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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1408 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (250 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
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    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (729 journals)
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    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (162 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (729 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Análisis     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Quality of Life     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BOSAPARIS : Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga     Open Access  
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cooperativismo y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales y Sociales     Open Access  
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
E-Dimas : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
e-Gnosis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
El Ágora USB     Open Access  
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EspacesTemps.net     Open Access  
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
eTropic : electronic journal of studies in the tropics     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Brain and Cognition
  [SJR: 1.511]   [H-I: 95]   [36 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0278-2626 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2147
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • The impact of inverted text on visual word processing: An fMRI study
    • Authors: Bethany L. Sussman; Samir Reddigari; Sharlene D. Newman
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Bethany L. Sussman, Samir Reddigari, Sharlene D. Newman
      Visual word recognition has been studied for decades. One question that has received limited attention is how different text presentation orientations disrupt word recognition. By examining how word recognition processes may be disrupted by different text orientations it is hoped that new insights can be gained concerning the process. Here, we examined the impact of rotating and inverting text on the neural network responsible for visual word recognition focusing primarily on a region of the occipto-temporal cortex referred to as the visual word form area (VWFA). A lexical decision task was employed in which words and pseudowords were presented in one of three orientations (upright, rotated or inverted). The results demonstrate that inversion caused the greatest disruption of visual word recognition processes. Both rotated and inverted text elicited increased activation in spatial attention regions within the right parietal cortex. However, inverted text recruited phonological and articulatory processing regions within the left inferior frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. Finally, the VWFA was found to not behave similarly to the fusiform face area in that unusual text orientations resulted in increased activation and not decreased activation. It is hypothesized here that the VWFA activation is modulated by feedback from linguistic processes.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T22:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Non-invasive brain stimulation to investigate language production in
           healthy speakers: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Jana Klaus; Dennis J.L.G. Schutter
      Pages: 10 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Jana Klaus, Dennis J.L.G. Schutter
      Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has become a common method to study the interrelations between the brain and language functioning. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the study of language production in healthy volunteers. Forty-five effect sizes from 30 studies which investigated the effects of NIBS on picture naming or verbal fluency in healthy participants were meta-analysed. Further sub-analyses investigated potential influences of stimulation type, control, target site, task, online vs. offline application, and current density of the target electrode. Random effects modelling showed a small, but reliable effect of NIBS on language production. Subsequent analyses indicated larger weighted mean effect sizes for TMS as compared to tDCS studies. No statistical differences for the other sub-analyses were observed. We conclude that NIBS is a useful method for neuroscientific studies on language production in healthy volunteers.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T22:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Hippocampal dependent neuropsychological tests and their relationship to
           measures of cardiac and self-report interoception
    • Authors: Richard J. Stevenson; Heather M. Francis; Megan J. Oaten; Rebecca Schilt
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Richard J. Stevenson, Heather M. Francis, Megan J. Oaten, Rebecca Schilt
      The hippocampus is involved in interoceptive processing (i.e., perceiving internal bodily states), with much of this evidence relating to hunger and fullness. Here we examine whether cardiac and self-report measures of interoception are related to two measures of hippocampal dependent learning and memory (HDLM) – the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Logical Memory. Healthy adults completed a neuropsychological test battery including all of these measures, along with assessments of intelligence and executive function. Biographical, medical and psychological-related data that might confound detecting an HDLM-interoception relationship was also collected. Both measures of HDLM were associated with cardiac interoception after controlling for confounding variables. More accurate cardiac interoception was linked to better HDLM performance. On the self-report measure of interoception, better performance on the RAVLT was associated with better-reported attention regulation, consistent with the hippocampus’s known role in mindfulness. Overall, these findings suggest hippocampal involvement in cardiac and self-report interoceptive capacity. The broader functional role of the hippocampus in interoception is discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T22:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • fMRI during Transcendental Meditation practice
    • Authors: Michelle C. Mahone; Fred Travis; Richard Gevirtz; David Hubbard
      Pages: 30 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Michelle C. Mahone, Fred Travis, Richard Gevirtz, David Hubbard
      This study used a within group design to investigate blood flow patterns (fMRI) in 16 long-term practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (mean practice: 34.3 years with each having over 36,000 h of meditation practice). During Transcendental Meditation practice, blood flow patterns were significantly higher in executive and attention areas (anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices) and significantly lower in arousal areas (pons and cerebellum). This pattern supports the understanding that Transcendental Meditation practice requires minimal effort. During Transcendental Meditation, the attentional system was active (heightened blood flow in anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices) in an automatic manner—decreased blood flow in the pons and cerebellum. This pattern of heightened blood flow in attentional areas and decreased blood flow in arousal areas has not been reported during other meditation practices. Future research should investigate blood flow patterns in different meditation practices in the same study.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T22:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • The mental simulation of state/psychological verbs in the adolescent
           brain: An fMRI study
    • Authors: Barbara Tomasino; Maria Nobile; Marta Re; Monica Bellina; Marco Garzitto; Filippo Arrigoni; Massimo Molteni; Franco Fabbro; Paolo Brambilla
      Pages: 34 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Barbara Tomasino, Maria Nobile, Marta Re, Monica Bellina, Marco Garzitto, Filippo Arrigoni, Massimo Molteni, Franco Fabbro, Paolo Brambilla
      This fMRI study investigated mental simulation of state/psychological and action verbs during adolescence. Sixteen healthy subjects silently read verbs describing a motor scene or not (STIMULUS: motor, state/psychological verbs) and they were explicitly asked to imagine the situation or they performed letter detection preventing them from using simulation (TASK: imagery vs. letter detection). A significant task by stimuli interaction showed that imagery of state/psychological verbs, as compared to action stimuli (controlled by the letter detection) selectively increased activation in the right supramarginal gyrus/rolandic operculum and in the right insula, and decreased activation in the right intraparietal sulcus. We compared these data to those from a group of older participants (Tomasino et al. 2014a). Activation in the left supramarginal gyrus decreased for the latter group (as compared to the present group) for imagery of state/psychological verbs. By contrast, activation in the right superior frontal gyrus decreased for the former group (as compared to the older group) for imagery of state/psychological verbs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T22:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • The relationship between semantic access and introspective awareness
    • Authors: Xu Xu; Chunyan Kang; David Pascucci; Taomei Guo
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Xu Xu, Chunyan Kang, David Pascucci, Taomei Guo
      There have long been speculations about the relationship between consciousness and language. This study aimed to determine whether an individual’s level of introspective awareness, based on self-report, relates to accessibility of their semantic system as evaluated by the N400. Thirty-five university students completed the study. All were right-handed, with normal or corrected-to-normal vision, without known neurological or psychological health issues. They first performed on a lexical decision task while their brain electrophysiological responses were recorded. Then, they provided assessment ratings about their levels of introspective awareness. Analysis revealed moderate to strong correlations (Pearson’s rs = 0.49–0.62) between awareness self-ratings and ease of semantic access as indexed by the N400. Correlation between the self-report measure and the objective neurophysiological measure suggests that subjective assessment of awareness may deserve more credibility, which in addition to reflecting subjective perception and evaluation about one’s own higher order mental functioning, may also interact with the neurophysiological processes contributive and subject to such awareness. Implications for future research on the role of semantic network in the mechanism of introspective awareness are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T22:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Topographical differences of frontal-midline theta activity reflect
           functional differences in cognitive control abilities
    • Authors: Kathrin C.J. Eschmann; Regine Bader; Axel Mecklinger
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Kathrin C.J. Eschmann, Regine Bader, Axel Mecklinger
      Electrophysiological oscillations are assumed to be the core mechanism for large-scale network communication. The specific role of frontal-midline theta oscillations as cognitive control mechanism is under debate. According to the dual mechanisms of control framework, cognitive control processes can be divided into proactive and reactive control. The present study aimed at investigating the role of frontal-midline theta activity by assessing oscillations in two tasks varying in the type of cognitive control needed. More specifically, a delayed match to sample (DMTS) task requiring proactive control and a color Stroop task recruiting reactive control processes were conducted within the same group of participants. Moreover, both tasks contained conditions with low and high need for cognitive control. As expected larger frontal-midline theta activity was found in conditions with high need for cognitive control. However, theta activity was focally activated at frontal sites in the DMTS task whereas it had a broader topographical distribution in the Stroop task, indicating that both proactive and reactive control are reflected in frontal-midline theta activity but reactive control is additionally characterized by a broader theta activation. These findings support the conclusion that frontal-midline theta acts functionally different depending on task requirements.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T22:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Functional brain connectivity when cooperation fails
    • Authors: Michela Balconi; Maria Elide Vanutelli; Laura Gatti
      Pages: 65 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Michela Balconi, Maria Elide Vanutelli, Laura Gatti
      Functional connectivity during cooperative actions is an important topic in social neuroscience that has yet to be answered. Here, we examined the effects of administration of (fictitious) negative social feedback in relation to cooperative capabilities. Cognitive performance and neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions was recorded with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) on prefrontal regions during a task where pairs of participants received negative feedback after their joint action. Performance (error rates (ERs) and response times (RTs)) and intra- and inter-brain connectivity indices were computed, along with the ConIndex (inter-brain/intra-brain connectivity). Finally, correlational measures were considered to assess the relation between these different measures. Results showed that the negative feedback was able to modulate participants’ responses for both behavioral and neural components. Cognitive performance was decreased after the feedback. Moreover, decreased inter-brain connectivity and increased intra-brain connectivity was induced by the feedback, whereas the cooperative task pre-feedback condition was able to increase the brain-to-brain coupling, mainly localized within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Finally, the presence of significant correlations between RTs and inter-brain connectivity revealed that ineffective joint action produces the worst cognitive performance and a more ‘individual strategy’ for brain activity, limiting the inter-brain connectivity. The present study provides a significant contribution to the identification of patterns of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity when negative social reinforcement is provided in relation to cooperative actions.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T22:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Brain tissue pulsatility mediates cognitive and electrophysiological
           changes in normal aging: Evidence from ultrasound tissue pulsatility
           imaging (TPI)
    • Authors: Lucie Angel; Badiâa Bouazzaoui; Michel Isingrini; Séverine Fay; Laurence Taconnat; Sandrine Vanneste; Moïse Ledoux; Valérie Gissot; Caroline Hommet; Fréderic Andersson; Laurent Barantin; Jean-Philippe Cottier; Jérémy Pasco; Thomas Desmidt; Frédéric Patat; Vincent Camus; Jean-Pierre Remenieras
      Pages: 74 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Lucie Angel, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini, Séverine Fay, Laurence Taconnat, Sandrine Vanneste, Moïse Ledoux, Valérie Gissot, Caroline Hommet, Fréderic Andersson, Laurent Barantin, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Jérémy Pasco, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Jean-Pierre Remenieras
      Aging is characterized by a cognitive decline of fluid abilities and is also associated with electrophysiological changes. The vascular hypothesis proposes that brain is sensitive to vascular dysfunction which may accelerate age-related brain modifications and thus explain age-related neurocognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, cognitive performance was measured in 39 healthy participants from 20 to 80 years, using tests assessing inhibition, fluid intelligence, attention and crystallized abilities. Brain functioning associated with attentional abilities was assessed by measuring the P3b ERP component elicited through an auditory oddball paradigm. To assess vascular health, we used an innovative measure of the pulsatility of deep brain tissue, due to variations in cerebral blood flow over the cardiac cycle. Results showed (1) a classical effect of age on fluid neurocognitive measures (inhibition, fluid intelligence, magnitude and latency of the P3b) but not on crystallized measures, (2) that brain pulsatility decreases with advancing age, (3) that brain pulsatility is positively correlated with fluid neurocognitive measures and (4) that brain pulsatility strongly mediated the age-related variance in cognitive performance and the magnitude of the P3b component. The mediating role of the brain pulsatility in age-related effect on neurocognitive measures supports the vascular hypothesis of cognitive aging.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Modulation of the dichotic right ear advantage during bilateral but not
           unilateral transcranial random noise stimulation
    • Authors: Giulia Prete; Anita D'Anselmo; Luca Tommasi; Alfredo Brancucci
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
      Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task. The results confirmed the REA both during the sham and the tRNS session in both Experiments. Importantly, a significant enhancement of the REA was found during bilateral hf-tRNS with respect to sham (Experiment 1). No modulation was found when hf-tRNS was applied over the left or right AC with the reference electrode placed on the contralateral shoulder, with respect to sham (Experiment 2). This finding is discussed in the light of previous stimulation studies facing the modulation of hemispheric asymmetries. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of bilateral hf-tRNS in modulating basic speech processing mechanisms could be exploited in the treatment of language impairments.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Corrigendum to “Binocular rivalry after right-hemisphere stroke: Effects
           of attention impairment on perceptual dominance patterns” [Brain Cogn.
           117 (2017) 84–96]
    • Authors: Kjersti Mæhlum Walle; Hillary Lynn Kyler; Jan Egil Nordvik; Frank Becker; Bruno Laeng
      Pages: 89 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Kjersti Mæhlum Walle, Hillary Lynn Kyler, Jan Egil Nordvik, Frank Becker, Bruno Laeng


      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • The time is “right:” Electrophysiology reveals right parietal
           electrode dominance in time perception
    • Authors: Erik M. Benau; Laura C. DeLoretta; Stephen T. Moelter
      Pages: 92 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Erik M. Benau, Laura C. DeLoretta, Stephen T. Moelter
      In the present study, healthy undergraduates were asked to identify if a visual stimulus appeared on screen for the same duration as a memorized target (2 s) while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. Trials consisted of very short (1.25 s), short (1.6 s), target (2 s), long (2.5 s) or very long (3.125 s) durations, and a yes or no response was required on each trial. We examined behavioral response as signal detection (d′) and response bias via a Generalized Accuracy Coefficient (GAC). We examined the mean amplitude as well as the change in amplitude of the initial Contingent Negative Variation (iCNV) and overall CNV (oCNV) and P350 (a P300-like component that follows stimulus extinction) potentials in paired, lateralized posterior electrodes. Results showed a bias to identifying shorter trials as the target more than longer trials via negative GAC scores. The slope and amplitudes of the iCNV and oCNV were consistently greater in right parietal electrodes. Also in right parietal electrodes, the iCNV correlated to d′ scores while greater P350 amplitudes in the short condition correlated with more negative GAC scores. The results indicate dominance in the right hemisphere in temporal processing for durations exceeding 1 s. The P350 should also be studied further.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Body weight and its association with impulsivity in middle and old age
           individuals
    • Authors: Marilena Aiello; Elisabetta Ambron; Roberta Situlin; Francesco Foroni; Gianni Biolo; Raffaella I. Rumiati
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Marilena Aiello, Elisabetta Ambron, Roberta Situlin, Francesco Foroni, Gianni Biolo, Raffaella I. Rumiati
      Impulsivity, conceptualized as impulsive personality trait, poor inhibitory control and enhanced reward sensitivity, has been strongly linked to obesity. In particular, a disequilibrium between cognitive control and reward sensitivity has been observed in obese individuals in both behavioural and imaging studies. While this issue has been widely investigated in children and adults, it has received little attention in older adults. Here, obese and non-obese participants aged between 40 and 70 years completed the Barratt Impulsiveness scale (assessing motor, non-planning and attentional impulsiveness), a Go/no-go task with foods and non-foods (assessing inhibitory control) and a reward sensitivity battery with high and low caloric foods (assessing liking, wanting, tastiness and frequency of consumption). We observed that participants with higher BMI reported increased wanting for high calorie foods, but did not show poorer inhibitory control. Interestingly, participants who scored lower on the MMSE reported to consume high calorie more than low calorie foods. Finally, those who presented low scores on non-planning and motor impulsiveness subscales reported higher tastiness ratings for low calorie foods. These results show that increased reward sensitivity but not reduced inhibitory control may characterize higher BMI during aging. Importantly, they also highlight new findings concerning food preferences among older adults.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Early enhanced processing and delayed habituation to deviance sounds in
           autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Caitlin M. Hudac; Trent D. DesChamps; Anne B. Arnett; Brianna E. Cairney; Ruqian Ma; Sara Jane Webb; Raphael A. Bernier
      Pages: 110 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Caitlin M. Hudac, Trent D. DesChamps, Anne B. Arnett, Brianna E. Cairney, Ruqian Ma, Sara Jane Webb, Raphael A. Bernier
      Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties processing and encoding sensory information in daily life. Cognitive response to environmental change in control individuals is naturally dynamic, meaning it habituates or reduces over time as one becomes accustomed to the deviance. The origin of atypical response to deviance in ASD may relate to differences in this dynamic habituation. The current study of 133 children and young adults with and without ASD examined classic electrophysiological responses (MMN and P3a), as well as temporal patterns of habituation (i.e., N1 and P3a change over time) in response to a passive auditory oddball task. Individuals with ASD showed an overall heightened sensitivity to change as exhibited by greater P3a amplitude to novel sounds. Moreover, youth with ASD showed dynamic ERP differences, including slower attenuation of the N1 response to infrequent tones and the P3a response to novel sounds. Dynamic ERP responses were related to parent ratings of auditory sensory-seeking behaviors, but not general cognition. As the first large-scale study to characterize temporal dynamics of auditory ERPs in ASD, our results provide compelling evidence that heightened response to auditory deviance in ASD is largely driven by early sensitivity and prolonged processing of auditory deviance.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Hypnotizability influences the cortical representation of visually and
           kinaesthetically imagined head position
    • Authors: Lisa Campioni; Tommaso Banfi; Enrica L. Santarcangelo
      Pages: 120 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Lisa Campioni, Tommaso Banfi, Enrica L. Santarcangelo
      The study investigates the cortical representation of the visual and kinesthetic image of a rotated position of the head in highly (highs) and low hypnotizable individuals (lows) of both gender. Participants were invited to imagine maintaining their head rotated toward one side by seeing their chin aligned with their right shoulder (V, visual imagery), and in a different condition, by feeling tension in their neck muscles (K, kinaesthetic imagery). Vividness of imagery and cognitive effort were reported after each task. Alpha and beta band absolute power was studied. Highs reported higher vividness than lows only for the kinaesthetic modality of imagery. The cortical desyncronization observed during visual and kinaesthetic imagery were different in high females (HM), low females (LF), high males (HM) and low males (LM). In fact, only HF and LM exhibited significant power changes during the kinaesthetic task, whereas visual imagery was associated with cortical desynchronization in all subgroups except HM. The study supports earlier findings of an advantage of highs in kinesthetic imagery, shows an intriguing interaction of hypnotizability and gender, and indicates topographical difference in the four subgroups of participants suggesting differences in underlying generators.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • A practical comparison of algorithms for the measurement of multiscale
           entropy in neural time series data
    • Authors: Karl Kuntzelman; L. Jack Rhodes; Lillian N. Harrington; Vladimir Miskovic
      Pages: 126 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 123
      Author(s): Karl Kuntzelman, L. Jack Rhodes, Lillian N. Harrington, Vladimir Miskovic
      There is a broad family of statistical methods for capturing time series regularity, with increasingly widespread adoption by the neuroscientific community. A common feature of these methods is that they permit investigators to quantify the entropy of brain signals – an index of unpredictability/complexity. Despite the proliferation of algorithms for computing entropy from neural time series data there is scant evidence concerning their relative stability and efficiency. Here we evaluated several different algorithmic implementations (sample, fuzzy, dispersion and permutation) of multiscale entropy in terms of their stability across sessions, internal consistency and computational speed, accuracy and precision using a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) and synthetic 1/ƒ noise signals. Overall, we report fair to excellent internal consistency and longitudinal stability over a one-week period for the majority of entropy estimates, with several caveats. Computational timing estimates suggest distinct advantages for dispersion and permutation entropy over other entropy estimates. Considered alongside the psychometric evidence, we suggest several ways in which researchers can maximize computational resources (without sacrificing reliability), especially when working with high-density M/EEG data or multivoxel BOLD time series signals.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
       
  • Aerobic exercise is more effective than goal-based exercise for the
           treatment of cognition in Parkinson’s disease
    • Authors: Carolina R.A. Silveira; Eric A. Roy; Brittany N. Intzandt; Quincy J. Almeida
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 122
      Author(s): Carolina R.A. Silveira, Eric A. Roy, Brittany N. Intzandt, Quincy J. Almeida
      Background Little is known about how different exercise modalities influence cognition in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Moreover, the focus of previous investigations on examining the effects of exercise mainly on executive functions and the exclusion of individuals with cognitive impairment may limit the potential to define exercise as a treatment for cognitive decline in PD. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and goal-based exercise on five cognitive domains in cognitively normal and impaired individuals with PD. Methods Seventy-six individuals with PD were randomly allocated into three groups: Aerobic, Goal-based, and Control. Participants in the exercise groups attended 1-h sessions 3x/week for 12 weeks, while those in the Control group carried on with their regular activities. Changes in cognitive domains were assessed using paper-based neuropsychological tests. Results Inhibitory control improved only in the Aerobic group (p = .04), irrespective of participants cognitive status at baseline. Moreover, participants with cognitive impairment in Aerobic group maintained their set-shifting ability, whereas those in the Control group were worse at post-test (p = .014). Conclusion This is the first study to show that aerobic exercise is more effective than goal-based exercise for the treatment of cognition in PD with and without cognitive impairment.

      PubDate: 2018-01-17T10:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Association of the N100 TMS-evoked potential with attentional processes: A
           motor cortex TMS–EEG study
    • Authors: Outi Kaarre; Marja Äikiä; Elisa Kallioniemi; Mervi Könönen; Virve Kekkonen; Noora Heikkinen; Petri Kivimäki; Tommi Tolmunen; Sara Määttä; Eila Laukkanen
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 122
      Author(s): Outi Kaarre, Marja Äikiä, Elisa Kallioniemi, Mervi Könönen, Virve Kekkonen, Noora Heikkinen, Petri Kivimäki, Tommi Tolmunen, Sara Määttä, Eila Laukkanen
      The most thoroughly studied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked electroencephalogram (EEG) potential (TEP), N100, is often defined as a measure of cortical inhibition. We explored the association of the N100 amplitude with attention in 51 young healthy adults. Navigated TMS with simultaneous EEG registering was applied over the left primary motor cortex at the intensity of 110% of the resting motor threshold. Attention was assessed with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). We found a negative Pearson correlation (p = .023, r = −0.317) between the left centroparietal N100 amplitude and the PASAT score. Of the participants, the 17 with the highest PASAT scores and 17 with the lowes scores were selected for further analysis, in which a significant between-group difference in the left centroparietal N100 was found (p = .017). The topographic specificity of this finding was further confirmed with linear mixed model (LMM) analysis, in which significant differences were detected in the N100 amplitude; most prominently in the left centroparietal region (p = .001). A smaller N100 amplitude was associated with better performance in the attention task. Our findings suggest that the GABA-B-ergic TEP N100 is associated with attentional processes and thus represents cortical inhibition beyond motor inhibition.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:43:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • The impact of perceptual changes to studied items on ERP correlates of
           familiarity and recollection is subject to hemispheric asymmetries
    • Authors: Kristina Küper; Hubert D. Zimmer
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 122
      Author(s): Kristina Küper, Hubert D. Zimmer
      It is still unclear which role the right hemisphere (RH) preference for perceptually specific and the left hemisphere (LH) bias towards abstract memory representations play at the level of episodic memory retrieval. When stimulus characteristics hampered the retrieval of abstract memory representations, these hemispheric asymmetries have previously only modulated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recollection (late positive complex, LPC), but not of familiarity (FN400). In the present experiment, we used stimuli which facilitated the retrieval of abstract memory representations. With the divided visual field technique, new items, identical repetitions and color-modified versions of incidentally studied object pictures were presented in either the right (RVF) or the left visual field (LVF). Participants performed a memory inclusion task, in which they had to categorize both identically repeated and color-modified study items as ‘old’. Only ERP, but not behavioral data showed hemispheric asymmetries: Compared to identical repetitions, FN400 and LPC old/new effects for color-modified items were equivalent with RVF/LH presentation, but reduced with LVF/RH presentation. By promoting the use of abstract stimulus information for memory retrieval, we were thus able to show that hemispheric asymmetries in accessing abstract or specific memory representations can modulate ERP correlates of familiarity as well as recollection processes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T17:51:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Reduced inter-hemispheric interference in ageing: Evidence from a divided
           field Stroop paradigm
    • Authors: Jean-François Delvenne; Julie Castronovo
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 122
      Author(s): Jean-François Delvenne, Julie Castronovo
      One of the most important structural changes that occur in the brain during the course of life relates to the corpus callosum, the largest neural pathway that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. It has been shown that the corpus callosum, and in particular its anterior sections, endures a process of degeneration in ageing. Hence, a primary question is whether such structural changes in the brain of older adults have functional consequences on inter-hemispheric communication. In particular, whether the atrophy of the corpus callosum in ageing may lead to a higher or lower level of inter-hemispheric interference is currently unknown. To investigate this question, we asked young and healthy older adults to perform modified versions of the classic Stroop paradigm in which the target and distracter were spatially separated. Across two experiments, we found that the Stroop effect was significantly reduced in older adults when the two stimuli were distributed in two different hemifields as opposed to the same single hemifield. This new finding suggests that age-related callosal thinning reduces inter-hemispheric interference by facilitating the two hemispheres to process information in parallel.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T04:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • More far is more right: Manual and ocular line bisections, but not the
           Judd illusion, depend on radial space
    • Authors: Luca Rinaldi; Giovanni Bertolini; Christopher J. Bockisch; Angelo Maravita; Luisa Girelli; Peter Brugger
      Pages: 34 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 122
      Author(s): Luca Rinaldi, Giovanni Bertolini, Christopher J. Bockisch, Angelo Maravita, Luisa Girelli, Peter Brugger
      Line bisection studies generally find a left-to-right shift in bisection bias with increasing distance between the observer and the target line, which may be explained by hemispheric differences in the processing of proximo-distal information. In the present study, the segregation between near and far space was further characterized across the motor system and contextual cues. To this aim, 20 right-handed participants were required to perform a manual bisection task of simple lines presented at three different distances (60, 90, 120 cm). Importantly, the horizontal spatial location of the line was manipulated along with the viewing distance to investigate more deeply the hemispheric engagement in the transition from near to far space. As the motoric component of the manual task producing activations of left premotor and motor areas may be partially responsible for the observed transition, participants were also involved in an ocular bisection task. Further, participants were required to bisect Judd variants of the target lines, which are known to elicit a Müller-Lyer-type illusion. Since the Judd illusion depends on areas in the ventral visual stream, we predicted that line bisections of Judd-type lines would be unaffected by viewing distance. Results showed that manual bisection of simple lines was modulated separately by viewing distance and the hemispace of presentation, with this pattern being similar for ocular bisection. Critically, bisections in the Judd illusion task were not modulated by viewing distance, whether performed by hand or by eye. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that the right hemisphere plays a dominant role in the processing of space close to the body. They also present novel evidence for a general reduction of this dominance at farther distances, whether hand motor actions are involved or not. Finally, our study documents a dissociation between the processing of pure visuospatial information and that of a visual illusion as a function of viewing distance, supporting more generally the dorsal/near space and the ventral/far space segregation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T04:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Prefrontal cortex activation during obstacle negotiation: What’s the
           effect size and timing'
    • Authors: Inbal Maidan; Shiran Shustak; Topaz Sharon; Hagar Bernad-Elazari; Nimrod Geffen; Nir Giladi; Jeffrey M. Hausdorff; Anat Mirelman
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 122
      Author(s): Inbal Maidan, Shiran Shustak, Topaz Sharon, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Nimrod Geffen, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman
      Background Obstacle negotiation is a daily activity that requires the integration of sensorimotor and cognitive information. Recent studies provide evidence for the important role of prefrontal cortex during obstacle negotiation. We aimed to explore the effects of obstacle height and available response time on prefrontal activation. Methods Twenty healthy young adults (age: 30.1 ± 1.0 years; 50% women) walked in an obstacle course while negotiating anticipated and unanticipated obstacles at heights of 50 mm and 100 mm. Prefrontal activation was measured using a functional near-infrared spectroscopy system. Kinect cameras measured the obstacle negotiation strategy. Prefrontal activation was defined based on mean level of HbO2 before, during and after obstacle negotiation and the HbO2 slope from gait initiation and throughout the task. Changes between types of obstacles were assessed using linear-mix models and partial correlation analyses evaluated the relationship between prefrontal activation and the distance between the feet as the subjects traversed the obstacles. Results Different obstacle heights showed similar changes in prefrontal activation measures (p > 0.210). However, during unanticipated obstacles, the slope of the HbO2 response was steeper (p = 0.048), as compared to anticipated obstacles. These changes in prefrontal activation during negotiation of unanticipated obstacles were correlated with greater distance of the leading foot after the obstacles (r = 0.831, p = 0.041). Conclusions These findings are the first to show that the pattern of prefrontal activation depends on the nature of the obstacle. More specifically, during unanticipated obstacles the recruitment of the prefrontal cortex is faster and greater than during negotiating anticipated obstacles. These results provide evidence of the important role of the prefrontal cortex and the ability of healthy young adults to tailor the activation pattern to different types of obstacles.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T04:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Task-residual functional connectivity of language and attention networks
    • Authors: Stella M. Tran; Keith M. McGregor; George Andrew James; Kaundinya Gopinath; Venkatagiri Krishnamurthy; Lisa C. Krishnamurthy; Bruce Crosson
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 122
      Author(s): Stella M. Tran, Keith M. McGregor, George Andrew James, Kaundinya Gopinath, Venkatagiri Krishnamurthy, Lisa C. Krishnamurthy, Bruce Crosson
      Functional connectivity using task-residual data capitalizes on remaining variance after mean task-related signal is removed from a time series. The degree of network specificity in language and attention domains featured by task-residual and resting-state data types were compared. Functional connectivity based on task-residual data evidenced stronger laterality of the language and attention connections and thus greater network specificity compared to resting-state functional connectivity of the same connections. Covariance between network nodes of task-residuals may thus reflect the degree to which two regions are coordinated in their specific activity, rather than a general shared co-activation. Task-residual functional connectivity provides complementary data to that of resting-state, emphasizing network relationships during task engagement.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:34:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Converging operations and the role of perceptual and decisional influences
           on the perception of faces: Neural and behavioral evidence
    • Authors: Rebecca J. Von Der Heide; Michael J. Wenger; Jennifer L. Bittner; Daniel Fitousi
      Pages: 59 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 122
      Author(s): Rebecca J. Von Der Heide, Michael J. Wenger, Jennifer L. Bittner, Daniel Fitousi
      Theoretical analyses suggest that the regularities indicative of holistic processing can be obtained by combinations of perceptual and decisional factors. Kuefner and colleagues used electrophysiological results to suggest that the composite face effect is driven solely by perceptual factors. Two limitations of their approach are (a) it did not involve behavioral measures of perceptual sensitivity or bias, and (b) it is unclear how the measures used in that study are consistent with other measures of perceptual and decisional processing. Eight observers completed three tasks involving the stimuli used by Kuefner et al.. The first was a direct replication. The second was a complete identification task, associated with the perceptual and decisional distinctions formalized in general recognition theory. The third was an implementation of the Eriksen fianker task, which allows for a pattern of results that have been interpreted in terms of perceptual and decisional influences. While the empirical distinctions used by Kuefner et al. were not consistent with either the EEG data from the other tasks or the established behavioral measures of perceptual sensitivity and decisional bias, the inferences drawn from the EEG and behavioral data from those tasks were consistent with one another, underscoring the importance of converging operations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:34:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Saccade Induced Retrieval Enhancement on conceptual and
           perceptual tests of explicit & implicit memory
    • Authors: Andrew Parker; Daniel Powell; Neil Dagnall
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 121
      Author(s): Andrew Parker, Daniel Powell, Neil Dagnall
      The effects of saccadic horizontal (bilateral) eye movements upon tests of both conceptual and perceptual forms of explicit and implicit memory were investigated. Participants studied a list of words and were then assigned to one of four test conditions: conceptual explicit, conceptual implicit, perceptual explicit, or perceptual implicit. Conceptual tests comprised category labels with either explicit instructions to recall corresponding examples from the study phase (category-cued recall), or implicit instructions to generate any corresponding examples that spontaneously came to mind (category-exemplar generation). Perceptual tests comprised of word-fragments with either explicit instructions to complete these with study items (word-fragment-cued recall), or implicit instructions to complete each fragment with the first word that simply ‘popped to mind’ (word-fragment completion). Just prior to retrieval, participants were required to engage in 30 s of bilateral vs. no eye movements. Results revealed that saccadic horizontal eye movements enhanced performance in only the conceptual explicit condition, indicating that Saccade-Induced Retrieval Enhancement is a joint function of conceptual and explicit retrieval mechanisms. Findings are discussed from both a cognitive and neuropsychological perspective, in terms of their potential functional and neural underpinnings.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • The neural substrates of procrastination: A voxel-based morphometry study
    • Authors: Yue Hu; Peiwei Liu; Yiqun Guo; Tingyong Feng
      Pages: 11 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 121
      Author(s): Yue Hu, Peiwei Liu, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
      Procrastination is a pervasive phenomenon across different cultures and brings about lots of serious consequences, including performance, subjective well-being, and even public policy. However, little is known about the neural substrates of procrastination. In order to shed light upon this question, we investigated the neuroanatomical substrates of procrastination across two independent samples using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The whole-brain analysis showed procrastination was positively correlated with the graymatter (GM) volume of clusters in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), while negatively correlated with the GM volume of clusters in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in sample one (151 participants). We further conducted a verification procedure on another sample (108 participants) using region-of-interest analysis to examine the reliability of these results. Results showed procrastination can be predicted by the GM volume of the OFC and the MFG. The present findings suggest that the MFG and OFC, which are the key regions of self-control and emotion regulation, may play an important role in procrastination.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Maternal reading fluency is positively associated with greater functional
           connectivity between the child’s future reading network and regions
           related to executive functions and language processing in preschool-age
           children
    • Authors: Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus; John S. Hutton; Kieran Phelan; Scott K. Holland
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 121
      Author(s): Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, John S. Hutton, Kieran Phelan, Scott K. Holland
      The role of the parent or educator in a child’s learning is a key feature in child development. Evidence supports the impact of early language exposure for future language and cognitive abilities and of home reading environment on neural circuits supporting language and reading. As shared parent–child reading is largely contingent on the reading ability of the parent, the aim of the current study was to explore association of parental reading ability on functional connectivity of brain networks involved with reading acquisition in their children. Twenty-two 4-year-old girls and their mothers participated in the current study. Maternal reading fluency was applied as predictors of functional connectivity analyses of a stories-listening functional MRI task. Results indicate a positive association between maternal fluency scores and greater functional connectivity between regions in the future reading network and brain regions supporting language and cognitive control in the children. Maternal reading fluency is important in facilitating development of a child’s reading network. Implications regarding shared reading are discussed, and an extended ecological model for child language and literacy development is proposed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Attentional rather than sensory differences characterize auditory
           processing in Williams syndrome
    • Authors: Magdalene Jacobs; Elisabeth M. Dykens; Alexandra P. Key
      Pages: 24 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 121
      Author(s): Magdalene Jacobs, Elisabeth M. Dykens, Alexandra P. Key
      Individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS) exhibit an atypical auditory profile. Across two experiments, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) in a three-stimulus auditory oddball task to examine early sensory (P1, N1, P2) and later cognitive (P3a, P3b) stages of cortical auditory processing in adults with WS and age-matched typical peers. In Study 1, piano chords served as standard, target, and novel stimuli; whereas, in Study 2, a variety of non-piano sounds comprised the novel stimuli. Across both experiments, there were no group differences in the earliest stages of sensory encoding (P1, N1), along with evidence for atypically large P2 responses in participants with WS. Persons with WS exhibited larger than typical P3a responses when the novel stimuli were perceptually distinct from the standard and the target stimuli (Study 2), but not when task-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli were perceptually similar (Study 1). Further, the WS group demonstrated reduced goal-directed attention (attenuated P3b response). These group differences in ERPs were not directly related to IQ. Our results in the context of an active discrimination task point to a more complex profile of auditory processing in persons with WS than previously reported, with group differences emerging during the later stages of stimulus categorization and evaluation, but not within early stimulus detection and feature encoding.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T16:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2018)
       
  • Single session tDCS over the left DLPFC disrupts interference processing
    • Authors: Christian Frings; Thorsten Brinkmann; Maximilian A. Friehs; Tim van Lipzig
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 120
      Author(s): Christian Frings, Thorsten Brinkmann, Maximilian A. Friehs, Tim van Lipzig
      Whether single session tDCS can impact upon cognition in healthy subjects is currently a heated debate against the background of inconsistent results. In view of the current methodological discussion concerning tDCS we developed an alternative approach to measure effects of single session tDCS on the Stroop task. The left DLPFC was stimulated in a pre-post design using a new electrode set-up (a 9 cm2 electrode was placed over the left DLPFC while a 35 cm2 was placed over the parieto-occipital cortex) contrasting anodal versus cathodal stimulation. The Stroop task was optimized concerning confounding variables that were not controlled in previous attempts to measure the effects of single-session tDCS on the Stroop task. In our sample of N = 32 healthy students we observed a significant single session tDCS effect on the Stroop effect in the error data as in our study cathodal stimulation as compared to anodal stimulation of the left DLPFC disrupted interference processing. This result confirms previous studies suggesting that neuromodulation of the left DLPFC impacts interference processing. Single-session tDCS can impact upon cognitive processes. A rigorous methodical approach is emphasized as the effects seem to be only of small to medium size.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Supplementation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects temporal, but
           not spatial visual attention
    • Authors: Anna Leonte; Lorenza S. Colzato; Laura Steenbergen; Bernhard Hommel; Elkan G. Akyürek
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 120
      Author(s): Anna Leonte, Lorenza S. Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Bernhard Hommel, Elkan G. Akyürek
      In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experiment, the acute effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation on temporal and spatial attention in young healthy adults were investigated. A hybrid two-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used to measure temporal attention and integration. Additionally, a visual search task was used to measure the speed and accuracy of spatial attention. While temporal attention depends primarily on the distribution of limited attentional resources across time, spatial attention represents the engagement and disengagement by relevant and irrelevant stimuli across the visual field. Although spatial attention was unaffected by GABA supplementation altogether, we found evidence supporting improved performance in the temporal attention task. The attentional blink was numerically, albeit not significantly, attenuated at Lag 3, and significantly fewer order errors were committed at Lag 1, compared to the placebo condition. No effect was found on temporal integration rates. Although there is controversy about whether oral GABA can cross the blood-brain barrier, our results offer preliminary evidence that GABA intake might help to distribute limited attentional resources more efficiently, and can specifically improve the identification and ordering of visual events that occur in close temporal succession.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Combined attention controls complex behavior by suppressing unlikely
           events
    • Authors: Christopher D. Blair; Jelena Ristic
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 120
      Author(s): Christopher D. Blair, Jelena Ristic
      Attention enables behavior by modulating both sensory inputs and task goals. Combining attentional resources from both of those sources exerts qualitatively large effects on manual performance. Here we tested how combined attention was represented in sensory processing, as reflected by the P1 component and associated activity in the alpha band. We measured performance and recorded EEG while participants’ attention was engaged in an automated, endogenous, and combined (i.e., automated and endogenous) manner. Behavioral results replicated past reports with reliable effects of isolated automated and endogenous attention, as well as their qualitatively unique combined effect. ERP analyses indicated expected increases in P1 amplitude for validly relative to invalidly cued targets in automated and endogenous conditions. However, in the combined case, the P1 difference between validly relative to invalidly cued targets decreased. Analyses of target-locked alpha-band further revealed that this condition was associated with an increased synchrony in the alpha frequency for invalidly cued targets. This suggests that the large performance benefit observed when attentional systems combine is partly driven by suppressed processing of unexpected targets, dovetailing with the notion that in addition to increasing sensory gain of attended targets, attention may also modulate complex behavior by increasing suppression of unattended ones.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Proper name retrieval and structural integrity of cerebral cortex in
           midlife: A cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Vanja Kljajevic; Asier Erramuzpe
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 120
      Author(s): Vanja Kljajevic, Asier Erramuzpe
      There is currently little understanding on whether retrieval of proper names differs in midlife compared to young adulthood and if so, whether the age differences in this ability are associated with differences in structural integrity of the cerebral cortex. To answer these questions, we studied retrieval of proper names in 115 cognitively healthy middle-aged persons (49.7, ±3.2), comparing their performance on a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) task with that of 68 young persons (25.4, ±3.5) from the Cam-Can data repository (http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/datasets/camcan/). Grey matter (GM) density and cortical thickness were used as indices of structural integrity of the cerebral cortex. The middle-aged (MA) group experienced more TOTs during proper names retrieval than young adults (YA), (t = 3.789, p < .005) and had considerably less GM density and cortical thickness across a range of brain areas bilaterally. Small clusters in left BA 45 and right BA 44 (cortical thickness) and in right BA 40 (volumetry) revealed group differences when accounting for TOTs. However, we observed no correlations between MA’s TOT scores and GM volumes or cortical thickness of the brain regions typically reported as implicated in retrieval of proper names: left anterior temporal lobe, left insula, and left superior and middle temporal gyri.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Not so secret agents: Event-related potentials to semantic roles in visual
           event comprehension
    • Authors: Neil Cohn; Martin Paczynski; Marta Kutas
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Neil Cohn, Martin Paczynski, Marta Kutas
      Research across domains has suggested that agents, the doers of actions, have a processing advantage over patients, the receivers of actions. We hypothesized that agents as “event builders” for discrete actions (e.g., throwing a ball, punching) build on cues embedded in their preparatory postures (e.g., reaching back an arm to throw or punch) that lead to (predictable) culminating actions, and that these cues afford frontloading of event structure processing. To test this hypothesis, we compared event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to averbal comic panels depicting preparatory agents (ex. reaching back an arm to punch) that cued specific actions with those to non-preparatory agents (ex. arm to the side) and patients that did not cue any specific actions. We also compared subsequent completed action panels (ex. agent punching patient) across conditions, where we expected an inverse pattern of ERPs indexing the differential costs of processing completed actions asa function of preparatory cues. Preparatory agents evoked a greater frontal positivity (600–900ms) relative to non-preparatory agents and patients, while subsequent completed actions panels following non-preparatory agents elicited a smaller frontal positivity (600–900ms). These results suggest that preparatory (vs. non-) postures may differentially impact the processing of agents and subsequent actions in real time.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Hemispheric specialization for global and local processing: A direct
           comparison of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli
    • Authors: Sanne G. Brederoo; Mark R. Nieuwenstein; Monicque M. Lorist; Frans W. Cornelissen
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Sanne G. Brederoo, Mark R. Nieuwenstein, Monicque M. Lorist, Frans W. Cornelissen
      It is often assumed that the human brain processes the global and local properties of visual stimuli in a lateralized fashion, with a left hemisphere (LH) specialization for local detail, and a right hemisphere (RH) specialization for global form. However, the evidence for such global-local lateralization stems predominantly from studies using linguistic stimuli, the processing of which has shown to be LH lateralized in itself. In addition, some studies have reported a reversal of global-local lateralization when using non-linguistic stimuli. Accordingly, it remains unclear whether global-local lateralization may in fact be stimulus-specific. To address this issue, we asked participants to respond to linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli that were presented in the right and left visual fields, allowing for first access by the LH and RH, respectively. The results showed global-RH and local-LH advantages for both stimulus types, but the global lateralization effect was larger for linguistic stimuli. Furthermore, this pattern of results was found to be robust, as it was observed regardless of two other task manipulations. We conclude that the instantiation and direction of global and local lateralization is not stimulus-specific. However, the magnitude of global,—but not local—, lateralization is dependent on stimulus type.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T04:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Response bias and response monitoring: Evidence from healthy older adults
           and patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Rebecca G. Deason; Michelle J. Tat; Sean Flannery; Prabhakar S. Mithal; Erin P. Hussey; Eileen T. Crehan; Brandon A. Ally; Andrew E. Budson
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Rebecca G. Deason, Michelle J. Tat, Sean Flannery, Prabhakar S. Mithal, Erin P. Hussey, Eileen T. Crehan, Brandon A. Ally, Andrew E. Budson
      Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) often exhibit an abnormally liberal response bias in recognition memory tests, responding “old” more frequently than “new.” Investigations have shown patients can to shift to a more conservative response bias when given instructions. We examined if patients with mild AD could alter their response patterns when the ratio of old items is manipulated without explicit instruction. Healthy older adults and AD patients studied lists of words and then were tested in three old/new ratio conditions (30%, 50%, or 70% old items). A subset of participants provided estimates of how many old and new items they saw in the memory test. We demonstrated that both groups were able to change their response patterns without the aid of explicit instructions. Importantly, AD patients were more likely to estimate seeing greater numbers of old than new items, whereas the reverse was observed for older adults. Elevated estimates of old items in AD patients suggest their liberal response bias may be attributed to their reliance on familiarity. We conclude that the liberal response bias observed in AD patients is attributable to their believing that more of the test items are old and not due to impaired meta-memorial monitoring abilities.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T12:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Unpredictability increases the error-related negativity in children and
           adolescents
    • Authors: Brittany C. Speed; Felicia Jackson; Brady D. Nelson; Zachary P. Infantolino; Greg Hajcak
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Brittany C. Speed, Felicia Jackson, Brady D. Nelson, Zachary P. Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
      The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response-locked component in the event-related potential observed asa negative deflection 50–100ms following the commission of an error. An unpredictable context has been shown to potentiate amygdala activity, attentional bias toward threat, and the ERN in adults. However, it is unclear whether the impact of unpredictability on the ERN is also observed in children and adolescents. In a sample of 32 9–17year-old participants, we examined the influence of a task-irrelevant unpredictable context on neural response to errors. Participants completed a flanker task designed to elicit the ERN, while simultaneously being exposed to task-irrelevant tone sequences with either predictable or unpredictable timing. Unpredictable tones were rated as more anxiety provoking compared to the predictable tones. Fewer errors were made during unpredictable relative to predictable tones. Moreover, the ERN—but not the correct response negativity (CRN) or stimulus-locked N200—was potentiated during the unpredictable relative to predictable tones. The current study replicates and extends previous findings by demonstrating that an unpredictable context can increase task performance and selectively potentiate the ERN in children and adolescents. ERN magnitude can be modulated by environmental factors suggesting enhanced error processing in unpredictable contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T20:48:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Associations between immunological function and memory recall in healthy
           adults
    • Authors: Grace Y. Wang; Tamasin Taylor; Alexander Sumich; Fabrice Merien; Robert Borotkanics; Wendy Wrapson; Chris Krägeloh; Richard J. Siegert
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Grace Y. Wang, Tamasin Taylor, Alexander Sumich, Fabrice Merien, Robert Borotkanics, Wendy Wrapson, Chris Krägeloh, Richard J. Siegert
      Studies in clinical and aging populations support associations between immunological function, cognition and mood, although these are not always in line with animal models. Moreover, very little is known about the relationship between immunological measures and cognition in healthy young adults. The present study tested associations between the state of immune system and memory recall in a group of relatively healthy adults. Immediate and delayed memory recall was assessed in 30 participants using the computerised cognitive battery. CD4, CD8 and CD69 subpopulations of lymphocytes, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol were assessed with blood assays. Correlation analysis showed significant negative relationships between CD4 and the short and long delay memory measures. IL-6 showed a significant positive correlation with long-delay recall. Generalized linear models found associations between differences in all recall challenges and CD4. A multivariate generalized linear model including CD4 and IL-6 exhibited a stronger association. Results highlight the interactions between CD4 and IL-6 in relation to memory function. Further study is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of the associations between the state of immune system and cognitive performance.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:32:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Jazz musicians reveal role of expectancy in human creativity
    • Authors: Emily Przysinda; Tima Zeng; Kellyn Maves; Cameron Arkin; Psyche Loui
      Pages: 45 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Emily Przysinda, Tima Zeng, Kellyn Maves, Cameron Arkin, Psyche Loui
      Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce work that is novel, high in quality, and appropriate to an audience. While the nature of the creative process is under debate, many believe that creativity relies on real-time combinations of known neural and cognitive processes. One useful model of creativity comes from musical improvisation, such as in jazz, in which musicians spontaneously create novel sound sequences. Here we use jazz musicians to test the hypothesis that individuals with training in musical improvisation, which entails creative generation of musical ideas, might process expectancy differently. We compare jazz improvisers, non-improvising musicians, and non-musicians in the domain-general task of divergent thinking, as well as the musical task of preference ratings for chord progressions that vary in expectation while EEGs were recorded. Behavioral results showed for the first time that jazz musicians preferred unexpected chord progressions. ERP results showed that unexpected stimuli elicited larger early and mid-latency ERP responses (ERAN and P3b), followed by smaller long-latency responses (Late Positivity Potential) in jazz musicians. The amplitudes of these ERP components were significantly correlated with behavioral measures of fluency and originality on the divergent thinking task. Together, results highlight the role of expectancy in creativity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T15:32:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2017)
       
  • Sex differences in humor processing: An event-related potential study
    • Authors: Yi-Tzu Chang; Li-Chuan Ku; Hsueh-Chih Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Yi-Tzu Chang, Li-Chuan Ku, Hsueh-Chih Chen
      Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Forty undergraduate students (20 women) underwent event-related potential recording while subjectively rating 30 question-answer-type jokes and 30 question-answer-type statements in a random order. Sex differences were revealed by analyses of the mean amplitudes of difference waves during a specific time window between 1000 and 1300 ms poststimulus onset (P1000–1300). This indicates that women recruited more mental resources to integrate cognitive and emotional components at this late stage. In contrast, men recruited more automated processes during the transition from the cognitive operations of the incongruity resolution stage to the emotional response of the humor elaboration stage. Our results suggest that sex differences in humor processing lie in differences in the integration of cognitive and emotional components, which are closely linked and interact reciprocally, particularly in women.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.002
       
  • Functional connectivity of the vigilant-attention network in children and
           adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    • Authors: Florian D. Zepf; Sarah Bubenzer-Busch; Kevin C. Runions; Pradeep Rao; Janice W.Y. Wong; Simone Mahfouda; Hugo A.E. Morandini; Richard M. Stewart; Julia K. Moore; Caroline S. Biskup; Simon B. Eickhoff; Gereon R. Fink; Robert Langner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Florian D. Zepf, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Kevin C. Runions, Pradeep Rao, Janice W.Y. Wong, Simone Mahfouda, Hugo A.E. Morandini, Richard M. Stewart, Julia K. Moore, Caroline S. Biskup, Simon B. Eickhoff, Gereon R. Fink, Robert Langner
      The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. We therefore investigated ADHD-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity within a meta-analytically defined brain network of 14 distinct regions subserving VA (comprising 91 connections in total), as well as the association of connectivity with markers of behavioural dysfunction in 17 children (age range: 9–14 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 age-matched neurotypical controls. Our analyses revealed selective, rather than global, differences in the intrinsic coupling between nodes of the VA-related brain network in children with ADHD, relative to controls. In particular, ADHD patients showed substantially diminished intrinsic coupling for 7 connections and increased coupling for 4 connections, with many differences involving connectivity with the anterior insula. Moreover, connectivity strength of several aberrant connections was found to be associated with core aspects of ADHD symptomatology, such as poor attention, difficulties with social functioning, and impaired cognitive control, attesting to the behavioural relevance of specific connectivity differences observed in the resting state.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.005
       
  • The parietal opercular auditory-sensorimotor network in musicians: A
           resting-state fMRI study
    • Authors: Shoji Tanaka; Eiji Kirino
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Shoji Tanaka, Eiji Kirino
      Auditory-sensorimotor coupling is critical for musical performance, during which auditory and somatosensory feedback signals are used to ensure desired outputs. Previous studies reported opercular activation in subjects performing or listening to music. A functional connectivity analysis suggested the parietal operculum (PO) as a connector hub that links auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortical areas. We therefore examined whether this PO network differs between musicians and non-musicians. We analyzed resting-state PO functional connectivity with Heschl’s gyrus (HG), the planum temporale (PT), the precentral gyrus (preCG), and the postcentral gyrus (postCG) in 35 musicians and 35 non-musicians. In musicians, the left PO exhibited increased functional connectivity with the ipsilateral HG, PT, preCG, and postCG, whereas the right PO exhibited enhanced functional connectivity with the contralateral HG, preCG, and postCG and the ipsilateral postCG. Direct functional connectivity between an auditory area (the HG or PT) and a sensorimotor area (the preCG or postCG) did not significantly differ between the groups. The PO’s functional connectivity with auditory and sensorimotor areas is enhanced in musicians relative to non-musicians. We propose that the PO network facilitates musical performance by mediating multimodal integration for modulating auditory-sensorimotor control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T14:49:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.11.001
       
  • Preserved metacognitive ability despite unilateral or bilateral anterior
           prefrontal resection
    • Authors: Anne-Laure Lemaitre; Guillaume Herbet; Hugues Duffau; Gilles Lafargue
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau, Gilles Lafargue
      Brodmann area 10 (BA10) is thought to be at the summit of the prefrontal cortex’s hierarchical organization. It is widely accepted that metacognitive abilities depend on the structural and functional properties of BA10. Our objective was to assess whether metacognition can be maintained after low-grade glioma surgery with BA10 resection. Three groups of participants were recruited: (i) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex, including BA10 (n = 9); (ii) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex but not BA10 (n = 10); and (iii) healthy controls (n = 38). Importantly, we also included a patient (referred to as “PR”) with resection of BA10 in the two hemispheres. The patients with resection of right BA10 had metacognitive performances that were indistinguishable from those of brain-damaged control patients and healthy controls. Crucially, PR's metacognitive ability was not only maintained but was even in the upper quartile of normal performances. Our findings demonstrate that the brain can redistribute and remap metacognition in response to injury. We thus provide experimental evidence against the conventional hypothesis whereby cognitive functions are directly and lastingly linked to particular cortical structures. The latter hypothesis seems to be particularly false for the highest levels of human cognition and for BA10.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T14:49:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.004
       
  • Mental flexibility: An MEG investigation in typically developing children
    • Authors: Alexandra Mogadam; Anne E. Keller; Margot J. Taylor; Jason P. Lerch; Evdokia Anagnostou; Elizabeth W. Pang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Alexandra Mogadam, Anne E. Keller, Margot J. Taylor, Jason P. Lerch, Evdokia Anagnostou, Elizabeth W. Pang
      Mental flexibility is a core property of cognitive executive functions, relying on an extended frontoparietal network in the brain. fMRI research comparing typically developing children and adults has found that children from an early age recruit the same “classic” brain areas associated with mental flexibility as adults; however, there is evidence that the timing of activation may be different. To investigate the temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with mental flexibility in children, we recruited 22 typically developing children (8–15 years) to complete a set-shifting task in the MEG. Our results showed that while the children relied on the same frontoparietal network of mental flexibility, there was a different emphasis on active brain regions, with children preferentially using their posterior parietal cortices. Additional areas such as the temporal pole and the premotor areas were also recruited, potentially playing a supporting role. Although children shared the same window of peak activity as adults, 75–350ms, we found a significant decrease in activation latency with increasing age, suggesting the presence of developmental differences in timing of brain activity in areas supporting mental flexibility during childhood.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T19:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.10.001
       
  • Common framework for “virtual lesion” and state-dependent TMS: The
           facilitatory/suppressive range model of online TMS effects on behavior
    • Authors: Juha Silvanto; Zaira Cattaneo
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 119
      Author(s): Juha Silvanto, Zaira Cattaneo
      The behavioral effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are often nonlinear; factors such as stimulation intensity and brain state can modulate the impact of TMS on observable behavior in qualitatively different manner. Here we propose a theoretical framework to account for these effects. In this model, there are distinct intensity ranges for facilitatory and suppressive effects of TMS – low intensities facilitate neural activity and behavior whereas high intensities induce suppression. The key feature of the model is that these ranges are shifted by changes in neural excitability: consequently, a TMS intensity, which normally induces suppression, can have a facilitatory effect if the stimulated neurons are being inhibited by ongoing task-related processes or preconditioning. For example, adaptation reduces excitability of adapted neurons; the outcome is that TMS intensities which inhibit non-adapted neurons induce a facilitation on adapted neural representations, leading to reversal of adaptation effects. In conventional “virtual lesion” paradigms, similar effects occur because neurons not involved in task-related processes are inhibited by the ongoing task. The resulting reduction in excitability can turn high intensity “inhibitory” TMS to low intensity “facilitatory” TMS for these neurons, and as task-related neuronal representations are in the inhibitory range, the outcome is a reduction in signal-to-noise ratio and behavioral impairment.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T21:05:50Z
       
  • Neuroscience and everyday life: Facing the translation problem
    • Authors: Jolien C. Francken; Marc Slors
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Jolien C. Francken, Marc Slors
      To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity. Therefore, scientific findings cannot inform our practical concerns in a straightforward way. How then can neuroscience ultimately help determine if a defendant is legally responsible, or help someone understand their addiction better' Since the above-mentioned problems provide serious obstacles to move from science to common-sense, we call this the 'translation problem'. Here, we describe three promising approaches for neuroscience to face this translation problem. First, neuroscience could propose new 'folk-neuroscience' concepts, beyond the traditional folk-psychological array, which might inform and alter our phenomenology. Second, neuroscience can modify our current array of common-sense concepts by refining and validating scientific concepts. Third, neuroscience can change our views on the application criteria of concepts such as responsibility and consciousness. We believe that these strategies to deal with the translation problem should guide the practice of neuroscientific research to be able to contribute to our day-to-day life more effectively.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T04:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.004
       
  • Social risky decision-making reveals gender differences in the TPJ: A
           hyperscanning study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy
    • Authors: Mingming Zhang; Tao Liu; Matthew Pelowski; Huibin Jia; Dongchuan Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
      Previous neuroscience studies have investigated neural correlates of risky decision-making in a single-brain frame during pseudo social (predominantly non face-to-face) contexts. To fully understand the risky decision-making behavior in more natural social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a face-to-face gambling card-game. The intra-brain results revealed that both those who identified as males and as females showed higher activations in their mPFC and in the inferior parts of the frontopolar area, as well as in the tempo-parietal junction (TPJ) in cases involving higher versus lower risk. This is consistent with previous findings suggesting importance of the mentalizing network in decision tasks. The fNIRS results of inter-brain neural synchronization (INS) also revealed that males and females showed increased inter-brain coherence in the mPFC and dlPFC. Females, however, uniquely showed increased inter-brain coherence in the left TPJ. This INS result suggests that males may primarily depend on non-social cognitive ability to make a risky decision in a social interaction, while females may use both social and non-social cognitive abilities. The implications are also discussed for general topics of human interaction and two-person neuroscience.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.08.008
       
 
 
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