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SOCIAL SCIENCES (682 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 147)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access  
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access  
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access  
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access  
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
e-Gnosis     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)     Open Access  
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExT : Revista de Extensión de la UNC     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 2006-6996
   Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [266 journals]
  • Isolation and identification of fungi responsible for leaf spots disease
           of mango (Mangifera indica linneaus) in Sokoto state, Nigeria

    • Authors: M.B. Zainab, S.A. Shinkafi
      Abstract: A survey was carried out to investigate the incidence of fungal leaf spots disease of mango (Mangifera indica) in Sokoto metropolis using random sampling methods.  Field survey was carried out in six mango growing areas; Arkilla, Dambuwa, Gagi, Illela, More and permanent site of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. Diseased plant leaves were identified using disease symptoms. A total of 125 healthy and diseased leaves were collected using detached leaf technique. The diseased plant leaves were taken to the laboratory for culture, isolation, and identification of pathogens. Plant disease incidence was determined using disease index and severity scale of 0-4 rating. Eleven fungal pathogens were isolated and identified. These included; Alternaria longipes,  Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium mangifera, Pestalotiopsis  mangiferae, Phoma mangiferae, Phomopsis mangiferae,  Pseudofusicoccum spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The incidence of leaf blight was high in Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto with percentage frequency of (56.75%), followed by Dambuwa (45.50%), More  (44.48%), lllela (37.00%), Gagi (34.15%) and Arkilla (31.65%). Leaf spots intensity was more influenced by environmental  conditions and cultural practices rather than climatic factors in the areas. Also, programs aimed at enlightening the farmers on proper cultural practices and  boosting mango yield and reducing pathogen invasion are recommended.
      Keywords: Incidence, Fungi, Leaf spot, disease, Mango, Sokoto.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde 2, 3-diaminopyridine starch
           chelating polymer and its sorption potential for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II)
           ions in aqueous media

    • Authors: A.G. Danjani, A.A. Salisu, A.H. Usman
      Abstract: Dialdehyde cassava starch (DAS) was prepared and characterized. Polymeric chelating ligands containing 2,3-diaminopyridine have been prepared from dialdehyde starch, the removal of copper(II), nickel(II) and cadmium(ii) ions from aqueous solutions by dialdehyde 2,3- diaminopyridine starch (DAS2,3-DNH2PYR) was investigated. The adsorbent degree of substitution (DS) 0.82 was characterized by solubility test, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Batch adsorption has been performed to identify the binding property of metal (ii) ions. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be  31.1mg/g for cadmium and nickel, 30mg/g for copper, and removal efficiency was 78%, 77.77% and 75% for cadmium, nickel and copper respectively. Polymeric chelating ligand could therefore be used to remove the metals from aqueous solution.  Keywords: Starch Polymer, Dialdehyde starch, Starch 2, 3-Aminopyridine, Chelating resin.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Adoption and use of a university registration portal by undergraduate
           students of Bayero University, Kano

    • Authors: B.S. Galadanci, L. Abdulwahab
      Abstract: The impact of Information Technology (IT) has continued to increase in all aspects of our lives; there has been increasing interest in research on the factors that explain user acceptance of new technology. Venkatesh combined eight of the most popular models to formulate a new model, called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), which since then has become one of the most prominent models. This paper tries to validate a modified UTAUT model for the Bayero University, Kano. Students’ registration portal which every university student has to use at the beginning of every academic session was used to test the model. Three hundred and sixty eight valid questionnaires were used to validate research model which comprises five constructs in the modified model namely: performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), facilitating conditions (FC) and anxiety (AX). In order to evaluate the internal consistency, convergence and discernments validity, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is run on the measurement model and the values of Average Variance Extracted (AVE),  Composite Reliability (ρc), and Cronbach's Alpha (CA) are found to be satisfactory. The data collected is analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Three major constructs of the model - performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE) and social influence (SI) – are found to be insignificant determinants of  registration portal usage, showing that there are a number of systems that may neither fit into the UTAUT nor UTAUT2 models because of their special  characteristics.
      Keywords: IT, myBUK, UTAUT, University registration portal, Structural Equation Modeling
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • The effect of water solubles on Kelvin effects of the Maritime Polluted

    • Authors: G.S.M. Galadanci, B.I. Tijjani, S. Uba, A.I. Abubakar, I.D. Adamu, A.M. Nura
      Abstract: In this work microphysical properties of Maritime Polluted aerosols wereextracted from Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) after varying the concentrations of water soluble at five different levels. The analytical expressions for the changes in the equilibrium relative humidity (RH), effective radii, effective hygroscopic growth, their magnitudes and fractional changes on the  effects of surface tension (the Kelvin effect) on the ambient aerosols were numerically  analyzed. The expressions were applied to two - one parameter models. It was  discovered that the increase in water soluble concentration caused decreased in the Kelvin effects which implies decrease in surface tension. The numerical analysis of the data showed that to the lowest order error.   Increase in the overestimation of the effective hygroscopic growth and decrease in the overestimation of the effective radii. On  the two models applied, we discovered that the fractional changes in hygroscopic growth increase in overestimation while there is decrease in  overestimation of fractional changes in effective radii. Finally, decrease in the underestimation of the fractional  changes in the equilibrium pressure it was discovered.
      Keywords: Kelvin effect, effective radius, effective hygroscopic growth, water soluble, ambient Relative Humidity, overestimation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea formula
           (a polyherbal tea) in wistar rats

    • Authors: M. Aliyu, S.C. Samaila
      Abstract: Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea  consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and  Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of   ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, feed consumption, water intake, liver and kidney   functions as well as haematological parameters were evaluated. Also evaluated was the histolopathogical effect of the extract on the liver, kidney, spleen and stomach. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced body weight, feed consumption and water  intake in rats. On liver function, there was no significant effect of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate   Aminotransferase (AST); however there was significant (p < 0.05) elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). No significant effect (p > 0.05) on kidney function indices was observed. There was also no significant effect (p > 0.05) on  haematological   parameters, except for WBC differentials where there was significant (p <0.05) elevation of lymphocytes and decrease in   neutrophils. The extract was relatively non-toxic on kidney, liver, spleen, and stomach in the histopathological evaluations. The present study suggests that RTF extract might have no serious deleterious effect on sub-acute administration.
      Keywords: Rheumatic Tea Formula, sub-acute toxicity, liver, kidney, blood, wistar rats.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Determination of some total and bioavailable heavy metals in farmland soil
           around Rivers Niger and Benue in Lokoja, Nigeria

    • Authors: K.I. Omoniyi, M. Mukhtar, E.D. Paul
      Abstract: The work assessed the distribution of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the farmland soils around Rivers Niger and Benue and beyond the confluence in Lokoja, Nigeria. The samples were collected in the dry and rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014, digested with aqua regia and analysed for heavy metals using atomic absorption  spectrophotometry. The soil pH ranged from 6.4 to 7.2 for the  farmland soils collected 50 m away from the bank of the rivers and each point 10 m apart (n=72). There was no significant  difference in the mean values of the organic matter, organic carbon and moisture contents of the soils across the seasons. Cd concentration (mg/kg)in the soil samples collected in March 2013, June 2013, January 2014 and May 2014 at 0 – 15 cm depth ranged from 3.95 - 8.4; Cu 11.6 - 20.2 ; Mn 150.3 - 211.5; Ni 177.0 - 281.0 ; Pb 20.3 - 34.2 and Zn 40.5 - 77.8. The levels of the metals in the soil follow the ranking: Ni > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd; with Cd and Ni being above European Union permissible limits. The order of the percentage of extracted metal by EDTA to the total metal content was Pb>Zn>Cu>Ni>Mn>Cd. I-geo  pollution index showed that the farmland soils were moderately contaminated with Ni and Cd. Hence, there is the need to enforce environmental laws that borders on proper solid waste and effluent disposals.
      Key Words: Heavy Metals– Pollution index – River Niger and Benue – Soils – Season
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde starch urea (DASU) and,
           it`s sorption potential for Co(ii), Pb(ii) and Zn(ii) ions from aqueous

    • Authors: A.H. Usman, A.A. Salisu, A.G. Danjani
      Abstract: Dialdehyde starch urea (DASU) was prepared by the reaction of dialdehyde starch (DAS) from periodate oxidized cassava starch with urea, which was then used to adsorb Co(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution. Starch modified starches and starch complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the structure and morphology respectively. The percentages of aldehyde contents of the three kinds of DAS, designated as DAS1, DAS2 and DAS3 were 45.2%, 61.2% and 86.94% respectively. The results indicated that the higher the concentration of periodates, the higher the percentage of aldehyde content in DAS. DAS1 with the content of the aldehyde groups of 45.2% had an average molecular weight of 85,853, while the average molecular weight of DAS2 with the content of the  aldehyde groups of 61.2% was 15,466. When the content of aldehyde groups increased to 86.94%, the average molecular weight of DAS3 was fund to decrease to 13,182. The Degree of substitution (DS) of urea was 0.67and DS significantly increase with the increase in percentages of nitrogen content in the polymer adsorbent. Adsorption capacity for Co(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions were found to be 16.01mg/g, 21.73mg/g and 7.18mg/g respectively.
      Keywords: Starch Polymer, Dialdehyde starch, Dialdehyde Starch Urea, Chelating resin
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Proximate analysis of the fruit Azanza garckeana
           (“Goron Tula”)

    • Authors: C. Jacob, Z. Shehu, W.L. Danbature, E. Karu
      Abstract: The chemical composition and some selected metal ions of the fruit Azanza garckeana locally called “Goron Tula” obtained from different parts of Tula in Kaltungo Local Government Area of Gombe State were analysed. The chemical compositions determined showed a carbohydrate content in the range 49-56%; ascorbic acid 285.5-308.5mg/50g; fat content 0.0541-0.0543%; and starch while the selected metals Fe, Mg, Ca, and Mn were in the range 120-140μg/g, 1700-2300μg/g, 350-450μg/g, and 71-101μg/g respectively.Key words: Azanza Garckeana fruit, proximate analysis, metal ions, carbohydrate content, ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid, Azanza Garckeana fruit, carbohydrate content, proximate analysis, metal ions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Occurrence and antibiogram of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy products
           consumed in parts of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    • Authors: N.O Okpo, I.O Abdullahi, C.M.Z Whong, J.B Ameh
      Abstract: total of 160 dairy products comprising of 80 each of fresh milk and ‘Nono’  (Fermented and defatted) were collected. The samples were cultured and identified by routine bacteriological methods. Prevalence of S.aureus (8.75%) in the products was; for fresh milk 3.75% and ‘Nono’ 5%. The susceptibility profile of the isolates to nine antimicrobial agents revealed a high susceptibility to Gentamicin (100%),  Ciprofloxaxin (92.86%) and Chloramphenicol (92.86%). The isolates had high resistance to Tetracycline (85.71%), Cefoxitin (64.29%), Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid (64.29%) and Erythromycin (64.29%). A total of 9(64.29%) isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Multiple antibiotics resistance index (MARI) ranged from 7.14% (0.7) to 21.43% (0.3). The presence of S.aureus and resistance to commonly used antibiotics by the isolates posses a health risk for consumers of these milk products.
      Key words: Dairy Products, Staphylococcus aureus, susceptibility profile, fresh milk, ‘Nono’.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Structural analysis and surface morphology of quartz

    • Authors: Hassan Usman Jamo
      Abstract: The structural analysis and surface morphology of quartz has been studied. Quartz has long been known to be a source of silica. X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe the surface and internal structure of the quartz. The results among other things revealed that the quartz consist of mainly silica (SiO2), with crystalline structure, microscopic examination showed that the quartz has a porous cellular structure and consists of irregular-shaped particles. This study implies that quartz is good candidate for various applications by ceramic industries.
      Key words: Quartz; XRF;XRD; SEM; TGA
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Influence of preservation methods on ph and microbiological quality of
           tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) milk

    • Authors: S.G. Ibrahim, R.A. Umar, S.A. Isa, A.A. Farouq
      Abstract: The deteriorating effect of microorganisms on tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) milk has hampered its large-scale production and profitability. To study the effect of preservation on the pH and microbiological quality of the milk, big yellow tiger nuts were soaked in 3 L of tap water at 60oC for 6 hours, additives such as coconut, date, cinnamon and ginger were added and blended. The extracted milk was divided into twenty five portions and subjected to the following treatments: pasteurization, sterilization, ultraviolet light, freezing and sodium benzoate. The pH and microbiological quality of both the fresh and preserved samples were investigated over 9-day storage period. The pH of the milk samples significantly decreased (p<0.05) over the period due to microbial activity. There were significant (p<0.05) decrease and increase in the pH values of the preserved samples with negative control (FTM) and positive control samples (TMA) respectively. The less acidic the products are the higher the bacterial load. The values of the total bacterial count for the preserved milk ranged from 5.19±0.06 to 6.84±0.03 log10cfu/ml. The values within this range were significantly lower (p<0.05) than FTM  (6.58±0.05log10cfu/ml) but higher than TMA (4.44±0.02 to 5.85±0.06  log10cfu/ml). The organisms isolated from the samples were Staphylococcus species (16%), Clostridium species (11%), Bacillus species (10%), Acinetobacter species (3%), Enterobacter species (6%), Corynebacterium species (4%), Neisseria species (1%), Vibrio species (1%), Micrococcus species (4%), Aeromonas species (5%), Saccharomyces species (35%) and Rhizopus oryzae (4%). The results suggest that ultraviolet light and sterilization methods were more effective at eliminating most of the bacteria implicated in milk spoilage.
      Keywords: Fresh, large-scale production, microbiological quality, preserved, tiger nut milk.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Multivariate approach to the study of aquatic species diversity of
           dendrite streams of River Kano, Nigeria

    • Authors: K. Suleiman, I.L. Abdullahi
      Abstract: Diversity of macroinvertebrates as well as Physico-chemical parameters were  investigated in six sampling sites of Kano River between June 2014 to May 2015. The pattern of association between measured Physico-chemical parameters were significantly correlated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and revealed high positive correlation between Total Nitrate and Total Phosphate at site A (.811) and negative correlation between Dissolved Oxygen and pH at site E (-.261). Eigen value of the three variables namely; Temperature, pH and Electrical Conductivity was satisfactory, explaining 73.64% and 70.79% of the total variance in dry season and wet season respectively, other components explained 26.36% and 29.06% noise. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin in dry season value showed 0.700 degree of common variance is middling bordering meritorious adequacy value while wet season showed miserable degree of common variance value of 0.500. Bartletts' Test of Sphericity showed no difference in wet and dry season with the significant value of p < 0.001. Macroinvertebrates species group frequency distribution of homogeneous set at N 2271 showed Chironomidae subset-7 with the significance of 1.00 highest in harmonic mean value and Planariidae in subset-1 has 0.59 lowest in the value. Generalized Linear Model further revealed the pattern in seasonal variation in the macroinvertebrates data set. The findings were discussed and recommendations made.
      Key words: Dendrites, Diversity, Eigen value, Macroinvertebrates, Multivariate, River Kano.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated
           fluvisols along River Tatsewarki, Kano, Nigeria

    • Authors: G. Omar, S.A. Pantami
      Abstract: There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy metals in wastewater irrigated Fluvisols and in the irrigation wastewater itself as well as the relationship between the two. Composite surface soil and water samples including controls were collected and analyzed using standard methods. Analytical results were compared with the controls, the EU and FAO standards. Results indicated that the concentrations of Cu (30.556 to 41.667 mgkg-1), Cd (10.269 to18.687 mgkg-1), Zn (18.687 to 26.010 mgkg-1), Cr (8.848 to 12.14 mgkg-1) and Pb (3.953 to 4.787 mgkg-1) in the soil were non-toxic across the river sections. Results also indicated that the irrigation water contained toxic levels of Cu (0.85 to1.25 mgl-1), Cd (0.36 to 0.72 mgl-1) and Cr (0.47 to 0.67 mgl-1) and is therefore considered unsafe for use. However, it did not contain toxic levels of Zn (0.58 1.06 mgl-1) and Pb (0.22 to 0.25 mgl-1) and it is considered safe for use accordingly. Results also revealed that the irrigation water was responsible for the accumulation of Cr (r = 0.019), Cu (r = 0.151), Cd (r = 0.190) and Pb (r = 0.202) in the irrigated soils but not Zn (r = - 0.214). It is recommended that  periodic  appraisal of the soils should be embarked upon so as to monitor the toxicity level of the soil to keep it within the present non-toxic level. It is also recommended that the wastewater should be remediated to minimize and control the heavy metal contamination through phytoremediation. These measures are expected to enhance increased and sustainable crop production in the study area.
      Key words: Fluvisols, Heavy metals, Irrigation, Wastewater.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Quality assessment of groundwater from Hadejia Local Government Area of
           Jigawa State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A. Garba, E.O. Ekanem, I.H. Garba
      Abstract: The physicochemical and trace metal levels of groundwater (borehole) from Hadejia Local Government Area of Jigawa State used for drinking and other domestic  purposes were analyzed to assess its equality. A total of 20 sampling points were selected for the study, the groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical and trace metals values. Levels of various physicochemical  parameters which include Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity(EC), Total  Dissolved Solids(TDS), Total Hardness, Magnesium, and Calcium were determined using standard analytical methods. The concentration of NO3 -, Cl -, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Pb were determined spectrophotometrically using CHEMetrics Model V-2000spectrophotometer which is    pre-programmed to measure 30 analytes automatically, using CHEMetrics Vacu-Visuals self-filling ampoules. The results  showed that concentration of Mn, Cr, and Pb are found to be slightly higher above the maximum permissible limit of Nigerian  Standard for Drinking Water Quality 0.2, 0.5 and 0.01mg/L respectively, while Fe, Cu, and Zn concentration are below or within the permissible limit of 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/L respectively set by NSDWQ in majority of the boreholes. The values for   physicochemical variables EC, pH, Temperature, TDS, Total Hardness, Ca, Mg, Cl -, and NO3 - were found to be below or within the permissible limit set by the NSDWQ. Thus, it is concluded that the current status of the water in most of the boreholes considered for this study is fit as a source of drinking for the community; it is recommended that those boreholes with higher level of Mn, Cr, and Pb should be closed and new ones constructed to enhance good drinking water delivery to the community. Keywords: Groundwater, Hadejia, Physicochemical Parameters.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effect of weeding status and tapping date on the yield of gum Arabic
           (Acacia Senegal) in Jigawa state, Nigeria

    • Authors: K.J. Ilu, I.A. Yau, M.S1. Babura, Bashir B. H. Zahran, Sid Ahmed, O Abdulsalam, H. Ahmed
      Abstract: The study examined the Effect of Weeding Status and Tapping Date on the yield of gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) in Jigawa State, Nigeria. The said task has been accomplished by employing a two factorial experiment of complete randomized block design with three replicates which involves the weeding status and tapping dates conducted in 2014 season at two different locations; Kadoma and Kwanar duhuwa. The weeding status experiment comprises of three 100% weeded plots; and three Unwweded plots; while the tapping date investigation was tested at six levels (1st and 15th September, 1st and 5th October and 1st and 15th November). In each of these treatments three (3) trees were tapped making a total number of two hundred and sixteen trees in the two locations and one hundred and eight (108) trees at kadoma and Kwanar duhuwa respectively. The first picking of the gum yield took place 45day after tapping and each consecutive picking was collected after 15 days from the previous one. The gum from each picking was weighed after air drying with sensitive balance JY2002 model. SAS statistical package used for the data analysis thus DUNCAN multiple range test were employed in establishing the relationships between the variable investigated.Thus, the finding has revealed that gum Arabic tapping conducted on the 15th of October gave higher yield of gum Arabic when compared with the rest dates of tapping; the unweeded plots gave superior yield than the weeded plot.Therefore gum Arabic farmers were advised not to weed gum Arabic field when they are matured enough for harvest at the same time tapping should be carried out when the gum Arabic tree lost at least 50% of their leaves.Keywords; Gum Arabic, Jigawa State, Tapping and Weeding.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial study of silver
           nanoparticles (agNPs)

    • Authors: Aminu A. Hamisu, Maryam Abdullahi, U. Abubakar, S. Bilal, A.J. Abbas
      Abstract: In this paper, biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Syzygium guineenses stem extract with 1mM, 2mM and 3mM AgNO3 concentrations has been presented. The plant extract was prepared with distilled water. The characterization and morphological composition of the synthesized AgNPs were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy and SEM respectively, while FTIR analysis was performed to identify the presence of the possible functional groups in the synthesized nano particles. It was observed from the UV and SEM analyses that the particles formed have diameters in the range of 23.5nm - 89.3nm, which is the range of nanoparticle size. Antibacterial test was carried out on the sample with six pathogenic microbes (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococus aureas, Vancomycin Resistant Entrococci, Staphylococcus aureas, Bacillus sublitis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) to ascertain the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs. Both the characterization and antimicrobial activity test were very successful and could lead to significant economic viability, as well as being environmentally friendly for treatment of some infectious diseases.Keywords: Syzygium guineenses, Green Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Optoelectronics, Biomedical Sensors
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Determination of morphological features and molecular interactions of
           Nigerian bentonitic clays using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

    • Authors: S. Bilal, I.A. Mohammed-Dabo, B.B.M. Dewu, O.R. Momoh, A. Hamisu Aminu, U. Abubakar, M.S. Adamu, A.H. Mashi
      Abstract: This research focused on identifying the morphological features and molecular  interactions of the Nigerian Bentonitic clays using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) characterisation technique. The SEM microstructure images indicated that the bentonite samples are generally moderately dispersive to dispersive with some large flocs which were apparently separate and dispersed from one another rather than located on the totality of the image. This property is more pronounced on the sodium (Na) activated and the treated samples than in the raw samples, which could be due to quartz removal and Na activation on the raw Bentonitic samples. Dispersive sample surfaces consist of loose flakes with no definitive mass structures observed on the treated samples due to added poly anionic cellulose (PAC) to the samples
      Key words: SEM, microstructure, images, bentonite, flocs and PAC
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Assessment of consumers’ preference to the use of garlic and cinnamon
           oils on stored beef and camel meat ‘Kilishi’

    • Authors: S.A. Kazeem, B.F. Muhammad
      Abstract: The effects of garlic, cinnamon and combination of garlic and cinnamon oils on storage quality of beef and camel meat Kilishi were determined. Meat from the  Longissimus dorsi of the hind limb of camel and cattle were used for the experiment. Kilishi produced from each species was grouped into four parts of 2kg each and treated with garlic, cinnamon, combination of garlic and cinnamon oils (1:1) and control (Kilishi without treatment). The products were packed in a brown paper and stored at room temperature from May to September, 2012. Organoleptic  assessment showed that there was no significant difference in the consumer preference for the products. However, fresh Kilishi were more acceptable at the beginning of storage in May than at the end of storage in September 2012. It was concluded that garlic and cinnamon oils had no effect on the overall acceptability of Kilishi. It was  recommended that garlic and cinnamon oils should be used to extend the shelf life of Kilishi during storage.
      Keywords: Meat, Kilishi, Garlic Oil, Cinnamon Oil, Longissimus dorsi, Nigeria, Organoleptic
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Geometry optimization, cohesive energy and harmonic vibration of Al9Cu41
           Cu12Fe And Al13Fe icosahedral metallic alloys

    • Authors: Mansur Sa’id, G. Babaji
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Prevalence of Tinea capitis among primary school children in Igala- mela/
           Odolu L.G.A, Kogi State, Nigeria

    • Authors: O. Yahaya, J. Yabefa, A.A. Orukotan, E. Jalija, J.A. Adaja, M.O. Okpoboh
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Proximate, minerals and antinutrient assessment of the leaves and
           tenderstem of Leptadenia hastate (pers.) decne

    • Authors: Tijjani Habibu, Joel B. Enoch, Ibrahim A. Agiteh, Abdulai I. Suliat, Habila Susinya
      Abstract: The study evaluated the proximate, minerals and antinutrient contents of the plant Leptadenia hastata (Pers.) decne (Asclepiadaceae). Nutrient and antinutritional factors were determined using standard analytical methods and parameters subjected to statistical analysis. Manganese (Mn), Calcium (Ca) and Cobalt (Co) were found to be significantly (p<0.001) higher in the leaves when compared to the tender stem while Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and Magnesium (Mg) were found to be significantly (p<0.001) higher in the tender stems when compared to the leaves. The percentages of Moisture content, Crude proteins and Total ash were found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the leaves when compared to the tender stem while crude fiber and Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the stem when compared to the leaves. Oxalate and phytic acid were anti nutrient found to be significantly (p<0.001) higher in the leaves when compared to the tender stem. However, Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Potassium (K) and Crude fat were not significantly (p>0.05) different when compared in the leaves and tender stem. Correlation analysis indicated that antinutrient contents in the tender stems will not affect the mineral absorption in the leaves while negative correlation between Fe and Cu in the stems could affect the absorption of iron. Therefore, Leptadenia hastata leave and tender stem consumed in soup and local salad in northern Nigeria proved to be rich in minerals and nutrients to support its dietary role as a consumed vegetable.
      Keywords: Leptadenia hastata, Minerals, Proximate, Antinutrients, Tender stems, Leaves
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Potency of Trichoderma aureoviride UPM 09 and Fusarium equiseti UPM 09 in
           the pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocelluolosic biomass

    • Authors: A.A. Farouq, M.B Yerima, K. Shehu, A.L. Shinkafi
      Abstract: Two new strains of fungi, namely, Trichoderma aureoviride UPM 09 and Fusarium equiseti UPM 09 were isolated from elephant dung and identified morphologically and through the use of molecular assay. Their genomic DNA was extracted using Epicenter kit®. PCR amplification of their genomic DNA was successfully conducted with BIOMETRA Tpersonal/Tprofessional Thermocycler  (Germany) using ITS-1 forward primer (5’ TCC GTA GGT GAA CCT GCG G3’) and the ITS-4 reverse primer (5’ GCT GCG TTC TTC TTG ATC GAT GC 3’). The sequences of the fungal strains were deposited in the NCBI (USA) Gen Bank Database and were assigned accession numbers (in parenthesis) and were identified as Trichoderma aureoviride strain UPM 09 (JN811063) and  Fusarium equiseti strain UPM 09 (JN811061). The two fungal strains individually and in consortium were then used for the  pretreatment of rice husk (RH), rubber wood saw dust (RW) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) using solid state cultivation (SSC) and submerged cultivation (SMC). The amount of glucose, reducing sugars and protein from the pretreated lignocellulose biomass was determined using glucose analyzer, DNS reagent and Biorad assay, respectively. The result of this study, therefore, shows that native fungi possess potentials for use in the pretreatment of lignocelluloses biomass.Key Words: pretreatment, lignocellulose, biomass, fungi, cultivation, reducing sugar
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Cross sectional study of malarial parasite among patients attending
           general hospital, Hadejia, Jigawa state, Nigeria

    • Authors: S. Abubakar, I. Yunusa, M.K. Ahmad, M.K Abdullahi, I. Ibrahim, M. Zakariya
      Abstract: A study was conducted to find out prevalence of malarial parasite among patients attending Hadejia General Hospital. A total of 227 people were screened in the  study area. Out of this number 150(66.1%) were males, while 77(33.9%) were females. Overall prevalence of malarial parasite was found to be 114(50.2%). Prevalence of malarial parasite in males was found to be 78(52%), while prevalence in females was found to be 36(46.8%). There was no significant difference (p >0.05) between the sex of the people and prevalence of the infection. Prevalence of malarial parasite in children aged 0 to 5 years has highest prevalence37(53.4%), followed by children aged 6 to 15 years with prevalence of 56(50.3%) and lowest prevalence was obtained in people aged 15 years and above 25(40.4%).There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the age of the people and prevalence of the infection. The prevalence of malarial parasite was found to be high among patients attending Hadejia General Hospital.
      Keywords: Hospital, Malaria, Prevalence, Parasite, Patient,
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the performance of maize genotypes (Zea mays L.) for yield
           and other agronomic traits

    • Authors: A.K. Ibrahim, Yahaya Mukhtar
      Abstract: A study was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, Research Farm, Bayero University, Kano State, (Lat. 11º541N, Long. 8º251E; 466m above sea level) between July and November 2015. The treatments consisted of twenty five  genotypes which comprises of six parents, 15 cross and four checks derived from partial diallel cross, laid out in 5x5 lattice design and replicated three times; these were tested for fourteen characters to evaluate their performance. The means sum of squares due to genotypes indicated highly significant differences (P<0.01) for plant height, kernel weight kg days to 50% pollen shed, and grain yield per hectare, while non-significant difference was observed for other traits. The significant differences observed revealed the presence of  substantial variability among the genotypes. P5 recorded the highest grain yield of (1075.56kg/ha), while P2P5 recorded the highest yield of (897.78kg/ha), indicating that, the highest yield obtained may be due to the combination of P5 which appears as the higher yielding parent. P2P3 recorded the lowest yield of (222.22kg/ha). It is therefore recommended that P5 has the highest yield, and can be used for hybridization programs to come up with new improved varieties.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Assessment of commercially packaged water for faecal bacterial indicators
           in Kano metropolis and its environs

    • Authors: J.M. Ajagbe, S.A. Junaid, A.H. Kawo
      Abstract: A total of 60 commercially packaged drinking water comprising of 48 sachet and 12 bottled water samples were randomly collected and tested for bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. Escherichia coli type 1, Streptococcus fecalis and Clostridium perfringes were used as indices to evaluate potability, using Presumptive and Differential Coliform Counts. The results obtained were analyzed using McCrady's Statistical Table of Probability to ascertain the Most Probable Number (MPN) of Coliform organisms per 100mls of the water. Of the 48 sachet water analyzed, 2 (4.2%) were positive for Presumptive Coliform Count (PCC) with the first and second water  samples showing a count of 160 MPN/l00mls and 30MPN/100mls respectively. All the bottled water analyzed were negative for PCC. Since the need for consumption of packaged water cannot be underestimated, it is of great necessity that the waters are properly treated in order to meet the bacteriological Standards for Potable drinking water.
      Key words: Packaged water, Bacterial Indicator, Kano metropolis.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Hepato-renal toxicological studies of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex
           simplicifolia in wistar rats

    • Authors: M.A. Salim, A.A. Imam
      Abstract: This study evaluated the hepato-renal toxicological indices following 21 days administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia in Wistar rats. Acute toxicity studies with very high concentrations of the crude extract was carried out followed by sub chronic toxicities studies involving administration of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg body weight of the ethyl acetate extract to the  experimental animals for 21 days. Liver and Kidney toxicological indices were evaluated from the sera as well as e tissues of the experimental animals after the 21 days period of administration. The results of acute toxicity studies indicate that this extract is well tolerated at doses as high as 5000mg/kg body weight. The results of sub-chronic toxicity studies indicate that there was a significant increase in the activities of ALP , while AST activities was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control. There was no significant changes in (P<0.05) ALT and Unconjugated bilirubin levels in the test groups compared to the control. Similarly, the result of kidney toxicological indices showed that the levels of urea, Na+, HCO32- and Cl- were significantly higher in the test animals compared to the control while K+ and creatine levels showed no significant change in the extract  administered groups compared to the control (p<0.05). Histopathology examination of the liver and kidneys showed mild hepatic damage at the highest dose (1000mg/kg body weight).Keywords: Vitex simplicifolia, Hepato-renal, Toxicological Studies.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Thesium
           viride on ethanol and aspirin induced models in rats

    • Authors: S. Shehu, G. Ibrahim, U. Iliyasu, S. Shehu, A. Nuhu, M.S Abubakar
      Abstract: Thesiumviride Hill (Santalaceae) is a sub-shrub hemiparasite that grows up to 45cm tall and widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa. It is used in treatment of ulcer and jaundice. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous ethanol extract of the whole plant by using standard phytochemical methods. Acute oral toxicity test was carried out and antiulcer activity was conducted using absolute ethanol and aspirin as the ulcerogenic agents on rats where the ulcer index was the parameter and percentage preventive index was determined. The aqueous ethanol extract of the plant was found to contain flavonoids,  anthraquinones, glycosidesand alkaloids. Acute toxicity test showed an oral LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg. In ethanol model, aqueous ethanol extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg exhibited significant (P<0.0001) protection against ulcer with mean ulcer indices of 4.40 ± 0.60 and 1.80 ± 0.37 respectively as compared with negative (12.80 ± 0.97) and positive (4.00 ± 0.71)control mean ulcer indices. In aspirin model, aqueous ethanol extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg demonstrated  significant (P<0.05) protection against ulcer with mean ulcer indices of 3.20 ± 0.80 and 2.60 ± 0.24 respectively ascompared with negative (5.60 ± 0.97) and positive (1.00 ± 0.44) controlmean ulcer indices. The higher dose of the extract demonstrated greater protective ability with percentage preventive index 85.94% in ethanol induced model and 53.57% in aspirin induced model. The aqueous ethanol extract of the plant was found to be non-toxic and contains some phytochemicals that could be responsible for its antiulcer activity.Keywords: Thesiumviride, Phytochemical, LD50, Ulcer index, Aqueous ethanol extract
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Prevalence of fasciolosis among cattle slaughtered at Hadejia Abattoir

    • Authors: S. Abubakar, I. Yunusa, M.K. Ahmad, M.K Abdullahi, I. Ibrahim, M. Zakariya, D. Yusuf
      Abstract: A study was carried out to find out the prevalence of Fasciolosis in cattle  slaughtered at Hadejia Abattoir. Fasciola gigantica is a parasite of liver and bile duct in cattle, sheep and goat. The liver was examined for Fasciola by making length wise incision on the ventral side of the liver in such a way that the Bile duct was cut open. The forcep was used to pick the exposed worms in the bile duct and the Gall bladder. The Flukes recovered from each cattle were placed in label containers and taken to the Laboratory for identification and preservation. A total of 545cattle were  examined for the presence or absence of Fasciolosis in Hadejia Abattoir. Out of this number 279 (51.2%) were males and 266 (48.8%) were females. The overall  prevalence of Fasciolosis in the study area was 159(28.0%). The prevalence of Fasciolosis in males was found to be 73(26.2%), while the prevalence in females was 79(29.7%). There was no significant relationship (P > 0.05)between sex of the cattle and prevalence of the infection. The Prevalence of Fasciolosis in adult cattle was 36(40.2%), while in young cattle the prevalence was 123(15.0%). There was significant relationship (P < 0.05) between the age of cattle and prevalence of the infection.Fasciolosis is one of the helminths diseases that were found to be prevalent affecting cattle in the study area.Key words: Abattoir, Cattle, Cross-sectional., Fasciolosis, Slaughter,
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the influence of maternal parity on neonatal anthropometric
           parameters among Hausas in Kano state

    • Authors: S. Datti, M.G. Taura, M.H Modibbo, L.H. Adamu, I.A. Tela, A. Gudaji, A.Y. Asuku
      Abstract: Maternal Parity has been shown to increase the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), prematurity, and mortality. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of maternal parity on neonatal anthropometric parameters among Hausas in Kano. Five hundred and twenty one subjects (mothers and babies) participated in the study. Questionnaire was used to collect the biodata, parity and other anthropometric variables (birth weight, birth length, head circumference, chest circumference, thigh circumference, mid upper arm circumference, hand length, hand breadth, foot length, foot breadth).The anthropometric variables were measured using standard procedures.One way ANOVA was used to determine the differences in neonatal variables across different categories of parity. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 20 statistical software was used for data analyses. The result shows that the mothers within the 1st category of parity give birth to babies with lower birth weight and smaller thigh circumference when compared with 2nd, 3rd and 4th. However, in birth length, head circumference and chest circumference of the neonate the differences (p < 0.001) were observed only between 1st and 2nd category of parity. Moreover, the mid upper arm circumference has similar pattern with addition to 3rd categories. In conclusion, the parity of the mother was found to influence the neonatal  anthropometric variables.
      Keywords: Maternal Parity, Neonatal Anthropometry, Hausas
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Assessment of the level of farm mechanization technology utilization in
           poultry production in Kaduna state, nigeria

    • Authors: A.H. Hassan, M.U. Mairiga, M.S. Bature
      Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the level of farm mechanization technology  utilization in poultry production in Chukun and Igabi Local Government Areas,  Kaduna State. Purposive sampling was used to select wards, multi–stage to choose villages and simple random to pick 140 responding farmers. Frequency distribution, percentages and means were the analytic tool used. Majority of the producers (75%) were aged forty years and below. All the producers had formal education. More than half of the producers (65%) were in poultry. About 57% were  non-members of cooperatives. The major source of technology (68%) was local market. Majority of the producers (79%) adopted hand tool technologies. A few of the producers (18%) adopted battery cage, (4%) feed mill and (4%) incubator. The benefits of the technologies were 36% proper use of space, 21% easy handling of large flocks, 18% decrease in cost of production. The constraints were 46% inadequate access to capital, 18% lack of electricity and water and 14% poor  extension contact. Majority of the producers adopted hand tools and were  non-members of cooperatives thus could not enjoy economies of scale. Provision of adequate fund to producers and formation of cooperative were recommended.
      Key words: Poultry, chicken, technology and production.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Sub-Acute toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract of
           Brachystegia eurycoma (harms

    • Authors: I. Igbe, B.A. Ayinde, S Innih, N.A. Ezeadiugwu, A. Okhuarobo
      Abstract: Brachystegia eurycoma is a mainstay in the treatment of malaria, diabetes, hypertension, microbial infections and inflammatory conditions in folkloric medicine in Eastern Nigeria. Thus, the present study investigated the in vivo sub-acute toxicity of its aqueous stem bark extract. Toxicological evaluation was done using organ weight index, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters, following daily oral administration of 100, 400 and 800 mg/kg of the extract to albino Wistar rats for 14 days. The extract at all doses caused no significant changes in the organ weight index of selected organs except for 100 mg/kg which caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the weight of lungs compared to control. There was significant elevation of white blood cells and lymphocytes observed at all doses of extract tested. However, B. eurycoma caused mild periportal infiltrates of chronic inflammatory cells and Kupffer cell activation in the liver, lymphoid  aggregate activation in the lungs as well as activation of lymphoid follicle and sinus histiocyte in the spleen, thus indicating activation of the immune system. Overall, the results suggest that aqueous extract of B. eurycoma stem bark is not toxic in rats, although it has a tendency to activate the immune system.
      Keywords: B. eurycoma, immunity, spleen, toxicity.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Plasmid mediated resistance in multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from
           children with suspected septicaemia in Zaria, Nigeria

    • Authors: Z. A. AbdulAziz, J. O. Ehinmidu, G.O. Adeshina, Y.Y Pala, S.S Yusuf, M.A. Bugaje
      Abstract: Septicaemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among children in the  developing world. The knowledge of the  epidemiological and antimicrobial pattern of common pathogens that cause septicaemia is useful for prompt treatment of patients. Fifty-five (55) clinical isolates from children with suspected septicaemia were used for the study. The isolates include Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp and  Pseudomonas spp. The antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolated bacteria associated with septicaemia in children were carried out using standard  microbiological protocol. The MAR index for the test bacterial isolates was  determined and the bacterial isolates that displayed multiple antibiotic resistance were investigated for the presence of resistant factor such as plasmids. The sizes of the plasmid observed in the bacterial isolates were determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Observations made from the agarose gel electrophoresis showed that majority of the multiple antibiotic resistant isolates haboured plasmids DNA of different sizes viz: 10.00 Kb, 8.71 Kb, 7.08 Kb, 1.02 Kb, 1.00 Kb, 0. 98 Kb and 0.87 Kb. The plasmid analysis of the results obtained in this study showed that the  predominant plasmid molecular size was 977bp which occurred frequently among  the Citrobacter spp and Staph aureus. These findings suggest an increased  resistance to the antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of septicaemia, and the observed presence of plasmids in some of the test bacteria isolated shows that they could have been acquired from multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in the community under investigation.
      Key words: Children, Multiple antibiotic resistance, Plasmids, Septicaemia
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient
           utilization and the growth perormance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles

    • Authors: M.I. Musa, S.S. Ndams, A. Musa, S. Idujagi
      Abstract: Growth and nutrient studies was carried out on Clarias gariepinus Juveniles of mean weight 7.00-8.00g stocked into rectangular plastic aquarium tanks 30cm x 15cm for 120 days fed with differently processed soya bean meal. There were eight  treatments labeled as diet T1-T8, diet T1 (control diet; contains no soybean meal but has fishmeal as the protein source); diet T2 (Conventional diet; purchased  commercially); diet T3 (contains a partial replacement of fishmeal with raw soybean meal at 66.7 replacement) diet T4 (has 100% of raw soybean meal inclusion), diet T5 (66.7% toasted soybean inclusion); diet T6 (100% toasted soybean inclusion); diet T7 (100% raw soybean with methionine and lysine); diet T8 (100% toasted  soybean with methionine and lysine). The diets were formulated at 40% crude  protein containing soya bean meal at different inclusion rates; the toasted soya bean was toasted at 100oC for 10 minutes using an oven and then milled into a fine powder before being mixed with other ingredients. Results showed that the highest average weight gain of 432.55g, specific growth rate (SGR) of 3.38% and food conversion ratio (FCR) of 5.78 of the formulated diets respectively were recorded in fish fed with diet T5 (toasted soyabean meal) P<0.05. The Juveniles fed raw soybean gave the least growth performance (Diet T3) and (Diet T4) P>0.05. this relative lower growth performance of the fish might be attributed to the presence of higher levels of anti-nutritional factors present in soybeans for example trypsin inhibitors and phytic acid which may interfere with the availability of nutrients to the fish; from the result It could be concluded in practice that toasted soybean based diet is optimal for growth of Clarias gariepinus Juvenile. Mortality rates recorded during the dietary trial ranged between 30% in fish fed diet T8 to 100% in the remaining diets. The results were discussed in relation to fish feed production and its implication for fish culture intensification in Nigeria and it is recommended that toasted soya bean should be embraced as the most preferred treatment for the soyabean used in fish feedKeywords: Processed soya bean, fishmeal, growth Juveniles, Clarias gariepinus
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Reservoir evaluation of “T-X” field (Onshore, Niger delta) from well
           log petrophysical analysis

    • Authors: Ologe Oluwatoyin
      Abstract: Three wells A1, A2 and A3 were identified on the ‘T-X’ field in onshore Niger Delta. A comprehensive petrophysical analysis on one of the wells (well A1) was carried out in order to come up with physical properties such as shale volume, porosity (Φ),   permeability (K), fluid saturation, and net pay thickness, among others for future development planned of the oil field. A well log  data from this field have been  examined and analyzed. The logs include gamma ray (used for the identification of lithology),  resistivity and porosity logs (used for delineating hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs). Wireline log analysis was employed in the characterization of the  reservoirs in the well studied; the hydrocarbon sands were delineated by the use of gamma ray, resistivity and density/neutron from which the reservoir quality were determined. Fluid types defined in the reservoirs on the basis of  neutron/density log signatures were basically water, oil and gas.Eighteen (18) reservoirs (AR1 to AR18) were identified, among which twelve (12) are hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs. Permeability and porosity values range between 1-6206md and 6-28%  respectively. Water saturation recorded between 15-100% in the identified  reservoirs which indicated that the proportion of void spaces occupied by water varied from low to high values, thus, indicating both low and high hydrocarbon saturation. Plot of  hydrocarbon saturation and porosity showed a linear trend and strong linear relationships between permeability and porosity was also observed in all the reservoirs identified indicating that they are permeable and have pores that are strongly interconnected. This study has really demonstrated that petrophysics has a vital role to play in reservoirs characterization.
      Keywords: Reservoir sands, petrophysical properties, reservoir quality, Lithology and Wireline logs.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Physicochemical quality of drinking water from various water sources of
           Kaduna state, Nigeria

    • Authors: O.M. Olukosi, J.B. Ameh, I.O. Abdullahi, C.M.Z. Whong
      Abstract: This study was undertaken in six Local government areas (LGA) of Kaduna from  March 2014- February 2015, with the aim of determining some physicochemical parameters of water being used by residents in the study areas. The results were also  compared with the World Health Organization (WHO), Nigerian Institute of Standards (NIS) permissible limits for all the   parameters. A total of fifty samples from different water sources were analysed for the following parameters: Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Dissolved oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Nitrate, Electrical conductivity and pH using standard  methods. The values for conductivity (441.57 ± 107.13μhos/cm) and TDS (220.78 ± 53.56mg/l) were significantly higher for the borehole water samples (P<0.05), while the pH (7.27 ± 0.11) and nitrate (15.38 ± 1.29mg/l) values were significantly higher  during the rainy season (P<0.05). All the samples tested had their nitrate values less than the maximum level stipulated by both the NIS and WHO. Ninety-six percent of the samples had their pH and TDS within the recommended range (6.5-8.5 and 500mg/l  respectively). For the conductivity, the WHO standard differs from the NIS standard, and 60% met the WHO standard while 96% met the NIS standard.
      Key words: Potable water, Physicochemical parameters, season, WHO, NIS
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Determination of aflatoxin contamination in cassava flour sold in selected
           markets in Zaria, Kaduna state; Nigeria

    • Authors: A. Saleh, I.O. Abdullahi, O.S. Olonitola
      Abstract: Cassava (Manihot esculenta ) is a major staple food crop across tropical  sub-Saharan Africa. Poor drying during processing or storage, especially during the rainy season, often results in contamination by fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. Aflatoxins are among the mycotoxins which are secondary metabolites produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus which are a major health concern to man and livestock because of their acute and chronic health effects. The aim of this study was to determine aflatoxin contamination and to quantify the aflatoxin levels in cassava flour. A total of 36 samples of Cassava flour were collected in three (3) major markets in Zaria, these are: Samaru, Sabon Gari and Zaria City Markets to determine and quantify aflatoxins using enzyme linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results obtained showed that 22 out of 36 were contaminated with total aflatoxins at the range of 2.0μg/kg to 7.5μg/kg. This study indicated that there is low aflatoxin concentration in the Cassava and suggested that the cassava flour is safe and good for human consumption.
      Key words: Cassava, Aflatoxin, Fungi, Market
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and planting pattern on
           growth and yield attributes of maize (Zea mays l.) in the northern Guinea
           Savannah zone of Nigeria

    • Authors: M.S. Bature, D.B. Ishaya, M.A Mahadi, A.I Sharifai, A.A Muhammed, A.H Hassan, H.J Jibril, L Goma, G.M Munir
      Abstract: Field trials were conducted during the rainy seasons (2012 and 2013) at the  Research Farm of Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru Zaria and College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Mando Kaduna, in the Northern Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria, to determine the Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and planting pattern on the performance of maize (Zea mays L.). The treatments consisted of six levels of weed control (S-metolachlor + atrazine at 1.98 and 2.64 kg a.i/ha, butachlor at 1.5 and 2.5 kg a.i/ha, hoe weeding at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing (WAS) and a weedy check), three levels of poultry manure (0, 4 and 8 t/ha) and two planting pattern (single and double row per ridge). The treatments were laid out in spit-plot design replicated three times. Weed control and poultry manure were assigned to the main plots, while planting pattern was assigned in the sub-plots. Results from the study showed that application of S-metolachlor + atrazine at 2.64 kg a.i/ha, butachlor at 2.5 kg a.i/ha and hoe weeding at 3 and 6 WAS produced taller maize plants, increase in relative growth rate and higher grain yield. However, application of poultry manure at 8t/ha gave the tallest maize plants, increase in relative growth rate and higher total grain yield, while double planting pattern (double row per ridge) suppressed weed population and ensured better crop performance and higher grain yield compared to the single planting pattern (single row per ridge).
      Key words: weed control, planting pattern, poultry manure
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Analysis of auroral electrojet magnetic indices

    • Authors: B.I. Tijjani, U.M. Mijinyawa, S. Bala, G.S.M. Galadanci
      Abstract: In this paper magnetic indices were extracted from World Data Center (WDC) for geomagnetism forsix years (2008 to 2013). The indices extracted are  AuroralElectrojet (AE), Auroral Upper (AU), Auroral Lower (AL) and Auroral Oval (AO). The indices daily values measured at 24 hours Universal Time (UT) were averaged to monthly values. Time series statistical analysis was carried out on the monthly averaged data using SPSS version 16.0 with expert modeler, to determine the level, trend and seasonal  variations of the indices.From the results obtained after the statistical analysis, it can be seen that the indices have seasonal patterns of which AE, AL and AO as March but AU has July. Also from the values of the coefficient of determination, R2, it can also be concluded that AE and AL can be better predicted from the models than AU and AO. From the results obtained, simple seasonal model for AE, AL, and AO, and winter’s additive for AU was determined. Using the values of R2, it can be seen that the models for AE and AL can be used to predict or make forecast of the behavior of the indices. It was also discovered that level (alpha) has more significant contributions in the behavior of the system than seasonal.
      Keywords: Magnetic indices, World Data Center, Auroral, Level, Trend, Season, Expert modeler.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Plant gum exudates (Karau) and mucilages, their biological sources,
           properties, uses and potential applications: A review

    • Authors: Sani Haruna, Bala Sidi Aliyu, Abdulhamid Bala
      Abstract: This paper or review discusses the natural plant exudates and mucilages, their sources, properties and uses and the potential applications. Research in natural polymeric materials has witness growing interest and attention. This is attributable to a number of factors which include their relative abundance, low cost,  biodegradable nontoxic, and ecofriendly profile.They are polymers that are mostly plant in origin with a vast applications.Polysaccharides hydrocolloids including gum and mucilage are abundant in nature and commonly found in many higher plants. These polysaccharides constitute a structurally diverse class of biological  macromolecules with a broad range of physicochemical properties which are widely used for various applications in pharmacy, medicine, food and other non- food applications. In recent years those polymers derived from plants have evoke tremendous interest because of their industrial applications as diluent binders, thickening agents, smoothening, emulsifiers, gelling agents and stabilizers. This increasing research in this group of these plant materials are clear indications of their increasing importance.The fact for increase in importance of natural plant based materials is that plant resources are renewable and if cultivated or harvested in a sustainable manner, they can provide a constant supply of raw materials. To that effect, more understanding of their nature, physicochemical properties, sources, uses be gained so that can be used for wider applications.
      Key words:, Polymer,GumExudate, Mucilage, Biological sources, Potential application
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Detection of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among
           Rifampicin-resistant TB patients using Line Probe Assay (LPA) in Kano,

    • Authors: A.I. Aminu, A.D. Tukur
      Abstract: The Emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains especially multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) and indeed extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) is considered a real threat to achieving TB control. Thus, the WHO identified the need for accelerated access to rapid testing for rifampicin resistance to improve case detection in all patients with suspected MDR and XDR-TB. This study aimed at detecting MDR status of rifampicin-resistant TB patients in north western part of Nigeria, as such information was found to be rare in this part of Nigeria. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Aminu  Kano Teaching Hospital, North-West TB reference Laboratory and purposive sampling technique was used in selecting  patients for the study. Data generated was presented using descriptive statistics. Sputum samples were collected and  processed according to standard mycobacteriological procedures. The presence of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) was  confirmed using SD BIOLINE TB Ag MPT64 Rapid test. Genotypic assays were carried out on these samples by the  GenoType® MTBDRplus molecular line prove assay (LPA). The results of the study revealed that of the 88 sputum samples  collected from rifampicin resistant (confirmed by Genxpert from referring centres) TB patients, 74 (84.09%) were males and  14 (15.9%) were females. Most of them were aged 21-30 years and 31-40 years. Also, 86 of the sputum samples were  confirmed as MTBC. Genotypic assays revealed that 48/88 (54.5%) of the samples were identified as MDR-TB, 29 (32.9%) were rifampicin mono-resistant cases while only 1(1.36%) was resistant to isoniazid and 8 samples were found to be  susceptible to both isoniazid and rifampicin. The pattern of genetic mutations revealed that rifampicin resistance due to the missing rhoB WT gene and the presence of rhoB MUT gene was seen in 77/78 (98.7%) and 51/78 (61.4%) of the rifampicin-resistance samples respectively and isoniazid resistance due to katG missing WT gene and katG MUT gene region was seen in 35/78 (44.9%) of the samples. Among the MDR-TB cases rifampicin resistance was associated with rpoB WT gene and rpoB MUT gene in 100% and 62% of the isolates, and INH resistance was associated with katG WT gene and katG MUT gene in 70.8% and 72.9% of the isolates respectively. INH resistance in the MDR-TB cases was further associated with InhA WT and InhA MUT in 16.67% and 4.17% of the isolates respectively. The study concludes by identifying that the reported MDR-TB rate of 54.5% among rifampicin-resistant TB patients in the study was rather alarming and also identifies the need for expertize in the conduct and diagnosis of rifampicin-resistance status of TB patients using the GeneXpert techniques lack of which may be detrimental to the health of the patient.Thus, the study solicits for a much more committed TB control programmesincluding provision and training of manpower by the relevant agencies as a well as putting more efforts towards rapid and accurate diagnosis of TB patients, and proper treatment and management of the infected cases to minimize the spread and evolution of MDR-TB and indeed XDR-TB whose treatment is presented with more challenges.
      Keywords: Rifampicin resistance, MDR-TB, LPA, North-Western zone, Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Prevalence and risk factors associated with rotavirus diarrhoea in
           children less than five years in Katsina State, northwestern Nigeria

    • Authors: G.L Mukhtar, M. Aminu, M.R. Hayatuddeen, I. Bello
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Fertility status of floodplain soils along river
    , Kano

    • Authors: G Omar, H Sule
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Isolation, partial purification and characterization of angiotensin
           converting enzyme from rat (Rattus norvegicus) lungs

    • Authors: M.A. Abdulazeez, B.G. Kurfi
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extract of Ficus
    root Linn. (Moraceae

    • Authors: U.S. Abubakar, U.H. Danmalam, A. Ahmed, S. Abdullahi, A. Abba, N. Rukayya
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Prevalence of trichostrongylid nematode in sheeps in Benin City, Edo
           state, Nigeria

    • Authors: Z. Omoruyi, E.L. Aiguobasinmwin, A.Y. Shehu
      Abstract: Parasitism of Trichostrongylid nematode is a world-wide problem for both small and large scale farmers and is a great threat to the livestock industry and also a major  constraint to the wellbeing and productive performance of ruminant animals. This study was carried out to determine the effect of Trichostrongylid nematode in sheep. The study was carried out in Aduwawa, Ugbiyokho, Oluku and Airport road in Edo State in 2015. A total of one hundred and fifty (150) sheep were examined for the present of gastrointestinal parasite. Sedimentation technique was used in examining the faecal sample for the presence of the GIT pararsites. The prevalence of eggs and larvae of H. contortus were 71.3% and 15.3%, Trichostrongylus species were 61.3% and 7.3%, O. ostertagii were 42.7% and 6.7% respectively. Among 150 faecal sample examined, 103 (68.67%) were found positive for Trichostrongylid infection. Grazing time, consistency of faeces and weight are factors having  significant impact on the infection in sheep. Sheep that graze in the evening had the highest prevalence (82%), faecal samples that were unformed had the highest  prevalence (85.71%) and sheep with weight range of 10kg-30kg showed the highest prevalence (97.96%). Chi-Square Test used to determine the relationships between age and location, had no significant impact on the prevalence of infection. These factors need to be considered in the control of trichostrongylid nematode infection but more emphasis should be given to improvement of hygiene, regular de-worming and frequent diagnosis of trichostrongylid nematode and management of infected animals.
      Keywords: Age, Consistency of faeces, Gastrointestinal parasites, Grazing time, Sheep, Trichostrongylid nematode, Weight
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • Levels of total phenolic and flavonoids in Abelmoschus esculentus L. from
           some irrigation areas of Kano state-Nigeria

    • Authors: M.I. Mohammed, A.S. Bayero, U.I. Shettima
      Abstract: Vegetables are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids, glucosinolates, vitamin C and their hydrolysis products which may have antioxidant and anticancer properties .This study was carried out to assess the level of total phenolic and flavonoids in selected vegetables from different sampling areas of Kano state-Nigeria. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the extracts were  determined by Rhodanine and AlCl3  reagents and their amount calculated as gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and rutin  equivalent (RE) fresh weight respectively, using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The result show that, the levels of total Phenolics and Flavonoid contents in okra (AbelmoschusesculentusL) vegetable samples among seven different sampling areas (ʋiz: Bebeji, Kura, Tiga, Minjibir, Tudun Wada, Garun Malam and Chalawa) of Kano-state, Nigeria were determined. Levels of Total phenolic content ranged from 33.33 ± 0.02 to 22.07±0.02 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of fresh matter and for flavanoid ranged from 29.97±0.03 to 10.97±0.01 mg of rutin equivalent per gram of fresh matter. The highest content of total phenolic in Okra was found in Bebeji sample and highest content of flavonoid was found in Minjibir sample. The results obtained revealed that, the Okra samples analyzed are potential sources of the bioactive compounds analyzed.Key words: Flavonoid, phenolic,okra,Irrigation areas.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2017)
  • The challenges of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer therapy and
           control in Nigeria: A review

    • Authors: I.K. Auwal
      Abstract: With the changing paradigm in disease trends, Nigeria may be faced with serious challenges in terms of healthcare and disease management. Cervical cancer, which is one of the cancers that is vaccine preventable, remain the most frequently  reported and the leading cause of mortality from cancer in Nigeria. More than 36.59 million women are at risk and 26 die of the disease on daily basis. The country is currently ranked the worse place to be a woman with cancer in Africa, yet there is nothing to write home about in terms of preparedness. Every year huge amount of money is released but little or nothing gets done. There is urgent need for immediate action, especially with the advent of the three promising prophylactic vaccines, to be more pro-active, in controlling the menace of cervical cancer in the country. Cervical cancer should be given same priority as HIV/AIDs, Tuberculosis, Malaria and Childhood immunizations.
      Key words: Cervical cancer, Challenges, Control, Human papillomavirus, Nigeria, Therapy.
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2
  • Partial purification and characterization of angiotensin converting enzyme
           inhibitory peptide from scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus) seeds

    • Authors: A.M. Abdulazeez, G. Osumeje, B.G. Kurfi
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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