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 National Academy Science LettersJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.189 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 5      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 0250-541X - ISSN (Online) 2250-1754 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2570 journals]
• Design and Performance Optimization of WDM Lightwave System Using Optimum
Modulation Formats
• Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a 16-channel 40 Gb/s wave division multiplexing lightwave system is simulated using OptiSystem version 14 and optimized. This paper proposes a Pareto optimization and particle swarm optimization algorithms to find optimum launch power for minimum bit error rate (BER). However, simulation results show that the proposed algorithms proved to be a good solution and take considerable computational time to converge and reach global optimum. It is concluded that return-to-zero modulation format has higher-quality factor, lower BER, and lower distortion and it is less affected by the fiber nonlinearity.
PubDate: 2020-02-11

• Construction and Evaluation of Tamil Speech Emotion Corpus
• Abstract: Abstract Speech emotion-related analysis needs good emotion corpus. The construction and evaluation of two Tamil emotion corpora, one for children and the other for the adults, are described here. Children emotion speech samples are collected from 30 Tamil movies, and the length of the utterances varies from 5 to 40 s. Tamil audio plays are the resources for building the adult emotion corpus. The emotion prosodies are collected, segmented and annotated for the categories of anger, happy, sad and neutral emotions. Observers’ perception test result has been used to evaluate the annotation of emotion. Automatic emotion classification systems have been built using Gaussian Mixture Model and Support Vector Machine. The database is created with an objective of the acoustic investigation of emotion expression in Tamil, analyzing the influence of speaker's culture and age on emotion expression and investigating the requirement of the need of features unique to Tamil speech on various automatic analysis of speech like emotion recognition, speaker recognition, etc.
PubDate: 2020-02-11

• A Novel Hardware Architecture for Non-local Means Adaptive Filter
• Abstract: Abstract A novel dedicated hardware architecture is proposed in this letter for one-dimensional non-local means (NLM) algorithm. The patch-based NLM algorithm has been effectively used to filter out noises from the two-dimensional images as well as various one-dimensional signals, such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and audio signals. Dedicated hardware ensures the availability, predictability and stability of an algorithm. In this letter, an efficient hardware architecture of the NLM is proposed for removing noises from the corrupted ECG signal. The proposed architecture is implemented on a field-programmable gate array. The efficacy of the proposed architecture is verified by a firm comparison of the outputs obtained from both the hardware architecture and the software simulation performed on MATLAB. The computational complexity has also been compared for both cases (hardware and software) to show the effectiveness of the proposed hardware architecture.
PubDate: 2020-02-10

• Polyphenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Mahonia jaunsarensis Ahrendt: A
Narrow Endemic to West Himalaya
• Abstract: Abstract Mahonia jaunsarensis (Family Berberidaceae) is an endemic species of the Himalaya narrowly distributed in Chakrata hills of Uttarakhand. Considering that the species is traditionally used by local inhabitants for various purposes, this study was made to explore its biochemical attributes using diverse solvent systems, i.e., ethanol, methanol and distilled water. Results revealed a varied range of total phenolics (1.00–1.39 mg GAE/g); tannins (1.01–1.11 mg TAE/g); flavonoids (1.07–1.22 mg QE/g); and flavonols (0.71–1.04 mg QE/g) across solvent extractions. Likewise, in vitro antioxidant activity (i.e., ABTS 0.82–1.09; DPPH 0.94–1.16; and FRAP 0.81–1.05 mM AAE/100 g fresh weight) varied. Results are indicative that the species possess higher bioactive attributes and a good source of natural antioxidant. A solvent system with moderate polarity, such as methanol, was found best for harnessing the maximum potential. The study provides baseline information on biochemical attributes of the species, which can, with due R&D interventions, be extended for the industrial applications.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• Twenty Essential Oils as Ovicidal Agent Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera:
Culicidae)
• Abstract: Abstract In the present investigation, twenty plant essential oils (EOs) are tested against Aedes aegypti at their egg stage aiming to control the mosquito population at its breeding site. The results are very much promising for EOs extracted from Allium sativum, Mentha piperita and Ocimum sanctum with sublethal concentration (LC50) of 1.00 ppm, 4.01 ppm and 8.40 ppm, respectively, which seems to be at par with WHO-recommended dose for synthetic larvicide temephos. Three plant oils responded with LC50 below 50 ppm. However, few plant oils did not show lethal effects at all. The effective EOs can in future be used in breeding sites including the potable and household water tank as these plants are edible and hence safe for consumption. These might be a potent candidate for decreasing Aedes population and for replacing synthetic insecticides against Aedes. Moreover, these three highly effective EOs would be accessible and cost-effective for common people to use.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees &amp; Eberm.: An Alternative
Source of Natural Linalool
• Abstract: Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition of essential oil in fresh leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. The leaves were subjected to hydro-distillation, and the oil extracted was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometer (GC–MS). The essential oil comprises 15 components accounting for 100% of the oil. The GC–MS analysis of essential oil showed that L-linalool (66.85%) was the major component followed by cinnamaldehyde (14.62%). The other components were β-terpinyl acetate (4.49%) and 2-propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, acetate (4.51%). Linalool is in high demand for its use in fragrance and flavor industries. Facilitation of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants in the Uttarakhand state by government and high demand of natural linalool by pharmaceutical industries and higher concentration of linalool content in C. tamala essential oil grown in Uttarakhand create an opportunity for the state to emerge as a resource center for the production of natural L-linalool and to get monetary benefits from it.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• Automated Hole and Non-hole Screening in Retinal OCT Images Using Local
Binary Patterns with Support Vector Machine
• Abstract: Abstract Macular hole (MH) formation in between the retinal layers causes distorted vision and decrease in the person’s visual acuity. MH is also the chronic stage of retinal disorder, significantly treated only by surgeries. This work addresses to the automated screening of the hole and non-hole images in the cross-sectional depiction of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Screening between hole and non-hole comprises various pathological traces observed in the retinal OCT scans, aiming to automatically differentiating the retinal hole present in the macula and other macular pathologies. Machine learning utilizes local binary pattern with reduced dimension, as local descriptors, in which the texture information from the retinal OCT images is encoded. For the identification of the MH, support vector machine classifier is used. Dataset was prepared for 51 unseen OCT scans from 14 patients having orientation variabilities and used for extensive experimentation. Method effectiveness was verified through results, and the statement supported with the evaluations was performed across the dataset. Systems’ overall performance was validated stochastically where the system sensitivity is 92.3% and the specificity is 92%.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• A Tauberian Theorem for a Weighted Mean Method of Summability in Ordered
Spaces
• Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we extend a Tauberian theorem for the Cesàro summability method due to Maddox (Analysis 9:297–302, 1989) in ordered spaces to the weighted mean method of summability.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• Variation of Toxin Content in Ginkgo Fruits According to Thermal Treatment
• Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the variation in cyanide and amygdalin content in ginkgo fruits depending on thermal treatment methods. The fruits were heated by boiling and roasting. The thermally treated fruit samples were compared with non-treated fruit samples by measuring cyanide and amygdalin content. The cyanide content of ginkgo fruits was decreased by thermal treatment, whereas boiling decreased it more than roasting. As amygdalin was not detected in the samples, ginkgo fruits were artificially injected by amygdalin, which was slightly decreased by thermal treatment. As the cyanide content is small and can be further reduced by thermal treatment, consuming ginkgo fruits after cooking may not cause a health problem.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• The Macro and Micro Point of View of Farmer Suicides in India
• Abstract: Abstract Agricultural researches, development of innovations, their dissemination and Government funding behind the whole process all come to a grinding halt when the ultimate beneficiaries of the process are left to their fate, are left to die. Yes, the most sensitive yet controversial phenomenon of farmer suicide in India is being indicated. In 2015, 12,602 farmers committed suicide in India (NCRB in Accidental deaths and suicides in India, Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi, 2015). Agriculture and farmers ensure the food and nutritional security of the nation; hence, any danger to the well being of farmers is a cause of national concern. Therefore, it necessitates an understanding of the possible reasons which compel farmers to end their lives. Hence, this article attempts to study farmer suicides over the years and state-wise variations in suicide rates. The normalised farmer suicide rate across the states has been calculated as per the latest available suicide data of 2015. An attempt has been made to identify the correlates of farmer suicides with state-level variables related to agriculture and socio-economic development. The results establish the Durkheimian theory; farmer suicide is an individual phenomenon. A compilation of micro-level studies is presented to support the argument.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• Some Properties of Algebraic Connectivity
• Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we obtain two methods to compare the algebraic connectivity of two graphs, and we also give some graph operations that increase or decrease the algebraic connectivity of a graph.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• Lacunary Arithmetic Statistical Convergence
• Abstract: Abstract A lacunary sequence is an increasing integer sequence $$\theta =(k_r)$$ such that $$k_r-k_{r-1}\rightarrow \infty$$ as $$r\rightarrow \infty .$$ In this article, we introduce arithmetic statistically convergent sequence space ASC and lacunary arithmetic statistically convergent sequence space $$ASC_{\theta }$$ and study some inclusion properties between the two spaces. Finally, we introduce lacunary arithmetic statistical continuity and establish some interesting results.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• On J -Colouring of Chithra Graphs
• Abstract: Abstract The family of Chithra graphs is a wide ranging family of graphs which includes any graph of size at least one. Chithra graphs serve as a graph theoretical model for genetic engineering techniques or for modelling natural mutation within various biological networks found in living systems. In this paper, we discuss recently introduced J-colouring of the family of Chithra graphs.
PubDate: 2020-02-08

• A New Species of Actinotaenium (Desmidiaceae, Desmidiales) from Eastern
Himalayas, India, with a Note on Its Reproduction
• Abstract: Abstract A new species, i.e. Actinotaenium himalayanum, is described from a moist cemented wall from eastern Himalayas, India. The taxon is not only having morphological peculiarities, but also showed interesting features during its process of asexual reproduction.
PubDate: 2020-02-07

• Meiotic Irregularities in Tetraploid Aloe arborescens Miller and Their
Consequences
• Abstract: Abstract Aloe arborescens, cultivated in India for its ornamental and medicinal value, commonly exists as diploid (2n = 2x = 14) and rarely as tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28). A single previous report on meiosis in the tetraploid form indicated the presence of univalents to quadrivalents at metaphase I, with no information on later meiotic phases and post-meiotic consequences of pairing anomalies. To fill these crevices, a cytologically unstudied population from Jammu (India) was investigated for chromosome associations, chromosome constitution of microspores and seed set. Analysis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) at diplotene/metaphase I revealed the presence of bivalents to quadrivalents in 38% cells, with remaining having 14 bivalents. Besides, anomalies in the form of bridges and/fragments were apparent in 70.9% and 66.6% PMCs at anaphases I and II and in 44.4% and 25% cells at telophases I and II. Screening of dividing microspores of individual anthers revealed interspersing of normal reduced microspores (n = 2x = 14) with unreduced (2n = 4x = 25–26) and hypoploid reduced (n = 2x − 3 = 11) ones, with their frequency of occurrence being 50%, 30% and 20%, respectively. Though the plants of this species flower (67 ± 7.4 per inflorescence) profusely, few flowers (7.88 ± 0.83 per inflorescence) mature into fruits and fewer seeds (7.83 ± 0.91 per fruit) are set. The reduced seed set in the present cytotype seems to have resulted from meiotic anomalies prevalent and existence of aneuploid and unreduced microspores.
PubDate: 2020-02-07

• Biopolymer-Mediated Coating Influence on Wastewater Treatment Efficacy of
Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Fungal Consortium
• Abstract: In the present study, wastewater treatment efficacy of silver nanoparticles synthesized from biomass of fungal consortium coated with chitosan was carried out. Nanoparticles were synthesized from dried biomass of fungal consortium stabilized with biocompatible polymer chitosan being characterized by various analytical techniques reveals high stable monodispersive spherical nanoparticles with the size range of 80–90 nm. Batch wastewater treatment studies under in vitro condition show polymer-stabilized nanoparticles brought about maximum reduction in various physicochemical parameters, and the reduction rate was high in increased incubation time. Chitosan-coated nanoparticles also reveal maximum inhibition of biofilm formation and viable count of pathogenic bacterial count. The present study would suggest the possible utilization of chitosan-stabilized silver nanoparticles in wastewater eco-friendly treatment process for the effective removal of various toxic contaminants. Graphic Synthesized silver nanoparticles by the fungal consortium.
PubDate: 2020-02-07

• Dendrobium nageswarayanum (Orchidaceae): A New Species from Arunachal
• Abstract: Abstract A new species of orchid, i.e. Dendrobium nageswarayanum, is described from Kurung Kumey district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The present new species is more allied to Dendrobium subansiriense Verma and Barbhuiya, but differs in having inflorescence, flowers, lateral sepals and lateral margins of lip. Detailed differences are discussed in this paper.
PubDate: 2020-02-07

• Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Contents of Traditional Rice-Based
Alcoholic Beverages of Assam, India
• Abstract: Abstract In this study, the antioxidant properties and total phenolic contents of the traditional rice-based alcoholic beverages of Assam, India, are reported. The percentage inhibition of DPPH free radical is highest in the case of samples prepared by Deoris followed by those of Misings. Rice-based alcoholic beverages prepared by Ahoms possess the least antioxidant property. The total polyphenol content is found highest in samples prepared by Deoris. It appears that total phenolic content is a major contributing factor toward antioxidant capability of these beverages. The presence of gallic acid in samples prepared by Ahoms, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid in samples prepared by Misings, and (+)-catechin, caffeic acid and salicylic acid in all samples of the traditional rice-based alcoholic beverages are noteworthy observations. This study indicates that traditional rice-based alcoholic beverages of Assam, India, are potent sources of natural antioxidants, consumption of which in moderate quantity can contribute toward the well-being of human health.
PubDate: 2020-02-07

• Modeling Framework to Study the Influence of Environmental Variables for
Forecasting the Quarterly Landing of Total Fish Catch and Catch of Small
Major Pelagic Fish of North-West Maharashtra Coast of India
• Abstract: Abstract Forecasting fish landings is a critical element tool for fisheries managers and policymakers to short-term quantitative recommendations for fisheries management. In this study, the forecasting of a quarterly landing of total fish catch and the catch of major pelagic fish species (Indian Mackerel and Bombay duck) was done by nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX), an artificial neural network model. The quarterly landings data of total fish catch and the catch of major pelagic fish along with quarterly average data on the mean value of environmental variables were used for building the model and forecasting. The developed NARX model was validated with the actual fish catch on holdout data with prediction error 2.45–11.42%. Further, the developed NARX model was used to forecast fish catch for the next 20 quarters (5 years) and was compared and found good agreement with the actual catch reported by Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi, annual report(Year- 2014, 2015 and 2016). The developed NARX model in the present case study is of the first time to forecast the fish catch landing using exogenous input in the Maharashtra region.
PubDate: 2020-02-07

• Baseline Information on Physico-taxonomical Characteristics of Amomum
subulatum Roxb. Cultivars Grown in Uttarakhand, India
• Abstract: Abstract Amomum subulatum is a valuable spice grown in Sikkim, Uttarakhand and Darjeeling District of West Bengal, India. Three cultivars being cultivated in Uttarakhand, viz. ‘Dzongu Golsey’, ‘Sawney’ and ‘Varlangey’, were studied critically for their morphological variations. Dzongu Golsey thrives well in lower altitudes (< 800 m), while Varlangey prefers the altitude between 1000 and 1450 m and Sawney flourishes well between 1000 and 1600 m. Morphologically, the robust maroon tillers of Varlangey reach 200–250 cm in height with a leaf length of 60–80 cm, while the robust maroon tillers of Sawney reach up to 150–190 cm with a leaf length of 40–55 cm. Dzongu Golsey has non-robust green tillers with comparatively lesser height and leaf length. Dzongu Golsey and Varlangey have pale pink rhizome, while Sawney has dark pink rhizome. Dzongu Golsey flowers during the months of March–May, while Varlangey and Sawney flower during May–July. Varlangey produces superior capsule in terms of diameter, weight and number of seeds than Sawney and Dzongu Golsey and also comparatively has more capsule per spike and more spike per tiller. Proper identification of the cultivar is a prerequisite for the optimum and quality yield. Therefore, a detail of the physico-taxonomic characteristics of the cultivars cultivated in Uttarakhand is provided in the present study.
PubDate: 2020-02-07

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