Journal of Social Sciences
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1549-3652
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
- Exploring the Inadequacy of Pertinent Capacities for Urban Flood Risk
Management in the Developing Countries
Abstract: Of all the widespread natural hazards with large scale human, economic and environmental impacts, flooding surpasses. In the urban areas, the threats of this hazard are substantial and call for ever more attention, which, within the contexts of sustainable human and urban development, is increasingly an important problem in social science research. Urban flooding is a relatively new hazard phenomenon, which is progressively galvanising significant concerns globally due to the economic and political significance of cities. Flood risk management, based on the UNISDR idea of living with floods rather than fighting them, provides systematic techniques for tackling this hazard. However, the insufficiency or lack of the pertinent capacities, which are fundamental to best practices in flood risk management, undermine these techniques in many developing countries (DCs), such as Nigeria and Bangladesh. This study, through a desktop review of various published materials, focusing on urban flooding and management experiences in Lagos, Dhaka and Maputo, explores the lack of these capacities. Among other issues, the idea of resilient cities and communities as well as sustainable urban development will be realistic in the DCs only if adequate attention is given to capacity development.
- Fast Food Consumption and Body Mass Index
Abstract: Fast food consumption has been considered a major cause of obesity all over the world. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between the average frequencies of eating a meal from a fast-food restaurant per week and Body Mass Index (BMI). Our analysis based on a nationwide survey of Americans indicates that a meal from a fast food restaurant per week, on an average, is associated with an increase of BMI of 0.16 or 0.17 after adjusting for race, gender, education, marital status, age and income. However, our analysis does not find a similar effect for meals eaten from any other restaurant. Our analysis also finds that the higher is a person’s BMI, the more importance a person assigns to the cause of his obesity being the kinds of foods marketed in restaurants and grocery stores.
- Stanley Milgram’s Experiments and the Saving of the Possibility
Abstract: Milgram’s experiments have exposed the bitter truth that, against their moral standards, the great majority of subjects actually obey malevolent authorities and are ready to cause great suffering, even death, to innocent victims. The reason for such unexpected and shocking behavior can be perfectly explained in the light of panenmentalist philosophy, according to which individual pure possibilities and their relations are as real as actualities and, normally, persons are free to choose between alternative pure possibilities in whatsoever circumstances. Whenever persons ignore the singular individuality of other people, such persons can cause most evil, entirely immoral deeds, to the others simply because impersonal authorities order them to do so. Hence, panenmentalism reveals the philosophical conditions upon which obedience or defiance to malevolent authority is possible.
- Skills, Schools and Employability: Developing Skill Based Education in
Schools of India
Abstract: Skill Education in India needs more attention as like the general education imparted at schools. Irrespective of the stage of schooling (primary, secondary and higher secondary) a rise in the employability and industrial skills, ensures a better and productive human resource. With the aim of increasing the employability of the youth it is essential to develop a thorough understanding of the existing infrastructure and academic curriculum of schools and polytechnic institutes in India. This paper critically analyses the pattern and scopes of vocational education in India and how the same can be seamlessly amalgamated with the school curriculum.
- Frequency, Substance and Procedural Shortcomings of State Level
Impeachment Campaigns in an Emerging Federal Democracy
Abstract: Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution encompasses separation of powers and checks and balances. It enjoins institutional autonomy in specific spheres, and systemic mutual inter-dependence of the legislature, executive and judiciary. The legislature has unfettered right to be self-regulatory including intra-institutional changes in leadership. Such right must be exercised responsibly and in conformity with the Constitution. Erring executive official could be impeached by the legislature in collaboration with the judiciary exclusively for acts and omissions amounting to gross misconduct. The scanty details without clearly defined grounds for impeachment in the constitution put the executive at the mercy of the legislature, which exercises exclusive discretion on what constitute “gross misconduct”. Impeachment as a process that involves setting aside the will of the electorate is too crucial a legislative matter of course, to be undertaken arbitrarily. In Nigeria’s conflictual distributive and transactional Fourth Republic politics (1999-2015), pliable and reckless legislatures have launched intra and inter-institutional impeachment campaigns on frivolous grounds. Controversial impeachments have further enhanced the prominence of legislatures. The preponderance of externally induced leadership tussle questions legislatures’ capacity to be self-regulatory amidst other vices. Executives’ initial autocratic tendencies vis-à-vis denial of legislatures’ right of scrutiny is waning with increasing consciousness of the consequences of recourse to impeachment among other gains. This paper highlights the frequency, politics, substance and procedural shortcomings of impeachment campaigns. Theory of separation of powers suffices. Given its potential in political and power contestations, impeachment would continue to feature as bargaining chip as the system of rule progresses.
- Impact of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
Activities on Agriculture as Perceived by Farmers
Abstract: Out of 66.00% of rural population in India, majority are landless labours depending on the mercy of employment providers for their livelihood. This population is the most vulnerable section to poverty, underemployment, access to development, etc. Therefore the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) has been implemented by the Government of India to improve the living standards of rural poor. This study conducted in Erode district of Tamil Nadu revealed that major impacts of MGNREGA activities on agriculture were in the aspects like soil ecology attributes, water attributes, crop attributes, society attributes, economics attributes, market attributes and labour availability attributes. Majority of the respondents expressed that soil moisture, water percolation, ground water table, area under irrigation, area under cultivation, adoption of crop management technologies, social participation and farm mechanization had increased with improvement in water holding capacity, soil texture, knowledge and skill on crop production due to the activities undertaken under MGNREGA programme.
- Willingness to Communicate in English among Trainee Teachers in a
Malaysian Private University
Abstract: Willingness to Communicate (WTC) in English has become a field of interest since the construct was introduced by McCroskey and Baer in 1985. This study, investigated 230 trainee teachers’ Willingness to Communicate in English in terms of gender, nationality, ethnic group, course and years of study at the Faculty of Education in a Malaysian private university. The results of the study revealed that participants had moderate willingness to communicate in English and preferred to initiate communication in English with friends rather than acquaintances or strangers. There were significant differences among participants in WTC based on their gender, ethnic group, type of study and the period they spent in the Faculty of Education. Changing classroom environment, grouping technique and providing opportunities outside the classroom for communicating in English through English language clubs, journeys to native speaking countries, debates, drama, songs and free writing competitions can help them communicate in English away from the stress caused by curriculum based activities linked to credits and grades.
- Internal Migration and Poverty Reduction: Rethinking the Debate on the
North-South Movement in Ghana
Abstract: In the past few years the nexus that link internal migration and poverty reduction has been a subject of interest among researchers and policy makers. Internal movements constitute a major coping mechanism in poverty stricken areas although the evidence supporting this claim is equivocal. This paper critically examines the extent to which internal migration could acts as an important route out of poverty in areas where conventional poverty reduction policies have failed by drawing on empirical literature on the north-south movement in Ghana. We argue that internal migration may not be a silver bullet in the fight against poverty. This position is premised on two strands of thought. First, migrants may not always be able to improve upon their livelihood, earn income and leap-out of the malaise of poverty and the impact of remittances may not also be straightforward. Secondly, the very poor in the places where conventional development efforts have had limited success may not always have the wherewithal to move as migration is shaped inter alia by institutional, market and financial resources.
- Selection of Festival Planners: Application of Modified Delphi Method and
Analytic Hierarchy Process
Abstract: There are more than one million festivals regularly held every year around the world. They not only create enormous economic benefits, but have also become a new global industry. Festival activities can attract many visitors and enhance regional development in a short time. The festival is an important trend to develop tourism. In Taiwan and foreign countries, various types of festivals are frequently held to draw the visitors’ attention or increase economic benefits. Therefore, the method to hold successful festivals is an important issue for different countries. In order to construct the standard to select festival planners, this study conducts expert interviews and questionnaire survey by literature review and the Modified Delphi Method in order to confirm the hierarchical framework and evaluation criteria. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is conducted to determine the weights of criteria in the hierarchical framework. The findings can serve as reference to select festival planners, thereby increasing the effectiveness of festivals and helping the decision-making of selection.
- Climatic Hazards and Social Crisis: A Quick Mitigation Approach to
Accelerate Sustainable Development
Abstract: Climate change and its negative consequences frequently impede to social development through mal-structural function of socioeconomic status but prospective mitigation approach may accelerate to social sustainability. This paper investigates to existing climatic hazards along with functional damage in a society that, how climatic hazards make vulnerable to the social people and evolve a new mitigation pathway to rescue from food insecurities in the community. Depending on observational status, it has been drawn an overall thematic citation and outline regarding with the respondents perception. In the study area, maximum number of people were found to be highly affected owing to long term climatic shocks which is appeared as a social disaster in the aspects of poor socioeconomic status and livelihood crisis. To get sustainability, it is very important to reduce the degree of climatic risk through evolving new technique or technological advancement as to operational feature. As an operational tools, sustainable social clustering technique would be very much effective to search out the more climatic vulnerable people from the communities. Its suggestive policy could be helpful to take the initiatives for the special caring regarding with the need basis insecure people. In addition, better understanding and outstanding results would be effective to cope with climatic shocks and social crisis.
- From the Chicago School to Post-sub Cultural Carriage: A Review and
Analysis of Contemporary Trends in Youth Culture Research
Abstract: The historicity of youth culture studies is much challenging to date exactly. Sociologists however, trace its genesis from Chicago School and then leap to Birmingham’s Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. Theoretically it was, with the works of post subculturists that youth culture research gained ascendency. Global youth culture posture further revamped the field. This paper constructs a critical dialogue between the wide-ranging theories and research on youth culture and global/local relations in this sphere. It is revealed that the current ascendancy of post-subcultural studies margins the significance of sociological research to broader youth queries and does little to extend the case that youth studies should be more sociologically relevant and important. Youth lives in no island of its own and it is not all young people- who have the possibility of engaging in the consumerism, central to some post-sub-cultures. Conversely, youth and their cultures are framed within and to large extent shaped up by social divisions and inequalities. Against this backdrop, it is suggested that youth culture research would prove fruitful only when clubbed with ‘transition approach.’ Possibly this refit would not only facilitate to widen and thrive the significance of contemporary youth culture studies, rather may help in theoretical sophistication, empirical renovation and a more holistic sociology of youth.
- Work-Family Conflict: A Synthesis of the Research from Cross-National
Abstract: Changing demographic trends occurring in the work and family spheres have made combining work and family responsibilities an increasingly challenging task for employees in virtually every nation. However, previous studies on work-family conflict have focused predominantly on Western and developed nations, with little attention to the experience of work-family conflict across different national contexts. Only recently have studies begun to examine work-family conflict from cross-national perspective. This paper presents a review of cross-national studies on work-family conflict focusing on the influences of cultural, institutional and economic factors. Overall, the review suggests that existing cross-national research on work-family conflict is narrow in scope, with most studies focused mainly on identifying differences in prevalence of the phenomenon across national contexts. The paper outlines agenda for future research to increase understanding of contextual influences on the experience of work-family conflict.
- Retrospecting National Unity, Safety and Security in India: Foraging an
Abstract: Unlike many other developing nations India experiences a unique spatio-temporal cultural, economic, political diversity both natural and manmade. It is thus important to understand the source of national identity, the centripetal force that has held all the elements together. Historically exposure to various unifying forces in form of kingdoms and empires both native and foreign has contributed much to its composite culture. India exhibited exceptional tolerance and collaboration. The struggle for independence further strengthened the national identity which was later reaffirmed by the constitution of India. However, certain contemporary issues like lop sided development and disparities, extreme regionalism, insurgency, left wing extremism and ethnic discrimination and violence have challenged the national unity and endangered safety and security. The paper strives to redefine the existing ideologies and social norms of national unity. However, we suggest reinforcing national unity by inclusion of a cultural, political and economic unity to forge a united nationhood both in concept and practice.
- A Theoretical Analysis of Chinese Ingratiation
Abstract: Literature about ingratiation has mainly focused on non-Chinese societies with a Western viewpoint, which regards ingratiation as an attraction-seeking behavior. However, the viewpoint may not reflect accurately the meanings of ingratiation in Chinese societies, because ingratiation is a culture-specific behavior. Therefore, there is a limited understanding about the natures, motives, consequences and patterns of Chinese ingratiation. Since Chinese ingratiation is an everyday and everywhere occurrence affecting every social actors in Chinese societies, it is necessary to pay much attention to Chinese ingratiation. Therefore, this article attempts to theoretically analyze Chinese ingratiation from the guanxi perspective and then propose a theoretical framework of Chinese ingratiation for further studies. According to the guanxi perspective, Chinese ingratiation is regarded as a guanxi management strategy and defined as a set of social behaviors designed to establish, maintain and promote guanxi through the exercises of renqing, mianzi and attraction. Moreover, this article proposes Chinese ingratiation has three dimensions: renqing orientation, mianzi orientation and attraction orientation. Finally, the pattern of Chinese ingratiation is identified as the follows: (1) The ingratiatory intention decreases progressively along the direction from familiar persons to family and then to strangers in normal situations and (2) renqing and mianzi orientations would be more likely to occur than attraction orientation within familiar persons; attraction and mianzi orientations would be more likely to occur than renqing orientation within family; attraction orientation would be more likely to occur than renqing and mianzi orientations within strangers.
- Realizing the Impact of Cognitive Dissonance in Predicting Consumer
Abstract: Consumer psychology has always been the centre of concern for the marketers from the old time and understanding the underlying aspects leads to effective decision making. The present study elicits the concept of post purchase cognitive dissonance in the consumers and embraces its implications in studying the consumer behaviour. A survey was conducted and well framed questionnaire was constructed covering various dimensions of variables studied. Some of the underlying dimensions of cognitive dissonance have been rigorously discussed and statistically tested in this study. Specifically, the impact of product involvement, time taken to make a purchase decision and level of information search on the cognitive dissonance have been analysed that provides really significant benefits to the marketers.
- Nature of Price Adjustment and Market Integration among Stages in Cassava
Value Addition Chain in Southern Nigeria
Abstract: Agricultural price behaviour in the long run depends on several factors ranging from the socio-economic, environmental and political environment among others. This study tested for the long run price adjustment mechanism between the producer price of raw cassava in the rural market and retailed price of its derivatives in urban market in the Southern region of Nigeria. The study was built from the Engle-Granger to Enders-Siklos methodologies to verify the symmetric and asymmetric price relationship between the source price (raw cassava) and its derivative prices (garri, fufu, chip, starch and flour) along the food chain. The result confirmed significant short and long run market integration between the source and its derivatives. However, the source price equilibrium in the long run followed asymmetric adjustment with respect to urban prices of fufu and cassava flour; whereas symmetric adjustment was obtained with respect to prices of garri, cassava chip and starch. It is suggested that, the cassava market/industry in the study area has problems that need intervention in order to remove price distortion or externality costs in the long run. Issues such as seasonality, many middlemen, high perishability and poor processing technologies among others were mentioned. Hence, these issues need to be addressed adequately in order to achieve high efficiency in the industry.
- Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Establish a Tour Guide Selection
and Evaluation Model
Abstract: This study aims to examine the criteria for the selection of tour guides, in order to help travel agencies in Taiwan selecting suitable tour guides with a more objective and consistent approach. A tour guide is the life and soul of an organized tour, as well as an important key for the success of the tour. Following the acquisition of expert opinions by the Delphi method, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to allocate the selection criteria of a tour guide into different levels of hierarchy. The selection criteria include personal attributes, professional knowledge, professional skills and customer service attitude. The results suggested that professional skills are more important than customer service attitude, while professional knowledge is more important than personal attributes. The top three criteria for the selection of a tour guide are “possessing a qualified tour guide license”, “being able to provide explanations clearly and fluently” and “handling matters sensibly and meticulously”, indicating that personal attributes are the priority criteria for the evaluation of a tour guide. The findings can help to shorten the tour guides selection process, as well as assist travel agencies to recruit suitable tour guides in a more objective and consistent manner.
- Perception and Awareness of Young Internet Users towards Cybercrime:
Evidence from Malaysia
Abstract: Cybercrime is a criminal (unethical and unlawful) activities using internet facilities such as virus infections, identity theft and hacking. There is high risk of becoming a victim especially for young internet user. The purpose of this study is to protect them by providing empirical evidence to the policy makers in combating cybercrime. The study examines the relationship between perception and gender, age and knowledge as well as the relationship between awareness and gender, age and knowledge towards cybercrime. A field survey is conducted among 342 students in the faculty of accountancy of Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) with a structured questionnaire that covers demographic information and seven most known cybercrimes. Percentile analysis, correlation matrix, multivariate regressions are done to test the hypotheses. In addition, Post Hoc test is conducted to locate where the significant differences lies. The study finds: (1) Female students are more aware and have affirmative insights than male, (2) students in the age group of 18-23 years have lower perception and awareness than those aged 24 years and above and (3) those with higher academic qualifications are more aware at cybercrime and perceived the issue of risk differently. The study provides empirical evidence to the top management of the higher level institutions on the needs to improve their policies and procedures to protect young generation reducing the high risk of becoming a victim.
- Theoretical Construction of Job Satisfaction in Medical Professionals
Working for Mexican Companies
Abstract: Occupational Health physicians coexist in a work environment where they perform activities other than the ones developed by other doctors. Hence, there is interest in analyzing the theoretical construction of their job satisfaction. Inductive and qualitative study was conducted based on grounded theory and with the support of the software Atlas-ti. As a result of carrying out in-depth interviews and through the open, axial and selective coding process, 12 categories and five dimensions were integrated. They shaped the final definition of job satisfaction of these professionals. The conclusions showed that they are currently satisfied, although they were not satisfied at the beginning of their work life.
- Organizational Well-Being in a Public Research Agency: The Point of View
of Administrative Staff and Researchers
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate organizational well-being in a Public Research Agency, exploring the point of view of two different categories of workers, administrative staff and researchers, employed in the same organization. We hypothesized that, in a complex organization, the kind of work performed, along with other factors, could influence the representation of organizational well-being. The study involved 37 administrative staff and 24 researchers of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), the largest Public Research Agency in Italy. According to different key areas of organizational well-being in CNR, seven focus groups were carried out and collected data was analyzed using the qualitative data analysis software NVivo9. Results of this study seem to confirm the authors’ hypothesis. In effect, even though the framework of organizational well-being is the same for the two categories of employees considered, there are differences in meaning and in importance given by stakeholders to each dimension of the construct. As a whole, the specificity of the points of view might be explained by considering not only the different working conditions and the different kind of work performed, but also the different cultural values of the Research Institutes and of the Central Administration. These aspects should be taken into account in the predisposition of tools for evaluation of organizational well-being, above all in complex organizations, in order to have at the organization’s disposal research tools able to be representative of the entire population. A set of recommendations for improving organizational well-being in complex organizations are provided.
- Barriers to Children and Young People’s Participation in Policy
Making in Ghana
Abstract: This research examined the barriers to young people’s participation as strategic stakeholders in the formulation of public policy, using the formulation of Ghana’s youth policy as a case study. The aim was to gain knowledge about the processes that facilitate or hinder young people’s participation in the policy process at national level. The study involved the use of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with 20 stakeholders in the policy process. Findings showed discrepancy in the attitudes and behaviour of policy makers towards young people. For example, on one hand policy-makers recognised young people’s right to participate but on the other hand they did not seek to involve young people in the policy process. This paper presents a number of factors contributing to this discrepancy and how to overcome them. The paper concludes that to effectively involve young people in the formulation of public policies young people must possess and exercise democratic franchise.
- Why Construction Grammar Catches the Worm and Corpus Data can Drive you
Crazy: Accounting for Idiomatic and Non-Idiomatic Idiomaticity
Abstract: This article outlines why the treatment ofidiomatic elements in language in terms of constructions can be considered areal step forward in the understanding of the character of language. It isargued that construction grammar provides a theoretical basis for accommodatinginsights into the phraseological character of language that were gained in anumber of fields such as corpus linguistics, foreign language teaching and traditionalphraseology and lexicography.
- Italian Phrasemes as Constructions: How to Understand and Use Them
Abstract: The present article describes the objectives and methods for a learner-centered description of Italian idioms based on the theoretical principles of Construction Grammar (CxG). The aim of the underlying research project is to develop a new way of looking at idioms, taking into account all linguistic aspects that could help to fully understand and usethem in a formally and functionally adequate manner, including situational and discursive features. By phrasemes we understand different kinds of word combinations characterized by idiomaticity and/or entrenchment. I will focus here on (a) “predicative phrasemes” (typically figurative and containing an inflected verb as a predicate, also called expressions idiomatiques verbales), (b) “phraseotemplates” (lexically open or formal idioms, in German phraseology Phraseoschablonen) and (c) “pragmatemes” (according to the French term pragmatème, i.e. pragmatically highly conventionalized phrases, also called expressions-énoncés). Idiomaticity is characterized by non compositionality of its components and unpredictability of the whole structure. Italian examples for each of the three types are: (a) Tenere il piede in due staffe (‘to run with the hare and hunt with the hounds’), (b) Cosa me lo chiedi a fare? (‘Why are you asking me at all?’) and (c) In bocca al lupo! (‘Break a leg’). In chapter 2 I will first discuss basic concepts of Construction Grammar and Cognitive Grammar. In the following part (chapter 3) I will present my ideas about CxG and its ability to create a greater awareness of how many word combinations (in this context called constructions) in a language are idiosyncratic and unpredictable and about how to use fundamental theoretical issues of usage-based CxG (mainly Goldberg, Croft) and unification-based approaches in order to describe idioms in a new holistic way. Chapter 4 will deal with some important classifications of phrasemes and their practical aptitude for phraseodidactics. Chapter 5 will finally present my idea of applying methods of Construction Grammar and Fillmore’s semantics of understanding to build a new digital lexicographical format for phrasemes which is going to be called phraseoframe. This will be illustrated for the three types of phrasemes mentioned above. Each phraseme will be described by means of a simple meta language which is easy to understand and has links to prosodic, morphological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic and discourse functional properties. As my approach is corpus based empirical evidence will be given for each of the three types of idioms by using several corpora of Italian spoken and written language (e.g., BADIP, PAISÀ and WEBBIT).
- ‘Someone to Open Each and Every Door’: Construction
Grammar as a Learner Grammar: The Case of English Indefinite Pronouns
Abstract: This paper sets out an applied model of Cognitive Construction Grammar along three dimensions: Compositionality, form as a vehicle for promoting the emergence of grammatical meaning from lexical meaning and construal. The model of Cognitive Construction Grammar put forward here implies that the Applied Linguist may have to collect and explain a wider repertoire of grammatical forms than were considered previously. This extended repertoire may have the advantage of giving the learner a deeper understanding of semantic constraints on how we use a particular construction. It also means that forms once considered idiomatic are now being studied as productive and hence grammatical on some sense. The disadvantage is that we have to deal with a larger number of forms and have no clear principle as to where grammar learning ends and lexical or idiom learning begins. This paper discusses the question of what to include under the rubric of grammatical description and how to include it in relation to the SOME-and-ANY-SERIES (somebody/anyone, etc.) indefinite pronouns. It asks how this applied model of construction grammar affects what we present to learners by looking first at the formal attributes of the English SOME- and ANY-SERIES indefinite pronouns themselves and then at some of the types of clause in which the SOME-SERIES appears.
- The Grammaticalization of the Spanish Complement-taking Verb without a
Abstract: This study examines authentic data samples taken from the Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual (CREA) in order to uncover any semantic trends that can be commonly observed in verbs taking a sentential complement without the complementizer que in Spanish. In doing so, special attention is given to the grammaticalization process that can account for epistemic fragments in which the semantic meaning of the verb becomes attenuated and where the main verb alone without a complementizer functions like an adverbial phrase. Four semantic groups of verbs with a zero complementizer are analyzed: (i) Verbs of cognition/mental act (e.g., creer ‘think’); (ii) verbs of communication (e.g., decir ‘say’); (iii) verbs of volition and desire (e.g., esperar ‘hope’); and iv) verbs of emotion (e.g., temer ‘fear’). These verb groups allowing a zero complementizer show differences with respect to (i) the subjunctive and indicative use in the embedded clause, (ii) the formal Vs. informal registers and (iii) the use of the complement-taking verbs as a fragment/parenthetical or an epistemic marker (in order to capture the degree of grammaticalization). This study proposes that not all the verbs that allow for the omission of the complementizer undergo the same degree of grammaticalization, but the semantics of the main verb interacting with all those factors play a role in determining the likelihood of the omission and the possibility that the main verb can actually be used as a floated parenthetical with a more subjective meaning that involves a more active process of grammaticalization. It is also shown that the degree of grammaticalization differs from verb to verb, as well as from verb class to verb class.