Journal of Social Sciences
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1549-3652
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
- Girl-Pupil School Dropouts in Secondary Education in Masvingo District,
Zimbabwe: Influencing Factors and Effects
Abstract: Literacy levels in Zimbabwe are at an average of ninety two percent, which is amongst the highest in Africa. Despite significant levels of transformation in the education system, which has seen skyrocketing literacy rates, secondary education still lacks transformation of other structures that have a direct impact on the rate of girl child secondary school dropouts. Through purposive sampling and snowballing sampling technique, a qualitative descriptive study was conducted in the geographical location of Masvingo district in Zimbabwe. The study revealed that secondary education empowers the girl child and contributes to socio-development process and poverty alleviation. In view of these findings, the study concluded that education is a human right and everyone has the right to acquire education regardless of their gender. The study recommended that Non-Governmental Organisations and government should implement tailor-made programmes that adequately tackle the rate of girl child secondary school dropouts in Masvingo district.
- Psychological Effects of Youth Unemployment in Ghana
Abstract: This study investigated the psychological effects of youth unemployment in Ghana. Youths within the ages of 18 and 35 years in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana constituted the research population. A sample of 362 youths, comprising both the employed (n = 172) and the unemployed (n = 190), were purposively selected. The employed youths served as a control group for comparative analyses. The cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire (HDSQ), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), the Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were used to assess psychological health (i.e., depression, cognitive distortions, self-esteem and suicidality) of the respondents. The Pearson r test, the Linear Regression test and the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) test were used to analyze the data. The findings showed poorer psychological health among unemployed youths than employed youths. Duration of unemployment significantly predicted poorer psychological health among the youths. The findings and their implications are discussed with references to the existing literature and theories.
- Pre-Service Teachers and Educators Perception toward Use of Technology in
Education-Challenge and Reforms for West Azerbaijan Iran
Abstract: Lack of proper use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in modern education and training for pre-service teachers-PSTs- (students who are not yet teaching professionally) is confronting globalized education system. Iran is not exception where the use of ICT is rather for entertainment and amusement purposes. PST perceptions and attitudes do affect quality of education and hence, performance of students. Structured questions were made to delineate the perceptions of PST regarding use of ICT education of West Azerbaijan (Iran). The study found that most of universities PSTs are adapting ICT in their lectures but not in its optimal capacity. Still many challenges and opportunities are there to improve the usage of ICT in education and training for PSTs and this calls for up-to-date reforms. New academic equipments equipped with flux ICT and uses of audio-visual aids for lecturing are highly recommended. Further study suggested the school based training module for PSTs to policy makers and educationalist who involved in training programs.
- Researcher, Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University
Abstract: This paper aims to provide an overview of the American Muslim giving patterns and specifically also attempts to map American Muslim giving, over the last 10 years, i.e., 2002-2012. It is also an attempt to capture the major shifts, trends and challenges to the Islamic philanthropic sector in the U.S. There are several competing theories about how the giving patterns and norms have shifted in the last years, from religious to secular giving and from international to local giving; as a result of regulations in the non-profit sector and also technological changes and innovation in fund-raising practices. Some scholars and advocacy groups have argued that there has been a substantial drop in American Muslim giving although there is no quantitative giving data to support this assertion. While there are a few qualitative studies and case-studies about American Muslim giving, there is neither a quantitative study that is nationally representative, nor a study that explains how and why this shift has occurred. This paper aims to remedy this gap and provides the context and narrative of American Muslim giving, using qualitative data, literature review and analysis of the three largest Muslim Humanitarian relief agencies and some quantitative data from the Center on Philanthropy Panel Study (COPPS) dataset at the Lilly School of Philanthropy, IUPUI, which is a nationally representative sample of U.S households.
- Analysis of Market Orientation on Business Performance in the
Multinational Service Industries
Abstract: The paper examined the extent of market orientation on business performance in the multinational service industries in Ghana. It applied the behavioral viewpoint of market orientation measurement using MKTOR scale as a base in eliciting information from eleven marketing managers through in - depth interview while one hundred and sixty-three marketing managers were also surveyed using structured questionnaires. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) statistical technique was used in analysing the data using Partial Least Square (PLS) software version 3.0. The findings revealed that, customer orientation and competitor orientation have significant positive relationships with business performance of the multinational service companies' activities whereas, inter-functional coordination did not have any influence on business performance. The study contributes to the negligible studies on market orientation measurement as a uni-dimensional construct as well as the limited studies on marketing managers as drivers of market oriented activities in the Sub-Saharan African countries.
- Determinants of Spatial Patterns of Sex Ratio in Haryana, India
Abstract: The sex ratio is an important social indicator of gender equality and status in a society. As such, it also reveals social development of a society. In a society wherein gender discrimination is in practice and devaluation of women is prevalent, sex-selective feticide, female infanticide, death of girl child's due to neglect and discrimination in food as well as in provision of medical help and maternal deaths as result of no provision of timely health care during child birth find expression in the sex ratio of a society which is observed to be highly masculine. Haryana stands out as a prominent case study from the geographical perspective as the state could never reach a sex ratio near about national average since 1901 and even it could never cross the mark of 900. The paper aims to analyze the determinants which have great influence on the sex ratio in Haryana at rural and urban level. The results reveal that F-value of the regression models in both the cease is significant as much as less than 1%. The spatial variability value of the sex ratio in rural Haryana as indicated by R2 ensures that 58.3% or at minimum 57.4%, as indicated by adjusted R2. The model for urban sex ratio explains its variance that is highest than that of rural. The R2 returned by the model indicates that 74.7 or at least, as indicated by adjusted R2, 72.2% spatial variation in urban sex ratio.
- Fathers' Anger and Their Sons' Socioemotional and Academic
Outcomes with Implications for Forgiveness
Abstract: It has been empirically supported that father involvement has positive influences on child outcomes, but depending on the ways through which fathers engage with their children, negative child outcomes can ensue as well. The goal of the study was to examine which specific areas of child outcomes would be influenced by fathers' state and trait anger and total anger expression (anger expressed minus controlled) and to explore the potential of fathers' forgiveness in ameliorating child outcomes. Eighty-two couples with sons between 9-11 years of age from a national sample responded to an online survey where mothers filled out an instrument on their sons' socioemotional and academic outcomes and gave demographic information about their sons' fathers and subsequently, fathers filled out instruments on their anger and forgiveness. Results showed that fathers' state and trait anger and total anger expression were positively associated with their sons' emotional sensitivity/anxiety and fathers' state anger and total anger expression were positively associated with their sons' negative peer relationships. While there was a positive relationship between sons' socioemotional and academic outcomes, there was no relationship between father outcomes and sons' academic outcomes. Lastly, a negative correlation between fathers' anger and forgiveness was found as expected, but no relationship between fathers' forgiveness and child outcomes was found. The potential effects of reducing father's anger on child outcomes as well as limitations of the study and future directions are discussed.
- The Evolution of Women's Political Participation in Various
Public Offices in Jordan
Abstract: The study aimed at identifying the evolution of political participation of Jordanian women by monitoring their effective participation during the past decades in the State's legislative and executive authorities. It also aimed at tracing milestones taken towards women's quota law and motives that urge women to run for elections and factors that affect their winning. The study concluded that Jordan worked to include women's issues within the priorities for action and development. Jordanian women made great strides towards their appropriate roles in political life. Women were appointed deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, Minister of Culture, Minister of Social Development and others, but women were not entrusted with "sovereign" ministries. The percentage of women's representation in the House of Representatives developed rapidly, rising from (1.3%) in (1993) with one woman deputy to (12.0%) in (2013) after the amendment of the electoral law. The number of women Senators increased to nine in the council formed in (2013) which is an indication of the political leadership desire to support women's political participation. A progress has been made; nevertheless women's representation in the Parliament is still under the world average (22%). Women got satisfactory results in the (2013) municipal elections by winning (29%) of the seats. The total number of women judges in (2012) was (250) judges. The study pointed out factors that helped women gain seats in the House of Representatives such as: (Women's quota), tribal support, woman's strong personality and previous experiences.
- Academic Motivation to Learn English in a Malaysian private University
Abstract: Motivation is accepted as one of the key factors in promoting second language teaching and learning. The study is based on the Self Determination Theory (SDT) developed by Deci and Ryan who were greatly interested in both the quantity and the quality of motivation. They categorized motivation from the unmotivated to the motivated and in between there are many levels of motivation. This study investigated 230 trainee teachers' Academic Motivation (AM) to learn in English in terms of gender, nationality, ethnic group, specialization and years of study at the Faculty of Education in a Malaysian private university. The results revealed that participants were significantly different in their Academic motivation based on their specialization and the period they spent in the Faculty of Education. There were no significant differences based on gender or nationality. Significant differences were noticed among participants from different ethnic groups in Intrinsic Motivation. Building on the findings a better understanding of trainee teachers' cognitive abilities, attitudes about self and university, as well as their language skills would help in improving their Academic Motivation to learn English. Providing opportunities to learn English outside the classroom through English language clubs, journeys to English speaking countries, debates, drama, songs and free writing competitions can help motivate them away from traditional classroom activities. Furthermore, communication between faculty and home is important to better understand the factors that may affect trainee teachers' Academic motivation to learn English.
- Financing Higher Education and Education Loans in India: Trends and
Abstract: The paper attempts to investigate the trends in financing higher education which convey that student loans is the dominating source of financing higher education in India. This leads us to explore various factors that influence, viz., enrolment growth, growing private sector, bulging youth population with growing middle class with a wider acceptability of loan culture and increasing earning premium of higher education and the willingness to pay. Using various secondary data sources besides using the unique data set made available on Interest Subsidy Scheme on Student Loans, we examine various troubles, namely who gets access to student loans and interest subsidy, what are the risks associated in terms of default or recovery and how the employability is linked with better repayments. We conclude that fees, grants/scholarships and student loans need to be examined in the context of increasing cost and role of markets in higher education along with affordability within the domain of family characteristics.
- Access to and Uptake of Contraception by Women with Disabilities
Abstract: Contraception has been identified as an imperative for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. In poor countries, the need for contraception is highest among the most vulnerable population groups. One such group is women with disabilities. The objectives of this study were to examine uptake of and identify the predictors of use of contraception by women in Uganda with disabilities. The study used cross-sectional data on 1128 sexually experienced women in the 15-49 year age group with disabilities. The data were obtained from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. The binary logistic regression model was used to analyse the data. The study found that only 26.1% of the women had ever used contraception and the results confirmed the hypothesis that access to health facilities and access to family planning information on radio significantly increased uptake of contraception. Other factors that significantly increased uptake of contraception were attending 4 or more Antenatal Care (ANC) visits, being in the 25-34 year age group, living in Kampala region, having primary, secondary or higher education, being in the middle or richer wealth index groups and having almost daily access to radio. We conclude that uptake of contraception by women with disabilities is low and reflects the high unmet need for contraception for women in Uganda, which could be explained by the pervasive structural inequalities in access to contraception services.
- Sub-National Legislature and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria's
Fourth Republic: Lessons from Osun State House of Assembly
Abstract: This paper examines the contribution of sub-national legislature in reinforcing democratic consolidation in Nigeria by drawing lessons from the Osun state legislature in South-West Nigeria. Specifically, the authors interrogate changing party composition, oversight actions and executive reactions and constituencies' activities of members of the Assembly across three terms of twelve years: 1999-2003; 2003-2007 and 2007-2011. The analysis presented in the paper reveals that relationship between the Osun state legislature and executive has been defined by dominance by the latter manifested through financial dependence of the Assembly in carrying out legislative activities, overdependence on the executive for maintenance of members and their offices, domination of legislative agenda with executive bills and other executive oriented activities as well as reliance on the executive to guarantee legislative members' political career. The paper concludes that in spite of the foregoing drawbacks, the Osun state legislature remains relevant to the consolidation of democracy in Nigeria especially in its contributions towards legitimising, supporting and stabilising the polity and serving as deliberative arena for securing government policies and programmes.
- Exploring the Inadequacy of Pertinent Capacities for Urban Flood Risk
Management in the Developing Countries
Abstract: Of all the widespread natural hazards with large scale human, economic and environmental impacts, flooding surpasses. In the urban areas, the threats of this hazard are substantial and call for ever more attention, which, within the contexts of sustainable human and urban development, is increasingly an important problem in social science research. Urban flooding is a relatively new hazard phenomenon, which is progressively galvanising significant concerns globally due to the economic and political significance of cities. Flood risk management, based on the UNISDR idea of living with floods rather than fighting them, provides systematic techniques for tackling this hazard. However, the insufficiency or lack of the pertinent capacities, which are fundamental to best practices in flood risk management, undermine these techniques in many developing countries (DCs), such as Nigeria and Bangladesh. This study, through a desktop review of various published materials, focusing on urban flooding and management experiences in Lagos, Dhaka and Maputo, explores the lack of these capacities. Among other issues, the idea of resilient cities and communities as well as sustainable urban development will be realistic in the DCs only if adequate attention is given to capacity development.
- Fast Food Consumption and Body Mass Index
Abstract: Fast food consumption has been considered a major cause of obesity all over the world. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between the average frequencies of eating a meal from a fast-food restaurant per week and Body Mass Index (BMI). Our analysis based on a nationwide survey of Americans indicates that a meal from a fast food restaurant per week, on an average, is associated with an increase of BMI of 0.16 or 0.17 after adjusting for race, gender, education, marital status, age and income. However, our analysis does not find a similar effect for meals eaten from any other restaurant. Our analysis also finds that the higher is a person’s BMI, the more importance a person assigns to the cause of his obesity being the kinds of foods marketed in restaurants and grocery stores.
- Impact of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
Activities on Agriculture as Perceived by Farmers
Abstract: Out of 66.00% of rural population in India, majority are landless labours depending on the mercy of employment providers for their livelihood. This population is the most vulnerable section to poverty, underemployment, access to development, etc. Therefore the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) has been implemented by the Government of India to improve the living standards of rural poor. This study conducted in Erode district of Tamil Nadu revealed that major impacts of MGNREGA activities on agriculture were in the aspects like soil ecology attributes, water attributes, crop attributes, society attributes, economics attributes, market attributes and labour availability attributes. Majority of the respondents expressed that soil moisture, water percolation, ground water table, area under irrigation, area under cultivation, adoption of crop management technologies, social participation and farm mechanization had increased with improvement in water holding capacity, soil texture, knowledge and skill on crop production due to the activities undertaken under MGNREGA programme.
- Frequency, Substance and Procedural Shortcomings of State Level
Impeachment Campaigns in an Emerging Federal Democracy
Abstract: Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution encompasses separation of powers and checks and balances. It enjoins institutional autonomy in specific spheres, and systemic mutual inter-dependence of the legislature, executive and judiciary. The legislature has unfettered right to be self-regulatory including intra-institutional changes in leadership. Such right must be exercised responsibly and in conformity with the Constitution. Erring executive official could be impeached by the legislature in collaboration with the judiciary exclusively for acts and omissions amounting to gross misconduct. The scanty details without clearly defined grounds for impeachment in the constitution put the executive at the mercy of the legislature, which exercises exclusive discretion on what constitute “gross misconduct”. Impeachment as a process that involves setting aside the will of the electorate is too crucial a legislative matter of course, to be undertaken arbitrarily. In Nigeria’s conflictual distributive and transactional Fourth Republic politics (1999-2015), pliable and reckless legislatures have launched intra and inter-institutional impeachment campaigns on frivolous grounds. Controversial impeachments have further enhanced the prominence of legislatures. The preponderance of externally induced leadership tussle questions legislatures’ capacity to be self-regulatory amidst other vices. Executives’ initial autocratic tendencies vis-à-vis denial of legislatures’ right of scrutiny is waning with increasing consciousness of the consequences of recourse to impeachment among other gains. This paper highlights the frequency, politics, substance and procedural shortcomings of impeachment campaigns. Theory of separation of powers suffices. Given its potential in political and power contestations, impeachment would continue to feature as bargaining chip as the system of rule progresses.
- Willingness to Communicate in English among Trainee Teachers in a
Malaysian Private University
Abstract: Willingness to Communicate (WTC) in English has become a field of interest since the construct was introduced by McCroskey and Baer in 1985. This study, investigated 230 trainee teachers’ Willingness to Communicate in English in terms of gender, nationality, ethnic group, course and years of study at the Faculty of Education in a Malaysian private university. The results of the study revealed that participants had moderate willingness to communicate in English and preferred to initiate communication in English with friends rather than acquaintances or strangers. There were significant differences among participants in WTC based on their gender, ethnic group, type of study and the period they spent in the Faculty of Education. Changing classroom environment, grouping technique and providing opportunities outside the classroom for communicating in English through English language clubs, journeys to native speaking countries, debates, drama, songs and free writing competitions can help them communicate in English away from the stress caused by curriculum based activities linked to credits and grades.
- Skills, Schools and Employability: Developing Skill Based Education in
Schools of India
Abstract: Skill Education in India needs more attention as like the general education imparted at schools. Irrespective of the stage of schooling (primary, secondary and higher secondary) a rise in the employability and industrial skills, ensures a better and productive human resource. With the aim of increasing the employability of the youth it is essential to develop a thorough understanding of the existing infrastructure and academic curriculum of schools and polytechnic institutes in India. This paper critically analyses the pattern and scopes of vocational education in India and how the same can be seamlessly amalgamated with the school curriculum.
- Stanley Milgram’s Experiments and the Saving of the Possibility
Abstract: Milgram’s experiments have exposed the bitter truth that, against their moral standards, the great majority of subjects actually obey malevolent authorities and are ready to cause great suffering, even death, to innocent victims. The reason for such unexpected and shocking behavior can be perfectly explained in the light of panenmentalist philosophy, according to which individual pure possibilities and their relations are as real as actualities and, normally, persons are free to choose between alternative pure possibilities in whatsoever circumstances. Whenever persons ignore the singular individuality of other people, such persons can cause most evil, entirely immoral deeds, to the others simply because impersonal authorities order them to do so. Hence, panenmentalism reveals the philosophical conditions upon which obedience or defiance to malevolent authority is possible.
- From the Chicago School to Post-sub Cultural Carriage: A Review and
Analysis of Contemporary Trends in Youth Culture Research
Abstract: The historicity of youth culture studies is much challenging to date exactly. Sociologists however, trace its genesis from Chicago School and then leap to Birmingham’s Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. Theoretically it was, with the works of post subculturists that youth culture research gained ascendency. Global youth culture posture further revamped the field. This paper constructs a critical dialogue between the wide-ranging theories and research on youth culture and global/local relations in this sphere. It is revealed that the current ascendancy of post-subcultural studies margins the significance of sociological research to broader youth queries and does little to extend the case that youth studies should be more sociologically relevant and important. Youth lives in no island of its own and it is not all young people- who have the possibility of engaging in the consumerism, central to some post-sub-cultures. Conversely, youth and their cultures are framed within and to large extent shaped up by social divisions and inequalities. Against this backdrop, it is suggested that youth culture research would prove fruitful only when clubbed with ‘transition approach.’ Possibly this refit would not only facilitate to widen and thrive the significance of contemporary youth culture studies, rather may help in theoretical sophistication, empirical renovation and a more holistic sociology of youth.
- Climatic Hazards and Social Crisis: A Quick Mitigation Approach to
Accelerate Sustainable Development
Abstract: Climate change and its negative consequences frequently impede to social development through mal-structural function of socioeconomic status but prospective mitigation approach may accelerate to social sustainability. This paper investigates to existing climatic hazards along with functional damage in a society that, how climatic hazards make vulnerable to the social people and evolve a new mitigation pathway to rescue from food insecurities in the community. Depending on observational status, it has been drawn an overall thematic citation and outline regarding with the respondents perception. In the study area, maximum number of people were found to be highly affected owing to long term climatic shocks which is appeared as a social disaster in the aspects of poor socioeconomic status and livelihood crisis. To get sustainability, it is very important to reduce the degree of climatic risk through evolving new technique or technological advancement as to operational feature. As an operational tools, sustainable social clustering technique would be very much effective to search out the more climatic vulnerable people from the communities. Its suggestive policy could be helpful to take the initiatives for the special caring regarding with the need basis insecure people. In addition, better understanding and outstanding results would be effective to cope with climatic shocks and social crisis.
- Selection of Festival Planners: Application of Modified Delphi Method and
Analytic Hierarchy Process
Abstract: There are more than one million festivals regularly held every year around the world. They not only create enormous economic benefits, but have also become a new global industry. Festival activities can attract many visitors and enhance regional development in a short time. The festival is an important trend to develop tourism. In Taiwan and foreign countries, various types of festivals are frequently held to draw the visitors’ attention or increase economic benefits. Therefore, the method to hold successful festivals is an important issue for different countries. In order to construct the standard to select festival planners, this study conducts expert interviews and questionnaire survey by literature review and the Modified Delphi Method in order to confirm the hierarchical framework and evaluation criteria. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is conducted to determine the weights of criteria in the hierarchical framework. The findings can serve as reference to select festival planners, thereby increasing the effectiveness of festivals and helping the decision-making of selection.
- Internal Migration and Poverty Reduction: Rethinking the Debate on the
North-South Movement in Ghana
Abstract: In the past few years the nexus that link internal migration and poverty reduction has been a subject of interest among researchers and policy makers. Internal movements constitute a major coping mechanism in poverty stricken areas although the evidence supporting this claim is equivocal. This paper critically examines the extent to which internal migration could acts as an important route out of poverty in areas where conventional poverty reduction policies have failed by drawing on empirical literature on the north-south movement in Ghana. We argue that internal migration may not be a silver bullet in the fight against poverty. This position is premised on two strands of thought. First, migrants may not always be able to improve upon their livelihood, earn income and leap-out of the malaise of poverty and the impact of remittances may not also be straightforward. Secondly, the very poor in the places where conventional development efforts have had limited success may not always have the wherewithal to move as migration is shaped inter alia by institutional, market and financial resources.
- Work-Family Conflict: A Synthesis of the Research from Cross-National
Abstract: Changing demographic trends occurring in the work and family spheres have made combining work and family responsibilities an increasingly challenging task for employees in virtually every nation. However, previous studies on work-family conflict have focused predominantly on Western and developed nations, with little attention to the experience of work-family conflict across different national contexts. Only recently have studies begun to examine work-family conflict from cross-national perspective. This paper presents a review of cross-national studies on work-family conflict focusing on the influences of cultural, institutional and economic factors. Overall, the review suggests that existing cross-national research on work-family conflict is narrow in scope, with most studies focused mainly on identifying differences in prevalence of the phenomenon across national contexts. The paper outlines agenda for future research to increase understanding of contextual influences on the experience of work-family conflict.
- Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Establish a Tour Guide Selection
and Evaluation Model
Abstract: This study aims to examine the criteria for the selection of tour guides, in order to help travel agencies in Taiwan selecting suitable tour guides with a more objective and consistent approach. A tour guide is the life and soul of an organized tour, as well as an important key for the success of the tour. Following the acquisition of expert opinions by the Delphi method, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to allocate the selection criteria of a tour guide into different levels of hierarchy. The selection criteria include personal attributes, professional knowledge, professional skills and customer service attitude. The results suggested that professional skills are more important than customer service attitude, while professional knowledge is more important than personal attributes. The top three criteria for the selection of a tour guide are “possessing a qualified tour guide license”, “being able to provide explanations clearly and fluently” and “handling matters sensibly and meticulously”, indicating that personal attributes are the priority criteria for the evaluation of a tour guide. The findings can help to shorten the tour guides selection process, as well as assist travel agencies to recruit suitable tour guides in a more objective and consistent manner.