveness motivates the poor to glorify poverty as an identity management strategy. Research shows that threat to ingroup distinctiveness can motivate people to positively differentiate their group from similar outgroups on relevant dimensions of comparison. Little is known however about whether such processes would occur also with respect to devalued group characteristics that are not reflective of explicit group norms. This question is of high theoretical and practical importance because it can illustrate that people internalize and glorify even adverse traits as means of managing their social identity when faced with threat. We therefore tested whether among a poor community, individuals would glorify poverty when faced with distinctiveness threat. We collected data from Haredim (ultra-Orthodox Jews), a poor and highly religious population in Israel. Across two experiments, we manipulated distinctiveness threat via inducing similarity between Haredim and seculars in Israel. We found that poverty was reconstrued as positive and desirable following distinctiveness threat, but only among Haredim who have a high commitment to group norms (Study 1) and who strongly justify their own social system (Study 2). Theoretical and applied implications of the findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T20:35:35.110981-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2342
  • The Two-Sided Nature of Individual and Intragroup Experiences in the
    • Authors: Johanna Ray Vollhardt; Rashmi Nair
      Abstract: Most social psychological research on collective victimhood has examined its consequences for intergroup relations. Less attention has been paid to individual and intragroup processes associated with collective victimization, which the present study aimed to examine. We conducted eight focus group interviews among four diaspora communities (Armenian Americans, Burundian refugees, Jewish Americans, Nepali-speaking Bhutanese refugees) with historical or more recent experiences of collective victimization. Thematic analysis revealed three major foci shared across communities (but with different emphases within each focus), which included juxtaposed themes that highlight the two-sided nature of experiencing and coping with collective victimization and its aftermath: vulnerability and struggle versus resilience and strength; loss versus continuity and renewal; and silence about versus transmission of knowledge about ingroup victimization. These findings illustrate how groups integrate seemingly opposite poles of collective victimization that characterize this complex and multifaceted experience, which has important theoretical implications.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15T20:30:33.769452-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2341
  • What's in an Accent' General Spontaneous Biases Against Nonnative
           Accents – An Investigation with Conceptual and Auditory IATs
    • Authors: Janin Roessel; Christiane Schoel, Dagmar Stahlberg
      Abstract: Nonnative accents are prevalent in our globalized world and constitute highly salient cues in social perception. Whereas previous literature has commonly assumed that they cue specific social group stereotypes, we propose that nonnative accents generally trigger spontaneous negatively biased associations (due to a general nonnative accent category and perceptual influences). Accordingly, Study 1 demonstrates negative biases with conceptual IATs, targeting the general concepts of accent versus native speech, on the dimensions affect, trust, and competence, but not on sociability. Study 2 attests to negative, largely enhanced biases on all dimensions with auditory IATs comprising matched native-nonnative speaker pairs for four accent types. Biases emerged irrespective of the accent types that differed in attractiveness, recognizability of origin, and origin-linked national associations. Study 3 replicates general IAT biases with an affect IAT and a conventional evaluative IAT. These findings corroborate our hypotheses and assist in understanding general negativity toward nonnative accents.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T21:40:39.941471-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2339
  • The Impact of Acknowledgment and Denial of Responsibility for Harm on
           Victim Groups’ Perceptions of Justice, Power, and Intergroup Attitudes
    • Authors: Yeshim Iqbal; Rezarta Bilali
      Abstract: Acknowledgement of responsibility for in-group harmdoing is considered a precondition for reconciliation. However, we know little about its impact on victim groups. Using a mixed methods approach, in two studies in Bangladesh we examine the role of acknowledgment and denial of responsibility on intergroup outcomes. Study 1 used an open-ended survey to assess Bangladeshis’ perceptions about acknowledgement and denial of responsibility for the mass violence committed by the Pakistani army on Bangladeshis during the 1971 war. Study 2 experimentally examined the effects and the potential mechanisms (emotional reactions, perceived injustice, and relative power) through which acknowledgment and denial of responsibility impact two intergroup outcomes: out-group animosity and willingness for contact. Both studies demonstrated the importance of anger and perceived injustice as mediators of the effects of acknowledgment and denial of responsibility on intergroup outcomes. We draw implications for theory and for strategies to address past victimization across different contexts of conflict.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T21:27:17.733951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2338
  • Validating the Semantic Misattribution Procedure as an Implicit Measure of
           Gender Stereotyping
    • Authors: Yang Ye; Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: The current research tested the validity of the semantic misattribution procedure (SMP)—a variant of the affect misattribution procedure—as an implicit measure of gender stereotyping. In three studies (N = 604), prime words of gender-stereotypical occupations (e.g., nurse, doctor) influenced participants’ guesses of whether unknown Chinese ideographs referred to male or female names in a stereotype-congruent manner. Priming scores of gender stereotyping showed high internal consistency and construct-valid correlations with explicit measures of sexism. Discriminant validity of gender stereotyping scores was tested by investigating relations with priming effects involving grammatical gender (e.g., mother, father). Evidence for discriminant validity was obtained when (1) trials from the two priming measures were presented in a blocked rather than interspersed manner and (2) the measure of stereotypical gender priming preceded the measure of grammatical gender priming. Overall, the SMP showed good psychometric properties and construct validity for the assessment of gender stereotyping.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T06:45:24.771038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2337
  • The Evil Eye: Eye Gaze and Competitiveness in Social Decision Making
    • Authors: Mauro Giacomantonio; Jennifer Jordan, Francesca Federico, Martijn J. Assem, Dennie Dolder
      Abstract: We demonstrate that a person's eye gaze and his/her competitiveness are closely intertwined in social decision making. In an exploratory examination of this relationship, Study 1 uses field data from a high-stakes TV game show to demonstrate that the frequency by which contestants gaze at their opponent's eyes predicts their defection in a variant on the prisoner's dilemma. Studies 2 and 3 use experiments to examine the underlying causality and demonstrate that the relationship between gazing and competitive behavior is bi-directional. In Study 2, fixation on the eyes, compared to the face, increases competitive behavior toward the target in an ultimatum game. In Study 3, we manipulate the framing of a negotiation (cooperative vs. competitive) and use an eye tracker to measure fixation number and time spent fixating on the counterpart's eyes. We find that a competitive negotiation elicits more gazing, which in turn leads to more competitive behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T09:00:23.487164-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2336
  • The Effects of Leader Illegitimacy on Leaders’ and Subordinates’
           Responses to Relinquishing Power Decisions
    • Authors: Nathaniel J. Ratcliff; Theresa K. Vescio
      Abstract: This research examined how leader illegitimacy affects leaders’ and subordinates’ responses to relinquishing power decisions. The processes underlying responses to leader illegitimacy and relinquishing power were also examined. Across four studies, participants were placed in leader roles (Studies 1a/1b) or subordinate roles (Studies 2a/2b) in an online competition. In Studies 1a/1b, participants assigned a leadership role learned, via a leadership skills test, that their leadership was illegitimate or legitimate. By contrast, in Studies 2a/2b, participants assigned a subordinate role were confronted with either an illegitimate leader who retained their power after performing poorly or a legitimate leader who received the leader role after a poor-performing leader had relinquished their power. Results demonstrated that leaders, who felt they did not belong in their leadership role, relinquished more power when their leadership was illegitimate (vs. legitimate) and subordinates, who felt less in control and greater anger, supported illegitimate (vs. legitimate) leaders less.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T09:15:37.466501-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2335
  • Women's Attraction to Benevolent Sexism: Needing Relationship Security
           Predicts Greater Attraction to Men who Endorse Benevolent Sexism
    • Authors: Emily J. Cross; Nickola C. Overall
      Abstract: Benevolent sexism prescribes that men should cherish and protect women in intimate relationships. Despite the romantic tone of these attitudes, prior research indicates that benevolent sexism undermines women's competence, ambition and independence. Ambivalent sexism theory proposes that benevolent sexism is able to incur these costs because the promise of a chivalrous protective partner offers women security in their intimate relationships. We tested this key proposition by examining whether women who intensely need relationship security—women higher in attachment anxiety—are more attracted to men who endorse benevolent sexism. Highly anxious women (N = 632) rated men described as endorsing benevolent sexism as relatively more attractive, and reported greater preferences for partners to hold benevolently sexist attitudes. These results advance understanding regarding the underlying reasons women find benevolent sexism appealing and identify who will be most vulnerable to the potential costs of benevolent sexism.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T22:35:35.725161-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2334
  • Connecting the Dots: Illusory Pattern Perception Predicts Belief in
           Conspiracies and the Supernatural
    • Authors: Jan-Willem Prooijen; Karen Douglas, Clara De Inocencio
      Abstract: A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated coin toss outcomes. In Study 2, pattern search instructions exerted an indirect effect on irrational beliefs through pattern perception. Study 3 revealed that perceiving patterns in chaotic but not in structured paintings predicted irrational beliefs. In Study 4, we found that agreement with texts supporting paranormal phenomena or conspiracy theories predicted pattern perception. In Study 5, we manipulated belief in a specific conspiracy theory. This manipulation influenced the extent to which people perceive patterns in world events, which in turn predicted unrelated irrational beliefs. We conclude that illusory pattern perception is a central cognitive mechanism accounting for conspiracy theories and supernatural beliefs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T19:50:59.004975-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2331
  • What do I gain from joining crowds' Does self-expansion help to
           explain the relationship between identity fusion, group efficacy and
           collective action'
    • Authors: Tomasz Besta; Michał Jaśkiewicz, Natasza Kosakowska-Berezecka, Rafał Lawendowski, Anna Maria Zawadzka
      Abstract: Four studies were carried out to examine how identity fusion, self- and group efficacy, and collective action are related and what role self-expansion plays in these relationships. In the pilot study, participants recalled their experience of participating in mass gatherings. The three other studies were conducted during mass gatherings organized for collective purposes: a music concert (study 1), a bicycle activist event (study 2), and Equality Days (study 3). The results showed (a) a significant positive relationship between personal and group identity fusion, self-expansion, and self-efficacy (study 1); (b) a significant mediating effect of self-expansion on the relationship between personal and group identity fusion and group efficacy (studies 1 and 2); and (c) a significant mediating effect of self- expansion and group efficacy on the relationship between identity fusion and collective action tendency (studies 2 and 3).
      PubDate: 2017-08-16T23:50:25.974776-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2332
  • Community Identity and Collective Efficacy: A Social Cure for Traumatic
           Stress in post-Earthquake Nepal
    • Authors: Orla T. Muldoon; Khagendra Acharya, Sarah Jay, Kamal Adhikari, Judith Pettigrew, Robert D. Lowe
      Abstract: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was initially conceptualized as a psychopathology that arose as a consequence of war time experiences. More recently, available evidence has demonstrated that post-traumatic stress (PTS) as a consequence of war is buffered by social identity processes. In such contexts, identity resources are arguably more readily accessible given the integral relationship between social identities and intergroup violence. There is no evidence as yet to suggest that social identity processes may act to reduce PTS responses to naturally occurring disasters such as earthquakes and even less data pertaining to non-Western contexts where the impact of such disasters tend to be particularly catastrophic. This paper reports on a study undertaken in earthquake-affected regions in Nepal devastated by April 2015 quake and its major aftershock a month later. Participants (n=399) completed measures of their earthquake experience, Post-Traumatic Stress and Post Traumatic growth (PTG), as well as measures of community identification and collective efficacy. In total 399 people completed the measures approximately six months after the quakes. Results of the study indicated that consistent with tenets of the social identity framework, ethnic and gender group memberships impacted on reported experiences during the earthquake. Reported experience during the quakes and ethnic group membership were both related to increased symptoms of PTS. Ethnicity was also linked to the proportion of respondents reporting clinical levels of PTSD symptoms. The relationship between earthquake experience and PTG was mediated by community identification and collective efficacy. Earthquake experience also had an indirect effect on PTS through collective efficacy. Implications of these findings for those working with traumatized groups are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T08:31:25.607189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2330
  • Exploring social identity change during mental healthcare transition
    • Authors: Niamh McNamara; Imelda Coyne, Tamsin Ford, Moli Paul, Swaran Singh, Fiona McNicholas
      Abstract: Adolescents attending Child & Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) requiring ongoing care are transferred to adult services (AMHS) at eighteen. Many young people with service needs are not being referred, or are refusing referral to AMHS. This study explored these issues from a social identity change perspective. Transcripts of interviews conducted with young people (n=11), their parents (n=5) and child (n=11) and adult (n=8) psychiatrists were thematically analysed. Transition to AMHS confirmed an illness identity. Young people adopting this identity saw continued service engagement as identity-congruent. Disengagement was attributed to failure to adopt an illness identity or to an emerging adult identity associated with greater independence. Fractious professional relationships hindered transition and delayed the formation of a therapeutic alliance with AMHS staff. Disengagement post-transfer was linked to incompatibility between the AMHS service remit and specific illness identities. This study demonstrates how an intersection between identities shapes service engagement and disengagement.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T08:10:21.31915-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2329
  • The Role of Retributive Justice and the Use of International Criminal
           Tribunals in Post-conflict Reconciliation
    • Authors: Mengyao Li; Bernhard Leidner, Nebojsa Petrovic, Seyed Nima Orazni, Mostafa Salari Rad
      Abstract: Four experiments examined people's responses to intergroup violence either committed or suffered by their own group. Experiment 1 demonstrated that Serbs who strongly glorified Serbia were more supportive of future violence against, and less willing to reconcile with, Bosniaks after reading about Serbian victimization by Bosniaks rather than Serbian transgressions against Bosniaks. Replicating these effects with Americans in context of American-Iranian tensions, Experiment 2 further showed that demands for retributive justice explained why high glorifiers showed asymmetrical reactions to ingroup victimization vs. perpetration. Again in the Serb and American context, respectively, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that post-conflict international criminal tribunals can help satisfy victim group members’ desire for retributive justice, and thereby reduce their support for future violence and increase their willingness to reconcile with the perpetrator group. The role of retributive justice and the use of international criminal justice in intergroup conflict (reduction) are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T02:20:58.489755-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2326
  • Pride and punishment: Entitled people's self-promoting values motivate
           hierarchy-restoring retribution
    • Authors: Liz Redford; Kate A. Ratliff
      Abstract: What is the purpose of punishment' The current research shows that for entitled people—those with inflated self-worth—justice is about maintaining societal hierarchies. Entitled people more strongly hold self-enhancing values (power and achievement; Studies 1 and 3). They are also more likely, when thinking about justice for offenders, to adopt a hierarchy-based justice orientation: perceptions that crime threatens hierarchies, motives to restore those hierarchies, and support for retribution (Studies 2 and 3). Further, the relationship of entitlement to justice orientation is mediated by self-enhancing values when entitlement is measured (Study 3) and manipulated (Studies 4, 5 and 6). Together these studies suggest that entitlement—and the resultant preoccupation with one's status—facilitates a view of justice as a hierarchy-based transaction: one where criminal offenders and their victims exchange power and status. These findings reveal the self-enhancing and hierarchy-focused nature of entitlement, as well as the roots of retribution in concerns about status, power, and hierarchies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T21:50:28.514839-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2328
  • Effects of Exposure to Alcohol-related Cues on Racial Discrimination
    • Authors: Elena V. Stepanova; Bruce D. Bartholow, J. Scott Saults, Ronald S. Friedman
      Abstract: Prior research has shown that exposure to alcohol-related images exacerbates expression of implicit racial biases, and that brief exposure to alcohol-related words increases aggressive responses. However, the potential for alcohol cue exposure to elicit differential aggression against a Black (outgroup) relative to a White (ingroup) target—that is, racial discrimination—has never been investigated. Here, we found that White participants (N = 92) exposed to alcohol-related words made harsher judgments of a Black experimenter who had frustrated them than participants who were exposed to nonalcohol words. These findings suggest that exposure to alcohol cues increases discriminatory behaviors toward Blacks.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T05:00:21.228464-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2325
  • Are your cross-ethnic friends ethnic and/or national group
           identifiers' The role of own and perceived cross-ethnic friend's
           identities on outgroup attitudes and multiculturalism
    • Authors: Sabahat Cigdem Bagci; Elif Çelebi
      Abstract: We investigated how own ethnic and national identities and perceived ethnic and national identities of close cross-ethnic friends may predict outgroup attitudes and multiculturalism among Turkish (majority status, N = 197) and Kurdish (minority status, N = 80) ethnic group members in Turkey (Mage = 21.12, SD = 2.59, 69.7% females, 30.3% males). Compared to Turkish participants, Kurdish participants were more asymmetrical in rating their cross-ethnic friend's identities relative to their own, reporting higher ethnic identity, but lower national identity for themselves. Own ethnic identity was negatively associated with attitudes and multiculturalism, whereas own national identity was positively associated with only attitudes. Perceived cross-ethnic friend's national identity was positively related to both outgroup attitudes and multiculturalism. Shared national identification (high levels of own and friend's national identity) led to most positive outgroup attitudes and highest support for multiculturalism. Findings were discussed in the light of social identity and common ingroup identity models.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T12:30:36.716094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2278
  • I feel you feel what I feel: Perceived perspective-taking promotes
           victims‘ conciliatory attitudes because of inferred emotions in the
    • Authors: Mariëtte Berndsen; Michael Wenzel, Emma F. Thomas, Breeanna Noske
      Abstract: In the context of bullying in a nursing workplace, we test the argument that an offender‘s perspective-taking promotes victim conciliation, mediated by perceived perspective-taking, that is, the extent to which the victim perceives the offender as taking their perspective. Perceived perspective-taking facilitates the attribution of moral emotions (remorse, etc.) to the offender, thereby promoting conciliatory victim responses. However, perceived perspective-taking would be qualified by the extent to which the severity of consequences expressed in the offender‘s perspective-taking matches or surpasses the severity for the victim. In Studies 1 and 2 (Ns = 141 and 122), victims indicated greater trust and/or forgiveness when the offender had taken the victim‘s perspective. This was sequentially mediated by perceived perspective-taking and victim‘s inference that the offender had felt moral emotions. As predicted, in Study 2 (but not Study 1) severity of consequences qualified victims‘ perceived perspective-taking. Study 3 (N = 138) examined three potential mechanisms for the moderation by severity. Victims attributed greater perspective-taking to the offender when the consequences were less severe than voiced by the offender, suggesting victims‘ appreciation of the offender‘s generous appraisal. Attributions of perspective-taking and of moral emotions to the offender may play an important role in reconciliation processes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T12:30:29.29401-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2321
  • Beyond ‘nothing to hide’: When identity is key to privacy
           threat under surveillance
    • Authors: Avelie Stuart; Mark Levine
      Abstract: Privacy is psychologically important, vital for democracy, and in the era of ubiquitous and mobile surveillance technology, facing increasingly complex threats and challenges. Yet surveillance is often justified under a trope that one has “nothing to hide”. We conducted focus groups (N = 42) on topics of surveillance and privacy, and using discursive analysis, identify the ideological assumptions and the positions that people adopt to make sense of their participation in a surveillance society. We find a premise that surveillance is increasingly inescapable, but this was only objected to when people reported feeling misrepresented, or where they had an inability to withhold aspects of identities. The (in)visibility of the surveillance technology also complicated how surveillance is constructed. Those interested in engaging the public in debates about surveillance may be better served by highlighting the identity consequences of surveillance, rather than constructing surveillance as a generalised privacy threat.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T12:30:27.394815-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2270
  • Nostalgia Motivates Pursuit of Important Goals by Increasing Meaning in
    • Authors: Constantine Sedikides; Wing-Yee Cheung, Tim Wildschut, Erica G. Hepper, Einar Baldursson, Bendt Pedersen
      Abstract: This research focused on existential and motivational implications of the emotion of nostalgia. Nostalgia (relative to control) increased meaning in life, which, in turn, galvanised intentions to pursue one‘s most important goal (Experiment 1) and to pursue one‘s most important, but not least important, goal (Experiment 2). The basic pattern held in two cultures (British and Danish) independently of positive affect. This is first evidence that nostalgia has specific motivational consequences (i.e., pursuit of more, but not less, important goals) and transmits these consequences via meaning in life. Also, this is first evidence that meaning is associated with specific motivational consequences. Discussion considers the relevance of the findings for the emotion and motivation literatures.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T12:30:25.451434-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2318
  • Interpersonal Attraction in Dyads and Groups: Effects of the Hearts of the
           Beholder and the Beheld
    • Authors: Thomas E. Malloy
      Abstract: Dyadic interpersonal attraction (IA) was studied within groups of very highly acquainted family members, friends and co-workers. IA was determined by the perceiver (i.e., the heart of the beholder), the target (i.e., the heart of the beheld), and in specific dyads, by the unique combination of the two. The consistency of one‘s attraction to others and others‘ attraction to the person across groups were addressed using the key person design. Attraction to a person in one group was independent of attraction to that person in another, although people predicted that members of different groups were similarly attracted to them. A new model (ARRMA) was specified to simultaneously study assumed reciprocity, actual reciprocity, and metaperception accuracy of attraction (i.e., accurate predictions of others‘ attraction to oneself). Assumed reciprocity of IA was substantial at the individual and dyadic levels. Reciprocity of attraction at the individual level, a heretofore unconfirmed “plausible hypothesis” (Newcomb, 1979), was supported; dyadic reciprocity was weak. Meta-accuracy of IA was observed among individuals but was weak in dyads. Perceived interpersonal similarity predicted IA among individuals and in specific dyads. Considering dyadic attraction within and between groups, and the use of componential analysis permitted the specification of new IA phenomena and resolved a long standing theoretical problem regarding the reciprocity of attraction.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T12:30:23.436718-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2324
  • From Segregation to Intergroup Contact and Back: Using Experiments and
           Simulation to Understand the Bidirectional Link
    • Authors: Elmar Schlüter; Johannes Ullrich, Andreas Glenz, Peter Schmidt
      Abstract: Research on intergroup contact has mostly viewed desegregation as a necessary condition for contact to unfold its power to reduce prejudice. Through residential and school choices, however, prejudice also contributes to segregation. To shed light on this bidirectional link, we conducted two survey-based experiments with stratified quota samples of German adults. In Study 1, respondents with less contact and more prejudice indicated a lower likelihood of renting an apartment in a neighborhood with a larger proportion of minority members, although housing quality and crime rate were held constant. In Study 2, similar results were obtained for the likelihood of enrolling their child at a school with a larger proportion of minority students. Building on these results in a computer simulation, we find that because contact only reduces prejudice, but does not produce pro-minority preferences, spontaneous desegregation is unlikely to occur even under the most favorable structural and economic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T07:35:24.958641-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2284
  • Wealth inequality and activism: Perceiving injustice galvanizes social
           change but perceptions depend on political ideologies
    • Authors: Crystal L. Hoyt; Aaron J. Moss, Jeni L. Burnette, Annette Schieffelin, Abigail Goethals
      Abstract: What motivates people to engage in activism against wealth inequality' The simple answer is, perceiving injustice. However, the current work demonstrates that these perceptions depend on political ideologies. More specifically, for political liberals who frequently question the fairness of the economic system, messages simply describing the extent of the inequality (distributive injustice) are enough to motivate activism (Study 1). For political conservatives, who are inclined to believe that inequality results from fair procedures, messages must also detail how the system of economic forces is unjust (procedural injustice; Studies 2 and 3). Together, these studies suggest perceiving injustice can galvanize social change, but for conservatives, this means more than simply outlining the extent of the inequality.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T02:35:30.948825-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2289
  • Social identity and health at mass gatherings
    • Authors: Nick Hopkins; Stephen David Reicher
      Abstract: Identifying with a group can bring benefits to physical and psychological health. These benefits can be found with both small-scale and large-scale social groups. However, groups can also be associated with health risks: a distinct branch of medicine (‘Mass Gathering Medicine’) has evolved to address the health risks posed by participating in events characterized by large crowds. We argue that emphasizing either the positive or the negative health consequences of group life is one-sided: both positive and negative effects on health can occur (simultaneously). Moreover, both such effects can have their roots in the same social psychological transformations associated with a group-based social identification. Reviewing evidence from across a range of mass gatherings, we offer a conceptual analysis of such mixed effects. Our account shows i., how social identity analyses can enrich mass gatherings medicine, and ii., how social identity analyses of health can be enriched by examining mass gatherings.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T02:35:27.743676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2288
  • Dissonance and abstraction: Cognitive conflict leads to higher level of
    • Authors: Sebastian Cancino-Montecinos; Fredrik Björklund, Torun Lindholm
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, an ambiguous and unfamiliar situation might propel an individual to a more abstract mindset. Based on this premise, cognitive conflict was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated in the induced compliance paradigm, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. The results suggest that the experience of cognitive conflict is closely related to increased abstraction.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T02:35:24.210531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2287
  • Values-Related Goals and Vocational Choice: The Effect of Temporal
    • Authors: Yaron Elias; Ravit Nussinson, Sonia Roccas
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:55:21.531498-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2286
  • Present but Invisible: Physical Obscurity Fosters Social Disconnection
    • Authors: Megan L. Knowles; Kristy K. Dean
      Abstract: Research suggests that we feel invisible and disconnected when others avoid our gaze. In three studies, we examine whether similar feelings may arise when others are unable to meet our gaze—when they are unaware of our presence altogether. We posit that feelings of loneliness and disconnection can arise when others are unable to sense one's physical presence. To test whether invisibility engenders loneliness, we primed participants with the invisibility construct (Studies 1–2) and manipulated actual visibility (Study 3) prior to assessing feelings of loneliness and isolation. Results revealed that being present, but unseen, is sufficient to induce loneliness. Findings are related to the ostracism and intersectional invisibility literatures, and the social costs of physical obscurity are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:35:24.873766-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2274
  • Are Highly Numerate Individuals Invulnerable to Attribute Framing
           Bias' Comparing Numerically and Graphically Represented Attribute
    • Authors: Hamutal Kreiner; Eyal Gamliel
      Abstract: Judgments and decisions are frequently biased by attribute framing, presenting either positive or negative attributes of an object. This paper focused on two factors previously shown to moderate the attribute-framing bias: mode of presentation and participants' numeric ability. Whereas many studies demonstrated that graphical display reduced the bias, recent findings suggest that graphical manipulation can nevertheless elicit significant framing bias. Numeracy has been shown to moderate attribute-framing bias when the quantitative information was represented by numbers. The present study examined to what extent numeracy would still moderate the framing bias when it is graphically elicited. The results showed a significant framing bias for graphically- as well as for numerically-represented framing scenarios. Critically, whereas numeracy moderated the framing bias in numerically-represented scenarios, it did not have a similar moderating effect when the quantitative information in the scenario was graphically represented. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:25:31.234394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2272
  • The Power of Politics: How political leaders in Serbia discursively manage
    • Authors: Sandra Obradović; Caroline Howarth
      Abstract: Abstract:The construction of national identities through political discourse is a growing field of interest to social psychologists, particularly as many countries face changing demographics, borders and social realities as part of globalization, immigration and continued political integration and conflict. Through an analysis of 18 key speeches by Serbian politicians over the past 25 years, the present paper explores the question of how politicians, as entrepreneurs of identity, discursively manage the relationship between identity continuity and political change over time, in attempts to construct the future of a nation. We particularly explore this issue in the context of Serbia‘s present political aspirations toward joining the European Union. The findings indicate that 1) political change becomes negotiated within the framework of established and legitimized identity discourses that have developed over time, and 2) while history is frequently drawn on to support political agendas, it is successful to the extent that this history offers a sense of cultural continuity rather than a coherent narrative of historical events and time-periods.We conclude by arguing for the benefits that a diachronic approach to political discourse can offer social psychologists interested in the discursive construction of national identity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T01:25:30.288029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2277
  • The Effect of the Validity of Co-occurrence on Automatic and Deliberate
    • Authors: Tal Moran; Yoav Bar-Anan, Brian A. Nosek
      Abstract: Co-occurrence of an object and affective stimuli does not always mean that the object and the stimuli are the same valence (e.g., false accusations that Richard is a crook). Contemporary theory posits that information about the (in)validity of co-occurrence has stronger influence on deliberate than automatic evaluation. However, available evidence supports that hypothesis only when the (in)validity information is delayed. Further, the existing evidence is open to alternative methodological accounts. In six high-powered experiments (total N = 1,750), we modified previous procedures to minimize alternative explanations and examine whether delayed (in)validity information has discrepant effect on automatic versus deliberate evaluation. Casting doubt on the generality of the hypothesis, we found more sensitivity of deliberate than automatic evaluation to delayed validity information only when automatic evaluation was measured with the Implicit Association Test and not with the Evaluative Priming task or the Affective Misattribution Procedure.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T00:35:30.409082-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2266
  • Explaining Unexplainable Food Choices
    • Authors: Marieke A. Adriaanse; Floor M. Kroese, Jonas Weijers, Peter M. Gollwitzer, Gabriele Oettingen
      Abstract: In recent years, psychologists have started to investigate the downstream consequences of nonconsciously activated behaviour (acting in an ‘explanatory vacuum’). Results have shown that when such behaviour is norm-violating, people experience a need to confabulate reasons for this behaviour. The present paper aims to add more convincing evidence for this assumption. Study 1 addresses this question by replicating Study 2 of Adriaanse et al. (2014) while adding a condition in which people are post-hoc provided with an explanation for their behaviour. Study 2 addresses this question by explicitly demanding an explanation for a nonconsciously steered choice. Both studies were conducted in the context of eating behaviour. Results of both studies were indicative of confabulation as a downstream consequence of nonconsciously steered eating behaviour (Study 1) or food choice (Study 2). Future research should address the potential of confabulated reasons spilling over to next occasions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T00:05:34.404657-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2273
  • Uncertainty and Prejudice: The Role of Religiosity in Shaping Group
    • Authors: Maciej Sekerdej; Małgorzata Kossowska, Aneta Czernatowicz-Kukuczka
      Abstract: Past research indicates that being religious is frequently motivated by the need to avoid uncertainty, and associated with prejudice against value-violating groups. The present research clarifies these previous findings and shows for the first time a causal link between a sense of uncertainty and group attitudes through religiosity and the perception of the target group's mindset. Study 1 demonstrates that belief in God is associated with uncertainty avoidance, and increases prejudice against value-violating groups, but simultaneously increases positive attitudes towards value-consistent groups. Study 2 demonstrates experimentally that a sense of uncertainty shapes intergroup attitudes when the relationship is mediated through the belief in God, and the perception that a target group actually violated perceiver's values. The results corroborate and broaden previous findings on religiosity, ambiguity avoidance and prejudice, and for the first time show a causal link between a sense of uncertainty and attitudes towards value-violating and value-consistent groups.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T22:40:23.588564-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2298
  • Social Identity, Self-Esteem, and Mental Health in Autism
    • Authors: Drs Kate Cooper; Laura Smith, Ailsa Russell
      Abstract: We investigated Autism social identity and mental health in autistic people. Autistic people have social and communication deficits, and experience social stigma - factors that could interfere with the development of positive social identity. Indeed, autistic participants (N=272) had significantly lower personal self-esteem, and higher levels of depression and anxiety than typically developing controls (N=267). Autism social identification was positively associated with personal self-esteem, and this relationship was mediated by collective self-esteem (perceived positivity of Autism identity). Furthermore, there were significant negative indirect effects between Autism identification and anxiety, and between Autism identification and depression, through increases in collective self-esteem and personal self-esteem. Thus, while autistic participants reported poorer mental health than average, having a positive Autism social identity appeared to offer a protective mechanism. This implies that to improve mental health in the Autism population, clinical approaches should aim to facilitate development of positive Autism identities.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T22:15:22.248422-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2297
  • Putting Identity into the Community: Exploring the Social Dynamics of
           Urban Regeneration
    • Authors: Stacey C. Heath; Anna Rabinovich, Manuela Barreto
      Abstract: The present paper adopts a social identity perspective to examine the relationship between community-based identification and well-being, resilience and willingness to pay back in the context of urban regeneration. A sample of 104 residents across five deprived urban areas in the South-West of England that have recently undergone or are about to undergo regeneration projects, completed a survey. The results demonstrate that areas where a more community-centred, bottom-up, approach to regeneration was taken (i.e., “culture-led”) showed higher levels of community cohesion than areas where the community dynamics were ignored (i.e., a “top-down” approach to regeneration). Increased community identification was linked to greater perceived social support, community-esteem, personal self-esteem, and self-efficacy. These psychological processes were, in turn, linked to increased resilience and well-being, as well as a stronger willingness to pay back to the community. The results are consistent with the social identity approach. Implications for urban regeneration strategies are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T21:50:22.883839-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2296
  • Seeking revenge or seeking reconciliation' How concern for
           social-image and felt shame helps explain responses in reciprocal
           intergroup conflict
    • Authors: Nicolay Gausel; Colin Wayne Leach, Agostino Mazziotta, Friederike Feuchte
      Abstract: In conflicts with reciprocal violence, individuals belong to a group that has been both perpetrator and victim. In a field experiment in Liberia, West Africa, we led participants (N = 146) to focus on their group as either perpetrator or victim in order to investigate its effect on orientation toward inter-group reconciliation or revenge. Compared to a perpetrator focus, a victim focus led to slightly more revenge orientation and moderately less reconciliation orientation. The effect of the focus manipulation on revenge orientation was fully mediated, and reconciliation orientation partly mediated, by viewing the in-group's social-image as at risk. Independent of perpetrator or victim focus, shame (but not guilt) was a distinct explanation of moderately more reconciliation orientation. This is consistent with a growing body of work demonstrating the pro-social potential of shame. Taken together, results suggest how groups in reciprocal conflict might be encouraged toward reconciliation and away from revenge by feeling shame for their wrongdoing and viewing their social-image as less at risk.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T21:20:33.66082-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2295
  • “Healthy” Identities' Revisiting Rejection-Identification and
           Rejection-Disidentification Models among Voluntary and Forced Immigrants
    • Authors: Magdalena Bobowik; Borja Martinovic, Nekane Basabe, Lisa Barsties, Gusta Wachter
      Abstract: Rejection-identification and -disidentification models propose that low-status groups identify with their in-group and disidentify with a high-status out-group in response to rejection by the latter. Our research tests these two models simultaneously among multiple groups of foreign-born people living in two cultural contexts. We examined these effects on representative samples of 2446 refugees in the Netherlands (Study 1) and 1234 voluntary immigrants in Spain (Study 2). We found that both ethnic and host national identification are “healthy” and thus predominantly conducive to greater hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Further, perceived discrimination was associated with host national disidentification among refugees in the Netherlands and voluntary immigrants in Spain. However, our findings regarding the rejection-identification link were less consistent. We discuss the importance of ethnic and host national identification for the well-being of immigrants.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T20:35:26.40193-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2306
  • Competence and confusion: How stereotype threat can make you a bad judge
           of your competence
    • Authors: Una Tellhed; Caroline Adolfsson
      Abstract: Women tend to have competence doubts for masculine-stereotyped domains (e.g. math), while men tend to think they can handle both feminine-stereotyped and masculine-stereotyped domains equally well (e.g. Watt, 2010). We suggest that perhaps women's more frequent experience with stereotype threat (Pillaud et al., 2015) can partly explain why. Our results showed that when stereotype threat was primed in high school students (n = 244), there was no relationship between their performance on an academic test (the SweSAT) and their assessment of their performance (how well they did), while in a non-stereotype threat condition, there was a medium-sized relationship. The effect was similar for both men and women primed with stereotype threat. The results imply that stereotype threat undermines performance assessments.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T20:35:23.053244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2307
  • Using Nostalgia to Reduce Immigration Prejudice
    • Authors: Maria Gravani; Anastasia Soureti, Sofia Stathi
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T20:31:12.195832-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2294
  • Observers' Judgments of Identification Accuracy are Affected by Non-Valid
           Cues: A Brunswikian Lens Model Analysis
    • Authors: Kristina S. Kaminski; Siegfried L. Sporer
      Abstract: This study investigated persuasive effects of behavior cues on observers’ judgments of eyewitness identification decisions. Forty-eight positive identification statements (50% of which were objectively correct) were evaluated regarding witness likeability, trustworthiness, knowledge and impression of confidence. Moreover, ratings of different speech style characteristics (e.g., hedges, hesitations, gestures, speech rate, answer length) and of different person and event description qualities were collected. It was investigated (1) whether these cues were related to objective identification accuracy and (2) whether observers used them to make their judgments and how they weighted them. Observers heavily relied on the impression of witness confidence and overestimated the discriminative value of several description qualities, although none of these cues was a valid indicator of identification accuracy. Effects of speech style characteristics depended on the presence of additional descriptions. Recommendations for the evaluation of identification decisions in criminal proceedings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T20:05:22.088127-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2293
  • When Identity Hurts: How Positive Intragroup Experiences Yield Negative
           Mental Health Implications for Ethnic and Sexual Minorities
    • Authors: Christopher T. Begeny; Yuen J. Huo
      Abstract: Two studies (longitudinal, N=510; cross-sectional; N=249) explain how feeling valued in one's ethnic/sexual minority group has benefits for mental health but also certain costs through the way it shapes minorities' identity. Drawing from the intragroup status and health model (ISAH) we posit that when individuals feel valued in their minority group it bolsters group identification; with greater identity-centrality individuals tend to view daily social interactions through the ‘lens’ of their minority group and ultimately perceive more discrimination. Discrimination, in turn, negatively shapes health. Thus, feeling valued in one's minority group has benefits for health but also indirect costs, perhaps counterintuitively by strengthening minority group identity. Both studies supported these predictions. Study 2 also supported an adapted ISAH model, for use in the context of concealable stigmatized identities (sexual minorities). Overall, the ISAH model explains why feeling valued and having strong social identities are not always beneficial, yielding certain costs for stigmatized individuals' health.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T19:30:22.749687-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2292
  • Trust Maintenance as a Function of Construal Level and Attributions: The
           Case of Apologies
    • Authors: Gijs Houwelingen; Marius Dijke, David De Cremer
      Abstract: When do recipients of an apology (‘trustors’) base their decision to trust a perpetrator (a ‘trustee’) on the attributional information embedded in an apology' Attributions provide a detailed account of the trustee's causal involvement in committing a transgression. We therefore argue that trustors in a low construal level mindset use this information in their trusting decision. However, trustors in a high construal level mindset likely consider all apologies as simple statements of regret, regardless of the attributional information they contain. We find support for this argument in four laboratory experiments. This research nuances the idea that to restore trust by means of an apology, the trustee must only use an effective attribution for a negative outcome. We also present a more realistic understanding of the process leading from apologies to trust than has been offered in previous work by simultaneously considering the role of the trustor and that of the trustee in the trust restoration process.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T18:15:23.527758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2291
  • Does intergroup contact predict personality' A longitudinal study on
           the bidirectional relationship between intergroup contact and personality
    • Authors: Loris Vezzali; Rhiannon Turner, Dora Capozza, Elena Trifiletti
      Abstract: We conducted a longitudinal study to test whether, in addition to being predicted by personality, intergroup contact is longitudinally associated with personality traits. Participants were 388 majority (Italian) and 109 minority (immigrant) first-year high-school students. Results revealed a bidirectional relationship between contact and personality: quality of contact was longitudinally associated with greater agreeableness and openness to experience, while agreeableness and openness to experience were longitudinal predictors of contact quality. An unexpected negative longitudinal association also emerged between quantity of contact and agreeableness. These effects were not moderated by group of belonging (majority vs. minority). Our findings highlight the importance of integrating research on intergroup contact with research on personality.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T17:40:24.078706-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2313
  • Imagine People Like Us: Imagined Intergroup Contact Promotes Support for
           Human Rights through Increased Humanization
    • Authors: Francesca Prati; Steve Loughnan
      Abstract: Dehumanization concerns the denial of others’ human uniqueness (animalistic dehumanization) or human nature (mechanistic dehumanization). Imagined intergroup contact has been suggested to be an effective technique for reducing dehumanization. We examined whether this intervention might primarily work by increasing the type of humanness the group specifically lacks. Study 1 revealed that after imagining contact with an animalized outgroup (i.e., Gypsy people), participants attributed higher levels of human uniqueness. Study 2 replicated this finding, eliminating improved intergroup attitudes as an alternative explanation. Further, it demonstrated that imagined contact increased support for human rights, and that this was mediated by increased adscription of human uniqueness. Study 3 confirmed previous evidence by showing that after imagining contact with a mechanized outgroup (i.e., Japanese people), participants attributed higher levels of human nature that explains support for human rights. Overall, imagined contact specifically works at increasing the type of humanness the group is typically denied.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T16:55:25.751674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2282
  • Implicit Self and the Right Hemisphere:Increasing Implicit Self-Esteem and
           Implicit Positive Affect by Left Hand Contractions
    • Authors: Markus Quirin; Stephanie Fröhlich, Julius Kuhl
      Abstract: Unilateral hand contraction typically activates the contralateral hemisphere and has led to changes in psychological states and performances in previous research. Based on a right hemisphere model of the implicit self, we hypothesized and found that left hand contraction increases momentary levels of implicit self-esteem (Studies 1 and 2) and implicit positive affect (Study 3). The findings are discussed with respect to potential differences between the hemispheres in implicit and explicit affective processing and how they can be integrated in the existing literature on hemisphere asymmetries.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T16:15:22.476407-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2281
  • It's not quite cricket: Muslim immigrants' accounts of integration into UK
    • Authors: Saliha Anjum; Chris McVittie, Andrew McKinlay
      Abstract: Recent events demonstrate the need for greater understanding of intercultural relations between Muslim minorities and majority cultures in host societies. We examine British Muslims’ descriptions of their experiences of acculturation. Data from interviews with first generation Muslims were analysed using discourse analysis. Participants’ descriptions reflect the acculturation possibilities made available in local interactional contexts. Where invited to choose between assimilation and separation, participants provide ‘troubles-telling’ accounts that detail the difficulties involved. In contexts involving integration, participants account for their own efforts. By contrast, contexts that allow participants to introduce acculturation in their own terms lead to descriptions of acculturation success. Thus, participants’ accounts of relations with British culture reflect not simply orientations towards acculturation but rather how acculturation is framed and negotiated in local contexts: the success or failure of intercultural relations reflects as much how the issues are presented as they do immigrants’ acceptance or non-acceptance of British culture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T15:15:22.523137-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2280
  • When ‘who we are’ and ‘who I desire to be’ appear disconnected:
           Introducing collective/personal self-discrepancies and investigating their
           relations with minority students’ psychological health
    • Authors: Regine Debrosse; Maya Rossignac-Milon, Donald M. Taylor
      Abstract: According to Self-Discrepancy Theory research, perceiving mismatches between personal aspects of the self-concept is associated with negative psychological consequences, including depression and anxiety. However, the impact of perceiving mismatches between collective and personal self-aspects is still unknown. In a first step to address this gap, we introduce collective/personal self-discrepancies—perceived mismatches between a desired self-aspect and a collective identity. For ethnic minority group members (n = 147), collective/ personal self-discrepancies were associated with more severe anxiety and depression symptoms. Bootstrapping analyses suggest that these relations are mediated by self-discrepancies experienced at the personal level, but only for group members presenting average or high levels of ethnic identification. This study reaffirms the importance of collective identities, especially as potential antecedents of issues with personal aspects of the self-concept. The findings are further discussed in terms of their significance for ethnic minority group members, who often highly identify with their minority groups.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:00:22.220517-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2320
  • Fighting Ageism through Nostalgia
    • Authors: Tim Wildschut; Constantine Sedikides, Rhiannon Turner
      Abstract: Two experiments tested whether nostalgia a resource for fighting ageism. In Experiment 1, younger adults who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary) encounter with an older adult showed a more positive attitude toward older adults, mediated by greater inclusion of older adults in the self (IOGS). In Experiment 2, these findings were replicated and extended with a subtle nostalgia manipulation. Younger adults identified an older, familiar adult, before writing about an encounter with this person that was characterised by either central (e.g., “keepsakes,” “childhood”) or peripheral (e.g., “wishing,” “daydreaming”) features of the construct of nostalgia (i.e., prototype). Participants who recalled a central (vs. peripheral) nostalgic encounter reported greater social connectedness, which predicted increased IOGS. In turn, increased IOGS was associated with lower desire to avoid older adults. Several alternative explanations for the intergroup benefits of nostalgia were ruled out. The research established that nostalgia qualifies as a resource for combatting ageism.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T05:40:30.142349-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2317
  • Dancing is belonging! How social networks mediate the effect of a dance
           intervention on students’ sense of belonging to their classroom
    • Authors: Madeleine Kreutzmann; Lysann Zander, Gregory D. Webster
      Abstract: What does it take to feel you belong' Using a sample of 606 students in 30 classrooms, with 15 classrooms participating in a school-based dance intervention, we examined intra- and extrapsychic sources of social belonging using social network analysis. Whereas outdegree (the number of outgoing liking nominations to classmates) served as a proxy variable for students’ active acceptance of others, indegree (the number of ingoing liking nominations from other peers) served as a proxy variable for the passive acceptance by others. Both measures should account for changes in students’ sense of belonging to their classroom. Multilevel longitudinal mediation analyses supported our predictions—increased belonging related to increasing acceptance by others and of others, which were experienced by students participating in the dance intervention for a year (vs. a non-treated control group). We discuss our findings within the current debate on the use of distal variables to explain intrapsychic constructs.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T05:40:27.797406-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2319
  • University socialization and the acceptance of anti-egalitarian ideology:
           The underlying role of extrinsic life goals
    • Authors: Aida Muheljic; Sasa Drace
      Abstract: Past research suggests that students in social science often become more egalitarian while students in business and economics show a trend in the opposite direction. Using a cross-sectional study in which we compared first and third year students from different academic environments, we wanted to explore these issues and to test whether life goals may account for potential ideological differences among them. Psychology and economics students at first and third year of their respective academic group completed both the Aspiration index and social dominance orientation scale. Consistent with the socialization hypothesis, economics students reported higher levels of SDO than psychology students but only at the third year of study. A similar pattern of results was observed for extrinsic life goals (but no differences were found for intrinsic life goals). Importantly, the interaction between academic year and academic major on SDO was mediated by the measure of extrinsic life goals.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:45:59.979532-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2316
  • Is regulatory focus related to minimal and maximal standards' Depends
           on how you ask!
    • Authors: Fanny Lalot; Alain Quiamzade, Juan Manuel Falomir-Pichastor
      Abstract: Regulatory focus theory suggests that hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) function like maximal goals, whereas duties and responsibilities (prevention focus) function like minimal goals (Brendl & Higgins, 1996). However, past research has not always reliably found such a link between regulatory focus and maximal/minimal goals or standards. In the present research, we hypothesised that this inconsistency can be explained, at least in part, by conceptual differences resulting in the use of different, specific wording. In four studies, we compared wording in terms of the relative magnitude of the goals to wording in terms of their absolute versus gradual perception. Results showed that regulatory focus (manipulated or measured) consistently relates to maximal versus minimal standards framed as goals of different magnitudes, but not to the goals framed according to an absolute/gradual perception. Implication of the results for regulatory focus research is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:45:52.549819-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2314
  • Stigma Consciousness Modulates Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress in
    • Authors: David Matthew Doyle; Lisa Molix
      Abstract: AbstractThe aim of the current study was to examine whether stigma consciousness shapes cortisol responses to social stress among women in the lab. Undergraduate women (N = 45) completed background measures and then participated in a public speaking task, with assessments of cortisol prior to the stressor as well as 20- and 40-minutes post stressor onset. Results from multilevel models revealed that women higher in stigma consciousness evidenced blunted cortisol reactivity following social stress across the study session compared to women lower in stigma consciousness. This interaction was robust to adjustment for a number of covariates, including demographic (e.g., age), physiological (e.g., menstrual cycle) and psychological (e.g., depressive symptomatology) factors. Potential explanations for observed cortisol patterns are discussed, including hypo-reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated anticipatory stress. To conclude, implications for health disparities research are considered.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:40:30.062164-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2310
  • An application of the prototype willingness model to drivers’
           speeding behaviour
    • Authors: Mark A. Elliott; Rebecca McCartan, Sarah E. Brewster, Dionne Coyle, Lindsey Emerson, Kayleigh Gibson
      Abstract: We tested the prototype willingness model (PWM). The participants (N=198) completed online questionnaire measures of PWM constructs (time 1) and subsequent speeding behaviour (time 2). Path analyses showed that the PWM accounted for 89% of the variance in subsequent (self-reported) speeding behaviour. This significantly exceeded the variance accounted for by the theory of planned behaviour. In line with the PWM, both behavioural intention and behavioural willingness had direct effects on behaviour. Behavioural willingness had a significantly larger effect. Attitude and subjective norm both had indirect effects on behaviour through both behavioural intention and behavioural willingness. Prototype (similarity) perceptions had indirect effects on behaviour through behavioural willingness only. The findings support the notion that driving is governed by reactive decision-making (willingness), underpinned by prototype perceptions, attitudes and subjective norms, to a greater extent than it is deliberative decision-making (intentions), underpinned by attitudes and subjective norms. The implications for safety interventions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:35:38.164476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2268
  • In or Out' How the perceived morality (vs. competence) of prospective
           group members affects acceptance and rejection
    • Authors: Romy Lee; Naomi Ellemers, Daan Scheepers, Bastiaan T. Rutjens
      Abstract: When is an individual likely to be accepted or rejected by a group' The current research investigates responses towards prospective group members depending on how they compare to the group in terms of their perceived morality or competence. Because morality is of particular importance to groups, we hypothesized that the perceived morality of prospective group members has more impact on the group's tendency to accept versus reject them than their competence. Across three experiments, employing self-report, psychophysiological, and behavioural measures, results supported this hypothesis: Immoral (vs. incompetent) individuals were perceived as more different from the group and were more likely to be rejected. Additionally, the rejection of prospective group members with perceived inferior morality (but not those with inferior competence) was mediated by the group threat they imply. Inclusion success thus seems to be mainly contingent upon how a group evaluates the individual's morality relative to the group's standards.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:35:31.22789-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2269
  • Superheroes for Change: Physical Safety Promotes Socially (but Not
           Economically) Progressive Attitudes among Conservatives
    • Authors: Jaime L. Napier; Julie Huang, Andrew J. Vonasch, John A. Bargh
      Abstract: Across two studies, we find evidence for our prediction that experimentally increasing feelings of physical safety increases conservatives’ socially progressive attitudes. Specifically, Republican and conservative participants who imagined being endowed with a superpower that made them invulnerable to physical harm (vs. the ability to fly) were more socially (but not economically) liberal (Study 1) and less resistant to social change (Study 2). Results suggest that socially (but not economically) conservative attitudes are driven, at least in part, by needs for safety and security.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:35:28.816894-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2315
  • Addicted to answers: Need for cognitive closure and the endorsement of
           conspiracy beliefs
    • Authors: Marta Marchlewska; Aleksandra Cichocka, Małgorzata Kossowska
      Abstract: Conspiracy theories offer simple answers to complex problems by providing explanations for uncertain situations. Thus, they should be attractive to individuals who are intolerant of uncertainty and seek cognitive closure. We hypothesized that need for cognitive closure (NFCC) should foster conspiracy beliefs about events that lack clear official explanations, especially when conspiracy theories are temporarily salient. In Experiment 1 NFCC positively predicted the endorsement of a conspiracy theory behind the refugee crisis, especially when conspiratorial explanations were made salient. Experiment 2 showed that when conspiratorial explanations were made salient, NFCC positively predicted beliefs in conspiracies behind a mysterious plane crash. However, the link between NFCC and beliefs in conspiratorial explanations was reversed in the case of a plane crash with an official, non-conspiratorial, explanation for the accident. In conclusion, people high (vs. low) in NFCC seize on conspiratorial explanations for uncertain events when such explanations are situationally accessible.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:35:27.096887-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2308
  • When Intergroup Apology is Not Enough: Seeking Help and Reactions to
           Receiving Help among Members of Low Status Groups
    • Authors: Samer Halabi; John F. Dovidio, Arie Nadler
      Abstract: Relations between groups are characterized by competition and suspicion. As a consequence, members of low status groups may question the meaning of apologies offered by a high status group, especially under unstable status relations. In two experiments, the present research investigated the role of the intergroup versus interpersonal apology and the potential moderating effect of the stability of intergroup relations on low status group members’ (a) help seeking (Study 1) and (b) responses to receiving help (Study 2) from a high status group. Consistent with our hypotheses, when status relations were unstable rather than stable, following a formal intergroup relative to an interpersonal apology by an Israeli official, Israeli-Arab students sought less dependency-oriented and more autonomy-oriented help from an Israeli-Jewish study coordinator (Study 1) and Jewish-Ethiopian newcomers reacted more negatively when they read about an Ethiopian-Jewish student receiving unsolicited dependency-oriented help from an Israeli-Jewish college student (Study 2). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:35:23.052481-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2309
  • The Helping Orientations Inventory: Measuring Propensities to Provide
           Autonomy and Dependency Help
    • Authors: Alexander Maki; Joseph A. Vitriol, Patrick C. Dwyer, John S. Kim, Mark Snyder
      Abstract: Research on helping behavior distinguishes between giving recipients the tools to solve problems for themselves (autonomy-oriented help) and direct solutions not requiring recipients’ involvement (dependency-oriented help). Across three studies, we examined whether individuals can be characterized by dispositional propensities toward offering autonomy-oriented and/or dependency-oriented help. In initial studies, factor analyses revealed the two hypothesized Helping Orientations Inventory scales along with an additional scale capturing opposition to helping, all acceptable in internal consistency and test-retest reliability (Study 1a – 1c). Next, we found that the three scales related in distinct ways to constructs from the intergroup (e.g., social dominance orientation) and interpersonal (e.g., empathic concern) helping literatures (Study 1d and 1e). Additionally, these orientations predicted satisfaction with volunteer behavior (Study 2) and interest in future volunteering (Study 3). Overall, people vary in their helping orientations, and these orientations implicate a range of variables relevant to intergroup and interpersonal helping.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:35:21.534682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2267
  • The Visual Influence of Ostracism
    • Authors: Marius Golubickis; Arash Sahraie, Amelia R. Hunt, Aleksandar Visokomogilski, Pavlos Topalidis, C. Neil Macrae
      Abstract: Reflecting the fundamental human need to establish and maintain positive connections with others, it has been suggested that an Ostracism Detection System (ODS) is sensitized to targets by which one has been ostracized. Evidence supporting the operation of this system has yet to be provided, however. Accordingly, using binocular rivalry to explore attentional processing, here we considered the extent to which targets previously associated with ostracism dominate visual awareness. Participants initially performed a virtual ball-tossing game (i.e., Cyberball) in which they were ‘ostracized’ or ‘included’ by the other players. Afterwards, the faces of these players were presented together with houses in a binocular rivalry task. The results revealed that targets associated with ostracism (vs. inclusion) dominated longest in visual awareness.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T00:30:23.143636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2305
  • High self-monitors modulate their responses as a function of relevant
           social roles
    • Authors: Katherine E. Adams; James M. Tyler
      Abstract: We reasoned that high self-monitors’ responses may be influenced by the characteristic traits and behaviors associated with social roles. Results across four studies confirmed expectations. The findings from Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that exposure to a particular role (e.g., nurse) led high self-monitors to respond in a manner consistent with the relevant role. Results from Experiment 4 showed that the effect found in the first three experiments was attenuated when the behavioral guidance of the particular role was reduced. Low self-monitors’ responses were not influenced by exposure to the role. Showing that high self-monitors use information embedded in a social role to tailor their behavior provides a novel finding that has heretofore been absent from the literature.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T23:50:26.71643-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2312
  • Intergroup Threat, Social Dominance and the Malleability of Ideology: The
           Importance of Conceptual Replication
    • Authors: Elodie Roebroeck; Serge Guimond
      Abstract: The theory of malleable ideology of Knowles, Lowery, Chow and Hogan (2009) predicts that, under intergroup threat, anti-egalitarian individuals will exploit the malleable character of color-blindness and strategically claim to be strong supporters of it. In three studies conducted in France, we found no support for this theory when measuring color-blindness but strong support when using measures of laïcité, an ideology of secularism. Indeed, those who score low on social dominance orientation (SDO) were more likely to support laïcité than anti-egalitarian individuals. However, a situational threat (Study 1), a symbolic threat experimentally induced (Study 2), and a perceived symbolic threat (Study 3) were all related to increased support for laïcité by people high in SDO, without affecting those low in SDO. Thus, laïcité is a malleable ideology which can be adopted by individuals having contrasting motivations, as color-blindness in the USA. Implications for the role of exact and conceptual replications in the development of a psychological science are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T22:55:23.330984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2311
  • Darkness into Light' Identification with the Crowd at a Suicide
           Prevention Fundraiser Promotes Well-Being amongst Participants
    • Authors: Michelle Kearns; Orla T. Muldoon, Rachel M. Msetfi, Paul W. G. Surgenor
      Abstract: Suicide is recognised to be subject to social contagion, with an elevated risk of adverse outcomes amongst those affected. Drawing upon research within the social identity approach, we hypothesised that, for those bereaved by suicide, identifying with similar others could provide ‘a social cure’. A large cross-sectional study and a longitudinal study were carried out at a charity fundraiser for suicide prevention, with participants completing an online survey before and after the event. Results showed that, for those who lost someone they knew (Study 1) or a family member (Study 2) to suicide, there was a significant increase in psychological well-being after the event. This was mediated by identification with the crowd. These findings demonstrate that collective participation in a suicide awareness event can be an effective social intervention for those bereaved by suicide in terms of psychological well-being, with implications for informing best-practice interventions targeting this at-risk group.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T22:25:34.254886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2304
  • Will We Be Harmed, Will It Be Severe, Can We Protect Ourselves' Threat
           Appraisals Predict Collective Angst (and Its Consequences)
    • Authors: Nassim Tabri; Michael J. A. Wohl, Julie Caouette
      Abstract: Across four studies, we applied the cognitive model of anxiety (Clark & Beck, 2010) to explicate the appraisals that elicit collective angst (i.e., concern for the ingroup's future vitality). In Study 1a, consistent with the model, Québécois experienced collective angst when they appraised a threat 1) as likely to harm their group, 2) as severely harming their group, and 3) appraised Québécois as not having efficacy to protect their group. In Study 1b, results were replicated in the context of the realistic threat that Islamic extremists pose to Christian-Lebanese. In Studies 2a and 2b, we manipulated the three appraisals and found a similar pattern of results in the context of a potential terrorist attack on American soil by Islamic extremists. Importantly, collective angst mediated the threat appraisal effect on (non-Muslim) Americans' prejudice towards Muslims. The utility of the appraisal model for regulating collective angst (and thus its consequences) are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T22:05:23.724382-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2303
  • Congruity of Observed Social Support Behaviors and Couple Relationship
    • Authors: Chong Man Chow; Holly Ruhl
      Abstract: This study examined the role of congruity in couples' social support behaviors on relational outcomes. Participants (N=123 couples, Mage=26.91, SD=8.46) completed surveys on relationship satisfaction and discord. Positive and negative behaviors were then observed during supportive interactions. Results revealed that the detrimental effect of negative behaviors on satisfaction was buffered by a partner's engagement in fewer negative behaviors or intensified by more negative behaviors. Further, the beneficial effect of positive behaviors on reducing discord was amplified by a partner's engagement in more positive behaviors or offset by fewer positive behaviors. Lastly, the detrimental effect of negative behaviors on discord was buffered by a partner's engagement in more positive behaviors. These findings highlight the complex nature of dyadic relationships and provide insights for developing interventions focused on improving romantic relationship quality.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T21:35:21.575395-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2302
  • It's written all over your face: Socially rejected people display
           microexpressions that are detectable after training in the Micro
           Expression Training Tool (METT)
    • Authors: Kelly McDonald; Ian R. Newby-Clark, Jennifer Walker, Kallee Henselwood
      Abstract: Social rejection is a powerful negative emotional experience, yet rejected people often appear stoic and unmoved. That is, their macroexpressions of emotion are not accurate reflections of their emotional states. Yet, there is reason to believe that rejected people exhibit involuntary microexpressions of negative emotion. We contrasted people's macroexpressions of emotion with their microexpressions subsequent to an acceptance or rejection experience. Observers coded microexpressions after being trained with the Micro Expression Training Tool (METT). Rejected participants expressed more sad and angry microexpressions than did accepted participants. This research demonstrates that socially rejected people display negative microexpressions that are detectable by observers trained in the METT.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T21:15:22.575692-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2301
  • Ethnic identification, discrimination and mental and physical health among
           Syrian refugees: The moderating role of identity needs
    • Authors: Elif Çelebi; Maykel Verkuyten, Sabahat Cigdem Bagci
      Abstract: Using a risk and resilience framework and Motivated Identity Construction Theory, we investigated the moderating role of identity needs in the association between social identification and perceived discrimination with mental and physical health among a sample of Syrian refugees (N = 361) in Turkey. Results showed that there were two clusters of interrelated identity needs, namely belonging (belonging, continuity, and esteem) and efficacy (efficacy, meaningfulness and distinctiveness). Higher perceived ethnic discrimination was found to be associated with poorer mental and physical health, but not for respondents who derived a sense of efficacy from their Syrian identity. Higher Syrian identification was associated with lower depression and anxiety, but more strongly for refugees who derived a sense of belonging and continuity from their Syrian identity. The findings indicate that investigating the motivational aspects of identity formation is important for understanding when discrimination and group identification undermines or rather contributes to the well-being and health of refugees. These findings are discussed in relation to the growing research on social identities and health.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T20:50:29.703784-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2299
  • Developing Cognitions about Race: White 5- to 10-Year-Olds’
           Perceptions of Hardship and Pain
    • Authors: Rebecca A. Dore; Kelly M. Hoffman, Angeline S. Lillard, Sophie Trawalter
      Abstract: White American adults assume Blacks feel less pain than do Whites, but only if they believe Blacks have faced greater economic hardship than Whites. The current study investigates when in development children first recognize racial group differences in economic hardship, and examines whether perceptions of hardship inform children's racial bias in pain perception. Five- to ten-year-olds (N = 178) guessed which of two items (low- vs. high-value) belonged to a Black and a White child, and rated the amount of pain a Black and a White child would feel in 10 painful situations. By age 5, White American children attributed lower value possessions to Blacks than Whites, indicating a recognition of racial group differences in economic hardship. The results also replicated the emergence of a racial bias in pain perception between 5 and 10. However, unlike adults’, children's perceptions of hardship do not account for racial bias in pain perception.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T07:36:21.961459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2323
  • Too special to be duped: Need for uniqueness motivates conspiracy beliefs
    • Authors: Roland Imhoff; Pia Karoline Lamberty
      Abstract: Adding to the growing literature on the antecedents of conspiracy beliefs, this paper argues that a small part in motivating the endorsement of such seemingly irrational beliefs is the desire to stick out from the crowd, the need for uniqueness. Across three studies, we establish a modest but robust association between the self-attributed need for uniqueness and a general conspirational mindset (conspiracy mentality) as well as the endorsement of specific conspiracy beliefs. Following up on previous findings that people high in need for uniqueness resist majority and yield to minority influence, Study 3 experimentally shows that a fictitious conspiracy theory received more support by people high in conspiracy mentality when this theory was said to be supported by only a minority (vs. majority) of survey respondents. Together, these findings support the notion that conspiracy beliefs can be adopted as a means to attain a sense of uniqueness.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T00:30:30.920497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2265
  • Allowing the victim to draw a line in history: Intergroup apology
           effectiveness as a function of collective autonomy support
    • Authors: Frank J. Kachanoff; Julie Caouette, Michael J. A. Wohl, Donald M. Taylor
      Abstract: We tested whether intergroup apology effectiveness increases when the apology is collective autonomy supportive (i.e., victimized group members are told they have the choice to accept or reject the apology). In Experiment 1, university students who received a collective autonomy supportive (compared to a collective autonomy unsupportive or basic) apology for derogatory remarks made by a rival university perceived the apology as more empathic. This, in turn, heightened intergroup forgiveness. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this effect in the context of the friendly fire killing of Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan by the United States. Canadians in the collective autonomy supportive condition felt more empowered and were less critical of the apology. Sequential mediation analyses revealed that collective autonomy support had an indirect effect on intergroup forgiveness through empowerment and empathic support of the apology. Findings suggest the apology–forgiveness link strengthens when the victimized group's collective autonomy is explicitly acknowledged.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T00:26:02.798926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2260
  • In-group relevance facilitates learning across existing and new
    • Authors: Zahra Zargol Moradi; Jie Sui, Miles Hewstone, Glyn William Humphreys
      Abstract: Studies have shown that attention prioritizes stimuli associated with the in-group. However, the extent to which this so-called in-group favoritism is driven by relevance is not clear. Here, we investigated this issue in a group of university rowers using a novel perceptual matching task based on the team label–color associations. Across three experiments, participants showed enhanced performance for the in-group stimulus regardless of its familiarity level. These findings confirmed the role of relevance in in-group favoritism. In a further control study, the advantage for certain stimuli was not found in an independent sample of participants who were not identified with the teams but were familiar with the label–color associations, indicating that in-group relevance was necessary for the in-group favoritism. Together, these findings suggest that in-group relevance facilitates learning across existing and new associations. The consequences of these findings for understanding in-group effects on perceptual processing are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T00:05:24.907236-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2257
  • Romantic Love vs. Reproduction Opportunities: Disentangling the
           Contributions of Different Anxiety Buffers under Conditions of Existential
    • Authors: Annedore Hoppe; Immo Fritsche, Nicolas Koranyi
      Abstract: Romantic relationships and offspring are discussed as anxiety buffers in terror management processes. We examined the relationship between these possible buffers and tested whether romantic relationships reduce existential threat due to reproduction opportunities or if they represent a distinct anxiety buffer. Contrary to our initial expectations, thinking about a positive romantic relationship without (vs. with) own children increased partner affect (Study 1) and commitment (Study 2) and decreased punishment intentions (Study 2) after mortality salience. These effects were mediated by participants’ desire for romantic love. Furthermore, thinking about positive non-parental (vs. parental) romantic relationships lowered death-thought accessibility (Study 3). Together, these findings suggest that romantic relationships form a distinct anxiety buffer which is only effective when the cultural (romance) instead of the biological (having children) nature of the relationship is highlighted. We discuss the role of anxiety buffer salience for determining whether offspring concerns buffer or increase existential threat.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T07:45:32.494158-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2322
  • Friend or foe' Evidence that anxious people are better at
           distinguishing targets from non-targets
    • Authors: Tsachi Ein-Dor; Adi Perry-Paldi, Gilad Hirschberger
      Abstract: Armed conflict necessitates the ability to quickly distinguish friend from foe. Failure to make accurate shooting decisions may result in harm either to oneself or to innocent others. The factors that predict such rapid decision making, however, remain unclear. Based on social defense theory, we contend that people high on attachment anxiety possess characteristics that are particularly advantageous in this domain such that anxiously attached individuals will show greater vigilance and accuracy in a realistic shooting paradigm in which they must quickly distinguish between militants (people holding a gun) and innocents (people holding an item with the same color and shape as a gun—Coca-Cola bottle, black wallet, and black mobile phone). Using signal detection theory algorithms, we calculated sensitivity in performing the behavioral shooting task [D(prime)]. Results indicate that as expected, anxious people demonstrated significantly better shooting accuracy. Implication for contemporary violent conflict is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T00:40:29.286229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2262
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