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 National Academy Science LettersJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.189 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 5      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 0250-541X - ISSN (Online) 2250-1754 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2352 journals]
• Trends in Depth-Wise Occurrence of Potential Fishing Zones in North Andhra
• Abstract: The potential fishing zone (PFZ) advisories for north Andhra Pradesh coast from Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad, were analyzed year-wise for 2 years 2012–2013 (January to December) for frequency of its occurrences at different depths. Grid-wise plotting of PFZs showed that high and very high frequency grids were less abundant in near-shore coastal regions. The plotting also revealed that of the three zones compared, continental slope area, which is beyond 100 m depth, is having the maximum number of very high frequency hit grids, followed by mid-continental shelf area which is between 50 and 100 m depth. It is also noted that a trend of frequency of occurrence of PFZs is on the rise as the depth increases up to 200 m and further, the frequencies started decreasing. There is also an increasing trend in the frequency of occurrence of PFZs as we are moving towards the higher latitudes from Kakinada waters to Kalingapatnam waters.
PubDate: 2019-03-13

• Evaluation of Variation in Cuticular Wax Yield with Season, Solvent, and
Species in Calotropis
• Abstract: Cuticle is the protective layer of aerial parts of plants. The present study investigates the effects of species, season, solvent, size, and side of leaves on cuticular wax yield in Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea. Epicuticular wax has been isolated using acetone and chloroform separately. Statistical data revealed that C. procera had a higher cuticular wax yield (0.1573 mg cm−2) than C. gigantea (0.1197 mg cm−2). Season and size of the leaves were observed to significantly influence wax yield in both the species. However, side of leaf does not influence the wax yield in both species.
PubDate: 2019-03-13

• First Record of Some Earthworm Species (Oligochaeta: Megadrile) from
Kerala Part of Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot, Southwest India
• Abstract: Until now, occurrence of 98 earthworm species has been reported from the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot of Kerala. Most of the known species were recorded more than 80–90 years ago. A recent survey of the earthworms of the state has revealed the presence two more species, namely Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny, 1826) and Mallehulla indica Julka & Rao, 1982. Here, we are discussing about the details of the specimens collected, its distribution, etc., in the state.
PubDate: 2019-03-13

• Effect of Phosphorus, Sulphur and Micronutrients (Zinc and Boron) Levels
on Performance of Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.)
• Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during Rabi, 2013–2014, to study the effect of different treatment combinations on performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The treatments of experiments comprised three fertilizer levels—F1—40 kg P2O5 ha−1, F2—60 kg P2O5 + 20 kg S ha−1 and F3—80 kg P2O5 + 40 kg S ha−1 and four micronutrient levels—M0—control, M1—3 kg Zn ha−1, M2—spraying of boron (0.3%) and M3—3 kg Zn ha−1 + spraying of boron (0.3%) in split plot design with three replications. At higher level of fertilizer (F2—60 kg P2O5 + 20 kg S ha−1) yield attributes, yield performance of chickpea along with soil properties was found better irrespective of the micronutrients applied. Maximum seed yield (22.22 q ha−1) was recorded with the application of fertilizer M3 (3 kg Zn ha−1 + spraying of boron) (0.3%). At every level of fertilizers, micronutrients augmented the yield attributes and yield of the crop along with soil properties. Combined application of micronutrients proved superior to their sole applications with respect to yield and nutrient uptake in chickpea.
PubDate: 2019-03-13

• Studies on Establishment of a Population of Pteris vittata Linn.
• Abstract: Pteris vittata, the Brake fern, is terrestrial, perennial, widely distributed species. It is well adapted to moist and shady as well as xeric habitats. It has been observed that during the last decade, the species has become a noxious weed in the Lucknow and nearby areas. During the eighties, only few populations were present, whereas, in the present time, the species has spread generously in almost entire Lucknow and nearby areas. In the present study, the cause of extensive colonization of species has been investigated. For the assessment of its wide distributional behavior or colonization ability, the viable spores were sown and the stages from germination to maturation and establishment of the colony were thoroughly investigated. It was observed that mature plants were formed in 3 months, whereas colonization was achieved in about 3–4 months. The accessions studied were also cytologically investigated, which studied is sexual, tetraploid with n = 58 chromosomes. The details of developmental pattern and colonization have been discussed in the present communication.
PubDate: 2019-03-11

• On Certain J -Colouring Parameters of Graphs
• Abstract: In this paper, a new type of colouring called J-colouring is introduced. This colouring concept is motivated by the newly introduced invariant called the rainbow neighbourhood number of a graph. The study ponders on maximal colouring opposed to minimum colouring. An upper bound for a connected graph is presented, and a number of explicit results are presented for cycles, complete graphs, wheel graphs and for a complete l-partite graph.
PubDate: 2019-03-09

• Tillage Practices and Rabi Crops Affect Energetics of Rainfed Rice-Based
Cropping System of Chhattisgarh
• Abstract: In rice-based cropping system, intensive tillage operations, which consume a huge amount of energy in the form of fuel and labor, are carried out after harvesting of rice for growing the next crop. Modification in tillage practices may not only reduce energy consumption but also could make the system more dynamic and efficient. The present study involving four tillage practices and six different rabi crops was undertaken in strip plot design with three replications to understand the effect of tillage practices and rabi crops on the energetics of rainfed rice-based cropping system. Results of study clearly demonstrated that zero tillage direct drilling of seeds at 2nd days after harvesting of rice with toria and minimum tillage and line sowing of seeds at 3rd days after harvesting of rice with safflower recorded 40% less energy input and 59% more energy output, respectively, than farmer’s practice seeds and fertilizers broadcasting at 12th days after harvesting of rice with safflower. Among the tillage practices, zero tillage direct drilling of seeds at 2nd days after harvesting of rice recorded 63 and 74% higher energy productivity and energy intensity, respectively, over farmers practice. Among the rabi crops, significantly higher energy productivity, energy intensity and net energy (0.84 kg MJ−1, 6.74 MJ Rs−1 and 66.72 × 103 MJ ha−1, respectively) were recorded under safflower. With higher energy productivity and intensity, ZT direct drilling of seeds at 2nd DAH of rice and safflower was found best for the energetic management of rainfed rice-based cropping system of Chhattisgarh.
PubDate: 2019-03-08

• Antifungal Activity of Some Ethnomedicinally Important Tuberous Plants of
Family Liliaceae
• Abstract: Fungal spores are often present in air and soil which may cause internal as well as external infections. Phytochemicals are extracted from plants of family Liliaceae and identified having antifungal and antibiotic properties. The present study deals antifungal activity of crude extract of leaf of five species Asparagus L. and four species Chlorophytum Ker. Gawl. of family Liliaceae using a different polar and non-polar solvent like methanol, petroleum ether and acetone. Effects of different plant extract were tested on yeast (Candida albicans) and mold (Aspergillus niger) using potato dextrose agar medium by agar well diffusion method. Zone of inhibition produced by different plant extracts was calculated. Among these plants, Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau and Fernandes., Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker. and Asparagus racemosus Willd. show maximum antifungal activities against two clinical fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. In case of three solvent, acetone plant extract showed a significant reduction, while methanol showed its minimum reduction in the growth of these two opportunist fungi. Streptomycin was used as control drug for antifungal studies.
PubDate: 2019-03-08

• Attenuation Effect as a Tool to Explain sp 3 Carbon (–CH 2 –) is a
Good Electron Insulator and a sp 2 Carbon (–CH=CH–) is a Good Electron
Transmitter: An Undergraduate 1-h Chemistry Classroom Tutorial
• Abstract: Physical basis of chemical reactivity in organic molecules was to determine the electronic effects which govern the rate of a reaction put forth by the substituents during the course of a given reaction. This is known as “substituent effect.” This concept was first developed by Hammett in the form of a linear free-energy relationship (LFER) popularly known as “Hammett equation.” This substituent effect would generally attenuate in an exponential manner as the distance between the reaction center and the substituent increases. This was developed by Williams (Free-energy relationships in organic and bioorganic chemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2003) in the form of an empirical exponential equation. Using the Hammett equation and with help of Williams 2003 explanations on attenuation effect, we have tried to explain why a sp3 carbon is a good σ-electron insulator and a sp2 carbon is a good π-electron transmitter.
PubDate: 2019-03-08

• Cu 2 O/Nano-CuFe 2 O 4 as a Magnetically Recoverable Catalyst for
Ligand-Free Synthesis of Imidazo[1,2- a ] Pyridines and
3-Aroylimidazo[1,2- a ] Pyridines
• Abstract: Cu2O/nano-CuFe2O4 was found as an efficient and magnetically separable heterogeneous catalyst for the solvent-free synthesis of imidazo[1,2-a] pyridine derivatives. This nano-magnetic composite is also extended as a well-run and recoverable catalyst for the synthesis of 3-aroylimidazo[1,2-a] pyridine derivatives using air as the green oxidant under ligand and additive-free conditions. Readily available, inexpensive starting materials, simple procedure, short reaction time, ease of preparation of the catalyst, stability the catalyst to air and compatibility it with a wide variety of substrates are merits of the presented methodology. Furthermore, the catalyst was easily separated by an external magnet. It recovered and reused five times without significant loss of catalytic activity.
PubDate: 2019-03-08

• Effects of Thidiazuron (TDZ) on Direct Shoot Organogenesis of Gymnocladus
assamicus : A Threatened and Critically Endangered Species from Northeast
India
• Abstract: An efficient morphogenic potential was developed for direct shoot organogenesis of Gymnocladus assamicus, as an IUCN Red List of threatened and critically endangered species from Northeast India. This species is used as leech repellent of domestic animal, seedpod as detergent and roasted seed as a substitute for coffee and groundnut. The wild population is rapidly shrinking due to various anthropogenic pressure and poor regeneration. Therefore, the present study has been taken up for morphogenic potential through direct shoot organogenesis which is not reported. Nevertheless, cotyledonary nodal explants showed 100% responses in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 0.75 mg L−1 thidiazuron (TDZ) alone or in combination with 1 mg L−1 IBA, in comparison with other combinations tested. Cotyledonary node was found to be the best source of explant which produced 10.80 ± 0.39 shoots per explant. Further, shoots were transferred to proliferation and elongation medium fortified with 0.25 mg L−1 TDZ in MS medium which produced 12.06 ± 0.31 shoots per explant. MS medium fortified with 1.5 mg L−1 IAA showed highest root induction frequency (76%) with mean root number 2.03 ± 0.19 and root length 3.26 ± 0.27 cm. The micropropagated plantlets were transferred to soil after acclimatization with a 68% success rate.
PubDate: 2019-03-08

• Reproductive Behaviour of Lemon ( Citrus limon Burm.) Affected by
Different Pruning Intensities and Integrated Nutrient Management Under
Various Growing Seasons
• Abstract: The main objective of this study was to know the reproductive behaviour of lemon (Citrus limon Burm.) affected by different pruning intensities and integrated nutrient management under various growing season. The experiment was laid out in two factorial randomized block design with four levels of pruning, seven levels of nutrient, consisting recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) and different combinations of organic manure (Vermicompost), inorganic fertilizer, biofertilizer (Azotobacter), Mycorrhiza (VAM) and their interaction to study their effect on plant reproductive behaviour during 2013–2015 on 9-year-old lemon plants in three growing seasons. The investigation revealed that the reproductive parameters, viz. number of flowers per plant, fruit set percentage and fruit yield, were found highest in lightly pruned plants fed with 75% RDF + Vermicompost + Azotobacter + Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza at Ambe, Mrig and Hasth bahar, respectively. Among the three seasons of cropping, Ambe bahar recorded the best result in respect to yield followed by Mrig and Hasth bahar.
PubDate: 2019-03-08

• Production and Identification of Omega-6 Fatty Acid (11,14-Eicosadienoic
Acid) Using Fungi as a Model
• Abstract: Productions of essential fatty acids from fungi are attracted topics in the field of biotechnology. So this study focuses on the production of 11,14-eicosadienoic acid which is considered as an essential fatty acid. This fatty acid is produced when growing fungi in nitrogen-limiting media. Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Trichoderma harzianum are the key stones of this study. P. chrysogenum strains were isolated from Iraqi soil and set aside in Biology species Bank, Science College for Women, Baghdad University. And R. stolonifer and T. harzianum strains were isolated from Iraqi soil and set aside in Biology species bank College of Science, University of Kufa. These species have been identified by Dr. Mohammad Mohsien Abdulhusien Alrufae. Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Trichoderma harzianum are cultivated on media used for lipid production in limited nitrogen source and excessive carbon source. Batch culture is the mode of cultivation used for fungi growth. Biomass for P. chrysogenum culture was (10) g/l with total lipid content of 4.18%. There is no evidence for the production of 11,14-eicosadienoic acid in this fungi, and in contrast, R. stolonifer and T. harzianum showed high concentration of 11,14-eicosadienoic acid (16.8% and 16%, respectively). Rhizopus stolonifer culture showed 13 g/l as biomass with 6% lipid from biomass, whereas Trichoderma produced 8 g/l) biomass and 6.24% total lipid content from the biomass. Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichoderma harzianum could be considered as alternative sources for omega-6 fatty acids (11,14-eicosadienoic acid).
PubDate: 2019-03-07

• Equivalence of Planar Čech Nerves and Complexes
• Abstract: This article introduces proximal Čech nerves and Čech complexes, restricted to finite, bounded regions K of the Euclidean plane. A Čech nerve is a collection of intersecting balls. A main result of this article is extension of the Edelsbrunner–Harer Nerve Theorem for Čech nerves and Čech complexes.
PubDate: 2019-03-07

• An Optimized Energy Saving Model for Hybrid Security Protocol in WMN
• Authors: R. Regan; J. Martin Leo Manickam
Abstract: Wireless mesh network (WMN) is an emerging field of research with a large number of applications and associated constraints. WMN is used as a new wireless broadband network structure which is completely based on IP technologies. It has the ability to produce high speed and wide area of coverage, and it also provides a high capacity for handling the nodes. To help authenticate messages, identify valid nodes and remove malevolent node. Security and privacy are two major problems in WMN. Unfortunately, in mesh networks most privacy-preserving schemes are vulnerable to attacks. The most dangerous attack to be noted in mesh network is node impersonation attack which makes them more insecure. WMN is said to be an emerging wireless broadband network structure, where it is completely based on the IP technologies. The mesh routers and clients play a vital role in the mesh networks where they act as a backbone and help the mesh networks to achieve their target in an efficient way. The important factor in the wireless mesh network is to provide a trusted handoff between the nodes, and they need an access authentication effectively. This area can be considered as the vulnerable one, and there is a chance for some attacks which makes the network unstable. Achieving the seamless handoff is a complex case in every dynamic heterogeneous wireless mesh network. This is because providing a security for such kind of structure is very difficult and the existing procedure for providing security for heterogeneous network gives protection for certain types of attacks. In this paper, we use an optimization algorithm for finding the best position for deploying mesh routers and for developing a hybrid and secured model for detecting node impersonation attack by combining ECDSA with CHAP. We also show how our proposed model can handle the throughput, authentication delay, etc., without facing any problem such as energy consumption and delay.
PubDate: 2019-02-12
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-019-0789-4

• Polyfunctional Application on Modified Cotton Fabric
• Authors: Ramasamy Rajesh Kumar; Kumanan Bharathi Yazhini; Halliah Gurumallesh Prabu; Zhou Qixing
Abstract: A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with flame retardancy is adopted in the present work. This study deals with crosslinking of cotton fabric using different polycarboxylic acids such as citric acid and 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid and using different catalysts such as sodium hypophosphite and sodium propionate through conventional pad-dry-cure method for flame-retardant application. The results exhibited moderate waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production textile materials for new industrial applications.
PubDate: 2019-02-11
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-019-00793-2

• Entanglement of the Non-Gaussian Two-Mode Quantum Vortex State
• Authors: Vikram Singh; Devendra Kumar Mishra
Abstract: We study the entanglement properties of a non-Gaussian two-mode vortex state that was theoretically proposed by Agarwal [New J Phys 13:073008 (2011)] by using the technique of photon subtraction from a two-mode squeezed state and detection of one photon by a single-photon detector. There are different conditions to quantify the entanglement of non-classical states. We compare the entanglement conditions for this state in terms of the Hillery–Zubairy (HZ) criterion, Hillery–Dung–Zhong (HDZ) criterion, Shchukin–Vogel (SV) criterion, and Duan–Giedke–Cirac–Zoller (DGCZ) criterion. We confirm that this non-Gaussian state shows strong entanglement under these different conditions, thus suggesting that this state may have potential applications in quantum information processing.
PubDate: 2019-02-11
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-018-0762-7

• Square Signed Graph
• Authors: Deepa Sinha; Deepakshi Sharma
Abstract: The square graph $$G^2$$ of a graph $$G=(V,E)$$ is a graph with same vertex set as G, and the vertices are adjacent in $$G^2$$ when their distance in G is at most two. In this paper, we characterize signed graph (or sigraph) which is a square root signed graph of some signed graph. Also, we find whether for a given signed graph its square signed graph and line of square signed graph are balanced. Each theorem is supported by respective algorithms.
PubDate: 2019-02-11
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-018-0781-4

• Relationship Between Randić Index, Sum-Connectivity Index, Harmonic Index
and $$\pi$$ π -Electron Energy for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons
• Authors: H. S. Ramane; V. B. Joshi; R. B. Jummannaver; S. D. Shindhe
Abstract: The relationship between Randić index, sum-connectivity index, harmonic index and $$\pi$$ -electron energy of some benzenoid hydrocarbons is obtained.
PubDate: 2019-02-11
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-019-0782-y

• Leaves in a Particular Class of Trees
• Authors: Mehri Javanian
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate leaves for random paged digital search trees, an important and generalized version of digital search trees.
PubDate: 2019-02-11
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-018-0778-z

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