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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1336 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (240 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (28 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (17 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (87 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (51 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (677 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (42 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (158 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (677 journals)                  1 2 3 4     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
3C Empresa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
A contrario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abordajes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Academicus International Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACCORD Occasional Paper     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 142)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adultspan Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
África     Open Access  
Africa Spectrum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ágora : revista de divulgação científica     Open Access  
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alliage     Free  
Alteridade     Open Access  
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de la Universidad de Chile     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Andamios. Revista de Investigacion Social     Open Access  
Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Annuaire de l’EHESS     Open Access  
Anthropocene Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anthurium : A Caribbean Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Approches inductives : Travail intellectuel et construction des connaissances     Full-text available via subscription  
Apuntes : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Apuntes de Investigación del CECYP     Open Access  
Arbor     Open Access  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Argumentos. Revista de crítica social     Open Access  
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do CMD : Cultura, Memória e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Astrolabio     Open Access  
Atatürk Dergisi     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Balkan Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bandung : Journal of the Global South     Open Access  
BARATARIA. Revista Castellano-Manchega de Ciencias sociales     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Berkeley Undergraduate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Big Data & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Bildhaan : An International Journal of Somali Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bodhi : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brain and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Brasiliana - Journal for Brazilian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access  
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caminho Aberto : Revista de Extensão do IFSC     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Catalan Social Sciences Review     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Social Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciencia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências Sociais Unisinos     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civitas - Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colección Académica de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Compendium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comuni@cción     Open Access  
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Confluenze Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani     Open Access  
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Contribuciones desde Coatepec     Open Access  
Convergencia     Open Access  
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CRDCN Research Highlight / RCCDR en évidence     Open Access  
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Critical Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CTheory     Open Access  
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales - Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Interculturales     Open Access  
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural Trends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas. Revista de Gestión Cultural     Open Access  
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
De Prácticas y Discursos. Cuadernos de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desacatos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Desafios     Open Access  
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DIFI Family Research and Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Discourse & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Drustvena istrazivanja     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
e-Gnosis     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-Journal of Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Économie et Solidarités     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Empiria. Revista de metodología de ciencias sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entramado     Open Access  
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Equidad y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Espace populations sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EspacesTemps.net     Open Access  
Estudios Avanzados     Open Access  
Estudios Fronterizos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Sociales     Open Access  
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethnic and Racial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Futures Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies - Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European View     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ExT : Revista de Extensión de la UNC     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)

        1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Brain and Cognition
  [SJR: 1.511]   [H-I: 95]   [29 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0278-2626 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2147
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Encoding focus alters diagnostic recollection and event-related potentials
           (ERPs)
    • Authors: P. Andrew Leynes; Brittany A. Mok
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): P. Andrew Leynes, Brittany A. Mok
      The influence of encoding focus on source memory was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). Encoding was focused on the self (self-focus) or on the speaker (other-focus) while hearing words spoken in a male or female voice. Examination of the behavioral and ERP evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the amount of diagnostic recollection. Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, led to greater old/new recognition, and elicited a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate of recollection) during the source test. Other-focus encoding led to greater source memory and a smaller LPC amplitude. Collectively, the results suggest that encoding focus alters the information bound in the memory trace that leads to varying levels of source-diagnostic features. Drawing attention to the speaker facilitates binding of source-diagnostic features (i.e., voice), whereas self-focus encoding facilitates binding a host of non-diagnostic features. The results have important implications for situations that depend on encoding processes, such as false memory or classroom learning, and they provide evidence that the LPC tracks recollected details but not necessarily diagnostic recollection.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Interhemispheric cortical connections and time perception: A case study
           with agenesis of the corpus callosum
    • Authors: Miku Okajima; Akinori Futamura; Motoyasu Honma; Mitsuru Kawamura; Yuko Yotsumoto
      Pages: 12 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Miku Okajima, Akinori Futamura, Motoyasu Honma, Mitsuru Kawamura, Yuko Yotsumoto
      In daily life, we sometimes select temporal cues of one sort while suppressing others. This study investigated the mechanism of suppression by examining a split-brain patient’s perception of target intervals while ignoring distractor intervals. A patient with agenesis of corpus callosum and five age- and sex-matched control subjects participated in reproduction of target intervals while ignoring distractors displayed in the visual field either ipsilateral or contralateral to target. In the patient, the distractor interfered with reproduction performance more strongly when contralateral rather than ipsilateral. Our results suggest that the corpus callosum plays an inhibitory role in interhemispheric interference and that temporal interval information can be transferred via subcortical structures when there are no direct interhemispheric pathways.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • ERPs and oscillations during encoding predict retrieval of digit memory in
           superior mnemonists
    • Authors: Yafeng Pan; Xianchun Li; Xi Chen; Yixuan Ku; Yujie Dong; Zheng Dou; Lin He; Yi Hu; Weidong Li; Xiaolin Zhou
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Yafeng Pan, Xianchun Li, Xi Chen, Yixuan Ku, Yujie Dong, Zheng Dou, Lin He, Yi Hu, Weidong Li, Xiaolin Zhou
      Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that superior mnemonists (SMs) outperform normal individuals in domain-specific memory tasks. However, the neural correlates of memory-related processes remain unclear. In the current EEG study, SMs and control participants performed a digit memory task during which their brain activity was recorded. Chinese SMs used a digit-image mnemonic for encoding digits, in which they associated 2-digit groups with images immediately after the presentation of each even-position digit in sequences. Behaviorally, SMs’ memory of digit sequences was better than the controls’. During encoding in the study phase, SMs showed an increased right central P2 (150–250ms post onset) and a larger right posterior high-alpha (10–14Hz, 500–1720ms) oscillation on digits at even-positions compared with digits at odd-positions. Both P2 and high-alpha oscillations in the study phase co-varied with performance in the recall phase, but only in SMs, indicating that neural dynamics during encoding could predict successful retrieval of digit memory in SMs. Our findings suggest that representation of a digit sequence in SMs using mnemonics may recruit both the early-stage attention allocation process and the sustained information preservation process. This study provides evidence for the role of dynamic and efficient neural encoding processes in mnemonists.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Cognitive and motor reaction times in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A
           study based on computerized measures
    • Authors: Maria Devita; Sonia Montemurro; Andrea Zangrossi; Sara Ramponi; Maurizio Marvisi; Daniele Villani; Maria Clara Raimondi; Paola Merlo; Maria Luisa Rusconi; Sara Mondini
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Maria Devita, Sonia Montemurro, Andrea Zangrossi, Sara Ramponi, Maurizio Marvisi, Daniele Villani, Maria Clara Raimondi, Paola Merlo, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Sara Mondini
      Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is mainly associated with executive dysfunction. Although delayed reaction times (RTs) in patients with OSAS have been reported, sensitivity of processing speed has not been adequately assessed. This study suggests sensitive and reliable measures to clarify whether different components of information processing speed, i.e. cognitive and motor responses, are equally impaired in OSAS. Thirty-three patients with OSAS were compared with thirty healthy controls. The MoCA test was administered to assess participants’ global neuropsychological profile. Cognitive and motor reaction times were measured using a detector panel which allows to distinguish between stimulus encoding, decision processing, and selection of the appropriate motor response. Logistic regression models highlighted both MoCA test and motor RTs as the best predictors differentiating patients from healthy participants. Results support the hypothesis of a slight decline in the cognitive profile of patients with OSAS and identify significant slowing down in the motor component of responses. It could be hypothesized that slower motor responsiveness is the cause of the global cognitive profile of these patients. With aging, motor movements and RTs usually become impaired and hypoxia might accelerate the aging process by compromising first of all the motor component of RTs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Procedural learning in Tourette syndrome, ADHD, and comorbid
           Tourette-ADHD: Evidence from a probabilistic sequence learning task
    • Authors: Ádám Takács; Yuval Shilon; Karolina Janacsek; Andrea Kóbor; Antoine Tremblay; Dezső Németh; Michael T. Ullman
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Ádám Takács, Yuval Shilon, Karolina Janacsek, Andrea Kóbor, Antoine Tremblay, Dezső Németh, Michael T. Ullman
      Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, plays an important role in the implicit learning of motor and cognitive skills. Few studies have examined procedural learning in either Tourette syndrome (TS) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), despite basal ganglia abnormalities in both of these neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to assess procedural learning in children with TS (n=13), ADHD (n=22), and comorbid TS-ADHD (n=20), as well as in typically developing children (n=21). Procedural learning was measured with a well-studied implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, the alternating serial reaction time task. All four groups showed evidence of sequence learning, and moreover did not differ from each other in sequence learning. This result, from the first study to examine procedural memory across TS, ADHD and comorbid TS-ADHD, is consistent with previous findings of intact procedural learning of sequences in both TS and ADHD. In contrast, some studies have found impaired procedural learning of non-sequential probabilistic categories in TS. This suggests that sequence learning may be spared in TS and ADHD, while at least some other forms of learning in procedural memory are impaired, at least in TS. Our findings indicate that disorders associated with basal ganglia abnormalities do not necessarily show procedural learning deficits, and provide a possible path for more effective diagnostic tools, and educational and training programs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Procedural learning in Parkinson’s disease, specific language
           impairment, dyslexia, schizophrenia, developmental coordination disorder,
           and autism spectrum disorders: A second-order meta-analysis
    • Authors: Gillian M. Clark; Jarrad A.G. Lum
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 117
      Author(s): Gillian M. Clark, Jarrad A.G. Lum
      The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. The main analysis revealed disorder type moderated SRTT performance (p =0.010). This report demonstrates comparable levels of procedural learning impairment in developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment. However, in autism, procedural learning is spared.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T01:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Predominance of lateral over vertical mirror errors in reading: A case for
           neuronal recycling and inhibition
    • Authors: Emmanuel Ahr; Olivier Houdé; Grégoire Borst
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 116
      Author(s): Emmanuel Ahr, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst
      We investigated whether lateral mirror errors could be more prevalent than vertical mirror errors (e.g., p/q vs. p/b confusions) because mirror generalization is harder to inhibit for the discrimination of a reversible letter and its lateral than its vertical mirror-image counterpart. Expert adult readers performed a negative priming task in which they determined on the prime whether two letters and on the probe whether two objects facing opposite directions were identical. We found in both experiments longer response times for objects facing opposite lateral orientations preceded by a reversible letter and its lateral mirror-image counterpart (e.g., p/q) than preceded by perceptually matched non-reversible letters (e.g., g/j). No negative priming effect was observed when objects that were vertical (Experiment 1 & 2) or lateral (Experiment 2) mirror images of each other were preceded by a letter and its vertical mirror-image counterpart (e.g. p/b). Finally, we observed longer response times for objects that were lateral mirror images of each other after lateral than after vertical reversible letters. These results suggest that lateral mirror errors are more prevalent than vertical ones because mirror generalization might be stronger and thus more difficult to inhibit in the context of the former than the latter.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T14:46:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • The role of affective evaluation in conflict adaptation: An LRP study
    • Authors: Kerstin Fröber; Birgit Stürmer; Romy Frömer; Gesine Dreisbach
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 116
      Author(s): Kerstin Fröber, Birgit Stürmer, Romy Frömer, Gesine Dreisbach
      Conflict between incompatible response tendencies is typically followed by control adjustments aimed at diminishing subsequent conflicts, a phenomenon often called conflict adaptation. Dreisbach and Fischer (2015, 2016) recently proposed that it is not the conflict per se but the aversive quality of a conflict that originally motivates this kind of sequential control adjustment. With the present study we tested the causal role of aversive signals in conflict adaptation in a more direct way. To this end, after each trial of a vertical Simon task participants rated whether they experienced the last trial as rather pleasant or unpleasant. Conflict adaptation was measured via lateralized readiness potentials as a measure of early motor-related activation that were computed on the basis of event-related brain potentials. Results showed the typical suppression of automatic response activation following trials rated as unpleasant, whereas suppression was relaxed following trials rated as pleasant. That is, sequential control adaptation was not based on previous conflict but on the subjective affective experience. This is taken as evidence that negative affect even in the absence of actual conflict triggers subsequent control adjustments.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • The influence of CHRNA4, COMT, and maternal sensitivity on orienting and
           executive attention in 6-month-old infants
    • Authors: Jeffry Quan; Mei-Lyn Ong; Jean-Francois Bureau; Lit Wee Sim; Shamini Sanmugam; Adam B. Abdul Malik; Eric Wong; Johnny Wong; Yap-Seng Chong; Seang Mei Saw; Kenneth Kwek; Anqi Qiu; Joanna D. Holbrook; Anne Rifkin-Graboi
      Pages: 17 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 116
      Author(s): Jeffry Quan, Mei-Lyn Ong, Jean-Francois Bureau, Lit Wee Sim, Shamini Sanmugam, Adam B. Abdul Malik, Eric Wong, Johnny Wong, Yap-Seng Chong, Seang Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Anqi Qiu, Joanna D. Holbrook, Anne Rifkin-Graboi
      Despite claims concerning biological mechanisms sub-serving infant attention, little experimental work examines its underpinnings. This study examines how candidate polymorphisms from the cholinergic (CHRNA4 rs1044396) and dopaminergic (COMT rs4680) systems, respectively indicative of parietal and prefrontal/anterior cingulate involvement, are related to 6-month-olds’ (n =217) performance during a visual expectation eye-tracking paradigm. As previous studies suggest that both cholinergic and dopaminergic genes may influence susceptibility to the influence of other genetic and environmental factors, we further examined whether these candidate genes interact with one another and/or with early caregiving experience in predicting infants’ visual attention. We detected an interaction between CHRNA4 genotype and observed maternal sensitivity upon infants’ orienting to random stimuli and a CHRNA4-COMT interaction effect upon infants’ orienting to patterned stimuli. Consistent with adult research, we observed a direct effect of COMT genotype on anticipatory looking to patterned stimuli. Findings suggest that CHRNA4 genotype may influence susceptibility to other attention-related factors in infancy. These interactions may account for the inability to establish a link between CHRNA4 and orienting in infant research to date, despite developmental theorizing suggesting otherwise. Moreover, findings suggest that by 6months, dopamine, and relatedly, the prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate, may be important to infant attention.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T12:50:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Integration of identity and emotion information in faces: fMRI evidence
    • Authors: Alla Yankouskaya; Moritz Stolte; Zargol Moradi; Pia Rotshtein; Glyn Humphreys
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 116
      Author(s): Alla Yankouskaya, Moritz Stolte, Zargol Moradi, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn Humphreys
      Separate neural systems have been implicated in the recognition of facial identity and emotional expression. A growing number of studies now provide evidence against this modular view by demonstrating that integration of identity and emotion information enhances face processing. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape this integration remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that the presence of both personal and emotional expression target information triggers changes in functional connectivity between frontal and extrastriate areas in the brain. We report and discuss three important findings. First, the presence of target identity and emotional expression in the same face was associated with super capacity and violations of the independent processing of identity and expression cues. Second, activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was associated with the presence of redundant targets and changes in functional connectivity between a particular region of the right OFC (BA11/47) and bilateral visual brain regions (the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG)). Third, these changes in connectivity showed a strong link to behavioural measures of capacity processing. We suggest that the changes in functional connectivity between the right OFC and IOG reduce variability of BOLD responses in the IOG, enhancing integration of identity and emotional expression cues in faces.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T03:46:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy
           (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training
    • Authors: Emma Moore; Rebecca S. Schaefer; Mark E. Bastin; Neil Roberts; Katie Overy
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 116
      Author(s): Emma Moore, Rebecca S. Schaefer, Mark E. Bastin, Neil Roberts, Katie Overy
      Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues. Participants completed 20minutes of training three times per week over four weeks. Diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic neighbourhood tractography identified FA, axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity before and after training. Results revealed that FA increased significantly in the right arcuate fasciculus of the Music group only, as hypothesised, with trends for AD to increase and RD to decrease, a pattern of results consistent with activity-dependent increases in myelination. No significant changes were found in the left ipsilateral arcuate fasciculus of either group. This is the first evidence that adding musical cues to movement learning can induce rapid microstructural change in white matter pathways in adults, with potential implications for therapeutic clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T03:54:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Preserved appreciation of aesthetic elements of speech and music prosody
           in an amusic individual: A holistic approach
    • Authors: Ariadne Loutrari; Marjorie Perlman Lorch
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 115
      Author(s): Ariadne Loutrari, Marjorie Perlman Lorch
      We present a follow-up study on the case of a Greek amusic adult, B.Z., whose impaired performance on scale, contour, interval, and meter was reported by Paraskevopoulos, Tsapkini, and Peretz in 2010, employing a culturally-tailored version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia. In the present study, we administered a novel set of perceptual judgement tasks designed to investigate the ability to appreciate holistic prosodic aspects of ‘expressiveness’ and emotion in phrase length music and speech stimuli. Our results show that, although diagnosed as a congenital amusic, B.Z. scored as well as healthy controls (N=24) on judging ‘expressiveness’ and emotional prosody in both speech and music stimuli. These findings suggest that the ability to make perceptual judgements about such prosodic qualities may be preserved in individuals who demonstrate difficulties perceiving basic musical features such as melody or rhythm. B.Z.’s case yields new insights into amusia and the processing of speech and music prosody through a holistic approach. The employment of novel stimuli with relatively fewer non-naturalistic manipulations, as developed for this study, may be a useful tool for revealing unexplored aspects of music and speech cognition and offer the possibility to further the investigation of the perception of acoustic streams in more authentic auditory conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T08:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Contextual effects on cognitive control and BOLD activation in single
           versus mixed saccade tasks
    • Authors: Jordan E. Pierce; Jennifer E. McDowell
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 115
      Author(s): Jordan E. Pierce, Jennifer E. McDowell
      The context or trial history of a task influences response efficiency in mixed paradigms based on cognitive control demands for task set selection. In the current study, the impact of context on prosaccade and antisaccade trials in single and mixed tasks was investigated with BOLD fMRI. Prosaccades require a look towards a newly appearing target, while antisaccades require cognitive control for prepotent response inhibition and generation of a saccade to the opposite location. Results indicated slower prosaccade reaction times and more antisaccade errors for switched than repeated or single trials, and slower antisaccade reaction times for single than mixed trials. BOLD activation was greater for the mixed than the single context in frontal eye fields and precuneus, while switch trials had greater activation than repeat trials in posterior parietal and middle occipital cortex. Greater antisaccade activation was observed overall in saccade circuitry, although effects were evident primarily for the mixed task when considered separately. Finally, an interaction was observed in superior frontal cortex, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and thalamus with strong responses for antisaccade switch trials in the latter two regions. Altogether this response pattern demonstrated the sensitivity of cognitive control to changing task conditions, especially due to task switching costs. Such context-specific differences highlight the importance of trial history when assessing cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T08:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Painful engrams: Oscillatory correlates of working memory for phasic
           nociceptive laser stimuli
    • Authors: Elia Valentini; Valentina Nicolardi; Salvatore Maria Aglioti
      Pages: 21 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 115
      Author(s): Elia Valentini, Valentina Nicolardi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
      Research suggests that working memory (WM) is impaired in chronic pain. Yet, information on how potentially noxious stimuli are maintained in memory is limited in patients as well as in healthy people. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy volunteers during a modified delayed match-to-sample task where maintenance in memory of relevant attributes of nociceptive laser stimuli was essential for subsequent cued-discrimination. Participants performed in high and low load conditions (i.e. three vs. two stimuli to keep in WM). Modulation of EEG oscillations in the beta band during the retention interval and in the alpha band during the pre-retention interval reflected performance in the WM task. Importantly, both a non-verbal and a verbal neuropsychological WM test predicted oscillatory modulations. Moreover, these two neuropsychological tests and self-reported personality measures predicted the performance in the nociceptive WM task. Results demonstrate (i) that beta and alpha EEG oscillations can represent WM for nociceptive stimuli; (ii) the association between neuropsychological measures of WM and the brain representation of phasic nociceptive painful stimuli; and (iii) that personality factors can predict memory for nociceptive stimuli at the behavioural level. Altogether, our findings offer a promising approach for investigating cortical correlates of nociceptive memory in clinical pain conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Top-down control over feedback processing: The probability of valid
           feedback affects feedback-related brain activity
    • Authors: Benjamin Ernst; Marco Steinhauser
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 115
      Author(s): Benjamin Ernst, Marco Steinhauser
      Adaptive decision-making requires that feedback about decision outcomes is adequately processed. Recent studies have shown that fronto-central event-related potentials (ERPs) are sensitive to feedback valence and can be used as an index of feedback processing. The present study investigated whether the processes involved in feedback evaluation are affected by top-down mechanisms driven by knowledge about feedback validity. In a simple decision task, participants had to make use of feedback to learn which one of two stimuli was associated with a reward in a later test phase. Feedback stimuli were followed by a cue indicating whether feedback was valid or invalid. Prior to each block, participants were informed about the frequency of valid feedback in this block. An effect of feedback validity was obtained not only for learning but also for fronto-central ERPs. While high-validity feedback was associated with a fronto-central valence effect, this effect was absent for low-validity feedback. This indicates that processes involved in feedback evaluation are affected by prior knowledge about feedback validity via top-down processes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-14T20:16:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Effects of aging on prefrontal brain activation during challenging walking
           conditions
    • Authors: Anat Mirelman; Inbal Maidan; Hagar Bernad-Elazari; Shiran Shustack; Nir Giladi; Jeffrey M Hausdorff
      Pages: 41 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 115
      Author(s): Anat Mirelman, Inbal Maidan, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Shiran Shustack, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
      Background Deficits in cognitive domains, in particular, those related to the prefrontal cortex, contribute to diminished walking performance in complex conditions in older age. Studies using functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) reported inconsistent findings of brain activation age-related changes in response to increased task demands. We aimed to study the effects of aging on gait and prefrontal activation in complex walking tasks with internal and external task demands. Methods Twenty-three healthy young adults (30.9±3.7yrs) and 20 healthy older adults (69.7±5.8yrs) participated in this study. Gait and prefrontal activation were assessed during three walking conditions: (1) usual walking, (2) dual tasking (internal task demands) and, (3) obstacle negotiation (external task demands). fNIRS measured changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations in the prefrontal cortex. Results Several gait measures were worse in older compared to younger adults under all walking conditions (p<0.005). Even at the lowest level of challenge, older adults had significant increases in HbO2 levels during usual walking, relative to standing (p=0.006). Both groups showed increased activation during dual-task (p<0.002) and during obstacle negotiation (p<0.003). Conclusions Prefrontal activation during walking is dependent on age and task properties and that older adults apparently rely more on cognitive resources even during usual walking task.

      PubDate: 2017-04-21T19:40:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Mirror neuron activation of musicians and non-musicians in response to
           motion captured piano performances
    • Authors: Jiancheng Hou; Ravi Rajmohan; Dan Fang; Karl Kashfi; Kareem Al-Khalil; James Yang; William Westney; Cynthia M. Grund; Michael W. O'Boyle
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 115
      Author(s): Jiancheng Hou, Ravi Rajmohan, Dan Fang, Karl Kashfi, Kareem Al-Khalil, James Yang, William Westney, Cynthia M. Grund, Michael W. O'Boyle
      Mirror neurons (MNs) activate when performing an action and when an observer witnesses the same action performed by another individual. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and presentation of motion captured piano performances were used to identify differences in MN activation for musicians/non-musicians when viewing piano pieces played in a “Correct” mode (i.e., emphasis on technical correctness) or an “Enjoyment” mode (i.e., simply told to “enjoy” playing the piece). Results showed greater MN activation in a variety of brain regions for musicians, with these differences more pronounced in the “Enjoyment” mode. Our findings suggest that activation of MNs is not only initiated by the imagined action of an observed movement, but such activation is modulated by the level of musical expertise and knowledge of associated motor movements that the observer brings to the viewing situation. Enhanced MN activation in musicians may stem from imagining themselves actually playing the observed piece.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T14:46:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Raising the alarm: Individual differences in the perceptual awareness of
           masked facial expressions
    • Authors: Ljubica Damjanovic; Marcel Meyer; Francisco Sepulveda
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 114
      Author(s): Ljubica Damjanovic, Marcel Meyer, Francisco Sepulveda
      A theoretical concern in addressing the unconscious perception of emotion is the extent to which participants can access experiential properties of masked facial stimuli. Performance on a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task as a measure of objective awareness was compared with a new measure developed to access experiential phenomena of the target-mask transition, the perceptual contrast-change sensitivity (PCCS) measure in a backward-masking paradigm with angry, happy and neutral facial expressions. Whilst 2AFC performance indicated that the targets were successfully masked, PCCS values were significantly higher in the happy-neutral face condition than in the angry-neutral face and the neutral-neutral face conditions (Experiment 1). Furthermore, objective measures of awareness were more readily displayed by individuals with high trait anxiety, whereas individuals with low trait anxiety showed greater access to the experiential quality of happy faces (Experiment 2). These findings provide important insights into the methodological considerations involved in the study of non-conscious processing of emotions, both with respect to individual differences in anxiety and the extent to which certain expressions can be successfully masked relative to others. Furthermore, our results may be informative to work investigating the neural correlates of conscious versus unconscious perception of emotion.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • The neural correlates of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict in
           Panum’s limiting case
    • Authors: Huayun Li; Huibin Jia; Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim; Laipeng Jin; Dongchuan Yu
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 114
      Author(s): Huayun Li, Huibin Jia, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Laipeng Jin, Dongchuan Yu
      Although Panum’s limiting case has been extensively researched, only recently has it been discovered that in addition to horizontal disparity, the final perception of depth is influenced by (i) the vertical disparity gradient and (ii) the degree of cue conflict between 2D and 3D shapes. The present study examines the neural correlates of the two factors, using EEG while observers viewed several versions of stereoscopic stimuli, which depicted Panum’s limiting case. In these patterns the vertical disparity gradient was varied from 0.1 to 0.6, while the degree of cue conflict was manipulated from low to high. The ERP data showed that the amplitude of the N170 component (exogenous) was modulated by the vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict. In contrast, the N270 component (endogenous) was modulated by cue conflict only. Such findings demonstrate that both factors affect the perception of depth in Panum’s limiting case, but at different stages: the vertical disparity gradient at an early stage of processing (N170) and cue conflict at two stages (N170 and N270). Hence, vertical disparity gradient is related to low-level visual stimulus parameters and can modulate exogenous component, while cue conflict is related to both exogenous and endogenous components.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T12:53:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • Now or not-now' The influence of alexithymia on intertemporal
           decision-making
    • Authors: Cristina Scarpazza; Manuela Sellitto; Giuseppe di Pellegrino
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 114
      Author(s): Cristina Scarpazza, Manuela Sellitto, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
      Optimal intertemporal decisions arise from the balance between an emotional-visceral component, signaling the need for immediate gratification, and a rational, long-term oriented component. Alexithymia, a personality construct characterized by amplified sensitivity to internal bodily signals of arousal, may result in enhanced activation of the emotional-visceral component over the cognitive-rational one. To test this hypothesis, participants with high- and low-alexithymia level were compared at an intertemporal decision-making task, and their choice behavior correlated with their interoceptive sensitivity. We show that high-alexithymic tend to behave more impatiently than low-alexithymic in intertemporal decisions, particularly when the sooner reward is immediately available. Moreover, the greater their sensitivity to their own visceral sensations, the greater the impatience. Together, these results suggest a disproportionate valuation of reward available immediately in high alexithymia, possibly reflecting heightened perception of bodily physiological signals, which ultimately would bias their intertemporal decision-making.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T08:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • The spatial relations between stimulus and response determine an absolute
           visuo-haptic calibration in pantomime-grasping
    • Authors: Shirin Davarpanah Jazi; Matthew Heath
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 114
      Author(s): Shirin Davarpanah Jazi, Matthew Heath
      Pantomime-grasps entail a response to an area adjacent to (i.e., spatially dissociated pantomime-grasp), or previously occupied by (i.e., no-target pantomime-grasp) a target. Previous work has reported that pantomime-grasps differ kinematically from naturalistic grasps (i.e., grasping a physical target object) – a result taken to evince that pantomime-grasps are perception-based and mediated via relative visual information. However, such actions differ not only in terms of their visual properties, but also because the former precludes haptic feedback related to a target’s absolute size. The current study provides four experiments examining whether experimenter-induced haptic feedback influences the information mediating spatially dissociated and no-target pantomime-grasps. Just-noticeable-difference scores were computed to determine whether grasps adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical properties of Weber’s law. Spatially dissociated pantomime-grasps performed with haptic feedback adhered to Weber’s law (Experiments 1–3), whereas their no-target pantomime-grasp counterparts violated the law (Experiment 4). Accordingly, we propose that the top-down demands of decoupling stimulus-response relations in spatially dissociated pantomime-grasping renders aperture shaping via a visual percept that is not directly influenced by the integration of haptic feedback. In turn, the decreased top-down demands of no-target pantomime-grasps allows haptic feedback to serve as a reliable sensory resource supporting an absolute visuo-haptic calibration.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T08:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • Effects of handedness & saccadic bilateral eye movements on the
           specificity of past autobiographical memory & episodic future thinking
           
    • Authors: Andrew Parker; Adam Parkin; Neil Dagnall
      Pages: 40 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 114
      Author(s): Andrew Parker, Adam Parkin, Neil Dagnall
      The present research investigated the effects of personal handedness and saccadic eye movements on the specificity of past autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking. Handedness and saccadic eye movements have been hypothesised to share a common functional basis in that both influence cognition through hemispheric interaction. The technique used to elicit autobiographical memory and episodic future thought involved a cued sentence completion procedure that allowed for the production of memories spanning the highly specific to the very general. Experiment 1 found that mixed-handed (vs. right handed) individuals generated more specific past autobiographical memories, but equivalent numbers of specific future predictions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that following 30s of bilateral (horizontal) saccades, more specific cognitions about both the past and future were generated. These findings extend previous research by showing that more distinct and episodic-like information pertaining to the self can be elicited by either mixed-handedness or eye movements. The results are discussed in relation to hemispheric interaction and top-down influences in the control of memory retrieval.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T08:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • That note sounds wrong! Age-related effects in processing of musical
           expectation
    • Authors: Andrea R. Halpern; Ioanna Zioga; Martin Shankleman; Job Lindsen; Marcus T. Pearce; Joydeep Bhattarcharya
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Andrea R. Halpern, Ioanna Zioga, Martin Shankleman, Job Lindsen, Marcus T. Pearce, Joydeep Bhattarcharya
      Part of musical understanding and enjoyment stems from the ability to accurately predict what note (or one of a small set of notes) is likely to follow after hearing the first part of a melody. Selective violation of expectations can add to aesthetic response but radical or frequent violations are likely to be disliked or not comprehended. In this study we investigated whether a lifetime of exposure to music among untrained older adults would enhance their reaction to unexpected endings of unfamiliar melodies. Older and younger adults listened to melodies that had expected or unexpected ending notes, according to Western music theory. Ratings of goodness-of-fit were similar in the groups, as was ERP response to the note onset (N1). However, in later time windows (P200 and Late Positive Component), the amplitude of a response to unexpected and expected endings was both larger in older adults, corresponding to greater sensitivity, and more widespread in locus, consistent with a dedifferentiation pattern. Lateralization patterns also differed. We conclude that older adults refine their understanding of this important aspect of music throughout life, with the ability supported by changing patterns of neural activity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T15:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Verbal and musical short-term memory: Variety of auditory disorders after
           stroke
    • Authors: Catherine Hirel; Norbert Nighoghossian; Yohana Lévêque; Salem Hannoun; Lesly Fornoni; Sébastien Daligault; Patrick Bouchet; Julien Jung; Barbara Tillmann; Anne Caclin
      Pages: 10 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
      Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks. All participants then performed verbal and musical auditory short-term memory (STM) tasks that were implemented in the same way for both materials. Participants had to indicate whether series of four words or four tones presented in pairs, were the same or different. To detect domain-general STM deficits, they also had to perform a visual STM task. Behavioral results showed that patients had lower performance for the STM tasks in comparison with control participants, regardless of the material (words, tones, visual) and the lesion side. The individual patient data showed a double dissociation between some patients exhibiting verbal deficits without musical deficits or the reverse. Exploratory VLSM analyses suggested that dorsal pathways are involved in verbal (phonetic), musical (melodic), and visual STM, while the ventral auditory pathway is involved in musical STM.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Improved cognition while cycling in Parkinson’s disease patients and
           healthy adults
    • Authors: Audrey A. Hazamy; Lori J.P. Altmann; Elizabeth Stegemöller; Dawn Bowers; Hyo Keun Lee; Jonathan Wilson; Michael S. Okun; Chris J. Hass
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Audrey A. Hazamy, Lori J.P. Altmann, Elizabeth Stegemöller, Dawn Bowers, Hyo Keun Lee, Jonathan Wilson, Michael S. Okun, Chris J. Hass
      Persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task. Participants with and without PD completed a battery of 12 cognitive tasks assessing visual and verbal processing in the following cognitive domains: speed of processing, controlled processing, working memory and executive function. Persons with PD exhibited impairments compared to healthy participants in select tasks (i.e., 0-back, 2-back and operation span). Further, both groups unexpectedly exhibited dual task facilitation of response times in visual tasks across cognitive domains, and improved verbal recall during an executive function task. Only one measure, 2-back, showed a speed-accuracy trade-off in the dual task. These results demonstrate that, when paired with a motor task in which they are not impaired, people with PD exhibit similar DTEs on cognitive tasks as HOAs, even when these task effects are facilitative. More generally, these findings demonstrate that pairing cognitive tasks with cycling may actually improve cognitive performance which may have therapeutic relevance to cognitive decline associated with aging and PD pathology.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Non-invasive brain stimulation targeting the right fusiform gyrus
           selectively increases working memory for faces
    • Authors: Tad T. Brunyé; Joseph M. Moran; Amanda Holmes; Caroline R. Mahoney; Holly A. Taylor
      Pages: 32 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Tad T. Brunyé, Joseph M. Moran, Amanda Holmes, Caroline R. Mahoney, Holly A. Taylor
      The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann’s Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0.5mA versus 1.5mA intensity; a separate control group received no stimulation. Participants completed a working memory task for face and house stimuli, varying in memory load from 1 to 4 items. Individual differences measures assessed trait-based differences in facial recognition skills. Results showed 1.5mA intensity stimulation (versus 0.5mA and control) increased performance at high memory loads, but only with faces. Lower overall working memory capacity predicted a positive impact of tDCS. Results provide support for the notion of functional specialization of the right fusiform regions for maintaining face (but not non-face object) stimuli in working memory, and further suggest that low intensity electrical stimulation of this region may enhance demanding face working memory performance particularly in those with relatively poor baseline working memory skills.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • A right hemisphere advantage at early cortical stages of processing
           alphanumeric stimuli. Evidence from electrophysiology
    • Authors: Dariusz Asanowicz; Rolf Verleger; Lena Kruse; Kathrin Beier; Kamila Śmigasiewicz
      Pages: 40 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Dariusz Asanowicz, Rolf Verleger, Lena Kruse, Kathrin Beier, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
      This study investigates hemispheric asymmetry evoked by non-target alphanumeric stimuli in a bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Our indicators of asymmetry are shorter latencies and larger amplitudes of the right hemisphere (RH) P1 and N1 components of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). This VEP asymmetry might reflect either a RH advantage, possibly in early perceptual processing, or for familiar stimuli, or for directing attention, or might be a paradoxical reflection of left hemisphere specialization in letter processing. Experiment 1 showed that the VEP asymmetry decreased, though remained present, with unfamiliar stimuli (Tibetan letters), as compared to familiar stimuli (Latin letters and Arabic digits). Experiment 2 showed that while leftward and rightward attentional biases affected the relation between hemispheres contra- and ipsilateral to attended visual fields, the VEP asymmetry remained independent of attention. As the most parsimonious explanation, the primary cause of the VEP asymmetry seems to be a general predominance of the RH in early perceptual processing.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Sex differences in verbal working memory performance emerge at very high
           loads of common neuroimaging tasks
    • Authors: Jessica L. Reed; Natalie M. Gallagher; Marie Sullivan; Joseph H. Callicott; Adam E. Green
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Jessica L. Reed, Natalie M. Gallagher, Marie Sullivan, Joseph H. Callicott, Adam E. Green
      Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads. A key question not yet addressed at high loads concerns the effect of sex. Thoroughgoing investigation of high-load verbal WM is thus timely to test for potential hidden effects, and to provide behavioral context for effects of sex observed in WM-related brain structure and function. We tested 111 young adults, matched on genotype for the WM-associated COMT-Val108/158Met polymorphism, on three classic WM tasks using verbal information. Each task was tested at four WM loads, including higher loads than those used in previous studies of sex differences. All tasks loaded on a single factor, enabling comparison of verbal WM ability at a construct level. Results indicated sex effects at high loads across tasks and within each task, such that males had higher accuracy, even among groups that were matched for performance at lower loads.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Knowing me, knowing you: Resting-state functional connectivity of
           ventromedial prefrontal cortex dissociates memory related to self from a
           familiar other
    • Authors: Irene de Caso; Theodoros Karapanagiotidis; Elena Aggius-Vella; Mahiko Konishi; Daniel S. Margulies; Elizabeth Jefferies; Jonathan Smallwood
      Pages: 65 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Irene de Caso, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Elena Aggius-Vella, Mahiko Konishi, Daniel S. Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
      Material related to the self, as well as to significant others, often displays mnemonic superiority through its associations with highly organised and elaborate representations. Neuroimaging studies suggest this effect is related to activation in regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Incidental memory scores for trait adjectives, processed in relation to the self, a good friend and David Cameron were collected. Scores for each referent were used as regressors in seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data performed in ventral, middle and dorsal mPFC seeds, as well as hippocampal formation. Stronger memory for self-processed items was predicted by functional connnectivity between ventral mPFC, angular gyrus and middle temporal gyri. These regions are within the default mode network, linked to relatively automatic aspects of memory retrieval. In contrast, memory for items processed in relation to best friends, was better in individuals whose ventral mPFC showed relatively weak connectivity with paracingulate gyrus as well as positive connectivity with lateral prefrontal and parietal regions associated with controlled retrieval. These results suggest that mechanisms responsible for memory related to ourselves and personally-familiar people are partially dissociable and reflect connections between ventral mPFC, implicated in schema-based memory, and regions implicated in more automatic and controlled aspects of retrieval.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Social attention in children with epilepsy
    • Authors: Judith Lunn; Tim Donovan; Damien Litchfield; Charlie Lewis; Robert Davies; Trevor Crawford
      Pages: 76 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Judith Lunn, Tim Donovan, Damien Litchfield, Charlie Lewis, Robert Davies, Trevor Crawford
      Children with epilepsy may be vulnerable to impaired social attention given the increased risk of neurobehavioural comorbidities. Social attentional orienting and the potential modulatory role of attentional control on the perceptual processing of gaze and emotion cues have not been examined in childhood onset epilepsies. Social attention mechanisms were investigated in patients with epilepsy (n=25) aged 8–18years old and performance compared to healthy controls (n=30). Dynamic gaze and emotion facial stimuli were integrated into an antisaccade eye-tracking paradigm. The time to orient attention and execute a horizontal saccade toward (prosaccade) or away (antisaccade) from a peripheral target measured processing speed of social signals under conditions of low or high attentional control. Patients with epilepsy had impaired processing speed compared to healthy controls under conditions of high attentional control only when gaze and emotions were combined meaningfully to signal motivational intent of approach (happy or anger with a direct gaze) or avoidance (fear or sad with an averted gaze). Group differences were larger in older adolescent patients. Analyses of the discrete gaze emotion combinations found independent effects of epilepsy-related, cognitive and behavioural problems. A delayed disengagement from fearful gaze was also found under low attentional control that was linked to epilepsy developmental factors and was similarly observed in patients with higher reported anxiety problems. Overall, findings indicate increased perceptual processing of developmentally relevant social motivations during increased cognitive control, and the possibility of a persistent fear-related attentional bias. This was not limited to patients with chronic epilepsy, lower IQ or reported behavioural problems and has implications for social and emotional development in individuals with childhood onset epilepsies beyond remission.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • The association between aerobic fitness and congruency sequence effects in
           preadolescent children
    • Authors: Daniel R. Westfall; Shih-Chun Kao; Mark R. Scudder; Matthew B. Pontifex; Charles H. Hillman
      Pages: 85 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Daniel R. Westfall, Shih-Chun Kao, Mark R. Scudder, Matthew B. Pontifex, Charles H. Hillman
      Aerobic fitness has previously been related to cognitive control in preadolescents; however, these investigations have generally relied on global measures of performance. Thus, we have little understanding of how aerobic fitness may relate to trial-by-trial modulations in cognitive control. This study utilized congruency sequence effects (CSEs), which characterize how behavior on the current trial is influenced by the previous trial, to investigate the relation of aerobic fitness on varying levels of cognitive control. One hundred eighty-seven children completed tests of aerobic fitness and a flanker task. Regressions were performed to determine relationships between CSE sequences and aerobic fitness while controlling for other potential confounding factors (e.g., age, sex, IQ). Lower-fit children were less able to modulate cognitive control during sequences requiring relatively less cognitive control. Additionally, lower-fit children were less able to adjust for variable levels of cognitive control during relatively more difficult sequences. Lastly, lower-fit children had longer reaction times (RTs) for all sequences in the condition requiring greater amounts of cognitive control. These findings corroborate the importance of aerobic fitness for cognitive control in school-aged children, and extend the literature by demonstrating a relationship between fitness and trial-by-trial modulations in control demands.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Which perseverative behaviors are symptoms of spatial neglect'
    • Authors: Meghan D. Caulfield; Peii Chen; Michele M. Barry; A.M. Barrett
      Pages: 93 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Meghan D. Caulfield, Peii Chen, Michele M. Barry, A.M. Barrett
      Spatial neglect is a characterized by a failure to attend or make movements towards left-sided stimuli. Common paper-and-pencil tasks to diagnose spatial neglect are sensitive to perseverative errors, including additional marks over already cancelled targets and “scribbling” out a target. Here, we examine whether functionally distinct perseverative behaviors are related to spatial neglect. Line cancellation tasks of 45 healthy controls and 220 right-hemisphere stroke survivors were examined for recurrent marks (RM) and continuous marks (CM) perseverations. We found that RM perseveration correlated with neglect severity, while CM perseveration did not. Examination of lesion profiles for the two groups indicated distinct anatomical correlates, with RM lesions overlapping regions implicated in spatial neglect including the rolandic operculum, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Objects rapidly prime the motor system when located near the dominant hand
    • Authors: Paula J. Rowe; Corinna Haenschel; Maciej Kosilo; Kielan Yarrow
      Pages: 102 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Paula J. Rowe, Corinna Haenschel, Maciej Kosilo, Kielan Yarrow
      Objects are said to automatically “afford” various actions depending upon the motor repertoire of the actor. Such affordances play a part in how we prepare to handle or manipulate tools and other objects. Evidence obtained through fMRI, EEG and TMS has proven that this is the case but, as yet, the temporal evolution of affordances has not been fully investigated. The aim here was to further explore the timing of evoked motor activity using visual stimuli tailored to drive the motor system. Therefore, we presented three kinds of stimuli in stereoscopic depth; whole hand grasp objects which afforded a power-grip, pinch-grip objects which afforded a thumb and forefinger precision-grip and an empty desk, affording no action. In order to vary functional motor priming while keeping visual stimulation identical, participants adopted one of two postures, with either the dominant or non-dominant hand forward. EEG data from 29 neurologically healthy subjects were analysed for the N1 evoked potential, observed in visual discrimination tasks, and for the N2 ERP component, previously shown to correlate with affordances (Proverbio, Adorni, & D’Aniello, 2011). We observed a link between ERPs, previously considered to reflect motor priming, and the positioning of the dominant hand. A significant interaction was detected in the left-hemisphere N2 between the participants’ posture and the object category they viewed. These results indicate strong affordance-related activity around 300ms after stimulus presentation, particularly when the dominant hand can easily reach an object.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Defective imitation of finger configurations in patients with damage in
           the right or left hemispheres: An integration disorder of visual and
           somatosensory information?
    • Authors: Manabu Okita; Takashi Yukihiro; Kenzo Miyamoto; Shu Morioka; Hideto Kaba
      Pages: 109 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Manabu Okita, Takashi Yukihiro, Kenzo Miyamoto, Shu Morioka, Hideto Kaba
      To explore the mechanism underlying the imitation of finger gestures, we devised a simple imitation task in which the patients were instructed to replicate finger configurations in two conditions: one in which they could see their hand (visual feedback: VF) and one in which they could not see their hand (non-visual feedback: NVF). Patients with left brain damage (LBD) or right brain damage (RBD), respectively, were categorized into two groups based on their scores on the imitation task in the NVF condition: the impaired imitation groups (I-LBD and I-RBD) who failed two or more of the five patterns and the control groups (C-LBD and C-RBD) who made one or no errors. We also measured the movement-production times for imitation. The I-RBD group performed significantly worse than the C-RBD group even in the VF condition. In contrast, the I-LBD group was selectively impaired in the NVF condition. The I-LBD group performed the imitations at a significantly slower rate than the C-LBD group in both the VF and NVF conditions. These results suggest that impaired imitation in patients with LBD is partly due to an abnormal integration of visual and somatosensory information based on the task specificity of the NVF condition.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Brain processing of visual metaphors: An electrophysiological study
    • Authors: Maria J. Ortiz; M.D. Grima Murcia; E. Fernandez
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition, Volume 113
      Author(s): Maria J. Ortiz, M.D. Grima Murcia, E. Fernandez


      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:29:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Force related hemodynamic responses during execution and imagery of a hand
           grip task: A functional near infrared spectroscopy study
    • Authors: Selina C. Wriessnegger; Daniela Kirchmeyr; Günther Bauernfeind; Gernot R. Müller-Putz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Selina C. Wriessnegger, Daniela Kirchmeyr, Günther Bauernfeind, Gernot R. Müller-Putz
      We examined force related hemodynamic changes during the performance of a motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) task by means of multichannel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses of fourteen healthy participants were measured while they performed a hand grip execution or imagery task with low and high grip forces. We found an overall higher increase of [oxy-Hb] concentration changes during ME for both grip forces but with a delayed peak maximum for the lower grip force. During the MI task with lower grip force, the [oxy-Hb] level increases are stronger compared to the MI with higher grip force. The facilitation in performing MI with higher grip strength might thus indicate less inhibition of the actual motor act which could also explain the later increase onset of [oxy-Hb] in the ME task with the lower grip force. Our results suggest that execution and imagery of a hand grip task with high and low grip forces, leads to different cortical activation patterns. Since impaired control of grip forces during object manipulation in particular is one aspect of fine motor control deficits after stroke, our study will contribute to future rehabilitation programs enhancing patient's grip force control.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.010
       
  • Slower resting alpha frequency is associated with superior localisation of
           moving targets
    • Authors: Christina J. Howard; Craig P.A. Arnold; Matthew K. Belmonte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Christina J. Howard, Craig P.A. Arnold, Matthew K. Belmonte
      We examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of individual differences in the ability to maintain up-to-date representations of the positions of moving objects. In two experiments similar to the multiple object tracking (MOT) task, we asked observers to monitor continuously one or several targets as they moved unpredictably for a semi-random period. After all objects disappeared, observers were immediately prompted to report the perceived final position of one queried target. Precision of these position reports declined with attentional load, and reports tended to best resemble positions occupied by the queried target between 0 and 30ms in the past. Measurement of event-related potentials showed a contralateral delay activity over occipital scalp, maximal in the right hemisphere. The peak power-spectral frequency of observers’ eyes-closed resting occipital alpha oscillations reliably predicted performance, such that lower-frequency alpha was associated with superior spatial localisation. Slower resting alpha might be associated with a cognitive style that depends less on memory-related processing and instead emphasises attention to changing stimuli.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.008
       
  • Binocular rivalry after right-hemisphere stroke: Effects of attention
           impairment on perceptual dominance patterns
    • Authors: Kjersti Mæhlum Walle; Hillary Lynn Kyler; Jan Egil Nordvik; Frank Becker; Bruno Laeng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Kjersti Mæhlum Walle, Hillary Lynn Kyler, Jan Egil Nordvik, Frank Becker, Bruno Laeng
      Binocular rivalry is when perception fluctuates while the stimuli, consisting of different images presented to each eye, remain unchanged. The fluctuation rate and predominance ratio of these images are regarded as information source for understanding properties of consciousness and perception. We administered a binocular rivalry task to 26 right-hemisphere stroke patients and 26 healthy control participants, using stimuli such as simple Gabor anaglyphs. Each single Gabor image was of unequal spatial frequency compared to its counterpart, allowing assessment of the effect of relative spatial frequency on rivalry predominance. Results revealed that patients had significantly decreased alternation rate compared to healthy controls, with severity of patients’ attention impairment predicting alternation rates. The patient group had higher predominance ratio for high compared to low relative spatial frequency stimuli consistent with the hypothesis that damage to the right hemisphere may disrupt processing of relatively low spatial frequencies. Degree of attention impairment also predicted the effect of relative spatial frequencies. Lastly, both groups showed increased predominance rates in the right eye compared to the left eye. This right eye dominance was more pronounced in patients than controls, suggesting that right hemisphere stroke may additionally affect eye predominance ratios.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:23:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.007
       
  • Simultaneous learning of two languages from birth positively impacts
           intrinsic functional connectivity and cognitive control
    • Authors: Shanna Kousaie; Xiaoqian J. Chai; Kaija M. Sander; Denise Klein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Shanna Kousaie, Xiaoqian J. Chai, Kaija M. Sander, Denise Klein
      This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals. These findings demonstrate that the timing of language learning may have an impact on cognitive control, with the simultaneous learning of two languages being associated with more optimal brain connectivity for cognitive control compared to sequential language learning.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T15:48:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.003
       
  • When noise is beneficial for sensory encoding: Noise adaptation can
           improve face processing
    • Authors: Claudia Menzel; Gregor U. Hayn-Leichsenring; Christoph Redies; Kornél Németh; Gyula Kovács
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Claudia Menzel, Gregor U. Hayn-Leichsenring, Christoph Redies, Kornél Németh, Gyula Kovács
      The presence of noise usually impairs the processing of a stimulus. Here, we studied the effects of noise on face processing and show, for the first time, that adaptation to noise patterns has beneficial effects on face perception. We used noiseless faces that were either surrounded by random noise or presented on a uniform background as stimuli. In addition, the faces were either preceded by noise adaptors or not. Moreover, we varied the statistics of the noise so that its spectral slope either matched that of the faces or it was steeper or shallower. Results of parallel ERP recordings showed that the background noise reduces the amplitude of the face-evoked N170, indicating less intensive face processing. Adaptation to a noise pattern, however, led to reduced P1 and enhanced N170 amplitudes as well as to a better behavioral performance in two of the three noise conditions. This effect was also augmented by the presence of background noise around the target stimuli. Additionally, the spectral slope of the noise pattern affected the size of the P1, N170 and P2 amplitudes. We reason that the observed effects are due to the selective adaptation of noise-sensitive neurons present in the face-processing cortical areas, which may enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T15:48:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.006
       
  • Memory and time: Backward and forward telescoping in Alzheimer’s
           disease
    • Authors: Mohamad El Haj; Steve M.J. Janssen; Pascal Antoine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Mohamad El Haj, Steve M.J. Janssen, Pascal Antoine
      Backward and forward telescoping are opposite timing biases. The former refers to misattributing events to earlier dates, whereas the latter refers to misattributing events to later dates. The present study investigated both biases in participants with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and healthy older adults, matched on age, sex, and education level. Participants were asked to recall the years when five remote and five recent public events had occurred. They were also assessed with a cognitive and clinical battery that included a context memory task on which they had to associate letters and locations. Results showed backward telescoping for recent events and forward telescoping for remote events in AD participants and older adults. Furthermore, poorer context recall was observed in AD participants and older adults displaying backward telescoping than in those displaying forward telescoping. These findings suggest an association between the amount of contextual information recalled and the direction of the timing bias. Backward telescoping can be associated with deficiencies in retrieving context characteristics of events, which have been associated with retrograde amnesia and pathological changes to the hippocampus in AD.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.005
       
  • Atypical activation of action-semantic network in adolescents with autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Tracey A. Knaus; Claire Burns; Jodi Kamps; Anne L. Foundas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Tracey A. Knaus, Claire Burns, Jodi Kamps, Anne L. Foundas
      In typical adults, fMRI studies have shown activation of primary and pre-motor regions during action word processing. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments. ASD studies have shown atypical semantic processing and motor deficits. The objective of this study was to examine semantic processing of verbs in ASD. 15 ASD adolescents and 19 typically developing adolescents, 11–16years, completed a semantic similarity judgment task during fMRI. There were no differences in task accuracy or reaction time. At the group level, both groups had activation in left language areas; controls, but not ASD, also had activation in the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). In ASD, less left frontal activation and reduced left lateralization of activation within these regions was associated with shorter reaction times and better language skills. More left temporal activation was associated with better language abilities in ASD. Differences in pre-SMA activation may relate to motor planning deficits or differences in approach to the semantic task in ASD. Results suggest that left frontal language areas may be less efficient in ASD and those who can compensate by recruiting more right hemisphere homologues may result in better language abilities.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.004
       
  • The effect of integration masking on visual processing in perceptual
           categorization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Sébastien Hélie
      Learning to recognize and categorize objects is an essential cognitive skill allowing animals to function in the world. However, animals rarely have access to a canonical view of an object in an uncluttered environment. Hence, it is essential to study categorization under noisy, degraded conditions. In this article, we explore how the brain processes categorization stimuli in low signal–to–noise conditions using multivariate pattern analysis. We used an integration masking paradigm with mask opacity of 50%, 60%, and 70% inside a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The results show that mask opacity affects blood–oxygen–level dependent (BOLD) signal in visual processing areas (V1, V2, V3, and V4) but does not affect the BOLD signal in brain areas traditionally associated with categorization (prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus). This suggests that when a stimulus is difficult to extract from its background (e.g., low signal–to–noise ratio), the visual system extracts the stimulus and that activity in areas typically associated with categorization are not affected by the difficulty level of the visual conditions. We conclude with implications of this result for research on visual attention, categorization, and the integration of these fields.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T03:46:39Z
       
  • The role of dorsal premotor cortex in mental rotation: A transcranial
           magnetic stimulation study
    • Authors: Giorgia Cona; Giulia Panozzo; Carlo Semenza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Giorgia Cona, Giulia Panozzo, Carlo Semenza
      Although activation of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been consistently observed in the neuroimaging studies of mental rotation, the functional meaning of PMd activation is still unclear and multiple alternative explanations have been suggested. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of PMd in mental rotation. Two tasks were used, involving mental rotation of hands and abstract objects, with either matching (same stimuli) or mirror stimuli. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS over right and left PMd regions significantly affected accuracy in the object task, specifically for the same stimuli. Furthermore, response times were longer following right PMd stimulation in both the object and the hand tasks, but again, selectively for the same stimuli. The effect of rotational angle on response times and accuracies was greater for the same stimuli. Moreover TMS over PMd impaired the performance accuracy selectively in these stimuli, mainly in a task that included abstract objects. For these reasons, the present findings indicate a contribution of PMd to mental rotation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T03:46:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.06.002
       
  • Associations between cortical thickness and neurocognitive skills during
           childhood vary by family socioeconomic factors
    • Authors: Natalie H. Brito; Luciane R. Piccolo; Kimberly G. Noble
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Natalie H. Brito, Luciane R. Piccolo, Kimberly G. Noble
      Studies have reported associations between cortical thickness (CT) and socioeconomic status (SES), as well as between CT and cognitive outcomes. However, findings have been mixed as to whether CT explains links between SES and cognitive performance. In the current study, we hypothesized that this inconsistency may have arisen from the fact that socioeconomic factors (family income and parental education) may moderate the relation between CT and neurocognitive skills. Results indicated that associations between CT and cognitive performance did vary by SES for both language and executive function (EF) abilities. Across all ages, there was a negative correlation between CT and cognitive skills, with thinner cortices associated with higher language and EF scores. Similarly, across all cognitive skills, children from higher-SES homes outperformed their age-matched peers from lower-SES homes. Moderation analyses indicated that the impact of SES was not constant across CT, with SES more strongly predictive of EF skills among children with thicker cortices and more strongly predictive of language skills among children with thinner cortices. This suggests that socioeconomic advantage may in some cases buffer against a neurobiological risk factor for poor performance. These findings suggest that links between brain structure and cognitive processes vary by family socioeconomic circumstance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.007
       
  • Gaze detection and gaze cuing in Alzheimer’s disease
    • Authors: Pauline M. Insch; Gillian Slessor; Jill Warrington; Louise H. Phillips
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Brain and Cognition
      Author(s): Pauline M. Insch, Gillian Slessor, Jill Warrington, Louise H. Phillips
      People with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) show problems with social processing in tasks which require the understanding of others’ mental states. However traditional social processing tasks are cognitively complex, which may influence the effects of AD. Less is known about how AD influences more basic aspects of social perception, such as the ability to decode eye gaze direction or follow the gaze of another. The current research assessed whether those with AD showed difficulty in both explicitly decoding subtle manipulations of gaze direction (Study 1), and reflexively following another’s eye gaze (Study 2). Those with AD were more impaired than a matched control group when making explicit discrimination distinctions between direct and averted gaze. In contrast people with Alzheimer’s disease performed comparably to a control group when following gaze. This pattern indicates that more automatic aspects of social perception such as gaze following are unaffected by AD. In contrast, more controlled processes such as deciding whether someone is looking towards you are impaired in AD. This has implications for socially engaging with other people and interpreting their focus of interest.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T08:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2017.03.004
       
 
 
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