BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2325-7628
Published by Boise State University [2 journals]
- Armintxe Basque Cave Artwork: The Latest Find
Abstract: Ancient cave paintings reaching back more than 14,000 years were recently found below the Basque town of Lekeitio (Bizkaia). The fifty images were found etched into stone at the Armintxe cave, depicting animals rarely seen in Paleolithic art, such as lions. Experts from the Provincial Council of Bizkaia made the discovery, and believe that they share many of the same characteristics as previous cave artwork in the Basque Country, suggesting close contact among these people who shared in the creation of these cave etchings.
PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2016 14:23:38 PDT
- USAC - 33+ Years of Learning in the Basque Country
Abstract: For 33 years, USAC has provided university students with quality, affordable study abroad programs and contributed to the internationalization of universities in the United States and abroad. Students from any university are welcome to participate; and those from more than 800 universities around the world have done so. We salute this program which offers students a unique learning opportunity in the Basque Country, where more than 400 students study each year; 9,000 total since 1983.
PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2016 14:23:36 PDT
- Euskadi-bulletinen: Swedish Solidarity with the Basque Independence
Movement During the 1970's
Authors: Joakim Lilljegren
Abstract: Euskadi-bulletinen, the only Basque-Swedish entry in the Swedish national library catalogue, was one of many left-wing bulletins published in Sweden during the mid-1970's. It supported “the Basque people's struggle for freedom and socialism” and could therefore also be seen in a wider perspective as one of many European journals published in solidarity with the Basque independence movement at the time. In this article, the three numbers of the bulletin are described and put in their historical context.
PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2016 14:23:33 PDT
- The Bertsolariak Championship as Competitive Game and Deep Play
Authors: Jexux Larrañaga Arriola
Abstract: This article examines the performative and ritual aspects of bertsolariak or Basque troubadours in the context of competitive championships. I describe the linguistic and cultural references that derive from the past and continue to the present. My goal is to research the relationship between the ritualization of cultural production of words and creativity, on the one hand, and community production, on the other, with the purpose of obtaining more in-depth information about cultural identity. In order to do so, I analyze the oral context of the championship in both the past and the present. I dwell on a paradox at the very heart of the championship as I argue that, while the competitive scheme which the championship brings to society is in itself completely genuine, what really matters is the communicative influence it produces for the entire Basque culture and society. By using words and creativity competitively in a verbal field of deep play, people's lives are expressed and profoundly influenced in an imaginative cultural arena.
PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2016 14:23:30 PDT
- Calculating Ethnicity Through the U.S. Census: The Basque Case
Authors: William A. Douglass
PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2016 14:23:27 PDT
- LOOKING BACK: Publication of a Seminal Book in Basque Studies Amerikanuak:
Basques in the New World
Abstract: Amerikanuak was first published in 1975 and it marked a pioneering study of one of the American West's most important ethnic minorities, providing an engaging, comprehensive survey of Basque migration and settlement in the Americas. Its value endures as an essential introduction to the history of the Basque people and their five centuries of involvement in the New World. The surviving author, and dean of Basque Studies, William A. Douglass (Professor emeritus of the University of Nevada, Reno) agreed to an interview as we look back on the continuing influence of this seminal book in Basque Studies.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Oct 2015 11:45:45 PDT
- LOOKING BACK: The Boise – Oñati Study Abroad Program, 1974-75
Abstract: This document is a look back at the 1974-75 inaugural study abroad program from Boise State University to the town of Oñati in the Basque Country. Featured here are excerpts and photos from Boise State Basque Studies program website (the successor of sorts from that first program), and an article written by one of the first participants. As that author notes, the program changed their lives and it had far reaching ramifications in transforming the Idaho Basque Diaspora by strengthening the bond between them and the Basque homeland.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Oct 2015 11:45:44 PDT
- LOOKING BACK: Photographic essay of the “Joan-Etorri” Basque
Abstract: This document is a photographic essay that featured well over two dozen presenters at the “Joan-Etorri” (Going and Coming) Basque Studies Symposium that was hosted by Basque Studies at Boise State University. The year 2015 marks two 40th anniversary events: the inaugural Boise State Basque Studies Abroad program in Oñati of the Basque Country, and the publication of the seminal book Amerikanuak in 1975. Together, these events provided a broad spectrum of possible topics for varied sessions of an academic conference, including identity, immigration, international contacts, etc. It also illustrated the back and forth (between the homeland and Diaspora) of the Basque experience.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Oct 2015 11:45:41 PDT
- The International Location of Basque Studies
Authors: Mari Jose Olaziregi
Abstract: The aim of this brief paper will be to comment on the goals and anxieties that have conditioned the globalization of Basque culture in recent times. Questions regarding the desire of the Basque institutions to globalize our culture and the implementation of Basque Studies lectureships and chairs in international universities will be addressed. I will conclude my reflection by alluding to the novelty and debate surrounding the field of Basque Studies, as well as some of the challenges that this discipline faces.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Oct 2015 11:45:40 PDT
- Basque Studies and the Basque Academic Diaspora
Authors: Iñaki Goirizelaia
Abstract: This paper presents a reflection about the work done by the University of the Basque Country on the Basque Diaspora. A proposal for the development of different strategies to improve the relationship between the University of the Basque Country and the Basque Diaspora is also presented. Two are the main objectives: to create a new space to promote and develop the academic community of the Basque Diaspora and to create the program Basque Yourself Summer School to improve Basque Studies programs among young people.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Oct 2015 11:45:38 PDT
- The Sun Also Sets
Authors: William A. Douglass
Abstract: Ernest Hemingway launched his career as novelist with The Sun Also Rises, set in large measure in the Basque Country. It was the beginning of a life-long involvement with things Basque. The present article examines the nature of this fascination and its shortcomings. Ernest became a regular attendee of Pamplona's San Fermín festival (and a key architect of its international fame). During his two-decade residence in Cuba, he surrounded himself with Basque jai alai players and political refugees from the Spanish Civil War. Yet Hemingway remained insensitive, if not downright indifferent, to their fervent Basque nationalism. When he subsequently divided his time between Cuba and Idaho (home of the most prominent Basque-American community in the United States) he manifested little interest in the sheepherders and their descendants. In sum, for Hemingway the Basques were the most authentic expression of his beloved Spain and were of interest to the degree that they fed his interests in bullfighting, trout fishing, cuisine, jai alai and folkloric exotica.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Oct 2015 11:45:36 PDT
- Basque Archive Feature: Joe Eiguren, English-Basque / Basque-English
Abstract: Joe was born in Nampa, Idaho in 1915 to Domingo and Maria Eiguren, but when barely a year old, his family moved back to the Basque Country where he stayed until 1934, when he decided to emigrate back to the United States. After a brief stay in Boise, he went to Jordan Valley to work for a sheep company. A powerful thirst for knowledge made the isolation of working with the sheep difficult for Joe. Later he served in the US Army during World War II, and when he returned he worked for the Department of Employment helping migrant workers. He was largely self-taught about Basque studies, and his efforts to promote the language and culture stemmed from the request of others to learn more.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Oct 2014 09:50:19 PDT
- The Emotional Making of the Basque Working Class
Authors: Sara Hidalgo
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a reflection on the class consciousness making process, according to the so-called “affective turn” perspective. The immediate área of study is the Basque Country, more specifically the Nervion River área of Bilbao, at the end of 19th century, when Socialist movements arose, developed, and became the working class movement main party. The explanatory purpose is to illustrate why Basque workers accepted socialist proposals, thus becoming class-conscious, and thus joining a working class movement. The main hypothesis is that class consciousness is an emotional construction.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Oct 2014 09:50:18 PDT
- The Case for a Modern Euskara: Proposed Structural Changes to Euskara
Authors: Ambrose Goikoetxea
Abstract: This paper comes into being because of this author’s concern about the limited use and slow evolution of Euskara Batua, the version of the Basque language spoken today in parts of the Basque Country and the larger B, also called Euskal Herria, with its historical regions in Europe, bounded by Spain in the south and by France in the north, as well as in dozens of Basque communities in the USA, Central, and South America. What’s the problem? Well, currently the number of auxiliary verbs (verbal forms, aditz languntzaileak) in Euskara Batua as proposed by the Euskaltzaindia, the Academy of the Basque Language, approaches the number of 825, a gigantic number by any scale, any standard, in any language. In contrast, the number of auxiliary verbs in English is in the order of 12-15 (e.g., can, could, do, does, will, would, should, must, etc.), and this small number does the role and functions of all those 825 verbal forms in Euskara Batua. How has this happened? What was the Euskaltzaindia up to, and why? Why nobody within the Euskaltzaindia, or anywhere else, has said anything, objected to this unreasonable high number of 825 auxiliary verbs? Actually, there have been many objections, calling such system of verbs “artificial”, “unnecessary”, “harmful” and more, but little has been done about it, really. Accordingly, this paper reports on an independent survey that this author conducted recently in order to ascertain the knowledge of Euskara Batua, in particular the knowledge of auxiliary verbs and the use of Euskara Batua outside the school environment, namely at home, at work, and on the street. Statistical results of this survey are reported in this paper.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Oct 2014 09:50:17 PDT
- (En)gendering Basque Culture: Musical Notes from the Archives
Authors: Begoña Echeverria
Abstract: Drawing on folksongs written since the 16th century, I show women and girls in Basque song exhibit more agency and a wider variety of emotional stances than the secondary, “traditional” roles usually ascribed them. They negotiate potential mates; drink instead of work; and seek the pleasure of men other than their husbands. While the meanings of these songs are multi-vocal and sometimes difficult to discern, I argue that deliberation over these songs’ meanings enriches our understanding of Basque culture and the role of song in producing and contesting it.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Oct 2014 09:50:16 PDT
- Basque Scholar Feature: Jon Bilbao
Abstract: This is an ongoing series of profiles of Basque scholars. Oftentimes scholars in general--and Basque scholars specifically--toil in seclusion and general anonymity, so this is an effort to introduce the scholar and his/her contribution to Basque Studies.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Oct 2014 09:50:15 PDT
- Basque Archive Feature: Classics Series from the Center for Basque
Studies, University of Nevada, Reno
PubDate: Wed, 19 Mar 2014 09:10:30 PDT
- Between Trade, Religion and Ethnicity: The Catholic Church's Ethnic
Institutions in the Spanish Empire, 16th-19th Centuries
Authors: Oscar Alvarez Gila PhD et al.
Abstract: Throughout the Spanish Empire of the 16th-19th centuries, immigrants from the same regional, cultural or national origin tended to create associations of their own in most of the cities and ports in which these immigrant groups had formed colonies. One of the distinctive features of these institutions is that almost all of them were linked to the Catholic Church, usually in the form of religious confraternities or brotherhoods under the name or protection of a particular saint or devotion linked to their places of origin. Before the creation of the modern day meaning of nation and ethnicity, these immigrant communities were primarily based on the medieval concept of nation which is deeply ingrained with Catholicism in the case of the Basque territories. In this article, using the Basque case we will attempt to: a) present a general view of the creation, evolution and common features of these institutions; b) describe their principal activities and aims, namely to protect and promote mutual aid among members, as well as to protect the distinctiveness of their cultural heritage and the attachment to the land they or their ancestors came from; c) understand the role these institutions played as gateways to better integrate their members and co-nationals into host societies; and d) contextualize the terms and definitions frequently used to describe the behavior of immigrant communities within the character of European and American societies in the modern era.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Mar 2014 09:10:28 PDT
- Bringing 'New Wind' to the Rural Interior of the French Basque
Country: The Association 'Haize Berri' and the Politics of
Authors: Zoe Bray PhD
Abstract: This article looks at Haize Berri, a cultural association active in the rural French Basque Country from the 1980s to 2009, to reflect on the different understandings of art and culture and their political implications in the particular context of the Basque Country. Haize Berri, which in the Basque language means ‘New Wind’, a name chosen to evoke the coming of a new era, had the ambition of bringing cultural life to the rural inland of the French Basque Country. With the participation of public figures from the Basque art world, Haize Berri was at the heart of a cultural renaissance in the region. But locally, it was a source of political controversy. While the mission of Haize Berri was not publicly stated as political, many of those behind it saw culture as part of politics, and, in the context of its actions, Haize Berri was taken to be political. This article uses Haize Berri as a lens through which to explore the politics of culture and art as an element in collective identity boundary-drawing.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Mar 2014 09:10:26 PDT
- Production of Heritage: The Basque Block in Boise, Idaho
Authors: Gretchen Hill
Abstract: This article examines the social and economic underpinnings of creating a place for descendants of Basque immigrants by the use of the Basque Block in downtown Boise, Idaho. In the past, unlike other immigrant groups in the United States, Basques lacked the desire to assimilate into the U.S. and remained relatively invisible. Simultaneously, they created subtle ethnic communities and maintained transnational sociospatial ties with Basque Provinces in Europe. Today, these transnational ties are stronger, which has profoundly influenced the creation of the Basque Block. The Basques strive to maintain their heritage landscapes to retain their cultural identity and educate present and future generations about their unique legacy. Furthermore, the local community in Boise has recently marketed their heritage landscapes to attract tourists and bring attention to this “invisible” ethnic group. This article explores the challenges and opportunities brought on by the production of an ethnic heritage site.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Mar 2014 09:10:24 PDT