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SOCIAL SCIENCES (686 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 149)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access  
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access  
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access  
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access  
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
e-Gnosis     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)     Open Access  
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExT : Revista de Extensión de la UNC     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research
  [SJR: 0.323]   [H-I: 16]   [6 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1547-3465 - ISSN (Online) 1547-3465
   Published by Botanical Research Institute of Texas Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Socioeconomic Contribution of Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A.Rich) Munro and
           Determinants of Growing in Homestead Agroforestry System in Northern

    • Authors: Girmay Darcha Gebramlak, Nigussie Abadi, Emiru Birhane Hizikias
      Pages: 479 - 490
      Abstract: Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A.Rich.) Munro is known to be one of the lowland perennial grass species in Ethiopia with tremendous products and ecological services. It is uncommon to find O. abyssinica at the homestead as it was commonly found in the study area as part of an agroforestry system. This study was conducted to assess socioeconomic benefits of O. abyssinica and factors that influence farmers’ decision to use homestead agroforestry systems, based on a survey of 153 households in Serako kebele, Tselemti woreda, Ethiopia. This paper evaluates, using descriptive statistics, propensity score matching and logit regression analysis. The analysis demonstrates that farmers make decisions to grow O. abyssinica as homestead agroforestry systems based on household and field characteristics. The factors that significantly influenced growing decisions include homestead land holding size, total livestock owned, extension advice, and distance to local market. The average treatment effect (ATT) results show that the households with an O. abyssinica grower had significantly higher annual household income, annual expenditure, and number of months with enough food when compared to the control group. Therefore, we conclude that development of infrastructures that link producers with consumers, availability of large homestead land size, and expansion of extension facilities may enhance engagement of domestication of O. abyssinica at the homestead for sustainable livelihood options.
      PubDate: 2016-01-03
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Traditional Classification, Perception, and Preferences for Tallow Tree
           (Pentadesma butyracea Sabine) Organs in Benin: Implications for
           domestication and conservation

    • Authors: Serge S. Houédjissin, Paulin Azokpota, Achille Assogbadjo, Corneille Ahanhanzo, Joseph D. Hounhouigan
      Pages: 491 - 503
      Abstract: The present study examined farmer’s indigenous knowledge on morphological variation, preference in product traits, management practices, and regeneration of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine. Surveys were conducted on a total of 131 users of different ages randomly selected from seven different sociocultural groups (Anii, Kotocoli, Nagot, Boo, Ditamari, Natimba and Waama) taking into account gender differences in Benin. Principal component analysis was carried out to identify correlations between the characteristics of P. butyracea. Local people in the twelve villages investigated used 13 criteria (height, trunk diameter, trunk color, trunk structure, distance from water, tree age, fruit pulp color, fruit size, fruit shape, number of seeds per fruit, seed color, seed size, and seed shape) to differentiate P. butyracea trees growing in traditional agroforestry systems. Older people were found to have greater knowledge than younger people to distinguish P. butyracea. Importantly, 77% of respondents of all ethnic groups confirmed that no protection measure was taken to conserve P. butyracea trees. This identified knowledge can constitute a guarantee for the development of strategies for conservation, domestication, and sustainable use of P. butyracea genetic resources because one of the best ways to validate our results to local people is to consider their knowledge and to promote the development of their experiences.


      La présente étude a mis en évidence les connaissances endogènes des populations locales sur la variation morphologique, leurs préférences (traits désirables et non désirables), les procédures de gestion locale et la régénération de Pentadesma butyracea Sabine au Bénin. Au total, 131 personnes, de différents âges et sexes, appartenant à sept groupes ethniques différents (Anii, Kotocoli, Nagot, Boo, Ditamari, Natimba et Waama) ont été aléatoirement interviewées. L’analyse en composante principale (ACP) a été effectuée pour expliquer la corrélation entre les caractéristiques de P. butyracea. Dans les douze localités enquêtées, les populations utilisent 13 critères (taille, dimension du tronc, couleur du tronc, structure du tronc, distance de l’arbre de l’eau, âge de l’arbre, dimension du fruit, nombre de graines par fruit) pour différencier les arbres de P. butyracea. Cependant, l’arbre de P. butyracea est plus connu par les personnes âgées. Cette étude a également prouvé que 77.2% des interviewés, toutes ethnies confondues, ont confirmé qu’aucune mesure de protection n’a été prise pour conserver les arbres de P. butyracea. Les savoirs paysans recensés ici, peuvent constituer un gage pour le développement de stratégies de conservation, de domestication et d’utilisation durable des ressources génétiques de P. butyracea, car l’une des voies pour mieux valider nos résultats auprès des populations rurales est de tenir compte de leurs savoirs, et cela favorise la valorisation de leurs expériences.
      PubDate: 2016-01-03
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment and Prevention of Malaria in Cegere
           Sub-County, Northern Uganda

    • Authors: Godwin Anywar, Charlotte I.E.A. van’t Klooster, Robert Byamukama, Merlin Wilcox, Patricia A Nalumansi, Joop de Jong, Protase Rwaburindori, Bernard T. Kiremire
      Pages: 505 - 516
      Abstract: In Uganda, malaria has been ranked as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality with Apac District having one of the highest transmission rates. The objective of this study was to assess the use of medicinal plants in preventing and treating malaria and to determine the traditional concept of malaria in Cegere Sub-County, Apac. A snowball sampling method was used to work through a network of informants. Ninety respondents, including traditional healers, were interviewed using focus group discussions and questionnaires. Twenty plant species from 15 families were used for preventing and treating malaria. Most of the plants were herbs (50%), and leaves (64%) were the most frequently used parts. Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell. was the most frequently cited plant for treating malaria, mentioned by 77% of the respondents. Traditionally, malaria was known as atipa and was treated ritually. Fewer medicinal plant species were used to treat malaria in Apac compared to other parts of Uganda.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Community-Led Ethnobotanical Triage: Case study—Myaamia corn

    • Authors: Michael P. Gonella, Daryl W. Baldwin, Adolph M. Greenberg
      Pages: 517 - 531
      Abstract: Rapid loss of indigenous ethnobotanical traditions has created a need to triage research efforts to preserve this traditional knowledge. A triage process, however, is best led by those who understand the cultural context of historical data and are keenly aware of the community’s pressing needs—the indigenous community itself. Non-community researchers can be involved by lending research skills and connections towards the community-established research goals. This study described a process by which two non-indigenous community researchers supported an indigenous, Myaamia (Miami) research scholar in triaging Myaamia ethnobotanical research priorities and in conducting a focused study on the highest priority plant according to that community: corn (Zea mays L.). Data gathered regarding Myaamia corn traditions allowed the reconstruction of the traditional corn cultivation cycle. Description of traditional corn processing techniques, recipes, and identifying traditional corn varieties is helping the Myaamia community in their efforts to preserve cultural historical knowledge associated with planting of corn and in so doing revitalize Myaamia language and culture.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Cultural Importance and Use of Medicinal Plants in the Shipibo-Conibo
           Native Community of Vencedor (Loreto) Peru

    • Authors: Pío Tudela-Talavera, Maria de los Angeles La Torre-Cuadros, Native Community of Vencedor
      Pages: 533 - 548
      Abstract: The main objectives of this research were to determine which medicinal plants are culturally most important for the native community of Vencedor as well as testing a new measure of the cultural importance of medicinal plants that can be used outside of this one particular case. Data were collected through participant observation, informal conversation, and semi-structured and structured interviews to 31 heads of family. According to the Cultural Significance for Conservation Index (CSCI) developed, significant species were Petiveria alliacea L., Jatropha gossypifolia L., Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry, Hura crepitans L., and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V.Morton. Our index showed a significant correlation with the other indices considered in this paper. We conclude that CSCI is a good indicator of the cultural importance of medicinal plants and that it can be useful in cases where there is a need to recognize which culturally important plants are more vulnerable.
      PubDate: 2016-01-14
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Homegardens (Aal-oos-gad) of the Basket People of Southwestern Ethiopia:
           Sustainable agro-ecosystems characterizing a traditional landscape

    • Authors: Feleke Woldeyes, Zemede Asfaw, Sebsebe Demissew, Bernard Roussel
      Pages: 549 - 563
      Abstract: Traditional agricultural landscapes support substantial levels of biological and cultural diversity. Tropical homegardens, which represent sustainable agro-ecosystems, are important components of such landscapes. In this study, homegardens of Basketo Special Woreda of Southwestern Ethiopia have been investigated. The study aims at understanding organization of homegardens, their role in maintenance of biological diversity and also the impact of ongoing changes on the composition and function of the gardens. A total of 60 homegardens (households) were sampled from 12 k’ebele (the smallest administrative unit) selected by employing a combination of purposive and stratified sampling methods. In the study, issues that pertain to local resource perception, management, and use norms as well as plant diversity of the different land-use systems in the landscape are addressed. A total of 207 species, of which 149 are maintained in the homegardens, were recorded from the managed landscape. Biodiversity has been cultivated in these farming units as a result of the farmers’ innate perception of biodiversity value and also due to the characteristic organization of the gardens which promote concentration of plant species. Currently, Basketo homegardens are undergoing unusual dynamics mainly due to market-driven factors. Some crops such as coffee/buna  (Coffea arabica L.), which bring better economic return, are expanding and displacing enset/uuts (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheeseman) (which traditionally forms the basic element of the garden) and other long-existed crops. Drastic alteration of these crop production units could lead to unwanted impacts including a serious deterioration of biological diversity and loss of the sustainability feature of the agro-ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2016-01-17
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2016)
  • Recovery of Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq., an Important Ethnobotanical
           Resource, after Clearcut Logging in Northwestern British Columbia

    • Authors: Carla Mary Anne Burton, Philip Joseph Burton
      Pages: 001 - 015
      Abstract: The persistence and recovery of devil’s club (Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq., Araliaceae) after clearcut logging in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, is investigated through a series of retrospective surveys. This species remains important to the traditional culture of many First Peoples of western North America and is being studied for its biological abilities by medical researchers. Based on observations in 16 clearcuts that had been logged 3 to 37 years earlier, it is clear that devil’s club can survive and grow in these disturbed habitats and appears to take at least 10 years for sizes to recover to those found in old-growth forests. The most successful populations of post-logging devil’s club probably escaped damage during logging operations, showed no recent signs of fire, and were associated with loose piles of dead branches, tree tops, and rotten logs. Consideration of these factors in forest management, in combination with the time since logging, should facilitate the resilience and sustainability of this species.

      PubDate: 2015-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Palms and Palm Use in Ambalabe, a Community in Eastern Madagascar.

    • Authors: Rainer W Bussmann, Narel Y Paniagua Zambrana, Alyse Kuhlman, Fortunat Rakotoarivony, Aina Razanatsima, Lucien G Rasoaviety, Nivo Rakotoarivelo, Jeremy L Razafitsalama, Armand Randrianasolo
      Pages: 017 - 026
      Abstract: Twenty-six native palm species of three genera were identified for Vohibe Forest, eastern Madagascar. In addition, two introduced (Cocos nucifera L., Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and one native/possibly introduced species (Raphia farinifera (Gaertn.) Hyl.) are cultivated in the area. Local participants of an inventory on palm species and uses mentioned seven native species of two genera, including two folk species, but no plants could be found and no vouchers were collected. This makes Vohibe one of the richest palm hotspots in Madagascar. Palms play an important role in the life of the local population in Madagascar, providing food, material for utensils, medicine, and construction, but reports on palm use have been rare. Over 95% of the species are endemic to Madagascar. The use of palms is often destructive and possibly threatens some important species. In Vohibe Forest, nine local and three introduced species were used as resource by the population.
      PubDate: 2015-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Inventory and Implications of Plant Use for Environmental Conservation in
           Visconde de Mauá, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    • Authors: Mariana Martins da Costa Quinteiro, Ana Mayumi Gonçalves Tamashiro, Marcelo Guerra Santos, Luiz José Soares Pinto, Moemy Gomes Moraes
      Pages: 027 - 047
      Abstract: The community of Visconde de Mauá is located in the Serra da Mantiqueira Environmental Protection Area, characterized by high mountain rainforest vegetation. Despite a resident population predominantly from outside the region, inhabitants follow local patterns of plant use. Local plant uses were identified using participant observation, semi-structured and informal interviews, and guided tours. Uses were sorted in categories: medicine, food, handicrafts, fuel, construction, ornamental, and symbolic. Among the categories, medicinal use included the largest number of plant species. Tourism is intense in the area and has already affected community patterns of plant use by reducing demand for food cultivation. Alternatively, tourism has instead spurned demand for fuel and handmade crafts, a practice deemed to be incompatible with the preservation of the environment and local plant species.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Locally Preferred Woody Species and Their Management in Kiruhura and Arua
           Districts, Uganda

    • Authors: Antonia Nyamukuru, Alice Nabatanzi, Sam Mpiira, John R.S. Tabuti
      Pages: 049 - 061
      Abstract: Trees and shrubs are disappearing fast in anthropogenic landscapes of Uganda. In order to promote their conservation on-farm, there is need to involve farmers. Farmers’ involvement in tree/shrub management requires a clear understanding of the households’ needs that trees can satisfy, the priority species to satisfy these needs, as well as tree management practices and challenges that hinder tree planting. This study was carried out to satisfy these information needs and to also determine species that are locally threatened. The study was conducted in selected villages of Arua and Kiruhura districts between June and October 2012 using an ethnobotanical approach. Our results indicate that farmers value tree products to satisfy household welfare needs of accessing food (edible fruits), generating income, and accessing construction wood. The species are multi-purpose, and the most preferred are Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica L., Persea americana Mill., Carica papaya L., Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Annona senegalensis Pers., Pinus spp., and Tectona grandis L.f. Most farmers maintain trees on their land in courtyards, backyard gardens, or crop fields and ranches. Tree species are threatened by destructive harvesting and clearing land for agriculture. The key challenges to intensification of tree cultivation are livestock damage, land shortage, drought, and lack of financial resources. Farmers suggested that in order to strengthen tree planting, they should be provided with inputs including seedlings, chemicals, and tools. In conclusion farmers prefer exotic tree species to satisfy household needs. Intensification of tree management will need to address a number of challenges identified in this study.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Quantitative Approach of Sterculia setigera Del. (Sterculiaceae)
           Ethnobotanical Uses Among Rural Communities in Togo (West Africa)

    • Authors: Wouyo Atakpama, Komlan Batawila, Atama Gnamkoulaba, Koffi Akpagana
      Pages: 063 - 080
      Abstract: AbstractThe relationship between human, their culture and their environment has high importance in the frame of sustainable management of natural resources. This study aimed to assess the local uses of Sterculia setigera within rural communities in Togo. The methodology followed during this study was based on inquiries. Fifteen ethnic groups were involved. The interethnic convergence was assessed by using 4 use indices: reported use, plant part value, specific reported use, and intraspecific use value. The mean reported uses showed significant difference between geographic zones, ethnic groups, age, and corporations; but no significant difference between genders. Pharmacopeia (67.00 %), followed by magicomystic (15.23 %), and food (10.43 %) were the main quoted uses. The most used organ is the bark. Decoction was mentioned as the most used method of preparation. Considering the socio-economic and cultural importance of this species, it is important to promote its integration in agroforestry systems.RésuméLe rapport entre être humain, leur culture et leur environnement est d’une grande importance dans le cadre de gestion durable de ressources naturelles. La présente étude compte déterminer les usages locaux de Sterculia setigera au sein des communautés rurales du Togo. La méthodologie suivie au cours de cette étude a été basée sur les enquêtes. Quinze groupes ethniques ont été impliqués. La convergence d’usage interethnique a été étudiée en utilisant 4 indices d'usage: l'usage rapporté, la valeur de l’organe, l’usage spécifique rapporté, et la valeur d’usage interspécifique. Les moyennes d’usages rapportés montrent une différence significative entre les zones géographiques, les groupes ethniques, l’âge et les corporations. Par contre, aucune différence significative n’existe entre les genres. La pharmacopée (67.00%), suivi par l’usage magico-mystique (15.23%), et alimentaire (10.43%) était les principales catégories d’usages rapportés. L'organe le plus usagé est l'écorce et la décoction est le mode de préparation la plus cité. Compte tenu de l'importance socio-économique et culturelle de cette espèce, il est opportun d'encourager son intégration dans les systèmes agroforestiers. 
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Un Protocole Standard pour la Collecte de Données Ethnobotaniques et les
           Variables Socio-Economiques sur les Palmiers à Travers les Tropiques.

    • Authors: Rodrigo Cámara-Leret, Narel Paniagua-Zambrana, Manuel J. Macía
      Pages: 081 - 110
      Abstract: Ce document décrit le protocole pour la collecte d’informations sur l’ethnobotanique des palmiers et les aspects socio-économiques variables dans les communautés rurales intertropiques. Les étapes à suivre lors de la conduite des travaux de terrain sur une étude ethnobotanique quantitative sont présentées chronologiquement comme suit: (1) la préparation de la sélection sur l’étude des communautés, (2) des matériaux et des permis, (3) les travaux de planification à l’échelle communautaire, (4) recensement de la communauté, (5) sélection des informateurs, (6) types d’entrevue pour recueillir des données ethnobotaniques et les variables socio-économiques, et (7) en retour, information pour les communautés. Bien que ce protocole ait été développé et testé dans le nord-ouest d’Amérique du Sud, il peut être utilisé pour comparer les modes d’utilisation de palmier dans n’importe quels pays, écorégion, habitat, homme et usages des catégories collectives un peu partout sous les tropiques. Ce document est une traduction française par T. Randrianarivony et H. Rajaonera de la version anglaise:

      Cámara-Leret, R., N. Paniagua-Zambrana & M.J. Macía. 2012. A standard protocol for gathering palm ethnobotanical data and socioeconomic variables across the tropics. Pp. 41–72 in Medicinal Plants and the Legacy of Richard E. Schultes. Edited by B. Ponman & R.W. Bussmann. William L. Brown Center, Research Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Misssouri, U.S.A.  Abstract This paper describes a protocol for collecting information on palm ethnobotany and related socioeconomic variables in rural communities across the tropics. The steps to follow when conducting quantitative ethnobotanical fieldwork are presented chronologically: (1) selection of study communities, (2) preparation of materials and permits, (3) planning work at the community, (4) community census, (5) selection of informants, (6) types of interviews for gathering ethnobotanical data and socioeconomic variables, and (7) returning information to the communities. Although this protocol was developed and tested in northwestern South America, it can be used for comparing palm use patterns in any country, ecoregion, habitat, human group, and use categories across the tropics. This paper is a French translation by T. Randrianarivony and H. Rajaonera of the English version:

      Cámara-Leret, R., N. Paniagua-Zambrana & M.J. Macía. 2012. A standard protocol for gathering palm ethnobotanical data and socioeconomic variables across the tropics. Pp. 41–72 in Medicinal Plants and the Legacy of Richard E. Schultes. Edited by B. Ponman & R.W. Bussmann. William L. Brown Center, Research Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Misssouri, U.S.A.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Ethnobotany of Dreams and Dream Interpretations: A study among the Karbis
           of India

    • Authors: Reena Terangpi, Urmika Phangchopi, Robindra Teron
      Pages: 111 - 121
      PubDate: 2015-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Ethnobotanical Study of the Medicinal Plants Known by Men in Ambalabe,

    • Authors: Aina D Rabearivony, Alyse R Kuhlman, Zo L Razafiariso, Fidèle Raharimalala, Fortunat Rakotoarivony, Tabita Randrianarivony, Nivo Rakotoarivelo, Armand Randrianasolo, Rainer W Bussmann
      Pages: 123 - 138
      Abstract: Madagascar has high biodiversity and endemism that are threatened by growing human populations and climate change. Species loss has potential impacts on traditional knowledge and community health. The aim of this project was to identify medicinal plants known and used by men in the Commune of Ambalabe sourced from the Vohibe Forest in eastern Madagascar. Interviews were conducted that resulted in collection of 137 plant species used by men to treat illnesses, 35% of which are endemic to Madagascar. Twelve tree species were shown to have the highest Use Index among the men in Ambalabe: Noronhia gracilipes H.Perrier, Xylopia humblotiana Baill., Fenerivia ghesquiereana (Cavaco & Keraudren) R.M.K.Saunders, Phyllarthron bojeranum DC., Mauloutchia humblotii (H.Perrier) Capuron, Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Benn., Dillenia triquetra (Rottb.) Gilg, Chrysophyllum boivinianum (Pierre) Baehni, Oncostemum boivinianum H.Perrier, Peponidium humbertianum (Cavaco) Razafim., Lantz & B.Bremer, Eugenia goviala H.Perrier, and Macaranga alnifolia Baker. 
      PubDate: 2015-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Traditional Knowledge and Use Value of Bamboo in Southeastern Benin:
           Implications for sustainable management

    • Authors: Hermann Honfo, Frédéric Chenangnon Tovissodé, Césaire Gnanglè, Sylvanus Mensah, Valère Kolawolé Salako, Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo, Clément Agbangla, Romain Glèlè Kakaï
      Pages: 139 - 153
      Abstract: Traditional knowledge (TK), use, and economical values of three bamboo species—Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A.Rich.) Munro, Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C.Wendl., and Dendrocalamus asper (Schult. & Schult. f.) Backer ex K.Heyne—were assessed in southeastern Benin. Individual interviews were used in 90 randomly selected villages, which cut across 10 socio-cultural groups. We tested and found evidence to support the hypotheses that (1) age, gender, and socio-cultural groups are predictors of TK and plant ethnobotanical use value and (2) bigger bamboo species are more expensive on the market. Bamboo was used for 44 purposes, but the common food use of bamboo shoots was not reported. Men and older people had more knowledge and valued bamboo more than women and younger people, respectively, indicating that they are key stakeholders for conservation actions. The culm was the most harvested part of bamboo, and its selling price was location- and size-dependent. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to conservation and management strategies for bamboo.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Centennial Knowledge of Medicinal Plants Held in Communities of
           Espírito Santo, Brazil

    • Authors: Alegna P Baliano, Fernanda S Alves, Dominik Lenz, Ana Claudia H Pereira, Gloria MFG Aquije, Tadeu U Andrande, Denise Coutinho Endringer
      Pages: 155 - 162
      PubDate: 2015-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Magical and Popular Veterinary Uses of Rue (Ruta L., Rutaceae) by
           Shepherds in Eastern Spain

    • Authors: Pablo Vidal-González, Raquel Sánchez-Padilla
      Pages: 163 - 170
      Abstract: Rue is a plant of Mediterranean origin which is widely used by shepherds to protect the sheep. Ruta chalepensis L. and Ruta angustifolia Pers. are the species studied in this context. This article documents the popular veterinary uses of rue as well as the importance this plant has in the shepherd world as a protector against witches, evil eye, and other evils, underscoring the protection strategies employed to fight these evils that have so concerned caregivers of herds. Semi-structured interviews of veteran shepherds are the basis of this paper.


      La ruda es una planta de origen mediterráneo muy utilizada por los pastores de ganado lanar para proteger a las ovejas. Ruta chalepensis L. and Ruta angustifolia Pers. son las especies estudiadas en este contexto. Este artículo recoge los usos veterinarios tradicionales de la ruda, pero sobre todo la importancia que esta planta tiene en el mundo pastoril como protectora contra brujas, el mal de ojo y otros males, subrayando las estrategias de protección empleadas para combatir estos males que tanto han preocupado a los cuidadores de los rebaños. Entrevistas semi-estructuradas a pastores veteranos son la base de esta investigación.

      PubDate: 2015-06-02
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Indigenous Knowledge on the Use and Management of Medicinal Trees and
           Shrubs in Dale District, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Gonfa Kwessa, Tesfaye Abebe, Demissie Ambachew
      Pages: 171 - 182
      Abstract: Plants (both wild and cultivated) are essential to alleviate human health problems and food insecurity especially in the developing world. The present study was conducted in Dale District, Sidama Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region, Ethiopia, from February 2012 to June 2012, with an objective to (1) identify tree and shrub species used as medicines for the treatment of human and livestock diseases and sources of these medicinal species and (2) document factors associated with indigenous knowledge on their utilization and conservation. A total of 63 informants were involved. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations, and farm inventories. Forty-two medicinal tree and shrub species were used to treat 34 human diseases and 15 livestock diseases. The most frequently used part was leaves. The most widely used method of remedy preparation is crushing. The common route of administration is oral which is applied through drinking. Agricultural land expansion, wood for construction, timber production, and firewood collection are the major threats to those species. Except for some cultural and spiritual beliefs supporting conservation, efforts to conserve and cultivate medicinal species are limited in the area. Therefore, participation of the local people, awareness-raising through training on judicious utilization, and conservation of these species is important.
      PubDate: 2015-06-22
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Edible Wild Fruit Trees and Shrubs and Their Socioeconomic Significance in
           Central Ethiopia

    • Authors: Yigremachew Seyoum, Demel Teketay, Girma Shumi, Melaku Wodafirash
      Pages: 183 - 197
      Abstract: An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate indigenous knowledge and socioeconomics of edible wild fruit trees and shrubs (EWFTSs) in Arsi Zone, Central Ethiopia. A total of 90 respondents were interviewed and consisted of men, women, and children who were selected by stratified random sampling. A total of 30 EWFTSs bearing species that belong to 20 families were identified. Age and gender distribution of respondents on the choice of four of the top five species were homogeneous indicating that promotion can be planned indifferently to all households. Indigenous knowledge on EWFTSs varied significantly (P < 0.05) with age groups and gender as well as area of respondents. Elder males appeared more familiar with EWFTSs. Income generated from sales of EWFTSs is, however, marginal. A considerable proportion of the community acknowledged food values of EWFTSs, and more than half preferred EWFTSs over cultivated commercial fruit, suggesting that efforts towards their integration into the current farming system are appealing. Realizing the resource depletion, about 54% of the respondents planted EWFTSs while 87% showed interest to participate in domestication programs. The study explored a great potential of promoting EWFTSs in Arsi Zone and assisting the country’s efforts of ensuring food security.
      PubDate: 2015-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Local Perceptions of Food Plants in Eastern Burkina Faso

    • Authors: K. Marie Laure Guissou, Thea Kristiansen, Anne Mette Lykke
      Pages: 199 - 209
      Abstract: Ethnobotanical interviews on the use of food plants were conducted with 90 informants from two villages in eastern Burkina Faso. A total of 25 plant species and one type of stock cube were included in a structured questionnaire regarding use, importance, reasons behind use, changes in use, and preferences, followed by a supplementary semi-structured questionnaire about reasons behind use, changes, and preferences. Most species were highly used and considered important. Adansonia digitata L., Bombax costatum Pellegr. & Vuillet, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. ex G.Don, and Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn. were particularly important and useful species. Tradition, taste, health, and the lack of other possibilities were main reasons for people using the plants. A decline in traditional food products and an emergence of new products were observed. Answers were strongly related to informants’ home-village and project-contact. There seems to be an extensive interest in health aspects and, consequently, a potential for an increased use of healthy traditional products if people are better informed about their nutritive qualities.
      PubDate: 2015-08-05
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • The Uses of the Baobab Flower (Adansonia digitata L)

    • Authors: John Rashford
      Pages: 211 - 229
      Abstract: In the now extensive literature on the African baobab, the use of the flower is often overlooked or described as minimal. This paper presents a synthesis of the uses of the baobab flower that incorporates the results of my own fieldwork on the introduction and cultural significance of the baobab in Florida, the Caribbean, and Brazil. Fieldwork conducted over the past 30 years has involved locating, measuring, and photographing baobabs; observations on flowering and fruiting and such things as the size and shape of fruits and the number of seeds per fruit; and structured and unstructured interviews and community discussions to determine the cultural significance of the tree. In addition to publications and word of mouth, baobabs were also located by appeals to the public involving newspaper interviews and radio interviews. Although the uses of the baobab flower have yet to be documented in a manner comparable to other parts of the tree—especially the fruit, leaves, and bark—the present study shows it is far from being useless or of little use as some premature assessments would suggest. This initial summary is intended to encourage greater attention to the uses of the flower in the increasingly sophisticated research on the baobab that is now being done in Africa and elsewhere.

      En la literatura del baobab africano, hoy en día extensa, el uso de la flor a menudo se pasa por alto o se describe como mínimo. Este artículo presenta una síntesis de los usos de la flor del baobab que incorpora los resultados de mis estudios en el campo relativos a la introducción y el significado cultural del baobab en Florida, el Caribe y en Brasil. El trabajo de campo realizado en los últimos 30 años se ha dedicado a localizar, medir y fotografiar baobabs; a hacer observaciones de la floración y la fructificación y de cosas como el tamaño y la forma de los frutos y el número de semillas por fruto; a llevar a cabo entrevistas estructuradas y no estructuradas, así como conversaciones con la comunidad para determinar el significado cultural del árbol. Además de las publicaciones y referencias verbales, también se localizaron baobabs por medio de llamados al público en entrevistas radiales y en periódicos. A pesar de que los usos de la flor del baobab aún están pendientes de documentarse en forma comparable a las otras partes del árbol—especialmente el fruto, las hojas y la corteza—el presente estudio muestra que, contrario a lo que valoraciones prematuras sugieren, la flor está lejos de ser de poca o ninguna utilidad. Este extracto inicial pretende atraer más atención a los usos de la flor en la investigación del baobab, la cual es cada vez más sofisticada y que ya se realiza en África y en otras latitudes.
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Diversity, Knowledge, and Use of Plants in Traditional Treatment of
           Diabetes in the Republic of Benin

    • Authors: Fernand Obafemi Arnauld Laleye, Sylvanus Mensah, Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo, Hyacinthe Ahissou
      Pages: 231 - 257
      Abstract: We assessed the diversity, knowledge, and use of antidiabetic plants by traditional healers, plant traders, and farmers from different locations in Benin. Altogether, 254 face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Plant diversity was described, based on species richness. Jaccard Index was used to examine the similarity between locations. Consensus values for plant part and manner of use were also computed. A generalized linear model (GLM) with a Poisson distribution was applied to assess the effects of social factors on informants’ knowledge. A total of 203 antidiabetic plant species were mentioned, belonging to 176 genera and 72 families. Predominant used plant parts were leaves, roots, and bark. Main methods of remedy preparations included decoction and infusion. The number of plants mentioned was significantly different among locations (P < 0.05; highest value being found in South Borgou), categories of age (P < 0.05; with adults and older people better informed than youngsters), and types of occupation (P < 0.05; healers reporting more species than farmers and traders). The variation in knowledge among healers, farmers, and traders depended on the location and the category of age. For instance, adult healers disclosed more plants than adult farmers and adult traders, but knowledge of plants was similar either when they were young or old. This study revealed that plants were frequently collected from crop fields and forests, raising concerns of sustainable harvest. It is suggested that home gardens be promoted as tools to reduce pressures on natural forests and prevent medicinal plant erosion.
      PubDate: 2015-10-19
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • The Arson of a Museum: Ethnography of historical experience and plant
           fiber use in northern Coclé Province, Panama

    • Authors: Nina K. Müller-Schwarze
      Pages: 259 - 288
      Abstract: The use of tree cambium to make cucua dance outfits attracted the attention of international plant and culture conservationists. Scholarly narratives, media interpretations, and publications for the tourism market about cucua often reiterate racialized colonial categories as the origin point for a history construed as Panamanian. Implementation of conservation programs, like the construction of a museum and cultural center, ignored existing social structures among dancers. Arsonists allegedly destroyed the museum. This article presents data collected in anthropological participant observation methodologies and describes why conservation programs were rejected through the ethnography of historical experience that shows how people make sense of the past. Local explanations of plant uses that include power accessed through the ruptures of social structures during liminal times, such as Spanish colonialism, are real and not just symbolic. This article places cucua plant use in cultural context with other plant fibers used in northern Coclé for baskets, all called “weaving.”
      PubDate: 2015-10-28
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Medicinal Plant Species Used in the Management of Hernia by Traditional
           Medicine Practitioners in Central Uganda

    • Authors: Moses Sserwano Kibuuka, Godwin Anywar
      Pages: 289 - 298
      Abstract: Hernia is a common neglected disease that occurs when a portion of tissue or a body organ bulges through a weakened muscle area. This study was carried out to document traditional concepts of hernia and the medicinal plant species used in its treatment among Prometra Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP) in Mpigi District, central Uganda. Such specialized knowledge is held by a few members of the community, particularly TMPs. Since it is not documented, it is at risk of being forever lost, despite its potential to contribute towards improved healthcare delivery. Data were collected through snowballing and focus group discussions using semi-structured interviews. Thirty TMPs were interviewed. Fifty-one plant species belonging to 28 families were documented. Trees (49%) were the most commonly used life form. Roots (32%) and bark (30%) were the most commonly used plant parts. All the medicines were freshly prepared and administered orally. Most medicines (96%) were prepared as decoctions. Hernia was diagnosed through physical examination, and treatment varied between 1–4 months. In conclusion, the TMPs believe a monotonous starchy diet can cause hernia by straining the intestinal walls. Hernia is treated using various locally available medicinal plant species.
      PubDate: 2015-10-28
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • The Original Banana Split: Multi-disciplinary implications of the
           generation of African and Pacific Plantains in Island Southeast Asia

    • Authors: Edmond De Langhe, Xavier Perrier, Mark Donohue, Tim Paul Denham
      Pages: 299 - 312
      Abstract: Traditional starchy banana cultivation in the humid tropics is dominated by two widespread, but geographically discrete, groups of AAB cultivars: plantains in Africa and maoli-popo`ulu in the Pacific. Both AAB subgroups exhibit exceptionally high cultivar diversity due to multiple somatic mutations, and yet both subgroups have relatively similar genetic origins. Although both cultivar groups originated within a region defined by the Philippines, Eastern Indonesia, and New Guinea, the precise area of origin for each AAB group within this region is different. Significantly, the distribution of each sub-group is mutually exclusive: traditional cultivation of maoli-popo`ulu cultivars is not attested to the West of the region and of plantain cultivars to the East. On the basis of botanical data, we argue that the original plantain hybrids were probably formed in the Philippines, while basic maoli-popo`ulu were formed in the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands. The generation of these two AAB subgroups shed light on human interactions within Island Southeast Asia before 3000 cal BP, for which there is currently only limited archaeological evidence.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Availability and Use of Woody Plant Resources in Two Areas of Caatinga in
           Northeastern Brazil

    • Authors: Madson Reis de Oliveira Trindade, Jomar Gomes Jardim, Alejandro Casas, Natan Medeiros Guerra, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de Lucena
      Pages: 313 - 330
      Abstract: Traditional knowledge of woody plants from the vegetation type known as caatinga was documented in the rural communities of João Câmara, Rio Grande do Norte, and Remígio, Paraíba, in northeastern Brazil. The relationship between the species availability and their local importance or use value (the “ecological apparency hypothesis”) was evaluated based on the calculation of three types of use value: UVgeneral, UVactual, and UVpotential. A phytosociological study was conducted using the point-centered quarter method for sampling 4000 individual plants in the two communities studied. Semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews about the use and human cultural role of plants were carried out with 92 local participants (49 women and 43 men). The correlation between ethnobotanical and phytosociological data was analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. A total of 58 useful plant species, belonging to 42 genera of 18 plant families, was recorded in interviews. Through the phytosociological study, 30 species belonging to 22 genera and 12 families in João Câmara, and 34 species of 22 genera from nine families in Remígio, were recorded. The ecological apparency hypothesis was supported in João Câmara, which showed positive correlations between UVgeneral and dominance (rs = 0.49; p <0.02) and UVactual and dominance (rs = 0.43; p <0.04), but not in Remígio. Analyzing the data per use categories showed that only the technology category exhibited a positive correlation between UVpotential and dominance (rs = 0.60; and p <0.03). Ecological apparency could explain better the relationship between the local availability and the use value of the timber resources. The point-centered quarter method was efficient to test the ecological apparency hypothesis.

      PubDate: 2015-12-04
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Traditional Knowledge in a Rural Community in the Semi-Arid Region of
           Brazil: Age and gender patterns and their implications for plant

    • Authors: Edna Arévalo-Marín, José Ribamar de Farias Lima, Alexandre Ramlo Torre Palma, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de Lucena, Denise Dias da Cruz
      Pages: 331 - 344
      Abstract: The present study documents dynamics and patterns of knowledge about the use of native plants in a rural community, according to the age and gender of its members, in a semi-arid region of Paraíba State, northeastern Brazil. Socioeconomic factors and ethnobotanical data were registered from 123 household heads through semi-structured interviews. Comparisons between the knowledge of males and females, and between age groups about species richness, number of citations mentioned, and species plant use knowledge measures were made to determine intracultural variations. These outcomes show that differentiation of botanical knowledge from a gender and age perspective reinforces the importance of recognizing specific activities and needs in males and females in the design and definition of sustainable management strategies, policies, and economic interventions over vegetation legacy, and act as a priority inclusion indicator of certain species in conservation processes as a contribution to the culture and biodiversity conservation.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Local Knowledge on the Use of Swertia chirayita as Traditional Medicine:
           Conservation challenges in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    • Authors: Bharat K. Pradhan, Hemant K. Badola
      Pages: 345 - 355
      Abstract: Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) Buch.-Ham. ex C.B.Clarke (Gentianaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine, but this knowledge is eroding with modernization.This study attempted to understand the perception and knowledge of people about the species use and conservation in four districts of Sikkim Himalaya. A questionnaire survey was used for data collection. Swertia chirayita is highly used for treating fever and cold and cough by both male (p <0.001; F = 63.72) and female (p <0.001; F = 86.16) respondents. Over 92% of respondents administer the species, as medicine, orally in the form of decoction. The perception on the market potential of S. chirayita was significantly high amongst both male (p <0.001; F = 39.27) and female (p <0.001; F = 30.46) respondents. In Sikkim, a majority of respondents (p <0.05) consider habitat destruction and human disturbances as the chief causes of natural population decline of S. chirayita.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Participatory Approaches and Conservation of Medicinal Plants: Identifying
           priority species in the community of Areais da Ribanceira (Brazil)

    • Authors: Sofia Zank, Natalia Hanazaki, Anderson Santos de Mello
      Pages: 357 - 366
      Abstract: Using a participatory approach, we aimed to identify medicinal conservation priority plant species in a region where a sustainable conservation area is being proposed. Local farmers consensually selected 10 ethno-species represented by 11 scientific species (Calea uniflora Less., Equisetum giganteum L., Aristolochia triangularis Cham., Zollernia ilicifolia (Brongn.) Vogel, Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl, Mikania laevigata Sch.Bip. ex Baker, Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Lepidium didymum L., Dioscorea altissima Lam., and Picrasma crenata Engl. in Engl. & Prantl), which were the focus of two participatory tools: four-cell analysis and matrix of plants and environments. Most plants were classified as having high environmental availability and as being under intense extraction pressure. Both natural areas (restinga and hillside forest) and cultivated areas (croplands and homegardens) are important for the acquisition of native medicinal plants. This participatory process tends to facilitate the incorporation of research results by the community, according to its local demands, as well as allowing for a collective learning experience. The use of a participatory approach also allowed the gradual increase in the awareness of the community related to their medicinal plants, contributing to their own decisions about the management and conservation of these resources.
      PubDate: 2015-12-08
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Ethnobotanical Survey of Woody Plants in Shorobe and Xobe Villages,
           Northwest Region of Botswana

    • Authors: John Neelo, Keotshephile Kashe, Demel Teketay, Wellington Masamba
      Pages: 367 - 379
      Abstract: Ethnobotanical investigations were conducted at Xobe and Shorobe Villages in northwestern Botswana to identify woody plants used by the local people. A total of 90 households (35 in Xobe and 55 in Shorobe) were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire and personal interviews. A total of 38 woody species representing 16 families and 25 genera were recorded. Of these, 28 species representing 15 families and 22 genera were recorded from Shorobe, and 27 species representing 10 families and 15 genera were recorded from Xobe. The uses of woody plants were grouped into eight categories, namely construction, fuelwood, furniture, medicine, human food, fodder, farm implements, and shade. Several of the species are used for more than one purpose. At both study sites, the use category with the highest proportion of number of woody species and proportion among the use categories was human food. Thirteen of the families were represented by 23 woody species that are used for medicinal purposes, and the most commonly used plant parts were the roots, bark, leaves, and stems. Nine of the 28 woody species (28%) in Shorobe and nine of the 27 woody species (33.3%) in Xobe provide edible parts. Six (21%) and eight (30%) woody species recorded in Shorobe and Xobe, respectively, are used for construction purposes. Most plants are used as fuelwood for household energy generation. In spite of the scarcity of natural forests in the study areas, the local communities continue to depend on the indigenous woody species in their surroundings for their survival. Virtually all trees identified in the different families are useful in one way or another in the lives of the rural communities, with most of the species serving more than one function. There is, therefore, a need for cultivation, protection, and sustainable management of these valuable resources for sustaining rural livelihoods in the study sites.
      PubDate: 2015-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Use of Wood Resources in Central Argentina: A multivariate approach for
           the study of phytogeography and culture

    • Authors: Santiago Rodríguez López, Bárbara Arias Toledo, Leonardo Galetto
      Pages: 381 - 392
      Abstract: Changes in land use and forest loss determine not only the loss of biodiversity, but the associated traditional ecological knowledge. Thus, knowing the several uses of forest resources by rural communities might help in guiding conservation efforts. We applied a multivariate approach to evaluate knowledge on uses of wood species­—based on environmental factors and participants’ (N = 114) socioeconomic characteristics—in six rural communities of Córdoba Province, Argentina, located in three different phytogeographical areas. Older men with unstable jobs and low education represent the embodiment of those who know about wood resources. Although the multivariate analysis suggests that socioeconomic factors are important when determining the known uses of wood resources within each area, environmental factors such as the availability of species considerably contribute to the characterization of the different communities. Quantitative analysis, including the socioeconomic characterization of human populations, might provide a valuable tool when planning policies for management and conservation of fuelwood resources.
      PubDate: 2015-12-17
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Ethnomedicinal Knowledge on Water Purification in Selected Rural Areas of

    • Authors: Moa Megersa, Abebe Beyene, Argaw Ambelu, Zeleke Alebachew, Ludwig Triest
      Pages: 393 - 403
      Abstract: Plants have been used for water purification dating back to perhaps 2000 BC as noted in Egyptian inscriptions. Plant coagulants have the potential to serve as alternative water treatment agents especially in rural areas. Hence this study aimed to examine four promising plants and their uses as local coagulants for purification of turbid water in order to tackle rural quality water problems. Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, market surveys, and observation were used to gather information from three rural areas. Jar test experiments were carried out for treatment of high (209 NTU), medium (63 NTU), and low level (26 NTU) turbidity with the flocculent dosages of 0.03 g/L of powdered plant material. The four plant species used for treatment of turbid water were Maerua subcordata (Gilg) DeWolf, Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod., Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf. ex Baker, and Sansevieria forskaliana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Hepper & J.R.I.Wood. The finding shows that societies in each study area still depend on plant species for purification of turbid surface water. Coagulation tests revealed that tubers of M. subcordata and seeds of M. stenopetala were able to remove turbidity up to 97% at high turbidity levels and performance was better than leaves of S. ehrenbergii and S. forskaliana. Complementing traditional water treatment knowledge with coagulation tests and purification of the specific protein coagulant could help to identify appropriate solutions for rural people with difficulty preparing purified water.
      PubDate: 2015-12-22
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • A Particular Silhouette of Human-Influenced Coconut Trees in Hindu Bali,
           Indonesia: An ethnobotanical field note

    • Authors: Rie Miyaura, Tomoko Ohno, Hisayuki Maenaka, Ketut Sumiartha, Hirofumi Yamaguchi
      Pages: 405 - 421
      Abstract: In Hindu Bali, coconut trees near human settlements exhibit a particular silhouette. To understand the relationship between human activity and the landscape created by plant usage, we analyzed the extent of the cut-leaved coconut canopies and consumption pattern of coconut leaflets for religious purposes on Bali Island. Cut-leaved coconut canopies were identified in 78% of the 18 sites investigated, and 22% of coconut trees had cut leaves. Coconut leaflets, young and old, were gathered from live trees and frequently used for many offerings such as canang, penjor, and sanggah cucuk for Dewi Sri as part of plant decorations made with various colorful flowers and ornamental tree leaves. Balinese people still make traditional offerings with intact plant materials, although recently coconut leaflets are increasingly sold in markets in urban areas. We conclude that this particular coconut silhouette is a result of human ritual activities stemming from the Balinese culture.
      PubDate: 2015-12-23
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Ecological Apparency Hypothesis and Plant Utility in the Semiarid Region
           of Brazil

    • Authors: Natan Medeiros Guerra, Thamires Kelly Nunes Carvalho, João Everthon da Silva Ribeiro, João Paulo de Oliveira Ribeiro, Abraão Ribeiro Barbosa, José Ribamar de Farias Lima, Carlos Antônio Belarmino Alves, Rodrigo Silva de Oliveira, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de Lucena
      Pages: 423 - 435
      Abstract: The ecological apparency hypothesis seeks to understand the dynamics of use that a particular species has through its availability in vegetation areas. According to this hypothesis, apparent plants are the most collected and used by humans. This hypothesis was tested in the rural community of Santa Rita, municipality of Congo, in Cariri microregion (Paraíba state, Northeast Brazil). We calculated the use value (UV) for each species. For the phytosociological inventory, we adopted the point-quadrant method, plotting 500 points distributed in the vegetation areas of the community, registering the perimeter measurements and height of 2000 plants. Interviews were conducted with householders, totaling 98 informants (41 men and 57 women), and 24 species, 21 genera, and 11 families were recorded. The cited species were grouped into 11 utility categories. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to correlate phytosociological and ethnobotanical data. The use values of the species did not correlate with phytosociological parameters. Regarding the use categories, there were positive correlations for fuel (UV with dominance and basal area), construction (UV with all phytosociological parameters), fodder (UV with all parameters), and poison/abortion categories (UV with density and frequency). Ecological apparency significantly explained the local importance of useful plants in fuel, construction, and fodder categories, and less significantly for poison/abortion.
      PubDate: 2015-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Pequi (Caryocar coriaceum Wittm., Caryocaraceae) Oil Production: A strong
           economically influenced tradition in the Araripe region, northeastern

    • Authors: Maria Clara Bezerra Tenório Cavalcanti, Letícia Zenóbia de Oliveira Campos, Rosemary da Silva Sousa, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
      Pages: 437 - 452
      Abstract: The extraction of pequi (Caryocar coriaceum Wittm.) oil is a traditional activity that occurs between December and March. This extraction is performed by communities from the Araripe region, northeastern Brazil, and is very important to the local economy and culture. However, this practice has never been described in the literature. Thus, this photographic essay presents a description of this activity. The fruit are collected inside Araripe-Apodi National Forest (FLONA); oil production occurs in temporary settlements near FLONA, and oil marketing occurs on the highway and public markets in cities nearby this location. The Pequi Collectors’ Ranch Festival ends the process when typical pequi meals are made and sold and a Catholic mass is performed to give thanks for the harvest. In addition to being a significant cultural and economic practice, pequi oil production is an important part of local people’s lives. Therefore, we must encourage its socioecological sustainability.
      PubDate: 2015-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • The Traditional Knowledge of Quilombola About Plants: Does urbanization

    • Authors: Julia Vieira da Cunha Avila, Sofia Zank, Kênia Maria de Oliveira Valadares, Juana Moreira Maragno, Natalia Hanazaki
      Pages: 453 - 462
      Abstract: Quilombolas, or Maroons, are traditional groups of people of African-Brazilian descent, who self-identify as such, with their own historical background, which includes black ancestors and an identity related to the historical resistance to oppression. Studying three Quilombola communities as a case study, we aim to investigate their current relationship with plant resources. These communities exist in different types of environments, both rural and urban (Fortunato has rural characteristics, Aldeia is enclosed in a growing urban area, and Santa Cruz has intermediate characteristics). After obtaining prior informed consent, we interviewed 184 inhabitants of these communities, using free-lists of plants that the participants know and use. We collected additional data during participatory workshops. We registered 322 plants that were known and used. Of these plants, 48% were cultivated, 25% extracted, and 27% bought in local markets. The main uses of the listed plants were for medicine (31%) and food (28%), but the most citations were for food plants, showing that, individually, the people listed more food plants than plants for other uses. Quilombolas, from the three communities studied, maintain similar ethnobotanical repertoires, relying on several introduced plants. However, we were still able to register less frequent knowledge about native plant resources. When separated by plant uses, the results showed that more plants were known in the most urbanized area, with no clear gradient toward the rural area. The understanding of this new context of ethnobotanical knowledge, in communities that face transformations due to urbanization, can be deepened in further studies, including investigations into the role of managed environments, such as home gardens, as well as investigations into the cultural and ecological significance of plants and deeper analyses of medicinal plants and medicinal practices within these communities.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
  • Local Botanical Knowledge about Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.)
           T.D.Penn. in Rural Communities in the Semi-Arid Region of Brazil

    • Authors: Kamila Marques Pedrosa, Elizabethe Quintella de Lima, Camilla Marques Lucena, Thamires Kelly Nunes Carvalho, João Everthon da Silva Ribeiro, Edna Arévalo Marín, Rodrigo Silva de Oliveira, Ricardo Elesbão Alves, Silvanda de Melo Silva, Denise Dias da Cruz, Reinaldo Farias Paiva Lucena
      Pages: 463 - 477
      Abstract: Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T.D.Penn. is a species widely used, for several purposes, by traditional populations from the semi-arid region of Brazil. This study records the knowledge and use attributed to this species by residents from two regions: the Curimataú (Coelho and Capivara communities) and the Cariri (São Francisco and Santa Rita communities) located in the semi-arid region of Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. We interviewed all householders (244 informants) through a semi-structured form. The data were organized in eight use categories, and comparisons were made using a Mann-Whitney test and a Kruskal-Wallis test. Medicinal was the most cited use. To test the similarity in medicinal uses, we used a one-way ANOSIM permutation test. Knowledge about plant use was similar in both communities but differed by gender. Bark was the most used part for medicinal purposes, and “undefined diseases or undefined pains” was the most cited bodily system-ailment. Specific needs in each community determined how plants were employed.
      PubDate: 2015-12-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2015)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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