Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1748 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (22 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (256 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (16 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (91 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (54 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (1042 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (44 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (177 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (1042 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
InPsych : The Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society Ltd     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Integrated Social Science Journal : Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University     Open Access  
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interações : Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Development Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International E-journal of Advances in Social Sciences (IJASOS)     Open Access  
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bahamian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business and Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Canadian Studies / Revue internationale d’études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Cultural and Social Studies (IntJCSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cultural Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Growth and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Information, Diversity, & Inclusion     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Innovative Research in Social and Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Education and Development     Open Access  
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Korean Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Language and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Social and Allied Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Synergy and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal Pedagogy of Social Studies     Open Access  
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review of Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 220)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intersticios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
IULC Working Papers     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access  
Iztapalapa : Revista de ciencias sociales y humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Izvestia Ural Federal University Journal. Series 3. Social and Political Sciences     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
JISIP-UNJA : Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Fisipol Universitas Jambi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Addiction & Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Burirum Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Cape Verdean Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Community Development and Life Quality     Open Access  
Journal of Comparative Family Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Computational Social Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Economy Culture and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Geography, Politics and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate School Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies in Northern Rajabhat Universities     Open Access  
Journal of Graduate Studies Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Surin Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajapruk University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanity     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Ilahiyat Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free  
Journal of Mediterranean Knowledge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Multicultural Affairs     Open Access  
Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 339, SJR: 4.302, CiteScore: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Population and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Progressive Research in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Social Science Education : JSSE     Open Access  
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Review     Open Access  
Journal of Social Structure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Trust Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Biometrika dan Kependudukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Karya Abdi Masyarakat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Kawistara     Open Access  
Jurnal Lakon     Open Access  
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Teori dan Praksis Pembelajaran IPS     Open Access  
Jurnal Terapan Abdimas     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access  
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies     Open Access  
Kimün. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente     Open Access  
Kırklareli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Korea : Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft     Open Access  
Korean Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Kulttuurintutkimus     Open Access  
Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Homme. Europäische Zeitschrift für Feministische Geschichtswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
L'Ordinaire des Amériques     Open Access  
La Tercera Orilla     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Lambda Nordica     Open Access  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Lavboratorio : Revista de Estudios sobre Cambio Estructural y Desigualdad Social.     Open Access  
Lectio Socialis     Open Access  
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lex Social : Revista de Derechos Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.769
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 23  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2212-4209 - ISSN (Online) 2212-4209
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • A local-scale analysis to understand differences in socioeconomic factors
           affecting economic loss due to floods among different communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 47Author(s): M.M.G.T. De Silva, Akiyuki Kawasaki
       
  • Evaluating tornado casualty rates in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 47Author(s): Tyler Fricker
       
  • The future tsunami risk potential as a consequence of building development
           in Pangandaran Region, West Java, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 46Author(s): Djati Mardiatno, M.N. Malawani, Ratri Ma'rifatun Nisaa'
       
  • Impact of magnitude 6.5 earthquake on the lives and livelihoods of
           affected communities: The case of barangay lake Danao, Ormoc city, Leyte,
           Philippines
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 46Author(s): Lyca G. Ipong, Elvira E. Ongy, Milagros C. Bales
       
  • The role of emergency preparedness exercises in the response to a mass
           casualty terrorist incident: A mixed methods study
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 46Author(s): Elena A. Skryabina, Naomi Betts, Gabriel Reedy, Paul Riley, Richard Amlôt
       
  • Social vulnerability to Hurricane Harvey: Unmet needs and adverse event
           experiences in Greater Houston, Texas
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 46Author(s): Aaron B. Flores, Timothy W. Collins, Sara E. Grineski, Jayajit Chakraborty
       
  • Emergency service staff and social media – A comparative empirical study
           of the attitude by emergency services staff in Europe in 2014 and 2017
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 46Author(s): Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne
       
  • Vulnerability assessment of urban expansion and modelling green spaces to
           build heat waves risk resiliency in Karachi
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 46Author(s): Adnan Arshad, Muhammad Ashraf, Ristina Siti Sundari, Huma Qamar, Muhammad Wajid, Mahmood-ul Hasan
       
  • Disaster awareness in three low risk coastal communities in Puerto
           Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 46Author(s): Ven Paolo B. Valenzuela, Miguel Esteban, Hiroshi Takagi, Nguyen Danh Thao, Motoharu Onuki
       
  • A systematic assessment of the effects of extreme flash floods on
           transportation infrastructure and circulation: The example of the 2017
           Mandra flood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Michalis Diakakis, Neofytos Boufidis, Jose Maria Salanova Grau, Emmanuel Andreadakis, Iraklis Stamos
       
  • Relationships between disaster nursing competence, anticipatory disaster
           stress and motivation for disaster engagement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Shwu-Ru Liou, Hsiu-Chen Liu, Hsiu-Min Tsai, Tsui-Ping Chu, Ching-Yu Cheng
       
  • Cascading effects of a disaster on the labor market over the medium to
           long term
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Daniel Felsenstein, A. Yair Grinberger
       
  • PDC-BuilD framework: Assessing building damage probability for pyroclastic
           currents of a small-size explosive eruption at Campi Flegrei (Southern
           Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Ines Alberico, Paola Petrosino, Federica Totaro
       
  • Challenges in integrating disaster risk reduction and climate change
           adaptation: Exploring the Bangladesh case
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Shafiqul Islam, Cordia Chu, James Smart
       
  • Feasible crop insurance indexes for drought risk management in Northern
           Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Emmanuel Eze, Atkilt Girma, A. Amanuel Zenebe, Gebreyohannes Zenebe
       
  • Cost-benefit analysis of flood early warning system in the Karnali River
           Basin of Nepal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Rajesh Kumar Rai, Marc J.C. van den Homberg, Gopal Prasad Ghimire, Colin McQuistan
       
  • Root causes of recurrent catastrophe: The political ecology of El
           Niño-related disasters in Peru
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Adam French, Reinhard Mechler, Miguel Arestegui, Karen MacClune, Abel Cisneros
       
  • The decision to return home and wellbeing after the Fukushima disaster
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Michio Murakami, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Kyoko Ono, Aya Kubota, Masaharu Tsubokura
       
  • Evaluating climate change adaptation policies for urban transportation in
           India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Harsha Vajjarapu, Ashish Verma, Hemanthini AlliraniAbstractGlobally, the response to climate change has been through mitigation to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. But the inevitable climate change effects due to constant feeding of emissions into atmosphere leads to severe and extreme precipitation causing flooding. The combined impact of flooding, rapid urbanization and vehicular growth has become a looming threat to the transportation system which is affecting the developing economies disproportionately. There is an urgent need for the transport infrastructure to adapt to these climate change effects to reduce human as well as economic losses and adaptation is seen as the necessary tool to address this. In this paper, a methodological approach to formulate the adaptation strategies from urban transport to urban flooding in developing economies is presented. Further three adaptation policy bundles are formulated specifically to enhance the resilience of transportation system against urban flooding thereby strengthening the adaptive capacity of the system. These strategies are evaluated for the years 2030 and 2050 along with base year for various travel parameters to estimate the impact of flooding. This study finds that the implementation of bundle 1 is an effective adaptation measure when compared to bundle 2 and 3. The comparative analysis with BAU flooding scenario shows that VKT of bundle 1 is reduced by 4% and 3%, speeds increased by 21% and 45%, vehicle hours travelled by 9% and 8% for the years 2030 and 2050 respectively. Trips that are cancelled due to flooding can be nullified using appropriate strategies is also shown in this paper.
       
  • Simulated effectiveness of a car evacuation from a Tsunami
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Kota Fujisawa, Miguel Esteban, Tomoya ShibayamaAbstractEvacuation plays an important role in saving lives during tsunamis. Although evacuation by vehicle is generally not recommended, it could be helpful for vulnerable people who cannot walk fast (e.g. the disabled, elderly, or infants). In the present study, the authors developed an agent-based tsunami evacuation model that considers the behaviour of both pedestrians and car evacuees, which can be important to formulate effective evacuation plans. The model developed was validated through comparisons with the actual traffic jams observed at Tagajyo City, Japan during the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami. The model was then applied to another coastal city in Japan (Shinguu City) to investigate the effectiveness of an evacuation plan that considers vehicle use for evacuation during a future Nankai-Tonankai Earthquake Tsunami. The simulated results indicate that considering the capacity of evacuation places and the choice of route is important for a successful evacuation, especially for a coastal area where the number of evacuees could exceed the total capacity of its evacuation buildings.
       
  • Psychological preparedness for disasters among nurses with disaster field
           experience: An international online survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Nizar B. Said, Alex Molasiotis, Vico C.L. Chiang
       
  • The development and validation of the bushfire psychological preparedness
           scale
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Jessica L. Boylan, Carmen LawrenceAbstractIn Australia and many other bushfire-prone countries, at-risk residents are encouraged to share the responsibility of bushfire management by preparing themselves physically and psychologically for bushfires [1]. However, to date, much of the focus of the research and bushfire community education is on physical preparedness, leaving much confusion about what it means to be psychologically prepared. This is in part due to the lack of a well-accepted operational definition and measure of bushfire psychological preparedness. Currently, there is one measure of psychological preparedness, based on stress inoculation theory, which shows relatively strong psychometric properties. However, findings from our systematic review suggest an alternative theoretical approach to defining psychological preparedness i.e. cognitive appraisal and psychological resources that enable people to manage their emotional responses to stress. To the authors' knowledge, no measure has been developed that operationally defines psychological preparedness using the latter theoretical approach. To fill this gap, and to extend the research on psychological preparedness for natural hazards, we have developed the Bushfire Psychological Preparedness Scale (BPPS). The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary analysis of the psychometric properties of the BPPS. Following rigorous testing, the resulting scale was a 33-item self-report tool, which meets the most important criteria for satisfactory reliability and validity. In its current format, this tool can be used by anyone with psychological knowledge seeking to understand the psychological preparedness of an individual for a bushfire. With adjustments and consultation with fire agencies, a user-friendly version can be developed for public use.
       
  • Landslide risk perception, social vulnerability and community resilience:
           The case study of Maierato (Calabria, southern Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Loredana Antronico, Francesco De Pascale, Roberto Coscarelli, Giovanni GullàAbstractCommunity resilience is the ability of people exposed to disasters, crises and underlying vulnerabilities, to anticipate, to prepare for, to reduce the impact of, to cope with and to recover from the effects of shocks and stresses without compromising their long-term prospects. In February 2010, the town of Maierato (Calabria, southern Italy) was hit by a large landslide, which radically changed the morphology of the territory and produced an important social and economic impact. The aim of this paper is to deal with the concepts of social vulnerability and community resilience, within the framework of the landslide risk governance and the perception of the risk. Survey was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire interviewing 200 adults. Results, analyzed by means of qualitative methods with the support of descriptive statistics, highlighted several important remarks. Globally, this case study indicates that urgent actions should be taken to reduce disaster-risk such as: improving citizens' understanding of disaster management, reinforcing risk governance to improve disaster management, investing in risk mitigation and programs fostering adaptation and resilience, improving emergency planning strategies.
       
  • A GIS-based approach for assessing social vulnerability to flood and
           debris flow hazards
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Chien-Hao Sung, Shyue-Cherng LiawAbstractOwing to the escalating environmental hazards caused by climate change, the mitigation of disaster becomes extremely important. The investigation of social vulnerability is a prerequisite for formulating a mitigation plan to environmental hazards. This research applies a GIS-based approach with the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) to investigate and quantify the social vulnerability to environmental hazards in Yilan County, Taiwan. In order to construct the SoVI, the literature review was conducted, and 12 variables were selected. Through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the 12 variables were reduced into four principal components. In order to explore the spatial pattern of SoVI, the spatial autocorrelation analysis was applied. The result showed that there were 26.5% of communities in Yilan County with a high level of SoVI, and most of these communities were mainly located in mountain areas. The unfavorable topography features cause the distributions in mountain areas. On the other hand, there were 37.3% communities with a related low level of SoVI, and these communities were located in plain areas. The inaccessibility caused by topography creates an incapability, resource-lacking environment and lead to a high value of SoVI. In addition, this research applied Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to validate SoVI, and the result of the R2 value was 0.769. Also, the standardized residuals showed no spatial autocorrelation, meaning the SoVI had the adequate explanatory ability. This research provided a set of valid indicators to explore the social vulnerability for decision-makers to formulate the mitigation plan of environmental hazards. Besides, SoVI is a suitable tool for visualizing and quantifying the potential loss to environmental hazards.
       
  • Evacuation performance of individuals and social groups under different
           visibility conditions: Experiments and surveys
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Wei Xie, Eric Wai Ming Lee, Yanying Cheng, Meng Shi, Ruifeng Cao, Yuchun ZhangAbstractThe sooty smoke generated from fire reduces visibility at fire scenes. This not only slows down evacuation, but also affects the mental states of evacuees. A series of evacuation experiments were conducted in a room under different visibility conditions. The crowd was formed by mixing individuals and social groups. Critical results regarding the evacuees’ travel time, pre-movement time, movement speed and typical behaviour, such as leadership behaviour and following behaviour, were collected. It was found that evacuation time increased, movement speed decreased and flow at exits became discontinuous when visibility was reduced. Group behaviour had a negative effect on evacuation in normal visibility, but the group effect was basically positive in the reduced visibility scenarios. A number of interesting findings were generated. Larger sized groups tend to move side by side, forming a horizontal structure. Smaller sized groups are more likely to form a vertical structure. Similarly, groups with a leader demonstrated vertical movement, distinct from the horizontal movement of groups without a leader. Following behaviour was more notably observed and is advantageous to overall evacuation when visibility reduced. The results of the pre-experiment questionnaire showed that over 80% of the participants walk in groups on campus. The daily walking groups tended to maintain their moving forms even in the case of an emergency evacuation. Physical touch was more widely demonstrated in the emergency groups than in the daily groups. This study furthers the understanding of human behaviour in different visibility evacuation conditions and recognition of the impacts of social groups on crowd dynamics.
       
  • Community perceptions of protective practices to prevent ash exposures
           around sakurajima volcano, Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): J. Covey, C.J. Horwell, R. Ogawa, T. Baba, S. Nishimura, M. Hagino, C. MerliAbstractWhilst, globally, volcanic eruptions are unusual and cause anxiety in affected communities, people living near Sakurajima volcano, Japan are exposed to frequent ashfall with little-to-no official intervention. As part of a wider project, this study assessed how this apparently normalised experience affects residents’ perceptions of health impacts, and whether it is important to protect themselves from ash inhalation. A survey of 749 residents found little evidence of normalisation. Respondents identified a range of symptoms (including eye irritation, low mood, sore throat, cough) perceived to be associated with ash exposure, with 67% experiencing at least one symptom. Only 6% of respondents thought it was not important to protect themselves, and path analysis showed that protection was particularly important to older people and those with existing respiratory disease, who were more likely to rate ash as harmful or associate symptoms with exposures. Therefore, some of the most vulnerable sectors of this community are adversely impacted by ash. However, despite the local government recommending protective measures, most respondents said they had not received advice, but would like to. They took actions that they thought were effective (keeping windows/doors closed) or were easily available (wearing surgical masks). Other research has shown that industry-certified (e.g., N95) masks are more effective than surgical masks. Here, respondents recognised this, but high-efficiency masks were rarely used, probably due to unavailability. The results demonstrate a need to provide ash-affected communities with targeted, evidence-based information on options for effective protection, coupled with ensuring that communities have access to suggested interventions.
       
  • Earthquake vulnerability assessment in Northern Sumatra province by using
           a multi-criteria decision-making model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Ratiranjan Jena, Biswajeet Pradhan, Ghassan BeydounThe prerequisite for earthquake risk estimation is vulnerability assessment. Therefore, estimating vulnerability is necessary to reduce future fatalities. This study aims to evaluate the earthquake vulnerability assessment (EVA) in Banda Aceh by using the multi-criteria decision-making approach through an analytical hierarchy process and VIseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje method using a geographical information system. Banda Aceh City is located close to the Great Sumatran Fault in North Sumatra. Several factors were used to produce social vulnerability, structural vulnerability, and geotechnical vulnerability indices. Subsequently, the adopted approaches were integrated and applied to estimate the criteria weight, priority ranking, and alternatives of criterion by applying the pair-wise comparison at all levels. Finally, vulnerability layers were superimposed to estimate the earthquake vulnerability index and produce the vulnerability map. Results showed that the central part of the city exhibits high to very high vulnerability. A tiny part of the northern–central part is under severe vulnerability conditions. The consistency ratios for all three vulnerability layers were 1.9%, 4.6% and 5.5%. The consistency ratios for the final EVA was 1.9%. The developed map revealed that 3.39% of Banda Aceh City falls under very high, 11.86% high, 23.73% medium, 28.82% low, and 32.20% of very low vulnerability areas. The proposed method for the EVA provides useful information that could assist in earthquake disaster mitigation.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Determinants of coping strategies in two types of natural hazards: Flash
           floodsand costal flooding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Oscar Navarro, Diego Restrepo-Ochoa, Luz Adriana Muñoz-Duque, Katia Zapa-Perez, Anaïs Ameline, Denis Mercier, Ghozlane Fleury-BahiAbstractOver recent decades, the effects of the intensity of natural disasters, especially hydro-meteorological phenomena, have increased significantly, especially in countries with rapidly-growing economies. Accordingly, it is necessary to identify the coping strategies individuals use and, in particular, their willingness to act. Cognitive and affective variables explain the presence or absence of behavioral intention. The aim of this study was to formulate and empirically test an explanatory model of coping strategies in response to two natural disaster risks: coastal flooding and flash floods. A total of 608 individuals living in Colombia, exposed to these phenomena, participated in our study (257 exposed to flash flooding and 351 to coastal flooding). Structural equation modeling allowed us to establish that although place attachment and personal involvement are constants in determining coping strategies focused on problem solving, the role of risk perception differs significantly according to the risk under study. In the case of flash floods, the longer a person has lived in a place, the more they tend to develop coping strategies to manage stress, while in the case of coastal flooding, risk perception negatively determines strategies based on emotion regulation and avoidance. These findings are discussed in the light of the literature in this field.
       
  • Institutional congruence for resilience management in interdependent
           infrastructure systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Hamed Farahmand, Shangjia Dong, Ali Mostafavi, Philip R. Berke, Sierra C. Woodruff, Bryce Hannibal, Arnold VedlitzAbstractInstitutions are important elements in human systems influencing interactions among organizations that contribute to resilience management in interdependent infrastructure systems (IISs). In particular, the existence of institutional congruence among actors across these complex systems is important for the successful operation of such systems. Institutional congruence is the extent to which organizations have similar, agreed upon, or harmonized institutions. Institutional congruence has remained an understudied aspect of the management of resilience in IISs. This paper assesses three significant aspects of resilience management of IISs through the evaluation of organizational institutions: organizations' involvement in hazard mitigation planning and use of hazard mitigation plans; organizations' view regarding the responsibility of hazard mitigations and contributors to hazard; and organizations’ support of policies for hazard risk mitigation. Organizational institutions within a sector and across different sectors that are involved in hazard risk mitigation in the context of the Harris County during Hurricane Harvey were investigated. The impacts of the extent to which organizational institutions were congruent on the cooperative management of resilience and the vulnerability of infrastructures were discussed. Findings show that, although the use of non-structural solutions is supported by most of the organizations, the existing plans did not specifically focus on such solutions. Additionally, the results indicate the existence of congruence across sectors about the importance of responsibility sharing among governments at different levels in mitigating the risk of hazard. Different organizations across sectors have varying perceptions regarding suitable approaches for flood risk mitigation that contribute to the vulnerability of physical infrastructures.
       
  • Spatial exploration of the CDC's Social Vulnerability Index and
           heat-related health outcomes in Georgia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Erica Adams, Grete Wilt, Barry Flanagan, Elaine HalliseyAbstractHeat-related illness, an environmental exposure-related outcome commonly treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments (ED), is likely to rise with increased incidence of heat events related to climate change. Few studies demonstrate the spatial and statistical relationship of social vulnerability and heat-related health outcomes.We explore relationships of Georgia county-level heat-related ED visits and mortality rates (2002–2008), with CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (CDC SVI). Bivariate Moran's I analysis revealed significant clustering of high SVI rank and high heat-related ED visit rates (0.211, p 
       
  • Geographic variation of resilience to landslide hazard: A household-based
           comparative studies in Kalimpong hilly region, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Somnath Bera, Balamurugan Guru, Ranit Chatterjee, Rajib ShawAbstractBuilding resilience of households in landslide hazard-prone area can be a significant way of disaster risk reduction. Although the studies on resilience are increasing, assessing resilience to a localized disaster like landslide at household-based scale is still limited. This study proposes a set of indicators to evaluate the resilience of household considering the specific character of landslide hazard. Further, the study answers how and why the resilience level varies on the space. The study assigned resilience adopting an indicator-based approach where overall resilience value is composed of four dimensions: environmental, social, economic and physical. Each dimension is composed of several variables which are derived using a mix of GIS and participatory approaches. The weight of each variable and dimension was calculated using the min-max normalization method. The data was collected from 332 households in thirteen sites frequented by landslides in Kalimpong district of India. The surveyed households are located in both urban (n = 112) and rural areas (n = 220) and of different physiographic condition. The findings suggest that the households of rural areas in the eastern part of the ridge are less resilient and the households of urban area near the top of the ridge are relatively high resilient. The higher degree of exposure to landslide, unequal economic status, and unequal infrastructure development are the main causes of the variation of resilience among the households. Although the study focused on Kalimpong region, this research method could also be applied to other landslide-prone areas of the world.
       
  • Social support from bonding and bridging relationships in disaster
           recovery: Findings from a slow-onset disaster
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Kien Nguyen-Trung, Helen Forbes-Mewett, Dharmalingam ArunachalamAbstractDespite of growing scholarship discussing the role of social capital in disaster recovery, little has been known about the connection between forms of social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) and disaster recovery in the context of slow-onset disaster such as drought. This study employs a qualitative standpoint to explore how disaster-affected households seek support from bonding and bridging social capital during their recovery. The study draws on semi-structured interviews with 28 disaster-affected households and 21 key stakeholders including local authorities, mass organisation's representatives, agricultural input suppliers. The paper finds out that while bonding social capital played a crucial role throughout recovery phases, bridging social capital only become important when it comes to long-term recovery. The paper also shows that types of support and the use of support were affected by household poverty, land holdings, and ethnicity of household head.
       
  • Evolution of typhoon disasters characteristics and non-structural disaster
           avoidance measures in the China coastal main functional area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Wu Jiansheng, Zhao Yuhao, Zhao Yuhao, Chen BikaiAbstractThis paper presents an analysis of the comprehensive risks associated with the typhoons in the China coastal main functional area from 1991 to 2010, a prediction of the changes of these comprehensive risks in the future, and mitigation measures to limit the impact of these disasters on the economy and the population. The analysis is based on the two main criteria of vulnerability and danger. The former includes socioeconomic factors of the regions affected by typhoon, namely the population and GDP. The latter reflects the intensity of the typhoon itself. Our analysis reveals that: (1) The impact of typhoons on coastal provinces is highly variable in space, the province of Hainan, and coastal cities in Guangdong, Fujian and Zhejiang provinces being the most severely affected; (2) From 1991 to 2010, the risk associated with typhoons showed an upward trend in China's coastal cities, with the vulnerability increasing gradually from the inland to the coastal areas; (3) Regions comprising both medium and low risk areas, functional zoning should be adjusted according to the distribution of risk in those regions, and in high risk areas, emphasis should be given on improving the current disaster prevention and mitigation measures, especially with regards to the implementation of better early warning system and post-disaster management. This article analyzes and simulates the typhoon risk changes of the four main functional areas in the coastal of China for the first time, and proposes disaster avoidance measures, which can provide reference for relevant policy makers.
       
  • Resourcefulness quantification approach for resilient communities and
           countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Alessandro Zona, Omar Kammouh, Gian Paolo CimellaroAbstractAvailability of resources is one of the primary criteria for communities to attain a high resilience level during disaster events. This paper introduces a new approach to evaluate resourcefulness at the community and national scales. Resourcefulness is calculated using a proposed composite resourcefulness index, which is a combination of several resourcefulness indicators. To build the resourcefulness index, resourcefulness indicators representing the different aspects of resourcefulness are collected from renowned literary publications. Every indicator is assigned a measure to make it quantifiable. Time-history data for the measures are needed to perform the analysis. While these data could be obtained from different sources, acquiring a full set of data is quite challenging. Hence, to account for missing data, the Multiple Imputation (MI) and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) data imputation methods are adopted. The data are then normalized, assigned weights, and aggregated to obtain the resourcefulness index. A case study is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach. The resourcefulness indexes of two countries, namely the United States and Italy, are evaluated. Results show that resourceful communities/countries are more resilient during disaster events as they have more tools to come up with solutions. It is also shown that knowing the current resourcefulness level helps in better identifying what aspects should be improved.
       
  • The trajectories of local food avoidance after the Fukushima Daiichi
           nuclear plant disaster: A five-year prospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Yoshitake Takebayashi, Michio Murakami, Shuei Nomura, Oikawa Tomoyoshi, Tsubokura MasaharuAbstractAfter the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, residents continue to be concerned about radiations despite strict regulations on radionuclides in foods and decontamination. We examined the trajectory of the avoidance tendency of local food among residents in the affected area. Growth mixture modelling was adapted to ten waves cohort of parents of all elementary school children (N = 1608) in the affected area (Minami soma city). The trajectory was examined for six types of food: mushrooms, milk, vegetables/fruits, meat, fish, and rice. A three-class trajectory model (Low concern adaptors, High concern adaptors, High concern maintainers) was identified regardless of the types of food. While about half of the sample was classified as high concern maintainers regarding rice, fish, and mushrooms, the proportions of the three groups were roughly equal regarding other types of food. Local food avoidance has prominently decreased five years after the accident. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that the higher the air dose rate at the place of residence at the time of the accident, the higher the probability of belonging to the high concern adaptors rather than to the low concern adaptors. Local food avoidance, which increased after the nuclear accident, decreased substantially with the lifting of evacuation orders. As local food avoidance trajectories are associated with air doses rate in the immediate post-accident residence, risk communication concerning the residence's air dose is needed.
       
  • Evaluation of seismic resilience index for typical RC school buildings
           considering carbonate corrosion effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Zahra Shamsoddini Motlagh, Morteza Raissi Dehkordi, Mahdi Eghbali, Delbaz SamadianAbstractResearches have shown that the occurrence and development of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures can lead to the production of materials with a volume multiplied by the initial volume of steel reinforcement bars in concrete. This volume expansion reduces the compressive and tensile strength of reinforced concrete structures and, consequently, weakens the structures, making them prone to considerable damages in natural and human disasters. Hence, it is vital to evaluate the resilience and vulnerability of important structures, such as school buildings, in a corrosive environment. For purposes of this paper, a high school located in Tehran was selected as a case study, and the seismic resilience index was calculated under carbonation-initiated corrosion. The amount of resilience is assessed based on analytic functions over a specified time by different variables, including losses from probable hazards and the recovery process. The loss process is composed of damages caused from both earthquakes and corrosions; and the calculation of loss functions is applied in accordance with Iran's economic conditions. In this paper, the seismic resilience index for existing and corroded buildings has been calculated at 2 hazard levels of 10% and 2% over 50 years under near-fault pulse-type ground motions and without pulse-type ones. Also, the actual functionality curve of the school building is depicted in the lifespan of the high school, both with and without the corrosion effect. Finally, sensitivity analysis on the resilience parameters is illustrated towards the end of this paper.
       
  • Segment-by-segment comparison technique for generation of an
           earthquake-induced building damage map using satellite imagery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Niloofar Khodaverdizahraee, Heidar Rastiveis, Arash Jouybari, Sharare AkbarianAbstractKnown as an unpredictable natural disaster, earthquake is one of the most devastating natural disasters that causes significant life losses and damages, every year. After an earthquake, quick and accurate buildings damage identification for rescuing can reduce the number of fatalities. In this regard, Remote Sensing (RS) technology is an efficient tool for rapid monitoring of damaged buildings. This paper proposes a novel method, titled segment-by-segment comparison (SBSC), to generate buildings damage map using multi-temporal satellite images. The proposed method begins by extracting image-objects from pre- and post-earthquake images and equalizing them through segmentation intersection. After the extraction of various textural and spectral descriptors on pre- and post-event images, their differences are used as an input feature vector in a classification algorithm. Also, the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to find the optimum descriptors in the classification process. The accuracy of the proposed method was tested on two different datasets from different sensors. Comparing the damage maps obtained from the proposed method with the manually extracted damage map, above 92% of the buildings were correctly labelled in both datasets.
       
  • Crowd or hubs: Information diffusion patterns in online social networks in
           disasters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Chao Fan, Yucheng Jiang, Yang Yang, Cheng Zhang, Ali MostafaviAbstractThe objective of this paper is to investigate the role of different types of users in the diffusion of situational information through online social networks in disasters. In particular, this paper investigates the influence of two types of users: crowd (regular users) and hubs (users with a large number of followers) on the speed and magnitude of information propagation. Effective and efficient disaster response requires rapid dissemination of situational information to improve situation awareness, save lives, and quickly repair damages. The use of social media, such as Twitter, has gained popularity for spreading the situational information in disasters. Little is known, however, regarding the underlying diffusion mechanisms influencing the speed and magnitude of spreading disaster-related information on social media. To address this gap, using tweets related to Hurricane Harvey, this study examined the role of hubs and crowd and the influence of different features such as theme, hashtag, media, users’ location, and the intervention timing of online users on the speed and magnitude of information spread. The results compare the differences in the speed and magnitude of information spread between two diffusion patterns: crowd diffusion (less than 2% retweets from hubs) and mixed diffusion (more than 2% retweets from hubs). The findings suggest that both diffusion patterns can achieve high speed and high magnitude in terms of information diffusion for trending tweets with different features. For mixed diffusion, the speed and magnitude of the tweets are governed by the activities of hubs. The results also show that early intervention of hubs increases the speed of information propagation. Also, in the crowd diffusion, information spread is influenced by both crowd and hubs whose retweets cause tipping points in the information diffusion process at different points of time. The findings reveal intervention strategies to better disseminate situational information in disasters.
       
  • Living with and responding to risk in the Uttarakhand himalayas: A call
           for prioritizing lived experiences in research policy praxis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): RituAbstractBased on primary data collected from three hamlets located in the Himalayas of Uttarakhand, India, this paper brings together pieces of the communities' grounded experiences of living with risks. It contributes towards a fuller and more nuanced picture of their encounters (both brief and prolonged) with adverse environmental events that are part and parcel of life in this region. The study with an aim of benefitting the very communities being studied draws on an inductive research methodology which prioritizes lived realities among heterogeneous communities. The case studies illustrate the ground reality of life in a multi-hazardous environment that exposes communities to a diversity of adverse situations. The cases discussed exemplify the undeniable reality of ongoing socio-ecological processes that affect hill people in different forms and intensities over time and space (disaster risk reduction focus), which further invites a broadening of the more conventional view that sees disasters as aberrations that occur in an otherwise stable landscape (an event focus). While for some this reality manifests as mega-events that have a clear beginning and end, for others they take the form of silent disasters, sluggish small scale and recurring, but whose cumulative impacts are no less disastrous. While the former grabs attention and relief work, the latter deemed as seasonal occurrences, often go under the official radar and fail to get the engagement they deserve. Gradually these events erode livelihood security and extract an immense psycho-social toll, de-stabilising people's sense of security, rootedness and future prospects. By bringing forth fresh field-based perspectives that speak to the mundane tribulations of mountain people, nuanced by caste, gender, and remoteness, this paper contributes to research-policy praxis by bringing alive the multi-layered and multi-dimensional lived experience of adverse environmental events.
       
  • Assessment of seismic vulnerability of health infrastructure in
           Uttarakhand: An earthquake prone Himalayan province of India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Girish Joshi, Piyoosh Rautela, Shailesh Ghildiyal, Ranu ChauhanAbstractVulnerability assessment of 36% healthcare facilities in the province of Uttarakhand that has high probability of witnessing a large magnitude earthquake in near future reveals 67.02% to be put to disuse immediately after an earthquake. Healthcare facilities in Pithoragarh, Haridwar, Almora, Tehri Garhwal, Champawat and Nainital districts are observed to be particularly vulnerable and this is to make mobilisation of medical response a major challenge and result in escalated loss of human lives, enhanced trauma of the earthquake affected population and consequent civil discontent. The earthquake is estimated to cause economic loss of US$ 37.06 million to the surveyed health infrastructure alone. An investment of US$ 17.94 million is assessed as being required for ensuring seismic resilience in the surveyed health infrastructure which in turn is estimated to save critical medical instruments and facilities worth US$ 19.12 million that would otherwise be lost under collapsing buildings. Having identified non-compliance of building codes, poor quality of construction and lack of maintenance as being the factors enhancing vulnerability of healthcare infrastructure it is recommended to undertake measures for (i) prioritised demolition and reconstruction of Grade 5 buildings, (ii) detailed assessment and phased retrofitting of Grade 4 and Grade 3 buildings, (iii) effective and strict compliance of building bye-laws, (iv) stringent punitive measures for life threatening lapses in public buildings, (v) mechanism for routine vulnerability assessment and corrective maintenance of public buildings, and (vi) making disaster safety a precondition for operating any healthcare facility and linking it to their licensing.
       
  • Influence of built environment and risk perception on seismic evacuation
           behavior: Evidence from rural areas affected by Wenchuan earthquake
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Yibin Ao, Kun Huang, Yan Wang, Qiongmei Wang, Igor MartekAbstractDuring the decade after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, numerous earthquakes of different magnitudes have occurred in the affected areas. The need for immediate emergency evacuation following the occurrence of disaster was unanimously recognized by experts as the safest and most effective response of residents. Moreover, this behavior is directly influenced by residents' perceptions of disaster risk and built environment (BE). To explore the relationship between seismic evacuation behavior and perceptions of risk and BE, this study utilized a random survey in the form of a sample questionnaire in the areas most affected by the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, combined with exploratory factor analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results show that residents' BE and risk perceptions positively affected their evacuation choice behavior. Specifically, when rural residents perceived a reasonable evacuation route and good quality of village roads, they would flee their homes as soon as an earthquake struck. With regard to seismic risk perception, if the residents perceived highly negative consequences from earthquakes, they would escape immediately as soon as an earthquake occurred. This conclusion highlights the importance of strengthening the construction of BE in disaster-prone areas, and raising residents’ awareness and risk perception of earthquake disasters. This study has practical significance in further construction of earthquake-stricken areas.
       
  • Exploring the experiences of flood-affected families to develop constructs
           and themes for family resilience assessment scale
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Haleema Sadia, Boonjai Srisatidnarakul, Jen-Jiuan LiawAbstractIn the recent past, the extreme climatic events and disasters driven by natural hazards underlined the importance of building resilience against such events. However, the research of resilience in the context of natural hazards and extreme climatic events is dominated by the physical and natural sciences. Limited tools and strategies are available when it comes to assessing the level of resilience against disaster at the family level in the developing countries like Pakistani. Although families are the basic unit of any society and community, resilience assessment at the family level in the context of disasters, and consideration of the vital constructs and themes for family resilience assessment against disaster are not well-established. In this regard, this study attempts to identify the constructs and themes that should be considered, while designing a tool for family resilience assessment. A qualitative study based on ten in-depth interviews was conducted in the Nowshehra district of Pakistan. The data collected was analysed using NVivo 12. The data analysis at first instance resulted in 63 Codes. This number does not include the overlapping. Followed by further analysis, the resulted codes were checked for overlapping, and the similar codes were integrated into a similar class. The process continued until all similar codes were combined. The study finally concluded four themes, five categories and fifteen subcategories, which need to be taken into account to design a family resilience assessment scale for flood-prone areas.
       
  • Operational framework for flood risk communication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Emanuele Intrieri, Giulia Dotta, Katia Fontanelli, Chiara Bianchini, Federica Bardi, Federico Campatelli, Nicola CasagliAbstractRisk communication is a mutual process of understanding the risk among stakeholders and represents a measure to integrate lay knowledge into measures to prevent, mitigate, and deal with risk. Flood crisis communication, which takes place in the face of incoming danger, needs a practical and operative approach to cope with potentially destructive, large-scale natural disasters. Since floods are one of the most predictable georisks, communication is an efficient means to reduce risk, especially by reducing people's exposure.Many authors discussed the nature of risk communication. Regarding flood risk, most works are devoted to long-term communication plans, but more practical indications on how to communicate during - or shortly before - an (expected) emergency are lacking.Therefore, we present here a framework providing recommendations on what should be the information conveyed in a flood warning message and with what communication medium it should be issued, depending on the criticality level of the expected flood, on the resources of the institution in charge for the warning and on the specific advantages of each medium. Therefore, the framework shown in this paper provides an easy to employ handbook for civil protection operators to define the suitable content, shape and medium for warning messages toward the population. This framework addresses common issues such as the possibility of false alarms or the lack of personnel in charge of risk communication, as well as the role of social media (and their limits), that in many cases is still not well understood.
       
  • Integrated grey-green management of avalanche risk: Economic and ecologic
           evidences from the Western Italian Alps
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): F. Poratelli, C. Accastello, M. Freppaz, F. BrunAbstractAvalanches represent one of the most common natural hazard in the Alps, and their risk mitigation is increasingly demanding for local administrations. The frequency of these events has also been influenced by the land use changes that affected the Alps in the past: from the over-exploitation of the first half of the XX century to the depopulation and natural reforestation of the last decades. In this study, we performed an economic and ecologic assessment of two alternative mitigation measures against avalanches: steel snow fences, the BAU scenario, and the combination of wooden snow fences gradually replaced by the protection forest, the Grey-Green Scenario. For both alternatives all costs sources that their implementation entails were evaluated, and the effects of the presence of fences on the natural forest regeneration was assessed. The results show how wooden fences are the most cost-effective solution to be placed in avalanche release areas below the treeline, due their high effectiveness coupled with lower construction costs compared to other types of measures, no dismantling costs and the contribution of the protective effect of the forest. Their adoption in the local risk management strategies, notwithstanding the shortcomings of the forest (e.g. fires, pests, …), could represent a reliable way to foster the implementation of ecosystem based disaster risk reduction solutions in mountain areas and meet the protection needs of the society in the most cost-effective way.
       
  • Best practice for evacuation centres accommodating vulnerable populations:
           A literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Mayumi Kako, Malinda Steenkamp, Benjamin Ryan, Paul Arbon, Yosuke TakadaAbstractEvacuation centres are often the first temporary living spaces for disaster-affected people. These spaces should be safe and provide a minimum standard of living and care for the duration of people's stay. Minimum standards should therefore be regulated and monitored by governments, humanitarian agencies, and other organisations that plan, set-up, and manage evacuation centres. Although such standards have been increasingly understood and implemented in recent times, there has been little peer-reviewed research into the care of vulnerable populations in evacuation centres. This review investigated the processes, practices, and policies for planning, establishing, and managing evacuation centres for vulnerable groups. After the appraisal of retrieved literature, 20 articles were considered as being applicable for analysis. Eleven articles were written in Japanese, one each was published in Australia and the United Kingdom, and seven in the United States. Using thematic analysis, themes emerged relating to planning, setting up, and managing evacuation centres for vulnerable people. The best practices identified included: identifying the needs of vulnerable populations and venue availability in the communities; existence of transparent local government and stakeholder responsibilities; maintaining continuity of care; and community preparedness through training and exercises. To implement these practices, training and exercises are required for all stakeholders involved in operating evacuation centres. Achieving this will provide the platform required to sustainably improve the safety, standard of living and care provided to people in evacuation centres.
       
  • Household vulnerability to floods and cyclones in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
           Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Abdur Rahim Hamidi, Zhongping Zeng, Asif Khan MarwatAbstractIn Pakistan, floods and cyclones have caused widespread human and socio-economic losses. Individual households with same exposure but varying capabilities are increasingly faced with challenges to reduce, cope, or recover from the impacts. Managing risks effectively need an understanding of the factors that drive people's underlying vulnerabilities and worsening the impacts at household level. In this paper, using vulnerability index approach (a function of exposure, susceptibility, and resilience), household vulnerability to cyclones and floods was assessed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), province of Pakistan. Data was collected from 300 households within KP province and from the Provincial Disaster Management Authority, KP. Using subjective weighing method (based on expert judgment) weights were assigned to the indicators for developing vulnerability indices. Results of the composite vulnerability indices indicated that in all the surveyed sites households were highly vulnerable and less resilient to the impacts of floods and cyclonic storms. Building type and location, dependent population, illiteracy, unemployment, and weak economic capacity were identified as major factors driving household's vulnerability. The study findings can inform the government and decision makers to strengthen the physical and socio-economic indicators by improving risk reduction strategies and ensuring effective utilization of resources to reduce the vulnerabilities and impacts in future.
       
  • An efficient strategy for warning dissemination in crowds during
           emergencies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Shuangyan Wang, Yunfeng Deng, Ying LiAbstractIn emergencies, warnings can flow amongst crowds via person-to-person communications. Interpersonal warning dissemination is important for warning people when the government does not have sufficient time or personnel to notify all affected people. Moreover, if interpersonal warning dissemination can be used to warn people in emergencies, the warning efficiency of the crowd can be improved so that the emergency response efficiency of people can be improved. Similarly, anti-warnings that can cause a negative influence on emergency responses can also flow amongst crowds. In this scenario, how can interpersonal dissemination be properly utilized to improve warning efficiency' In this paper, we build a game model that includes warning and anti-warning dissemination based on multi-agent modelling. Moreover, we propose an efficient strategy based on dynamic dissemination characteristics for improving warning efficiency in a crowd. To ensure the reliability of the game model, the Monte Carlo method is applied to conduct our experiments. To verify the practicability of the proposed strategy, 40 Monte Carlo experiments are conducted in synthetic and real crowds. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed strategy. The proposed game model can be applied to study the dissemination of information in a crowd during emergencies. The proposed strategy can be used to train people in emergency drills to improve their emergency response capabilities.
       
  • A review of resilient practice based upon flood vulnerability in New
           Taipei City, Taiwan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Min-Ta Chuang, Tzu-Ling Chen, Zih-Hong LinAbstractResilient cities have received considerable attention in the public policy field in attempts to comply with global climate change commitments. In fact, resilient city is the key for the climate governance of the urban population of 6.3 billion people in 2050. The purpose of building resilient city is to decrease both the exposure and vulnerability. Due to the exposure might not be intervene artificially, this paper applies geographic information system (GIS) to explore the spatial distribution of vulnerability. This paper then collects the practice of building resilience in New Taipei City. Afterwards, the comparative analysis is conducted to further propose the improvements for New Taipei City government for building resilient city. The results show that although New Taipei City government actively promotes resiliency in various sectors, particular townships are facing different challenging such as rapid urbanization and lacking of emergent facilities. In fact, the spatial in equilibrium of certain critical facilities might result in serious impacts during disasters. As a whole, the results of the spatial distribution of flood vulnerability could be referred as the future improvements in resilience practice.
       
  • Rivalry and recovery: The social consequences of climatic hazards in rural
           India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Brandon Behlendorf, Amira Jadoon, Samantha PentaAbstractAlthough damaging, the economic and physical consequences of disasters triggered by natural hazards can be mitigated by community recovery effects facilitated by strong social capital. How disasters affect social capital itself, though, is less known; they can serve to both coalesce and cleave communities in their aftermath. Using panel data from 23,000 households and 1250 villages in rural India, this study aims to answer the following question: how do natural hazards shape social capital' Focusing on four different climatic hazards (droughts, floods, hailstorms, and cyclones) and four measures of social capital (social cohesion, collective efficacy, formal networks, and associational membership), we find divergent effects of hazards, depending on type and recency. Droughts inhibit new access to formal sources of social capital and encourage negative perceptions of social cohesion, but only in the short-term. In contrast, hailstorms encourage short-term building and long-term strengthening of formal networks for all, at the long-term expense of membership in communal organizations. In short, our results suggest that climatic hazards encourage short-term contention within communities while building infrastructure for long-term access to formal sources of authority and resources, although these effects vary by hazard type.
       
  • Does updating natural hazard maps to reflect best practices increase
           viewer comprehension of risk'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Carson C. MacPherson-Krutsky, Brittany D. Brand, Michael K. LindellAbstractIn this study, we examine whether updating an interactive hazard map using recommendations from the literature improves user map comprehension. Analyses of experimental data collected from 75 university students revealed that map comprehension scores were not significantly better for those who viewed a “best practices” map compared to those who viewed an existing version. This may be because the existing map was itself better than most other interactive maps. Additionally, we found map comprehension levels to have significant positive relationships with objective tests, but not self-reported measures of spatial ability. Moreover, self-reported spatial ability had statistically significant, but only moderately strong, correlations with objective tests. These results indicate that spatial ability should be measured objectively rather than through self-reported methods in research on map comprehension. Further research is needed to examine the cognitive processes involved in hazard map comprehension, especially using a broader range of map characteristics and population segments with more diverse cognitive abilities.
       
  • Strengthening the information deficit model for disaster preparedness:
           Mediating and moderating effects of community participation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Matthew Abunyewah, Thayaparan Gajendran, Kim Maund, Seth Asare OkyereAbstractThe information deficit model (IDM) suggests that disseminating relevant information to the public about an issue or concern can result in people changing their perception, beliefs and attitude leading to positive actions. In the context of disaster preparedness, IDM suggests that providing information associated to disaster risk and response actions to concerned stakeholders should increase the level of disaster preparedness, leading to mitigation in the growing damages caused by disasters. Yet, in spite of notable global and local strategy of disaster education and information campaigns, there has not been a commensurate success in flood preparedness worldwide. Based on a field study in three flood-prone informal communities of Accra, Ghana, this paper examines the role of community participation in improving the effectiveness of the IDM towards disaster preparedness. By using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), this paper develops a model to test the mediating and moderating effects of ‘community participation’ on the relationship between ‘information sufficiency’ and ‘intentions to prepare’. Results showed that disaster information that is accessible, comprehensive, and tailored to the needs of the public strongly influences intentions to prepare for disasters. However, this effect occurs when community participation is integrated into the information dissemination process of disaster risks. Thus, if disaster preparedness is to be realised, disaster management programs/activities must ensure sufficient and participatory information dissemination as a measure to influence intentions to prepare for disaster risks among the general public.
       
  • A structured methodology to peer review disaster risk reduction
           activities: The Viable System Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Duncan Shaw, Ayham Fattoum, Jenny Moreno, Jennifer BealtAbstractThis paper develops a theoretically underpinned peer review approach (called Viable System Review) to assess and strengthen disaster risk reduction (DRR) practices. This topic is timely as countries and cities look to learn lessons from others to respond to global priorities on DRR. Unlike other peer review methodologies which rely on expert intuition to navigate peer review issues, our new methodology structures the peer review process through an organising framework of concepts. That framework is theoretically underpinned by systems thinking and concepts from the Viable System Model which provides a comprehensive, tested approach to assess organisational performance. The paper explores the development and application of our new peer review methodology (which we call Viable System Review) to the policy developed by Concepcion Province (Chile) on involving spontaneous volunteers in disaster situations. The peer review took place over six days, involved seven reviewers, and focused on identifying good practices, opportunities to enhance practice, and lessons they could take back to their home organisations. The paper presents our Viable System Review methodology, reflects on its application, and discusses its practical and theoretical contributions.
       
  • To move home or move on' Investigating the impact of recovery aid on
           migration status as a potential tool for disaster risk reduction in the
           aftermath of volcanic eruptions in Merapi, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Jonathan A. Muir, Michael R. Cope, Leslie R. Angeningsih, Jorden E. JacksonAbstractDisasters are associated strongly with forced migration. Indeed, migration is a standard survival strategy for those facing disruptions of this kind. Such is the case with Mt. Merapi, Indonesia, where a series of eruptions occurred in 2010. Mechanisms related to forced migration in such scenarios are fairly well understood, yet it remains less clear what factors may influence return migration. Given local interest in facilitating resettlement out of hazardous areas as a means of risk reduction, our objective in this study is to explore the extent to which recovery aid may create incentives for households to move on rather than move home. Specifically, we explore whether the influence of recovery aid varied by whether it was: financial vs. another type of aid; provided by a government agency or NGO versus a social network; and/or distributed with other types of recovery aid. We use data from a cross-sectional pilot study and multinomial logistic regression models to explore the influence of aid on migration status. Of the various forms of aid considered, financial recovery aid was consistently associated with moving on. The combination of financial recovery aid with remittances resulted in an association with having moved on that was even stronger than just receiving financial recovery aid. Ultimately, analyses of “aid packages” suggest that a combination of aid was relatively more effective in fostering resettlement, suggesting that while other forms of aid may not have been sufficient to increase resettlement by themselves, they may enhance the effect of financial recovery aid.
       
  • The effect of risk perception on the willingness to purchase hazard
           insurance—A case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir region, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: International Journal of Disaster Risk ReductionAuthor(s): Fan Yang, Jing Tan, Li PengAbstractNatural hazard insurance is widely recognized as an implement for reducing risk to adverse environmental change such as mountain hazards. Rural households’ willingness to purchase (WTP) for mountain hazard insurance may be affected by their risk perception. Notably, individuals generally behave following prospect theory under uncertain threats of mountain hazards. This paper uses the survey data (N = 348) from four counties with the most severe mountain hazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is utilized to verify 13 hypotheses which are proposed based on the prospect theory. The results show that: (1) Risk perception can be divided into five dimensions, namely, Probability factor (perceptions of the likelihood of hazard occurrence); Controlled factor (confidence in human efforts to survive hazard); Fear factor (worry or nervousness of suffering disaster); Experience factor (hazards experiences); and Unknown factor (ignorance associated with disaster). (2) The unknown factor, controlled factor, probability factor, and experience factor have a significant influence on WTP. However, the fear factor does not affect WTP. (3) The five risk perception dimensions have a significant direct impact on each other. These results support the hypothesis that people have limited abilities to process information and help understand better the influence of risk perception on the insurance purchasing decision.
       
 
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