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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1368 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (244 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (28 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (17 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (91 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (52 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (696 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (42 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (162 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (696 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access  
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access  
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Critical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access  
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access  
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
E-Dimas : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
e-Gnosis     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EspacesTemps.net     Open Access  
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
eTropic : electronic journal of studies in the tropics     Open Access  
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Brain and Cognition
  [SJR: 1.511]   [H-I: 95]   [34 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0278-2626 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2147
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3118 journals]
  • Aerobic exercise is more effective than goal-based exercise for the
           treatment of cognition in Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Carolina R.A. Silveira; Eric A. Roy; Brittany N. Intzandt; Quincy J. Almeida
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 122
      Author(s): Carolina R.A. Silveira, Eric A. Roy, Brittany N. Intzandt, Quincy J. Almeida
      Background Little is known about how different exercise modalities influence cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Moreover, the focus of previous investigations on examining the effects of exercise mainly on executive functions and the exclusion of individuals with cognitive impairment may limit the potential to define exercise as a treatment for cognitive decline in PD. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and goal-based exercise on five cognitive domains in cognitively normal and impaired individuals with PD. Methods Seventy-six individuals with PD were randomly allocated into three groups: Aerobic, Goal-based, and Control. Participants in the exercise groups attended 1-h sessions 3x/week for 12 weeks, while those in the Control group carried on with their regular activities. Changes in cognitive domains were assessed using paper-based neuropsychological tests. Results Inhibitory control improved only in the Aerobic group (p = .04), irrespective of participants cognitive status at baseline. Moreover, participants with cognitive impairment in Aerobic group maintained their set-shifting ability, whereas those in the Control group were worse at post-test (p = .014). Conclusion This is the first study to show that aerobic exercise is more effective than goal-based exercise for the treatment of cognition in PD with and without cognitive impairment.

      PubDate: 2018-01-17T10:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • The neural substrates of procrastination: A voxel-based morphometry study
    • Authors: Yue Hu; Peiwei Liu; Yiqun Guo; Tingyong Feng
      Pages: 11 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 121
      Author(s): Yue Hu, Peiwei Liu, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
      Procrastination is a pervasive phenomenon across different cultures and brings about lots of serious consequences, including performance, subjective well-being, and even public policy. However, little is known about the neural substrates of procrastination. In order to shed light upon this question, we investigated the neuroanatomical substrates of procrastination across two independent samples using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The whole-brain analysis showed procrastination was positively correlated with the graymatter (GM) volume of clusters in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), while negatively correlated with the GM volume of clusters in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in sample one (151 participants). We further conducted a verification procedure on another sample (108 participants) using region-of-interest analysis to examine the reliability of these results. Results showed procrastination can be predicted by the GM volume of the OFC and the MFG. The present findings suggest that the MFG and OFC, which are the key regions of self-control and emotion regulation, may play an important role in procrastination.

      PubDate: 2018-01-17T10:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Maternal reading fluency is positively associated with greater functional
           connectivity between the child’s future reading network and regions
           related to executive functions and language processing in preschool-age
           children
    • Authors: Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus; John S. Hutton; Kieran Phelan; Scott K. Holland
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 121
      Author(s): Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, John S. Hutton, Kieran Phelan, Scott K. Holland
      The role of the parent or educator in a child’s learning is a key feature in child development. Evidence supports the impact of early language exposure for future language and cognitive abilities and of home reading environment on neural circuits supporting language and reading. As shared parent–child reading is largely contingent on the reading ability of the parent, the aim of the current study was to explore association of parental reading ability on functional connectivity of brain networks involved with reading acquisition in their children. Twenty-two 4-year-old girls and their mothers participated in the current study. Maternal reading fluency was applied as predictors of functional connectivity analyses of a stories-listening functional MRI task. Results indicate a positive association between maternal fluency scores and greater functional connectivity between regions in the future reading network and brain regions supporting language and cognitive control in the children. Maternal reading fluency is important in facilitating development of a child’s reading network. Implications regarding shared reading are discussed, and an extended ecological model for child language and literacy development is proposed.

      PubDate: 2018-01-17T10:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Saccade Induced Retrieval Enhancement on conceptual and
           perceptual tests of explicit & implicit memory
    • Authors: Andrew Parker; Daniel Powell; Neil Dagnall
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 121
      Author(s): Andrew Parker, Daniel Powell, Neil Dagnall
      The effects of saccadic horizontal (bilateral) eye movements upon tests of both conceptual and perceptual forms of explicit and implicit memory were investigated. Participants studied a list of words and were then assigned to one of four test conditions: conceptual explicit, conceptual implicit, perceptual explicit, or perceptual implicit. Conceptual tests comprised category labels with either explicit instructions to recall corresponding examples from the study phase (category-cued recall), or implicit instructions to generate any corresponding examples that spontaneously came to mind (category-exemplar generation). Perceptual tests comprised of word-fragments with either explicit instructions to complete these with study items (word-fragment-cued recall), or implicit instructions to complete each fragment with the first word that simply ‘popped to mind’ (word-fragment completion). Just prior to retrieval, participants were required to engage in 30 s of bilateral vs. no eye movements. Results revealed that saccadic horizontal eye movements enhanced performance in only the conceptual explicit condition, indicating that Saccade-Induced Retrieval Enhancement is a joint function of conceptual and explicit retrieval mechanisms. Findings are discussed from both a cognitive and neuropsychological perspective, in terms of their potential functional and neural underpinnings.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
       
  • Single session tDCS over the left DLPFC disrupts interference processing
    • Authors: Christian Frings; Thorsten Brinkmann; Maximilian A. Friehs; Tim van Lipzig
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 120
      Author(s): Christian Frings, Thorsten Brinkmann, Maximilian A. Friehs, Tim van Lipzig
      Whether single session tDCS can impact upon cognition in healthy subjects is currently a heated debate against the background of inconsistent results. In view of the current methodological discussion concerning tDCS we developed an alternative approach to measure effects of single session tDCS on the Stroop task. The left DLPFC was stimulated in a pre-post design using a new electrode set-up (a 9 cm2 electrode was placed over the left DLPFC while a 35 cm2 was placed over the parieto-occipital cortex) contrasting anodal versus cathodal stimulation. The Stroop task was optimized concerning confounding variables that were not controlled in previous attempts to measure the effects of single-session tDCS on the Stroop task. In our sample of N = 32 healthy students we observed a significant single session tDCS effect on the Stroop effect in the error data as in our study cathodal stimulation as compared to anodal stimulation of the left DLPFC disrupted interference processing. This result confirms previous studies suggesting that neuromodulation of the left DLPFC impacts interference processing. Single-session tDCS can impact upon cognitive processes. A rigorous methodical approach is emphasized as the effects seem to be only of small to medium size.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Supplementation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects temporal, but
           not spatial visual attention
    • Authors: Anna Leonte; Lorenza S. Colzato; Laura Steenbergen; Bernhard Hommel; Elkan G. Akyürek
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 120
      Author(s): Anna Leonte, Lorenza S. Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Bernhard Hommel, Elkan G. Akyürek
      In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experiment, the acute effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation on temporal and spatial attention in young healthy adults were investigated. A hybrid two-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used to measure temporal attention and integration. Additionally, a visual search task was used to measure the speed and accuracy of spatial attention. While temporal attention depends primarily on the distribution of limited attentional resources across time, spatial attention represents the engagement and disengagement by relevant and irrelevant stimuli across the visual field. Although spatial attention was unaffected by GABA supplementation altogether, we found evidence supporting improved performance in the temporal attention task. The attentional blink was numerically, albeit not significantly, attenuated at Lag 3, and significantly fewer order errors were committed at Lag 1, compared to the placebo condition. No effect was found on temporal integration rates. Although there is controversy about whether oral GABA can cross the blood-brain barrier, our results offer preliminary evidence that GABA intake might help to distribute limited attentional resources more efficiently, and can specifically improve the identification and ordering of visual events that occur in close temporal succession.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Combined attention controls complex behavior by suppressing unlikely
           events
    • Authors: Christopher D. Blair; Jelena Ristic
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 120
      Author(s): Christopher D. Blair, Jelena Ristic
      Attention enables behavior by modulating both sensory inputs and task goals. Combining attentional resources from both of those sources exerts qualitatively large effects on manual performance. Here we tested how combined attention was represented in sensory processing, as reflected by the P1 component and associated activity in the alpha band. We measured performance and recorded EEG while participants’ attention was engaged in an automated, endogenous, and combined (i.e., automated and endogenous) manner. Behavioral results replicated past reports with reliable effects of isolated automated and endogenous attention, as well as their qualitatively unique combined effect. ERP analyses indicated expected increases in P1 amplitude for validly relative to invalidly cued targets in automated and endogenous conditions. However, in the combined case, the P1 difference between validly relative to invalidly cued targets decreased. Analyses of target-locked alpha-band further revealed that this condition was associated with an increased synchrony in the alpha frequency for invalidly cued targets. This suggests that the large performance benefit observed when attentional systems combine is partly driven by suppressed processing of unexpected targets, dovetailing with the notion that in addition to increasing sensory gain of attended targets, attention may also modulate complex behavior by increasing suppression of unattended ones.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Proper name retrieval and structural integrity of cerebral cortex in
           midlife: A cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Vanja Kljajevic; Asier Erramuzpe
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 120
      Author(s): Vanja Kljajevic, Asier Erramuzpe
      There is currently little understanding on whether retrieval of proper names differs in midlife compared to young adulthood and if so, whether the age differences in this ability are associated with differences in structural integrity of the cerebral cortex. To answer these questions, we studied retrieval of proper names in 115 cognitively healthy middle-aged persons (49.7, ±3.2), comparing their performance on a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) task with that of 68 young persons (25.4, ±3.5) from the Cam-Can data repository (http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/datasets/camcan/). Grey matter (GM) density and cortical thickness were used as indices of structural integrity of the cerebral cortex. The middle-aged (MA) group experienced more TOTs during proper names retrieval than young adults (YA), (t = 3.789, p < .005) and had considerably less GM density and cortical thickness across a range of brain areas bilaterally. Small clusters in left BA 45 and right BA 44 (cortical thickness) and in right BA 40 (volumetry) revealed group differences when accounting for TOTs. However, we observed no correlations between MA’s TOT scores and GM volumes or cortical thickness of the brain regions typically reported as implicated in retrieval of proper names: left anterior temporal lobe, left insula, and left superior and middle temporal gyri.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Not so secret agents: Event-related potentials to semantic roles in visual
           event comprehension
    • Authors: Neil Cohn; Martin Paczynski; Marta Kutas
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Neil Cohn, Martin Paczynski, Marta Kutas
      Research across domains has suggested that agents, the doers of actions, have a processing advantage over patients, the receivers of actions. We hypothesized that agents as “event builders” for discrete actions (e.g., throwing a ball, punching) build on cues embedded in their preparatory postures (e.g., reaching back an arm to throw or punch) that lead to (predictable) culminating actions, and that these cues afford frontloading of event structure processing. To test this hypothesis, we compared event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to averbal comic panels depicting preparatory agents (ex. reaching back an arm to punch) that cued specific actions with those to non-preparatory agents (ex. arm to the side) and patients that did not cue any specific actions. We also compared subsequent completed action panels (ex. agent punching patient) across conditions, where we expected an inverse pattern of ERPs indexing the differential costs of processing completed actions asa function of preparatory cues. Preparatory agents evoked a greater frontal positivity (600–900ms) relative to non-preparatory agents and patients, while subsequent completed actions panels following non-preparatory agents elicited a smaller frontal positivity (600–900ms). These results suggest that preparatory (vs. non-) postures may differentially impact the processing of agents and subsequent actions in real time.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Hemispheric specialization for global and local processing: A direct
           comparison of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli
    • Authors: Sanne G. Brederoo; Mark R. Nieuwenstein; Monicque M. Lorist; Frans W. Cornelissen
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Sanne G. Brederoo, Mark R. Nieuwenstein, Monicque M. Lorist, Frans W. Cornelissen
      It is often assumed that the human brain processes the global and local properties of visual stimuli in a lateralized fashion, with a left hemisphere (LH) specialization for local detail, and a right hemisphere (RH) specialization for global form. However, the evidence for such global-local lateralization stems predominantly from studies using linguistic stimuli, the processing of which has shown to be LH lateralized in itself. In addition, some studies have reported a reversal of global-local lateralization when using non-linguistic stimuli. Accordingly, it remains unclear whether global-local lateralization may in fact be stimulus-specific. To address this issue, we asked participants to respond to linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli that were presented in the right and left visual fields, allowing for first access by the LH and RH, respectively. The results showed global-RH and local-LH advantages for both stimulus types, but the global lateralization effect was larger for linguistic stimuli. Furthermore, this pattern of results was found to be robust, as it was observed regardless of two other task manipulations. We conclude that the instantiation and direction of global and local lateralization is not stimulus-specific. However, the magnitude of global,—but not local—, lateralization is dependent on stimulus type.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T04:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Response bias and response monitoring: Evidence from healthy older adults
           and patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Rebecca G. Deason; Michelle J. Tat; Sean Flannery; Prabhakar S. Mithal; Erin P. Hussey; Eileen T. Crehan; Brandon A. Ally; Andrew E. Budson
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Rebecca G. Deason, Michelle J. Tat, Sean Flannery, Prabhakar S. Mithal, Erin P. Hussey, Eileen T. Crehan, Brandon A. Ally, Andrew E. Budson
      Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) often exhibit an abnormally liberal response bias in recognition memory tests, responding “old” more frequently than “new.” Investigations have shown patients can to shift to a more conservative response bias when given instructions. We examined if patients with mild AD could alter their response patterns when the ratio of old items is manipulated without explicit instruction. Healthy older adults and AD patients studied lists of words and then were tested in three old/new ratio conditions (30%, 50%, or 70% old items). A subset of participants provided estimates of how many old and new items they saw in the memory test. We demonstrated that both groups were able to change their response patterns without the aid of explicit instructions. Importantly, AD patients were more likely to estimate seeing greater numbers of old than new items, whereas the reverse was observed for older adults. Elevated estimates of old items in AD patients suggest their liberal response bias may be attributed to their reliance on familiarity. We conclude that the liberal response bias observed in AD patients is attributable to their believing that more of the test items are old and not due to impaired meta-memorial monitoring abilities.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T12:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Unpredictability increases the error-related negativity in children and
           adolescents
    • Authors: Brittany C. Speed; Felicia Jackson; Brady D. Nelson; Zachary P. Infantolino; Greg Hajcak
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Brittany C. Speed, Felicia Jackson, Brady D. Nelson, Zachary P. Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
      The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response-locked component in the event-related potential observed asa negative deflection 50–100ms following the commission of an error. An unpredictable context has been shown to potentiate amygdala activity, attentional bias toward threat, and the ERN in adults. However, it is unclear whether the impact of unpredictability on the ERN is also observed in children and adolescents. In a sample of 32 9–17year-old participants, we examined the influence of a task-irrelevant unpredictable context on neural response to errors. Participants completed a flanker task designed to elicit the ERN, while simultaneously being exposed to task-irrelevant tone sequences with either predictable or unpredictable timing. Unpredictable tones were rated as more anxiety provoking compared to the predictable tones. Fewer errors were made during unpredictable relative to predictable tones. Moreover, the ERN—but not the correct response negativity (CRN) or stimulus-locked N200—was potentiated during the unpredictable relative to predictable tones. The current study replicates and extends previous findings by demonstrating that an unpredictable context can increase task performance and selectively potentiate the ERN in children and adolescents. ERN magnitude can be modulated by environmental factors suggesting enhanced error processing in unpredictable contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T20:48:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Associations between immunological function and memory recall in healthy
           adults
    • Authors: Grace Y. Wang; Tamasin Taylor; Alexander Sumich; Fabrice Merien; Robert Borotkanics; Wendy Wrapson; Chris Krägeloh; Richard J. Siegert
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Grace Y. Wang, Tamasin Taylor, Alexander Sumich, Fabrice Merien, Robert Borotkanics, Wendy Wrapson, Chris Krägeloh, Richard J. Siegert
      Studies in clinical and aging populations support associations between immunological function, cognition and mood, although these are not always in line with animal models. Moreover, very little is known about the relationship between immunological measures and cognition in healthy young adults. The present study tested associations between the state of immune system and memory recall in a group of relatively healthy adults. Immediate and delayed memory recall was assessed in 30 participants using the computerised cognitive battery. CD4, CD8 and CD69 subpopulations of lymphocytes, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol were assessed with blood assays. Correlation analysis showed significant negative relationships between CD4 and the short and long delay memory measures. IL-6 showed a significant positive correlation with long-delay recall. Generalized linear models found associations between differences in all recall challenges and CD4. A multivariate generalized linear model including CD4 and IL-6 exhibited a stronger association. Results highlight the interactions between CD4 and IL-6 in relation to memory function. Further study is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of the associations between the state of immune system and cognitive performance.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:32:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Jazz musicians reveal role of expectancy in human creativity
    • Authors: Emily Przysinda; Tima Zeng; Kellyn Maves; Cameron Arkin; Psyche Loui
      Pages: 45 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Emily Przysinda, Tima Zeng, Kellyn Maves, Cameron Arkin, Psyche Loui
      Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce work that is novel, high in quality, and appropriate to an audience. While the nature of the creative process is under debate, many believe that creativity relies on real-time combinations of known neural and cognitive processes. One useful model of creativity comes from musical improvisation, such as in jazz, in which musicians spontaneously create novel sound sequences. Here we use jazz musicians to test the hypothesis that individuals with training in musical improvisation, which entails creative generation of musical ideas, might process expectancy differently. We compare jazz improvisers, non-improvising musicians, and non-musicians in the domain-general task of divergent thinking, as well as the musical task of preference ratings for chord progressions that vary in expectation while EEGs were recorded. Behavioral results showed for the first time that jazz musicians preferred unexpected chord progressions. ERP results showed that unexpected stimuli elicited larger early and mid-latency ERP responses (ERAN and P3b), followed by smaller long-latency responses (Late Positivity Potential) in jazz musicians. The amplitudes of these ERP components were significantly correlated with behavioral measures of fluency and originality on the divergent thinking task. Together, results highlight the role of expectancy in creativity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:32:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Cognitive strategies in the mental rotation task revealed by EEG spectral
           power
    • Authors: Aaron L. Gardony; Marianna D. Eddy; Tad T. Brunyé; Holly A. Taylor
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Aaron L. Gardony, Marianna D. Eddy, Tad T. Brunyé, Holly A. Taylor
      The classic mental rotation task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971) is commonly thought to measure mental rotation, a cognitive process involving covert simulation of motor rotation. Yet much research suggests that the MRT recruits both motor simulation and other analytic cognitive strategies that depend on visuospatial representation and visual working memory (WM). In the present study, we investigated cognitive strategies in the MRT using time-frequency analysis of EEG and independent component analysis. We scrutinized sensorimotor mu (µ) power reduction, associated with motor simulation, parietal alpha (pα) power reduction, associated with visuospatial representation, and frontal midline theta (fmθ) power enhancement, associated with WM maintenance and manipulation. µ power increased concomitant with increasing task difficulty, suggesting reduced use of motor simulation, while pα decreased and fmθ power increased, suggesting heightened use of visuospatial representation processing and WM, respectively. These findings suggest that MRT performance involves flexibly trading off between cognitive strategies, namely a motor simulation-based mental rotation strategy and WM-intensive analytic strategies based on task difficulty. Flexible cognitive strategy use may be a domain-general cognitive principle that underlies aptitude and spatial intelligence in a variety of cognitive domains. We close with discussion of the present study’s implications as well as future directions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T02:05:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Neural activity and emotional processing following military deployment:
           Effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder
    • Authors: Daniel V. Zuj; Kim L. Felmingham; Matthew A. Palmer; Ellie Lawrence-Wood; Miranda Van Hooff; Andrew J. Lawrence; Richard A. Bryant; Alexander C. McFarlane
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Daniel V. Zuj, Kim L. Felmingham, Matthew A. Palmer, Ellie Lawrence-Wood, Miranda Van Hooff, Andrew J. Lawrence, Richard A. Bryant, Alexander C. McFarlane
      Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are common comorbidities during military deployment that affect emotional brain processing, yet few studies have examined the independent effects of mTBI and PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine distinct differences in neural responses to emotional faces in mTBI and PTSD. Twenty-one soldiers reporting high PTSD symptoms were compared to 21 soldiers with low symptoms, and 16 soldiers who reported mTBI-consistent injury and symptoms were compared with 16 soldiers who did not sustain an mTBI. Participants viewed emotional face expressions while their neural activity was recorded (via event-related potentials) prior to and following deployment. The high-PTSD group displayed increased P1 and P2 amplitudes to threatening faces at post-deployment compared to the low-PTSD group. In contrast, the mTBI group displayed reduced face-specific processing (N170 amplitude) to all facial expressions compared to the no-mTBI group. Here, we identified distinctive neural patterns of emotional face processing, with attentional biases towards threatening faces in PTSD, and reduced emotional face processing in mTBI.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T02:05:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Bilingual language intrusions and other speech errors in Alzheimer’s
           disease
    • Authors: Tamar H. Gollan; Alena Stasenko; Chuchu Li; David P. Salmon
      Pages: 27 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Tamar H. Gollan, Alena Stasenko, Chuchu Li, David P. Salmon
      The current study investigated how Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects production of speech errors in reading-aloud. Twelve Spanish-English bilinguals with AD and 19 matched controls read-aloud 8 paragraphs in four conditions (a) English-only, (b) Spanish-only, (c) English-mixed (mostly English with 6 Spanish words), and (d) Spanish-mixed (mostly Spanish with 6 English words). Reading elicited language intrusions (e.g., saying la instead of the), and several types of within-language errors (e.g., saying their instead of the). Patients produced more intrusions (and self-corrected less often) than controls, particularly when reading non-dominant language paragraphs with switches into the dominant language. Patients also produced more within-language errors than controls, but differences between groups for these were not consistently larger with dominant versus non-dominant language targets. These results illustrate the potential utility of speech errors for diagnosis of AD, suggest a variety of linguistic and executive control impairments in AD, and reveal multiple cognitive mechanisms needed to mix languages fluently. The observed pattern of deficits, and unique sensitivity of intrusions to AD in bilinguals, suggests intact ability to select a default language with contextual support, to rapidly translate and switch languages in production of connected speech, but impaired ability to monitor language membership while regulating inhibitory control.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T11:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Neural correlates of evaluating self and close-other in physical, academic
           and prosocial domains
    • Authors: R. van der Cruijsen; S. Peters; E.A. Crone
      Pages: 45 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): R. van der Cruijsen, S. Peters, E.A. Crone
      Behavioral studies showed that self-concept can be distinguished into different domains, but few neuroimaging studies have investigated either domain-specific or valence-specific activity. Here, we investigated whether evaluating self- and mother-traits in three domains (physical, academic, prosocial) relies on similar or distinct brain regions. Additionally, we explored the topical discussion in the literature on whether vmPFC activity during self-evaluations is induced by valence or importance of traits. Participants evaluated themselves and their mothers on positive and negative traits in three domains. Across all domains, evaluating traits resulted in right dlPFC, left middle temporal cortex, bilateral thalamus, and right insula activity. For physical traits, we found specific neural activity in brain regions typically implicated in mentalizing (dmPFC, IPL). For academic traits, we found a brain region typically implicated in autobiographical memories (PCC), and for prosocial traits, social brain regions (temporal pole, TPJ) were activated. Importantly, these patterns were found for both self and mother evaluations. Regarding valence, rACC/vmPFC showed stronger activation for positive than for negative traits. Interestingly, activation in this region was stronger for highly important traits compared to low/neutral important traits. Thus, this study shows that distinct neural processes are activated for evaluating positive and negative traits in different domains.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T11:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Lateralization of spatial rather than temporal attention underlies the
           left hemifield advantage in rapid serial visual presentation
    • Authors: Dariusz Asanowicz; Lena Kruse; Kamila Śmigasiewicz; Rolf Verleger
      Pages: 54 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Dariusz Asanowicz, Lena Kruse, Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Rolf Verleger
      In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the “standard” bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting. In the unilateral task, the targets were presented block-wise in the LVF or RVF only, such that no spatial orienting was needed for target identification. Temporal attention was manipulated in both tasks by varying the T1-T2 lag. The results showed that the LVF advantage disappeared when involvement of stimulus-driven spatial orienting was eliminated, whereas the manipulation of temporal attention had no effect on the asymmetry. In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis of hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention, and provide further evidence that the LVF advantage reflects right hemisphere predominance in stimulus-driven orienting of spatial attention. These conclusions fit evidence that temporal attention is implemented by bilateral parietal areas and spatial attention by the right-lateralized ventral frontoparietal network.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T11:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Socially anxious tendencies affect neural processing of gaze perception
    • Authors: Yuki Tsuji; Sotaro Shimada
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Yuki Tsuji, Sotaro Shimada
      The gaze of others is known to be a particularly common cause of social anxiety. In the current study, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during gaze perception among people with or without high socially anxious tendencies (HSA). The experimental stimuli were grayscale images of the eye region of a face, showing direct or averted eye gaze (leftward gaze or rightward gaze) or closed eyes. We found that negative ERPs at a right occipito-temporal site (N170) and positive ERPs at the fronto-central region (P2) were evoked by eye gaze stimuli. While the N170 was not affected by socially anxious tendencies, the amplitude of the P2 was significantly greater in the HSA group than in the low socially anxious tendencies (LSA) group. Furthermore, P2 latency showed a significant interaction between groups and conditions: the HSA group exhibited shorter P2 latencies in response to direct gaze than averted gaze, while the LSA group did not. These results indicate that the neural processing of eye gaze is strongly influenced by socially anxious tendencies. In particular, the attentional processing of direct gaze is more prominent in individuals with HSA tendencies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T11:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Bimanual coordination positively predicts episodic memory: A combined
           behavioral and MRI investigation
    • Authors: Keith B. Lyle; Brynn A. Dombroski; Leonard Faul; Robin F. Hopkins; Farah Naaz; Andrew E. Switala; Brendan E. Depue
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Keith B. Lyle, Brynn A. Dombroski, Leonard Faul, Robin F. Hopkins, Farah Naaz, Andrew E. Switala, Brendan E. Depue
      Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands. This research has relied on self-reports of behavior. It is unknown whether objective measures of motor behavior also predict memory performance. Here, we tested the predictive power of bimanual coordination, an important form of manual dexterity. Bimanual coordination, as measured objectively on the Purdue Pegboard Test, was positively related to correct recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II and negatively related to false recall. Furthermore, MRI data revealed that cortical surface area in right lateral prefrontal regions was positively related to correct recall. In one of these regions, cortical thickness was negatively related to bimanual coordination. These results suggest that individual differences in episodic memory may partially reflect morphological variation in right lateral prefrontal cortex and suggest a relationship between neural correlates of episodic memory and motor behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T11:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Very low birth weight is associated with brain structure abnormalities and
           cognitive function impairments: A systematic review
    • Authors: Fereshteh Farajdokht; Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad; Reza Dehghani; Gisou Mohaddes; Leili Abedi; Ramin Bughchechi; Alireza Majdi; Javad Mahmoudi
      Pages: 80 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Fereshteh Farajdokht, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Reza Dehghani, Gisou Mohaddes, Leili Abedi, Ramin Bughchechi, Alireza Majdi, Javad Mahmoudi
      Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at risk of structural brain abnormalities and neurocognitive deficits. Since survival rate of the very low birth weight infants has increased over the past decade, a better understanding of the long-term neurocognitive outcomes is needed. The present systematic review investigated the association between VLBW and cognitive function as well as brain structure. PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched up from January 2000 to January 2015. The study was restricted to the articles that were about VLBW and its association with cognitive function and brain structure. The initial search yielded 721 articles. There were 44 studies eligible for inclusion after applying the exclusion criteria: 24 follow-up, 14 cohort, and 6 longitudinal studies. Based on this systematic review, we suggest that VLBW is positively related to several cognitive problems and brain structure abnormalities. These findings provide evidence about the importance of early assessment of cognitive development and brain structure to identify at-risk children and provide their specific requirements as early as possible.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Functional neural bases of numerosity judgments in healthy adults born
           preterm
    • Authors: Caron A.C. Clark; Yating Liu; Nicolas Lee Abbot Wright; Alan Bedrick; Jamie O. Edgin
      Pages: 90 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Caron A.C. Clark, Yating Liu, Nicolas Lee Abbot Wright, Alan Bedrick, Jamie O. Edgin
      High rates of mathematics learning disabilities among individuals born preterm (<37weeksGA) have spurred calls for a greater understanding of the nature of these weaknesses and their neural underpinnings. Groups of healthy, high functioning young adults born preterm and full term (n =20) completed a symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison task while undergoing functional MRI scanning. Collectively, participants showed activation in superior and inferior frontal and parietal regions previously linked to numeric processing when comparing non-symbolic magnitude arrays separated by small numeric distances. Simultaneous deactivation of the default mode network also was evident during these trials. Individuals born preterm showed increased signal change relative to their full term peers in right inferior frontal and parietal regions when comparing the non-symbolic magnitude arrays. Elevated signal change during non-symbolic task blocks was associated with poorer performance on a calculation task administered outside of the scanner. These findings indicate that healthy, high-functioning adults born preterm may recruit fronto-parietal networks more extensively when processing non-symbolic magnitudes, suggesting that approximate number system training may be an inroad for early intervention to prevent mathematics difficulties in this population.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T11:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Executive function and cardiac autonomic regulation in depressive
           disorders
    • Authors: Alexandra Hoffmann; Ulrich Ettinger; Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso; Stefan Duschek
      Pages: 108 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Alexandra Hoffmann, Ulrich Ettinger, Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso, Stefan Duschek
      Executive function impairments have been frequently observed in depressive disorders. Moreover, reduced heart rate variability (HRV) has repeatedly been described, especially in the high frequency band (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA), suggesting lower vagal cardiac outflow. The study tested the hypothesis of involvement of low vagal tone in executive dysfunction in depression. In addition to RSA, HRV in the low frequency (LF) band was assessed. In 36 patients with depression and 36 healthy subjects, electrocardiography recordings were accomplished at rest and during performance of five executive function tasks (number-letter task, n-back task, continuous performance test, flanker task, and antisaccade task). Patients displayed increased error rates and longer reaction times in the task-switching condition of the number-letter task, in addition to increased error rates in the n-back task and the final of two blocks of the antisaccade task. In patients, both HRV parameters were lower during all experimental phases. RSA correlated negatively with reaction time during task-switching. This finding confirms reduced performance across different executive functions in depression and suggests that, in addition to RSA, LF HRV is also diminished. However, the hypothesis of involvement of low parasympathetic tone in executive dysfunction related to depression received only limited support.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T10:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Language for action: Motor resonance during the processing of human and
           robotic voices
    • Authors: G. Di Cesare; A. Errante; M. Marchi; V. Cuccio
      Pages: 118 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): G. Di Cesare, A. Errante, M. Marchi, V. Cuccio
      In this fMRI study we evaluated whether the auditory processing of action verbs pronounced by a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results. First, the activation pattern found during listening to action verbs was very similar in both the robot and human conditions. Second, the processing of action verbs compared to abstract verbs determined the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit classically involved during the action goal understanding. Third, and most importantly, listening to action verbs compared to abstract verbs produced activation of the anterior part of the supramarginal gyrus (aSMG) regardless of the condition (human and robot) and in the absence of any object name. The supramarginal gyrus is a region considered to underpin hand-object interaction and associated to the processing of affordances. These results suggest that listening to action verbs may trigger the recruitment of motor representations characterizing affordances and action execution, coherently with the predictive nature of motor simulation that not only allows us to re-enact motor knowledge to understand others’ actions but also prepares us for the actions we might need to carry out.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T10:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic range of frontoparietal functional modulation is associated with
           working memory capacity limitations in older adults
    • Authors: Jonathan G. Hakun; Nathan F. Johnson
      Pages: 128 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Jonathan G. Hakun, Nathan F. Johnson
      Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity. Within our sample (60–77years of age), age was negatively associated with frontoparietal modulation range. Individuals with greater modulation range exhibited more accurate N-Back performance. In addition, despite a lack of significant relationships between N-Back and complex span task performance, range of frontoparietal modulation during the N-Back significantly predicted domain-general estimates of WM capacity. Consistent with previous cross-sectional findings, older individuals with less modulation range exhibited greater activation at the lowest level of task difficulty but less activation at the highest levels of task difficulty. Our results are largely consistent with existing theories of neurocognitive aging (e.g. CRUNCH) but focus attention on dynamic range of functional modulation asa novel marker of WM capacity-limitations in older adults.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T04:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Affective mapping: An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis
    • Authors: Lauren A.J. Kirby; Jennifer L. Robinson
      Pages: 137 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Lauren A.J. Kirby, Jennifer L. Robinson
      Functional neuroimaging has the spatial resolution to explain the neural basis of emotions. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE), as opposed to traditional qualitative meta-analysis, quantifies convergence of activation across studies within affective categories. Others have used ALE to investigate a broad range of emotions, but without the convenience of the BrainMap database. We used the BrainMap database and analysis resources to run separate meta-analyses on coordinates reported for anger, anxiety, disgust, fear, happiness, humor, and sadness. Resultant ALE maps were compared to determine areas of convergence between emotions, as well as to identify affect-specific networks. Five out of the seven emotions demonstrated consistent activation within the amygdala, whereas all emotions consistently activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, which has been implicated as an integration hub for affective and cognitive processes. These data provide the framework for models of affect-specific networks, as well as emotional processing hubs, which can be used for future studies of functional or effective connectivity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T04:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2015.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Encoding focus alters diagnostic recollection and event-related potentials
           (ERPs)
    • Authors: P. Andrew Leynes; Brittany A. Mok
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): P. Andrew Leynes, Brittany A. Mok
      The influence of encoding focus on source memory was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). Encoding was focused on the self (self-focus) or on the speaker (other-focus) while hearing words spoken in a male or female voice. Examination of the behavioral and ERP evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the amount of diagnostic recollection. Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, led to greater old/new recognition, and elicited a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate of recollection) during the source test. Other-focus encoding led to greater source memory and a smaller LPC amplitude. Collectively, the results suggest that encoding focus alters the information bound in the memory trace that leads to varying levels of source-diagnostic features. Drawing attention to the speaker facilitates binding of source-diagnostic features (i.e., voice), whereas self-focus encoding facilitates binding a host of non-diagnostic features. The results have important implications for situations that depend on encoding processes, such as false memory or classroom learning, and they provide evidence that the LPC tracks recollected details but not necessarily diagnostic recollection.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Interhemispheric cortical connections and time perception: A case study
           with agenesis of the corpus callosum
    • Authors: Miku Okajima; Akinori Futamura; Motoyasu Honma; Mitsuru Kawamura; Yuko Yotsumoto
      Pages: 12 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Miku Okajima, Akinori Futamura, Motoyasu Honma, Mitsuru Kawamura, Yuko Yotsumoto
      In daily life, we sometimes select temporal cues of one sort while suppressing others. This study investigated the mechanism of suppression by examining a split-brain patient’s perception of target intervals while ignoring distractor intervals. A patient with agenesis of corpus callosum and five age- and sex-matched control subjects participated in reproduction of target intervals while ignoring distractors displayed in the visual field either ipsilateral or contralateral to target. In the patient, the distractor interfered with reproduction performance more strongly when contralateral rather than ipsilateral. Our results suggest that the corpus callosum plays an inhibitory role in interhemispheric interference and that temporal interval information can be transferred via subcortical structures when there are no direct interhemispheric pathways.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • ERPs and oscillations during encoding predict retrieval of digit memory in
           superior mnemonists
    • Authors: Yafeng Pan; Xianchun Li; Xi Chen; Yixuan Ku; Yujie Dong; Zheng Dou; Lin He; Yi Hu; Weidong Li; Xiaolin Zhou
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Yafeng Pan, Xianchun Li, Xi Chen, Yixuan Ku, Yujie Dong, Zheng Dou, Lin He, Yi Hu, Weidong Li, Xiaolin Zhou
      Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that superior mnemonists (SMs) outperform normal individuals in domain-specific memory tasks. However, the neural correlates of memory-related processes remain unclear. In the current EEG study, SMs and control participants performed a digit memory task during which their brain activity was recorded. Chinese SMs used a digit-image mnemonic for encoding digits, in which they associated 2-digit groups with images immediately after the presentation of each even-position digit in sequences. Behaviorally, SMs’ memory of digit sequences was better than the controls’. During encoding in the study phase, SMs showed an increased right central P2 (150–250ms post onset) and a larger right posterior high-alpha (10–14Hz, 500–1720ms) oscillation on digits at even-positions compared with digits at odd-positions. Both P2 and high-alpha oscillations in the study phase co-varied with performance in the recall phase, but only in SMs, indicating that neural dynamics during encoding could predict successful retrieval of digit memory in SMs. Our findings suggest that representation of a digit sequence in SMs using mnemonics may recruit both the early-stage attention allocation process and the sustained information preservation process. This study provides evidence for the role of dynamic and efficient neural encoding processes in mnemonists.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Cognitive and motor reaction times in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A
           study based on computerized measures
    • Authors: Maria Devita; Sonia Montemurro; Andrea Zangrossi; Sara Ramponi; Maurizio Marvisi; Daniele Villani; Maria Clara Raimondi; Paola Merlo; Maria Luisa Rusconi; Sara Mondini
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Maria Devita, Sonia Montemurro, Andrea Zangrossi, Sara Ramponi, Maurizio Marvisi, Daniele Villani, Maria Clara Raimondi, Paola Merlo, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Sara Mondini
      Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is mainly associated with executive dysfunction. Although delayed reaction times (RTs) in patients with OSAS have been reported, sensitivity of processing speed has not been adequately assessed. This study suggests sensitive and reliable measures to clarify whether different components of information processing speed, i.e. cognitive and motor responses, are equally impaired in OSAS. Thirty-three patients with OSAS were compared with thirty healthy controls. The MoCA test was administered to assess participants’ global neuropsychological profile. Cognitive and motor reaction times were measured using a detector panel which allows to distinguish between stimulus encoding, decision processing, and selection of the appropriate motor response. Logistic regression models highlighted both MoCA test and motor RTs as the best predictors differentiating patients from healthy participants. Results support the hypothesis of a slight decline in the cognitive profile of patients with OSAS and identify significant slowing down in the motor component of responses. It could be hypothesized that slower motor responsiveness is the cause of the global cognitive profile of these patients. With aging, motor movements and RTs usually become impaired and hypoxia might accelerate the aging process by compromising first of all the motor component of RTs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Procedural learning in Tourette syndrome, ADHD, and comorbid
           Tourette-ADHD: Evidence from a probabilistic sequence learning task
    • Authors: Ádám Takács; Yuval Shilon; Karolina Janacsek; Andrea Kóbor; Antoine Tremblay; Dezső Németh; Michael T. Ullman
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Ádám Takács, Yuval Shilon, Karolina Janacsek, Andrea Kóbor, Antoine Tremblay, Dezső Németh, Michael T. Ullman
      Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, plays an important role in the implicit learning of motor and cognitive skills. Few studies have examined procedural learning in either Tourette syndrome (TS) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), despite basal ganglia abnormalities in both of these neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to assess procedural learning in children with TS (n=13), ADHD (n=22), and comorbid TS-ADHD (n=20), as well as in typically developing children (n=21). Procedural learning was measured with a well-studied implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, the alternating serial reaction time task. All four groups showed evidence of sequence learning, and moreover did not differ from each other in sequence learning. This result, from the first study to examine procedural memory across TS, ADHD and comorbid TS-ADHD, is consistent with previous findings of intact procedural learning of sequences in both TS and ADHD. In contrast, some studies have found impaired procedural learning of non-sequential probabilistic categories in TS. This suggests that sequence learning may be spared in TS and ADHD, while at least some other forms of learning in procedural memory are impaired, at least in TS. Our findings indicate that disorders associated with basal ganglia abnormalities do not necessarily show procedural learning deficits, and provide a possible path for more effective diagnostic tools, and educational and training programs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Procedural learning in Parkinson’s disease, specific language
           impairment, dyslexia, schizophrenia, developmental coordination disorder,
           and autism spectrum disorders: A second-order meta-analysis
    • Authors: Gillian M. Clark; Jarrad A.G. Lum
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Gillian M. Clark, Jarrad A.G. Lum
      The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. The main analysis revealed disorder type moderated SRTT performance (p =0.010). This report demonstrates comparable levels of procedural learning impairment in developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment. However, in autism, procedural learning is spared.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Sex differences in humor processing: An event-related potential study
    • Authors: Yi-Tzu Chang; Li-Chuan Ku; Hsueh-Chih Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Yi-Tzu Chang, Li-Chuan Ku, Hsueh-Chih Chen
      Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Forty undergraduate students (20 women) underwent event-related potential recording while subjectively rating 30 question-answer-type jokes and 30 question-answer-type statements in a random order. Sex differences were revealed by analyses of the mean amplitudes of difference waves during a specific time window between 1000 and 1300 ms poststimulus onset (P1000–1300). This indicates that women recruited more mental resources to integrate cognitive and emotional components at this late stage. In contrast, men recruited more automated processes during the transition from the cognitive operations of the incongruity resolution stage to the emotional response of the humor elaboration stage. Our results suggest that sex differences in humor processing lie in differences in the integration of cognitive and emotional components, which are closely linked and interact reciprocally, particularly in women.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.002
       
  • Functional connectivity of the vigilant-attention network in children and
           adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    • Authors: Florian D. Zepf; Sarah Bubenzer-Busch; Kevin C. Runions; Pradeep Rao; Janice W.Y. Wong; Simone Mahfouda; Hugo A.E. Morandini; Richard M. Stewart; Julia K. Moore; Caroline S. Biskup; Simon B. Eickhoff; Gereon R. Fink; Robert Langner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Florian D. Zepf, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Kevin C. Runions, Pradeep Rao, Janice W.Y. Wong, Simone Mahfouda, Hugo A.E. Morandini, Richard M. Stewart, Julia K. Moore, Caroline S. Biskup, Simon B. Eickhoff, Gereon R. Fink, Robert Langner
      The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. We therefore investigated ADHD-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity within a meta-analytically defined brain network of 14 distinct regions subserving VA (comprising 91 connections in total), as well as the association of connectivity with markers of behavioural dysfunction in 17 children (age range: 9–14 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 age-matched neurotypical controls. Our analyses revealed selective, rather than global, differences in the intrinsic coupling between nodes of the VA-related brain network in children with ADHD, relative to controls. In particular, ADHD patients showed substantially diminished intrinsic coupling for 7 connections and increased coupling for 4 connections, with many differences involving connectivity with the anterior insula. Moreover, connectivity strength of several aberrant connections was found to be associated with core aspects of ADHD symptomatology, such as poor attention, difficulties with social functioning, and impaired cognitive control, attesting to the behavioural relevance of specific connectivity differences observed in the resting state.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.005
       
  • The parietal opercular auditory-sensorimotor network in musicians: A
           resting-state fMRI study
    • Authors: Shoji Tanaka; Eiji Kirino
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Shoji Tanaka, Eiji Kirino
      Auditory-sensorimotor coupling is critical for musical performance, during which auditory and somatosensory feedback signals are used to ensure desired outputs. Previous studies reported opercular activation in subjects performing or listening to music. A functional connectivity analysis suggested the parietal operculum (PO) as a connector hub that links auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortical areas. We therefore examined whether this PO network differs between musicians and non-musicians. We analyzed resting-state PO functional connectivity with Heschl’s gyrus (HG), the planum temporale (PT), the precentral gyrus (preCG), and the postcentral gyrus (postCG) in 35 musicians and 35 non-musicians. In musicians, the left PO exhibited increased functional connectivity with the ipsilateral HG, PT, preCG, and postCG, whereas the right PO exhibited enhanced functional connectivity with the contralateral HG, preCG, and postCG and the ipsilateral postCG. Direct functional connectivity between an auditory area (the HG or PT) and a sensorimotor area (the preCG or postCG) did not significantly differ between the groups. The PO’s functional connectivity with auditory and sensorimotor areas is enhanced in musicians relative to non-musicians. We propose that the PO network facilitates musical performance by mediating multimodal integration for modulating auditory-sensorimotor control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T14:49:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.001
       
  • Preserved metacognitive ability despite unilateral or bilateral anterior
           prefrontal resection
    • Authors: Anne-Laure Lemaitre; Guillaume Herbet; Hugues Duffau; Gilles Lafargue
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau, Gilles Lafargue
      Brodmann area 10 (BA10) is thought to be at the summit of the prefrontal cortex’s hierarchical organization. It is widely accepted that metacognitive abilities depend on the structural and functional properties of BA10. Our objective was to assess whether metacognition can be maintained after low-grade glioma surgery with BA10 resection. Three groups of participants were recruited: (i) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex, including BA10 (n = 9); (ii) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex but not BA10 (n = 10); and (iii) healthy controls (n = 38). Importantly, we also included a patient (referred to as “PR”) with resection of BA10 in the two hemispheres. The patients with resection of right BA10 had metacognitive performances that were indistinguishable from those of brain-damaged control patients and healthy controls. Crucially, PR's metacognitive ability was not only maintained but was even in the upper quartile of normal performances. Our findings demonstrate that the brain can redistribute and remap metacognition in response to injury. We thus provide experimental evidence against the conventional hypothesis whereby cognitive functions are directly and lastingly linked to particular cortical structures. The latter hypothesis seems to be particularly false for the highest levels of human cognition and for BA10.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T14:49:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.004
       
  • Mental flexibility: An MEG investigation in typically developing children
    • Authors: Alexandra Mogadam; Anne E. Keller; Margot J. Taylor; Jason P. Lerch; Evdokia Anagnostou; Elizabeth W. Pang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Alexandra Mogadam, Anne E. Keller, Margot J. Taylor, Jason P. Lerch, Evdokia Anagnostou, Elizabeth W. Pang
      Mental flexibility is a core property of cognitive executive functions, relying on an extended frontoparietal network in the brain. fMRI research comparing typically developing children and adults has found that children from an early age recruit the same “classic” brain areas associated with mental flexibility as adults; however, there is evidence that the timing of activation may be different. To investigate the temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with mental flexibility in children, we recruited 22 typically developing children (8–15 years) to complete a set-shifting task in the MEG. Our results showed that while the children relied on the same frontoparietal network of mental flexibility, there was a different emphasis on active brain regions, with children preferentially using their posterior parietal cortices. Additional areas such as the temporal pole and the premotor areas were also recruited, potentially playing a supporting role. Although children shared the same window of peak activity as adults, 75–350ms, we found a significant decrease in activation latency with increasing age, suggesting the presence of developmental differences in timing of brain activity in areas supporting mental flexibility during childhood.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T19:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.001
       
  • Cortical-hippocampal functional connectivity during covert consolidation
           sub-serves associative learning: Evidence for an active “rest” state
    • Authors: Mathura Ravishankar; Alexandra Morris; Ashley Burgess; Dalal Khatib; Jeffrey A. Stanley; Vaibhav A. Diwadkar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Mathura Ravishankar, Alexandra Morris, Ashley Burgess, Dalal Khatib, Jeffrey A. Stanley, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar
      We studied modulation of undirected functional connectivity (uFC) in cortical-hippocampal sub-networks during associative learning. Nineteen healthy individuals were studied (fMRI acquired on a Siemens Verio 3T), and uFC was studied between nodes in a network of regions identified by standard activation models based on bivariate correlational analyses of time series data. The paradigm alternated between Memory Encoding, Rest and Retrieval. “Rest” intervals promoted covert consolidation. Over the task, performance was broadly separable into linear (Early) and asymptomatic (Late) regimes, with late performance reflecting successful memory consolidation. Significant modulation of uFC was observed during periods of covert consolidation. The sub-networks which were modulated constituted connections between frontal regions such as the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the medial temporal lobe (hippocampus, HPC), the superior parietal cortex (SPC) and the fusiform gyrus (FG). uFC patterns were dynamic in that sub-networks modulated during Early learning (dACC ↔ SPC, dACC ↔ FG, dPFC ↔ HPC) were not identical to those modulated during Late learning (dACC ↔ HPC, dPFC ↔ FG, FG ↔ SPC). Covert consolidation exerts systematic effects, and these results add to emerging evidence for the constructive role of the brain’s “resting state” in potentiating action.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T19:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.003
       
  • Sex differences and menstrual cycle effects in cognitive and sensory
           resting state networks
    • Authors: Susanne Weis; Sophie Hodgetts; Markus Hausmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Susanne Weis, Sophie Hodgetts, Markus Hausmann
      It has not yet been established if resting state (RS) connectivity reflects stable characteristics of the brain, or if it is modulated by the psychological and/or physiological state of the participant. Based on research demonstrating sex hormonal effects in task-related brain activity, the present study aimed to investigate corresponding differences in RS networks. RS functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS fMRI) was conducted in women during three different menstrual cycle phases, while men underwent three repeated RS fMRI testing sessions. Independent component analysis was used to identify the default mode network (DMN) and an auditory RS network. For the DMN, RS connectivity was stable across testing sessions in men, but varied across the menstrual cycle in women. For the auditory network (AN), retest reliable sex difference was found. Although RS activity in the DMN has been interpreted as trait characteristic of functional brain organization, these findings suggest that RS activity in networks involving frontal areas might be less stable than in sensory-based networks and can dynamically fluctuate. This also implies that some of the previously reported effects of sex hormones on task-related activity might to some extent be mediated by cycle-related fluctuations in RS activity, especially when frontal areas are involved.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:32:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.003
       
  • Common framework for “virtual lesion” and state-dependent TMS: The
           facilitatory/suppressive range model of online TMS effects on behavior
    • Authors: Juha Silvanto; Zaira Cattaneo
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Juha Silvanto, Zaira Cattaneo
      The behavioral effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are often nonlinear; factors such as stimulation intensity and brain state can modulate the impact of TMS on observable behavior in qualitatively different manner. Here we propose a theoretical framework to account for these effects. In this model, there are distinct intensity ranges for facilitatory and suppressive effects of TMS – low intensities facilitate neural activity and behavior whereas high intensities induce suppression. The key feature of the model is that these ranges are shifted by changes in neural excitability: consequently, a TMS intensity, which normally induces suppression, can have a facilitatory effect if the stimulated neurons are being inhibited by ongoing task-related processes or preconditioning. For example, adaptation reduces excitability of adapted neurons; the outcome is that TMS intensities which inhibit non-adapted neurons induce a facilitation on adapted neural representations, leading to reversal of adaptation effects. In conventional “virtual lesion” paradigms, similar effects occur because neurons not involved in task-related processes are inhibited by the ongoing task. The resulting reduction in excitability can turn high intensity “inhibitory” TMS to low intensity “facilitatory” TMS for these neurons, and as task-related neuronal representations are in the inhibitory range, the outcome is a reduction in signal-to-noise ratio and behavioral impairment.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T21:05:50Z
       
  • Neuroscience and everyday life: Facing the translation problem
    • Authors: Jolien C. Francken; Marc Slors
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Jolien C. Francken, Marc Slors
      To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity. Therefore, scientific findings cannot inform our practical concerns in a straightforward way. How then can neuroscience ultimately help determine if a defendant is legally responsible, or help someone understand their addiction better' Since the above-mentioned problems provide serious obstacles to move from science to common-sense, we call this the 'translation problem'. Here, we describe three promising approaches for neuroscience to face this translation problem. First, neuroscience could propose new 'folk-neuroscience' concepts, beyond the traditional folk-psychological array, which might inform and alter our phenomenology. Second, neuroscience can modify our current array of common-sense concepts by refining and validating scientific concepts. Third, neuroscience can change our views on the application criteria of concepts such as responsibility and consciousness. We believe that these strategies to deal with the translation problem should guide the practice of neuroscientific research to be able to contribute to our day-to-day life more effectively.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T04:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.004
       
  • Social risky decision-making reveals gender differences in the TPJ: A
           hyperscanning study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy
    • Authors: Mingming Zhang; Tao Liu; Matthew Pelowski; Huibin Jia; Dongchuan Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
      Previous neuroscience studies have investigated neural correlates of risky decision-making in a single-brain frame during pseudo social (predominantly non face-to-face) contexts. To fully understand the risky decision-making behavior in more natural social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a face-to-face gambling card-game. The intra-brain results revealed that both those who identified as males and as females showed higher activations in their mPFC and in the inferior parts of the frontopolar area, as well as in the tempo-parietal junction (TPJ) in cases involving higher versus lower risk. This is consistent with previous findings suggesting importance of the mentalizing network in decision tasks. The fNIRS results of inter-brain neural synchronization (INS) also revealed that males and females showed increased inter-brain coherence in the mPFC and dlPFC. Females, however, uniquely showed increased inter-brain coherence in the left TPJ. This INS result suggests that males may primarily depend on non-social cognitive ability to make a risky decision in a social interaction, while females may use both social and non-social cognitive abilities. The implications are also discussed for general topics of human interaction and two-person neuroscience.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.008
       
  • Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious
           attention in math anxiety
    • Authors: Rachel Pizzie; David J.M. Kraemer
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 118
      Author(s): Rachel G. Pizzie, David J.M. Kraemer
      Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T10:56:09Z
       
  • Simultaneous learning of two languages from birth positively impacts
           intrinsic functional connectivity and cognitive control
    • Authors: Shanna Kousaie; Xiaoqian J. Chai; Kaija M. Sander; Denise Klein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Shanna Kousaie, Xiaoqian J. Chai, Kaija M. Sander, Denise Klein
      This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals. These findings demonstrate that the timing of language learning may have an impact on cognitive control, with the simultaneous learning of two languages being associated with more optimal brain connectivity for cognitive control compared to sequential language learning.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T15:48:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.003
       
  • Atypical activation of action-semantic network in adolescents with autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Tracey A. Knaus; Claire Burns; Jodi Kamps; Anne L. Foundas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Tracey A. Knaus, Claire Burns, Jodi Kamps, Anne L. Foundas
      In typical adults, fMRI studies have shown activation of primary and pre-motor regions during action word processing. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments. ASD studies have shown atypical semantic processing and motor deficits. The objective of this study was to examine semantic processing of verbs in ASD. 15 ASD adolescents and 19 typically developing adolescents, 11–16years, completed a semantic similarity judgment task during fMRI. There were no differences in task accuracy or reaction time. At the group level, both groups had activation in left language areas; controls, but not ASD, also had activation in the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). In ASD, less left frontal activation and reduced left lateralization of activation within these regions was associated with shorter reaction times and better language skills. More left temporal activation was associated with better language abilities in ASD. Differences in pre-SMA activation may relate to motor planning deficits or differences in approach to the semantic task in ASD. Results suggest that left frontal language areas may be less efficient in ASD and those who can compensate by recruiting more right hemisphere homologues may result in better language abilities.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.004
       
 
 
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