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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1676 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (252 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (89 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (53 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (982 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (172 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (982 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Canadian Studies / Revue internationale d’études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Cultural and Social Studies (IntJCSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cultural Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Growth and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Information, Diversity, & Inclusion     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Innovative Research in Social and Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Education and Development     Open Access  
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Korean Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Language and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social and Allied Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Synergy and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal Pedagogy of Social Studies     Open Access  
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access  
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review of Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 220)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
IULC Working Papers     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access  
Izvestia Ural Federal University Journal. Series 3. Social and Political Sciences     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addiction & Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Burirum Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Community Development and Life Quality     Open Access  
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Computational Social Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Economy Culture and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Geography, Politics and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate School Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies in Northern Rajabhat Universities     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Surin Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajapruk University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ilahiyat Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free  
Journal of Mediterranean Knowledge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Multicultural Affairs     Open Access  
Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 4.302, CiteScore: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Progressive Research in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Social Science Education : JSSE     Open Access  
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Review     Open Access  
Journal of Social Structure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Trust Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Biometrika dan Kependudukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Kawistara     Open Access  
Jurnal Lakon     Open Access  
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Teori dan Praksis Pembelajaran IPS     Open Access  
Jurnal Terapan Abdimas     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access  
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies     Open Access  
Kimün. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente     Open Access  
Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Korea : Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft     Open Access  
Korean Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Kulttuurintutkimus     Open Access  
Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Homme. Europäische Zeitschrift für Feministische Geschichtswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
L'Ordinaire des Amériques     Open Access  
La Tercera Orilla     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Lambda Nordica     Open Access  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Lavboratorio : Revista de Estudios sobre Cambio Estructural y Desigualdad Social.     Open Access  
Lectio Socialis     Open Access  
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lex Social : Revista de Derechos Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Liminar. Estudios Sociales y Humanisticos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Literacy Learning: The Middle Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Local-Global: Identity, Security, Community     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lucero     Open Access  
Lúdicamente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lutas Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedon Digest, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Majalah Sainstekes / Sainstekes Magazine     Open Access  
Maskana     Open Access  
Mathématiques et sciences humaines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mayéutica Revista Científica de Humanidades y Artes     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Meanjin Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Media Information Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Media International Australia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Media International Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Melbourne Journal of Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mémoire(s), identité(s), marginalité(s) dans le monde occidental contemporain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.769
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2212-4209
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Resilience planning under information scarcity in fast growing African
           cities and towns: The CityRAP approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Mathias Spaliviero, Mark Pelling, Luis Felipe Lopes, Chiara Tomaselli, Katharina Rochell, Marcia GuambeAbstractUrban planners seeking to enhance resilience contend with the complexity of interdependent systems and severe gaps in data and information. This complexity-capacity gap is most evident in smaller, rapidly growing cities. Experience in Africa shows these are also the cities where most risk is accruing and where the majority of population growth is felt. Bridging this gap to build resilience requires new decision-support tools that can operate on data that is not comprehensive but good enough. This paper examines the prospect for such a generation of tools to enable decisions that can build resilience that also enhance inclusive decision-making processes. It draws from the experience of the City Resilience Action Planning Tool, developed by UN-Habitat and shows how this or other similar tools can: build local government capacity; attract additional investment; contribute to longer-term processes of legislative reform; generate cooperation between communities and local government, and; work across power dynamics and open space for further collaboration.
       
  • Seismic damage scenarios for the Historic City Center of Leiria, Portugal:
           Analysis of the impact of different seismic retrofitting strategies on
           emergency planning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Elsa Anglade, Anna-Maria Giatreli, Anna Blyth, Beatrice Di Napoli, Francesco Parisse, Zahir Namourah, Hugo Rodrigues, Tiago Miguel FerreiraAbstractAs a result of several impactful events, the focus of the international community on the effects of natural hazards in urban areas has been increasing in recent years. The framework for research and innovation on urban risk reduction and urban resilience is presently defined by several technical and societal challenges at different levels. In fact, urban risk is a very complex multi-dimensional matrix that can involve multiple elements at risk, multiple hazards, multiple temporal scales, and multiple sources of vulnerability. Understanding the impacts and interactions between these elements is an essential step towards the development of more effective risk reduction strategies, particularly in historical city centers, which, due to their characteristics, are even more demanding. Within this framework, the present paper takes advantage of a large-scale seismic vulnerability assessment method, specially developed to assess the vulnerability of masonry façade walls, to evaluate the vulnerability and to develop damage scenarios for the Historic City Center of Leiria. Based on these scenarios, obtained for the relevant seismic intensities of the region, a variety of probabilistic-based outputs related to emergency planning (inaccessible urban areas, isolated people, and possible evacuation routes) were generated and comprehensively discussed. Finally, the potential benefit resulting from the application of different seismic retrofitting strategies is also investigated, both in terms of expected damages and evacuation scenarios.
       
  • Are we messing with people's resilience' Analysing the impact of
           external interventions on community intrinsic resilience
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Christophe BénéAbstractPeople are by nature characterized by some degree of intrinsic resilience. The capacity of households and communities to deal with shocks and stressors (their resilience) is therefore not something that is simply “introduced” or “added” externally through the activities of a project, but instead something that exists internally, and that can be altered (strengthened or weakened) by external interventions. Using qualitative data from a resilience programme in Burkina Faso, we propose to explore more thoroughly the question of the dynamics between community intrinsic resilience and external interventions. For this, several related issues are investigated, including the possibility of erosion of intrinsic resilience mechanisms due to the effect of recurrent shocks, the potential crowding-out effect of external interventions on those intrinsic resilience mechanisms, and the exploration of detailed causal pathways describing the ways external interventions can create additional elements of resilience amongst the targeted communities. Some of the programmatic and research implications of the key-findings are highlighted.
       
  • Gender-based approach for assessing risk perception in a multi-hazard
           environment: A study of high schools of Gilgit, Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Awais Ali Khan, Irfan Ahmad Rana, Adnan NawazAbstractRisk perception is a vital constituent of disaster risk. It is a measure to assess predisposition of individuals to seek disaster preparedness measures. Understanding gendered risk perception in a multi-hazard environment is important for launching proper disaster risk reduction strategies. This study proposes a risk perception assessment methodology, and is operationalized in context of high school students in a multi-hazard area of Gilgit, Pakistan. Risk perception was measured using four components, i.e., fear, attitude, awareness and trust. Indicators were identified using rigorous literature review, and index-based approach was used to calculate overall risk perception. Slovin's sampling method was used to identify sample size of 486 high school students, including 248 boys and 238 girls. Data was collected through structured questionnaires. Chi-square and t-tests were employed to ascertain differences between the two genders. Results have shown poor risk perception of high school students regarding natural hazards. Among the measured risk perception indicators, the fear component received the highest score. The study also observed significant differences in the risk perception indicators. This study highlights that for better understanding of the multifaceted nature of disaster risk, the gender aspect must be incorporated in risk perception assessment.
       
  • Effects of low-impact development practices for flood events at the
           catchment scale in a highly developed urban area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Chaeyoung Bae, Dong Kun LeeAbstractBecause conventional responses to urban flooding, such as the extension of sewer conduits, are basically incompatible with recent trends of sustainable development, it is desirable to restore the natural hydrological cycle and maximize the infiltration capacity of a site at the source of flooding. Thus, low-impact development (LID) practices have frequently been suggested as adaptation strategies to local climate change. Studies have demonstrated the potential effects of LID, but they have not quantified and verified the extent of its capacity to mitigate the effects of actual floods. Therefore, this study set up catchment-scale sites located at the boundary where rainwater is treated in an urban area and evaluated the impacts of two types of LID using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) based on actual flood events during the wet season. The results showed that LID could reduce the runoff volume, peak flow, and inundation volume compared with conventional development. This study also used and demonstrated the implications of sensitivity testing and model updating to increase the correlation between the real system and the modeled site; therefore, the results can be used as a reference to assess the effectiveness of green space when planning urban redevelopment and regeneration projects where sewer systems already exist.
       
  • The impact of evacuating on short-term disaster recovery: A study of
           individuals affected by Hurricane Harvey living in Texas counties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Jason D. RiveraAbstractIt is commonly accepted that evacuating disaster areas prior to the impact of an event is in everyone's best interest. As such, many studies have investigated what factors influence both evacuation behavior and return migration. However, few studies have specifically looked at the direct influence that the decision to evacuate may have on individuals' disaster recovery. Through the analysis of a representative sample of individuals affected by Hurricane Harvey living in Texas, this preliminary case study observes that evacuation negatively affected the extent to which people were able to recover in the short-term. This observation was not respective of race/ethnicity nor level of poverty. Additionally, being Hispanic had a positive relationship with the extent to which an individual recovered in the short-term. Future research recommendations are made in an effort to better understand these observations that may have profound implications on whether or not people choose to evacuate in future disasters.
       
  • Seismic vulnerability assessment and reduction at a territorial scale on
           masonry and adobe housing by rapid vulnerability indicators: The case of
           Tlajomulco, Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Adolfo Preciado, Alejandro Ramirez-Gaytan, Juan Carlos Santos, Osmar RodriguezAbstractThe town of Tlajomulco, Mexico is under high seismic hazard by its proximity to very active seismic zones. The seismic risk is increased by the presence of vulnerable auto-constructed houses. This research provides different seismic damage scenarios at a territorial scale by correlating the vulnerability class and level of expected damage with the seismic intensity. Four different housing typologies were identified: adobe, unreinforced masonry, poorly confined and confined masonry. The seismic vulnerability evaluation was developed by an updated version of the vulnerability index method with the use of nine parameters instead of eleven and without the need of plans and other detailed graphical information. The correlation allowed to determine four damage scenarios for 15,000 buildings. In case of an intensity of VI, 2583 houses with high and very high vulnerability would need a major reparable damage. For an intensity of VII, major damage to 1600 poorly confined masonry and unreinforced masonry, and the collapse of 983 adobe houses. Major damage to 12,417 houses for an intensity of VIII with the loss of 2583 poorly confined, unreinforced masonry and adobe buildings. An intensity of IX or higher would collapse all the studied buildings. These results would allow the local authorities and decision makers to manage the seismic risk. For poorly confined masonry and unreinforced masonry it is recommended the insertion of concrete confinements or welded steel wire mesh to increase shear and bending resistance. For adobe houses, it is recommended the addition of chicken wire mesh and plaster or the use of natural fibers and timber.
       
  • A two-stage stochastic model for location planning of temporary medical
           centers for disaster response
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Mehmet Kursat Oksuz, Sule Itir SatogluAbstractDevastating effects of disasters and global crises on people increases the importance of humanitarian logistics studies for pre and post-disaster stages. Location planning of Temporary Medical Centers/field hospitals is one of the most important problems for disaster response. We aimed to determine the location and number of temporary medical centers in case of disasters by considering the locations of the existing hospitals, casualty classification (triage), capacities of medical centers and possibilities of damage to the roads and hospitals. Besides, we aimed to assign different casualty classes to these medical centers for emergency medical response by considering the distances between disaster areas and medical centers. For this purpose, a two-stage stochastic programming model was developed. The proposed model finds an optimal TMC location solution while minimizing the total setup cost of the TMCs and the expected total transportation cost by considering casualty types, demand, possibilities of damage to the roads and hospitals, and distance between the disaster areas and the medical cente2rs. In the model, α-reliability constraints for the expected number of unassigned casualties were also used. Besides, the model was reformulated without triage, in order to understand the impact of casualty classification on the solution of the problem. We performed a real case study for the district of Kartal expected to be widely damaged in the possible Istanbul earthquake, and a sensitivity analysis was made. The analysis of the results offer some managerial insights associated with the number of temporary medical centers’ needed, their locations, and additional hospital capacity requirements.
       
  • Public perception and attitudes to disaster risks in a coastal metropolis
           of Saudi Arabia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Ali M. AlQahtany, Ismaila Rimi AbubakarAbstractDisaster risk reduction is an increasingly important policy issue, especially in developing countries that suffer most of the global human and economic losses associated with disasters. Indeed, public awareness and attitudes can help in disaster risk reduction and management efforts toward reducing mortality and economic losses. In Saudi Arabia, many cities have been recently experiencing incidences of disasters, such as floods, disease epidemics, and sandstorms. However, studies on public perception of disaster risk in the country are few and nascent. Therefore, based on a questionnaire survey (n = 683), this paper explores public perception and attitudes to disaster risks in Dammam, a coastal metropolis in Saudi Arabia. The findings indicate that although almost two-thirds (64.7%) of the participants are aware of disasters, and 81% are concerned about disaster risks, less than half (47.3%) believe that their settlements could be at risk. While 37% opine that disasters are caused by both natural factors and human activities, about half (54%) indicate that they can personally contribute to reducing disaster risks. Chi-square analysis indicates a significant positive relationship between place of residence and perception of disaster risks (χ2 (6) = 56.18, p 
       
  • Community participation effects on preparedness behaviour through risk
           perception: Empirical data of hazardous chemicals from China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Xiaowei Li, Tiezhong LiuAbstractThis study explores the relationship among community participation, risk perception and preparedness behaviour in the context of hazardous chemicals risk. Community participation is divided into top-down community participation and bottom-up community participation, and the types of risk perception (threat perception, resource-related preparedness behaviour perception, hazard-related preparedness behaviour perception, stakeholder perception) are introduced in the relationship of community participation and preparedness behaviour as mediators. Based on the 1700 questionnaires about dangerous chemicals collected from China, the direct model, four single-mediator models and the multi-mediator model are tested by the structural equation method. The results showed that (1) top-down community participation has a positive impact on preparedness behaviour intention, while bottom-up community participation has a negative impact. (2) Threat perception has no impact on the relationship between community participation and preparedness behaviour intention, while (3) hazard-related preparedness behaviour perception and stakeholder perception have a partially positive mediating impact. (4) Resource-related preparedness behaviour perception has a positive mediating role between top-down community participation and preparedness behaviour intention, but (5) a negative mediating role between bottom-up community participation and preparedness behaviour intention. In addition, there are concealment effects among the mediating roles of the four risk perceptions, which indicates that (6) the mediating role of hazard-related preparedness behaviour perception could be substituted by stakeholder perception and that (7) the mediating role of resource-related preparedness behaviour perception is stronger than stakeholder perception. This current study provides insight regarding the influence of community participation on individual preparedness behaviour in the pre-disaster stage.
       
  • New insights from analysis of historical texts on the 1568 Northeast Xi'an
           earthquake, Shaanxi, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): J. Ma, X.J. Feng, G.Y. Li, X.N. LiAbstractA destructive earthquake occurred in Northeast Xi'an, Shaanxi province, on May 25th, 1568 AD, causing many casualties, severe damage to property, and significant disruption to livelihoods. This earthquake has been chosen as a plausible basis for calculating a seismic scenario for the modern city of Weinan, and its surrounding urban areas. Previous studies agreed in assigning a magnitude 6 ¾ to the earthquake but yielded differing epicentral locations and isoseismal intensity maps. We combine textual research on historical earthquake reports with field investigations to reduce the uncertainties, and to place constraints on the ground shaking that would be experienced if such an earthquake were to recur. We show that the counties of Jingyang, Gaoling, and Xianning were the worst hit by the earthquake, with the townships of Yongle, Huijun, Pisha, and Fengzheng (present-day Gaozhuang and Zhangbu township), likely being in the mesoseismal area of this earthquake. Reinterpretation of the historical texts, combined with field observations, indicates that the epicenter of the earthquake was at about 34°28′N and 108°59′E, with an epicentral intensity of Ⅸ+ and an estimated magnitude of 7. The isoseismal contours have major axes-oriented WNW-ESE, in contrast to the more NS alignment inferred from the earlier study of the historical documents. The isoseismal of intensity VIII+encloses, and has its major axis parallel to, the active Weinan-Jingyang fault, which we infer to be the fault that slipped in the May 25th, 1568 earthquake.
       
  • Analysis of the causative fault of the M∼7 earthquake in the northeast
           part of Xi'an, China in the year 1568
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): X.J. Feng, J. Ma, G.Y. Li, X.N. Li, J. Ren, Y.Q. Shi, M. Li, Y. Zhang, C.X. Li, C.Y. YangAbstractThe Weinan-Jingyang fault is one of the southern boundary faults of the Gushi secondary depression of the Weihe Basin, China. Geophysical exploration work and field geological surveys have demonstrated that this fault system has a length of approximately 105 km, and extends at least 5 km into the subsurface, with a northerly dip that shallows with depth. Under the influence of long-term displacement on the fault zone, the strata on the north side of the fault within the fault zone dip to the south, and the subsidence centre of the Gushi depression has migrated continuously southward. The Cenozoic activity of the Weinan-Jingyang fault has resulted in a significant dislocation between Paleozoic and Cenozoic strata on either side of the fault. This fault has been active during the Quaternary, especially the late Quaternary, in some places offsetting strata formed during the Ming Dynasty(1368–1644 CE), suggesting that this fault can reliably be regarded being active during Holocene time. Comprehensive re-examination of historical earthquake records, combined with field studies, confirm that the Weinan-Jingyang fault is likely the fault that slipped during a magnitude ∼7 earthquake in northeast Xi'an, China in 1568 CE. That earthquake is here re-named the Shaanxi Gaoling Earthquake.
       
  • ShakeMap modelling for the 1568 Shaanxi Gaoling Earthquake, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Kun Chen, Yanxiang Yu, Zongchao Li, Yongzhe Wang, Xijie FengAbstractScenarios of earthquakes play an important role in planning and coordinating emergency response, seismic risk management, and identifying exposure of structures, lifelines, and utilities. We describe the calculation of distributions of ground shaking that might be generated if the 1568 Shaanxi Gaoling M∼7 earthquake were to recur. In order to adjust the Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) for the local conditions, we use the ShakeMap software to calculate a scenario of the nearby 1556 Huaxian M8¼ earthquake, for which the distribution of isoseismals is constrained by historical records. We use the ASK13 GMPEs, and find that, by augmenting the resulting ground shaking by 50% of its standard deviation, we can satisfactorily reproduce the historical observations. This scheme is then applied to the calculation of a scenario ShakeMap Scenario for the 1568 Shaanxi Gaoling M6¾ earthquake. The rupture parameters of the seismogenic faults for each of these scenarios are determined from field observations. The macroscopic seismic site conditions for this area are calculated from the topographic gradient Vs30 model of Wald and Allen [1]. The resultant scenario ShakeMap provides the basis for the calculations of seismic hazard and risk for Weinan city and its surroundings, which are described elsewhere in this issue.
       
  • On-demand ridesourcing for urban emergency evacuation events: An
           exploration of message content, emotionality, and intersectionality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Elisa Borowski, Amanda Stathopoulos, E. BorowskiAbstractEvacuation mode choice has been researched over the past decade for disaster management and planning, focusing primarily on established modes such as personal automobiles, carpooling, and transit. Recently, however, on-demand ridesourcing has become a viable mode alternative, most notably through the growth of major transportation network companies, such as Uber and Lyft. The availability of this new transportation option is expected to have important implications for adaptive disaster response. The goal of this work is to investigate the influence of internal and external contextual factors on preferred ridesourcing applications during small-scale urban evacuations. A case study was conducted in the three most populous metropolitan areas in the United States. Data were collected using an internet-based stated preference survey, and a discrete choice model was estimated to analyze the 185 responses. Determinants of on-demand ridesourcing for evacuation include internal factors, such as interactions between race, gender, and income, and external contextual factors, such as the evacuation notification source, consequence severity, immediacy, evacuation distance, unfamiliarity of surroundings, and traveling with others. Findings are illustrated through three ridesourcing applications based on specific evacuation needs. Policy recommendations are provided for the formation of equitable evacuation services, soft policy communication strategies, and public-private partnerships.
       
  • Challenges in managing technological disasters in Cameroon: Case study of
           Cameroon's worst train Crash—the Eséka train disaster
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Henry Ngenyam Bang, Lee Stuart Miles, Richard Duncan Gordon
       
  • Dam-induced displacement and resettlement: Reflections from Tokwe-Mukorsi
           flood disaster, Zimbabwe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Emmanuel Mavhura
       
  • Mental health of voluntary canine search and rescue workers in Germany –
           Mission-related stressors and need for future interventions. A pilot
           investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Mareike AugsburgerAbstractRisk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high in rescue workers. But prevalence differs depending on the occupational group and other deployment-related factors. Though canine search and rescue teams represent a significant part of the rescue worker professional group, research concerning their mental health is scarce.The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and its correlates in dog handlers. Members of the German Federal Association of Canine Search and Rescue completed online questionnaires regarding PTSD and mental health complaints as well as mission-related experiences and availability of psychosocial support after critical missions.In N = 116 individuals, 10% met the threshold indicative of a diagnosis for PTSD. 12% and 6% reported clinically relevant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. PTSD and anxiety were associated with higher traumatic load throughout the lifetime but lower exposure to job-related stressful events. Regular internal debriefing after critical missions was existent in almost all teams (89%), but only 32% reported procedures outside the local squadrons. Internal debriefing was not associated with less PTSD symptoms, but with lower levels of both anxiety and depression.The findings confirm an increased risk for mental health problems also for canine search and rescue teams. Mission-related correlates as well as debriefing sessions were narrowly associated with PTSD. The results point to the importance of further investigating the needs of this special rescue profession and the identification of risk factors for PTSD and mental health distress specifically in this sample that can be targeted in interventions.
       
  • Chasing utopia: Disaster memorial volunteers at the Joplin Memorial Race
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Mary M. Nelan, Elyse Zavar, Stephanie J. Ray
       
  • An investigation of the targeting and allocation of post-flood disaster
           aid for rehabilitation in Punjab, Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Muhammad Irshad Ahmad, M.A. HengyunAbstractPakistan is listed among the countries that are extremely susceptible to climate changes and it has experienced several natural disaster shocks with tremendous impacts. However, post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation is still a major challenge due to difficulty in targeting the right beneficiaries and the effectiveness of post-disaster aid. This study proposes a conceptual framework and rehabilitation measures for the judicious allocation of two post-disaster aid programmes in the context of 2010 super flood disasters in Pakistan. Using primary data sets from the most severely affected district of province Punjab, it employs Probit and Tobit models and empirically investigates the determinants of better targeting and aid allocation. The results show that ‘cash aid’ for house reconstruction was much better targeted than agricultural assistance in compensating the affected households. The targeting and the effectiveness of aid programmes were mainly determined by gender, membership, farmer size and injured members. Finally, this study suggests that for better targeting of post-disaster aid programmes, local governments and international organizations should pay attention to those families with fewer adult females and injured members, and those without CBO membership.
       
  • What's in a name' “Smong” and the sustaining of risk communication
           and DRR behaviours as evocation fades
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Stephen A. Sutton, Douglas Paton, Petra Buergelt, Ella Meilianda, Saut SagalaAbstractThere are familiar patterns in the ways individuals and society process disaster recovery and future disaster risk reduction (DRR) needs as the memory of a disaster fades. Affect is strongest immediately after the event. However, typically, for most people the memory of, and the negative emotions associated with a disaster event, increasingly fade with time, even while the actual memory of the event remains. While the fading of memories and emotions represents a mechanism for maintaining psychological wellbeing, forgetting disasters may have negative implications for DRR. As time passes, the decrease in the intensity of feelings is matched by a decrease in intensity of efforts to prepare for future disasters. This association is reflected in the intensity of reconstruction activity as well as the degree to which society focusses effort on continuing DRR programs.This process has been defied in Pulau Simeulue in Aceh Province. This island is well recognized as an exemplar of community-based risk communication and DRR activity as a result of managing maintaining the collective memory of ‘smong’ - the local Simeulue word for the earthquake/tsunami phenomenon - for 100 years. Using the findings from a grounded theory study, this paper examines the importance of having a specific word for natural hazard to successful DRR and what might be learned from the example of Simeulue.
       
  • Disaster relief work: The experiences of volunteers in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Chen Hoi Yen, Che An Ahmad, Khatijah AbdullahAbstractDisaster, whether natural or man-made, is an unpredictable event that occurs worldwide and may cause untold damage to the environment and its occupants. In the aftermath, deployment of volunteer workers into disaster zone is a necessary part of the effort to provide relief to disaster victims. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the experiences of disaster relief volunteers in Malaysia who has served in disaster relief efforts. Ten participants from among doctors and nurses who have worked as disaster relief volunteers were purposively selected for qualitative in-depth interviews. The data gathered during the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Five main themes emerged in the data analysis process, namely, Limited Resources, Reactions, Support, Preparation and Gratification. The theme reveals the challenges faced by the participants and the toll taken on their psychological, emotional, and physical wellbeing. It also reveals the factors that could lessen the toll. In conclusion, we find it imperative for volunteer organizations, employers, and health bodies alike to recognize the need revealed in this study in order to provide the necessary support to prevent the possible damaging effect of disaster relief works on volunteers.
       
  • Improving disaster knowledge within high school students through
           geographic literacy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Puspita Annaba Kamil, Sugeng Utaya, Sumarmi, Dwiyono Hari UtomoAbstractThe purpose of this article is to describe efforts to improve disaster knowledge in senior high school students through geographic literacy. This is in line with the objectives of the curriculum 2013 (The National Curriculum in Indonesia) that specify the achievement of learning should motivate students to takeaction and provide solutions in order to build disaster preparedness. One of the forms of geographic literacy which is used as teaching material contains disaster knowledge aspect covering material of disaster related on geography subject of high school level. The teaching materials contain perspective geography to strengthen disaster knowledge on students. The data of increasing the knowledge of disaster on the students is obtained by doing classroom action research on senior high school students of 11th Grade in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia. The results showed that there was an increase of knowledge and understanding of students by 91.6% through geographic literacy given in student learning on the material of disaster-related theme. Therefore, teachers are expected to use teaching materials based on geographical perspective to support learning of disaster risk reduction. So that students have good disaster response skills and find the solution for natural damage and reduce its negative side effects.
       
  • The build-back-better concept as a disaster risk reduction strategy for
           positive reconstruction and sustainable development in Zimbabwe: A
           literature study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Ernest DubeAbstractThis article extends the build-back-better disaster risk reduction knowledge. It highlights the importance of the build-back-better during disaster recovery in Zimbabwe. Using literature, the author discusses the benefits of the build-back-better; analyses how the build-back-better can contribute to the reconstruction and sustainable development; and, discusses build-back-better strategies for reconstruction. The findings are that the build-back-better supports the aims of sustainable development goals. The build-back-better provides stronger, better and safer infrastructure, recovery surpluses, and is a learn-and-act endeavour. The study concluded that through providing stronger infrastructure, resilient and sustainable communities, build-back-better supports both reconstruction and sustainable development.
       
  • Enhancing school safety through university engagement in DRR education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Yung-Fang Chen, Arinola AdefilaAbstractEffective Disaster Risk Reduction Education (DRRE) could reduce the impact of disasters, including the loss of lives, property and damage to the environment because DRRE enables communities to mitigate and prepare for potential risks [1,2]. It is believed that universities could play a role in DRRE [3,4], not only emphasising the need for the inclusion of DRR in curricula for all levels of education; but also proactively teaching and sharing DRRE in communities [5]. This holistic approach widens the university's engagement in society and broadens impact of good practice.A University in the United Kingdom has initiated a project to facilitate the university's engagement in DRRE in communities. The project combined specially planned field trips and placements in an optional academic module to encourage year 2 students to deliver DRRE in primary, junior and high schools in a foreign context [6]. The project has provided opportunities for the students to develop inter-cultural competences and employability skills [7]. It also facilitated work-based learning and enhanced global learning through practice-based activities [8].The article introduces a Higher Education (HE) engagement model for DRRE, evaluates the effectiveness of the pedagogy and its impact on students’ learning. The research demonstrated positive impact of HE students engaging DRRE in the community through fieldtrips and placement. It is recommended that the HE sector develops similar models to enable universities engage in collaborative networks that allows a more effective approach for DRRE.
       
  • Modelling residential habitability and human displacement for tsunami
           scenarios in Christchurch, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Finn Scheele, Thomas Wilson, Emily M. Lane, Kate Crowley, Matthew W. Hughes, Tim Davies, Nick Horspool, James H. Williams, Lina Le, S.R. Uma, Biljana Lukovic, Marion Schoenfeld, James ThompsonAbstractUnderstanding the potential impacts of a large tsunami on a coastal region enables better planning of disaster management strategies. Potential housing damage, habitability, human displacement and sheltering needs are key concerns for emergency managers following tsunami events. This article presents a novel approach to address these requirements. We first review available literature on factors influencing residential habitability, human displacement and sheltering needs following disasters. Existing models are reviewed to identify lessons, gaps and opportunities that can inform the development of a new model. We then present a new model for estimating habitability, displacement and sheltering needs for tsunami (HDS-T). The model uses an additive scoring system incorporating both physical and demographic factors, weighted according to their relative influence. We demonstrate application of HDS-T through the case study of three tsunami scenarios affecting the coastal city of Christchurch, New Zealand. The results are time-varying, reflecting the response and early recovery phase of the tsunami events. For the largest scenario, 14,695 residents are displaced on the first day, with 1795 displaced residents requiring sheltering assistance. The number of displaced residents reduces to 9014 on Day 4, 7131 on Day 7, and 4366 at the time point of one month. HDS-T is designed to be adaptable to other natural hazards and contexts, such as earthquakes.
       
  • Cascading disasters risk modeling based on linear uncertainty
           distributions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Zaiwu Gong, Yiming Wang, Guo Wei, Lianshui Li, Weiwei GuoAbstractCascading disasters are a critical part of the disaster study. However, due to problems such as information incompleteness and small-sample, probability distribution functions cannot be derived based on the frequency approach. Fortunately, the uncertainty theory, designated for treating the above situations, provides a way for dealing with the problem through subjective estimations achieved by simulating uncertainty variables. This paper studies the cascading disasters risk modeling with the uncertainty theory and simulates inducing risk by using linear uncertainty distributions. To obtain the minimum early warning value and the maximum belief degree of a disaster system, a cascading disaster risk model is proposed in this paper with the characteristics of the series, parallel, and mixed risk. In addition, the early warning value represents the risk threshold of the cascading disaster system, while the belief degree represents the possibility of the cascading disaster system in a safe state under a certain early warning value level.
       
  • Working outside ‘the rules’: Opportunities and challenges of community
           participation in risk reduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Katharine Haynes, Deanne K. Bird, Joshua WhittakerAbstractResearch has shown that greater community action is needed for effective risk reduction. Community participation in risk reduction ranges from action that is initiated and led by members of the public, independently of government assistance, to those that are initiated and facilitated by government and non-government organisations. Natural hazards research has demonstrated that despite awareness of and a desire to reduce risk, many community members lack the physical, psychological or financial capacity to take action. This is particularly the case for bushfires, where preparations can be costly and physically demanding. In response to this, Fire and Rescue New South Wales (FRNSW) established the Community Fire Unit (CFU) program. CFUs are groups of residents who are provided with education, training and equipment to enable them to reduce risks around their homes through enhanced preparation and some bushfire defence. This paper examines the experiences and views of CFU members after bushfires in the Blue Mountains, NSW in October 2013. The majority of respondents believed that their participation in the CFU program reduced bushfire risk and led to a greater sense of community and social capital in their local area. However, the research revealed challenges associated with participating within the formal, top-down structures of a professional fire brigade. Respondents therefore considered that greater flexibility was needed with simultaneously greater support and autonomy from FRNSW. The paper explores the experiences, challenges and opportunities presented by a top-down community based risk reduction program and considers the implications for community participation in risk reduction more generally.
       
  • Exploring the effects of a serious game-based learning package for
           disaster prevention education: The case of Battle of Flooding Protection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Meng-Han Tsai, Yu-Lien Chang, Susan Shiau, Shun-Mei WangAbstractThis study aims to develop a serious game-based learning package for disaster prevention education. Disaster education is one of the most effective processes in disaster management. However, traditional educational methods are not sufficient for passing on past experience and triggering learner interest. Therefore, serious game-based learning, a more engaging educational method, is a promising direction for disaster prevention education. This study integrated a serious game, Battle of Flooding Protection, and Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle to develop a learning package that would raise students' level of interest in learning, inspire their self-awareness, and increase their willingness to participate in disaster-related citizen actions. The learning package was implemented in a 67-student class for validation. The results showed that the Battle of Flooding Protection learning package had significant effects on students' disaster prevention skills, interest in learning, self-awareness, and sense of civic responsibility.
       
  • Success, innovation and challenge: School safety and disaster education in
           South America and the Caribbean
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Viviana Aguilar Muñoz, Barbara Carby, Enrique Castellanos Abella, Omar Dario Cardona, Tania López-Marrero, Victor Marchezini, Lourdes Meyreles, Débora Olivato, Rachel Trajber, Ben Wisner
      Authors discuss school safety and disaster education in Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Case studies explore work to increase understanding of natural hazards and disaster preparedness. Puerto Rico offers innovative examples of reflection on memories of Hurricane Maria by primary students and university undergraduates. From Brazil comes description of work in schools to develop curriculum skills and research competencies at high-school level. The Brazilian scheme encourages schools to become producers of knowledge rather than reproducers of centrally disseminated information. Another case study focuses on efforts to protect university buildings in Colombia. The rich landscape of policy, practice and experience in South America and the Caribbean is informed by a model of the three pillars of Comprehensive School Safety: 1. Safe Learning Facilities, 2. School Disaster Management, and 3. Risk Reduction and Resilience Education.
       
  • Regional vulnerability and risk assessment accounting for local building
           typologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Maria Polese, Marco Di Ludovico, Marco Gaetani d’Aragona, Andrea Prota, Gaetano ManfrediAbstractSeismic risk analysis allows investigating the consequences of earthquakes in a region of interest. Most of the existing risk-oriented studies focus on new developments and/or on the integration of most up-to-date information in the fields of seismic hazard evaluation and vulnerability assessment. Conversely, no specific effort was devolved on evaluating the influence of exposure modeling; most of the studies rely on census data at the municipal level for the development of building inventory. Building inventory may change if more information on vulnerability factors for building typologies is considered and this may lead to a different estimation of losses with respect to those based on traditional inventories relying on census data alone. The recent Cartis approach, based on interview, represents an advancement for compilation of regional scale inventories; it allows to rapidly acquire much more data on building typologies with respect to census returns. This paper explores the issue of exposure modeling by comparing the seismic risk computed at the regional scale starting from variable knowledge levels of the building environment. It will be shown that the seismic risk computed starting from the enhanced exposure modeling is generally higher with respect to the standard census-based one. The seismic risk can be nearly doubled for some towns, and the variation is more significant for smaller towns (with smaller number of inhabitants). This result may have a significant influence on evaluations that are based on comparative risk analysis at the regional scale, conditioning decisions towards risk mitigations campaigns or calibration of insurance premiums.
       
  • Integrating human behaviour and building vulnerability for the assessment
           and mitigation of seismic risk in historic centres: Proposal of a holistic
           human-centred simulation-based approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Aleksandar Zlateski, Michele Lucesoli, Gabriele Bernardini, Tiago Miguel FerreiraAbstractThe complexity of historic centres implies that risk assessment in those areas should be based on joint analyses of the characteristics of the built environment and the population's features, exposure and interaction with the surrounding environment. Such a holistic approach is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of mitigation strategies, especially in sudden onset disasters, and, mainly, earthquakes. In fact, the effectiveness of retrofitting interventions and emergency management strategies on the safety level depends greatly on such interactions, also in relation to the path network features. This work proposes a PDCA-based methodology for earthquake risk assessment which innovatively combines built environment damage assessment with a simulation of human evacuation behaviour so as to identify potentially inaccessible evacuation paths and urban areas, define related paths/areas safety levels and evaluate the impact of proposed retrofitting and management strategies on the population's safety in an emergency. To this end, a validated seismic vulnerability index method for masonry façade walls is combined with empirical damage assessment correlations (debris depth estimation in outdoor spaces) to create post-earthquake damage scenarios. Then, these are used as input data for evacuation process assessment through an existing earthquake pedestrians' evacuation simulator. Paths and safe areas risk indices are proposed to evaluate the main behavioural issues in emergency conditions. Finally, different solutions aimed at improving evacuation safety (i.e. emergency plans, rescuers' access strategies and retrofitting of buildings) are proposed and discussed for a significant case study, the historic centre of Coimbra, Portugal.
       
  • Challenges and benefits of community-based safer school construction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Rebekah Paci-Green, Bishnu Pandey, Hayley Gryc, Nick Ireland, Jair Torres, Michèle YoungAbstractOver the last two decades, millions of classrooms have been built through such efforts as the global Education for All campaign and the Millennium Development Goals. Community-based school construction is prevalent in areas where the onus of education has traditionally been on the community or where governments has devolved decision-making to subnational or local bodies. Interviews with 58 practitioners with expertise in community-based construction in Africa, Latin America, and Asia illuminate both the challenges and benefits of community-based approaches. These practitioners sought to achieve the twin goal of ensuring children have access to educational facilities and ensuring such facilities will be able to withstand natural hazards without costly damage that can kill, injure children and school personnel, or disrupt education. Practitioners found that community-based approaches to safer school construction can support local livelihoods and build capacity; the approach can also increase the skills of local stakeholders for maintaining the school after project completion. It also helps develop local capacity for disaster risk management. However, practitioners noted that introduction of new materials and construction techniques, which may be necessary to achieve hazard resistant construction, were sometimes resisted or ineffectively implemented. Other times, decisions at the design stage did not adequately reflect field realities, increasing risk to future occupants. Overall, reduction in labor and material costs often came with slower construction and higher costs devoted to local training and oversight. The insights help identify key principles for community-based construction to help ensure safer schools and increased community capacity for disaster risk reduction.
       
  • Impacts of resilience interventions – Evidence from a
           quasi-experimental assessment in Niger
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Chris Béné, Alexandre Riba, David WilsonAbstractIn this paper we aim to evaluate the effects of a 3-year resilience intervention (the SUR1M project in Niger) on the beneficiaries of the project. The evaluation was structured around the project's theory of change and designed to evaluate three elements along that theory of change: the types of responses beneficiaries adopt when faced with adverse events; their ability to recover from those events; and the long-term impact on their well-being, measured through their level of food (in)security. Using a quasi-experimental approach and an ex-post treatment versus control framework we found significant effects of the project on beneficiaries' capacities to engage in (positive) responses and on their abilities to recover from shocks. The analysis did not find however any significant difference between the well-being of the beneficiaries and that of the control group, suggesting that, after three years, the higher level of resilience of the beneficiaries did not translate into a clear positive impact on their well-being.
       
  • Resilience, education and architecture: The proactive and
           “educational” dimensions of the spaces of formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Pablo CamposAbstractStarting out from an analysis of several meanings of resilience, this paper focuses on the interdisciplinary links that can be created between architecture and education, with the aim of building a resilience centered on the “educational” value of architecture.The text proposes that qualified physical spaces can reinforce resilience for school complexes, helping to face the adversity of the environment, while proactively promoting positive capacities in persons in the development of their educational process, in both health and well-being.Resilience shares with the human integral education the fact that both these values pursue a “surpassing” of the individual and of the wider collective. In that mission, architecture intentionally designed can contribute values in itself, acquiring an “educational” potential.The paper first considers the connection between resilience and education, based on the foundations of the latter (affective awareness and action, community and sustainability). The main body studies those criteria and elements that architectural composition can contribute to design schools, and reinforce their resilience (planning, order, harmony, nature, colour or art). This includes topics such as safety and physical risk prevention, with a reflection on psychological perception. Regarding composition formal mechanisms of schools, the most suggestive projects for increased resilience are discussed: typologies in plans, geometry, modules, proportions, limits, treatment of horizontal and vertical walls, types of section and natural light, or ordering axes. The key conclusion is that architecture, properly planned, is a vital ally of resilience, by adding an “educational” value that enriches well-being and motivates learning.
       
  • Effect of catastrophe insurance on disaster-impacted community:
           Quantitative framework and case studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Jie Zhao, Ji Yun Lee, Yue Li, Yue-Jun YinAbstractCatastrophe insurance is an important pre-disaster risk management tool that reduces excessive financial burdens of homeowners following a hazard event and expedites the recovery processes of disaster-impacted buildings and the community that they comprise. This paper proposes a quantitative framework for assessing the effect of catastrophe insurance on community recovery by modeling the insurance purchase decisions of individual homeowners. The framework consists of two sequentially linked phases (i.e., pre-disaster individual homeowner's decision model and post-disaster community-level recovery model) to (a) explicitly link the pre-disaster insured states of homeowners to their post-disaster financial availability and potential delay due to financing and (b) eventually assess the aggregated impact of delayed building recoveries on community recovery process. The proposed framework is applied to two residential districts to validate the pre-disaster homeowner's decision model, assess the effect of catastrophe insurance on community recovery process, and investigate the combined effect of insurance and other post-disaster redevelopment activities on community resilience. The results indicate that catastrophe insurance speeds up the recovery process of a community by reducing the financing delay time of insured houses while reducing the number of insolvency claims following a hazard event. The quantitative impact of insurance on community resilience provides guidance on how catastrophe insurance can be used in a broad resilience planning to achieve both short- and long-term community resilience goals. Moreover, the proposed framework enables the quantitative comparison of many competing pre- and post-disaster risk management strategies, which might be useful in allocating limited disaster funds across them.
       
  • The effect of risk perception on the willingness to purchase hazard
           insurance—A case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir region, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Fan Yang, Jing Tan, Li PengAbstractNatural hazard insurance is widely recognized as an implement for reducing risk to adverse environmental change such as mountain hazards. Rural households’ willingness to purchase (WTP) for mountain hazard insurance may be affected by their risk perception. Notably, individuals generally behave following prospect theory under uncertain threats of mountain hazards. This paper uses the survey data (N = 348) from four counties with the most severe mountain hazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is utilized to verify 13 hypotheses which are proposed based on the prospect theory. The results show that: (1) Risk perception can be divided into five dimensions, namely, Probability factor (perceptions of the likelihood of hazard occurrence); Controlled factor (confidence in human efforts to survive hazard); Fear factor (worry or nervousness of suffering disaster); Experience factor (hazards experiences); and Unknown factor (ignorance associated with disaster). (2) The unknown factor, controlled factor, probability factor, and experience factor have a significant influence on WTP. However, the fear factor does not affect WTP. (3) The five risk perception dimensions have a significant direct impact on each other. These results support the hypothesis that people have limited abilities to process information and help understand better the influence of risk perception on the insurance purchasing decision.
       
  • Librarians’ perception of disaster preparedness as precursor for
           effective preservation and conservation of library resources in Nigerian
           university libraries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Promise I. Ilo, Christopher Nkiko, Roland Izuagbe, Ibrahim M. FurfuriAbstractThe study examined librarians’ perception of disaster preparedness and its effect on effective preservation and conservation of library resources, focusing on university libraries in the Southwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted. The university libraries that provided the data and institutional setting for the study were randomized using the ballot system after which total enumeration technique was employed to take complete census of the population. The population comprised 327 librarians and library officers drawn across federal and state university libraries in the region. The questionnaire and interview methods were used for data collection. Results affirmed, as postulated, that preservation and conservation of information resources would be more effective if disaster preparedness measures are incorporated into the process. As a result, both approaches were found to be complementary. It was also discovered that the core digital preservation strategies are not being practiced in university libraries in the studied region. Consequently, it was recommended that effort aimed at all forms of preservation strategies should be employed to ensure the longevity and sustainability of all information resources.
       
  • Different preferences for recovery options of residential fire disasters:
           The effect of decision role and stressed emotion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Chuanshen Qin, Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Bo FanAbstractThe purpose of this paper is to understand how differences are in preferences for recovery options of residential fire disasters among four different groups, which helps us understand the role of empathy in public administration. Policy decision on allocating resources were assessed in each group through an experimental design. The results show that compared to those whose emotion was not aroused, those whose emotions were aroused were significantly less satisfied with the recovery scenarios. Besides, economic compensation, material recovery, and psychological assistance were significant predictors of participants' satisfaction level. However, the relative importance of these recovery options varied largely within- and between-groups. This paper concludes that high emotional arousal negatively influenced individuals' satisfaction with recovery options while assuming decision roles did not have a main effect. Overall, empathetic officials' preferences for recovery options were similar to the victims while the indifferent officials' preferences were similar to the ordinary public. When people were in the same emotional state, those making decisions for others showed greater preference in psychological assistance. In practice, more emphasis should be put on the empathic emotion of officials in emergency management. Disaster recovery may go more smoothly, be more equitable, and more efficient when public officials are able to walk in the shoes of the victims and adjust policy decisions that better reflect the needs of the victims.
       
  • Extending interdiction and median models to identify critical hurricane
           shelters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Onur Alisan, Mahyar Ghorbanzadeh, Mehmet Baran Ulak, Ayberk Kocatepe, Eren Erman Ozguven, Mark Horner, Wenrui HuangAbstractShelters serve as critical facilities where people gather during and after hurricanes. A basic requirement of ‘operation’ for a shelter is being functional and available to help. However, what happens when shelters themselves are damaged and unable to serve those people' An open question with key policy implications is: How can we identify the most critical shelter(s) as a part of broader emergency evacuation operations and how can we respond to an interdiction' This paper develops a two-step modeling framework consisting of enhanced r-interdiction median models (RIM) to identify the most significant shelter(s) and revised p-median models to identify shelters to repurpose during such an interdiction where shelters are rendered off-line. Proposed models are applied on a Southeast Florida case study with respect to scenarios based on varying hurricane strength and shelter demand. Findings indicate that models are susceptible to travel cost variation based on the demand-weighted objectives, and that shelter selections vary due to different demand scenarios created which focus on different population segments. As hurricane strength increases, critical shelter identification is driven by flooding and storm surge risks. These findings can inform efforts to harden those critical shelters so that they can better serve populations in need.
       
  • Evaluating the effects of reconstruction of the damaged villages in the
           2002 earthquake in Avaj, Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): J. Einali, B. Mohamady Yeganeh, M. Cheraghi, M. FeyzolahpourAbstractAs far as the geographic location is concerned, Iran is one of the hazardous places, especially in terms of earthquakes, among different countries in the world so that it is ranked 7th in Asia and 13th in the world. One of the identified disaster management approaches is the participation of rural settlers in the reconstruction of areas hit by the earthquake, affecting inhabitants of such areas in one way or another. This study is aimed at identifying the effects of the reconstruction methods of damaged villages by the 2002 earthquake in Avaj, Iran. The data is based on the statistics released by Iranian Statistics Center in 2001 and 2011, and also on a complementary qualitative research conducted drawing on a questionnaire submitted to the settlers of sample villages in the district. The statistical population of the research is the households of the villages reconstructed with two methods: in situ reconstruction and relocation. Drawing on Morgan table, the sample size is calculated as 380. As the findings indicate, the rural areas reconstruction plays a significant role in informing residents about the probability of an earthquake, socioeconomic sustainability, the rural livelihoods improvement, increased population survival, improvement of socioeconomic relations of households, improvement of health-care facilities, and the households' access to necessary services. To the bargain, in situ reconstruction seems to have more positive effects than rural relocation.
       
  • Analyzing investments in flood protection structures: A real options
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Luis-Angel Gomez-Cunya, Mohammad Sadra Fardhosseini, Hyun Woo Lee, Kunhee ChoiAbstractThe soaring number of natural hazards in recent years due largely to climate change has resulted in an even higher level of investment in flood protection structures. However, such investments tend to be made in the aftermath of disasters. Very little is known about the proactive planning of flood protection investments that account for uncertainties associated with flooding events. Understanding the uncertainties such as “when” to invest on these structures to achieve the most optimal cost-saving amount is outmost important. This study fills this large knowledge gap by developing an investment decision-making assessment framework that determines an optimal timing of flood protection investment options. It combines real options with a net present value analysis to examine managerial flexibility in various investment timing options. Historical data that contain information about river water discharges were leveraged as a random variable in the modeling framework because it may help investors better understand the probability of extreme events, and particularly, flooding uncertainties. A lattice model was then used to investigate potential alternatives of investment timing and to evaluate the benefits of delaying investments in each case. The efficacy of the proposed framework was demonstrated by an illustrative example of flood protection investment. The framework will be used to help better inform decision makers.
       
  • Facemask use for community protection from air pollution disasters: An
           ethical overview and framework to guide agency decision making
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Fiona McDonald, Claire J. Horwell, Richard Wecker, Lena Dominelli, Miranda Loh, Robie Kamanyire, Ciro UgarteAbstractDisasters involving severe air pollution episodes create a pressing public health issue. During such emergencies, there may be pressure on agencies to provide solutions to protect affected communities. One possible intervention to reduce exposure during such crises is facemasks. Ethical values need to be considered as part of any decision-making process to assess whether to provide advice on, recommend and/or distribute any public health intervention. In this paper, we use principles from public health ethics to analyse the critical ethical issues that relate to agencies providing advice on, recommending and/or distributing facemasks in air pollution disasters, given a lack of evidence of both the specific risk of some polluting events or the effectiveness of facemasks in community settings. The need for reflection on the ethical issues raised by the possible recommendation/use of facemasks to mitigate potential health issues arising from air pollution disasters is critical as communities progressively seek personal interventions to manage perceived and actual risks. This paper develops an ethical decision-making framework to assist agency deliberations. We argue that clarity around decision-making by agencies, after using this framework, may help increase trust about the intervention and solidarity within and between populations affected by these disasters and the agencies who support public health or provide assistance during disasters.
       
  • Disaster risk reduction is not ‘everyone's business’: Evidence
           from three countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Aaron Clark-GinsbergAbstractReflecting the shift from government to governance in public administration, disaster risk reduction (DRR) is typically framed as ‘everyone's business’, a multi-stakeholder activity involving many different local, national, and international organizations. However, it is not clear which types of organizations actually participate in DRR and how they work together. In this article, I use a social network analysis to compare the DRR networks in three countries, Kenya, Bangladesh, and Sierra Leone. Results provide a better understanding of the types of organizations engaged in DRR. I find that while the number of organizations involved in DRR differs across these contexts, local, national, and international governmental, nongovernmental, and private sector organizations are all involved in DRR. This breadth of organizations suggests that DRR is indeed a multi-stakeholder endeavor. However, engagement is limited in other respects: community influence is low, private sector involvement is minimal, and local governmental participation is varied. Such limitations mean that DRR is not actually ‘everyone's business’, but rather the business of a select few. While these limitations may compromise DRR activities, further research is needed to understand the effect that the absence of different types of stakeholders has on the ways that risks are managed.
       
  • Uncovering the perception regarding wildfires of residents with different
           characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Ricardo Oliveira, Sandra Oliveira, José Luís Zêzere, Domingos Xavier ViegasAbstractWildfires are a major environmental hazard in Portugal and cause deep social and economic disruption, demanding urgent actions for risk mitigation and people's protection. We aimed to understand if the personal characteristics of people, such as age, gender or education level, influenced their knowledge and perception regarding specific topics related to wildfires: i) wildfire risk; ii) spot fires and the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI); iii) self-protection possibilities; iv) community involvement and v) knowledge on legal instruments and plans from government agencies, in order to identify potential mitigation and prevention actions more suited to their experience and needs. Starting with the residents of two small villages recently affected by wildfires, and then extended to other areas in the mainland, we used responses to 282 survey questionnaires to discover people's perception on the different topics. Younger and more educated people feel confident with their knowledge on how to act in high fire danger situations. People with jobs related to forest industries mentioned having the ability to defend themselves and property. Most people found it difficult to provide a clear definition of wildfire risk and they did not know what WUI is, indicating that these concepts are not sufficiently understood amongst the civil society. Most people said they do not know about legal measures or plans that could mitigate wildfire risk, although these are commonly based on intervention at community level and individual household responsibility. Wildfire risk management strategies must address the challenges linked to the need to tailor communication to people's conditions, educating at-risk communities in order to enhance the connection between citizens and community wildfire safety policies.
       
  • Insuring against climatic shocks: Evidence on farm households’
           willingness to pay for rainfall insurance product in rural India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Asis Kumar Senapati
       
  • Crowdsourcing to rescue cultural heritage during disasters: A case study
           of the 1966 Florence Flood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Pakhee KumarAbstractIllustrating the application of crowdsourcing in disaster response before the Internet age, this paper addresses two key questions: How did the people respond to the cultural heritage damaged during the 1966 Florence Flood' How were they motivated to do so' Content analysis of 180 out of 753 correspondence items from the archives of Fondazione Centro Studi Sull’Arte Licia e Carlo Ludovico Ragghianti in Lucca, Italy shows that the committee received contributions in the form of money, materials, volunteers and knowledge from different parts of the world. The most popular of all contributions, however, was money. Four main factors were found to be motivating people to contribute: 1) the call to participate, 2) the media, 3) influencers, and 4) memory of the city. Of key importance, this paper emphasizes: how to initiate a crowdsourcing campaign to restore cultural heritage, who will contribute or is most likely to contribute and how to motivate people to contribute.
       
  • Experimental study on earthquake-induced falling debris of exterior infill
           walls and its impact to pedestrian evacuation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Xinzheng Lu, Zhebiao Yang, Cheavpor Chea, Hong GuanAbstractUnder the combined effects of in-plane deformation and out-of-plane acceleration during an earthquake, cracking occurs in the exterior infill walls of buildings causing debris to fall. The falling debris ineluctably blocks roads and hinders fast pedestrian evacuations. To identify the failure criterion for exterior infill walls, specialized test apparatus was designed, and pseudo-static experiments of infill walls were conducted in this work. The influences of different height-to-thickness ratios, drift ratios and out-of-plane accelerations on falling debris were taken into consideration in the proposed apparatus design. The experiment indicated that the infill blocks fell sooner and the falling area was larger for a thinner infill wall with a larger tilting angle. Based on the experimental results, a prediction model was proposed to evaluate the percentage of falling area of infill walls. Using the proposed failure criterion, a pedestrian evacuation simulation was conducted on the Tsinghua University campus as a case study. Moreover, the debris distribution and evacuation results under different earthquake intensities were also analyzed. The results of the case study revealed that a considerable area of roads located in densely built-up areas was covered by debris, resulting in a more than 30% increase in time for people in the nearby buildings to evacuate. Compared to the scenario without falling debris, the evacuation time with debris was 5% longer when subjected to MCE (Maximal Considered Earthquake). The proposed failure criterion for masonry infill walls can be employed in debris distribution calculation, which offers technical support for urban planning and evacuation drills.
       
  • A multi-sector multi-region economic growth model of drought and the value
           of water: A case study in Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Muneta Yokomatsu, Hiroaki Ishiwata, Yohei Sawada, Yushi Suzuki, Toshio Koike, Asif Naseer, Muhammad Jehanzeb Masud CheemaAbstractThis study integrates ecohydrological vegetation and multi-sector multi-region economic growth models to evaluate the impacts of drought on markets and value the economic value of water. The values of several parameters of the agricultural production function are identified by applying leaf area indices that are simulated by the ecohydrological model, AgriCLVDAS. The three-sector three-region closed-economy model with the agricultural production functions of both irrigable and rainfed farmland as well as the stochastic process of precipitation and availability of river water are formulated to analyze the water rent as well as GDP growth in Pakistan under drought stress. According to the characteristics of the closed-economy model, the crop price is increased during drought periods because of the price hike in water (i.e., an increase in the marginal productivity of water, which is double that in high-water periods in Pakistan). The study further presents a way of investigating water resource management policies by applying comparative dynamics.
       
  • Wildfire recovery as a “hot moment” for creating fire-adapted
           communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Ronald L. Schumann, Miranda Mockrin, Alexandra Syphard, Joshua Whittaker, Owen Price, Cassandra Johnson Gaither, Christopher T. Emrich, Van ButsicAbstractRecent decades have witnessed an escalation in the social, economic, and ecological impacts of wildfires worldwide. Wildfire losses stem from the complex interplay of social and ecological forces at multiple scales, including global climate change, regional wildfire regimes altered by human activities, and locally managed wildland-urban interface (WUI) zones where homes increasingly encroach upon wildland vegetation. The coupled nature of the human-ecological system is precisely what makes reducing wildfire risks challenging. As losses from wildfire have accelerated, an emerging research and management objective has been to create fire-adapted communities where ecologically functional levels of wildfire are preserved but risks to human lives and property are minimized. Realizing such a vision will require widespread and decentralized action, but questions remain as to when and how such a transformation could take place' We suggest that the period following a destructive wildfire may provide a “hot moment” for community adaptation.Drawing from literature on natural hazard vulnerability, disaster recovery, and wildfire ecology, this paper proposes a linked social-ecological model of community recovery and adaptation after disaster. The model contends that changes during post-wildfire recovery shape a community's vulnerability to the next wildfire event. While other studies have highlighted linked social-ecological dynamics that influence pre-fire vulnerability, few studies have explored social-ecological feedbacks in post-fire recovery. This model contributes to interdisciplinary social science research on wildfires and to scholarship on community recovery by integrating hazard vulnerability reduction with recovery in a cyclical framework. Furthermore, it is adaptable to a variety of hazards beyond wildfire. The model provides a basis for future empirical work examining the nature and effectiveness of recovery efforts aimed at long-term vulnerability reduction.
       
  • Evaluation of seismic evacuation behavior in complex urban environments
           based on GIS: A case study of Xi'an, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Chen Chen, Lin ChengAbstractBuilding evacuation behavior research based on computer logical rule-based models and experimental studies has always taken the leading role in the field of evacuation behavior. However, there is still limited research on seismic evacuation behavior in complex urban environments. This paper empirically evaluates the seismic evacuation behavior in complex urban environments during a real-world earthquake in Xi'an, China. More specifically, safety and closeness of evacuation, as well as group differences are discussed. Questionnaires and behavior maps, as well as GIS methods, are used to provide some baseline analyses. Results indicate that even though most residents chose safe evacuation destinations, they were not the closest destinations to their homes. The evacuation paths are much longer than the distances from residents' homes to the nearest safe space. Sections of every evacuation path are at risk due to high-rise buildings by the street side. There are obvious group differences of evacuation behavior caused by differences in gender, age, education level, personal familiarity with living environment, and length of residency. Based on the evaluation results, this paper also attempts to provide some insights to urban seismic shelter planning, urban construction and planning to improve urban disaster prevention ability.
       
  • Mapping the knowledge development and frontier areas of public risk
           governance research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Xue Lin, Haibo Zhang, Hengqin Wu, Dongjin CuiAbstractThe interdisciplinary research field of public risk governance (PRG) emerged in response to the demands of integrative approaches to deal with increasingly complex and systemic public risks, providing intellectual support for policy frameworks, decision procedures, and institutional arrangements. The research on PRG expanded rapidly, deriving a wide range of interrelated concepts and theories; and growing into an arena of diverse knowledge domains. However, the disparate ontological and discoursal systems by scholars can hinder interdisciplinary dialogue, and impede practical implications. The study conducted an integrative analysis of current scholarly research to build a shared interdisciplinary ontology of PRG. A mixed-method design was employed, combining bibliographic analysis, unsupervised text-mining, and in-depth content analysis, to examine the scholarly research extracted from the Web of Science Core Collection database. The findings provided a holistic map of the PRG research across time and spatial distribution, identifying how diverse knowledge domains emerged, evolved, diffused, and integrated into the present PRG research realm. The future research agendas to which the PRG research field might move forward were also discussed.
       
  • Motivational and educational starting points to enhance mental and
           physical health in volunteer psycho-social support providers after the
           2013 flood disaster in Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Daniel Apel, Michaela Coenen
       
 
 
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