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SOCIAL SCIENCES (684 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 148)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access  
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access  
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access  
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access  
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
e-Gnosis     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)     Open Access  
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExT : Revista de Extensión de la UNC     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Brain and Cognition
  [SJR: 1.511]   [H-I: 95]   [31 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0278-2626 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2147
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Not so secret agents: Event-related potentials to semantic roles in visual
           event comprehension
    • Authors: Neil Cohn; Martin Paczynski; Marta Kutas
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Neil Cohn, Martin Paczynski, Marta Kutas
      Research across domains has suggested that agents, the doers of actions, have a processing advantage over patients, the receivers of actions. We hypothesized that agents as “event builders” for discrete actions (e.g., throwing a ball, punching) build on cues embedded in their preparatory postures (e.g., reaching back an arm to throw or punch) that lead to (predictable) culminating actions, and that these cues afford frontloading of event structure processing. To test this hypothesis, we compared event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to averbal comic panels depicting preparatory agents (ex. reaching back an arm to punch) that cued specific actions with those to non-preparatory agents (ex. arm to the side) and patients that did not cue any specific actions. We also compared subsequent completed action panels (ex. agent punching patient) across conditions, where we expected an inverse pattern of ERPs indexing the differential costs of processing completed actions asa function of preparatory cues. Preparatory agents evoked a greater frontal positivity (600–900ms) relative to non-preparatory agents and patients, while subsequent completed actions panels following non-preparatory agents elicited a smaller frontal positivity (600–900ms). These results suggest that preparatory (vs. non-) postures may differentially impact the processing of agents and subsequent actions in real time.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
  • Hemispheric specialization for global and local processing: A direct
           comparison of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli
    • Authors: Sanne G. Brederoo; Mark R. Nieuwenstein; Monicque M. Lorist; Frans W. Cornelissen
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Sanne G. Brederoo, Mark R. Nieuwenstein, Monicque M. Lorist, Frans W. Cornelissen
      It is often assumed that the human brain processes the global and local properties of visual stimuli in a lateralized fashion, with a left hemisphere (LH) specialization for local detail, and a right hemisphere (RH) specialization for global form. However, the evidence for such global-local lateralization stems predominantly from studies using linguistic stimuli, the processing of which has shown to be LH lateralized in itself. In addition, some studies have reported a reversal of global-local lateralization when using non-linguistic stimuli. Accordingly, it remains unclear whether global-local lateralization may in fact be stimulus-specific. To address this issue, we asked participants to respond to linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli that were presented in the right and left visual fields, allowing for first access by the LH and RH, respectively. The results showed global-RH and local-LH advantages for both stimulus types, but the global lateralization effect was larger for linguistic stimuli. Furthermore, this pattern of results was found to be robust, as it was observed regardless of two other task manipulations. We conclude that the instantiation and direction of global and local lateralization is not stimulus-specific. However, the magnitude of global,—but not local—, lateralization is dependent on stimulus type.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T04:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
  • Response bias and response monitoring: Evidence from healthy older adults
           and patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Rebecca G. Deason; Michelle J. Tat; Sean Flannery; Prabhakar S. Mithal; Erin P. Hussey; Eileen T. Crehan; Brandon A. Ally; Andrew E. Budson
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Rebecca G. Deason, Michelle J. Tat, Sean Flannery, Prabhakar S. Mithal, Erin P. Hussey, Eileen T. Crehan, Brandon A. Ally, Andrew E. Budson
      Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) often exhibit an abnormally liberal response bias in recognition memory tests, responding “old” more frequently than “new.” Investigations have shown patients can to shift to a more conservative response bias when given instructions. We examined if patients with mild AD could alter their response patterns when the ratio of old items is manipulated without explicit instruction. Healthy older adults and AD patients studied lists of words and then were tested in three old/new ratio conditions (30%, 50%, or 70% old items). A subset of participants provided estimates of how many old and new items they saw in the memory test. We demonstrated that both groups were able to change their response patterns without the aid of explicit instructions. Importantly, AD patients were more likely to estimate seeing greater numbers of old than new items, whereas the reverse was observed for older adults. Elevated estimates of old items in AD patients suggest their liberal response bias may be attributed to their reliance on familiarity. We conclude that the liberal response bias observed in AD patients is attributable to their believing that more of the test items are old and not due to impaired meta-memorial monitoring abilities.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T12:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
  • Cognitive strategies in the mental rotation task revealed by EEG spectral
    • Authors: Aaron L. Gardony; Marianna D. Eddy; Tad T. Brunyé; Holly A. Taylor
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Aaron L. Gardony, Marianna D. Eddy, Tad T. Brunyé, Holly A. Taylor
      The classic mental rotation task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971) is commonly thought to measure mental rotation, a cognitive process involving covert simulation of motor rotation. Yet much research suggests that the MRT recruits both motor simulation and other analytic cognitive strategies that depend on visuospatial representation and visual working memory (WM). In the present study, we investigated cognitive strategies in the MRT using time-frequency analysis of EEG and independent component analysis. We scrutinized sensorimotor mu (µ) power reduction, associated with motor simulation, parietal alpha (pα) power reduction, associated with visuospatial representation, and frontal midline theta (fmθ) power enhancement, associated with WM maintenance and manipulation. µ power increased concomitant with increasing task difficulty, suggesting reduced use of motor simulation, while pα decreased and fmθ power increased, suggesting heightened use of visuospatial representation processing and WM, respectively. These findings suggest that MRT performance involves flexibly trading off between cognitive strategies, namely a motor simulation-based mental rotation strategy and WM-intensive analytic strategies based on task difficulty. Flexible cognitive strategy use may be a domain-general cognitive principle that underlies aptitude and spatial intelligence in a variety of cognitive domains. We close with discussion of the present study’s implications as well as future directions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T02:05:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Neural activity and emotional processing following military deployment:
           Effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder
    • Authors: Daniel V. Zuj; Kim L. Felmingham; Matthew A. Palmer; Ellie Lawrence-Wood; Miranda Van Hooff; Andrew J. Lawrence; Richard A. Bryant; Alexander C. McFarlane
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Daniel V. Zuj, Kim L. Felmingham, Matthew A. Palmer, Ellie Lawrence-Wood, Miranda Van Hooff, Andrew J. Lawrence, Richard A. Bryant, Alexander C. McFarlane
      Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are common comorbidities during military deployment that affect emotional brain processing, yet few studies have examined the independent effects of mTBI and PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine distinct differences in neural responses to emotional faces in mTBI and PTSD. Twenty-one soldiers reporting high PTSD symptoms were compared to 21 soldiers with low symptoms, and 16 soldiers who reported mTBI-consistent injury and symptoms were compared with 16 soldiers who did not sustain an mTBI. Participants viewed emotional face expressions while their neural activity was recorded (via event-related potentials) prior to and following deployment. The high-PTSD group displayed increased P1 and P2 amplitudes to threatening faces at post-deployment compared to the low-PTSD group. In contrast, the mTBI group displayed reduced face-specific processing (N170 amplitude) to all facial expressions compared to the no-mTBI group. Here, we identified distinctive neural patterns of emotional face processing, with attentional biases towards threatening faces in PTSD, and reduced emotional face processing in mTBI.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T02:05:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Bilingual language intrusions and other speech errors in Alzheimer’s
    • Authors: Tamar H. Gollan; Alena Stasenko; Chuchu Li; David P. Salmon
      Pages: 27 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Tamar H. Gollan, Alena Stasenko, Chuchu Li, David P. Salmon
      The current study investigated how Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects production of speech errors in reading-aloud. Twelve Spanish-English bilinguals with AD and 19 matched controls read-aloud 8 paragraphs in four conditions (a) English-only, (b) Spanish-only, (c) English-mixed (mostly English with 6 Spanish words), and (d) Spanish-mixed (mostly Spanish with 6 English words). Reading elicited language intrusions (e.g., saying la instead of the), and several types of within-language errors (e.g., saying their instead of the). Patients produced more intrusions (and self-corrected less often) than controls, particularly when reading non-dominant language paragraphs with switches into the dominant language. Patients also produced more within-language errors than controls, but differences between groups for these were not consistently larger with dominant versus non-dominant language targets. These results illustrate the potential utility of speech errors for diagnosis of AD, suggest a variety of linguistic and executive control impairments in AD, and reveal multiple cognitive mechanisms needed to mix languages fluently. The observed pattern of deficits, and unique sensitivity of intrusions to AD in bilinguals, suggests intact ability to select a default language with contextual support, to rapidly translate and switch languages in production of connected speech, but impaired ability to monitor language membership while regulating inhibitory control.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T11:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Neural correlates of evaluating self and close-other in physical, academic
           and prosocial domains
    • Authors: R. van der Cruijsen; S. Peters; E.A. Crone
      Pages: 45 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): R. van der Cruijsen, S. Peters, E.A. Crone
      Behavioral studies showed that self-concept can be distinguished into different domains, but few neuroimaging studies have investigated either domain-specific or valence-specific activity. Here, we investigated whether evaluating self- and mother-traits in three domains (physical, academic, prosocial) relies on similar or distinct brain regions. Additionally, we explored the topical discussion in the literature on whether vmPFC activity during self-evaluations is induced by valence or importance of traits. Participants evaluated themselves and their mothers on positive and negative traits in three domains. Across all domains, evaluating traits resulted in right dlPFC, left middle temporal cortex, bilateral thalamus, and right insula activity. For physical traits, we found specific neural activity in brain regions typically implicated in mentalizing (dmPFC, IPL). For academic traits, we found a brain region typically implicated in autobiographical memories (PCC), and for prosocial traits, social brain regions (temporal pole, TPJ) were activated. Importantly, these patterns were found for both self and mother evaluations. Regarding valence, rACC/vmPFC showed stronger activation for positive than for negative traits. Interestingly, activation in this region was stronger for highly important traits compared to low/neutral important traits. Thus, this study shows that distinct neural processes are activated for evaluating positive and negative traits in different domains.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T11:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Lateralization of spatial rather than temporal attention underlies the
           left hemifield advantage in rapid serial visual presentation
    • Authors: Dariusz Asanowicz; Lena Kruse; Kamila Śmigasiewicz; Rolf Verleger
      Pages: 54 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Dariusz Asanowicz, Lena Kruse, Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Rolf Verleger
      In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the “standard” bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting. In the unilateral task, the targets were presented block-wise in the LVF or RVF only, such that no spatial orienting was needed for target identification. Temporal attention was manipulated in both tasks by varying the T1-T2 lag. The results showed that the LVF advantage disappeared when involvement of stimulus-driven spatial orienting was eliminated, whereas the manipulation of temporal attention had no effect on the asymmetry. In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention, and provide further evidence that the LVF advantage reflects right hemisphere predominance in stimulus-driven orienting of spatial attention. These conclusions fit evidence that temporal attention is implemented by bilateral parietal areas and spatial attention by the right-lateralized ventral frontoparietal network.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T11:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Socially anxious tendencies affect neural processing of gaze perception
    • Authors: Yuki Tsuji; Sotaro Shimada
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Yuki Tsuji, Sotaro Shimada
      The gaze of others is known to be a particularly common cause of social anxiety. In the current study, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during gaze perception among people with or without high socially anxious tendencies (HSA). The experimental stimuli were grayscale images of the eye region of a face, showing direct or averted eye gaze (leftward gaze or rightward gaze) or closed eyes. We found that negative ERPs at a right occipito-temporal site (N170) and positive ERPs at the fronto-central region (P2) were evoked by eye gaze stimuli. While the N170 was not affected by socially anxious tendencies, the amplitude of the P2 was significantly greater in the HSA group than in the low socially anxious tendencies (LSA) group. Furthermore, P2 latency showed a significant interaction between groups and conditions: the HSA group exhibited shorter P2 latencies in response to direct gaze than averted gaze, while the LSA group did not. These results indicate that the neural processing of eye gaze is strongly influenced by socially anxious tendencies. In particular, the attentional processing of direct gaze is more prominent in individuals with HSA tendencies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T11:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Bimanual coordination positively predicts episodic memory: A combined
           behavioral and MRI investigation
    • Authors: Keith B. Lyle; Brynn A. Dombroski; Leonard Faul; Robin F. Hopkins; Farah Naaz; Andrew E. Switala; Brendan E. Depue
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Keith B. Lyle, Brynn A. Dombroski, Leonard Faul, Robin F. Hopkins, Farah Naaz, Andrew E. Switala, Brendan E. Depue
      Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands. This research has relied on self-reports of behavior. It is unknown whether objective measures of motor behavior also predict memory performance. Here, we tested the predictive power of bimanual coordination, an important form of manual dexterity. Bimanual coordination, as measured objectively on the Purdue Pegboard Test, was positively related to correct recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II and negatively related to false recall. Furthermore, MRI data revealed that cortical surface area in right lateral prefrontal regions was positively related to correct recall. In one of these regions, cortical thickness was negatively related to bimanual coordination. These results suggest that individual differences in episodic memory may partially reflect morphological variation in right lateral prefrontal cortex and suggest a relationship between neural correlates of episodic memory and motor behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T11:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Functional neural bases of numerosity judgments in healthy adults born
    • Authors: Caron A.C. Clark; Yating Liu; Nicolas Lee Abbot Wright; Alan Bedrick; Jamie O. Edgin
      Pages: 90 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Caron A.C. Clark, Yating Liu, Nicolas Lee Abbot Wright, Alan Bedrick, Jamie O. Edgin
      High rates of mathematics learning disabilities among individuals born preterm (<37weeksGA) have spurred calls for a greater understanding of the nature of these weaknesses and their neural underpinnings. Groups of healthy, high functioning young adults born preterm and full term (n =20) completed a symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison task while undergoing functional MRI scanning. Collectively, participants showed activation in superior and inferior frontal and parietal regions previously linked to numeric processing when comparing non-symbolic magnitude arrays separated by small numeric distances. Simultaneous deactivation of the default mode network also was evident during these trials. Individuals born preterm showed increased signal change relative to their full term peers in right inferior frontal and parietal regions when comparing the non-symbolic magnitude arrays. Elevated signal change during non-symbolic task blocks was associated with poorer performance on a calculation task administered outside of the scanner. These findings indicate that healthy, high-functioning adults born preterm may recruit fronto-parietal networks more extensively when processing non-symbolic magnitudes, suggesting that approximate number system training may be an inroad for early intervention to prevent mathematics difficulties in this population.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T11:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Executive function and cardiac autonomic regulation in depressive
    • Authors: Alexandra Hoffmann; Ulrich Ettinger; Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso; Stefan Duschek
      Pages: 108 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Alexandra Hoffmann, Ulrich Ettinger, Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso, Stefan Duschek
      Executive function impairments have been frequently observed in depressive disorders. Moreover, reduced heart rate variability (HRV) has repeatedly been described, especially in the high frequency band (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA), suggesting lower vagal cardiac outflow. The study tested the hypothesis of involvement of low vagal tone in executive dysfunction in depression. In addition to RSA, HRV in the low frequency (LF) band was assessed. In 36 patients with depression and 36 healthy subjects, electrocardiography recordings were accomplished at rest and during performance of five executive function tasks (number-letter task, n-back task, continuous performance test, flanker task, and antisaccade task). Patients displayed increased error rates and longer reaction times in the task-switching condition of the number-letter task, in addition to increased error rates in the n-back task and the final of two blocks of the antisaccade task. In patients, both HRV parameters were lower during all experimental phases. RSA correlated negatively with reaction time during task-switching. This finding confirms reduced performance across different executive functions in depression and suggests that, in addition to RSA, LF HRV is also diminished. However, the hypothesis of involvement of low parasympathetic tone in executive dysfunction related to depression received only limited support.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T10:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Language for action: Motor resonance during the processing of human and
           robotic voices
    • Authors: G. Di Cesare; A. Errante; M. Marchi; V. Cuccio
      Pages: 118 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): G. Di Cesare, A. Errante, M. Marchi, V. Cuccio
      In this fMRI study we evaluated whether the auditory processing of action verbs pronounced by a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results. First, the activation pattern found during listening to action verbs was very similar in both the robot and human conditions. Second, the processing of action verbs compared to abstract verbs determined the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit classically involved during the action goal understanding. Third, and most importantly, listening to action verbs compared to abstract verbs produced activation of the anterior part of the supramarginal gyrus (aSMG) regardless of the condition (human and robot) and in the absence of any object name. The supramarginal gyrus is a region considered to underpin hand-object interaction and associated to the processing of affordances. These results suggest that listening to action verbs may trigger the recruitment of motor representations characterizing affordances and action execution, coherently with the predictive nature of motor simulation that not only allows us to re-enact motor knowledge to understand others’ actions but also prepares us for the actions we might need to carry out.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T10:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Dynamic range of frontoparietal functional modulation is associated with
           working memory capacity limitations in older adults
    • Authors: Jonathan G. Hakun; Nathan F. Johnson
      Pages: 128 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Jonathan G. Hakun, Nathan F. Johnson
      Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity. Within our sample (60–77years of age), age was negatively associated with frontoparietal modulation range. Individuals with greater modulation range exhibited more accurate N-Back performance. In addition, despite a lack of significant relationships between N-Back and complex span task performance, range of frontoparietal modulation during the N-Back significantly predicted domain-general estimates of WM capacity. Consistent with previous cross-sectional findings, older individuals with less modulation range exhibited greater activation at the lowest level of task difficulty but less activation at the highest levels of task difficulty. Our results are largely consistent with existing theories of neurocognitive aging (e.g. CRUNCH) but focus attention on dynamic range of functional modulation asa novel marker of WM capacity-limitations in older adults.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T04:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Affective mapping: An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis
    • Authors: Lauren A.J. Kirby; Jennifer L. Robinson
      Pages: 137 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Lauren A.J. Kirby, Jennifer L. Robinson
      Functional neuroimaging has the spatial resolution to explain the neural basis of emotions. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE), as opposed to traditional qualitative meta-analysis, quantifies convergence of activation across studies within affective categories. Others have used ALE to investigate a broad range of emotions, but without the convenience of the BrainMap database. We used the BrainMap database and analysis resources to run separate meta-analyses on coordinates reported for anger, anxiety, disgust, fear, happiness, humor, and sadness. Resultant ALE maps were compared to determine areas of convergence between emotions, as well as to identify affect-specific networks. Five out of the seven emotions demonstrated consistent activation within the amygdala, whereas all emotions consistently activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, which has been implicated as an integration hub for affective and cognitive processes. These data provide the framework for models of affect-specific networks, as well as emotional processing hubs, which can be used for future studies of functional or effective connectivity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T04:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2015.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Encoding focus alters diagnostic recollection and event-related potentials
    • Authors: P. Andrew Leynes; Brittany A. Mok
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): P. Andrew Leynes, Brittany A. Mok
      The influence of encoding focus on source memory was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). Encoding was focused on the self (self-focus) or on the speaker (other-focus) while hearing words spoken in a male or female voice. Examination of the behavioral and ERP evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the amount of diagnostic recollection. Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, led to greater old/new recognition, and elicited a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate of recollection) during the source test. Other-focus encoding led to greater source memory and a smaller LPC amplitude. Collectively, the results suggest that encoding focus alters the information bound in the memory trace that leads to varying levels of source-diagnostic features. Drawing attention to the speaker facilitates binding of source-diagnostic features (i.e., voice), whereas self-focus encoding facilitates binding a host of non-diagnostic features. The results have important implications for situations that depend on encoding processes, such as false memory or classroom learning, and they provide evidence that the LPC tracks recollected details but not necessarily diagnostic recollection.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Interhemispheric cortical connections and time perception: A case study
           with agenesis of the corpus callosum
    • Authors: Miku Okajima; Akinori Futamura; Motoyasu Honma; Mitsuru Kawamura; Yuko Yotsumoto
      Pages: 12 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Miku Okajima, Akinori Futamura, Motoyasu Honma, Mitsuru Kawamura, Yuko Yotsumoto
      In daily life, we sometimes select temporal cues of one sort while suppressing others. This study investigated the mechanism of suppression by examining a split-brain patient’s perception of target intervals while ignoring distractor intervals. A patient with agenesis of corpus callosum and five age- and sex-matched control subjects participated in reproduction of target intervals while ignoring distractors displayed in the visual field either ipsilateral or contralateral to target. In the patient, the distractor interfered with reproduction performance more strongly when contralateral rather than ipsilateral. Our results suggest that the corpus callosum plays an inhibitory role in interhemispheric interference and that temporal interval information can be transferred via subcortical structures when there are no direct interhemispheric pathways.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • ERPs and oscillations during encoding predict retrieval of digit memory in
           superior mnemonists
    • Authors: Yafeng Pan; Xianchun Li; Xi Chen; Yixuan Ku; Yujie Dong; Zheng Dou; Lin He; Yi Hu; Weidong Li; Xiaolin Zhou
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Yafeng Pan, Xianchun Li, Xi Chen, Yixuan Ku, Yujie Dong, Zheng Dou, Lin He, Yi Hu, Weidong Li, Xiaolin Zhou
      Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that superior mnemonists (SMs) outperform normal individuals in domain-specific memory tasks. However, the neural correlates of memory-related processes remain unclear. In the current EEG study, SMs and control participants performed a digit memory task during which their brain activity was recorded. Chinese SMs used a digit-image mnemonic for encoding digits, in which they associated 2-digit groups with images immediately after the presentation of each even-position digit in sequences. Behaviorally, SMs’ memory of digit sequences was better than the controls’. During encoding in the study phase, SMs showed an increased right central P2 (150–250ms post onset) and a larger right posterior high-alpha (10–14Hz, 500–1720ms) oscillation on digits at even-positions compared with digits at odd-positions. Both P2 and high-alpha oscillations in the study phase co-varied with performance in the recall phase, but only in SMs, indicating that neural dynamics during encoding could predict successful retrieval of digit memory in SMs. Our findings suggest that representation of a digit sequence in SMs using mnemonics may recruit both the early-stage attention allocation process and the sustained information preservation process. This study provides evidence for the role of dynamic and efficient neural encoding processes in mnemonists.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Cognitive and motor reaction times in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A
           study based on computerized measures
    • Authors: Maria Devita; Sonia Montemurro; Andrea Zangrossi; Sara Ramponi; Maurizio Marvisi; Daniele Villani; Maria Clara Raimondi; Paola Merlo; Maria Luisa Rusconi; Sara Mondini
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Maria Devita, Sonia Montemurro, Andrea Zangrossi, Sara Ramponi, Maurizio Marvisi, Daniele Villani, Maria Clara Raimondi, Paola Merlo, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Sara Mondini
      Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is mainly associated with executive dysfunction. Although delayed reaction times (RTs) in patients with OSAS have been reported, sensitivity of processing speed has not been adequately assessed. This study suggests sensitive and reliable measures to clarify whether different components of information processing speed, i.e. cognitive and motor responses, are equally impaired in OSAS. Thirty-three patients with OSAS were compared with thirty healthy controls. The MoCA test was administered to assess participants’ global neuropsychological profile. Cognitive and motor reaction times were measured using a detector panel which allows to distinguish between stimulus encoding, decision processing, and selection of the appropriate motor response. Logistic regression models highlighted both MoCA test and motor RTs as the best predictors differentiating patients from healthy participants. Results support the hypothesis of a slight decline in the cognitive profile of patients with OSAS and identify significant slowing down in the motor component of responses. It could be hypothesized that slower motor responsiveness is the cause of the global cognitive profile of these patients. With aging, motor movements and RTs usually become impaired and hypoxia might accelerate the aging process by compromising first of all the motor component of RTs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Procedural learning in Tourette syndrome, ADHD, and comorbid
           Tourette-ADHD: Evidence from a probabilistic sequence learning task
    • Authors: Ádám Takács; Yuval Shilon; Karolina Janacsek; Andrea Kóbor; Antoine Tremblay; Dezső Németh; Michael T. Ullman
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Ádám Takács, Yuval Shilon, Karolina Janacsek, Andrea Kóbor, Antoine Tremblay, Dezső Németh, Michael T. Ullman
      Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, plays an important role in the implicit learning of motor and cognitive skills. Few studies have examined procedural learning in either Tourette syndrome (TS) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), despite basal ganglia abnormalities in both of these neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to assess procedural learning in children with TS (n=13), ADHD (n=22), and comorbid TS-ADHD (n=20), as well as in typically developing children (n=21). Procedural learning was measured with a well-studied implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, the alternating serial reaction time task. All four groups showed evidence of sequence learning, and moreover did not differ from each other in sequence learning. This result, from the first study to examine procedural memory across TS, ADHD and comorbid TS-ADHD, is consistent with previous findings of intact procedural learning of sequences in both TS and ADHD. In contrast, some studies have found impaired procedural learning of non-sequential probabilistic categories in TS. This suggests that sequence learning may be spared in TS and ADHD, while at least some other forms of learning in procedural memory are impaired, at least in TS. Our findings indicate that disorders associated with basal ganglia abnormalities do not necessarily show procedural learning deficits, and provide a possible path for more effective diagnostic tools, and educational and training programs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Procedural learning in Parkinson’s disease, specific language
           impairment, dyslexia, schizophrenia, developmental coordination disorder,
           and autism spectrum disorders: A second-order meta-analysis
    • Authors: Gillian M. Clark; Jarrad A.G. Lum
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Gillian M. Clark, Jarrad A.G. Lum
      The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. The main analysis revealed disorder type moderated SRTT performance (p =0.010). This report demonstrates comparable levels of procedural learning impairment in developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment. However, in autism, procedural learning is spared.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Predominance of lateral over vertical mirror errors in reading: A case for
           neuronal recycling and inhibition
    • Authors: Emmanuel Ahr; Olivier Houdé; Grégoire Borst
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 116
      Author(s): Emmanuel Ahr, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst
      We investigated whether lateral mirror errors could be more prevalent than vertical mirror errors (e.g., p/q vs. p/b confusions) because mirror generalization is harder to inhibit for the discrimination of a reversible letter and its lateral than its vertical mirror-image counterpart. Expert adult readers performed a negative priming task in which they determined on the prime whether two letters and on the probe whether two objects facing opposite directions were identical. We found in both experiments longer response times for objects facing opposite lateral orientations preceded by a reversible letter and its lateral mirror-image counterpart (e.g., p/q) than preceded by perceptually matched non-reversible letters (e.g., g/j). No negative priming effect was observed when objects that were vertical (Experiment 1 & 2) or lateral (Experiment 2) mirror images of each other were preceded by a letter and its vertical mirror-image counterpart (e.g. p/b). Finally, we observed longer response times for objects that were lateral mirror images of each other after lateral than after vertical reversible letters. These results suggest that lateral mirror errors are more prevalent than vertical ones because mirror generalization might be stronger and thus more difficult to inhibit in the context of the former than the latter.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T14:46:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • The influence of CHRNA4, COMT, and maternal sensitivity on orienting and
           executive attention in 6-month-old infants
    • Authors: Jeffry Quan; Mei-Lyn Ong; Jean-Francois Bureau; Lit Wee Sim; Shamini Sanmugam; Adam B. Abdul Malik; Eric Wong; Johnny Wong; Yap-Seng Chong; Seang Mei Saw; Kenneth Kwek; Anqi Qiu; Joanna D. Holbrook; Anne Rifkin-Graboi
      Pages: 17 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 116
      Author(s): Jeffry Quan, Mei-Lyn Ong, Jean-Francois Bureau, Lit Wee Sim, Shamini Sanmugam, Adam B. Abdul Malik, Eric Wong, Johnny Wong, Yap-Seng Chong, Seang Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Anqi Qiu, Joanna D. Holbrook, Anne Rifkin-Graboi
      Despite claims concerning biological mechanisms sub-serving infant attention, little experimental work examines its underpinnings. This study examines how candidate polymorphisms from the cholinergic (CHRNA4 rs1044396) and dopaminergic (COMT rs4680) systems, respectively indicative of parietal and prefrontal/anterior cingulate involvement, are related to 6-month-olds’ (n =217) performance during a visual expectation eye-tracking paradigm. As previous studies suggest that both cholinergic and dopaminergic genes may influence susceptibility to the influence of other genetic and environmental factors, we further examined whether these candidate genes interact with one another and/or with early caregiving experience in predicting infants’ visual attention. We detected an interaction between CHRNA4 genotype and observed maternal sensitivity upon infants’ orienting to random stimuli and a CHRNA4-COMT interaction effect upon infants’ orienting to patterned stimuli. Consistent with adult research, we observed a direct effect of COMT genotype on anticipatory looking to patterned stimuli. Findings suggest that CHRNA4 genotype may influence susceptibility to other attention-related factors in infancy. These interactions may account for the inability to establish a link between CHRNA4 and orienting in infant research to date, despite developmental theorizing suggesting otherwise. Moreover, findings suggest that by 6months, dopamine, and relatedly, the prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate, may be important to infant attention.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T12:50:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Integration of identity and emotion information in faces: fMRI evidence
    • Authors: Alla Yankouskaya; Moritz Stolte; Zargol Moradi; Pia Rotshtein; Glyn Humphreys
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 116
      Author(s): Alla Yankouskaya, Moritz Stolte, Zargol Moradi, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn Humphreys
      Separate neural systems have been implicated in the recognition of facial identity and emotional expression. A growing number of studies now provide evidence against this modular view by demonstrating that integration of identity and emotion information enhances face processing. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape this integration remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that the presence of both personal and emotional expression target information triggers changes in functional connectivity between frontal and extrastriate areas in the brain. We report and discuss three important findings. First, the presence of target identity and emotional expression in the same face was associated with super capacity and violations of the independent processing of identity and expression cues. Second, activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was associated with the presence of redundant targets and changes in functional connectivity between a particular region of the right OFC (BA11/47) and bilateral visual brain regions (the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG)). Third, these changes in connectivity showed a strong link to behavioural measures of capacity processing. We suggest that the changes in functional connectivity between the right OFC and IOG reduce variability of BOLD responses in the IOG, enhancing integration of identity and emotional expression cues in faces.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T03:46:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy
           (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training
    • Authors: Emma Moore; Rebecca S. Schaefer; Mark E. Bastin; Neil Roberts; Katie Overy
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 116
      Author(s): Emma Moore, Rebecca S. Schaefer, Mark E. Bastin, Neil Roberts, Katie Overy
      Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues. Participants completed 20minutes of training three times per week over four weeks. Diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic neighbourhood tractography identified FA, axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity before and after training. Results revealed that FA increased significantly in the right arcuate fasciculus of the Music group only, as hypothesised, with trends for AD to increase and RD to decrease, a pattern of results consistent with activity-dependent increases in myelination. No significant changes were found in the left ipsilateral arcuate fasciculus of either group. This is the first evidence that adding musical cues to movement learning can induce rapid microstructural change in white matter pathways in adults, with potential implications for therapeutic clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T03:54:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Contextual effects on cognitive control and BOLD activation in single
           versus mixed saccade tasks
    • Authors: Jordan E. Pierce; Jennifer E. McDowell
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 115
      Author(s): Jordan E. Pierce, Jennifer E. McDowell
      The context or trial history of a task influences response efficiency in mixed paradigms based on cognitive control demands for task set selection. In the current study, the impact of context on prosaccade and antisaccade trials in single and mixed tasks was investigated with BOLD fMRI. Prosaccades require a look towards a newly appearing target, while antisaccades require cognitive control for prepotent response inhibition and generation of a saccade to the opposite location. Results indicated slower prosaccade reaction times and more antisaccade errors for switched than repeated or single trials, and slower antisaccade reaction times for single than mixed trials. BOLD activation was greater for the mixed than the single context in frontal eye fields and precuneus, while switch trials had greater activation than repeat trials in posterior parietal and middle occipital cortex. Greater antisaccade activation was observed overall in saccade circuitry, although effects were evident primarily for the mixed task when considered separately. Finally, an interaction was observed in superior frontal cortex, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and thalamus with strong responses for antisaccade switch trials in the latter two regions. Altogether this response pattern demonstrated the sensitivity of cognitive control to changing task conditions, especially due to task switching costs. Such context-specific differences highlight the importance of trial history when assessing cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T08:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
  • Painful engrams: Oscillatory correlates of working memory for phasic
           nociceptive laser stimuli
    • Authors: Elia Valentini; Valentina Nicolardi; Salvatore Maria Aglioti
      Pages: 21 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 115
      Author(s): Elia Valentini, Valentina Nicolardi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
      Research suggests that working memory (WM) is impaired in chronic pain. Yet, information on how potentially noxious stimuli are maintained in memory is limited in patients as well as in healthy people. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy volunteers during a modified delayed match-to-sample task where maintenance in memory of relevant attributes of nociceptive laser stimuli was essential for subsequent cued-discrimination. Participants performed in high and low load conditions (i.e. three vs. two stimuli to keep in WM). Modulation of EEG oscillations in the beta band during the retention interval and in the alpha band during the pre-retention interval reflected performance in the WM task. Importantly, both a non-verbal and a verbal neuropsychological WM test predicted oscillatory modulations. Moreover, these two neuropsychological tests and self-reported personality measures predicted the performance in the nociceptive WM task. Results demonstrate (i) that beta and alpha EEG oscillations can represent WM for nociceptive stimuli; (ii) the association between neuropsychological measures of WM and the brain representation of phasic nociceptive painful stimuli; and (iii) that personality factors can predict memory for nociceptive stimuli at the behavioural level. Altogether, our findings offer a promising approach for investigating cortical correlates of nociceptive memory in clinical pain conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
  • Top-down control over feedback processing: The probability of valid
           feedback affects feedback-related brain activity
    • Authors: Benjamin Ernst; Marco Steinhauser
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 115
      Author(s): Benjamin Ernst, Marco Steinhauser
      Adaptive decision-making requires that feedback about decision outcomes is adequately processed. Recent studies have shown that fronto-central event-related potentials (ERPs) are sensitive to feedback valence and can be used as an index of feedback processing. The present study investigated whether the processes involved in feedback evaluation are affected by top-down mechanisms driven by knowledge about feedback validity. In a simple decision task, participants had to make use of feedback to learn which one of two stimuli was associated with a reward in a later test phase. Feedback stimuli were followed by a cue indicating whether feedback was valid or invalid. Prior to each block, participants were informed about the frequency of valid feedback in this block. An effect of feedback validity was obtained not only for learning but also for fronto-central ERPs. While high-validity feedback was associated with a fronto-central valence effect, this effect was absent for low-validity feedback. This indicates that processes involved in feedback evaluation are affected by prior knowledge about feedback validity via top-down processes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-14T20:16:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
  • Neuroscience and everyday life: Facing the translation problem
    • Authors: Jolien C. Francken; Marc Slors
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Jolien C. Francken, Marc Slors
      To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity. Therefore, scientific findings cannot inform our practical concerns in a straightforward way. How then can neuroscience ultimately help determine if a defendant is legally responsible, or help someone understand their addiction better' Since the above-mentioned problems provide serious obstacles to move from science to common-sense, we call this the 'translation problem'. Here, we describe three promising approaches for neuroscience to face this translation problem. First, neuroscience could propose new 'folk-neuroscience' concepts, beyond the traditional folk-psychological array, which might inform and alter our phenomenology. Second, neuroscience can modify our current array of common-sense concepts by refining and validating scientific concepts. Third, neuroscience can change our views on the application criteria of concepts such as responsibility and consciousness. We believe that these strategies to deal with the translation problem should guide the practice of neuroscientific research to be able to contribute to our day-to-day life more effectively.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T04:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.004
  • Social risky decision-making reveals gender differences in the TPJ: A
           hyperscanning study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy
    • Authors: Mingming Zhang; Tao Liu; Matthew Pelowski; Huibin Jia; Dongchuan Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
      Previous neuroscience studies have investigated neural correlates of risky decision-making in a single-brain frame during pseudo social (predominantly non face-to-face) contexts. To fully understand the risky decision-making behavior in more natural social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a face-to-face gambling card-game. The intra-brain results revealed that both those who identified as males and as females showed higher activations in their mPFC and in the inferior parts of the frontopolar area, as well as in the tempo-parietal junction (TPJ) in cases involving higher versus lower risk. This is consistent with previous findings suggesting importance of the mentalizing network in decision tasks. The fNIRS results of inter-brain neural synchronization (INS) also revealed that males and females showed increased inter-brain coherence in the mPFC and dlPFC. Females, however, uniquely showed increased inter-brain coherence in the left TPJ. This INS result suggests that males may primarily depend on non-social cognitive ability to make a risky decision in a social interaction, while females may use both social and non-social cognitive abilities. The implications are also discussed for general topics of human interaction and two-person neuroscience.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.008
  • Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious
           attention in math anxiety
    • Authors: Rachel Pizzie; David J.M. Kraemer
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Rachel G. Pizzie, David J.M. Kraemer
      Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T10:56:09Z
  • Using resting-state fMRI to assess the effect of aerobic exercise on
           functional connectivity of the DLPFC in older overweight adults
    • Authors: Kristin Prehn; Anne Lesemann; Georgia Krey; A. Veronica Witte; Theresa Köbe; Ulrike Grittner; Agnes Flöel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Kristin Prehn, Anne Lesemann, Georgia Krey, A. Veronica Witte, Theresa Köbe, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
      Cardiovascular fitness is thought to exert beneficial effects on brain function and might delay the onset of cognitive decline. Empirical evidence of exercise-induced cognitive enhancement, however, has not been conclusive, possibly due to short intervention times in clinical trials. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been proposed asan early indicator for intervention-induced changes. Here, we conducted a study in which healthy older overweight subjects took either part in a moderate aerobic exercise program over 6months (AE group; n=11) or control condition of non-aerobic stretching and toning (NAE group; n=18). While cognitive and gray matter volume changes were rather small (i.e., appeared only in certain sub-scores without Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons or using small volume correction), we found significantly increased RSFC after training between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal gyrus/precuneus in the AE compared to the NAE group. This intervention study demonstrates an exercise-induced modulation of RSFC between key structures of the executive control and default mode networks, which might mediate an interaction between task-positive and task-negative brain activation required for task switching. Results further emphasize the value of RSFC asa sensitive biomarker for detecting early intervention-related cognitive improvements in clinical trials.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T10:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.006
  • Force related hemodynamic responses during execution and imagery of a hand
           grip task: A functional near infrared spectroscopy study
    • Authors: Selina C. Wriessnegger; Daniela Kirchmeyr; Günther Bauernfeind; Gernot R. Müller-Putz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Selina C. Wriessnegger, Daniela Kirchmeyr, Günther Bauernfeind, Gernot R. Müller-Putz
      We examined force related hemodynamic changes during the performance of a motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) task by means of multichannel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses of fourteen healthy participants were measured while they performed a hand grip execution or imagery task with low and high grip forces. We found an overall higher increase of [oxy-Hb] concentration changes during ME for both grip forces but with a delayed peak maximum for the lower grip force. During the MI task with lower grip force, the [oxy-Hb] level increases are stronger compared to the MI with higher grip force. The facilitation in performing MI with higher grip strength might thus indicate less inhibition of the actual motor act which could also explain the later increase onset of [oxy-Hb] in the ME task with the lower grip force. Our results suggest that execution and imagery of a hand grip task with high and low grip forces, leads to different cortical activation patterns. Since impaired control of grip forces during object manipulation in particular is one aspect of fine motor control deficits after stroke, our study will contribute to future rehabilitation programs enhancing patient's grip force control.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.010
  • Slower resting alpha frequency is associated with superior localisation of
           moving targets
    • Authors: Christina J. Howard; Craig P.A. Arnold; Matthew K. Belmonte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Christina J. Howard, Craig P.A. Arnold, Matthew K. Belmonte
      We examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of individual differences in the ability to maintain up-to-date representations of the positions of moving objects. In two experiments similar to the multiple object tracking (MOT) task, we asked observers to monitor continuously one or several targets as they moved unpredictably for a semi-random period. After all objects disappeared, observers were immediately prompted to report the perceived final position of one queried target. Precision of these position reports declined with attentional load, and reports tended to best resemble positions occupied by the queried target between 0 and 30ms in the past. Measurement of event-related potentials showed a contralateral delay activity over occipital scalp, maximal in the right hemisphere. The peak power-spectral frequency of observers’ eyes-closed resting occipital alpha oscillations reliably predicted performance, such that lower-frequency alpha was associated with superior spatial localisation. Slower resting alpha might be associated with a cognitive style that depends less on memory-related processing and instead emphasises attention to changing stimuli.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.008
  • Binocular rivalry after right-hemisphere stroke: Effects of attention
           impairment on perceptual dominance patterns
    • Authors: Kjersti Mæhlum Walle; Hillary Lynn Kyler; Jan Egil Nordvik; Frank Becker; Bruno Laeng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Kjersti Mæhlum Walle, Hillary Lynn Kyler, Jan Egil Nordvik, Frank Becker, Bruno Laeng
      Binocular rivalry is when perception fluctuates while the stimuli, consisting of different images presented to each eye, remain unchanged. The fluctuation rate and predominance ratio of these images are regarded as information source for understanding properties of consciousness and perception. We administered a binocular rivalry task to 26 right-hemisphere stroke patients and 26 healthy control participants, using stimuli such as simple Gabor anaglyphs. Each single Gabor image was of unequal spatial frequency compared to its counterpart, allowing assessment of the effect of relative spatial frequency on rivalry predominance. Results revealed that patients had significantly decreased alternation rate compared to healthy controls, with severity of patients’ attention impairment predicting alternation rates. The patient group had higher predominance ratio for high compared to low relative spatial frequency stimuli consistent with the hypothesis that damage to the right hemisphere may disrupt processing of relatively low spatial frequencies. Degree of attention impairment also predicted the effect of relative spatial frequencies. Lastly, both groups showed increased predominance rates in the right eye compared to the left eye. This right eye dominance was more pronounced in patients than controls, suggesting that right hemisphere stroke may additionally affect eye predominance ratios.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.007
  • Simultaneous learning of two languages from birth positively impacts
           intrinsic functional connectivity and cognitive control
    • Authors: Shanna Kousaie; Xiaoqian J. Chai; Kaija M. Sander; Denise Klein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Shanna Kousaie, Xiaoqian J. Chai, Kaija M. Sander, Denise Klein
      This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals. These findings demonstrate that the timing of language learning may have an impact on cognitive control, with the simultaneous learning of two languages being associated with more optimal brain connectivity for cognitive control compared to sequential language learning.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T15:48:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.003
  • When noise is beneficial for sensory encoding: Noise adaptation can
           improve face processing
    • Authors: Claudia Menzel; Gregor U. Hayn-Leichsenring; Christoph Redies; Kornél Németh; Gyula Kovács
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Claudia Menzel, Gregor U. Hayn-Leichsenring, Christoph Redies, Kornél Németh, Gyula Kovács
      The presence of noise usually impairs the processing of a stimulus. Here, we studied the effects of noise on face processing and show, for the first time, that adaptation to noise patterns has beneficial effects on face perception. We used noiseless faces that were either surrounded by random noise or presented on a uniform background as stimuli. In addition, the faces were either preceded by noise adaptors or not. Moreover, we varied the statistics of the noise so that its spectral slope either matched that of the faces or it was steeper or shallower. Results of parallel ERP recordings showed that the background noise reduces the amplitude of the face-evoked N170, indicating less intensive face processing. Adaptation to a noise pattern, however, led to reduced P1 and enhanced N170 amplitudes as well as to a better behavioral performance in two of the three noise conditions. This effect was also augmented by the presence of background noise around the target stimuli. Additionally, the spectral slope of the noise pattern affected the size of the P1, N170 and P2 amplitudes. We reason that the observed effects are due to the selective adaptation of noise-sensitive neurons present in the face-processing cortical areas, which may enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T15:48:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.006
  • Memory and time: Backward and forward telescoping in Alzheimer’s
    • Authors: Mohamad El Haj; Steve M.J. Janssen; Pascal Antoine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Mohamad El Haj, Steve M.J. Janssen, Pascal Antoine
      Backward and forward telescoping are opposite timing biases. The former refers to misattributing events to earlier dates, whereas the latter refers to misattributing events to later dates. The present study investigated both biases in participants with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and healthy older adults, matched on age, sex, and education level. Participants were asked to recall the years when five remote and five recent public events had occurred. They were also assessed with a cognitive and clinical battery that included a context memory task on which they had to associate letters and locations. Results showed backward telescoping for recent events and forward telescoping for remote events in AD participants and older adults. Furthermore, poorer context recall was observed in AD participants and older adults displaying backward telescoping than in those displaying forward telescoping. These findings suggest an association between the amount of contextual information recalled and the direction of the timing bias. Backward telescoping can be associated with deficiencies in retrieving context characteristics of events, which have been associated with retrograde amnesia and pathological changes to the hippocampus in AD.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.005
  • Atypical activation of action-semantic network in adolescents with autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Tracey A. Knaus; Claire Burns; Jodi Kamps; Anne L. Foundas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Tracey A. Knaus, Claire Burns, Jodi Kamps, Anne L. Foundas
      In typical adults, fMRI studies have shown activation of primary and pre-motor regions during action word processing. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments. ASD studies have shown atypical semantic processing and motor deficits. The objective of this study was to examine semantic processing of verbs in ASD. 15 ASD adolescents and 19 typically developing adolescents, 11–16years, completed a semantic similarity judgment task during fMRI. There were no differences in task accuracy or reaction time. At the group level, both groups had activation in left language areas; controls, but not ASD, also had activation in the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). In ASD, less left frontal activation and reduced left lateralization of activation within these regions was associated with shorter reaction times and better language skills. More left temporal activation was associated with better language abilities in ASD. Differences in pre-SMA activation may relate to motor planning deficits or differences in approach to the semantic task in ASD. Results suggest that left frontal language areas may be less efficient in ASD and those who can compensate by recruiting more right hemisphere homologues may result in better language abilities.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.004
  • The effect of integration masking on visual processing in perceptual
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Sébastien Hélie
      Learning to recognize and categorize objects is an essential cognitive skill allowing animals to function in the world. However, animals rarely have access to a canonical view of an object in an uncluttered environment. Hence, it is essential to study categorization under noisy, degraded conditions. In this article, we explore how the brain processes categorization stimuli in low signal–to–noise conditions using multivariate pattern analysis. We used an integration masking paradigm with mask opacity of 50%, 60%, and 70% inside a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The results show that mask opacity affects blood–oxygen–level dependent (BOLD) signal in visual processing areas (V1, V2, V3, and V4) but does not affect the BOLD signal in brain areas traditionally associated with categorization (prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus). This suggests that when a stimulus is difficult to extract from its background (e.g., low signal–to–noise ratio), the visual system extracts the stimulus and that activity in areas typically associated with categorization are not affected by the difficulty level of the visual conditions. We conclude with implications of this result for research on visual attention, categorization, and the integration of these fields.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T03:46:39Z
  • The role of dorsal premotor cortex in mental rotation: A transcranial
           magnetic stimulation study
    • Authors: Giorgia Cona; Giulia Panozzo; Carlo Semenza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Giorgia Cona, Giulia Panozzo, Carlo Semenza
      Although activation of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been consistently observed in the neuroimaging studies of mental rotation, the functional meaning of PMd activation is still unclear and multiple alternative explanations have been suggested. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of PMd in mental rotation. Two tasks were used, involving mental rotation of hands and abstract objects, with either matching (same stimuli) or mirror stimuli. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS over right and left PMd regions significantly affected accuracy in the object task, specifically for the same stimuli. Furthermore, response times were longer following right PMd stimulation in both the object and the hand tasks, but again, selectively for the same stimuli. The effect of rotational angle on response times and accuracies was greater for the same stimuli. Moreover TMS over PMd impaired the performance accuracy selectively in these stimuli, mainly in a task that included abstract objects. For these reasons, the present findings indicate a contribution of PMd to mental rotation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T03:46:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.002
  • Associations between cortical thickness and neurocognitive skills during
           childhood vary by family socioeconomic factors
    • Authors: Natalie H. Brito; Luciane R. Piccolo; Kimberly G. Noble
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Natalie H. Brito, Luciane R. Piccolo, Kimberly G. Noble
      Studies have reported associations between cortical thickness (CT) and socioeconomic status (SES), as well as between CT and cognitive outcomes. However, findings have been mixed as to whether CT explains links between SES and cognitive performance. In the current study, we hypothesized that this inconsistency may have arisen from the fact that socioeconomic factors (family income and parental education) may moderate the relation between CT and neurocognitive skills. Results indicated that associations between CT and cognitive performance did vary by SES for both language and executive function (EF) abilities. Across all ages, there was a negative correlation between CT and cognitive skills, with thinner cortices associated with higher language and EF scores. Similarly, across all cognitive skills, children from higher-SES homes outperformed their age-matched peers from lower-SES homes. Moderation analyses indicated that the impact of SES was not constant across CT, with SES more strongly predictive of EF skills among children with thicker cortices and more strongly predictive of language skills among children with thinner cortices. This suggests that socioeconomic advantage may in some cases buffer against a neurobiological risk factor for poor performance. These findings suggest that links between brain structure and cognitive processes vary by family socioeconomic circumstance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.007
  • Gaze detection and gaze cuing in Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Pauline M. Insch; Gillian Slessor; Jill Warrington; Louise H. Phillips
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Pauline M. Insch, Gillian Slessor, Jill Warrington, Louise H. Phillips
      People with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) show problems with social processing in tasks which require the understanding of others’ mental states. However traditional social processing tasks are cognitively complex, which may influence the effects of AD. Less is known about how AD influences more basic aspects of social perception, such as the ability to decode eye gaze direction or follow the gaze of another. The current research assessed whether those with AD showed difficulty in both explicitly decoding subtle manipulations of gaze direction (Study 1), and reflexively following another’s eye gaze (Study 2). Those with AD were more impaired than a matched control group when making explicit discrimination distinctions between direct and averted gaze. In contrast people with Alzheimer’s disease performed comparably to a control group when following gaze. This pattern indicates that more automatic aspects of social perception such as gaze following are unaffected by AD. In contrast, more controlled processes such as deciding whether someone is looking towards you are impaired in AD. This has implications for socially engaging with other people and interpreting their focus of interest.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T08:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.004
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