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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1307 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (243 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (29 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (17 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (87 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (49 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (648 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (42 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (156 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (648 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access  
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access  
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 133)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
África     Open Access  
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access  
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access  
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access  
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access  
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access  
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
e-Gnosis     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EspacesTemps.net     Open Access  
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExT : Revista de Extensión de la UNC     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Family Process     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Family Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fijian Studies: A Journal of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription  
FIVE : The Claremont Colleges Journal of Undergraduate Academic Writing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flaubert     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Formation emploi     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Brain and Cognition
  [SJR: 1.511]   [H-I: 95]   [29 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0278-2626 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2147
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Raising the alarm: Individual differences in the perceptual awareness of
           masked facial expressions
    • Authors: Ljubica Damjanovic; Marcel Meyer; Francisco Sepulveda
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 114
      Author(s): Ljubica Damjanovic, Marcel Meyer, Francisco Sepulveda
      A theoretical concern in addressing the unconscious perception of emotion is the extent to which participants can access experiential properties of masked facial stimuli. Performance on a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task as a measure of objective awareness was compared with a new measure developed to access experiential phenomena of the target-mask transition, the perceptual contrast-change sensitivity (PCCS) measure in a backward-masking paradigm with angry, happy and neutral facial expressions. Whilst 2AFC performance indicated that the targets were successfully masked, PCCS values were significantly higher in the happy-neutral face condition than in the angry-neutral face and the neutral-neutral face conditions (Experiment 1). Furthermore, objective measures of awareness were more readily displayed by individuals with high trait anxiety, whereas individuals with low trait anxiety showed greater access to the experiential quality of happy faces (Experiment 2). These findings provide important insights into the methodological considerations involved in the study of non-conscious processing of emotions, both with respect to individual differences in anxiety and the extent to which certain expressions can be successfully masked relative to others. Furthermore, our results may be informative to work investigating the neural correlates of conscious versus unconscious perception of emotion.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • The neural correlates of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict in
           Panum’s limiting case
    • Authors: Huayun Li; Huibin Jia; Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim; Laipeng Jin; Dongchuan Yu
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 114
      Author(s): Huayun Li, Huibin Jia, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Laipeng Jin, Dongchuan Yu
      Although Panum’s limiting case has been extensively researched, only recently has it been discovered that in addition to horizontal disparity, the final perception of depth is influenced by (i) the vertical disparity gradient and (ii) the degree of cue conflict between 2D and 3D shapes. The present study examines the neural correlates of the two factors, using EEG while observers viewed several versions of stereoscopic stimuli, which depicted Panum’s limiting case. In these patterns the vertical disparity gradient was varied from 0.1 to 0.6, while the degree of cue conflict was manipulated from low to high. The ERP data showed that the amplitude of the N170 component (exogenous) was modulated by the vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict. In contrast, the N270 component (endogenous) was modulated by cue conflict only. Such findings demonstrate that both factors affect the perception of depth in Panum’s limiting case, but at different stages: the vertical disparity gradient at an early stage of processing (N170) and cue conflict at two stages (N170 and N270). Hence, vertical disparity gradient is related to low-level visual stimulus parameters and can modulate exogenous component, while cue conflict is related to both exogenous and endogenous components.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T12:53:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • Now or not-now' The influence of alexithymia on intertemporal
           decision-making
    • Authors: Cristina Scarpazza; Manuela Sellitto; Giuseppe di Pellegrino
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 114
      Author(s): Cristina Scarpazza, Manuela Sellitto, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
      Optimal intertemporal decisions arise from the balance between an emotional-visceral component, signaling the need for immediate gratification, and a rational, long-term oriented component. Alexithymia, a personality construct characterized by amplified sensitivity to internal bodily signals of arousal, may result in enhanced activation of the emotional-visceral component over the cognitive-rational one. To test this hypothesis, participants with high- and low-alexithymia level were compared at an intertemporal decision-making task, and their choice behavior correlated with their interoceptive sensitivity. We show that high-alexithymic tend to behave more impatiently than low-alexithymic in intertemporal decisions, particularly when the sooner reward is immediately available. Moreover, the greater their sensitivity to their own visceral sensations, the greater the impatience. Together, these results suggest a disproportionate valuation of reward available immediately in high alexithymia, possibly reflecting heightened perception of bodily physiological signals, which ultimately would bias their intertemporal decision-making.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T08:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • The spatial relations between stimulus and response determine an absolute
           visuo-haptic calibration in pantomime-grasping
    • Authors: Shirin Davarpanah Jazi; Matthew Heath
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 114
      Author(s): Shirin Davarpanah Jazi, Matthew Heath
      Pantomime-grasps entail a response to an area adjacent to (i.e., spatially dissociated pantomime-grasp), or previously occupied by (i.e., no-target pantomime-grasp) a target. Previous work has reported that pantomime-grasps differ kinematically from naturalistic grasps (i.e., grasping a physical target object) – a result taken to evince that pantomime-grasps are perception-based and mediated via relative visual information. However, such actions differ not only in terms of their visual properties, but also because the former precludes haptic feedback related to a target’s absolute size. The current study provides four experiments examining whether experimenter-induced haptic feedback influences the information mediating spatially dissociated and no-target pantomime-grasps. Just-noticeable-difference scores were computed to determine whether grasps adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical properties of Weber’s law. Spatially dissociated pantomime-grasps performed with haptic feedback adhered to Weber’s law (Experiments 1–3), whereas their no-target pantomime-grasp counterparts violated the law (Experiment 4). Accordingly, we propose that the top-down demands of decoupling stimulus-response relations in spatially dissociated pantomime-grasping renders aperture shaping via a visual percept that is not directly influenced by the integration of haptic feedback. In turn, the decreased top-down demands of no-target pantomime-grasps allows haptic feedback to serve as a reliable sensory resource supporting an absolute visuo-haptic calibration.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T08:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • That note sounds wrong! Age-related effects in processing of musical
           expectation
    • Authors: Andrea R. Halpern; Ioanna Zioga; Martin Shankleman; Job Lindsen; Marcus T. Pearce; Joydeep Bhattarcharya
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Andrea R. Halpern, Ioanna Zioga, Martin Shankleman, Job Lindsen, Marcus T. Pearce, Joydeep Bhattarcharya
      Part of musical understanding and enjoyment stems from the ability to accurately predict what note (or one of a small set of notes) is likely to follow after hearing the first part of a melody. Selective violation of expectations can add to aesthetic response but radical or frequent violations are likely to be disliked or not comprehended. In this study we investigated whether a lifetime of exposure to music among untrained older adults would enhance their reaction to unexpected endings of unfamiliar melodies. Older and younger adults listened to melodies that had expected or unexpected ending notes, according to Western music theory. Ratings of goodness-of-fit were similar in the groups, as was ERP response to the note onset (N1). However, in later time windows (P200 and Late Positive Component), the amplitude of a response to unexpected and expected endings was both larger in older adults, corresponding to greater sensitivity, and more widespread in locus, consistent with a dedifferentiation pattern. Lateralization patterns also differed. We conclude that older adults refine their understanding of this important aspect of music throughout life, with the ability supported by changing patterns of neural activity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T15:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Verbal and musical short-term memory: Variety of auditory disorders after
           stroke
    • Authors: Catherine Hirel; Norbert Nighoghossian; Yohana Lévêque; Salem Hannoun; Lesly Fornoni; Sébastien Daligault; Patrick Bouchet; Julien Jung; Barbara Tillmann; Anne Caclin
      Pages: 10 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
      Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks. All participants then performed verbal and musical auditory short-term memory (STM) tasks that were implemented in the same way for both materials. Participants had to indicate whether series of four words or four tones presented in pairs, were the same or different. To detect domain-general STM deficits, they also had to perform a visual STM task. Behavioral results showed that patients had lower performance for the STM tasks in comparison with control participants, regardless of the material (words, tones, visual) and the lesion side. The individual patient data showed a double dissociation between some patients exhibiting verbal deficits without musical deficits or the reverse. Exploratory VLSM analyses suggested that dorsal pathways are involved in verbal (phonetic), musical (melodic), and visual STM, while the ventral auditory pathway is involved in musical STM.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Improved cognition while cycling in Parkinson’s disease patients and
           healthy adults
    • Authors: Audrey A. Hazamy; Lori J.P. Altmann; Elizabeth Stegemöller; Dawn Bowers; Hyo Keun Lee; Jonathan Wilson; Michael S. Okun; Chris J. Hass
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Audrey A. Hazamy, Lori J.P. Altmann, Elizabeth Stegemöller, Dawn Bowers, Hyo Keun Lee, Jonathan Wilson, Michael S. Okun, Chris J. Hass
      Persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task. Participants with and without PD completed a battery of 12 cognitive tasks assessing visual and verbal processing in the following cognitive domains: speed of processing, controlled processing, working memory and executive function. Persons with PD exhibited impairments compared to healthy participants in select tasks (i.e., 0-back, 2-back and operation span). Further, both groups unexpectedly exhibited dual task facilitation of response times in visual tasks across cognitive domains, and improved verbal recall during an executive function task. Only one measure, 2-back, showed a speed-accuracy trade-off in the dual task. These results demonstrate that, when paired with a motor task in which they are not impaired, people with PD exhibit similar DTEs on cognitive tasks as HOAs, even when these task effects are facilitative. More generally, these findings demonstrate that pairing cognitive tasks with cycling may actually improve cognitive performance which may have therapeutic relevance to cognitive decline associated with aging and PD pathology.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Non-invasive brain stimulation targeting the right fusiform gyrus
           selectively increases working memory for faces
    • Authors: Tad T. Brunyé; Joseph M. Moran; Amanda Holmes; Caroline R. Mahoney; Holly A. Taylor
      Pages: 32 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Tad T. Brunyé, Joseph M. Moran, Amanda Holmes, Caroline R. Mahoney, Holly A. Taylor
      The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann’s Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0.5mA versus 1.5mA intensity; a separate control group received no stimulation. Participants completed a working memory task for face and house stimuli, varying in memory load from 1 to 4 items. Individual differences measures assessed trait-based differences in facial recognition skills. Results showed 1.5mA intensity stimulation (versus 0.5mA and control) increased performance at high memory loads, but only with faces. Lower overall working memory capacity predicted a positive impact of tDCS. Results provide support for the notion of functional specialization of the right fusiform regions for maintaining face (but not non-face object) stimuli in working memory, and further suggest that low intensity electrical stimulation of this region may enhance demanding face working memory performance particularly in those with relatively poor baseline working memory skills.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • A right hemisphere advantage at early cortical stages of processing
           alphanumeric stimuli. Evidence from electrophysiology
    • Authors: Dariusz Asanowicz; Rolf Verleger; Lena Kruse; Kathrin Beier; Kamila Śmigasiewicz
      Pages: 40 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Dariusz Asanowicz, Rolf Verleger, Lena Kruse, Kathrin Beier, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
      This study investigates hemispheric asymmetry evoked by non-target alphanumeric stimuli in a bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Our indicators of asymmetry are shorter latencies and larger amplitudes of the right hemisphere (RH) P1 and N1 components of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). This VEP asymmetry might reflect either a RH advantage, possibly in early perceptual processing, or for familiar stimuli, or for directing attention, or might be a paradoxical reflection of left hemisphere specialization in letter processing. Experiment 1 showed that the VEP asymmetry decreased, though remained present, with unfamiliar stimuli (Tibetan letters), as compared to familiar stimuli (Latin letters and Arabic digits). Experiment 2 showed that while leftward and rightward attentional biases affected the relation between hemispheres contra- and ipsilateral to attended visual fields, the VEP asymmetry remained independent of attention. As the most parsimonious explanation, the primary cause of the VEP asymmetry seems to be a general predominance of the RH in early perceptual processing.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Sex differences in verbal working memory performance emerge at very high
           loads of common neuroimaging tasks
    • Authors: Jessica L. Reed; Natalie M. Gallagher; Marie Sullivan; Joseph H. Callicott; Adam E. Green
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Jessica L. Reed, Natalie M. Gallagher, Marie Sullivan, Joseph H. Callicott, Adam E. Green
      Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads. A key question not yet addressed at high loads concerns the effect of sex. Thoroughgoing investigation of high-load verbal WM is thus timely to test for potential hidden effects, and to provide behavioral context for effects of sex observed in WM-related brain structure and function. We tested 111 young adults, matched on genotype for the WM-associated COMT-Val108/158Met polymorphism, on three classic WM tasks using verbal information. Each task was tested at four WM loads, including higher loads than those used in previous studies of sex differences. All tasks loaded on a single factor, enabling comparison of verbal WM ability at a construct level. Results indicated sex effects at high loads across tasks and within each task, such that males had higher accuracy, even among groups that were matched for performance at lower loads.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Knowing me, knowing you: Resting-state functional connectivity of
           ventromedial prefrontal cortex dissociates memory related to self from a
           familiar other
    • Authors: Irene de Caso; Theodoros Karapanagiotidis; Elena Aggius-Vella; Mahiko Konishi; Daniel S. Margulies; Elizabeth Jefferies; Jonathan Smallwood
      Pages: 65 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Irene de Caso, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Elena Aggius-Vella, Mahiko Konishi, Daniel S. Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
      Material related to the self, as well as to significant others, often displays mnemonic superiority through its associations with highly organised and elaborate representations. Neuroimaging studies suggest this effect is related to activation in regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Incidental memory scores for trait adjectives, processed in relation to the self, a good friend and David Cameron were collected. Scores for each referent were used as regressors in seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data performed in ventral, middle and dorsal mPFC seeds, as well as hippocampal formation. Stronger memory for self-processed items was predicted by functional connnectivity between ventral mPFC, angular gyrus and middle temporal gyri. These regions are within the default mode network, linked to relatively automatic aspects of memory retrieval. In contrast, memory for items processed in relation to best friends, was better in individuals whose ventral mPFC showed relatively weak connectivity with paracingulate gyrus as well as positive connectivity with lateral prefrontal and parietal regions associated with controlled retrieval. These results suggest that mechanisms responsible for memory related to ourselves and personally-familiar people are partially dissociable and reflect connections between ventral mPFC, implicated in schema-based memory, and regions implicated in more automatic and controlled aspects of retrieval.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Social attention in children with epilepsy
    • Authors: Judith Lunn; Tim Donovan; Damien Litchfield; Charlie Lewis; Robert Davies; Trevor Crawford
      Pages: 76 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Judith Lunn, Tim Donovan, Damien Litchfield, Charlie Lewis, Robert Davies, Trevor Crawford
      Children with epilepsy may be vulnerable to impaired social attention given the increased risk of neurobehavioural comorbidities. Social attentional orienting and the potential modulatory role of attentional control on the perceptual processing of gaze and emotion cues have not been examined in childhood onset epilepsies. Social attention mechanisms were investigated in patients with epilepsy (n=25) aged 8–18years old and performance compared to healthy controls (n=30). Dynamic gaze and emotion facial stimuli were integrated into an antisaccade eye-tracking paradigm. The time to orient attention and execute a horizontal saccade toward (prosaccade) or away (antisaccade) from a peripheral target measured processing speed of social signals under conditions of low or high attentional control. Patients with epilepsy had impaired processing speed compared to healthy controls under conditions of high attentional control only when gaze and emotions were combined meaningfully to signal motivational intent of approach (happy or anger with a direct gaze) or avoidance (fear or sad with an averted gaze). Group differences were larger in older adolescent patients. Analyses of the discrete gaze emotion combinations found independent effects of epilepsy-related, cognitive and behavioural problems. A delayed disengagement from fearful gaze was also found under low attentional control that was linked to epilepsy developmental factors and was similarly observed in patients with higher reported anxiety problems. Overall, findings indicate increased perceptual processing of developmentally relevant social motivations during increased cognitive control, and the possibility of a persistent fear-related attentional bias. This was not limited to patients with chronic epilepsy, lower IQ or reported behavioural problems and has implications for social and emotional development in individuals with childhood onset epilepsies beyond remission.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • The association between aerobic fitness and congruency sequence effects in
           preadolescent children
    • Authors: Daniel R. Westfall; Shih-Chun Kao; Mark R. Scudder; Matthew B. Pontifex; Charles H. Hillman
      Pages: 85 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Daniel R. Westfall, Shih-Chun Kao, Mark R. Scudder, Matthew B. Pontifex, Charles H. Hillman
      Aerobic fitness has previously been related to cognitive control in preadolescents; however, these investigations have generally relied on global measures of performance. Thus, we have little understanding of how aerobic fitness may relate to trial-by-trial modulations in cognitive control. This study utilized congruency sequence effects (CSEs), which characterize how behavior on the current trial is influenced by the previous trial, to investigate the relation of aerobic fitness on varying levels of cognitive control. One hundred eighty-seven children completed tests of aerobic fitness and a flanker task. Regressions were performed to determine relationships between CSE sequences and aerobic fitness while controlling for other potential confounding factors (e.g., age, sex, IQ). Lower-fit children were less able to modulate cognitive control during sequences requiring relatively less cognitive control. Additionally, lower-fit children were less able to adjust for variable levels of cognitive control during relatively more difficult sequences. Lastly, lower-fit children had longer reaction times (RTs) for all sequences in the condition requiring greater amounts of cognitive control. These findings corroborate the importance of aerobic fitness for cognitive control in school-aged children, and extend the literature by demonstrating a relationship between fitness and trial-by-trial modulations in control demands.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Which perseverative behaviors are symptoms of spatial neglect'
    • Authors: Meghan D. Caulfield; Peii Chen; Michele M. Barry; A.M. Barrett
      Pages: 93 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Meghan D. Caulfield, Peii Chen, Michele M. Barry, A.M. Barrett
      Spatial neglect is a characterized by a failure to attend or make movements towards left-sided stimuli. Common paper-and-pencil tasks to diagnose spatial neglect are sensitive to perseverative errors, including additional marks over already cancelled targets and “scribbling” out a target. Here, we examine whether functionally distinct perseverative behaviors are related to spatial neglect. Line cancellation tasks of 45 healthy controls and 220 right-hemisphere stroke survivors were examined for recurrent marks (RM) and continuous marks (CM) perseverations. We found that RM perseveration correlated with neglect severity, while CM perseveration did not. Examination of lesion profiles for the two groups indicated distinct anatomical correlates, with RM lesions overlapping regions implicated in spatial neglect including the rolandic operculum, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Objects rapidly prime the motor system when located near the dominant hand
    • Authors: Paula J. Rowe; Corinna Haenschel; Maciej Kosilo; Kielan Yarrow
      Pages: 102 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Paula J. Rowe, Corinna Haenschel, Maciej Kosilo, Kielan Yarrow
      Objects are said to automatically “afford” various actions depending upon the motor repertoire of the actor. Such affordances play a part in how we prepare to handle or manipulate tools and other objects. Evidence obtained through fMRI, EEG and TMS has proven that this is the case but, as yet, the temporal evolution of affordances has not been fully investigated. The aim here was to further explore the timing of evoked motor activity using visual stimuli tailored to drive the motor system. Therefore, we presented three kinds of stimuli in stereoscopic depth; whole hand grasp objects which afforded a power-grip, pinch-grip objects which afforded a thumb and forefinger precision-grip and an empty desk, affording no action. In order to vary functional motor priming while keeping visual stimulation identical, participants adopted one of two postures, with either the dominant or non-dominant hand forward. EEG data from 29 neurologically healthy subjects were analysed for the N1 evoked potential, observed in visual discrimination tasks, and for the N2 ERP component, previously shown to correlate with affordances (Proverbio, Adorni, & D’Aniello, 2011). We observed a link between ERPs, previously considered to reflect motor priming, and the positioning of the dominant hand. A significant interaction was detected in the left-hemisphere N2 between the participants’ posture and the object category they viewed. These results indicate strong affordance-related activity around 300ms after stimulus presentation, particularly when the dominant hand can easily reach an object.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Defective imitation of finger configurations in patients with damage in
           the right or left hemispheres: An integration disorder of visual and
           somatosensory information?
    • Authors: Manabu Okita; Takashi Yukihiro; Kenzo Miyamoto; Shu Morioka; Hideto Kaba
      Pages: 109 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Manabu Okita, Takashi Yukihiro, Kenzo Miyamoto, Shu Morioka, Hideto Kaba
      To explore the mechanism underlying the imitation of finger gestures, we devised a simple imitation task in which the patients were instructed to replicate finger configurations in two conditions: one in which they could see their hand (visual feedback: VF) and one in which they could not see their hand (non-visual feedback: NVF). Patients with left brain damage (LBD) or right brain damage (RBD), respectively, were categorized into two groups based on their scores on the imitation task in the NVF condition: the impaired imitation groups (I-LBD and I-RBD) who failed two or more of the five patterns and the control groups (C-LBD and C-RBD) who made one or no errors. We also measured the movement-production times for imitation. The I-RBD group performed significantly worse than the C-RBD group even in the VF condition. In contrast, the I-LBD group was selectively impaired in the NVF condition. The I-LBD group performed the imitations at a significantly slower rate than the C-LBD group in both the VF and NVF conditions. These results suggest that impaired imitation in patients with LBD is partly due to an abnormal integration of visual and somatosensory information based on the task specificity of the NVF condition.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Brain processing of visual metaphors: An electrophysiological study
    • Authors: Maria J. Ortiz; M.D. Grima Murcia; E. Fernandez
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Maria J. Ortiz, M.D. Grima Murcia, E. Fernandez


      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Gaze-cueing requires intact face processing – Insights from acquired
           prosopagnosia
    • Authors: Nicolas Burra; Dirk Kerzel; Meike Ramon
      Pages: 125 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Nicolas Burra, Dirk Kerzel, Meike Ramon
      Gaze-cueing is the automatic spatial orienting of attention in the direction of perceived gaze. Participants respond faster to targets located at positions congruent with the direction of gaze, compared to incongruent ones (gaze cueing effect, GCE). However, it still remains unclear whether its occurrence depends on intact integration of information from the entire eye region or face, rather than simply the presence of the eyes per se. To address this question, we investigated the GCE in PS, an extensively studied case of pure acquired prosopagnosia. In our gaze-cueing paradigm, we manipulated the duration at which cues were presented (70ms vs. 400ms) and the availability of facial information (full-face vs. eyes-only). For 70ms cue duration, we found a context-dependent dissociation between PS and controls: PS showed a GCE for eyes-only stimuli, whereas controls showed a GCE only for full-face stimuli. For 400ms cue duration, PS showed gaze-cueing independently of stimulus context, whereas in healthy controls a GCE again emerged only for full-face stimuli. Our findings suggest that attentional deployment based on the gaze direction of briefly presented faces requires intact processing of facial information, which affords salience to the eye region.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T18:49:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • The differential effects of prolonged exercise upon executive function and
           cerebral oxygenation
    • Authors: Gavin D. Tempest; Karen Davranche; Jeanick Brisswalter; Stephane Perrey; Rémi Radel
      Pages: 133 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Gavin D. Tempest, Karen Davranche, Jeanick Brisswalter, Stephane Perrey, Rémi Radel
      The acute-exercise effects upon cognitive functions are varied and dependent upon exercise duration and intensity, and the type of cognitive tasks assessed. The hypofrontality hypothesis assumes that prolonged exercise, at physiologically challenging intensities, is detrimental to executive functions due to cerebral perturbations (indicated by reduced prefrontal activity). The present study aimed to test this hypothesis by measuring oxygenation in prefrontal and motor regions using near-infrared spectroscopy during two executive tasks (flanker task and 2-back task) performed while cycling for 60min at a very low intensity and an intensity above the ventilatory threshold. Findings revealed that, compared to very low intensity, physiologically challenging exercise (i) shortened reaction time in the flanker task, (ii) impaired performance in the 2-back task, and (iii) initially increased oxygenation in prefrontal, but not motor regions, which then became stable in both regions over time. Therefore, during prolonged exercise, not only is the intensity of exercise assessed important, but also the nature of the cognitive processes involved in the task. In contrast to the hypofrontality hypothesis, no inverse pattern of oxygenation between prefrontal and motor regions was observed, and prefrontal oxygenation was maintained over time. The present results go against the hypofrontality hypothesis.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:31:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • What psychological process is reflected in the FN400 event-related
           potential component?
    • Authors: P. Andrew Leynes; Heather Bruett; Jenna Krizan; Ana Veloso
      Pages: 142 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): P. Andrew Leynes, Heather Bruett, Jenna Krizan, Ana Veloso
      During many recognition contexts, old items elicit a more positive event-related potentials (ERPs) than new items at mid-frontal electrodes about 300–500ms. The psychological processes that are reflected in is ERP component (i.e., the FN400) has been vigorously debated. Some argue that the FN400 reflects familiarity, whereas others argue that it reflects conceptual implicit memory. Three experiments contrasted these two hypotheses by presenting pre-experimentally familiar (i.e., name-brand) products and novel, off-brand products. In addition, some of the off-brand products were conceptually primed by the name-brand product to determine how FN400 amplitude would be affected by conceptually primed, but novel, products. The results provided mixed support for both theoretical views, and it is integrated with a broader theoretical framework to characterize the psychological processes captured by the FN400.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T12:23:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study
    • Authors: Sachiyo Ozawa; Kazuo Hiraki
      Pages: 155 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Sachiyo Ozawa, Kazuo Hiraki
      When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T12:23:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Related but different: Examining pseudoneglect in audition, touch and
           vision
    • Authors: Alison F. Eardley; Stephen Darling; Paul Dumper; David Browne; Jose Van Velzen
      Pages: 164 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Alison F. Eardley, Stephen Darling, Paul Dumper, David Browne, Jose Van Velzen
      Although researchers have consistently demonstrated a leftward attentional bias in visual and representational (e.g. tactile/mental number line) line bisection tasks, the results from audition have been mixed. Differences in methodology between auditory and visual bisection tasks, especially with regards to the location of stimuli of peripersonal versus extrapersonal space, have also meant that researchers have not been able to compare performance in visual, tactile and auditory line bisection directly. In this research, 39 neurologically typical individuals participated in standard visual and tactile line bisection tasks, together with a newly developed auditory line bisection task. Results demonstrated significant leftward bisection biases across all three modalities. Hence, we demonstrate auditory pseudoneglect in peripersonal space for the first time. Tactile and auditory line bisections showed a relatively small but statistically reliable correlation, but neither task correlated with visual line bisection. This suggests that the processes underlying auditory line bisection are not synonymous to those involved in visual perceptual bisection, and further we argue that this bias may be related to representational pseudoneglect.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Walking to a multisensory beat
    • Authors: Charlotte Roy; Julien Lagarde; Dobromir Dotov; Simone Dalla Bella
      Pages: 172 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Charlotte Roy, Julien Lagarde, Dobromir Dotov, Simone Dalla Bella
      Living in a complex and multisensory environment demands constant interaction between perception and action. In everyday life it is common to combine efficiently simultaneous signals coming from different modalities. There is evidence of a multisensory benefit in a variety of laboratory tasks (temporal judgement, reaction time tasks). It is less clear if this effect extends to ecological tasks, such as walking. Furthermore, benefits of multimodal stimulation are linked to temporal properties such as the temporal window of integration and temporal recalibration. These properties have been examined in tasks involving single, non-repeating stimulus presentations. Here we investigate the same temporal properties in the context of a rhythmic task, namely audio-tactile stimulation during walking. The effect of audio-tactile rhythmic cues on gait variability and the ability to synchronize to the cues was studied in young adults. Participants walked with rhythmic cues presented at different stimulus-onset asynchronies. We observed a multisensory benefit by comparing audio-tactile to unimodal stimulation. Moreover, both the temporal window of integration and temporal recalibration mediated the response to multimodal stimulation. In sum, rhythmic behaviours obey the same principles as temporal discrimination and detection behaviours and thus can also benefit from multimodal stimulation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:31:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Explanatory pluralism: An unrewarding prediction error for free energy
           theorists
    • Authors: Matteo Colombo; Cory Wright
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Matteo Colombo, Cory Wright
      Courtesy of its free energy formulation, the hierarchical predictive processing theory of the brain (PTB) is often claimed to be a grand unifying theory. To test this claim, we examine a central case: activity of mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic (DA) systems. After reviewing the three most prominent hypotheses of DA activity—the anhedonia, incentive salience, and reward prediction error hypotheses—we conclude that the evidence currently vindicates explanatory pluralism. This vindication implies that the grand unifying claims of advocates of PTB are unwarranted. More generally, we suggest that the form of scientific progress in the cognitive sciences is unlikely to be a single overarching grand unifying theory.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • Predictive processing simplified: The infotropic machine
    • Authors: Chris Thornton
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Chris Thornton
      On a traditional view of cognition, we see the agent acquiring stimuli, interpreting these in some way, and producing behavior in response. An increasingly popular alternative is the predictive processing framework. This sees the agent as continually generating predictions about the world, and responding productively to any errors made. Partly because of its heritage in the Bayesian brain theory, predictive processing has generally been seen as an inherently Bayesian process. The ‘hierarchical prediction machine’ which mediates it is envisaged to be a specifically Bayesian device. But as this paper shows, a specification for this machine can also be derived directly from information theory, using the metric of predictive payoff as an organizing concept. Hierarchical prediction machines can be built along purely information-theoretic lines, without referencing Bayesian theory in any way; this simplifies the account to some degree. The present paper describes what is involved and presents a series of working models. An experiment involving the conversion of a Braitenberg vehicle to use a controller of this type is also described.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • Partial information decomposition as a unified approach to the
           specification of neural goal functions
    • Authors: Michael Wibral; Viola Priesemann Jim Kay Joseph Lizier William Phillips
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Michael Wibral, Viola Priesemann, Jim W. Kay, Joseph T. Lizier, William A. Phillips
      In many neural systems anatomical motifs are present repeatedly, but despite their structural similarity they can serve very different tasks. A prime example for such a motif is the canonical microcircuit of six-layered neo-cortex, which is repeated across cortical areas, and is involved in a number of different tasks (e.g. sensory, cognitive, or motor tasks). This observation has spawned interest in finding a common underlying principle, a ‘goal function’, of information processing implemented in this structure. By definition such a goal function, if universal, cannot be cast in processing-domain specific language (e.g. ‘edge filtering’, ‘working memory’). Thus, to formulate such a principle, we have to use a domain-independent framework. Information theory offers such a framework. However, while the classical framework of information theory focuses on the relation between one input and one output (Shannon’s mutual information), we argue that neural information processing crucially depends on the combination of multiple inputs to create the output of a processor. To account for this, we use a very recent extension of Shannon Information theory, called partial information decomposition (PID). PID allows to quantify the information that several inputs provide individually (unique information), redundantly (shared information) or only jointly (synergistic information) about the output. First, we review the framework of PID. Then we apply it to reevaluate and analyze several earlier proposals of information theoretic neural goal functions (predictive coding, infomax and coherent infomax, efficient coding). We find that PID allows to compare these goal functions in a common framework, and also provides a versatile approach to design new goal functions from first principles. Building on this, we design and analyze a novel goal function, called ‘coding with synergy’, which builds on combining external input and prior knowledge in a synergistic manner. We suggest that this novel goal function may be highly useful in neural information processing.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • Cognitive functions of intracellular mechanisms for contextual
           amplification
    • Authors: William Phillips
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): William A. Phillips
      Evidence for the hypothesis that input to the apical tufts of neocortical pyramidal cells plays a central role in cognition by amplifying their responses to feedforward input is reviewed. Apical tufts are electrically remote from the soma, and their inputs come from diverse sources including direct feedback from higher cortical regions, indirect feedback via the thalamus, and long-range lateral connections both within and between cortical regions. This suggests that input to tuft dendrites may amplify the cell’s response to basal inputs that they receive via layer 4 and which have synapses closer to the soma. ERP data supporting this inference is noted. Intracellular studies of apical amplification (AA) and of disamplification by inhibitory interneurons targeted only at tufts are reviewed. Cognitive processes that have been related to them by computational, electrophysiological, and psychopathological studies are then outlined. These processes include: figure-ground segregation and Gestalt grouping; contextual disambiguation in perception and sentence comprehension; priming; winner-take-all competition; attention and working memory; setting the level of consciousness; cognitive control; and learning. It is argued that theories in cognitive neuroscience should not assume that all neurons function as integrate-and-fire point processors, but should use the capabilities of cells with distinct sites of integration for driving and modulatory inputs. Potentially ‘unifying’ theories that depend upon these capabilities are reviewed. It is concluded that evolution of the primitives of AA and disamplification in neocortex may have extended cognitive capabilities beyond those built from the long-established primitives of excitation, inhibition, and disinhibition.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • The laminar integration of sensory inputs with feedback signals in human
           cortex
    • Authors: Lucy Petro; Lars Muckli
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Lucy S. Petro, Lars Muckli
      The cortex constitutes the largest area of the human brain. Yet we have only a basic understanding of how the cortex performs one vital function: the integration of sensory signals (carried by feedforward pathways) with internal representations (carried by feedback pathways). A multi-scale, multi-species approach is essential for understanding the site of integration, computational mechanism and functional role of this processing. To improve our knowledge we must rely on brain imaging with improved spatial and temporal resolution and paradigms which can measure internal processes in the human brain, and on the bridging of disciplines in order to characterize this processing at cellular and circuit levels. We highlight apical amplification as one potential mechanism for integrating feedforward and feedback inputs within pyramidal neurons in the rodent brain. We reflect on the challenges and progress in applying this model neuronal process to the study of human cognition. We conclude that cortical-layer specific measures in humans will be an essential contribution for better understanding the landscape of information in cortical feedback, helping to bridge the explanatory gap.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • Prediction error minimization: Implications for Embodied Cognition and the
           Extended Mind Hypothesis
    • Authors: Leon Bruin; John Michael
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Leon de Bruin, John Michael
      Over the past few years, the prediction error minimization (PEM) framework has increasingly been gaining ground throughout the cognitive sciences. A key issue dividing proponents of PEM is how we should conceptualize the relation between brain, body and environment. Clark advocates a version of PEM which retains, at least to a certain extent, his prior commitments to Embodied Cognition and to the Extended Mind Hypothesis. Hohwy, by contrast, presents a sustained argument that PEM actually rules out at least some versions of Embodied and Extended cognition. The aim of this paper is to facilitate a constructive debate between these two competing alternatives by explicating the different theoretical motivations underlying them, and by homing in on the relevant issues that may help to adjudicate between them.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • The role of interoceptive inference in theory of mind
    • Authors: Sasha Ondobaka; James Kilner Karl Friston
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Sasha Ondobaka, James Kilner, Karl Friston
      Inferring the intentions and beliefs of another is an ability that is fundamental for social and affiliative interactions. A substantial amount of empirical evidence suggests that making sense of another’s intentional and belief states (i.e. theory of mind) relies on exteroceptive (e.g. visual and auditory) and proprioceptive (i.e. motor) signals. Yet, despite its pivotal role in the guidance of behaviour, the role of the observer’s interoceptive (visceral) processing in understanding another’s internal states remains unexplored. Predicting and keeping track of interoceptive bodily states – which inform intentions and beliefs that guide behaviour – is one of the fundamental purposes of the human brain. In this paper, we will focus on the role of interoceptive predictions, prescribed by the free energy principle, in making sense of internal states that cause another’s behaviour. We will discuss how multimodal expectations induced at deep (high) hierarchical levels – that necessarily entail interoceptive predictions – contribute to inference about others that is at the heart of theory of mind.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • A social Bayesian brain: How social knowledge can shape visual perception
    • Authors: Marte Otten; Anil Seth Yair Pinto
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Marte Otten, Anil K. Seth, Yair Pinto
      A growing body of research suggests that social contextual factors such as desires and goals, affective states and stereotypes can shape early perceptual processes. We suggest that a generative Bayesian approach towards perception provides a powerful theoretical framework to accommodate how such high-level social factors can influence low-level perceptual processes in their earliest stages. We review experimental findings that show how social factors shape the perception and evaluation of people, behaviour, and socially relevant objects or information. Subsequently, we summarize the generative view of perception within the ‘Bayesian brain’, and show how such a framework can account for the pervasive effects of top-down social knowledge on social cognition. Finally, we sketch the theoretical and experimental implications of social predictive perception, indicating new directions for research on the effects and neurocognitive underpinnings of social cognition.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • Disentangling signal and noise in autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Sander Van; Cruys Ruth Van der Hallen Johan Wagemans
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Sander Van de Cruys, Ruth Van der Hallen, Johan Wagemans
      Predictive coding has recently been welcomed as a fruitful framework to understand autism spectrum disorder. Starting from an account centered on deficient differential weighting of prediction errors (based in so-called precision estimation), we illustrate that individuals with autism have particular difficulties with separating signal from noise, across different tasks. Specifically, we discuss how deficient precision-setting is detrimental for learning in unstable environments, for context-dependent assignment of salience to inputs, and for robustness in perception, as illustrated in coherent motion paradigms.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • To be precise, the details don’t matter: On predictive processing,
           precision, and level of detail of predictions
    • Authors: Johan Kwisthout; Harold Bekkering Iris van Rooij
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Johan Kwisthout, Harold Bekkering, Iris van Rooij
      Many theoretical and empirical contributions to the Predictive Processing account emphasize the important role of precision modulation of prediction errors. Recently it has been proposed that the causal models used in human predictive processing are best formally modeled by categorical probability distributions. Crucially, such distributions assume a well-defined, discrete state space. In this paper we explore the consequences of this formalization. In particular we argue that the level of detail of generative models and predictions modulates prediction error. We show that both increasing the level of detail of the generative models and decreasing the level of detail of the predictions can be suitable mechanisms for lowering prediction errors. Both increase precision, yet come at the price of lowering the amount of information that can be gained by correct predictions. Our theoretical result establishes a key open empirical question to address: How does the brain optimize the trade-off between high precision and information gain when making its predictions?

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • A review of predictive coding algorithms
    • Authors: M.W. Spratling
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): M.W. Spratling
      Predictive coding is a leading theory of how the brain performs probabilistic inference. However, there are a number of distinct algorithms which are described by the term “predictive coding”. This article provides a concise review of these different predictive coding algorithms, highlighting their similarities and differences. Five algorithms are covered: linear predictive coding which has a long and influential history in the signal processing literature; the first neuroscience-related application of predictive coding to explaining the function of the retina; and three versions of predictive coding that have been proposed to model cortical function. While all these algorithms aim to fit a generative model to sensory data, they differ in the type of generative model they employ, in the process used to optimise the fit between the model and sensory data, and in the way that they are related to neurobiology.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • Types of approximation for probabilistic cognition: Sampling and
           variational
    • Authors: Adam Sanborn
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 112
      Author(s): Adam N. Sanborn
      A basic challenge for probabilistic models of cognition is explaining how probabilistically correct solutions are approximated by the limited brain, and how to explain mismatches with human behavior. An emerging approach to solving this problem is to use the same approximation algorithms that were been developed in computer science and statistics for working with complex probabilistic models. Two types of approximation algorithms have been used for this purpose: sampling algorithms, such as importance sampling and Markov chain Monte Carlo, and variational algorithms, such as mean-field approximations and assumed density filtering. Here I briefly review this work, outlining how the algorithms work, how they can explain behavioral biases, and how they might be implemented in the brain. There are characteristic differences between how these two types of approximation are applied in brain and behavior, which points to how they could be combined in future research.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
       
  • Switching of auditory attention in “cocktail-party” listening: ERP
           evidence of cueing effects in younger and older adults
    • Authors: Stephan Getzmann; Julian Jasny; Michael Falkenstein
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Stephan Getzmann, Julian Jasny, Michael Falkenstein
      Verbal communication in a “cocktail-party situation” is a major challenge for the auditory system. In particular, changes in target speaker usually result in declined speech perception. Here, we investigated whether speech cues indicating a subsequent change in target speaker reduce the costs of switching in younger and older adults. We employed event-related potential (ERP) measures and a speech perception task, in which sequences of short words were simultaneously presented by four speakers. Changes in target speaker were either unpredictable or semantically cued by a word within the target stream. Cued changes resulted in a less decreased performance than uncued changes in both age groups. The ERP analysis revealed shorter latencies in the change-related N400 and late positive complex (LPC) after cued changes, suggesting an acceleration in context updating and attention switching. Thus, both younger and older listeners used semantic cues to prepare changes in speaker setting.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T16:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Mental imagery of positive and neutral memories: A fMRI study comparing
           field perspective imagery to observer perspective imagery
    • Authors: Maud Grol; Guy Vingerhoets; Rudi De Raedt
      Pages: 13 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Maud Grol, Guy Vingerhoets, Rudi De Raedt
      Imagery perspective can influence what information is recalled, processing style, and emotionality; however, the understanding of possible mechanisms mediating these observed differences is still limited. We aimed to examine differences between memory recall from a field perspective and observer perspective at the neurobiological level, in order to improve our understanding of what is underlying the observed differences at the behavioral level. We conducted a fMRI study in healthy individuals, comparing imagery perspectives during recall of neutral and positive autobiographical memories. Behavioral results revealed field perspective imagery of positive memories, as compared to observer perspective, to be associated with more positive feelings afterwards. At the neurobiological level, contrasting observer perspective to field perspective imagery was associated with greater activity, or less decrease relative to the control visual search task, in the right precuneus and in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Greater activity in the right TPJ during an observer perspective as compared to field perspective could reflect performing a greater shift of perspective and mental state during observer perspective imagery than field perspective imagery. Differential activity in the precuneus may reflect that during observer perspective imagery individuals are more likely to engage in (self-) evaluative processing and visuospatial processing. Our findings contribute to a growing understanding of how imagery perspective can influence the type of information that is recalled and the intensity of the emotional response. Observer perspective imagery may not automatically reduce emotional intensity but this could depend on how the imagined situation is evaluated in relation to the self-concept.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T16:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Concurrent use of somatotopic and external reference frames in a tactile
           mislocalization task
    • Authors: Luigi Tamè; Anja Wühle; Caroline D. Petri; Francesco Pavani; Christoph Braun
      Pages: 25 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Luigi Tamè, Anja Wühle, Caroline D. Petri, Francesco Pavani, Christoph Braun
      Localizing tactile stimuli on our body requires sensory information to be represented in multiple frames of reference along the sensory pathways. These reference frames include the representation of sensory information in skin coordinates, in which the spatial relationship of skin regions is maintained. The organization of the primary somatosensory cortex matches such somatotopic reference frame. In contrast, higher-order representations are based on external coordinates, in which body posture and gaze direction are taken into account in order to localise touch in other meaningful ways according to task demands. Dominance of one representation or the other, or the use of multiple representations with different weights, is thought to depend on contextual factors of cognitive and/or sensory origins. However, it is unclear under which situations a reference frame takes over another or when different reference frames are jointly used at the same time. The study of tactile mislocalizations at the fingers has shown a key role of the somatotopic frame of reference, both when touches are delivered unilaterally to a single hand, and when they are delivered bilaterally to both hands. Here, we took advantage of a well-established tactile mislocalization paradigm to investigate whether the reference frame used to integrate bilateral tactile stimuli can change as a function of the spatial relationship between the two hands. Specifically, supra-threshold interference stimuli were applied to the index or little fingers of the left hand 200ms prior to the application of a test stimulus on a finger of the right hand. Crucially, different hands postures were adopted (uncrossed or crossed). Results show that introducing a change in hand-posture triggered the concurrent use of somatotopic and external reference frames when processing bilateral touch at the fingers. This demonstrates that both somatotopic and external reference frames can be concurrently used to localise tactile stimuli on the fingers.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T16:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Thalamic deep brain stimulation decelerates automatic lexical activation
    • Authors: Felicitas Ehlen; Isabelle Vonberg; Hannes O. Tiedt; Andreas Horn; Ortwin Fromm; Andrea A. Kühn; Fabian Klostermann
      Pages: 34 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Felicitas Ehlen, Isabelle Vonberg, Hannes O. Tiedt, Andreas Horn, Ortwin Fromm, Andrea A. Kühn, Fabian Klostermann
      Background Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) is a therapeutic option for patients with essential tremor. Despite a generally low risk of side effects, declines in verbal fluency (VF) have previously been reported. Objectives We aimed to specify effects of VIM-DBS on major cognitive operations needed for VF task performance, represented by clusters and switches. Clusters are word production spurts, thought to arise from automatic activation of associated information pertaining to a given lexical field. Switches are slow word-to-word transitions, presumed to indicate controlled operations for stepping from one lexical field to another. Patients & methods Thirteen essential tremor patients with VIM-DBS performed verbal fluency tasks in their VIM-DBS ON and OFF conditions. Clusters and switches were formally defined by mathematical criteria. All results were compared to those of fifteen healthy control subjects, and significant OFF-ON-change scores were correlated to stimulation parameters. Results Patients produced fewer words than healthy controls. DBS ON compared to DBS OFF aggravated this deficit by prolonging the intervals between words within clusters, whereas switches remained unaffected. This stimulation effect correlated with more anterior electrode positions. Conclusion VIM-DBS seems to influence word output dynamics during verbal fluency tasks on the level of word clustering. This suggests a perturbation of automatic lexical co-activation by thalamic stimulation, particularly if delivered relatively anteriorly. The findings are discussed in the context of the hypothesized role of the thalamus in lexical processing.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T16:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Performance monitoring for brain-computer-interface actions
    • Authors: Aaron Schurger; Steven Gale; Olivia Gozel; Olaf Blanke
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Aaron Schurger, Steven Gale, Olivia Gozel, Olaf Blanke
      When presented with a difficult perceptual decision, human observers are able to make metacognitive judgements of subjective certainty. Such judgements can be made independently of and prior to any overt response to a sensory stimulus, presumably via internal monitoring. Retrospective judgements about one’s own task performance, on the other hand, require first that the subject perform a task and thus could potentially be made based on motor processes, proprioceptive, and other sensory feedback rather than internal monitoring. With this dichotomy in mind, we set out to study performance monitoring using a brain-computer interface (BCI), with which subjects could voluntarily perform an action – moving a cursor on a computer screen – without any movement of the body, and thus without somatosensory feedback. Real-time visual feedback was available to subjects during training, but not during the experiment where the true final position of the cursor was only revealed after the subject had estimated where s/he thought it had ended up after 6s of BCI-based cursor control. During the first half of the experiment subjects based their assessments primarily on the prior probability of the end position of the cursor on previous trials. However, during the second half of the experiment subjects’ judgements moved significantly closer to the true end position of the cursor, and away from the prior. This suggests that subjects can monitor task performance when the task is performed without overt movement of the body.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T16:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Adolescent neural response to reward is related to participant sex and
           task motivation
    • Authors: Gabriela Alarcón; Anita Cservenka; Bonnie J. Nagel
      Pages: 51 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Gabriela Alarcón, Anita Cservenka, Bonnie J. Nagel
      Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt. Further, we hypothesized that testosterone and estradiol levels would mediate this sex difference. Moreover, we predicted boys would make more risky choices on the task. While boys showed increased nucleus accumbens blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response relative to girls, sex hormones did not mediate this effect. As predicted, boys made a higher percentage of risky decisions during the task. Interestingly, boys also self-reported more motivation to perform well and earn money on the task, while girls self-reported higher state anxiety prior to the scan session. Motivation to earn money partially mediated the effect of sex on nucleus accumbens activity during reward. Previous research shows that increased motivation and salience of reinforcers is linked with more robust striatal BOLD response, therefore psychosocial factors, in addition to sex, may play an important role in reward sensitivity. Elucidating neurobiological mechanisms that support adolescent sex differences in risky decision making has important implications for understanding individual differences that lead to advantageous and adverse behaviors that affect health outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-09T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Relationships among attention networks and physiological responding to
           threat
    • Authors: Casey Sarapas; Anna Weinberg; Scott A. Langenecker; Stewart A. Shankman
      Pages: 63 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Casey Sarapas, Anna Weinberg, Scott A. Langenecker, Stewart A. Shankman
      Although researchers have long hypothesized a relationship between attention and anxiety, theoretical and empirical accounts of this relationship have conflicted. We attempted to resolve these conflicts by examining relationships of attentional abilities with responding to predictable and unpredictable threat – related but distinct motivational process implicated in a number of anxiety disorders. Eighty-one individuals completed a behavioral task assessing efficiency of three components of attention – alerting, orienting, and executive control (Attention Network Test - Revised). We also assessed startle responding during anticipation of both predictable, imminent threat (of mild electric shock) and unpredictable contextual threat. Faster alerting and slower disengaging from non-emotional attention cues were related to heightened responding to unpredictable threat, whereas poorer executive control of attention was related to heightened responding to predictable threat. This double dissociation helps to integrate models of attention and anxiety and may be informative for treatment development.

      PubDate: 2016-11-09T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Contribution of different regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion
           laterality to deficit of decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task
    • Authors: Riadh Ouerchefani; Naoufel Ouerchefani; Philippe Allain; Mohamed Riadh Ben Rejeb; Didier Le Gall
      Pages: 73 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Riadh Ouerchefani, Naoufel Ouerchefani, Philippe Allain, Mohamed Riadh Ben Rejeb, Didier Le Gall
      Few studies have examined the contribution of different sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex and lesion laterality to decision-making abilities. In addition, there are inconsistent findings about the role of ventromedial and dorsolateral lesions in decision-making deficit. In this study, decision-making processes are investigated following different damaged areas of the prefrontal cortex. We paid particular attention to the contribution of laterality, lesion location and lesion volume in decision-making deficit. Twenty-seven patients with discrete ventromedial lesions, dorsolateral lesions or extended-frontal lesions were compared with normal subjects on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Our results showed that all frontal subgroups were impaired on the IGT in comparison with normal subjects. We noted also that IGT performance did not vary systematically based on lesion laterality or location. More precisely, our lesion analysis revealed that decision-making processes depend on a large cerebral network, including both ventromedial and dorsolateral areas of the prefrontal cortex. Consistent with past findings, our results support the claim that IGT deficit is not solitarily associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-09T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice:
           Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending?
    • Authors: Frederick Travis; Niyazi Parim
      Pages: 86 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Frederick Travis, Niyazi Parim
      This study used subjective reports and eLORETA analysis to assess to what extent Transcendental Meditation (TM) might involve focused attention—voluntary control of mental content. Eighty-seven TM subjects with one month to five years TM experience participated in this study. Regression analysis of years TM practice and self-reported transcendental experiences (lack of time, space and body sense) during meditation practice was flat (r=.07). Those practicing Transcendental Meditation for 1month reported as much transcending as those with 5years of practice. The eLORETA comparison of eyes-closed rest/task and TM practice/task identified similar areas of activation: theta and alpha activation during rest and TM in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, part of the default mode network, and beta2 and beta3 activation during the task in anterior cingulate, ventral lateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, part of the central executive network. In addition, eLORETA comparison of rest and TM identified higher beta temporal activation during rest and higher theta orbitofrontal activation during TM. Thus, it does not seem accurate to include TM practice with meditations in the catgory of Focused Attention, which are characterized by gamma EEG and DMN deactivation. Mixing meditations with different procedures into a single study confounds exploration of meditation effects and confounds application of meditation practices to different subject populations.

      PubDate: 2016-11-09T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Pupillary response indexes the metrical hierarchy of unattended rhythmic
           violations
    • Authors: Atser Damsma; Hedderik van Rijn
      Pages: 95 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): Atser Damsma, Hedderik van Rijn
      The perception of music is a complex interaction between what we hear and our interpretation. This is reflected in beat perception, in which a listener infers a regular pulse from a musical rhythm. Although beat perception is a fundamental human ability, it is still unknown whether attention to the music is necessary to establish the perception of stronger and weaker beats, or meter. In addition, to what extent beat perception is dependent on musical expertise is still a matter of debate. Here, we address these questions by measuring the pupillary response to omissions at different metrical positions in drum rhythms, while participants attended to another task. We found that the omission of the salient first beat elicited a larger pupil dilation than the omission of the less-salient second beat. This result shows that participants not only detected the beat without explicit attention to the music, but also perceived a metrical hierarchy of stronger and weaker beats. This suggests that hierarchical beat perception is an automatic process that requires no or minimal attentional resources. In addition, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that hierarchical beat perception is affected by musical expertise, suggesting that elementary beat perception might be independent from musical expertise. Finally, our results show that pupil dilation reflects surprise without explicit attention, demonstrating that the pupil is an accessible index to signatures of unattentive processing.

      PubDate: 2016-11-09T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Posterior fossa syndrome with a large inflammatory ponto-mesencephalic
           lesion
    • Authors: S. Breit; B. Keserü; T. Nyffeler; M. Sturzenegger; H. Krestel
      Pages: 107 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 111
      Author(s): S. Breit, B. Keserü, T. Nyffeler, M. Sturzenegger, H. Krestel
      Demonstration of a posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) in a 32-year-old male patient with clinically isolated syndrome which subsequently developed into relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis. The patient suffered from double vision, coordination problems including unsteady gait and atactic dysarthria, concentration difficulties, as well as adynamia and impaired decision making. The patient clinically presented a cerebellar and dysexecutive syndrome. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a contrast enhancing ponto-mesencephalic lesion with a volume of 4.8cm3. Neuropsychological tests showed pronounced executive dysfunctions, reduced visuoconstructive skills, attentional deficits, echolalia, and non-fluent speech production. After cortisone and plasmapheresis, the cerebellar syndrome improved but manual fine motor skills and executive dysfunctions persisted. After three months, symptoms remitted except for a slight gait imbalance. After six months, neuropsychological tests were normal except for a moderate attention deficit. MRI revealed a clear regression of the ponto-mesencephalic lesion to a volume of 2.4cm3 without contrast enhancement. This case report intends to provide an overview of the symptomatology and etiology of PFS and offers new insights into its pathomechanism demonstrating a pontine disconnection syndrome caused by a large demyelinating plaque.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T17:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2016)
       
  • Editorial to the special issue on perspectives on human probabilistic
           inference and the ‘Bayesian brain'
    • Authors: Johan Kwisthout; William A. Phillips; Anil K. Seth; Iris van Rooij; Andy Clark
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Johan Kwisthout, William A. Phillips, Anil K. Seth, Iris van Rooij, Andy Clark


      PubDate: 2016-12-30T00:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.12.002
       
 
 
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