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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1468 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (252 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (18 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (89 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (51 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (783 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (43 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (166 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (783 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abant Kültürel Araştırmalar Dergisi     Open Access  
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi / Adiyaman University Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 174)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Afrika Focus     Open Access  
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Akademik Bakış Uluslararası Hakemli Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Akademik Hassasiyetler     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Al Farabi Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anais do Congresso de Pesquisa e Extensão e da Semana de Ciências Sociais da UEMG/Barbacena     Open Access  
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Análisis     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Anka E-Dergi     Open Access  
Ankara University SBF Journal     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Artvin Coruh University International Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Quality of Life     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Asya Araştırmaları Uluslararasi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / Journal of Asian Studies     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University Journal of Social Science Institute     Open Access  
Bingöl Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Black Women, Gender & Families     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BOSAPARIS : Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga     Open Access  
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia Sociales y Económicas     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Científic@ : Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Connections     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cooperativismo y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Current Research in Social Sciences     Open Access  
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Decyzje     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales y Sociales     Open Access  
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Doğu Anadolu Sosyal Bilimlerde Eğilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
e-cadernos CES     Open Access  
E-Dimas : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover
Brain and Cognition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.308
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 37  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-2626 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2147
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Impaired motor inhibition in developmental coordination disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 127Author(s): J.L. He, I. Fuelscher, J. Coxon, P. Barhoun, D. Parmar, P.G. Enticott, C. HydeAbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the ‘inhibitory deficit’ hypothesis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We adopted a multifaceted approach, investigating two distinct, yet complimentary facets of motor inhibition: action restraint and action cancellation. This was achieved using carefully constructed versions of the ‘Go/No-go’ and ‘Stop-signal’ tasks, respectively. The sample comprised 11 young adults with DCD aged between 18 and 30 years of age and 11 typically developing, age-matched controls. Participants completed both the ‘Go/No-go’ and ‘Stop-signal’ tasks to assess action restraint and action cancellation respectively. Individuals with DCD were less efficient than their typically developing peers at performing both action restraint and action cancellation, indicated by significantly reduced action restraint efficiency index scores on the ‘Go/No-go’ task and a trend towards longer stop-signal reaction times on the ‘Stop-signal’ task. This work clarifies disparate evidence speaking to the integrity of action restraint in DCD and provides the first account of action cancellation in DCD using a purpose-built measure. In support of the inhibitory deficit hypothesis of DCD, our results suggest that young adults with DCD experience broad difficulties with engaging inhibitory mechanisms during motor behaviour.
       
  • Anosognosia in degenerative brain diseases: The role of the right
           hemisphere and of its dominance for emotions
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 127Author(s): Guido GainottiAbstractEarlier studies, which suggested that anosognosia of hemiplegia might be related to right hemisphere (RH) lesions did not control for the influence of confounding variables, such as aphasia, in patients with left-hemisphere lesions and unilateral neglect in those with RH lesions. These confounding variables are absent in patients with degenerative brain disease, where a prevalence of right-sided lesions is often associated with emotional and behavioural disturbances. This review, which can be considered a ‘qualitative synthesis’, aimed, therefore, to determine whether the unawareness phenomena observed in degenerative brain diseases are linked to the RH dominance for emotions. Results of the review confirmed that the neural correlates of anosognosia are often right lateralised in patients with degenerative brain diseases and that emotional disturbances are associated with right frontal lesions and anosognosia in the behavioural variant, i.e., frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, they also showed that anosognosia is a heterogeneous phenomenon and that the role of right frontal lesions is much greater when the loss of insight concerns emotion-linked aspects of personality or behaviour than when it concerns particular aspects of cognition or memory.
       
  • The temporal dynamics of perceptual and conceptual fluency on recognition
           memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 127Author(s): Wei Wang, Bingbing Li, Chuanji Gao, Chunyan GuoAbstractRecognition memory can be driven by both perceptual and conceptual fluency, but when and to what extent they contribute to recognition memory remains an open question. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency, when they gave rise to recognition. We manipulated the perceptual and conceptual fluency of retrieval cues in the recognition test independently to obtain the effects of different types of fluency. Behavioral results showed that perceptual fluency selectively affected K hits, while conceptual fluency affected R hits and K false alarms. In addition, conceptual fluency facilitated the response times of R hits. The ERP results showed that perceptual fluency effect appeared at 100–200 ms and conceptual fluency effect appeared at 300–500 ms. The parietal LPC peaked earlier for conceptually primed trials compared to unprimed trials. These results suggest that perceptual and conceptual fluency had different effects on recognition judgments, and these two types of fluency can be delineated by distinct ERP correlates. The current finding indicates that unconscious memory processes can support recognition and have provided insights into the underlying mechanism involved in recognition memory.
       
  • Cortical-subcortical production of formulaic language: A review of
           linguistic, brain disorder, and functional imaging studies leading to a
           production model
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 126Author(s): Diana Van Lancker Sidtis, John J. SidtisAbstractFormulaic language forms about one-fourth of everyday talk. Formulaic (fixed expressions) and novel (grammatical language) differ in important characteristics. The features of idioms, slang, expletives, proverbs, aphorisms, conversational speech formulas, and other fixed expressions include ranges of length, flexible cohesion, memory storage, nonliteral and situation meaning, and affective content. Neurolinguistic observations in persons with focal brain damage or progressive neurological disease suggest that producing formulaic expressions can be achieved by interactions between the right hemisphere and subcortical structures. The known functional characteristics of these structures form a compatible substrate for production of formulaic expressions. Functional imaging using a performance-based analysis supported a right hemisphere involvement in producing conversational speech formulas, while indicating that the pause fillers, uh and um, engage the left hemisphere and function like lexical items. Together these findings support a dual-process model of language, whereby formulaic and grammatical language are modulated by different cerebral structures.
       
  • Developmental change in the resting state electroencephalogram: Insights
           into cognition and the brain
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 126Author(s): Alana J. Anderson, Sammy PeroneAbstractResting state electroencephalography (RS-EEG) is a commonly used neurophysiological technique which provides a measure of brain activity when an individual is awake and not performing any assigned cognitive task. Because this relatively simple and non-invasive method is suitable for many ages and populations, a large and diverse literature has amassed. The focus of this review is to describe and synthesize RS-EEG literature across the lifespan while emphasizing the associations between RS-EEG and cognition. We also highlight contextual influences on RS-EEG, such as socioeconomic status and early deprivation. We conclude with a discussion of key insights into brain development and associated changes in cognition which we gathered during our review. We also identify gaps in the literature and areas of future research using RS-EEG that can advance our understanding of brain and cognitive development.
       
  • On the sensitivity of event-related fields to recollection and familiarity
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 126Author(s): Lisa H. Evans, Edward L. WildingAbstractThe sensitivity of event-related potentials (ERPs) to the processes of recollection and familiarity has been explored extensively, and ERPs have been used subsequently to infer the contributions these processes make to memory judgments under a range of different circumstances. It has also been shown that event-related fields (ERFs, the magnetic counterparts of ERPs) are sensitive to memory retrieval processes. The links between ERFs, recollection and familiarity are, however, established only weakly. In this experiment, the sensitivity of ERFs to these processes was investigated in a paradigm used previously with ERPs. An early frontally distributed modulation varied with memory confidence in a way that aligns it with the process of familiarity, while a later parietally distributed modulation tracked subjective claims of recollection in a way that aligns it with this process. These data points strengthen the argument for employing ERFs to assess the contributions these processes can make to memory judgments, as well as for investigating the nature of the processes themselves.
       
  • The processing of animacy in noun-classifier combinations in reading
           Korean: An ERP study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 126Author(s): Liling JinAbstractA key issue in the area of language processing is the mechanism underlying the processing of animacy information during sentence comprehension. In this ERP study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of animacy processing in Korean noun-classifier combinations that do not involve verb-noun thematic processing. We manipulated semantic and animacy relationships between nouns and their following classifiers, and there were three conditions in our experiment: (a) correct, (b) semantic mismatch, or (c) animacy mismatch. The results showed that both noun-classifier mismatch conditions evoked a biphasic N400-P600 effect, but there was no P600 difference between the two mismatch conditions. However, further analyses indicated that the animacy mismatch condition evoked a less negative-going waveform than the semantic mismatch condition in the 400–500 ms time window. Our findings suggest that the brain processes animacy information differently from other semantic features in noun-classifier combinations in Korean, and additional animacy mismatch blocked further fine-grained semantic processing. The ERP evidence also suggests that the role of animacy in sentence comprehension varies according to language type and sentence structure. Whether animacy participates in the construction of verb-noun thematic relationships in sentences may be an important factor that influences the neural patterns of animacy processing in language comprehension.
       
  • Imagine squeezing a cactus: Cortical activation during affective motor
           imagery measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 126Author(s): Selina C. Wriessnegger, Günther Bauernfeind, Eva-Maria Kurz, Philipp Raggam, Gernot R. Müller-PutzAbstractThe activation of different brain areas during kinaesthetic and visual motor imagery has been extensively studied, whereas little is known about affective motor imagery, i.e. the imagery of pleasant/unpleasant movements. In the present neuroimaging study we investigated cortical activation of kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) based on emotional stimulus content by means of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty healthy adult participants were instructed to imagine affective, and neutral motor tasks while multichannel fNIRS was recorded simultaneously. In the affective MI condition they had to imagine e.g. squeezing a cactus with their right hand several times, eliciting an unpleasant emotion. In the neutral condition their task was to imagine squeezing a ball. Significant differences in oxy-hemoglobin [oxy-Hb] concentration changes during KMI including affective objects in different brain regions were found. Specifically activation in left parietal and frontal regions was increased during the imagery of squeezing a cactus which induced a painful feeling. Both areas are also involved in the perception of pain and commonly labelled as parts of the “pain matrix”. Our study provides novel insights in cortical activation patterns during affective motor imagery and its psychological and cognitive mechanisms underlying pain experience.
       
  • The effect of ageing on the neural substrates of incidental encoding
           leading to recollection or familiarity
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 126Author(s): Sarah François, Lucie Angel, Eric Salmon, Christine Bastin, Fabienne ColletteAbstractIt is well-known that the ageing process disrupts episodic memory. The aim of this study was to use an fMRI visual recognition task to characterize age-related changes in cerebral regions activated, during encoding, for images that would subsequently lead to a recollection-based or to a familiarity-based recognition. Results show that, for subsequent recollection, young adults activated regions related to semantic processing more extensively than older ones. On the other hand, despite putatively producing less semantic elaboration, older adults activated contralateral regions supplementary to those found in young adults (which might represent attempted compensation), as well as regions of the default-mode network. These results suggest older adults could achieve subsequent recollection through different processes, for instance an appraisal of the self-relevance of the stimuli. For subsequent familiarity, the comparisons only revealed greater activations in young adults, in the dorsal frontoparietal attention system as well as in the hippocampus, again suggesting that, even if older adults are able to produce recollection- and familiarity-based recognition, the semantic processing might still be weaker in old adults, who might nonetheless use qualitatively different strategies in order to produce such responses. Further studies are necessary in order to characterize those strategies.
       
  • Young children in different linguistic environments: A multimodal
           neuroimaging study of the inferior frontal gyrus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): Camilia Thieba, Xiangyu Long, Deborah Dewey, Catherine LebelAbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show that bilingual adults display structural and functional brain alterations, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dependent on when they learned their second language. However, it is unclear whether these differences are due to early exposure to another language, or to lifelong adaptation. We studied 22 children aged 3–5 years growing up in a multilingual environment and 22 age- and sex-matched controls exposed to an English-only environment. Resting-state functional MRI and T1-weighted MRI were used to assess functional connectivity and structure of the IFG. Children in a multilingual environment had higher functional connectivity between the left IFG and dorsal language and attention areas compared to children from a monolingual environment. Children in a multilingual environment also displayed decreased functional connectivity to temporal, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal areas. No significant group differences in IFG structure were observed. Our results suggest a more integrated functional language network, which is more segregated from other networks, in children who grow up in a multilingual environment. These findings suggest that functional alterations to the IFG due to second language learning occur early, while structural changes may not be apparent until later.
       
  • Review on biomarkers in the resting-state networks of chronic pain
           patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): J. Pfannmöller, M. LotzeAbstractBiomarkers indicating characteristic alterations in the brains of pain patients would in comparison to behavioral examinations allow for earlier diagnoses of pain disease development, a more immediate monitoring of pain disease progression, and for the development of interventions to reverse or compensate for the alterations. To reveal causal relations between an observed alteration and the pain disease longitudinal examinations are essential. Resting-state fMRI examinations can readily be included in large longitudinal cohorts allowing to achieve sufficiently large patient samples even for rare diseases.Our literature review on longitudinal resting-state fMRI examinations of pain patients indicates that pain chronicity is predicted by alterations to the brain's reward system and default mode network. A brain wide reorganization of the resting-state networks is associated with the emergence of the chronic pain state. The functional connectivity of the left frontoparietal network predicts the evolution of pain intensity in the chronic state. Further investigations are necessary concerning the generalization of the biomarkers across the phases in pain development especially for the healthy state, across different pain etiologies, and their specificity to chronic pain. The currently acquired representative longitudinal cohorts will allow for clarification of those issues within the next decades.
       
  • Interactive influence of sex, stressor timing, and the BclI glucocorticoid
           receptor polymorphism on stress-induced alterations of long-term memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): Phillip R. Zoladz, Tessa J. Duffy, Brianne E. Mosley, Miranda K. Fiely, Hannah E. Nagle, Amanda R. Scharf, Callie M. Brown, McKenna B. Earley, Boyd R. Rorabaugh, Alison M. DaileyAbstractCertain susceptibility factors, such as genetic variants or specific physiological responses to stress, can dictate the effects of stress on learning and memory. Here, we examined the influence of the BclI polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene on the time-dependent effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory. Healthy individuals were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test or a control condition immediately or 30 min before word list learning. Participants’ memory for the words was tested immediately and 24 h after learning, and saliva samples were collected to genotype participants for the BclI polymorphism and to assess cortisol responses to the stressor. Results revealed that stress immediately before learning enhanced memory, while stress 30 min before learning impaired memory; these effects were largely selective to males and non-arousing words. Additionally, stress, independent of when it was administered, enhanced memory in non-carriers of the BclI polymorphism, while impairing memory in carriers; these effects were largely selective to males and participants exhibiting a robust cortisol response to stress. These results provide further evidence for time-dependent effects of stress on long-term memory and suggest that carriers of the BclI polymorphism might be more sensitive to the negative effects of corticosteroids on learning.
       
  • Stress-induced reliance on habitual behavior is moderated by cortisol
           reactivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): T. Smeets, P. van Ruitenbeek, B. Hartogsveld, Conny W.E.M. QuaedfliegAbstractInstrumental learning, i.e., learning that specific behaviors lead to desired outcomes, occurs through goal-directed and habit memory systems. Exposure to acute stress has been shown to result in less goal-directed control, thus rendering behavior more habitual. The aim of the current studies was to replicate and extend findings on stress-induced prompting of habitual responding and specifically focused on the role of stress-induced cortisol reactivity. Study 1 used an established outcome devaluation paradigm to assess goal-directed and habitual control. Study 2 utilized a modified version of this paradigm that was intended to establish stronger habitual responding through more extensive reward training and applying a relevant behavioral devaluation procedure (i.e., eating to satiety). Both studies failed to replicate that stress overall, i.e., independent of cortisol reactivity, shifted behavior from goal-directed to habitual control. However, both studies found that relative to stress-exposed cortisol non-responders and no-stress controls, participants displaying stress-induced cortisol reactivity displayed prominent habitual responding. These findings highlight the importance of stress-induced cortisol reactivity in facilitating habits.
       
  • Pre-encoding stress induced changes in perceived stress, blood pressure
           and cortisol are differentially associated with recollection and
           familiarity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): Uta S. Wiemers, Tanja C. Hamacher-Dang, Andrew P. Yonelinas, Oliver T. WolfAbstractStress before encoding is often linked to impaired memory. Further influences of stress on memory are arousal of the to be learned material and memory retrieval type (free recall vs. recognition). In the current study we tested the influence of stress on memory encoding for neutral and negative arousing pictures in healthy young adults. A total of 80 participants (40 men) were subjected either to the socially evaluated cold pressure test or a control condition before encoding of arousing and neutral pictures. One day later participants underwent a recognition test. Results show different relationships between the obtained stress markers and recognition memory. Higher perceived stress ratings predicted poorer overall accuracy for arousing material. Lower perceived stress ratings and larger blood pressure increase predicted higher recollection values for arousing material. In contrast, a larger cortisol increase predicted lower familiarity values for arousing material. Concluding, activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and a lower feeling of perceived stress predict better recollection. HPA axis activity predicts lower familiarity. Pre-encoding induced changes in the perceived feeling of stress, activity of the SNS, and activity of the HPA axis show specific and distinct relationships to recognition memory.
       
 
 
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