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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1464 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (252 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (30 journals)
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    - MEN'S INTERESTS (18 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (89 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (51 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (780 journals)
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    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (165 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (780 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abant Kültürel Araştırmalar Dergisi     Open Access  
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi / Adiyaman University Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 170)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
África     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Afrika Focus     Open Access  
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Akademik Bakış Uluslararası Hakemli Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Akademik Hassasiyetler     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Al Farabi Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Análisis     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Anka E-Dergi     Open Access  
Ankara University SBF Journal     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Artvin Coruh University International Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Quality of Life     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Asya Araştırmaları Uluslararasi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi / Journal of Asian Studies     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University Journal of Social Science Institute     Open Access  
Bingöl Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Black Women, Gender & Families     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BOSAPARIS : Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga     Open Access  
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Científic@ : Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Convergencia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cooperativismo y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Current Research in Social Sciences     Open Access  
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Debats. Revista de cultura, poder i societat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Decyzje     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales y Sociales     Open Access  
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Doğu Anadolu Sosyal Bilimlerde Eğilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
E-Dimas : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
e-Gnosis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover
Brain and Cognition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.308
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 37  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-2626 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2147
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Young children in different linguistic environments: A multimodal
           neuroimaging study of the inferior frontal gyrus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): Camilia Thieba, Xiangyu Long, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show that bilingual adults display structural and functional brain alterations, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dependent on when they learned their second language. However, it is unclear whether these differences are due to early exposure to another language, or to lifelong adaptation. We studied 22 children aged 3–5 years growing up in a multilingual environment and 22 age- and sex-matched controls exposed to an English-only environment. Resting-state functional MRI and T1-weighted MRI were used to assess functional connectivity and structure of the IFG. Children in a multilingual environment had higher functional connectivity between the left IFG and dorsal language and attention areas compared to children from a monolingual environment. Children in a multilingual environment also displayed decreased functional connectivity to temporal, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal areas. No significant group differences in IFG structure were observed. Our results suggest a more integrated functional language network, which is more segregated from other networks, in children who grow up in a multilingual environment. These findings suggest that functional alterations to the IFG due to second language learning occur early, while structural changes may not be apparent until later.
       
  • The effect of diabetes on prefrontal cortex activation patterns during
           active walking in older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 125Author(s): Roee Holtzer, Claudene J. George, Meltem Izzetoglu, Cuiling Wang BackgroundGait alterations were documented in diabetic patients. However, the effect of diabetes on cortical control of gait has not been reported. We evaluated the effect of diabetes on prefrontal cortex (PFC) Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2) levels during active walking in older adults.MethodsOf the total sample (n = 315; mean age = 76.84 ± 6.71ys; % female = 56.5) 43 participants (13.7%) had diabetes. The experimental paradigm consisted of two single tasks: Normal-Walk (NW); and Cognitive Interference (Alpha); and one dual-task condition consisting of the two single tasks, Walk-While-Talk (WWT). Functional Near-Infrared-Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to quantify PFC HbO2 levels.ResultsOlder adults without diabetes showed higher PFC HbO2 levels in WWT compared to both NW and Alpha. HbO2 levels during NW were not different between the two groups. Consistent with Neural Inefficiency, older adults with diabetes exhibited higher HbO2 levels during Alpha while performing significantly worse than those without diabetes. Moreover, the presence of diabetes was associated with attenuated HbO2 levels during WWT. This pattern is consistent with Capacity Limitations suggesting a failure to recruit brain resources vis-à-vis the more cognitively challenging WWT condition.ConclusionsA distinct functional neural signature of diabetes was established during active and attention demanding walking among older adults without overt neurological disease.
       
  • Is it still speech' Different processing strategies in learning to
           discriminate stimuli in the transition from speech to non-speech including
           feedback evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 125Author(s): Tina Weis, Christoph M. Krick, Wolfgang Reith, Thomas Lachmann Processing of speech was investigated by using stimuli gradually changing from speech (vowels) to non-speech (spectral rotated vowels). Stimuli were presented in descending levels of vocalization blends, from pure speech to non-speech, through step-wise combinations, resulting in ambiguous versions of the sounds. Participants performed a two-alternative forced choice task: categorization of sounds were made according to whether they contained more speech or non-speech. Performance feedback was presented visually on each trial. Reaction times (RT) after sound presentation, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during auditory and visual processing, were analyzed. RT data suggested individual differences with a distinct group, good performers, functioning better in distinguishing stimuli with a higher degree of ambiguous blends compared to poor performers, who were not able to distinguish these stimuli correctly. fMRI data confirmed this finding. During auditory stimulation, good performers showed neural activation in the ventral auditory pathway, including the primary auditory cortex and the anterior superior temporal sulcus (responsible for speech processing). Poor performers, in contrast, showed neural activation in the dorsal auditory pathway, including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus. Group differences were also found for visual feedback processing. Differences observed between the groups were interpreted as reflecting different neural processing strategies.
       
  • Subgenual anterior cingulate-insula resting-state connectivity as a neural
           correlate to trait and state stress resilience
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 124Author(s): Robin Shao, Way K.W. Lau, Mei-Kei Leung, Tatia M.C. Lee Accumulating evidence indicates important roles of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and rostral limbic regions such as the anterior insula, in regulating stress-related affective responses and negative affect states in general. However, research is lacking in simultaneously assessing the inter-relations between trait and state affective responses to stress, and the functional connectivity between the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula. This preliminary research involved matched healthy participants with high (N = 10) and low (N = 10) self-reported trait stress resilience, and assessed their affective and subgenual anterior cingulate-anterior insula resting-state functional connectivity patterns before and after a psychosocial stress task. We found that while the low-resilience group displayed higher trait negative affect and perceived greater task-related stress, only the high-resilience group showed increase of negative affect, along with greater decrease of left subgenual anterior cingulate-right anterior insula connectivity, following stress induction. Moreover, the functional connectivity change mediated group difference in affect change following stress task. We speculate that the contingent increase of negative affect, and the associated temporary decoupling of subgenual anterior cingulate-insula circuitry, may represent a normative and adaptive stress response underpinned by adaptive and dynamic interplay between the default mode and salience networks. Such findings, if consolidated, have important implications for promoting stress resilience and reducing risk for stress-related affective disorders.
       
  • Electrophysiological decomposition of attentional factors on the
           hypercorrection effect of false lexical representations
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 124Author(s): Nobuyoshi Iwaki, Saeko Tanaka False memories endorsed with higher confidence are more likely to be corrected by feedback than those endorsed with lower confidence (hypercorrection effect). Errors made with high confidence and correct responses made with low confidence are both associated with large meta-memory mismatches. Therefore, they both represent a type of unexpected event which automatically captures participant attention, such that correct information provided via feedback is well-encoded. On the other hand, a study that measured participants’ perceived practical value for items suggested that voluntary allocation of attention might involve the hypercorrection effect. The present study involved a lexical learning task with 28 undergraduate student participants and measurement of automatic and voluntary attentional allocations via P3a/novelty P3 and P3b respectively, both of which are event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral results replicated the hypercorrection effect in a lexical learning task and showed modulation of the effect with regard to perceived practical value. In addition, ERP measurement results demonstrated that both automatic and voluntary allocations of attentional resources were independently involved in the hypercorrection phenomenon.
       
  • The analysis of EEG coherence reflects middle childhood differences in
           mathematical achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 124Author(s): Andrés A. González-Garrido, Fabiola R. Gómez-Velázquez, Ricardo A. Salido-Ruiz, Aurora Espinoza-Valdez, Hugo Vélez-Pérez, Rebeca Romo-Vazquez, Geisa B. Gallardo-Moreno, Vanessa D. Ruiz-Stovel, Alicia Martínez-Ramos, Gustavo Berumen Symbolic numerical magnitude processing is crucial to arithmetic development, and it is thought to be supported by the functional activation of several brain-interconnected structures. In this context, EEG beta oscillations have been recently associated with attention and working memory processing that underlie math achievement. Due to that EEG coherence represents a useful measure of brain functional connectivity, we aimed to contrast the EEG coherence in forty 8-to-9-year-old children with different math skill levels (High: HA, and Low achievement: LA) according to their arithmetic scores in the Fourth Edition of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-4) while performing a symbolic magnitude comparison task (i.e. determining which of two numbers is numerically larger). The analysis showed significantly greater coherence over the right hemisphere in the two groups, but with a distinctive connectivity pattern. Whereas functional connectivity in the HA group was predominant in parietal areas, especially involving beta frequencies, the LA group showed more extensive frontoparietal relationships, with higher participation of delta, theta and alpha band frequencies, along with a distinct time–frequency domain expression. The results seem to reflect that lower math achievements in children mainly associate with cognitive processing steps beyond stimulus encoding, along with the need of further attentional resources and cognitive control than their peers, suggesting a lower degree of numerical processing automation.
       
  • The neural correlates of attachment security in typically developing
           children
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 124Author(s): Eun Jung Choi, Margot J. Taylor, Soon-Beom Hong, Changdai Kim, Soon-Hyung Yi This study investigated neural correlates of children’s attachment security using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-one boys’ attachment styles (age mean = 9.5 years, SD = 0.61) were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT). We created an fMRI version of the SAT to activate children’s attachment system in fMRI environment and contrasted two conditions in which children were instructed to infer the specific feeling of the boy in the picture or to identify objects or physical activities. In the final fMRI analysis (N = 21), attachment security could be detected at the neural level corresponding to the behavioural differences in the attachment interview. Securely attached children showed greater activation in the frontal, limbic and basal ganglia area which included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, cingulate cortex and striatum, compared to other children who had lower quality of attachment. These regions have a key role in socio-emotional information processing and also represent a brain network related to approach and avoidance motivation in humans. Especially the striatum, strongly linked to reward processing underpinning social approach and avoidance motivation, showed the largest effects in these differences and also positively correlated with emotional openness scores in SAT. This suggests that the quality of attachment configures the approach and avoidance motivational system in our brain mediated by the striatum.
       
  • Action affordances and visuo-spatial complexity in motor imagery: An fMRI
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 124Author(s): Laura Schulz, Anja Ischebeck, Selina C. Wriessnegger, David Steyrl, Gernot R. Müller-Putz Imagining a complex action requires not only motor-related processing but also visuo-spatial imagery. In the current study, we examined visuo-spatial complexity and action affordances in motor imagery (MI). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural activity in MI of reach-to-grasp movements of the right hand in five conditions. Thirty participants were scanned while imagining grasping an everyday object, grasping a geometrical shape, grasping next to an everyday object, grasping next to a geometrical shape, and grasping at nothing (no object involved). We found that MI of grasping next to an object recruited the visuo-spatial cognition network including posterior parietal and premotor regions more strongly than MI of grasping an object. This indicates that grasping next to an object requires additional processing resources rendering MI more complex. MI of a grasping movement involving a familiar everyday object compared to a geometrical shape yielded stronger activation in motor-related regions, including the bilateral supplementary motor area. This activation might be due to inhibitory processes preventing motor execution of motor scripts evoked by everyday objects (action affordances). Our results indicate that visuo-spatial cognition plays a significant role in MI.
       
  • Selective impairments in components of affective prosody in neurologically
           impaired individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 124Author(s): Amy Wright, Sadhvi Saxena, Shannon M. Sheppard, Argye E. Hillis The intent and feelings of the speaker are often conveyed less by what they say than by how they say it, in terms of the affective prosody – modulations in pitch, loudness, rate, and rhythm of the speech to convey emotion. Here we propose a cognitive architecture of the perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes underlying recognition and generation of affective prosody. We developed the architecture on the basis of the computational demands of the task, and obtained evidence for various components by identifying neurologically impaired patients with relatively specific deficits in one component. We report analysis of performance across tasks of recognizing and producing affective prosody by four patients (three with right hemisphere stroke and one with frontotemporal dementia). Their distinct patterns of performance across tasks and quality of their abnormal performance provides preliminary evidence that some of the components of the proposed architecture can be selectively impaired by focal brain damage.
       
  • Neural correlates of active controlled retrieval development: An
           exploratory ERP study
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 124Author(s): France Simard, Geneviève Cadoret Working memory is composed of different processes and encompasses not only the temporary storage of information but also its manipulation in order to perform complex cognitive activities. During childhood, one of these manipulation processes, namely active controlled retrieval, improves significantly between the age of 6 to 10, suggesting that the neuronal network supporting this function undergoes substantial maturational changes. The present study examined the neural activity of 14 healthy children and 14 adults while performing an active controlled retrieval task. Results showed differences in brain activity according to active controlled retrieval in a 300–500 ms window corresponding to the retrieval period. Active controlled retrieval was associated with a P3b-like potential in parietal sites for both children and adults. In fronto-central sites, children demonstrated a “N400 like” potential associated with active retrieval processing. These results are discussed in terms of maturational development.
       
  • Change in drawing placement: A measure of change in mood state reflective
           of hemispheric lateralization of emotion
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 124Author(s): Tracy R. Butler, Erin M. O'Mara, Josephine F. Wilson The Valence Hypothesis of cerebral lateralization of emotion suggests greater right hemisphere activation during negative mood and greater left hemisphere activation during positive mood. This can manifest as visual field attentional bias. Here, study participants completed an assessment of current mood state (PANAS) and made a drawing (Drawing 1). To induce positive or negative mood, participants played a game; then, the winner read a script depicting a positive interpersonal interaction and the loser read a script depicting a negative interpersonal interaction. Participants then drew a second picture (Drawing 2) and completed the PANAS. We hypothesized that the game outcome would change current mood state and hemispheric activation, which would be reflected in drawing placement. The placement of Drawing 2 moved right for winners and left for losers. Winners experienced a greater increase in positive affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than losers and had decreased negative affect from Time 1. Losers had decreased positive affect from Time 1 and had a greater increase in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than winners. Our results suggest that change in current mood state may be objectively observed by evaluating hemispatial bias reflective of brain hemispheric activation with drawings.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Using an emotional saccade task to characterize executive functioning and
           emotion processing in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar
           disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Brain and Cognition, Volume 124Author(s): Rachel Yep, Stephen Soncin, Donald C. Brien, Brian C. Coe, Alina Marin, Douglas P. Munoz Despite distinct diagnostic criteria, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) share cognitive and emotion processing deficits that complicate diagnoses. The goal of this study was to use an emotional saccade task to characterize executive functioning and emotion processing in adult ADHD and BD. Participants (21 control, 20 ADHD, 20 BD) performed an interleaved pro/antisaccade task (look toward vs. look away from a visual target, respectively) in which the sex of emotional face stimuli acted as the cue to perform either the pro- or antisaccade. Both patient groups made more direction (erroneous prosaccades on antisaccade trials) and anticipatory (saccades made before cue processing) errors than controls. Controls exhibited lower microsaccade rates preceding correct anti- vs. prosaccade initiation, but this task-related modulation was absent in both patient groups. Regarding emotion processing, the ADHD group performed worse than controls on neutral face trials, while the BD group performed worse than controls on trials presenting faces of all valence. These findings support the role of fronto-striatal circuitry in mediating response inhibition deficits in both ADHD and BD, and suggest that such deficits are exacerbated in BD during emotion processing, presumably via dysregulated limbic system circuitry involving the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex.
       
  • Review on biomarkers in the resting-state networks of chronic pain
           patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): J. Pfannmöller, M. Lotze Biomarkers indicating characteristic alterations in the brains of pain patients would in comparison to behavioral examinations allow for earlier diagnoses of pain disease development, a more immediate monitoring of pain disease progression, and for the development of interventions to reverse or compensate for the alterations. To reveal causal relations between an observed alteration and the pain disease longitudinal examinations are essential. Resting-state fMRI examinations can readily be included in large longitudinal cohorts allowing to achieve sufficiently large patient samples even for rare diseases.Our literature review on longitudinal resting-state fMRI examinations of pain patients indicates that pain chronicity is predicted by alterations to the brain's reward system and default mode network. A brain wide reorganization of the resting-state networks is associated with the emergence of the chronic pain state. The functional connectivity of the left frontoparietal network predicts the evolution of pain intensity in the chronic state. Further investigations are necessary concerning the generalization of the biomarkers across the phases in pain development especially for the healthy state, across different pain etiologies, and their specificity to chronic pain. The currently acquired representative longitudinal cohorts will allow for clarification of those issues within the next decades.
       
  • Interactive influence of sex, stressor timing, and the BclI glucocorticoid
           receptor polymorphism on stress-induced alterations of long-term memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): Phillip R. Zoladz, Tessa J. Duffy, Brianne E. Mosley, Miranda K. Fiely, Hannah E. Nagle, Amanda R. Scharf, Callie M. Brown, McKenna B. Earley, Boyd R. Rorabaugh, Alison M. Dailey Certain susceptibility factors, such as genetic variants or specific physiological responses to stress, can dictate the effects of stress on learning and memory. Here, we examined the influence of the BclI polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene on the time-dependent effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory. Healthy individuals were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test or a control condition immediately or 30 min before word list learning. Participants’ memory for the words was tested immediately and 24 h after learning, and saliva samples were collected to genotype participants for the BclI polymorphism and to assess cortisol responses to the stressor. Results revealed that stress immediately before learning enhanced memory, while stress 30 min before learning impaired memory; these effects were largely selective to males and non-arousing words. Additionally, stress, independent of when it was administered, enhanced memory in non-carriers of the BclI polymorphism, while impairing memory in carriers; these effects were largely selective to males and participants exhibiting a robust cortisol response to stress. These results provide further evidence for time-dependent effects of stress on long-term memory and suggest that carriers of the BclI polymorphism might be more sensitive to the negative effects of corticosteroids on learning.
       
  • Stress-induced reliance on habitual behavior is moderated by cortisol
           reactivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): T. Smeets, P. van Ruitenbeek, B. Hartogsveld, Conny W.E.M. Quaedflieg Instrumental learning, i.e., learning that specific behaviors lead to desired outcomes, occurs through goal-directed and habit memory systems. Exposure to acute stress has been shown to result in less goal-directed control, thus rendering behavior more habitual. The aim of the current studies was to replicate and extend findings on stress-induced prompting of habitual responding and specifically focused on the role of stress-induced cortisol reactivity. Study 1 used an established outcome devaluation paradigm to assess goal-directed and habitual control. Study 2 utilized a modified version of this paradigm that was intended to establish stronger habitual responding through more extensive reward training and applying a relevant behavioral devaluation procedure (i.e., eating to satiety). Both studies failed to replicate that stress overall, i.e., independent of cortisol reactivity, shifted behavior from goal-directed to habitual control. However, both studies found that relative to stress-exposed cortisol non-responders and no-stress controls, participants displaying stress-induced cortisol reactivity displayed prominent habitual responding. These findings highlight the importance of stress-induced cortisol reactivity in facilitating habits.
       
  • Pre-encoding stress induced changes in perceived stress, blood pressure
           and cortisol are differentially associated with recollection and
           familiarity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Brain and CognitionAuthor(s): Uta S. Wiemers, Tanja C. Hamacher-Dang, Andrew P. Yonelinas, Oliver T. Wolf Stress before encoding is often linked to impaired memory. Further influences of stress on memory are arousal of the to be learned material and memory retrieval type (free recall vs. recognition). In the current study we tested the influence of stress on memory encoding for neutral and negative arousing pictures in healthy young adults. A total of 80 participants (40 men) were subjected either to the socially evaluated cold pressure test or a control condition before encoding of arousing and neutral pictures. One day later participants underwent a recognition test. Results show different relationships between the obtained stress markers and recognition memory. Higher perceived stress ratings predicted poorer overall accuracy for arousing material. Lower perceived stress ratings and larger blood pressure increase predicted higher recollection values for arousing material. In contrast, a larger cortisol increase predicted lower familiarity values for arousing material. Concluding, activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and a lower feeling of perceived stress predict better recollection. HPA axis activity predicts lower familiarity. Pre-encoding induced changes in the perceived feeling of stress, activity of the SNS, and activity of the HPA axis show specific and distinct relationships to recognition memory.
       
 
 
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