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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1350 journals)
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SOCIAL SCIENCES (686 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 148)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access  
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access  
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access  
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access  
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
e-Gnosis     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)     Open Access  
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExT : Revista de Extensión de la UNC     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Challenges
  [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2078-1547
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [156 journals]
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 15: Life Cycle Assessment of a Virtual Reality

    • Authors: Anders S. G. Andrae
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) is one of the strongest trends for future communication systems. Considering the amounts of VR devices expected to be produced in the coming years, it is relevant to estimate their potential environmental impacts under certain conditions. For the first time, screening life cycle assessment (LCA) single score results are presented for a contemporary VR headset. The weighted results are dependent much on the source of the gold and the electric power used in production. Theoretically, using recycled gold for the VR subparts would be very beneficial seen from an environmental damage cost standpoint. Using low environmental impact electric power in the final assembly of the VR headset, in the final assembly of integrated circuits, and in the preceding wafer processing would also be worthwhile. Distribution of the final product is more pronounced than for other consumer electronics.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 16: Embryogenesis Explained. By Natalie K.
           Gordon and Richard Gordon. World Scientific: Hackensack, NJ, USA, 2016;
           784 pp.; SGD 281; ISBN: 978-981-4350-48-8

    • Authors: Palmiro Poltronieri
      First page: 16
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020016
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 17: Globalization, Inequality, Say’s Law,
           and Fiscal Globalism

    • Authors: Gerasimos T. Soldatos
      First page: 17
      Abstract: This is a brief note maintaining that financial globalization has been faster than the integration of the remaining sectors of the world economy, thus encouraging wealth inequality, under-production, and under-consumption in line with Say’s Law. Financial investment has become more profitable than real investment, discouraging production ventures, and weakening labor’s relative income position and purchasing power. Moreover, this article works out a model of international government indirect tax competition as a policy means against increasing inequality. The mentality under which this tax policy paradigm is put forward is that the competition of nation states in a fiscal globalism fashion crystallizes the optimal level of centralization under globalism; optimal, that is, from the viewpoint of safeguarding against the manipulation of world markets by financiers.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020017
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 18: The Lack of Alignment among Environmental
           Research Infrastructures May Impede Scientific Opportunities

    • Authors: Abad Chabbi, Henry W. Loescher
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Faced with growing stakeholder attention to climate change-related societal impacts, Environmental Research Infrastructures (ERIs) find it difficult to engage beyond their initial user base, which calls for an overarching governance scheme and transnational synergies. Forced by the enormity of tackling climate change, ERIs are indeed broaching collaborative venues, based on the assumption that no given institution can carry out this agenda alone. While strategic, this requires that ERIs address the complexities and barriers towards aligning multiple organizations, national resources and programmatic cultures, including science.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 19: Down to Earth: Planetary Health and
           Biophilosophy in the Symbiocene Epoch

    • Authors: Susan Prescott, Alan Logan
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Advances in science have illuminated the role of the “ecological theatre”—the total living environment—in human health. In a rapidly changing epoch known as the anthropocene, microbiome science is identifying functional connections between all life, both seen and unseen. Rather than an easily identifiable era appearing in rock strata, the anthropocene is more of a diagnostic syndrome, a set of signs and symptoms including climate change, gross biodiversity losses, environmental degradation, and an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. The syndrome is intertwined with politics, economics, public policies (or lack thereof), social values, and a global push of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. The healing of anthropocene syndrome is the grand challenge of humanity. Expanding on the “Mars Can Wait” argument of Geoffrey Goodman, et al., we focus on the urgency with which health promotion must be prioritized here on Earth. We revive Jonas Salk’s biophilosophy: a call to action for collaboration between biologists, humanists, and scholars of all stripes. From this perspective, lines of distinction between personal, public, and planetary health are removed. We also describe the symbiocene: the possibility of a new epoch in which mutualism will be considered imperative. If society asks the right questions, a transition to the symbiocene is possible; the “stratigraphical” mark of the new epoch will be found in a repudiation of authoritarianism, and the promotion of empathy, cultural competency, emotional intelligence, and commitment to optimism, tolerance, and the facilitation of the WHO definition of health, i.e., the fulfillment of human potential.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020019
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 20: Unaffiliated Researchers: A Preliminary

    • Authors: ElHassan ElSabry
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the apparently rising trend of unaffiliated researchers. It does so by analyzing a set of scholarly publications where the authors state “independent researcher” in place of their affiliation. Some of the characteristics of this set are explained along with directions on how to expand research on this topic.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 21: Precision of a Streamlined Life Cycle
           Assessment Approach Used in Eco-Rating of Mobile Phones

    • Authors: Anders S. G. Andrae, Mikko Samuli Vaija
      First page: 21
      Abstract: There is a lack of prescribed databases and approaches in place for performing comparable Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of smartphones and other electronic devices in a coherent manner. Hence there is a need within certain eco-rating initiatives for simplified, yet still precise enough, approaches that are expert independent. Here, five independently published Full LCAs (FLCA) of smartphones—and a metal content declaration of a tablet—are analyzed and compared with the simplified LCA method (Open Eco Rating LCA, OLCA) used by the open eco rating (OER) sustainability assessment. OLCA is described in detail. The comparisons use the same characterization factors that are used for climate change and abiotic resource depletion (ARD) midpoint impact categories. The tablet is only analyzed for the ARD indicator (ARDI). The results show that the difference between the FLCAs and the OLCA is up to 20% for the Global Warming Potential indicator (GWPI). The difference is explained by significantly different emission intensities used in FLCAs and OLCA, especially for integrated circuit and screen production. The life cycle use of metals relevant for ARDI is identified in one of the FLCAs of mobile phones, and used in OLCA and compared with the corresponding FLCA ARDI score. The total FLCA ARDI score is 67% (2.0 vs. 1.2 grams Sb—eq.) and 32% (4.98 vs. 3.76 grams Sb—eq.) higher than OLCA ARDI for the mobile phone and the tablet, respectively. The reason is that OLCA only captures a few of the most relevant metals (gold, silver, tin, indium, and tantalum) for the ARDI. However, cobalt—and to some degree copper and lithium—are significant gaps in the OLCA. The conclusion is that OLCA is an efficient and fair approach for LCAs that are focused on the GWPI of smartphones as the divergence to FLCA can easily be explained. However, the circular footprint formulae, renewable electricity options, and ARD characterization indices for cobalt, copper and lithium should be added to OLCA for further precision. The next step is to compare the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) FLCA method with OLCA for GWPI and ARDI evaluations of new smartphones. Moreover, the effect of adding more midpoint or single score indicators could be tested in OLCA.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020021
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 22: The Challenge of the ‘Art and
           Science’ of Health Promotion

    • Authors: Glenn Laverack
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Health promotion has a key role to play in preventing disease and promoting healthy lifestyles. Health promotion work is part science and part art. The science emerges from research and theory and the art emerges from our professional intuition and experience. The goal is to apply the science to achieve the best health promotion outcomes. However, an application of the theory, models and even the evidence, does not guarantee a desired outcome. To achieve this is an art and something that is often missing in practice. An understanding of how best to apply the ‘art and science’ of health promotion requires an appreciation that it is not only about being scientifically right but also about being real. The challenge for health promoters is to understand how they can use their judgement to best apply the available science to deliver successful approaches.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020022
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 23: A Tourism Financial Conditions Index for
           Tourism Finance

    • Authors: Chia-Lin Chang, Hui-Kuang Hsu, Michael McAleer
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The paper uses monthly data on tourism related factors from April 2005–June 2016 for Taiwan that applies factor analysis and Chang’s (2015) novel approach for constructing a tourism financial indicator, namely the Tourism Financial Conditions Index (TFCI). The TFCI is an adaptation and extension of the widely-used Monetary Conditions Index (MCI) and Financial Conditions Index (FCI) to tourism stock data. However, the method of calculation of the TFCI is different from existing methods of constructing the MCI and FCI in that the weights are estimated empirically. The empirical findings show that TFCI is statistically significant using the estimated conditional mean of the tourism stock index returns (RTS). Granger Causality tests show that TFCI shows strong feedback on RTS. An interesting insight is that the empirical results show a significant negative correlation between F1_visitors (Foreign Visitor Arrivals) and RTS, implying that tourism authorities might promote travel by the “rich”, and not only on inbound visitor growth. The use of market returns on the tourism stock sub-index as the sole indicator of the tourism sector, as compared with the general activity of economic variables on tourism stocks, is shown to provide an exaggerated and excessively volatile explanation of tourism financial conditions.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020023
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 24: Astrofood, Priorities and Pandemics:
           Reflections of an Ultra-Processed Breakfast Program and Contemporary
           Dysbiotic Drift

    • Authors: Alan Logan, Susan Prescott
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Recognizing the importance of nutrition as part of the grand challenges faced by humanity—the current epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), sustainability and maintenance of Planetary Health—the United Nations (UN) has declared 2016–2025 the Decade of Nutrition. Research continues to underscore the extent to which ultra-processed foods dominate the contemporary nutritional landscape. Moreover, the dual role played by food technology and marketing in the expansion of ultra-processed foods is under increased scrutiny. As public health experts and clinicians contend with a crisis of NCDs, attempting to untangle a knotted assortment of interrelated strands of causation, an examination of the early origins of highly-marketed ultra-processed foods can provide valuable lessons. Here, we illuminate a little-known piece of history in the annals of ultra-processed nutritional science and childhood welfare. Astrofood was a commercially-marketed, collaborative government-industry effort that brought soy protein-enriched Twinkies as a nutritive breakfast cake to disadvantaged children; its concept and delivery demonstrated an unwillingness to deal with root-cause challenges. Although its official tenure was only about 7 years, we argue that Astrofood and its total food engineering still resonate throughout the global ultra-processed nutritional landscape. New scientific advances in nutritional psychiatry and the microbiome are on a collision course with the profits, marketing and intellectual dishonesty of the ultra-processed food industry. Solutions to the grand challenges of the Decade of Nutrition may be found in lessons from Astrofood. They provide clues to undoing the tangled knots which otherwise maintain an untenable status quo.
      Citation: Challenges
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8020024
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 1: Expert System for Bomb Factory Detection by
           Networks of Advance Sensors

    • Authors: Carlotta Ferrari, Alessandro Ulrici, Francesco Romolo
      First page: 1
      Abstract: (1) Background: Police forces and security administrations are nowadays considering Improvised explosives (IEs) as a major threat. The chemical substances used to prepare IEs are called precursors, and their presence could allow police forces to locate a bomb factory where the on-going manufacturing of IEs is carried out. (2) Methods: An expert system was developed and tested in handling signals from a network of sensors, allowing an early warning. The expert system allows the detection of one precursor based on the signal provided by a single sensor, the detection of one precursor based on the signal provided by more than one sensor, and the production of a global alarm level based on data fusion from all the sensors of the network. (3) Results: The expert system was tested in the Italian Air Force base of Pratica di Mare (Italy) and in the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) in Grindsjön (Sweden). (4) Conclusion: The performance of the expert system was successfully evaluated under relevant environmental conditions. The approach used in the development of the expert system allows maximum flexibility in terms of integration of the response provided by any sensor, allowing to easily include in the network all possible new sensors.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 2: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Challenges in

    • Authors: Editorial Office
      First page: 2
      Abstract: n/a
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 3: Ice XVII as a Novel Material for Hydrogen

    • Authors: Leonardo del Rosso, Milva Celli, Lorenzo Ulivi
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Hydrogen storage is one of the most addressed issues in the green-economy field. The latest-discovered form of ice (XVII), obtained by application of an annealing treatment to a H 2 -filled ice sample in the C 0 -phase, could be inserted in the energy-storage context due to its surprising capacity of hydrogen physisorption, when exposed to even modest pressure (few mbars at temperature below 40 K), and desorption, when a thermal treatment is applied. In this work, we investigate quantitatively the adsorption properties of this simple material by means of spectroscopic and volumetric data, deriving its gravimetric and volumetric capacities as a function of the thermodynamic parameters, and calculating the usable capacity in isothermal conditions. The comparison of ice XVII with materials with a similar mechanism of hydrogen adsorption like metal-organic frameworks shows interesting performances of ice XVII in terms of hydrogen content, operating temperature and kinetics of adsorption-desorption. Any application of this material to realistic hydrogen tanks should take into account the thermodynamic limit of metastability of ice XVII, i.e., temperatures below about 130 K.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 4: New Studies of the Physical Properties of
           Metallic Amorphous Membranes for Hydrogen Purification

    • Authors: Oriele Palumbo, Francesco Trequattrini, Suchismita Sarker, Madhura Hulyakar, Narendra Pal, Dhanesh Chandra, Michael Dolan, Annalisa Paolone
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Amorphous metallic membranes display promising properties for hydrogen purification up to an ultrapure grade (purity > 99.999%). The hydrogen permeability through amorphous membranes has been widely studied in the literature. In this work we focus on two additional properties, which should be considered before possible application of such materials: the propensity to crystallize at high temperatures should be avoided, as the crystallized membranes can become brittle; the hydrogen solubility should be high, as solubility and permeability are proportional. We investigate the crystallization process and the hydrogen solubility of some membranes based on Ni, Nb, and Zr metals, as a function of Zr content, and with the addition of Ta or B. The boron doping does not significantly affect the crystallization temperature and the thermal stability of the membrane. However, the hydrogen solubility for p ~7 bar is as high as H/M ~0.31 at T = 440 °C and H/M ~0.27 at T = 485 °C. Moreover, the membrane does not pulverize even after repeated thermal cycles and hydrogenation processes up to 485 °C and 7 bar, and it retains its initial shape.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 5: Ionic Mobility and Phase Transitions in
           Perovskite Oxides for Energy Application

    • Authors: Francesco Cordero, Floriana Craciun, Francesco Trequattrini
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Perovskite oxides find applications or are studied in many fields related to energy production, accumulation and saving. The most obvious application is oxygen or proton conductors in fuel cells (SOFCs), but the (anti)ferroelectric compositions may find application in high energy capacitors for energy storage, efficient electrocaloric cooling, and electromechanical energy harvesting. In SOFCs, the diffusion of O vacancies and other mobile ionic species, such as H+, are at the base of the functioning of the device, while in the other cases they constitute unwanted defects that reduce the performance and life-time of the device. Similarly, the (anti)ferroelectric phase transitions are a requisite for the use of some types of devices, but the accompanying domain walls can generate extended defects detrimental to the life of the material, and structural phase transformations should be avoided in SOFCs. All these phenomena can be studied by mechanical spectroscopy, the measurement of the complex elastic compliance as a function of temperature and frequency, which is the mechanical analogue of the dielectric susceptibility, but probes the elastic response and elastic dipoles instead of the dielectric response and electric dipoles. The two techniques can be combined to provide a comprehensive picture of the material properties. Examples are shown of the study of structural transitions and hopping and tunnelling processes of O vacancies and H in the ion conductor BaCe1-xYxO3-x and in SrTiO3-x, and of the aging and fatigue effects found in PZT at compositions where the ferro- and antiferroelectric states coexist.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Tie-Up Cycles in Long-Term Mating. Part II:
           Fictional Narratives and the Social Cognition of Mating

    • Authors: Lorenza Basili, Pier Sacco
      First page: 6
      Abstract: In the first part of this paper, we have introduced a novel theoretical approach to mating dynamics, known as Tie-Up Theory (TU). In this second part, in the context of the bio-cultural approach to literature, that assigns to fictional narratives an important valence of social cognition, we apply the conceptual tools presented in the first part to the analysis of mating-related interaction dynamics in some blockbuster Hollywood movies from WWII to today. The interaction dynamics envisioned by our theory accurately reflect, to a significant level of detail, the narrative development of the movies under exam from the viewpoint of the mating dynamics of the couple of main characters, accounting for the specific reasons that lead them to react to certain situations via certain behaviors, and for the reasons why such behaviors lead to certain outcomes. Our analysis seems thus to bring some further legitimacy to the bio-cultural foundation of the narrative structure of the movies that we analyze, and moreover to the idea that it is possible to ‘inquire’ characters about their choices according to the narratological-experimental lines suggested by some proponents of the bio-cultural approach.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 7: A Study of the Conformers of the
           (Nonafluorobutanesulfonyl)imide Ion by Means of Infrared Spectroscopy and
           Density Functional Theory (DFT) Calculations

    • Authors: Oriele Palumbo, Francesco Trequattrini, Giovanni Appetecchi, Annalisa Paolone
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with anions of the per(fluoroalkylsulfonyl)imide family are particularly interesting for their use as electrolytes in lithium batteries. These ions have several geometric isomers and the presence of different ion conformers and their distribution affects the ILs (Ionic liquids) physical and chemical properties. In the present work, we report the temperature dependence of the infrared spectra of the N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)(nonafluorobutanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14‑IM14) ionic liquid; DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations performed with different models provides indications about the IM14 conformers and their vibrational spectra. Moreover the temperature dependence of the intensity of the lines identified as markers of different conformers provide indications about the conformers’ distribution and the difference of their enthalpy in the liquid phase.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 8: Hydrides as High Capacity Anodes in Lithium
           Cells: An Italian “Futuro in Ricerca di Base FIRB-2010” Project

    • Authors: Sergio Brutti, Stefania Panero, Annalisa Paolone, Sara Gatto, Daniele Meggiolaro, Francesco Vitucci, Jessica Manzi, David Munaò, Laura Silvestri, Luca Farina, Priscilla Reale
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Automotive and stationary energy storage are among the most recently-proposed and still unfulfilled applications for lithium ion devices. Higher energy, power and superior safety standards, well beyond the present state of the art, are actually required to extend the Li-ion battery market to these challenging fields, but such a goal can only be achieved by the development of new materials with improved performances. Focusing on the negative electrode materials, alloying and conversion chemistries have been widely explored in the last decade to circumvent the main weakness of the intercalation processes: the limitation in capacity to one or at most two lithium atoms per host formula unit. Among all of the many proposed conversion chemistries, hydrides have been proposed and investigated since 2008. In lithium cells, these materials undergo a conversion reaction that gives metallic nanoparticles surrounded by an amorphous matrix of LiH. Among all of the reported conversion materials, hydrides have outstanding theoretical properties and have been only marginally explored, thus making this class of materials an interesting playground for both fundamental and applied research. In this review, we illustrate the most relevant results achieved in the frame of the Italian National Research Project FIRB 2010 Futuro in Ricerca “Hydrides as high capacity anodes in lithium cells” and possible future perspectives of research for this class of materials in electrochemical energy storage devices.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 9: Case Studies of Energy Storage with Fuel
           Cells and Batteries for Stationary and Mobile Applications

    • Authors: Nadia Belmonte, Carlo Luetto, Stefano Staulo, Paola Rizzi, Marcello Baricco
      First page: 9
      Abstract: In this paper, hydrogen coupled with fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries are considered as alternative energy storage methods. Their application on a stationary system (i.e., energy storage for a family house) and a mobile system (i.e., an unmanned aerial vehicle) will be investigated. The stationary systems, designed for off-grid applications, were sized for photovoltaic energy production in the area of Turin, Italy, to provide daily energy of 10.25 kWh. The mobile systems, to be used for high crane inspection, were sized to have a flying range of 120 min, one being equipped with a Li-ion battery and the other with a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The systems were compared from an economical point of view and a life cycle assessment was performed to identify the main contributors to the environmental impact. From a commercial point of view, the fuel cell and the electrolyzer, being niche products, result in being more expensive with respect to the Li-ion batteries. On the other hand, the life cycle assessment (LCA) results show the lower burdens of both technologies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 10: Electrochemical Sensor for Explosives
           Precursors’ Detection in Water

    • Authors: Cloé Desmet, Agnes Degiuli, Carlotta Ferrari, Francesco Romolo, Loïc Blum, Christophe Marquette
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Although all countries are intensifying their efforts against terrorism and increasing their mutual cooperation, terrorist bombing is still one of the greatest threats to society. The discovery of hidden bomb factories is of primary importance in the prevention of terrorism activities. Criminals preparing improvised explosives (IE) use chemical substances called precursors. These compounds are released in the air and in the waste water during IE production. Tracking sources of precursors by analyzing air or wastewater can then be an important clue for bomb factories’ localization. We are reporting here a new multiplex electrochemical sensor dedicated to the on-site simultaneous detection of three explosive precursors, potentially used for improvised explosive device preparation (hereafter referenced as B01, B08, and B15, for security disclosure reasons and to avoid being detrimental to the security of the counter-explosive EU action). The electrochemical sensors were designed to be disposable and to combine ease of use and portability in a screen-printed eight-electrochemical cell array format. The working electrodes were modified with different electrodeposited metals: gold, palladium, and platinum. These different coatings giving selectivity to the multi-sensor through a “fingerprint”-like signal subsequently analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results are given regarding the detection of the three compounds in a real environment and in the presence of potentially interfering species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 11: About the Purification Route of Ionic Liquid

    • Authors: Massimo De Francesco, Elisabetta Simonetti, Gianremo Gorgi, Giovanni Appetecchi
      First page: 11
      Abstract: In this work a purification route of precursors for ionic liquids tailored to electrochemical energy storage systems is reported and described. The study was carried out on the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide (PYR14Br) precursor, which represents the intermediate product of the synthesis process of the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) hydrophobic ionic liquid. The target is to develop an easy and cost-effective approach for efficiently purifying several kinds of ionic liquid precursors and determining their purity content. The PYR14Br precursor was synthesized through an eco-friendly preparation procedure, which requires water as the only processing solvent, and purified through sorbent materials, such as activated charcoal and alumina. The effect of the treatment/nature/content of sorbents and processing temperature/time was investigated. The impurity content was detected by UV-VIS spectrophotometry measurements. Additionally, a correlation between the measured absorbance and the content of impurities within the precursor was obtained. The purity level of the precursor was seen to play a key role in the electrochemical performance of the ionic liquids.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 12: Ethics and the Potential Conflicts between
           Astrobiology, Planetary Protection, and Commercial Use of Space

    • Authors: Erik Persson
      First page: 12
      Abstract: A high standard of planetary protection is important for astrobiology, though the risk for contamination can never be zero. It is therefore important to find a balance. If extraterrestrial life has a moral standing in its own right, it will also affect what we have to do to protect it. The questions of how far we need to go to protect extraterrestrial life will be even more acute and complicated when the time comes to use habitable worlds for commercial purposes. There will also be conflicts between those who want to set a world aside for more research and those who want to give the green light for development. I believe it is important to be proactive in relation to these issues. The aim of my project is therefore to identify, elucidate, and if possible, suggest solutions to potential conflicts between astrobiology, planetary protection, and commercial use of space.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 13: Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Smart Grid

    • Authors: Stavros Lazarou, Sofoklis Makridis
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The electricity sector is among the main contributors to carbon emissions. This sector has the potential to reduce its carbon emissions through producing electric energy from zero-emitting facilities and optimizing consumption to better accommodate low-carbon emissions. The use of hydrogen combined with smart grids, as analyzed in this manuscript, can substantially contribute to climate change mitigation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 8, Pages 14: ADP-Ribosylation Reactions in Animals,
           Plants, and Bacteria

    • Authors: Palmiro Poltronieri
      First page: 14
      Abstract: n/a
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/challe8010014
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2017)
  • Challenges, Vol. 5, Pages 1-25: How China’s Options Will Determine
           Global Warming

    • Authors: Clifford Singer, Timothy Milligan, T.S. Rethinaraj
      Pages: 1 - 25
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide emissions, global average temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and surface ocean mixed layer acidity are extrapolated using analyses calibrated against extensive time series data for nine global regions. Extrapolation of historical trends without policy-driven limitations has China responsible for about half of global CO2 emissions by the middle of the twenty-first century. Results are presented for three possible actions taken by China to limit global average temperature increase to levels it considers to be to its advantage: (1) Help develop low-carbon energy technology broadly competitive with unbridled carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels; (2) Entice other countries to join in limiting use of what would otherwise be economically competitive fossil fuels; (3) Apply geo-engineering techniques such as stratospheric sulfur injection to limit global average temperature increase, without a major global reduction in carbon emissions. Taking into account China’s expected influence and approach to limiting the impact of anthropogenic climate change allows for a narrower range of possible outcomes than for a set of scenarios that are not constrained by analysis of likely policy-driven limitations. While China could hold back on implementing geoengineering given a remarkable amount of international cooperation on limiting fossil carbon burning, an outcome where geoengineering is used to delay the perceived need to limit the atmospheric CO2 concentration may be difficult to avoid.
      PubDate: 2013-12-30
      DOI: 10.3390/challe5010001
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2013)
  • Challenges, Vol. 4, Pages 201-216: Getting Smart? Climate Change and
           the Electric Grid

    • Authors: Jennie Stephens, Elizabeth Wilson, Tarla Peterson, James Meadowcroft
      Pages: 201 - 216
      Abstract: Interest in the potential of smart grid to transform the way societies generate, distribute, and use electricity has increased dramatically over the past decade. A smarter grid could contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation by increasing low-carbon electricity production and enhancing system reliability and resilience. However, climate goals are not necessarily essential for smart grid. Climate change is only one of many considerations motivating innovation in electricity systems, and depending on the path of grid modernization, a future smart grid might do little to reduce, or could even exacerbate, risks associated with climate change. This paper identifies tensions within a shared smart grid vision and illustrates how competing societal priorities are influencing electricity system innovation. Co-existing but divergent priorities among key actors’ are mapped across two critical dimensions: centralized versus decentralized energy systems and radical versus incremental change. Understanding these tensions provides insights on how climate change objectives can be integrated to shape smart grid development. Electricity system change is context-specific and path-dependent, so specific strategies linking smart grid and climate change need to be developed at local, regional, and national levels. And while incremental improvements may bring short term gains, a radical transformation is needed to realize climate objectives.
      PubDate: 2013-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/challe4020201
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013)
  • Challenges, Vol. 4, Pages 217-233: A Smarter Grid for Renewable Energy:
           Different States of Action

    • Authors: Clark Koenigs, Mudita Suri, Amelia Kreiter, Caroline Elling, Julia Eagles, Tarla Peterson, Jennie Stephens, Elizabeth Wilson
      Pages: 217 - 233
      Abstract: Smart grid has strong potential to advance and encourage renewable energy deployment, but given the multiple motivations for smart grid, renewables are not always central in smart grid policy discussions. The term “smart grid” represents a set of technologies, including advanced meters, sensors and energy storage that are crucial for the integration of more renewable and low carbon electricity into the electric power grid. However, developing and building a smart grid is jurisdictionally complex, path dependent and context specific; states and regions are approaching grid modernization in different ways. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of smart grid development in seven U.S. states. We use state-level policy documents to learn what motivates smart grid development and how smart grid is framed in relation to renewable energy. In some states, renewable technologies are presented as an integral part of the smart grid policy discussion, while in others they are largely absent.
      PubDate: 2013-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/challe4020217
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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