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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1540 journals)
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SOCIAL SCIENCES (845 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abant Kültürel Araştırmalar Dergisi     Open Access  
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi / Adiyaman University Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 182)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Afrika Focus     Open Access  
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Ágora de Heterodoxias     Open Access  
Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Akademik Bakış Uluslararası Hakemli Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademik Hassasiyetler     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Al Farabi Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alinteri Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anais do Congresso de Pesquisa e Extensão e da Semana de Ciências Sociais da UEMG/Barbacena     Open Access  
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Análisis     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anduli : Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Anka E-Dergi     Open Access  
Ankara University SBF Journal     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Argumentos : Revista do Departamento de Ciências Sociais da Unimontes     Open Access  
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Artvin Coruh University International Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of German and European Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Asya Araştırmaları Uluslararasi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / Journal of Asian Studies     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Aurum Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University Journal of Social Science Institute     Open Access  
Bingöl Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Public and Social Science     Open Access  
Black Women, Gender & Families     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Búsqueda     Open Access  
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Changing Societies & Personalities     Open Access  
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cidadania em Ação : Revista de Extensão e Cultura: Notícias     Open Access  
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia Sociales y Económicas     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Científic@ : Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Community Empowerment     Open Access  
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Connections     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
CONTRA : RELATOS desde el Sur     Open Access  
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cooperativismo y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Current Research in Social Sciences     Open Access  
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Decyzje     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5     

Journal Cover
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2006-6996
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [265 journals]
  • Hepato-curative effects of crude methanol and ethanol root extracts of
           Calotropis procera (sodom of apple) on CCl4 induced hepato-toxicity in
           albino rats

    • Authors: G.K. Uba, A.J. Alhassan, Muntari Bala
      Abstract: No
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effects of organic manure on some haematological parameters of Oreochromis
           niloticus, Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus capio in polyculture system

    • Authors: I.A. Yola, A.I. Adikwu
      Abstract: No
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Climate change and its implications on human existence in Nigeria: a

    • Authors: A ⃰Abdulkadir, A Maryam Lawal, T.I. Muhammad
      Abstract: No
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Phytochemistry and in vitro antiplasmodial properties of aqueous and
           ethanol stem bark extracts of Jatropha curcas (Physic Nut)

    • Authors: Abdullahi A. Imam, Amina Shehu, Ibrahim A. Khalil, Hadiza Abdullahi
      Abstract: No
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Yield and yield components of intercropped dual-purpose lablab and cowpea
           with maize of contrasting maturities

    • Authors: S.U. Ewansiha, U.F. Chiezey, K.E. Law-Ogbomo
      Abstract: Intercropping is a way to intensify agricultural land use. Cowpea is an important crop in the traditional farming systems in northern Nigeria because it serves to provide food and feed. Although lablab has potential to function in these ways, it remains an underutilized crop because among other factors, there is dearth of information on its incorporation into the system by way of intercropping it with the major cereal crops. A field trial was conducted at Samaru (11º 11’N, 07º 38’E, 686 m asl) in northern Guinea savannah of Nigeria, to evaluate the relative yield and yield components of dual-purpose lablab and cowpea cultivars when gown sole and when intercropped with maize of contrasting maturities. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replications. The experiment consisted of early maize maturing cultivar (TZE COMP. 5 W) and a late maize maturing cultivar (TZL COMP. 1 SYN). Cropping system (intercropping and sole cropping) was assigned to the main plot and crop cultivar (lablab: ILRI 4612, NAPRI 2 and cowpea: IT89KD- 288, IT99K-241-2) was assigned to subplots. Results showed that intercropping cowpea or lablab into early maturing maize cultivar was more productive than intercropping into late maturing maize cultivar for number of pods (74.4 vs. 63.9), harvest index (0.22 vs. 0.20), grain yield (575.7 vs. 441.0) and fodder yield (2075.4 vs. 1758.2) for the legumes. Lablab cultivars had superior performance than cowpea for number of pods (113.5-114.2 vs. 81.1-81.5) and fodder yield (2968.9-3042.3 vs. 1725.4-1795.9 kg ha-1) whereas cowpea cultivars had superior performance than lablab for harvest index (0.29 vs. 0.17) and grain yield (802.3-833.9 vs. 587.8-632.4 kg ha-1), meaning that both legumes have potential in providing food and feed with lablab producing more fodder and cowpea more grain. Land equivalent ratio showed that intercropping advantage was higher when lablab and cowpea were intercropped with early maturing maize cultivar (1.34, 1.24) than with late maturing maize cultivar (1.10, 1.15). It is recommended that for higher lablab or cowpea/maize productivity in an intercrop, farmers should intercrop dual-purpose cultivars of these crops with maize of earlier maturities.Keywords: maize, lablab, cowpea, grain yield, fodder yield
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Temperature variations as evidence of climate change in northern Nigeria

    • Authors: Luka Fitto Buba, Ahmed Maigari Ibrahim
      Abstract: The paper seeks to investigate whether evolving temperature patterns over northern Nigeria agree with the projections made by global warming and climate change models. The data used are screen air temperature on a monthly time scale. These data were obtained from the database of the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET). The location of the stations adequately represents a fair coverage of the study area. Descriptive statistics of the long-term characteristics of temperature were computed for all the stations. Dispersion and variability indices (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) were also calculated for all the sampled stations. The derived long-term properties of temperature for the region were mapped out using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Computer-generated graphs were also plotted for the long-term monthly as well as seasonal/annual temperature characteristics. Furthermore, temperature Anomaly values were computed for all the stations. Time series for each station as well as regionally averaged values for the respective ecological zones were plotted in order to present the inter-annual characteristics of temperature for the study area. Trends and discontinuities in temperature time series for northern Nigeria were analyzed using 5-year moving averages and regression. Results obtained from the study indicates variability in annual temperature totals is lower than those of onthly totals; temperature time series present an irregular increase; annual temperature is characterized by a quasi-generalized increase for all stations and a general increase in temperatures for all stations since the 1950s.This increase related to observations at the regional scale were also compared with the IPCC temperature models. The results obtained were found to have similar trends with those of the models. This serves as a pointer to the existence of global warming and climate change phenomenon in northern Nigeria. The study recommends that further research directed at addressing gaps in existing knowledge on global warming and climate change should be encouraged as this would reduce uncertainties and thus facilitate informed decision-making related to issues bordering on climate change.Keywords: Dispersion, inter-annual, long-term, temperature, variability
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Sero-prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children (0-5
           years) attending institute of child health Banzazzau Zaria Kaduna State

    • Authors: M.A. Sulaiman, Musa Hassan Muhammad, F Jane
      Abstract: Serological survey was carried out among children attending Institute of Child Health (ICH) Banzazzau Zaria Kaduna, State, to determine the prevalence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus IgM antibodies. Ninety-one blood samples of children aged 0-5years were collected in one outpatient clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria (ICH Banzazzau). Respiratory syncytial virus IgM antibody level was measured using commercial ELISA kit obtained from DIAGNOSTIC AUTOMATION, INC. Of the ninety-one blood samples collected and tested, 43(47.3%) were seropositive for Respiratory Syncytial Virus. There was male predominance, with 23 (25.3%) being positive compared in females 20 (22.0%) although, the difference was not statistically significant (P value >0.05).The seroprevalence was highest (15.4%) among infants 0-1year and lowest (5.5%) among 3 years old children..The association between RSV infection and respiratory symptoms was not statistically significant. Every child who showed seropositivity with the Respiratory Syncytial Virus had fever and no child without a fever was diagnosed positive with the virus. This study has revealed that children aged 0-5 years have high prevalence of RSV Infection in Zaria, and therefore, highlighting the need for the younger age group to be targeted for prevention programme against RSV infection.Keywords: Serology, Banzazzau, Zaria, Kaduna state, blood samples, IgM, antibodies, Respirtory Syncitial Virus (RSV)
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Nigella sativa (black seed) extract improves spatial learning
           abilityin albino mice

    • Authors: M.I. Imam, A Adamu, U.A. Muhammad, Y Yusha’u
      Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the memory enhancing effect of Nigella sativa Extract on mice using Morris Water Maze. The study was conducted on 30 Albino mice of both sexes randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 animals each. Group 1 served as control and was treated with oral distilled water, Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1ml/kg, 2ml/kg and 4ml/kg body weight of the Nigella sativa Extract (NSE) respectively for 3 days, and Group 5 was treated with 100mg/kg body weight memory enhancing drug-Piracetam. Latency to locate the platform and the frequency of crossing the platform was measured. The result showed a decrease though not significant in latency to locate platform between training days 1 and 2 in 2ml& 4ml Nigella sativa groups (49.92±10.75 NSE 1 ml/kg; 29.63±7.12 NSE 2ml/kg; and 34.04±6.51 NSE 4ml/kg), also when compared to control and Piracetam groups, with the Piracitam group having a similar latency to control. The increase in there frequencies of platform crossing compared to control was significant at p=0.045 and was dose dependent (1.67±0.72 1ml/kg NSE; 1.83±1.60 2ml/kg NSE; 3.50±0.76 4ml/kg NSE; and 4.17±0.87 100 mg/kg Piracetam). These findings conclude that acute administration of Nigella sativa has a beneficial effect on learning and memory and has a better effect on learning but not memory than piracetam.Keywords: Nigella sativa, learning, memory, Morris water maze
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Spatio-temporal trends of typhoid fever among youths attending Muhammad
           Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

    • Authors: Ishaq A. Abdulkarim, Murtala U. Mohammed
      Abstract: Typhoid fever continues to be significant causes of illness and death particularly among children and adolescents in developing countries as a result of poor sanitation and unsafe food and water supply especially where the water is contaminated by human feces. This study analysed the spatial and temporal trends of typhoid fever in Kano metropolis between 2010-2014. Hospital records for youths attending Muhammad Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital (MAWSH) were used. Coordinate of wards in the metropolis was also generated and imported into Arc GIS environment. G-Statistics was used to determine the distribution and cluster of typhoid prevalence. The results showed an upward trend with increase in age. It also showed a downward trend from 2010 to 2014, indicating that people are becoming aware of the disease and the predisposing factors. The findings also revealed higher prevalence among the males. The results of the G- Statistics showed higher prevalence in the northern part of the metropolis, with hot spots in Dakata and Tarauni wards. The study recommends frequent vaccination and good eating and drinking habits as well as good hygienic practices at home and outside home as remedies for addressing the problem.Keywords: Typhoid Fever, Spatial, Temporal, Youths, G-statistics, Kano
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Malaria and typhoid fever co-infection among febrile patients in Kumbotso
           Local Government Area Kano, Nigeria

    • Authors: F.S. Nas, M Ali, A Yahaya
      Abstract: Malaria and typhoid fever are of tremendous public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria inclusive). Because of the high prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever in Nigeria, co-infection is common. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Malaria, Typhoid fever and their co-infection among febrile patients in Kumbotso Local Government Area Kano, Nigeria. A Total of 125 subjects of both age and sex suggestive of Malaria and/or typhoid fever were used as participants. Five milliliter (5 ml) of blood samples were collected from each of the participant for widal tests and blood film from a period of April, 2015 to October, 2015. The results revealed a malaria prevalence of 55% (69/125). The sero-prevalence of typhoid fever was 18% (22/125) while 22% (28/125) had malaria and typhoid fever co-infection and 5% (6/125) appeared to be negative for both malaria and typhoid fever. However, the result showed that malaria is more likely to cause fever than typhoid infection. Statistical analysis of the result showed that there is significant different on the incident of malaria and that of typhoid fever among febrile patients at p > 0.05. It is recommended that intervention programs aimed at reducing malaria and typhoid infections should be increased in such areas, especially in the wet seasons.Keywords: Blood film, Co-infection, Malaria, Typhoid fever, Widal test
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Colchicine-induced mutagenesis for improved growth and yield of fonio
           (Digitaria exilis [Kippist] Stapf.)

    • Authors: S Nura, A.K. Adamu, M.A. Adelanwa, I.S. Usman, K Shehu
      Abstract: The effect of colchicine on some growth and yield parameters of fonio (Digitaria exilis) was studied. Seeds of five accessions of fonio (Dinat, Jakah, Jiw 1, Jiw 2 and Nkpowas) were treated with five different colchicine concentrations (0.1mM, 0.5 mM, 1.0 mM, 2.0 mM and 0.0 mM as control) via soaking with the aim of inducing variability that could be exploited in the improvement of the crop. The treated seeds were sown in a plot in a Completely Randomized Design with three replications in a factorial arrangement. The result obtained revealed highly significant difference (P≤0.01) in the effects of different concentrations of colchicine on the growth and yield components of fonio. The result showed that colchicine produced taller mutants (79-83.93 cm) with many leaves (10-14 leaves) that are larger in cross sectional area (11.35-13.15 cm2). More so, the mutants produced high tiller number with high number of spikes that are longer and bear high number of seeds/spikes. Similarly the 1000 mutants’ seeds weight is higher than that of the controls. The effect of the mutagen is concentration dependent, decrease with increase in concentrations. Lower colchicine concentration (0.1 mM) and accession Jiw 1 having highest responses to colchicines treatment was recommended for breeding programs in fonio.Keywords: Colchicine. Concentrations, Fonio, Mutation
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Pattern of utilisation of oral glucose tolerance test: the experience of
           Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano

    • Authors: K Abdulsalam, I.A. Yahaya, I.Y. Mohammed
      Abstract: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is the gold standard test for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). It is considered as the oldest dynamic function test in clinical practice and has several advantages over other plasma-based tests for diagnosis of type 2 DM, notably random plasma glucose (RPG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). For instance, it is the only means through which diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance can be made, and has a higher diagnostic yield compared to FPG. There is paucity of data on the utilization of OGTT particularly in northern Nigeria. This study therefore aimed to determine the utilization of OGTT in a tertiary Hospital in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. This was a retrospective study carried out in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital between January, 2013 and December, 2014. Following ethical approval, Hospital records of all clients who had OGTT in Chemical Pathology department of the Hospital were retrieved. The OGTTs were done using the 75g, 120 Minutes as recommended by WHO. Plasma Glucose were analyzed using quantitative glucose oxidase method described by Trinder. Data obtained were entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.About 335 OGTTs were performed during the study period but 312 were selected. Majority of the clients were females, 290 (92.9%), aged between 20-39 years (74.0%). About 2/3rd of the clients 224 (78.5%) were pregnant women referred from antenatal clinic due to previous history of Gestational Diabetes  Mellitus (GDM), previous macrosomic baby, and unexplained intra uterine foetal death. Non-obstetric indications for OGTT encountered were obesity, impaired fasting glycaemia and suspected acromegaly. Majority of clients who had OGTT were pregnant women who were referred for obstetric indications. Previous history of GDM was the commonest indication for OGTT. There was under-utilization of OGTT for non-obstetrics medical indications.Keywords: OGTT, Diabetes mellitus, Gestational Diabetes, Nigeria
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Proximate and mineral elements composition of five locally consumed fruits
           in Kano State, Nigeria

    • Authors: M Bala, J.B. Bashar
      Abstract: A number of tropical fruits are cultivated in almost all parts of northern Nigeria with high nutritional value that plays important role in human nutrition. This study was aimed at evaluating the proximate and mineral element composition of the five tropical fruits (Shea-fruit, Mango, Guava, Water melon and Orange) that are widely consumed in Kano state Nigeria. The proximate composition of the studied fruits were determined by the standard methods of Official Analytical Chemists, while the Mineral Elements (Ca and Mg) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Na+ and K+ were determined using Flame photometry and the level of P was determined by Vanadomolybdate method. The result of the proximate analysis shows that water melon has the highest moisture and protein contents (95.3±0.7% and 7.7±0.8% respectively). Shea fruit recorded the highest ash, lipid and energy value (7.35±0.5%, 2.12±0.8% and 1516.7±8KJ/100g respectively). Orange has the highest available carbohydrate (86.54±1.7%) while mango has the highest fiber content (13.52±0.2%) among the studied fruits. Similarly, Concentration of Ca was found to be highest in the pulp of orange (0.277±0.025mg/100g). The levels Mg were found to be highest in the peel of water melon (30.0±0mg/100g). More so, the levels of K and P were highest in the peel  and pulp of guava (138.9±4.8mg/100g and 48.6±0.2mg/100g respectively) with  significant  difference (p<0.05) between  the studied segments of the fruit. The level of Na was found to be highest in the peel of mango (6.7±0.7mg/100g). The results obtained show that the studied samples of fruits are rich in total protein, available carbohydrate and crude fiber. Likewise, the fruits also have appreciable amounts of K, Mg, Na and P but poor sources of Ca. Hence, consumption of such fruits could improve the nutritional status of the consumers.Keywords: Fruits, Proximate, Mineral, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Flame Photometry
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Age specific sex differences in BMI and skin fold thickness among children
           of Kazaure Emirate, Nigeria

    • Authors: A Gudaji, L.H. Adamu, M.G. Taura, B Danborno, A.Y. Asuku, S Datti, U.I. Mika’il
      Abstract: An important phenomenon occurring in human population is the variation in their physical morphology. The physical dimensions of human body are influenced by geographical, racial, age and gender factors. Physical anthropometry provides the technique by which human body dimensions can be evaluated and measured. The aim of the study was to determine age specific sex differences in height, weight, BMI and skin fold thickness among children aged 5- 12 years from Kazaure emirate, Jigawa State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to investigate sexual dimorphism in the measured variables. A total of 1212 primary school pupils aged 5-12 years (659 males and 553 females) were involved. All the anthropometric variables were taken using standard protocols. An independent t-test was used to determine gender differences using SPSS version 20.0and P ≤ 0.05 considered a level of significance. The results showed a significant gender difference in height and weight at age of 8 years (P = 0.009) and (P< 0.001), respectively. For bicep skin fold thickness (BSF), the gender difference was observed at 7 to 12years of age with (P< 0.001). Similar pattern in triceps TSF) and suprailiac (SISF), showed significant difference at age six (P< 0.001) and (P =0.01), respectively. All ages showed differences in subscapular skin fold thickness (SSF)(P< 0.001). In the SSF, female had higher mean value while for height and weight the reverse trend was the case. In conclusion, the gender differences in SSF may be linked with higher adipose tissue in female than in the male counterparts in childhood.Keywords: Anthropometry, BMI, Skin fold thickness, age, sex, Nigeria
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • NORMs distribution in coastal soils and sediments of River Yobe,
           north-eastern Nigeria: an evaluation of the potential radiological hazards

    • Authors: Habu Tela Abba, Sadiq Umar, Daniel Joseph Adeyemo, Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Aminu Ismaila, Muneer Aziz Saleh
      Abstract: A preliminary study which aimed to establish a reference data on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) for River Yobe has been conducted. Soil and sediment samples were collected along the coastal areas of the river and analyzed to determine the specific activities of NORMs such as 238U, 232Th and 40K. Gamma spectrometry technique using NaI (Tl) detector was employed to determine the specific activities f the natural radionuclides. The mean activity concentration in the soil samples for 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 23±1.5, 36±2.5 and 395±9.1Bq kg−1 and for the sediment samples are 60±2.6, 45±3.6 and 324±6.8Bq kg−1 respectively. These values, in some cases exceed the world reference values of 30, 35 and 400 Bq kg−1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively. Parameters of radiological hazard, were also estimated based on specific activity of the radionuclides to assess the radiological impacts due to exposure on the users of the river. The results were found to be within the worldwide recommended safety limits.Keywords: Annual effective dose, NORMs,238U.232Th.40K. River Yobe
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Garcinia kola seed
           extracts against pathogenic methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    • Authors: F.S. Nas, A.U. Zage, M Ali
      Abstract: The study was aimed to determine the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of Garcinia kola seeds extracts against pathogenic Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Total of 54 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from infected wound and urine were collected from Abubakar Imam Urology Center in Kano State, Nigeria over a period of seven month (December, 2016 to July, 2017), out of which 5 methicillin resistant isolates were found and tested against the extracts. Phytochemical screening of the seeds extracts indicated the presence of Alkaloid, Tannin, Saponin, and Cardiac glycoside, Flavonoid, Terpenoid, Phenols, Anthraquinone and Steroid. However, reducing sugar is absent. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against the isolates showed that ethanol extract is more effective (with average zone of inhibition of 15.25mm) when compared to aqueous extract (14.37mm). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts ranges from 12.5 – 100mg/ml of the extracts. Statistical analysis of the result showed that there is no significant different on the susceptibility of the organisms against the extracts. Findings from this work support the use of seed extracts from G. kola as medicinal plant.Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Garcinia kola, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, phytochemical
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Analysis of nutritive contents of some Nigerian fruits

    • Authors: M Bala, J.B. Bashar
      Abstract: Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man and they present an important part of human diet in almost any culture of the world due to their high nutrients content. This study was undertaken to analyze the nutritive, minerals and energy values of some fruits such as banana (Musa esculentum), paw-paw(Carica papaya), pineapple (Ananas comosus), African mango (Irvigna gabonensis) and Avocado pear (Persia americana) that are consumed in Nigeria. The proximate composition of fruits shows that paw-paw has the highest moisture content (90.0±1.0%) while African mango has the highest ash content (13.06±1.0%). Similarly, the highest crude protein, lipid and fiber contents were recorded by avocado pea (10.0±0.2%, 2.85±0.7 and 15.81±1.0% respectively). The highest available carbohydrate content was observed in pineapple (82.57±0.8%) whereas; the highest energy values were recorded by paw-paw and pineapple (355.94±1.6 and 355.94±1.4 respectively). The results of the mineral analysis showed that Ca content was very low in all studied samples. However, appreciable amounts of K, Mg, Na and P were observed. Highest concentration of K was observed in the pulp of pineapple (436.1±4.8mg/100g) while banana pulp recorded highest amounts of Mg (81.7±1.4mg/100g). Moreover, the Na content was found to be highest in husk of avocado pear (7.3±0.7mg/100g) while the peel of banana has the highest content of P (49.0±0.5mg/100g). Comparing values of mineral elements obtained in this study with the recommended daily allowance (RDA), only K, Mg and P levels could possibly meet the stipulated requirements in these fruits. Meanwhile, the presence of mineral elements in the husks of these fruits indicates that they could be used as source of minerals in the formulation of animal feed.Keywords: Fruits, Pulp, Husk, Proximate, Mineral elements, RDA
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Electrical resistivity investigation of sub- surface topography of Rafin
           Bareda Drainage Basin as a tool for cassiterite-columbite exploration in
           Dutsen-Wai, Nigeria

    • Authors: M Umar, A.L. Ahmed, S.S. Magaji, B Bala
      Abstract: Geophysical investigation has been undertaken at Rafin-Bareda drainage basin with the aim of identifying suitable points of high Cassiterite potential for the study area. The people around such drainage basin exploit these cassiterite and columbite deposits by trial and error method.The trial and error process of mining is dangerous to the lives of the miners.Hence, a Schlumberger array with half current electrode spacing ranging 1-100m was used. A total of 36 vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations were equally spaced at 20 m interval along eight profiles in the area using Ohmega terrameter. The field data were interpreted using IPI2WINsoftware. The results obtained from the obtained VES data were applied to produce the geoelectric sections of the study area, which indicate a 2-4 range of geoelectrical layers. The corresponding geologic section comprises of sandy clay soil, weathered and fresh laterite, weathered and fresh basement as the main rock types. The 3D surface of the basement topography of the study area shows the undulating nature of the bedrock subsurface with the position of the various VES points. These enabled us to determine zones with high cassiterite potential and the best location for drilling productive cassiterite in the area. The depth to the basement rock, resistivity and thickness values ranged from 4.50-36.40m, 59-1724Ωm and 1.12-36.40m, respectively. Thus, the geoelectric sections suggest that the point of high depression on the basement rock represents a promising area for Cassiterite-Columbite. The Cassiterite mineralization map identifies the VES points with high cassiterite  potential.Keyword: Geological profiles, Vertical electric sounding (VES), Cassiterite-Columbite,Dutsen-wai drainage
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Variation of meteorological parameters and its effect on refractive index
           of air over Lagos Nigeria

    • Authors: M Bawa, G.S.M. Galadanci, B.G. Ayantunji, H Mai-Unguwa, M.T. Muhammad, Ibrahim Umar
      Abstract: Variations of meteorological parameters affect the refractive index in the lower atmosphere. In this study, three years (2011-2013) results of measurements of Atmospheric pressure, Temperature, and Relative humidity from Davis Vantage pro2 automatic weather station installed at the ground surface at Lagos (6o 27' N, 5 12' E) Lagos State, were used to examine the effects of meteorological parameters on refractive index using International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) model. The results show that average hourly variations of refractivity in the dry season is largely as a result of the variations of the wet component (humidity) while the average daily variations of surface radio refractivity in the rainy season is as a result of the variations of the dry (pressure) component of surface radio refractivity. Refractivity reveals seasonal variations with high values in the rainy season and low values in the dry season over the location. The seasonal variation of refractivity of the troposphere is a function of climatic condition while the hourly or diurnal variation of refractivity depends on local meteorology as observed from the results obtained from study location.Keywords: Refractivity, Temperature, Atmospheric pressure, Relative Humidity
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Geological influence on the terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in Jos
           Plateau, Nigeria

    • Authors: Habu Tela Abba, Hassan Abdulsalam
      Abstract: Natural environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose (TGRD) rate measurements have been carried out across the geological formations of Jos Plateau, Nigeria. External gamma radiation dose rates ranged between 11 and 714 nGy h-1 with a mean value of 204 nGy h-1. Relationship between TGRD levels and geological type was determined. Statistical comparative method one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the TGRD means for the various types. The statistical results revealed in some instances, significant differences among the mean values of TGRD rates for the different underlying geological structures. Annual effective dose and collective effective dose for the general public due to exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation were estimated at 0.25 mSv y-1 and 1.20x102 mSv y-1, respectively. Isodose map for exposure rate due to TGRD wasplotted using ArcGIS software. The results will serve as database for natural background radiation for the country.Keywords: Natural radiation; Terrestrial gamma radiation dose (TGRD); geological type; Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effect of methanolicstem-bark extract of Commiphora pedunculata on plasma
           recalcification time of Najani gricollis venom treated plasma

    • Authors: H.L. Abdullahi, H.S. Muhammed, N Tajuddeen, S.A. Hamza, M.A. Ibrahim
      Abstract: Several medicinal plants have been used in Nigerian communities as antidotes for snakebite complications without scientific validation. In this study, the effect of the methanolic extract of Commiphora pedunculata on recalcification time of bovine, caprine, ovine and came lid plasma treated with Najani gricollis venom was investigated. The N. nigricollis venom was found to significantly increase (p<0.05) the plasma recalcification time of all the plasma samples. However, the methanolic extract of C. pedunculata at 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml reduced the venom-associated increase in the plasma recalcification time in a dose dependent pattern except for camelid plasma where the effect of the extract was non-dose dependent. This study showed that methanolic extract of C. pedunculata could serve as a prototype for an antidote for the reversal of increase in plasma recalcification time posed by N. nigricollis venom.Keywords: Commiphora pedunculata, Naja nigricollis, Plasma recalcification time
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Retrospective study of seasonal trends of malaria reported cases in Kano
           State, Nigeria

    • Authors: I.I. Yakudima, Y.M. Adamu
      Abstract: Malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Incidence of the disease varies over the space and time. This study investigates the seasonal trend of malaria incidence in Kano State. Data for four years (January 2010 to December 2013) was extracted from the routine consultation and recorded case sheets. A 12x4x2 three-way Analysis of Variance (3-way ANOVA) between subject effects factor design was performed on the raw data to explore the significance mean differences of malaria over time. Result revealed that there were 3,062,812 confirmed malaria cases reported during the period under study. The highest recorded cases were in the year 2011 with 858,061 cases or 28.02%. Mean monthly cases showed that incidence concentrate during the rainy season between May and October with the peak month being September of the years under investigation. For forms of malaria, uncomplicated cases accounts 90.7% and severe malaria constitutes the remaining 9.3%. Further, results from Analysis of Variance (3-way ANOVA) showed strong statistical main effect for months (F = 3.27, P = 0.0001); strong statistical significant main effect for years under study (F = 1.03, P = 0.0001) and strong statistical significant main effect for forms of malaria (F = 8.80, P = 0.0001). In addition, the interaction effect between the three independent variables (Months, Years and Form of Malaria) was found to be significant (F = 2.19, P = 0.0001). This interaction was followed up by conducting multiple comparison tests using Bonferroni correction. Results confirmed that the mean differences of months and years were statistically significantly difference. The study indicates that malaria is a common illness occurring all year round and therefore recommends for urgent intervention strategies to arrest the burden of the disease.Keywords: Burden, Morbidity, Mortality, Severe Malaria, Uncomplicated Malaria
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Studies of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with schiff base derived from
           salicylaldehyde and aniline

    • Authors: S.Y. Hussaini, A Ahmad, S Sani
      Abstract: The schiff base ligand and its complexes of divalent metal ions of Ni (II) and Cu (II) were synthesized. The ligand and the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, potentiometry, molar conductance, melting point or decomposition temperatures and infrared analyses. The elemental analysis data show the formation of 1:2 metal-ligand ratio. The ligand and complexes were screened for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and antifungal activity against Aspergillums niger and Candida albican, using discs diffusion method. It has been found that the ligand and the complexes showed different activities against microorganisms. The complexes show higher activity than the free Schiff base ligand. The molar conductance of the complexes measured is low, indicating their non-electrolytic nature. The potentiometric studies of the complex compounds revealed 1:2 metal to ligand ratio.Keywords: salicylaldehyde, aniline, ligand, potentiometry, antibacterial, antifungal
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Study of average seasonal variations of surface radio refractivity across
           some selected cities in Nigeria

    • Authors: B Musa, G.S.M. Galadanci, B.G. Ayantunji, H Mai-Unguwa, M.T. Muhammad
      Abstract: The average seasonal variations of surface radio refractivity based on measurement of atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity made across Yola (9o11' N, 12o30' E), Anyigba (7o 45' N, 6o45' E), Lagos (6o 27' N, 5o12' E), and Port-Harcourt (4o 48'N, 7oE) Nigeria, is reported. The measurement was made using wireless automatic weather station installed at the surface of each station under study. The study utilized three years of meteorological data measured from January 2010 to December 2013 to calculate the surface radio refractivity using empirical formula recommended by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R 453, 2012). The result shows that the average value of surface radio refractivity showed seasonal variations with high values during the rainy season and low values during the dry season with an increase in the value of surface radio refractivity of 242N units at Anyigba station to a maximum value of 384-N units at Lagos station. The result also shows that climatic condition is the force behind the seasonal variations of surface radio refractivity in all study stations.Keywords: Refractivity, Temperature, Atmospheric pressure, Relative Humidity
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Determination of origin and granulometric analysis of river channel
           sediments of Osi, southwestern Nigeria

    • Authors: M Lawal, H.M. Grema, H.A. Ibrahim, M Kitha, N.A. Yelwa, I.M. Abdullahi, A Muhammad
      Abstract: Osi is located within the south-western part of the Nigerian Basement Complex and plays a host to unconsolidated deposits and major examples of Precambrian – Paleozoic crystalline rocks in the region. Detailed geological mapping revealed the area to comprise essentially of migmatite – banded gneiss complex and diorites and minor rock types that include pegmatite and quartz veins. Superficial stream sediments occur abundantly and proximally along channels in the vicinity. These river channels host considerable amount of loose deposits that are useful for sedimentological and provenance study. While efforts have been committed to regional mapping, petrography and geochemistry of rocks in the region, little attention was paid to the associated stream sediments. This study adopted geological mapping of the crystalline rocks and sieve analysis of the stream sediments, as well as the use of XRF and inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP – MS) to establish some relationship between the basement geology and the surrounding deposits in the area. Migmatites are abundant in the south-west and parts of the north-west, while granite gneisses with isolated occurrence of diorite are confined to the north-east of the study area. Granulometry of the sediments revealed a predominantly medium – coarse grained, poorlysorted leptokurtic sands, indicating products of in-situ weathering of host rocks. Geochemical analysis supports a strong correlation between the rocks and the sediments. The study is applicable to enhanced understanding of grai -size distribution and in regional mapping and geochemical method of exploration.Keywords: Basement complex, migmatite – gneiss complex, stream sediments, grai -size analysis, elemental abundance, south-western Nigeria
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Genetic studies of agronomic and kernel quality traits in white maize (Zea
           mays L.) inbred lines

    • Authors: K.D. Dawaki, M Yusuf, A.K. Ibrahim, A Bala
      Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at National Horticultural Research Institute, Bagauda (11°33´N; 8°23´E) in the Sudan Savannah and Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru (11011´N; 07038’E) in the Northern Guinea Savanna ecological zones of Nigeria. The experiments were conducted between July-October, 2014 rainy season to estimates mean squares for general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability( SCA) and interaction between general combining ability and location (GCA x location) and specific combining ability and location Interactions ( SCA x location) for agronomic traits and kernel quality traits. The study comprised of 15 hybrid lines, 6 parental lines along with 4 checks which were laid out in partially balanced lattice design with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed significant (P≤ 0.01) GCA for days to maturity (27.74), ear length (8.85cm) , ear diameter (22.25cm), plant height (1501.60cm), field weight (1.70kg), moisture content at harvest (16.48%) and yield (10947553.16 kgha-1) indicating the additive gene action contributing the expression of these traits. The mean squares due to SCA were highly significant (P≤ 0.01) for days to maturity (7.49), ear length (10.06cm), ear diameter (26.96cm) and moisture content at harvest (6.78%) indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene action in the expression of these traits. The mean squares for GCA× location and SCA× location were not significant for all traits except percent whole kernel which shows highly significant GCA × location interaction (2077.97%) and this indicated that, different parental genotypes behaved differently with respect to this trait under different location.Keywords: Agronomic traits, Genetic, General Combining Ability, Inbred lines, Kernel Quality and Specific Combining Ability
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Antidepressant activity of methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa
           (Ex Willd.) Baill in albino mice

    • Authors: A Shehu, M.G. Magaji, B Sanni, S.N. Abdu-Aguye
      Abstract: Securinega virosa (S. virosa) is a commonly used medicinal plant in Africa for the management of psychiatric illnesses. Thus, the current study aimed at evaluating the antidepressant activity of the methanol extract of S. virosa in mice. The acute toxicity and phytochemical profiles were also determined. The antidepressant activity of the extract (500, 250 and 125 mg/kg) was assessed using the tail suspension test(TST), forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT).The median lethal dose was estimated to be ≤2000 mg/kg. Phytoconstituents like tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were found to be present in the crude extract. The methanol root bark extract of S. virosa significantly (p<0.05) decreased duration of immobility and also decreased comotion and exploratory behavior in mice. Results obtained from this study showed that the root bark extract of S. virosa might possess antidepressant activity.Keywords: Securinega virosa, depression, anxiety, phytochemical
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • The influence of physicochemical characteristics of a non-edible oil of
           yellow oleander seed on its fuel properties

    • Authors: Y.A. Dallatu, E.B. Agbaji, V.O. Ajibola
      Abstract: In this study, oil was extracted from yellow oleander (YO) seed and the yield was found to be 64.7% . The physico-chemical parameters of the yellow oleander seed oil (YO) were assessed following the ASTM standard methods, and found to have iodine value of 75.82 and calorific value of 13.79 MJ/Kg. Other physicochemical parameters determined were acid value (1.26), peroxide value (3.0 meq/kg) and specific gravity (0.88406 g/cm3). Some Fuel properties of the oil include high flash points (192 oC), kinematic viscosity (23.23 mm2/s) and cloud point of 14 oC. The FTIR analyses of the YO showed the carbonyl functional group of the triglycerides at 1739 cm-1 to 1745cm-1 as the most intense and prominent bands. The fatty acid composition of the oil was determined using the Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the saturated fatty acid of yellow oleander seed oil was found to be 38.11% with palmitic acid (23.61%) and stearic acid (10.78%). The GC-MS result showed about 80% saturated/ monounsaturated fatty acids in the YO, signifying high potential for biodiesel production.Keywords: yellow oleander seed oil, biodiesel, fuel , triglyceride, saturated fatty acid
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Phytochemical composition and antitrypanosomal activity of the leaf
           extract of Leptadenia hastata (Pers) Decne

    • Authors: A Haruna, A Mann, E.O. Ogbadoyi
      Abstract: Medicinal plants have been used to manage various human and animal diseases in many cultures globally. Nigeria is blessed with vast reservoir of herbs for the ethnomedicinal treatment of trypanosomiasis. The present study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition and antitrypanosomal activity of Leptadenia hastata leaf extract.The leaf sample was subjected to extraction by percolation method and the crude extract further partitioned into solvent- soluble fractions. Anti-trypanosomal activity screening was conducted using Trypanosomabrucei brucei infected mice. The results of the phytochemical analysis indicated alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and anthraquinones were present. The result obtained from the antitrypanosomal activity screening indicated that the crude extract exhibited significant anti- trypanosomal activity through reducing parasitaemia by 70%. Moreover, the most potent anti- trypanosomal effect was recorded by the dichloromethane partitioned fraction. GC-MS analysis of the derived fractionshowed phthalic, 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic, hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids. These bioactive compounds which are mainly carboxylic acid derivatives may be responsible for the observed antitrypanosomal activity of the extract.Keywords: antitrypanosomal, Leptadenia hastata, phytochemical analysis
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Subsurface mapping of groundwater contamination pathway using geoelectric
           method at waste site of Kubanni Basin, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    • Authors: M Umar, B Bala, M.A. Garba, M.A. Muhammed
      Abstract: Electrical resistivity Survey was carried out at Kubanni waste dumpsite of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria in order to study the groundwater contamination pathway. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at fourteen (14) stations. Ohmega terrameter was used for data acquisition. The field data obtained has been analyzed using Computer Software (ipi2win)which gives an automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity. The VES result revealed the heterogeneous nature of the subsurface geologic sequence. The geologic sequence beneath the study area is composed of topsoil (sandy-clay and sandy-lateritic), weathered basement, fracture basement layer and fresh basement. The resistivity values of the layers ranges from 8.2Ωm to 2884Ωm. The extremely low resistivity variation in the weathered basement identify the present of contamination plume zones in the layer. However, fracture basement and fresh basement underlying the weathered basement show lateral variation in the basement resistivity. The result shows that the contamination plume zone has tendency to contaminate the ground water.Keywords: Contamination, Fracture basement, Fresh basement, Geoelectric, Groundwater, Leachate, Weathered and Vertical Electric Sounding (VES)
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Distribution pattern of some heavy metals in the dust particulates of
           Funtua Textile Limited, Katsina, Nigeria

    • Authors: S Uba, Y.A. Dallatu, S Abdulkadir
      Abstract: The sequential extraction of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in industrial dust particulates collected in ten different sections/Departments of Funtua textile limited and the control site from Dikke village was carried out in order to ascertain the percentage of bioavailable fractions. Analyses of metals in the extracts were done using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The sequential extractions showed that significant amount of Cu25.87(O1) to 92.73% (E1) was associated with non-residual and 0.09 (E1) to 56.94% (O2) organic bound fractions; similarly, Cd was also associated with the non- residual fractions across the sites with values 42.22(W2) to 97.78% (E2). Cr and Ni exhibited the highest percentage of 73.46(W1) to 100.00 % (W2) and 23.64 (E2) to 77.26 % (S1), respectively. Pb in the particulate dust samples was significantly associated with the non-residual fraction and carbonate bound fraction with range of 21.71(D)–61.68(S2) % across the sites. This study revealed contamination of the particulates dust especially with Cu, Cr and Pb; this implies health risks to human, living or carrying out daily activities along the corridors of this industry.Keywords: Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Funtua textile, Heavy metals, Particulates dust, Sequential extraction
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • A survey of avifauna and vegetation communities in Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands,

    • Authors: A.S. Ringim, M.M. Dogara
      Abstract: An understanding of the ecological relationship between birds and vegetation is important for management and conservation of any wetland ecosystem. Despite the significant importance of the Hadejia-Nguru Ramsar site and an Important Bird Area, little is known about the ecological relationship between bird and vegetation communities. Bird diversity and density were examined and compared between Protected Areas (PAs) and Unprotected Areas (UPAs) with attention to vegetation diversity and density. Data were collected from October to December, 2015. A total of 14 wetland sites were surveyed (seven in PAs and seven in UPAs), and point count method was emp oyed. In total, 42, 255 bird individuals, 148 species, 23 orders, and 50 families were identified. Two globally threatened species namely, European Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur) and Pallid harrier (Circus macrourus) were also recorded. Results showed that neither vegetation diversity nor density correlated with bird diversity nor density in both PAs and UPAs (p > 0.05), suggesting that there could be other factors that influence the bird diversity and density in both areas. PAs and UPAs of the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands are rich in avifaunal species, thus management of these areas will preserve large species diversity. Increase public awareness in the wetland on the importance of conserving birds and vegetation, as they play a vital role in the ecosystem is strongly recommended. The results presented here provide an overview of the relationship between bird and vegetation communities of the Hadeji -Nguru Wetlands, an important input for better understanding of its conservation.Keywords: Bird diversity, Density, Hadejia- Nguru Wetlands, Protected and unprotected areas, Vegetation
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Phytochemical screening and anti-microbial activities of the leaf, stem
           bark and root extracts of Combretum sokodense

    • Authors: S Ibrahim, A.S. Bello, U Sunusi, M.Y. Lere, F.S. Umar, U.D. Egbong, H Nasiru, A Muhammad
      Abstract: The phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of the leaf, stem bark and root of Combretum sokodense were examined in this research work. The phytochemical screening of the plant reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, antraquinone, carbohydrates and reducing sugar. The leaf, stem bark and roots extract also show antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activities of the plants extracts revealed an inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Mucorsppat different concentrations. The methanolic extract of the leaf showed the highest level of inhibition on Escherichia coli while Mucor species showed highest level of inhibition on ethanolic extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the stem bark showed the highest level of inhibition on Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger while the methanolic extract showed less response. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger showed highest level of inhibition on the root of Combretum sokodense. The antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal isolates may be attributed to the presence of these secondary metabolites. Therefore, Combretum sokodense is found to be a potential source of drugs for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.Keywords: Combretum sokodense, Extract, Phytochemicals, Antimicrobial Activities, Traditional Medicine
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effects of physico-chemical parameters on the composition and abundance of
           phytoplankton in Ajiwa Reservoir Katsina State, north western Nigeria

    • Authors: L.U. Usman, S Namadi, S.A. Nafiu
      Abstract: Studies on the effects of physico-chemical parameters on the composition and abundance of phytoplanktonin Ajiwa reservoir was carried out from September, 2014 to August, 2015. Five sampling stations were chosen; the physico-chemical parameters and phytoplanktonspecies were determined using standard methods, procedures and instruments. Nineteen physicochemical parameters were determined. Some of their mean value are; Water Temperature (24.05±0.38C), Turbidity (98.0±2.28NTU), TDS (70.68±2.71mg/l), Electrical Conductivity (158.55±3.04µS/cm), Total Hardness (87.16±2.37mg/l), D.O (4.10±0.13mg/l), Calcium (40.34±1.35mg/l) and Nitrate- Nitrogen (1.07±0.08mg/l). The result also indicated the presence of 40 species of phytoplankton belonging to 5 major classes, viz: Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Euglenophyceae. The dominant phytoplankton was the Chlorophyceae (40.13%), followed in order by Bacillariophyceae (23.94%), Cyanophyceae (19.98%), Euglenophyceae (8.41%) and Dinophyceae (7.58%). Indices of general diversity (H), evenness (E), dominance and relative abundance were in the following order of increasing magnitude station 5 > station 1 > station 4 > station 2 and > station 3 respectively. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was carried out to analyse the relationship between the physico-chemical parameters and the phytoplankton. It showed that the most important factors affecting the phytoplankton distribution are water temperature, DO, NO3-N, PO4-P, pH, TDS and turbidity.The fluctuation of the physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton species of the reservoir could be attributed to high influx of nutrient into the reservoir as a result of farming activities, cattle rearing, bush burning and bathing within the vicinity of the reservoir. Monitoring of human activities within the immediate catchment area of the reservoir and education on wise use of the water is recommended.Keywords:  Abundance,  Composition, CCA, Physico-chemical,  Phytoplankton,Reservoir
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • A comparative assessment of nutrients and anti-nutrients contents of
           varieties of fried yam (Dioscorea specie) commonly consumed in Nigeria

    • Authors: S.M. Abubakar, F.A. Gana
      Abstract: There is limited information on nutrients composition of Nigerian foods. As a result, nutrients intake from Nigerian foods is in most cases estimated using foreign food composition tables. This research determined and compared proximate composition, minerals and anti-nutrients in pre- boiled fried New and old White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata), Water Yam (Dioscorea alata) and Yellow Yam (Dioscorea cayenensis) purchased at Yankura market, Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Samples were peeled, boiled and fried. Fried yam samples were analysed for moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, fiber and mineral contents using methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Phytate and cyanide were estimated bytitration. Results were analyzed using ANOVA in GraphPad Instat software. New White Yam exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher content in moisture (52.5 ± 8.40 g/100g), fiber (2.0 ± 0.02 g/100g), calcium (13.7 ± 0.5 mg/100g); lower concentration of phytate (11.3 ± 0.08 mg/kg) and moderate concentrations of other parameters studied. Water yam contains significantly (P<0.05) higher protein (5.77 ± 0.2 %), potassium (683 ± 3.6 mg/100g) and moderate amount of other parameters studied. Yellow Yam contains significantly (P<0.05) higher magnesium (16.3 ± 1.52 mg/100g), phytate (31.2 ± 0.40 mg), lower fiber (0.9 ± 0.03 g/100g) and moderate amount of other parameters. Old White Yam contains significantly (P<0.05) higher carbohydrate (37.47 ± 0.5 g/100g), lower cyanide (3.2 ± 0.15 mg/kg) and moderate amount of other parameters studied. The fried yam samples studied have variable amount of nutrients and anti-nutrients. Apart from being excellent energy sources, all yam samples studied could contribute to intake of micronutrients.Keywords: Fried yam, proximate content, micronutrients, anti-nutrients
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • A new Generalized Exponential- Weibull Distribution; its properties and

    • Authors: H.G. Dikko, A.M. Faisal
      Abstract: A four-parameter distribution called Generalized Exponential Weibull (GEW) distribution was proposed using a generator introduced. We derived the statistical properties including moment, moment generating function, survival and hazard function, order statistics of the distribution. The distribution parameters were estimated using the method of maximum likelihood and also the asymptotic behavior of the distribution was observed. Applicability of the distribution was also observed using a real data set.Keywords: Exponential distribution, Exponential Weibull distribution, Reliability analysis, Order statistics and Parameter estimation
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Adulticidal potentials of dichloromethane extracts of some selected plant
           leaves against Culex mosquitoes

    • Authors: Ahmadu Bukar, Zainab Tukur
      Abstract: Culex mosquitoes are vectors of Lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis diseases and the control of these diseases using synthetic chemical insecticides such as Pyrethroids results in development of resistance by the mosquitoes and polluting the ecosystem. This research was aim at evaluating the adulticidal potentials of dichloromethane extracts of some selected plant leaves against Culex mosquitoes. The results of the phytochemical screening analysis of the dichloromethane extracts shows that, Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha piperita and Ocimum citriodorum contained the highest number of phytochemicals four (4) each, followed by Lamium pupureum and Zingiber officinale having three (3) the last extracts having the least phytochemicals is Senna occidantalis which contains only two (2). The results of the adulticidal bioassay of the extracts shows that Cymbopogon citratus exhibited the highest adulticidal activities against the Culex mosquitoes tested at the LC50 5.721mg/ml and LC90 211.703mg/ml. The percentage mortality was recorded highest at the highest concentration 20mg/ml (87%), followed by 10mg/ml (74%) and 5mg/ml (43%). The mean average mortality and standard error were also recorded at 21.7±0.47, 18.5±3.01 and 10.7±1.37 respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that, the adulticidal activity of an extract depends on the solvent used in the extraction. Cymbopogon citratus extract was an excellent potentials for controlling Culex mosquitoes. Therefore we recommend that it should be used to control Culex mosquito in the affected areas.Keywords: Adulticidal, Culex mosquito, Dichloromethane, Extracts, Phytochemicals
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Spatio-temporal variations in camel (Camelus dromedarius) foraging
           behaviour on rangeland ecosystem of semi-arid north western Nigeria

    • Authors: H.A. Alkali, B.F. Muhammad, M Abubakar, A.A. Njidda, M.I. Ghude
      Abstract: A considerable number of the dromedary camels are found in the semi-arid part of Northern Nigeria. Apart from the wide use of the camel as a draught animal it now serves as a source of milk, meat and hide in this region. This paper examines the foraging behaviour of the camel on the rangeland in order to determine its major daily activities as influenced by season, sex and age to enable us improve the biodiversity of our rangelands. Four categories of animals (Adult male, Adult Female, Young Male and Young Female) were followed for three consecutive days in both dry and rainy seasons. The result indicates that the time spent by the camels in the two seasons (Wet and Dry) and between Male and Female on various activities were significant (P<0.05). However, there was also a significant difference between the behaviour of the adult and younger camels. In can be concluded that camel spends most of its time grazing during the day and the grazing time is higher in the wet season which is related to the forages availability and that the behaviour is influenced by age rather than sex.Keywords: Behaviour, Camel, Ecosystem, Foraging, Rangeland
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic leaf extract of
           Morinda lucida on alloxan induced diabetic rats

    • Authors: Hauwa M.S. Haruna, Baba Gabi, Saudatu Ahmad Jere
      Abstract: Healthy male wistar rats(30) of average weight of 150 – 190gm were randomly distributed into 5 gr. oups of six each. Group 1, normal control; each given only 0.2ml distilled water throughout the period of study; group 2 diabetic control, induced 150mg/kg b.w., i.p., administration of alloxan monohydrate and thereafter given 0.2ml distilled water throughout the period of study; group 3 and 4 diabetic (i.p., 150mg/kg b.w. alloxan), rats were orally administered methanolic leaf extract of Morinda lucida at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg respectively for 15 days. Group 5 diabetic rat (i.p., 150mg/kg b.w. alloxan) were treated with 84mg/kg /b.w. of chlorpropamide once daily for 15 days. Serum glucose levels were found to decrease significantly (p<0.05) both in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control groups. Hypolipidemic status was found to improved significantly (p<0.05) by decreasing the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs) and low density hypoprotein (LDL) in both the treated groups compared to the control groups. These reductions were dose dependant and compared well with the values obtained in the standard drug control group. Thus, results of the study indicate that Morinda lucida methanolic leaf extract can be potentially used for diabetics to control glucose and lipid levels.Keywords: Morinda lucida, Diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemic effect, hypolipidemic effect, chlorpropamide, alloxan monohydrate
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effects of oral administration of Momordica charantia on haematological
           parameters of adult albino rats

    • Authors: M.I. Umar
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the haematological parameters of adult albino rats following oral administration of extract of Momordica charantia. Twenty male adult albino rats were grouped according to their body weights (270±30g). The Group A (control) group was administered orally with distilled water daily for six (6) weeks. Group B, C and D were administered orally with 125 mg, 250mg and 500mg of the extract for six (6) weeks respectively. The rats were humanely sacrificed, blood sample collected was from the heart of the rats, for haematological (red blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophil and neutrophils counts) analysis. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mean of haematological parameters. It was observed that Momordica charantia elevate the white blood cell count when compared to the control group. It was also observed that the red blood cell count of the groups treated with methanolic extract of Momordica charantia showed no change in value when compared to the control group. There was increase in lymphocytes and eosinophil count across the groups treated with methanolic extract. Conclusion: The Momordica charantia has potential in elevating some of the haematological parameters of the treated adult albino ratsKeywords: Momordica charantia, haematological parameters, albino rats
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Acute and sub- chronic toxicity profile of Annona muricata (Sour
           sop) on wister albino rats

    • Authors: Hauwa Bello Sherif, Gabi Baba, Sadiya M. Abdullahi
      Abstract: In drug development, determination of its toxic profile is paramount and usually the initial step in its evaluation. Phytochemical constituent’s assessment can subsequently be elucidated. Annona muricata is an evergreen shrub that is endowed with ethno-medicinal values and also served as a source of food. The significant needs to evaluate the toxic profile of the plant lead to the design of this work. Therefore this work is designed to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, acute (LD50 as the index) and sub-chronic toxicity profile of the leaf extracts. The effect of the extracts on the serum levels of some biochemical parameters which include alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Also include the effect on the kidney function parameters such as Urea, creatinine and electrolyte (K+, Na+, Cl- and HCO3-). The LD50 of the extract indicated that the plant extract is relatively safe with no mortality recorded at dose >5000mg/kg body weight of the drug. There was no significant (P ˃ 0.05) significant difference in the serum level of ALP ALT and AST for the liver function test. In a related effect no significant variation recorded on the kidney function parameters. However, salient mild effect on the liver and kidney was observed from the histopathological examination, but can be effectively averted if extended use of higher concentration of the extract is avoided, as the effect is observed to be both concentration and time dependent. However the research findings observed and suggested, the possible hepato-protective and neuphro-protective potential of the plant methanol extract which should be further investigated.Keywords: Acute toxicity, Sub-acute toxicity, Annona muricata, Albino rats, Liver function and Kidney function
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • An assessment of pollution in aquatic environment using bioindicators: a

    • Authors: U.A. Abdullahi, S Ibrahim
      Abstract: This review highlights the importance of biological indicators in monitoring presence of pollution in aquatic environment. This assessment involves the use of living organisms (macro or microorganisms and plants or animals) as bioindicators of pollution in water bodies. These organisms are believed to show higher sensitivity to pollution than the best chemical indicators. Bioindicators or test of relevance to water study includes: test based on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna straus, test Spirotox, Microtox, using macroinvertebrates, algae and vertebrates (such as fishes). Variety of biotic indices based on macroinvertebrates community as indicators have been highlighted which includes: Microinvertebrate Biotic Index (MBI), Extended Trend Biotic index (ETBi), Belgian Biotic index (BBi), Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs), Biological Monitoring Water Quality (BMWQ) and Family level Biotic Index (FBI). Based on Microinvertebrate Biotic Index (MBI), grading of water quality alone with the taxonomic group of macroinvertebrate was divided into grade I, II, III, IV and V representing clean water, mildly, moderately, highly and severely polluted water with the tolerance rating of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 respectively. The review emphasized the need for the use of bioindicators in detecting water pollution, because bioindicators are much more sensitive than the best chemical indicators.Keywords: aquatic environment, bioassessment, bioindicators, pollutant, tolerance rating
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters and
           biomarkers of metabolic syndrome among Hausa ethnic group in Kano, Nigeria

    • Authors: A.Y. Asuku, B Danborno, A.S. Akuyam, J.A. Timbuak, L.H. Adamu
      Abstract: Visceral adipose tissue is considered the most important anatomic site of adipose tissue aggregation and is considered the hall mark of metabolic syndrome (MetS) phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome among Hausa ethnic group in Kano, Nigeria. The study was a cross sectional study including 465 participants of Kano, with a mean age of 34.4 years and 32.0 years for males and females respectively. Systematic random sampling technique was employed for subject recruitment. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index BMI were obtained using standard protocol. Overnight fasting blood sample was obtained for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), uric acid and adiponectin estimation using standard laboratory protocols. Visceral adipose tissue was estimated using visceral adiposity index (VAI) and WC. It was observed that VAI, FBG, HDL and TC were significantly higher in females. There was no significant sex difference in WC, TG, and LDL, Serum adiponectin, uric acid, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, the serum uric acid and adiponectin levels did not show sexual dimorphism. Only some of the MetS parameters are sexually dimorphic. While VAI was higher in females, WC did not show sexual dimorphism.Keywords: Biomarkers, metabolic syndrome indices, sexual dimorphism, visceral adiposity
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Prevalence of intestinal parasitic protozoan infections among female
           HIV/Aids patients attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Kano
           State, Nigeria

    • Authors: M.M. Dogara, A.A. Aliyu, A.A. Aliyu
      Abstract: Intestinal protozoan parasites are the major cause of morbidity and mortality killing millions of patients with HIV/AIDS each year; causing diarrhea especially in infants and immunocompromised people worldwide. HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasitic infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic protozoan infections among women patients with HIV/AIDS attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano from October - December, 2016. Stool samples from 82 HIV/AIDS women patients were analyzed for protozoan parasite using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration techniques and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques whereas the blood samples collected were analyzed for CD4+ T-cell estimation using flow cytometry. Sociodemographic variables were collected by using questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to test the associations between CD4+ T-cell count and protozoan infections. A total of three (3) protozoan parasites were encountered among the HIV- positive individuals. These include Giardia intestinalis (33.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (27.8%) and E. coli (22.2%). The result indicated that the parasitic infection with Giardiaintestinalis was significantly higher among HIV-positive women (P>0.05). The age group with the highest prevalence was that of 40-49 years (29.2%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic protozoan infection with regard to age, CD4+ count, job type of the patients (P>0.05) but there was a significant association between the residence area, pregnancy status and intestinal parasitic protozoan infection (P<0.05). Prevalence was also significantly higher in the rural areas (39.1%) than in the urban areas (11.4%). Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients among others are advocated in the study area.Keywords: AKTH; CD4+ count; HIV/AIDS; Immunocompromised; Intestinal Protozoa; Prevalence
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • A cross sectional study on lung functions in athletes, singers, and
           individuals with sedentary lifestyles in Ahmadu Bello University, Bello

    • Authors: M.I. Imam, J.N. James, M.B. Akor-Dewu
      Abstract: Physical activity when performed regularly has beneficial effects on the various systems of the body, pulmonary functions inclusive. This study was aimed at determining the effect singing and athletics have on the lung functions as compared to sedentary lifestyle, and whether athletes differ in lung functions from singers in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Anthropometric data was also matched with spirometric parameters. Spirometric parameters: Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity(FVC) and the ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in one second to Forced Vital Capacity(FEV1/FVC%) were assessed in randomly selected 60 healthy, non- smoking, non-obese male subjects 15-30years of age, that included athletes, singers and sedentary individuals and grouped as such. The mean FEV1 for singers (3.33±0.11) and athletes 3.39±0.13 was significantly higher (p=0.007 and p=0.002 respectively) than that for sedentary control (2.83±0.09). The mean FVC for singers (4.07±0.12) and athletes (4.17±0.14) was significantly higher (p=0.015 and p=0.003 respectively) than that for sedentary group (3.57±0.11). The difference in means of FEV1 and FVC between athletes and singers were of no statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the mean FEV1/FVC% amongst the groups, 79.68±1.66, 82.40±2.43 and 81.63±2.15 for sedentary, singers and athletes respectively. Singers and athletes had a higher body weight than sedentary, but the mean age for the sedentary control was higher. In conclusion, the study showed a better pulmonary function in both athletes and singers compared to sedentary control with a positive correlation to weight. Singers did not differ in pulmonary functions when compared to athletes.Keywords: Athletes, Forced expiratory volume, Forced vital capacity, Singers, Sedentary
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of metal complexes
           of mixed ligands : citric acid and amodiaquine

    • Authors: A Lawal, S Olowude, M.O. Bamigboye, H.O. Sa’ad, G.G. Nnabuike, M.T. Yunus-Issa, S.A. Amolegbe
      Abstract: A range of d-block transition metals complexes of mixed amodiaquine and citric acid have been synthesized and characterised using microanalytical technique, elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. The results of the analytical and spectroscopic data revealed that both amodiaquine and citric acid acted as bidentate ligands in their mode of coordination with the metal ions.The citric acid bound through the carbonyl (C=O) and hydroxyl groups to the metal ions while, amodiaquine coordinated through the nitrogen atom of the amine and oxygen donor atom of hydroxyl group; resulted in structures with octahedral geometry. Percentage composition and magnetic Bohr moment data indicated that all metal complexes were paramagnetic. Molar conductance measurement indicates that the complexes are non-electrolytes in nature. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their mixed complexes was carried out against g(+)Pseudomonas aeruginosa, g(+)E. coli, g(+)Klebsiella pneumonia, g(+)Staphylococcus aureus and g(+)Candida using Muller Hinton diffusion method. The citric acid and amodiaquine result showed low or moderate value from (0.6-0.8) for all the metal complexes with the exception of the Cu (II) complex having inhibitory zones ranging from 1-0-1.3, 0.7-0.9 at 200 ppm respectively. Moreover, the free ligands were found being less active compared with their mixed complexes.Keywords: Citric acid, Amodiaquine, Complexes, Antimicrobial studies
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange (Citrus sinensis)
           handling operations in Yanlemo Market Kano State

    • Authors: I Lawan, K Yahaya, Rabi K. Ahmad, A.I. Muhammad
      Abstract: Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange handling operation in Kano State was conducted. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated, where they were found to vary with age amongst the subjects selected. 20th and 80th percentiles of the dimensions were computed and recommended for usage in design of the relevant orange handling equipment. To evaluate the Physiological parameters, sorting/grading operations and washing operations were selected for this study. Results obtained revealed that, heart beat rate, oxygen consumption and energy expenditure varied amongst the subjects with age. Muscular stress and postural disorder were also studied. Comparing the parameters obtained during sorting/grading operation and that obtained during washing operations revealed that orange operations resulted to superior drudgery and musculoskeletal disorders.Keywords: Anthropometrics, Energy expenditure, Drudgery, Operations and Musculoskeletal disorder
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Anthropometric comparison of Anthropometric Test Device (ATD) and Nigerian
           female adult

    • Authors: I.A. Rafukka
      Abstract: Anthropometric test device (ATD) is surrogate used in automotive crash testing. Female ATDs used worldwide in the evaluation of vehicle safety performance was produced based on anthropometry of U.S. population. This work is aimed at assessing the difference between the anthropometric dimensions of Nigerian female adults from three major ethnic groups and ATDs, utilizing data reported in the literature. The comparison revealed differences varying from 0.5% to 2.1% in stature and 1.5% to 16.7% in the body weight. Small female and mid size female ATD could represent Igbo female because the difference in both stature and weight is within 2%. It was also found that female ATDs could not represent Hausa and Yoruba female population. ATD stature and weight targets differ from the Nigerian female population by less than 11 percentile points. This will lead to different injury outcomes in vehicular crashes. Vehicles certified using the ATD might not be safer for Nigerian female occupant. Therefore, car designers and manufactures need to consider the anthropometric differences in their future designs to ensure that vehicle used by Nigerians are evaluated using ATDs that truly represent the population.Keywords: Anthropometry; ATD; Crash test; Vehicle safety
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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