Journal of Social Sciences
[19 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1549-3652
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
[19 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1549-3652
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
- Perceived Social Support and Opinions on Poverty: Is it Chronic or
Abstract: This article discusses the relation between perceptual component of social support and the beliefs about stability of poverty condition. To what extent individualâs perception about having back covered, resulting from opinion about familyâs or friendsâ resources or their moral support, influences his belief about poverty as a chronic or a transient condition? Analyses-Chi2 test on bivariate crossings-have been carried out on a sample of 992 individuals resident in Lazio, an Italian region. They were asked to respond to a multidimensional semiâstructured questionnaire on their socialâeconomic status and beliefs about poverty. Outcomes emerged revealed a relation between the feeling safe thanks to personal supportive network and opinion on poverty: Respondents showing a greater feeling of back covered consider poverty a chronic condition more than others. On the contrary, the evaluation of poverty as a condition that is possible to escape from is more frequent among people who reported to feel morally supported or they can count on familyâs or friendsâ resources.
- Personality Traits and Exposure to Stressful Life Events Among Smokers and
Abstract: Early studies supposed that personality traits and studentsâ life, which include brings many social and academic changes, may be relevant factors in initiation and maintenance of smoking. The aims of this study were to investigate differences in personality dimensions, as well as exposure to stressful life events among studentsâ smokers and nonsmokers and finally to examine the predictive contribution of these variables to smoking status. The study was conducted on the sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of 21 (interquartile range, 3) who completed Goldbergâs Personality Questionnaire and Scale of stressful life events. The group of students who never smoke (N = 101) and the group of smokers (N = 99) took part in the study. The results have shown that personality dimension of neuroticism and stressful life events related to social alienation, academic failure and everyday social conflict differed the smokers and non-smokers group. The smokers had higher scores in comparison to non-smokers group of students. Neuroticism and stressful life events academic failure and academic maladjustment were also significant predictors to smoking status.
- Rural and Urban Attitudes toward Immigrants in the U.S. Midwest and Great
Abstract: Recent immigration has transformed much of the Midwest and Great Plains regions of the United States, affecting its rural and urban areas through dramatic increases in the foreign-born population and in particular Latino immigrant populations. This study examines three theories of prejudice: Perceptions of threat, contact with immigrants and a cosmopolitanism outlook, in predicting rural and urban attitudes toward immigrants in Nebraska, a state experiencing a substantial rise in immigrant populations. We use a large, randomly drawn sample of individuals across the state of Nebraska. Using ordinary least squares methods we show that the effects of perceived threat, contact and a cosmopolitan outlook vary within and between rural and urban areas of the state. Perceived threat was found to have the greatest negative effects on attitudes toward immigrants for those who live in small cities and the open country or on farms, while contact with immigrants and a cosmopolitan outlook was found to have the greatest positive effect on attitudes for those living in large cities and for towns. Implications for growing the Latino population are discussed.
- A New Look At Our Old Attitude Problem
Abstract: Across the disciplines, attitudes are commonly measured through the use of unidimensional scaling (e.g., Likert scaling). Given that the Likert measurement scale (multiple equivalent items regarding an attitudinal target from which a summated score is produced) and the Likert response format (positive to negative judgements) were developed over 80 years ago, this article questions whether Likert scaling is still optimal for attitude investigation. In this article, it is argued that the lack of resolution of the debate around the dimensionality of attitudes has encouraged a simplistic view of attitudes (assumed unidimensionality of both attitudes and attitudes responses) to predominate, without empirical justification for this view.
- RELATIONSHIP AMONG E-SERVICE QUALITY, CULTURE, ATTITUDE, TRUST, RISK OF
Abstract: Purchasing is considered a risky business specifically in the online purchasing environment. The research was designed to fill the gap in the existing body of knowledge regarding attitudes and differences in electronic service quality perception between two different geographical and cultural countries-Malaysia and Saudi Arabia-regarding online shopping. Specifically, this research extended previous effort done in an online shopping context by providing evidence that high service quality increase consumersâ trust perception, which in turn results in favorable attitude toward online shopping, with risk perception on consumerâs trust. Findings indicated differences between Saudis and Malaysians in e-service quality perception. Also attitude toward online shopping was affected by e-service quality perception, but it had mediated effects through trust. Finally, researcher found that perceived risk moderated the relationship between e-service quality and trust. The findings provide practical suggestions for managers on how to develop consumer trust online and enhance purchase attitude even when customers have high risk perception. E-service quality should strongly influence trust for individuals with a higher perceived risk associated with online purchase in comparison to those with a lower perceived risk.
- ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE STATES BEFORE AND AFTER THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
Abstract: Even though, the American Civil War is considered as a seminal event in the history of the United States, there are not many empirical studies examining economic conditions of the Union and the Confederate states. Even though, economic conflict is not considered to be a cause of the Civil War, economic conditions after the war were vastly different in the Union and the Confederate states. The purpose of this study is to analyze the economic outcomes of individuals in the Confederate states and the Union states before and after the American Civil War using census data for 1860 and 1880. Our goal is to analyze the improvements in the occupation income scores. Since the slaves were freed, we also examine whether there was a reduction in the farm households.
- Economic Development of Pak Dome Community in the Lower Mun River Basin
for Good Life Quality in Northeastern Thailand
Abstract: This qualitative research was carried out of the Pak Dome community, Mu 1 Tambon Posai, Amphoe Phibun Mang sahan, Ubon Ratchathani. The 15 samples went through learning process by raising plants and animals. The field data were collected using interviews and participant observations. The data were analyzed descriptively and the results were as follows the people who settled at the Pak Dome community migrated from Tapthai Pha Aw and Sao thong villages. The community was located near the area where the Pak Dome creek met the Mun River. The area was and still is plentiful of fish and edible plants. The Pak Dome community experienced change due to external and internal factors as early as 1855 when Thailand signed the Bowring Treaty with the United Kingdom and the Government railway reached Nakhon Ratchasima in 1900. Such events opened up free trade among major towns and large communities located along the Mun River basin. The Kukrit Promoterâs government policy of putting the money or budget back to the countryside for improvement of infrastructure and/or employment in 1990. The change taught the Pak Dome people to readjust their subsistence economy to market economy. To a large extent, the people some people went back to growing food crops and raised animals using home or community made fertilizer. The new experience helped the people to reduce their risk from market economy, improve soil fertility and free of chemical deposits. The impact of the newly selected project was immense. Economically, the people almost doubled their annual income from 15,000 baht to about 24,000 baht per family. Their quality of life improved due to improved environment, food consumption, self-help or subsistence economy and improved learning experience initiated or brought by resource persons from within and outside of the community and reduced cost and increased farm produce.
- WOMEN AND POLITICS: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION AND A POLICY OF DECONSTRUCTION
Abstract: Female representation in politics is not unusual but the significance can be questionable. Womenâs involvement in politics has been minimal in Malaysia. The improvement in the number of female representatives over the years has been surprisingly slow. Thus the political landscape is still a manâs world. Although the number of female registered voters is higher than male, womenâs representation in the parliament fails to reflect this societal majority. The feminist perspective argues that deterrent factors to womenâs active involvement are due to social construction and such a claim is supported when reviewing this phenomenon. Women are still viewed as the supportive group and unfit to lead the society. Despite the National Policy for Women that was adopted to deconstruct such double standards for women, the struggles for women in politics are tremendous. This research applies the qualitative method to examine women and politics. Secondary data is gathered to challenge the claim that the National Policy for women has empowered women in politics. This article examines the meaning of social construction and deconstruction mechanisms that are unable to boost womenâs participation in politics. Overall, women are certainly capable of carrying out political responsibilities but the miles to significant political participation are still far.
- GENDER PREFERENCES FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TRANSPORT WITH FOCUS ON ELECTRIC
Abstract: Transportation has become an important part of our day to day life. Due to changing lifestyle, frequent travels whether related to work or leisure has become a common phenomenon. Such lifestyle also demands comfortable transport medium and reasonable availability of fuels. As need of vehicle for transportation is rising, it has put pressure of fuel supply, fuel prices and environment as well. The rising prices of fuel, increasing pressure on resources and threatening environment pollution is driving the need for alternative and clean sources of energy. Increasing competition among nations to own the resources is becoming a serious threat for many developing countries. This paper empirically examines the gender preference for alternative energy sources and related technologies for vehicles. In total, 1168 questionnaires were received from respondents (male-711, female-442, not disclosed-15) from eleven cities in India viz. Bengaluru, Chennai, Cochin, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Pune, Imphal, Rohtak, Sagar and Tiruvanathpuram in India and one city from Bhutan-Thimpu. Respondents who did not disclose their gender were excluded from the study. The study was conducted from October 2013 to June 2014. The objective of the study was to understand the social dimensions and gender preferences of the respondents regarding their preference for electric vehicle as an alternative energy transport for personal and public use. The primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSSÂ®). Findings indicate that in general fueled vehicles are still preferred over electric vehicles. However there is a strong interest in electric vehicles. It was observed that more than 66% of the respondents in the age group of 18-30 can become prospective customers in the near future, if the electric vehicles meet their expectations. In this age group, 59% of the respondents were male and 41% were female. Most of the respondents indicated that they would purchase the electric vehicle as it would save operating costs, it is environment friendly and less dependent on fossil fuel. It was observed that as compared to female, male respondents were more inclined towards the influential factors like fuel efficiency, safety, vehicle power and reliability and early availability of vehicle in the market. In all 93% of respondents confirm that they are willing to pay the premium price and among them, 61% were male and 39% were female.
- THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON INDIVIDUALS WITH AUTISM: IS PHYSICAL
EXERCISE ABLE TO HELP AUTISTIC'
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to provide some background information on autism and how physical activity may be helping individuals with autism. Increasing rates of autism have been noted: Many researchers are involved in finding treatment methods that can help autistic children. Some studies have provided evidence that physical exercise and playing organized sport has been shown to be a beneficial intervention for the treatment of autistic individuals. The development of both motor and social skills has been seen to improve from physical exercise, which presents a challenge to individuals with autism.
- FACTORS INFLUENCING MOBILE-LEARNING ADOPTION INTENTION: AN EMPIRICAL
INVESTIGATION IN HIGH EDUCATION
Abstract: This study investigates the use of mobile phones and tablets for learning purposes among university students in Vietnam. For this purpose, the research is based on relevant technology acceptance literature and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is proposed to analyze the adoption of mobile devices and smart phones by Vietnam students for accessing course materials, searching the web for information related to their discipline, sharing knowledge, conducting assignments etc. Employing structural equation modeling (SEM) technology, the model was assessed based on the data collected from 301 participants using a survey questionnaire. These results validate the power of TAM constructs and its appropriateness for predicting acceptance of mobile learning. Usefulness had the highest path coefficients and was a strong predictor of behavioral intention and attitude to use and thus actual use. The proposed TAM model also can improve the understanding of studentsâ motivation by suggesting what external factors are the most important in enhancing students acceptance of mobile learning.
- THE TRADITION OF LIVING OF MUSLIM COMMUNITY KUDUSKULON
Abstract: The northern coast of Java island Indonesia inherited old cities that hold important role in the spread of Islam. It has a strong correlation with the legend of Walisanga that were acted around the 16th century. The Ancient city of Kudus plays an important role in spreading Islam in the coastal line of Java. Kudushas witnessed the glory of the first Islamic Sultanate in Java. Sunan Kudus was very skillful in transforming Hindu teachings into Islamic teachings. They developed a settlement on the west side of Gelis River, thus the name âKudus Kulonâ (West Kudus). The social-economy independence of Kudus makes it relatively stable to change. The ethnical dynamics of coastal cities have major influence in the Muslim settlement in Kudus Kulon, this is visible from, among them, the building orientations and the spatial arrangement. However, the pressure of modernization-capitalization of the surrounding neighborhood results to several changes. This review is necessary considering the tradition of living of the Muslim community in that city has been here for centuries and has been the identity of the environment. The research will contribute to enrich to the architectural theory especially for a place of local wisdom. The locus of this research is in KampungKauman Kudus Kulon. The research method is historical and ethnographic. The purpose of this research is to understand the theme of tradition of living in the Muslim community of Kudus Kulon. The result of the research is the four concepts include: (1) Center and Orientation, (2) Controlled access; (3) Space of agreements; and (4) High level privacy. The changes that happen in the elements that fill the spaces caused by the shift of idealism as a result of the demanding situation. This result is beneficial to the strengthening of the local identity.
- MEDICAL ETHICS COURSE IMPROVES MEDICAL PROFESSIONALISM: MEDICAL
Abstract: Training physicians who are expert in many medical aspects is the most improtant mission of medical universities. One of these aspects, is professional behavior achievement. One of the important goals in training of ethics, is recognition of conflicts in different parts of ethics and having logical viewpoint for resolving and analyzing these conflicts. This descriptive and analytical study was done to evaluate the efficacy of medical ethics education in medical studentsÂ´ professional attitudes improvement. One hundred and two medical students were selected randomly in different steps of education and were questioned and their opinions correlation with stage of education and gender were evaluated. There was a significant difference between female viewpoint (in roles of ethic course which is presented in preclinical step in professional attitude improvement) (P = 0.009) and also a significant difference was seen in the viewpoint score between student stage with intern stage (P = 0.031). Medical students in educational student stage believe ethic course improve medical professionalism. Since there is no special course to train medical students in professionalism, some interventions are required in this field to improve this aspect of physicians' professional life.
- THEY SHOULDNâT POST THAT! STUDENT PERCEPTION OF
INAPPROPRIATE POSTS ON FACEBOOK REGARDING ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND THE
IMPLICATIONS FOR PEER SOCIALIZATION
Abstract: Many students believe that drinking alcohol is part of the collegiate experience and showing that one consumes alcohol is an important part of establishing that one fits into this atmosphere. Facebook is one means in which college students present the appearance of social conformity in order to gain peer approval; yet, in accordance with Privacy Calculus Theory, students also need to weigh the potential cons of non-peer disapproval for drinking disclosures. However, for the process of Privacy Calculus theory to work with regards to peer acceptance, students need to obtain feedback from their peers in order to accurately assess the pros and cons of different levels of disclosure. Seven separate focus groups involving a total of 46 students at a small, private college in Pennsylvania were conducted to explore whether college students perceive limitations in appropriateness for Facebook drinking posts and, subsequently if they do anything to peers to express disapproval if this line is crossed. Findings suggest that college students consider Facebook posts about underage drunken behavior and about drunken vomiting inappropriate because non-peer Facebook friends, such as family, may see the posts; and, additionally, in the case of vomiting, because sharing such behavior is deemed unnecessary and excessive. However, findings also suggest that students ignore these inappropriate posts without offering any sanctioning comments to their peers and in many instances actually find these posts âentertainingâ even though these students form negative opinions of the discloser. This questions how well Facebook works towards helping late adolescents understand the approved behaviors of their cohort and, in accordance with Privacy Calculus Theory, how accurately peers can evaluate the pros and cons of disclosure.
- RESILIENCE IN IGBO RURAL COMMUNITY ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS
Abstract: While involved in organising an empowerment seminar for the Igbo rural youths, the authors investigated resilience among rural adolescents and young adults. Three hundred and twenty nine (329) adolescents (n = 162) and young adults (n = 167), comprising 159 males and 170 females, were participants. They completed the 14-item Resilience scale and provided some relevant demographic information. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in resilience on account of age, gender and level of education. Young adults had significantly higher resilience scores than adolescents. No significant difference was found in resilience scores of males and females. Participants with higher education had significantly higher resilience scores than those with lower education. Of all the interaction effects tested, only age * gender * education had a significant interaction effect on resilience. Discussion of the findings were based on the literature, realities of life in contemporary Igbo society and the authorsâ observations.
- SCENARIOS PEDAGOGICAL-EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENT PLAY
Abstract: The playtime and recreation plays an important role in child development. âSurplus energyâ Spencer says That Both the man and the animal have the excess energy That are used in the activity fun. As we descended into the educational development Spencer Noted there was a decrease of fun Because The energy was used to meet basic needs. He Noted That in the higher animals there is a greater conservation of energy That Is Expressed in the activity fun. In 1900 Carl Cross argued That the recreational activity is a kind of exercise used to develop the individualâs mental and motor activities. A sort of pre-exercise To ensure that structures are innate Certain transformed into complex structures and more December Especially Those Which are most suitable to environmental changes. The recreational activities are growing and changing together with the childâs psychological and intellectual development, even if they REMAIN a milestone in the life of every person regardless of his age. Through the game as Schiller reminds us, âthe man is fully human Only When he playsâ, through the game as everyone keeps his mind free from any thought, I know it has to be atto download his emotions and his instinct. The Game Becomes meaningful to the childâs intellectual development, as When he plays, he Managed to surprise Himself by surprise and acquires new ways That allow them to interact with the outside world. In the game, the child Develops Their intellectual capabilities, emotional and relational. Becomes an instrument for the child Because it helps to develop creativity, helps him to experience cognitive abilities, so he can get in touch with his peers, gives life to the development of his personality.
- FAVORED ZODIAC FOR CELEBRITY BIRTHS
Abstract: To find any favored zodiac sign for celebrity births, a sample of 100 celebrities were randomly selected from people of different walks of life. The sample contained politicians, natural scientists, social scientists,
Authors of literary works, social workers, humanitarian workers, business personnel, sports icons, singers, actors, actresses, etc. etc. from history and from the current time. The zodiac signs for the celebrities were found from their known dates of births. In the analysis of data, zodiac signs and the number of celebrities were represented as the independent x and the dependent y variables, respectively. For academic interests for the 9th grade high school juniors (at the time of the project performance), the co-authors of this article, as well as for the potentially illustrative uses in high school mathematics textbooks, bar and scatter plots were made, the line of best-fit and the equation of the line were found, probabilities of occurrences of celebrities for each of the zodiac signs were calculated and the correlation coefficients between the variables were determined for the sample. It was found that the zodiac Aquarius has the largest number of celebrities in the sample and that the two variables are moderately correlated. The sample sizes which were increased to 200 and then 300. By including another 100 more celebrities to find if the trend remains unchanged. In all the three cases, Aquarius turned out to be the zodiac when most of the celebrities are born.
- MISCONSTRUING AGENCY: ISSUES RELATED TO FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM
Abstract: Agency (related to intentionality and the importance of choices) and free will (âcould have done otherwiseâ) have been confounded in previous psychological research, with assessments and manipulations of free will often including items related to agency. Therefore, correlates previously associated with free will may, to some extent, be based on agentic assumptions. In this study 152 college students from a central Texas university, participating in on-line research using Qualtrics, read one of four essays that separately manipulated agency and free will in a 2Ã2 design. After reading the essays, participants completed assessments of blame, agency and free will. As hypothesized, the free will measure, but not the agency measure, significantly predicted blame, F (1,128) = 4.09, p
- PERCEIVED SOCIAL STIGMATIZATION AND COPING STRATEGIES AS PREDICTORS OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AMONG FEMALE PARTNERS OF PRISONERS
Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine how coping strategies and perceived social stigmatization predicts the psychological wellbeing of female partners of prisoners in Ibadan, Nigeria. Using the purposive sampling techniques, a total of one hundred and nine (109) female partners of prisoners in Ibadan participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged between 20 years to 65 years. Data collection was through the use of questionnaires. 2Ã2Ã2 ANOVA and T-test was used to test the hypothesis. Findings indicates that coping strategies (problem focused and emotion focused) and perceived social stigmatization jointly predicted psychological well-being with (F (1, 101) = 13.50; p
- A STUDY OF ATTITUDES TOWARD LEARNING ENGLISH AT AN EARLY AGE BY TAIWANESE
PARENTS WITH YOUNG CHILDREN
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the parental attitudes towards young childrenâs learning English in kindergarten at an early age. The subjects of the research survey are comprised of 189,792 young children enrolled in Taiwan kindergartens as the population. This number underwent stratified random sampling using a ratio of 0.5%, yielding a total of 949 samples. The number of valid questionnaires recovered was 709 and the valid response rate was 76.2%. The results of the subsequent analysis of the data are indicated as follows: Parents living in central and northern Taiwan with educational backgrounds of graduate school or higher tend to disagree in their attitudes towards young children learning English at an early age as compared to the attitudes of parents living in southern Taiwan with high school degrees. Parents agreeing more with secular parenting concepts tend to concur more in their attitudes towards young children learning English at an early age. The views of parents living in various regions with different educational backgrounds towards young children learning English at an early age are primarily affected by their views on secular parenting concepts. Specific research implications of these findings are discussed in the latter part of this article.
- THE MODEL IN PREVENTING AND SOLVING DRUGS IN THE THAI-LAO BORDER VILLAGES
Abstract: A drug issue is a problem at both national and international levels. The root causes of the problems lie inside and outside the humans. To solve the problems in a sustainable way, it is essential to get cooperation from many parties. The research aimed to study the situations and prevention and solution of drugs in the border villages, to construct the model to prevent and solve the drug issues and to evaluate the model for preventing and solving the drugs prevalent in the border villages. The work was a qualitative research. It analyzed documentary data and those from the field study gained by surveying, observing, interviewing, focus group and workshop. Twenty border villages in Khemarat district were used as the samples which derived by a specific random sampling. The research found that (1) as regards the drug situations, the drugs were prevalent in Khemarat. There were two guidelines to deal with the situation: Internal factor or participation from all; external factors or the cooperation between the state and the community residents. (2) Considering the guidelines for constructing the model for preventing drugs, there were four types of measures: (1) Integration from all sectors, (2) objectives in constructing the model which consisted of two items: 2.1 promotion and support for the state officialsâ performance, 2.2 observation and protection of the community members from drugs. (3) The process of constructing the model was composed of the following: Finding a leader, communication to effect changes, multilateral communication in society, community participation in solving the problems, linking ideas from a variety of people, public forum to exchange the ideas, feedback on problems, turning burdens into energy, progress in peopleâs participation. (4) evaluation of the state officialsâ and the communityâs participation. (3) Given the suitability and practicality of the model, the model in question was found to be suitable and also found to be feasible in preventing and solving the drug issue were 89.6 percentage and 83.9 percentage. A further research should be conducted on the cooperation between the state and private sectors in planning to prevent and solve the drug issues along Thai-Lao border villages. As for the application of the model in the study, the model can be formalized as a main policy for the Interior Ministry. It is also possible to be made as a handbook to be distributed to the state agencies, the private organizations, the communities and the border villages.
- LESSONS LEARNED: ONLINE TEACHING ADVENTURES AND MISADVENTURES
Abstract: This study provides practical ânuts and boltsâ advice on developing and teaching a new online course for first-time online instructors. The advice is predominantly based on the observations and experiences of two instructors who developed and taught online courses for the first time on the âmaiden voyageâ of a newly established online MBA program and subsequent online teaching experiences. The lessons learned the âhard wayâ are discussed so instructors who are developing and teaching online courses for the first time within the context of a new program can avoid some âlearning curveâ problems.
- AESTHETICS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: THE COMBINATION OF TECHNOLOGY
INSTRUMENTS IN CHILDRENâS MUSIC, VISUAL ARTS AND PRETEND
Abstract: With the importance of aesthetics in current preschool curriculum, childrenâs aesthetics development and deloading learning plays a special attention to the relationship between technology instruments and the three critical early childhood education activities, namely music teaching and learning, visual arts and childrenâs pretend play in early childhood education. A rigorous literature review in Dewey, Steiner and Vygotsky explore the argument that technology instruments play a crucial role in childrenâs daily lives. After carefully elaborating the relevant literature, this study arrives at three major conclusions firstly, indeed technology instruments in music teaching facilitate the quality and efficiency in the young childrenâs learning motivation. Secondly, technology instruments in visual arts facilitate the quality and efficiency in the learning motivation of children and finally, technology instruments of music facilitate childrenâs performance in their pretend play, especially in terms of emotional expression, emotional regulation, emotional utilization and interpersonal relationships. Further, the study reveals that during the application of technology instrument in childrenâs music, visual-arts and pretend play, adultsâ scaffolding and assistance is no doubt necessary during childrenâs learning and development process.
- THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION STRUCTURE
ON THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATING NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
Abstract: The main body of social stratification structure in Taiwan is transformed with social mobility. By transforming the social stratification structure, the function of non-profit organizations is operating steadily. How does peopleâs awareness of social strata directly or indirectly influence the operation of non-profit organizations? How do non-profit organizations and governments respond to the transformation of social stratum compositions? And how promotion and policy marketing could guide the general public to be attentive and participate in the operations of non-profit organizations? These questions require in-depth investigation. This study bases on the experiments and concepts of fairness measurement in information integration theory to comprehend the integrated model of social stratification in the public. By means of analyzing the awareness and orientation of the public to the constitution of social stratification which lead the public to identify themselves with the visions of non-profit organizations and the motion of participating non-profit matters to provide the interrelated recommendations of proceeding non-profit matters to non-profit organizations and the government. Comparing the cognitive algebraic functions of input information and outcome information of various groups in the social strata, the only difference is that if the input information is education background and the outcome information profession prestige. Empirically, non-profit organizations promoting and encouraging people to engage in occupational aid related activities could find different methods available.
- THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY
Abstract: Literatures present the picture of peopleâs lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authorsâ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1) family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2) Chinese Language; (3) Performing Arts and (4) Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.