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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1404 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (18 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (245 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (32 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (19 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (151 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (40 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (632 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (40 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (211 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (632 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
OGIRISI : a New Journal of African Studies     Open Access  
Öneri Dergisi     Open Access  
Opcion     Open Access  
Open Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Opticon1826     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbis. Revista Cientifica Ciencias Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oregon Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal  
Outlines. Critical Practice Studies     Open Access  
Pacific Northwest Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Palgrave Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pandora's Box     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Panorama     Open Access  
Papeles de Europa     Open Access  
Parity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Península     Open Access  
Pensamento & Realidade. Revista do Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Administração     Open Access  
People and Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
People and Society (Mens & Maatschappij)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Percurso Acadêmico     Open Access  
Perfiles Latinoamericanos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Periférica. Revista para el análisis de la cultura y el territorio     Open Access  
Persona y Bioetica     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Perspective Youth Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives on Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Philippine Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Philosophy & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Planning News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Poblacion de Buenos Aires     Open Access  
Polêm!ca     Open Access  
Polis : Revista Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Ponto-e-Vírgula. Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Portuguese Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal  
Portularia     Open Access  
Postmodern Openings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PRACS : Revista Eletrônica de Humanidades do Curso de Ciências Sociais da UNIFAP     Open Access  
Primeiros Estudos - Revista de Graduação em Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
PRISMA Economia - Società - Lavoro     Full-text available via subscription  
Problems of Economic Transition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Problems of Post-Communism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 534)
Protée     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia y Ciencia Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatrie et violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Public Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Public Sector     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PUBLICAR. En Antropología y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Qatar Foundation Annual Research Forum Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Qualit@s Revista Eletrônica     Open Access  
Qualitative Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Quarterly Essay     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Qui Parle : Critical Humanities and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ra Ximhai     Open Access  
Realidad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access  
Recherches sociographiques     Full-text available via subscription  
REDHECS     Open Access  
Reencuentro     Open Access  
Reflets : revue d'intervention sociale et communautaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reflexiones     Open Access  
Relaciones Internacionales     Open Access  
Relaciones. Estudios de historia y sociedad     Open Access  
Representation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Research on Language and Social Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Researcher : A Research Journal of Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Rethinking Marxism: A Journal of Economics, Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Review of Social Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Review of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista ABRA : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Capital Científico     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Revista CITECSA : Ciencia, Tecnología, Sociedad y Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Collectivus     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Conexão UEPG     Open Access  
Revista Cronos     Open Access  
Revista CS en Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Sociales (Cl)     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Sociales (Ve)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de El Colegio de San Luis     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Estudos Sociais     Open Access  
Revista de Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
Revista de Teoria y Didáctica de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista del Centro de Investigacion. Universidad La Salle     Open Access  
Revista do Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica do Curso de Direito da UFSM     Open Access  
Revista Española de Discapacidad     Open Access  
Revista Estudios     Open Access  
Revista Estudios Hemisféricos y Polares     Open Access  
Revista Extraprensa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Guará     Open Access  
Revista Ingenierías Universidad de Medellín     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, SOCIOTAM     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Metodología de la Investigación Social     Open Access  
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Revista Palobra     Open Access  
Revista Pensamiento Americano     Open Access  
Revista Pós Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Revista Prelúdios     Open Access  
Revista Produção e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Revista San Gregorio     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Equidad     Open Access  
Revista Venezolana de Análisis de Coyuntura     Open Access  
Revue de l'OCDE sur le développement     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue de la régulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de Synthèse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revue du Nouvel-Ontario     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue européenne des sciences sociales     Open Access  
Revue multidisciplinaire sur l'emploi, le syndicalisme et le travail     Full-text available via subscription  
RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
RIMCIS : International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Rivista di Sessuologia Clinica     Full-text available via subscription  
RSF : The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Runa : Archivo para las Ciencias del Hombre     Open Access  
Rural Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Social Science Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
SAGE Open     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Schmollers Jahrbuch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sciences de la société     Open Access  
Self and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
SHS Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Si Somos Americanos     Open Access  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Social & Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social and Basic Sciences Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Development Issues     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Social Research : An International Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Social Science & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Social Science Computer Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Science Today     Open Access  
Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Sciences Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social Sciences in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Studies and the Young Learner     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Social Studies of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Social Transformations : Journal of the Global South     Full-text available via subscription  
Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access  
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access  
Sociétés & Représentations     Full-text available via subscription  
Socio     Open Access  
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Soundings : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sozial Extra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Sozialer Fortschritt     Full-text available via subscription  
Space and Culture, India     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Strates     Open Access  
Studia Zamorensia (segunda etapa)     Open Access  
Studies in Multidisciplinarity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Subjectivity     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Suma de Negocios     Open Access  
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sydney Papers, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Symmetry     Open Access  
Symposion : Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Tangent     Hybrid Journal  
Társadalomkutatás     Full-text available via subscription  
TechTrends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tempo Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tendencias & Retos     Open Access  
Terra Nueva Etapa     Open Access  
Textos & Contextos (Porto Alegre)     Open Access  
The New Yorker     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
  [SJR: 0.78]   [H-I: 12]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0276-5624
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Organizational environments and bonus payments: rent destruction or rent
           sharing?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Michael Schweiker, Martin Groß
      This paper investigates the impact that firms have on the amount of bonus payments employees receive from their employer. Bonus payments are an important component of a firm's pay regime and, like with wages, are subject to an interactional process of claims-making. Depending on the organizational environment, claims can be enforced more or less successfully by certain groups. Hence, we expect different effects depending on the organizational environment of a firm as well as interactions between individual attributes. We use four samples (1995, 2001, 2006, and 2010) of the German Structure of Earnings Survey (GSES), a large dataset linking employers to employees, employing unconditional quantile regression and detailed decomposition to trace the influence of three firm characteristics (mean human capital, stability, coverage by collective agreement) on bonus payments and the change of this relations between 1995 and 2010. We find that all three firm characteristics have considerable impact on bonuses and that the effects vary substantially along the bonus distribution. Over time, powerful employees seem to increase their share of the firm's revenue (rent sharing), while less powerful employees are less likely to secure their relatively small bonuses (rent destruction).


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T15:45:20Z
       
  • They May Not Have the Skills, but They Have the Desire: Why the Skill
           Composition of Trade Unions Matters for Wage Inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Kyung Joon Han, Eric Graig Castater
      There has been a scholarly consensus that greater union strength translates into lower levels of wage inequality. However, recent evidence indicates that this union effect disappeared in the 1990s. We argue that unions still reduce wage inequality, but that their effect is dependent on the type of workers that are actually unionized. Using survey data, we construct a variable that measures the proportion of union members that are unskilled manual workers in twenty wealthy democracies. We find that as the share of these workers rises, wage inequality falls, regardless of the level of union density, the level of union coverage, or whether a country has liberal, mixed, or coordinated market economy. However, the proportion of union members that are unskilled manual workers has no effect on wage inequality when wage bargaining institutions are decentralized, likely because such workers are unable to extract wage gains from their more skilled and higher paid union brethren in such an institutional context. These results suggest that the unitary actor assumption, so commonly employed by scholars to explain union effects on political and socio-economic outcomes, is misplaced; and that even though politicians may be more responsive to the policy preferences of the wealthy, poorer individuals can achieve relative economic gains when properly organized.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T15:45:20Z
       
  • Education as a positional good: Implications for social inequalities in
           educational attainment in Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 43
      Author(s): Moris Triventi, Nazareno Panichella, Gabriele Ballarino, Carlo Barone, Fabrizio Bernardi
      The article examines trends of social inequalities in educational attainment in the second half of the twentieth century in Italy, comparing two approaches. The traditional approach uses years of education as a dependent variable and implicitly looks at the absolute/nominal value of education. The second approach refers to education as a ‘positional good’ and it captures its possibly changing occupational value over time. In this article, following this second perspective, two measures are developed and used: the Educational Competitive Advantage Score (ECAS) measures the value of educational degrees on the basis of their incidence in the population (credential inflation perspective). The second is an effect-proportional scale of education based on the average occupational prestige attained by individuals in each qualification (demand–supply balance perspective). Using data with large sample size from three waves of the Istat Multi-Purpose Survey (1998, 2003 and 2009), the article shows that inequalities based both on social class of origin and parental education declined between 1940 and 1980 birth cohorts, but the effect of parental education reduced less and it is stronger than that of social class in recent cohorts. Considering education as a positional good does not change the main findings obtained using years of education as outcome in the Italian case.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • Educational attainment - relative or absolute - as a mediator of
           intergenerational class mobility in Britain
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 43
      Author(s): Erzsébet Bukodi, John H. Goldthorpe
      In recent years much research has been concerned with the patterns of association that exist between individuals’ class origins, their educational attainment, and their eventual class destinations – the ‘OED triangle’. In particular, interest has focused on the possible role of educational expansion and reform in weakening the net association between class origins and destinations or, that is, increasing social fluidity, and thus countering other tendencies, such as increasing inequalities of condition, likely to reduce fluidity. In this paper we examine trends in the OED triangle in Britain on the basis of data from three successive birth cohort studies. We advance on previous research in measuring individuals’ educational attainment not only in absolute but also in relative terms – i.e. in this latter respect treating education as a ‘positional’ good. We show that measuring education in these two different ways leads to significantly differing results. In general, when education is measured in relative terms, associations within the OED triangle show a greater stability over time.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • School-to-work transitions across time and place—Introduction and
           summary
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Marlis Buchmann, Heike Solga



      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • Gender and the returns to attractiveness
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 44
      Author(s): Jaclyn S. Wong, Andrew M. Penner
      This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to (1) replicate research that documents a positive association between physical attractiveness and income; (2) examine whether the returns to attractiveness differ for women and men; and 3) explore the role that grooming plays in the attractiveness-income relationship. We find that attractive individuals earn roughly 20 percent more than people of average attractiveness, but this gap is reduced when controlling for grooming, suggesting that the beauty premium can be actively cultivated. Further, while both conventional wisdom and previous research suggest the importance of attractiveness might vary by gender, we find no gender differences in the attractiveness gradient. However, we do find that grooming accounts for the entire attractiveness premium for women, and only half of the premium for men. Our findings underscore the social construction of attractiveness, and in doing so illuminate a key mechanism for attractiveness premia that varies by gender.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • The suitability of tax data to study trends in inequality—A
           theoretical and empirical review with tax data from Switzerland
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 44
      Author(s): Oliver Hümbelin, Rudolf Farys
      In many countries results of inequality trends are ambiguous, because different methodological approaches blur the picture or because reliable data are not available. In this paper we assess whether tax data are suitable for the analysis of inequality trends. We do so by comparing tax data measurement concepts concerning income definition, statistical units and population coverage to theoretical-ideal concepts. We use Swiss tax data as an example to obtain a sense of the general direction and magnitude of potential biases and advantages. We therefore estimate the impact of the methodological options for measuring inequality based on tax data by comparing aggregated tax statistics and micro tax data results to corresponding results taken from surveys. While there are clear advantages to using tax data, such as long-term availability and reliable population coverage in more recent years, there are also drawbacks that lead to an overestimation of inequality based on aggregated tax statistics and hinder comparability over time. In sum, tax data are a source that should be used with care, but nonetheless seem to be indispensable for the analysis of inequality. Finally our estimations raise doubts about whether surveys are able to adequately track changes in income distribution tails, due to the undercoverage of very poor and very rich households.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • How schools structure opportunity: The role of curriculum and placement in
           math attainment
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 44
      Author(s): Will Tyson, Josipa Roksa
      Most of the research on math attainment focuses on whether students begin the 9th grade in algebra 1, geometry, or algebra 2, and how that affects their subsequent progression through math sequences. While providing valuable insights, this focus on vertical differentiation among math courses fails to consider the horizontal differentiation existing at the same math level (e.g., remedial, general, and honors versions of the same course). This study uses statewide longitudinal administrative transcript data to examine the consequences of horizontal differentiation in algebra 1, the most common ninth grade math course. Analyses reveal that many students were placed into remedial or honors algebra 1 despite not having corresponding low or high eighth grade math standardized test scores. The consequences of placement into less rigorous math courses were very difficult to overcome, even accounting for eighth grade test scores and ninth grade achievement. In addition, school algebra 1 curriculum was associated with attainment beyond students’ own course placement. These findings offer important insights into how school curricula structure opportunities, with implications for both theory and practice.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • Revisiting the Welfare State Paradox: A Firm-Level Analysis from Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Eunmi Mun, Mary C. Brinton
      Many cross-national studies of welfare states and gender inequality report adverse effects of work-family policies on women’s labor market outcomes. Countries with generous work-family policies tend to have a lower proportion of women in positions of authority and greater occupational sex segregation than countries without such policies. In order to explain this paradox, scholars have argued that work-family policies may create incentives for employers to exclude women from well-paying jobs. This argument, however, has been left untested due to the absence of firm-level data on promotions. This paper seeks to make both a theoretical and an empirical contribution to this literature. At the theoretical level, we argue that the effect of work-family policies is contingent upon labor market context and organizational practices, which shape employers’ incentives or disincentives to implement work-family policies to more fully utilize female workers. Empirically, we use over-time firm-level data to test how government policy interventions in Japan to increase work-family benefits have affected female promotion rates in private companies. Analyzing changes in women’s promotion rates across 1000 large companies from 1987 to 2009, we find evidence that employers have tended to promote more, not fewer, women subsequent to policy interventions. Additionally, employers who provided more generous work-family benefits promoted more women. Our findings point to the importance of labor market context in structuring employers’ incentives to leverage work-family policy reforms to utilize skilled female labor.


      PubDate: 2016-04-02T14:30:02Z
       
  • The Structure of Internal Job Mobility and Organizational Wage Inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Steve McDonald, Richard A. Benton
      The movement of people among jobs within an organization reflects a process of relational position-taking − a contest among individuals for valued resources. The structure of this mobility offers clues regarding the relational dynamics associated with position-taking and how these processes might vary across low and high inequality organizations. We explore these issues using data on intra-organizational mobility networks from 7347 workers in 428 positions in 11 distribution centers from a national grocery store chain. Exponential random graph models are used to identify the local network features that characterize each organization’s pattern of job mobility. This approach is then supplemented with meta-regression that examines the extent to which those network features are associated with organizational inequality (the wage gap between supervisors and non-supervisors). Organizational inequality is unrelated to the presence of purely structural mobility features (density, reciprocity, or transitivity), but instead is characterized by the confluence of mobility structure and positional hierarchy. The findings demonstrate that workers have fewer mobility pathways into high wage jobs in high inequality organizations than in low inequality organizations.


      PubDate: 2016-04-02T14:30:02Z
       
  • Congested Credentials: The Material and Positional Economies of Getting
           Schooled
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): David B. Bills



      PubDate: 2016-03-23T13:07:38Z
       
  • Introduction the Special Issue: Education as a Positional Good
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Yossi Shavit, Hyunjoon Park



      PubDate: 2016-03-23T13:07:38Z
       
  • The Absolute and Relative Values of Education and the Inequality of
           Educational Opportunity: Trends in Access to Education in Postwar Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Sho Fujihara, Hiroshi Ishida
      We propose three models of measuring the value of educational attainment, and we investigated using these models the changes in the effect of fathers’ education on educational attainment during the course of educational expansion in post-war Japan. The first model corresponds to a notion of the absolute level of educational attainment and the other two models present a conceptualization of educational achievement that considers education from a relative point of view. We used the data from the Social Stratification and Social Mobility surveys and the Japanese Life Course Panel surveys. The results showed that when we used years of schooling as an indicator of educational attainment in absolute terms, the inequality of educational opportunity by social background was reduced during the post-war period, and the least advantaged group benefited most from the general upgrading of education. However, when we measured the relative value of education by its occupational return in the labor market or by individuals’ ranking within the distribution of education, we observed an increasing gap between individuals whose fathers graduated from high school and those with university-educated fathers in access to advantageous education. We discuss the implications of these diverging findings.


      PubDate: 2016-03-18T12:25:53Z
       
  • Education Effects on the School-to-Work Transition in Egypt: A Cohort
           Comparison of Labor Market Entrants 1970–2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Stefanie Heyne, Michael Gebel
      Against the background of profound social and economic changes, this paper analyzes patterns of school-to-work transition for four cohorts of Egyptian school leaver during the period from 1970–2012. Using retrospective longitudinal data from the Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey 2012 our analyses reveal for women a U-shaped and for men an L-shaped relationship between education and transition rates to first job. We also find a divergent role of education for access to different labor market segments. Specifically, there is a strong positive education gradient on the probability of finding a first job in the privileged public sector and a reversed effect for access to the private informal sector for both men and women. Regarding time trends we find, counter to what is often suspected, that later cohorts of school leaver do not make slower first employment transitions than earlier cohorts. Males from later cohort have even higher transition rates to first jobs than earlier cohorts. For men, returns to higher education are decreasing with respect to the transition rate to the first job and remain stable at positive levels with respect to public sector access probability. For women, returns to higher education remain stable at positive levels with respect to the transition rate to the first job and are strongly increasing with respect to public sector access probability. These differences reflect that alternative employment opportunities in the private sector are education- and gender-specific.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Entering the highest and the lowest incomes: Intergenerational
           determinants and early-adulthood transitions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Outi Sirniö, Pekka Martikainen, Timo M. Kauppinen
      Early-adulthood transitions contribute to socioeconomic attainment, and these early-adulthood life courses are partly influenced by family background. Less is known about how parental background and early-adulthood transitions jointly determine chances of entering the most and the least affluent positions in society. Using a longitudinal, register-based data set, this study examines the intergenerational and life-course mechanisms related to entry into income quintiles in Finland among those born between 1972 and 1975, with follow-up until their mid-30s. The specific focus is to test whether a more affluent origin compensates for less favorable transitions in early adulthood. Parental income predicts entry to the lowest and the highest incomes in adulthood. Those with high-income parents are less likely to enter the middle income than those with low parental income, especially among men. The effects of lower educational achievement are compensated for by higher parental income among men, whereas women with higher education are more likely to benefit from their higher origin. High-income parents also protect from the harmful effects of long-term unemployment on adult income, although this compensatory effect disappears when long-term unemployment spells are very frequent. The positive parental income effect does not vary according to the age of having the first child, however, and does not apply to women with a more highly educated partner. These results indicate that the effects of early-adulthood transitions on income attainment differ across parental background groups, implying that those with higher origin have more beneficial resources. The mechanisms also vary by gender, possibly reflecting the strongly segregated labor markets in Finland.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Diverse Pathways in Becoming an Adult: The Role of Structure, Agency and
           Context
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Ingrid Schoon, Mark Lyons-Amos
      Although the transition from education to work has been a topic of much research, there is still lack of understanding regarding experiences of recent cohorts of young people. Moreover, much of the debate has focused on the polarization of youth transitions, at the neglect of a large group of young people who fall outside this dualism. This paper introduces a diverse pathways view offering a more comprehensive understanding of changing youth transitions and examines how transitions are shaped by interactions between structure and individual agency. The study is based on data from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) and the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UK-HLS) using sequence analysis to identify transition patterns among cohorts born in 1980-84 and 1985-1989. Five distinct clusters could be identified, differentiating between those who participate in extended education, two pathways dominated by continuous employment, either directly after completing compulsory schooling at age 16 or after some further education, and two pathways characterized by exclusion from the labor market (either through prolonged experience of unemployment or inactivity). Both structural and agency variables are associated with variations in transition patterns, pointing to the need of conceptualizing the role of the agent as well as that of structures and resources for a better understanding of the processes underlying the selection into different pathways.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Merit and Blame in Unequal Societies: Explaining Latin Americans’
           Beliefs about Wealth and Poverty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Mauricio Bucca
      Popular beliefs about the causes of inequality are often thought to reflect the actual processes behind social stratification. We use the case of Latin America to challenge this assumption. In these rigid and unequal societies, people are more likely to believe that wealth and poverty depend on individual merits or faults rather than structural constraints. Drawing on data from the 2007 Social Cohesion Survey, we use multinomial logistic regression and counterfactual simulation to investigate the factors that drive popular beliefs about wealth and poverty at the individual level, as well its distribution across countries. Our findings provide partial support to theories maintaining that being in an advantaged social position leads to favoring individualistic beliefs. We, however, report a novel effect of social class. More importantly, we show that unobserved country-level factors are the most powerful predictors and the only source of cross-country variation in the distribution of beliefs about the origins of inequality, thus ruling out a compositional explanation for cross-country heterogeneity.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Conspicuous consumption among Hispanics: Evidence from the Consumer
           Expenditure Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 44
      Author(s): Igor Ryabov
      Ethnic disparities in consumption patterns (clothing, jewellery, cars, etc.) have been a focus of social research for decades, yet little attention has been paid to conspicuous consumption and the relative importance of ethnicity and social class as its determinants. In an attempt to fill in this gap and to deconstruct the monolithic category of Hispanic consumers, the present study used nationally-representative data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) to investigate the expenditure patterns of Hispanic consumer households, with a special focus on conspicuous consumption. On the theoretical plane, this study evaluated two alternative explanations of the propensity to consume conspicuous items among ethnic minority households – conspicuous consumption and compensatory consumption theories. The findings demonstrated that, as compared to other Hispanic groups, Cuban Americans tended to spend less on conspicuous items. With the exception of Cuban Americans, Hispanics residing in more affluent neighbourhoods were prone to allocate greater shares of their expenditure to conspicuous goods. We also found a positive association between sociolinguistic assimilation into Anglo culture and conspicuous consumption of Hispanic households.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Social Status Attainment and Racial Category Selection in the Contemporary
           United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Robert DeFina, Lance Hannon
      Numerous studies have shown that individuals can change how they racially self-identify over time, potentially in response to changes in educational and occupational attainment. The value of that evidence is somewhat diminished, however, by reliance on survey questions about racial identity that are inconsistent over time. This study offers new evidence based on the 2008-2012 General Social Survey panel, which uses a consistent question about self-declared race throughout. Those data are used to estimate transition tables and fixed effects panel models, in which an individual's probability of choosing a racial category depends on social status indicators. We find that, on average, fluctuations in an individual's income, educational attainment and employment status are not significantly related to changes in racial self-identity in the contemporary United States. These results obtain for the total sample and for populations that historically have been more likely to change (Hispanics, Native Americans and individuals who identify as multi-racial). Implications for theory and policy are discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Compressed, postponed, or disadvantaged? School-to-work-transition
           patterns and early occupational attainment in West Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Christian Brzinsky-Fay, Heike Solga
      We study school-to-work-transition (STWT) patterns and early occupational attainment for five West German birth cohorts. Although these cohorts experienced very different macro conditions, their STWTs were facilitated by Germany's strong vocational education and training (VET) system. The main research question is whether linearity of STWTs differed across and within cohorts. Linearity concerns the normatively expected order of different activity statuses during this life phase. High linearity is ideal-typically defined as entering VET or tertiary education programs after leaving general education, followed by rather direct entry into employment. Non-linear patterns diverge from this ordering or may also include other status activities, like unemployment and inactivity. We use data of the Adult Starting Cohort of the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS) and employ sequence analysis and regression methods. Our analyses reveal that the proportion of young people experiencing the ideal-typical transition patterns increased over the cohorts. Yet, the degree of non-linearity (in terms of number of status activities and status shifts, and some non-employment experience) of these ideal-typical STWT patterns also increased over the cohorts. Moreover, we find strong differences between men and women in early occupational attainment. Higher-educated women in particular had higher risks of long-term disadvantage, whereas men were able to compensate for disadvantages by achieving higher educational attainment and establishing themselves more quickly in the labor market.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
       
  • Family background and contemporary changes in young adults’
           school-work transitions and family formation in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Chelsea Smith, Robert Crosnoe, Shih-Yi Chao
      The oft-discussed lengthening of the transition into adulthood is unlikely uniform across diverse segments of the population. This study followed youth in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts (n =12,686 and 8,984, respectively) from 16 to 32 years old to investigate this trend in the United States, examining cross-cohort changes in transitions with a focus on differences by family background. Logistic regressions revealed that young adults in the most recent cohort were less likely to have completed schooling, fully entered the labor force, married, or become parents by their 30s than those in the older cohort. The cross-cohort drop in young adults completing schooling was more pronounced among youth from more disadvantaged family backgrounds, the drop in entering the labor force and having children was more pronounced among those from more advantaged backgrounds, and the drop in marriage did not differ by family background.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
       
  • New dimensions of educational inequality: Changing patterns of combining
           college and work in the U.S. over time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Felix Weiss, Josipa Roksa
      Expansion of an educational system is often accompanied by differentiation. In the U.S., expansion of higher education included an increasing reliance on work. For a growing proportion of students, including those of traditional college-going age, going to college also involved going to work. This raises a crucial question of whether this form of differentiation has altered the patterns of inequality in higher education. While growing proportions of disadvantaged students are entering higher education, are they increasingly depending on work during their studies? We address this question using data from two waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97). We begin by presenting longitudinal profiles of engagement in school and work for young adults in the 1980s and 2000s. Following, we conduct multivariate analyses predicting the number of hours students are working while enrolled in college in two time periods. Presented analyses reveal a substantial amount of stability in social class inequality over time, with a modest increase in inequality among students attending four-year institutions full-time. Implications of these findings for policy and research on social stratification are discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
       
  • Intergenerational transmission of education in Europe: Do more
           comprehensive education systems reduce social gradients in student
           achievement?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Kaspar Burger
      Research has examined how education systems affect student achievement. Much of this research has compared comprehensive systems of schooling with tracked (selective) systems with regard to the degree to which they influence social class gradients in educational achievement. This study looks at comprehensive schooling in a broader way. Using standardised cross-national data for 31 European countries, it examines whether the comprehensiveness of education systems–in terms of pre-primary education, public/private sectors, educational tracking, and annual instruction time–contributes to explain the transmission of educational advantage from parents to children. Results suggest that the effect of parental education on a child's educational achievement is stronger in highly tracked education systems and in systems with a shorter annual instruction time. However, the social composition of a school's student population also affects the intergenerational transmission of education, and it interacts with the annual instruction time, such that the effect of school social composition on a child's achievement is stronger in education systems with a longer instruction time. This challenges the theory that by extending the school year policymakers could minimise social inequality in education (a theory that would be confirmed if we looked only at micro-level data). The findings inform debates about the influence of education policies on social stratification and mobility in Europe.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
       
  • Delayed transitions in times of increasing uncertainty: School-to-work
           transition and the delay of first marriage in Jordan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Michael Gebel, Stefanie Heyne
      This paper describes and analyzes determinants and changes of the timing of transition to first marriage in Jordan for four birth cohorts born between 1950 and 1989. Using large-scale, nationally representative life history data from the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey 2010 and applying event history analyses, we find clear gender differences in marriage patterns and a general trend towards a delay of first marriage in Jordan. Regarding the determinants of individual marriage timing, we find for both men and women that individual education enrollment delays marriage, whereas the effect of the education level is hump-shaped and less pronounced. Inactivity and unemployment delays first marriage for men whereas inactive women experience early marriage. Men and women in public sector jobs make faster transition to first marriage than those in informal jobs. Regarding the changes across cohorts, our results show that the educational expansion partly explains the increasing marriage age of women but not for men. Changes in labor market activities and job quality across cohorts can only in part explain the increasing marriage age in Jordan. Popular explanations that the delay of marriage is caused by rising marriage costs or the marriage squeeze can be rejected.


      PubDate: 2016-01-30T22:25:42Z
       
  • Shadow Education and Educational Inequality in South Korea: Examining
           Effect Heterogeneity of Shadow Education on Middle School Seniors’
           Achievement Test Scores
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Yool Choi, Hyunjoon Park
      We examine the heterogeneous effects of private supplementary education, often called shadow education, on math test scores by propensity to use shadow education among middle school seniors in Korea. Our approach moves beyond existing studies that mostly assumed a uniform effect of shadow education across students of different characteristics. By applying two different propensity models - stratification-multilevel and smoothing-differencing methods, we find that the effect of intense shadow education significantly varies by the likelihood of using shadow education. Specifically, the positive effect of intense math shadow education is much stronger for students who have a lower propensity to use shadow education than their counterparts with a higher propensity. Considering that students who are least likely to use shadow education tend to have disadvantaged social backgrounds, we discuss implications for educational inequality of our findings that show the largest benefits of shadow education for most disadvantaged students.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
       
  • A generation lost? Prolonged effects of labour market entry in times
           of high unemployment in the Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Maarten H.J. Wolbers
      After the economic crisis of the 1980s, concerns arose about whether the high youth unemployment at that time would produce a ‘lost generation’ of young people in the Netherlands. The same concerns have recently arisen about the potential effects of the current high rate of youth unemployment. The issue is just how justified such concerns are. In order to answer this question, we investigated the permanence of initial labour market disadvantages for cohorts of young people in the Netherlands. Repeated cross-sections of the Dutch Labour Force Survey (1993-2011) were used and a synthetic cohort analysis was applied in order to ‘follow’ cohorts of young people throughout their early years on the labour market. Negative effects of high initial unemployment on later chances of work and attained level of occupation were detected. However, these negative effects started to dissipate after a few years on the labour market. These findings show the average negative effects of high initial unemployment on labour market entry to not be permanent: young people in the Netherlands experience negative effects of initially high unemployment on labour market entry, but these effects do not produce a lost generation.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
       
  • Parental Education, Class and Income over Early Life Course and Children's
           Achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Jani Erola, Sanni Jalonen, Hannu Lehti
      Very few studies on intergenerational achievement consider the high correlation between separate measures of parental socioeconomic position and possible life course variation in their significance for children. We analyse how socioeconomic characteristics of mothers and fathers over children's life course explain children's occupational outcomes in adulthood. Using Finnish register data, we matched the occupational position (ISEI) of 29,282 children with information on parents’ education, occupational class and income when children are 0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, 20–24 and 25–29 years old. We fit three-level random effects linear regression models and decompose family-level variance of siblings’ ISEI by each measure of parental status. We show that parental education explains family variation in siblings’ occupation most and income explains it least. Status characteristics of fathers together explain approximately half of children's outcomes, and those of mothers explain slightly less. These explanations vary only a little during children's life course. We also find that independent, non-overlapping effects of observed parental indicators vary over time. Mothers’ education explains independently most in infancy, whereas that of fathers in early adulthood. The influence of class alone is minor and time constant, but the effect of income alone was negligible over the entire follow-up. The independent effects are overall relatively small. The largest proportion of children's outcomes explained by these parental measures is shared and cannot be decomposed into independent effects. We conclude that bias due to ignoring life course variation in studies on intergenerational attainment is likely to be small.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
       
  • Occupational Mobility Chains and the Role of Job Opportunities for Upward,
           Lateral and Downward Mobility in Switzerland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Stefan Sacchi, Irene Kriesi, Marlis Buchmann
      This paper addresses the rarely studied relationship between job vacancies and inter-firm upward, lateral, and downward status mobility in an occupationally segmented labor market, taking Switzerland as the example. To conceptualize mobility mechanisms in this type of labor market, we introduce the concept of “occupational mobility chains” and test its validity. This concept provides the backdrop for developing time-dependent measures of individual job opportunities based on Swiss Job Monitor data. We link these measures with career data taken from the Swiss Life History Study and employ event history analysis to test different propositions of the ways in which status mobility is contingent on the number and the status of vacant positions. Results support our assumption that in occupationally segmented labor markets vacant positions affect status mobility only to the degree that they are located within workers’ occupational mobility chains.


      PubDate: 2015-12-13T06:17:43Z
       
  • Educational Outcomes of Asian and Hispanic Americans: The Significance of
           Skin Color
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Igor Ryabov
      Existing evidence suggests that skin tone is an important determinant of one's life chances. Although social science research has a strong tradition of elucidating the link between race and educational outcomes, the effect of skin color on educational attainment has not received adequate attention. The main objective of the present investigation was, using a nationally representative longitudinal data, to evaluate educational attainment of Asian American and Hispanic young adults in the United States as a function of skin tone and other co-variates. Separate analyses were carried out for Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, other Hispanics, East Asian, Filipino American and other Asians. Additional analyses were conducted on a subsample of sibling pairs of Asian and Hispanic origin. Control variables included family socio-economic background, parental involvement, family social support, average school SES and others. Although we observed a certain degree of cross-ethnic heterogeneity, the results consistently point to a strong association between educational attainment and the lightness of skin tone. The findings also suggest that the aforementioned relationship is the strongest among U.S. young adults of Filipino and Puerto Rican descent.


      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:51:09Z
       
  • What makes education positional? Institutions, overeducation and the
           competition for jobs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Valentina Di Stasio, Thijs Bol, Herman G. Van de Werfhorst
      We compare three theoretical models for the relationship between schooling and labor market outcomes. On the one hand, the job competition model, which views education as a positional good with relative value on the labor market; on the other hand, the human capital and the social closure models, which view the value of education as absolute but differ in their expectations about returns to years of education above what required for the job. We analyze European countries using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and investigate the incidence of overeducation and the returns to years of overeducation in order to distinguish between the three theoretical models. We then relate these theoretical perspectives to institutions of the education system and of labor market coordination. Our empirical results indicate that education is more likely to function as a positional good in countries with weakly developed vocational education systems, where individuals have an incentive to acquire higher levels of education in order to stay ahead of the labor queue. However, no convincing support was found for the relationship we hypothesized between wage coordination and returns to years of overeducation.


      PubDate: 2015-09-29T13:46:19Z
       
  • The openness of Britain during industrialisation. Determinants of career
           success of British men born between 1780 and 1880
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Cristóbal Montt Volosky, Ineke Maas
      In this article we study the occupational careers of British men during industrialisation. We ask whether careers became more successful during industrialisation and whether British society became more open. Using the Longitudinal Study of Residential Histories dataset we analysed the career of 6,229 men born between 1780 and 1880 with a multilevel growth model. Over time men's careers became somewhat more successful: men started their careers at a higher occupational status, but status did not grow at a faster rate. Father's occupational status and son's education were main determinants of career success. The importance of education did not increase, but the relevance of father's status declined, suggesting that with industrialisation Britain became a more open society.


      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
       
  • Race, gender, and public-sector work: Prioritizing occupational values as
           a labor market privilege
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Lauren Benditt
      This paper examines the role of occupational values injob choice. Using public service motivation (PSM), a value orientation associated with public workers, this analysis predicts public sector employment using a mixed-methods approach: a quantitative analysis of the 2006 General Social Survey and a qualitative analysis of 87 semi-structured interviews with state government workers in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Oregon. The results indicate variation within the public employee population in the effect of PSM on choosing to work in the public sector. They also suggest that prioritizing values in occupational choice may be a luxury, and assuming shared occupational values lacks consideration of the underlying rationales some individuals use when choosing a job.


      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
       
  • Inequality in social capital and labour market re-entry among unemployed
           people
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Giuliano Bonoli, Nicolas Turtschi
      Research on social capital inequality has tended to emphasize the fact that the distribution of social capital follows that of other resources, with the result that it tends to amplify social inequalities. More elaborated theoretical accounts and some empirical studies suggest, however, that under some circumstances, social capital can actually compensate for disadvantage in social position. In this paper we test these competing hypotheses on a population of newly unemployed people in the Swiss canton of Vaud (N= 3’521). It appears that in most cases the distribution of social capital reflects that of other dimensions of stratification that are associated with labour market disadvantage, such as education, immigrant status, gender, and occupational status. On one important component of social capital, the number of work-related contacts, some immigrant groups score better than Swiss nationals. While this is an important predictor of early exit from unemployment, it fails to translate into an improvement of labour market prospects for the relevant immigrant groups, most likely because its effect is counteracted by more powerful forces such as inequality in skills and discrimination.


      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
       
  • Temporal Developments in Intergenerational Transmission of Education: Case
           for Black South Africans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Prudence Kwenda, Miracle Ntuli, Tendai Gwatidzo
      This paper investigates trends in intergenerational transmission of education among black South Africans – changes in correlation between parents’ and children's education. Using data for 1954-1993 birth cohorts, we find a decrease in intergenerational transmission of education over the last four decades. The decline is strongest in the lower tail of the educational distribution. Nevertheless, a considerable portion of children's education still depends on family background. Children from poor educational backgrounds face significant barriers to attaining higher levels of education while the reverse applies to those from rich backgrounds. This suggests that initiatives to weaken the intergenerational link, particularly at higher levels of education, should target the offspring of educationally deprived parents.


      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
       
  • Social Capital and Immigrant Wealth Inequality: Visa Sponsorship and the
           Role of Ties, Education, and Race/Ethnicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Matthew A. Painter
      This paper examines how immigrants’ social capital affects their wealth holdings in the United States. I conceptualize visa sponsorship as a form of social capital and focus on three important factors – strength of ties, educational attainment, and race/ethnicity – that shape the relationship between immigrants’ social capital and wealth. I use the New Immigrant Survey and find that the relationship between visa sponsorship and wealth differs both by the strength of an immigrants’ tie to their network and their education. Notably, race/ethnicity only consistently stratifies the wealth of immigrants with employment sponsorship. Taken together, these results provide unique insight into immigrants’ economic integration in the United States and point to immigrants’ social capital as an important mechanism for wealth inequality.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:19:18Z
       
  • CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN THE AMERICAN CLASS STRUCTURE: WORKPLACE OWNERSHIP
           AND AUTHORITY RELATIONS FROM 1972 TO 2010
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Geoffrey T. Wodtke
      This study investigates changes in the American class structure—defined in terms of workplace ownership and authority relations—and trends in status group disparities in class attainment from 1972 to 2010. Although theory and prior research suggest a variety of appreciable changes in class structure and class attainment, data from the General Social Survey indicate that the sizes of different classes remained fairly stable during this time period and that status group disparities in access to ownership and authority persisted largely intact. The 1970s witnessed a decline in the proportion of workers and growth in the proportion of managers and proprietors, but these trends reversed in the 1980s. As a result, by the late 2000s, the ownership and authority structure of the U.S. economy closely resembled that of the early 1970s. Racial and gender disparities in class attainment also did not change significantly over time: blacks and women remained underrepresented (relative to whites and men) in positions of ownership and authority throughout this period. Even after controlling for an extensive set of human capital characteristics, family constraints, and structural economic factors, there is little evidence of status group integration across these key dimensions of economic power.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:19:18Z
       
  • What Do Computers Really Do? Computerization, Fading Pay-Setting
           Institutions and Rising Wage Inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Tali Kristal, Yinon Cohen
      In this paper we advance the argument that the widespread assumption that computerization and institutional changes are independent explanations for the resurgence of wage inequality is inaccurate. Instead we posit for complex dynamics between computerization and fading pay-setting institutions, arguing that the latter is a mechanism by which the former operates. To test our argument that computerization increases wage inequality not only via the mechanisms specified by skill-biased Technological Change, but also indirectly through structural processes, we utilize longitudinal U.S. industrial-level data on computerization, pay-setting institutions, and wage inequality. Estimating Error Correction Models, we find a stronger longitudinal association between computerization and wage inequality in industries where labor processes were subject to both computerization and the breakup of pay-setting institutions (such as labor unions) than in industries where these institutions never had much of a presence. These findings provide some evidence that computerization operates also through the mechanism of weakening labor market institutions.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T22:20:51Z
       
  • The High Cost of Missing a Boat under the Japanese Recruitment Practices:
           Timing of Regular and Non-Regular Employment after School Completion in
           Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Eric Fong , Junya Tsutsui
      We explored the timing of obtaining regular and non-regular employment after school completion in Japan. Our study is based on a unique longitudinal data set, the Japanese Life Course Panel Survey. The results capture a peculiar recruitment system of the Japanese youth labor market. The likelihood of regular employment after school completion in Japan is highly influenced by the number of years after school completion. The likelihood of obtaining a regular job drops drastically after the first year. As job seekers realize that this employment window is closing, they look for non-regular employment. Our study also shows that educational level has a significant effect on the likelihood of overall employment and of regular employment after school completion. However, the effect is quickly diminished within a few years. In other words, the benefit of investing in additional years of education in order to secure a job applies for only a short time. Finally, our study suggests that gender is not significant to securing a regular job as the first job after school completion. Taken together, the results demonstrate how individuals are “channeled” to regular and non-regular employments is related to the unique recruitment system in Japan.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:44:54Z
       
  • Socioeconomic inequality in access to high-status colleges: A
           cross-country comparison
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): John Jerrim , Anna K. Chmielewski , Phil Parker
      This paper considers the relationship between family background, academic achievement in high school and access to high-status postsecondary institutions in three developed countries (Australia, England and the United States). We begin by estimating the unconditional association between family background and access to a high status university, before examining how this relationship changes once academic achievement in high school is controlled. Our results suggest that high achieving disadvantaged children are much less likely to enter a high-status college than their more advantaged peers, and that the magnitude of this socio-economic gradient is broadly similar across these three countries. However, we also find that socio-economic inequality in access to high-status private US colleges is much more pronounced than access to their public sector counterparts (both within the US and when compared overseas).


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:44:54Z
       
  • The Effect of Grandparents’ Economic, Cultural, and Social Capital
           on Grandchildren's Educational Success
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Stine Møllegaard Pedersen , Mads Meier Jæger
      This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural and social capital should be relatively more important. Our results partly confirm these hypotheses since, after controlling for parents’ capital, we find that grandparents’ cultural capital (but not their economic and social capital) has a positive effect on the likelihood that grandchildren choose the academic track in upper secondary education over all other tracks. These results suggest, at least in the Scandinavian context, that the ways in which grandparents affect grandchildren's educational success is via transmission of non-economic resources.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:44:54Z
       
  • Did social mobility increase during the industrialization process? A
           micro-level study of a transforming community in southern Sweden
           1828–1968
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Martin Dribe , Jonas Helgertz , Bart van de Putte
      This article studies class attainment and mobility in a long-term perspective, covering the entire transition from a preindustrial to a mature industrial society. Using longitudinal individual-level data for men in a community of southern Sweden, we test different hypotheses linking changing patterns of social mobility and status attainment to the industrialization process. The data allows an analysis of Sweden's complete transition from an agrarian to an industrialized society, and thus to comprehensively address core hypotheses in the stratification literature. Both absolute and relative mobility increased, mainly explained by upward mobility becoming more prevalent. By looking at status attainment into different segments of the middle class and elite, we also see the increasing role played by formal education and meritocracy for the opportunities of people from low-class origin to advance socially. However, this development is more connected with the maturing of industrial society than with industrialization as such.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
       
  • The effects of English training abroad on labor market outcomes in Korea
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Yool Choi
      This study examines the effects of English training abroad (hereafter ETA) on labor market outcomes in South Korea. ETA has become increasingly popular in many non-English speaking countries and refers to short-term language study training abroad where students spend anywhere from 6 months to 2 years taking language courses at an educational institutions. In this article, I conduct survival analysis and quantile regression using data from the 2007 Korea Employment Information Service's Graduate Occupational Mobility Survey. This study finds that although the average effects of ETA seem to be modest as most prior research has indicated, ETA does appear to have substantial positive effects on getting a good job and earning higher wages. ETA proved especially helpful for those who did not attend elite colleges. That is, ETA is a useful tool for students with weaker formal education (often non-elite students) to supplement their educational credentials. Based on these findings, I conclude that ETA has a substantial impact on labor market outcomes in South Korea. This means that labor market opportunities are strongly determined by an individual's socioeconomic background, as the cost of participation in ETA presents a barrier to entry for individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
       
  • Too old to work – Too young to retire
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Ely Weitz , Efrat Herzberg-Druker , Haya Stier



      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
       
  • CAN’T AFFORD A BABY? DEBT AND YOUNG AMERICANS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Michael Nau , Rachel E. Dwyer , Randy Hodson
      This article explores the role of personal debt in the transition to parenthood. We analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1997 cohort and find that for the generation coming of age in the 2000s, student loans delay fertility for women, particularly at very high levels of debt. Home mortgages and credit card debt, in contrast, appear to be precursors to parenthood. These results indicate that different forms of debt have different implications for early adulthood transitions: whereas consumer loans or home mortgages immediately increase access to consumption goods, there is often a significant delay between the accrual and realization of benefits for student loans. The double-edged nature of debt as both barrier and facilitator to life transitions highlights the importance of looking at debt both as a monetary issue and also as a carrier of social meanings.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
       
  • Nominal and Positional Perspectives on Educational Stratification in
           Israel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Assaf Rotman , Yossi Shavit , Michael Shalev
      This paper examines whether the rising accessibility of educational qualifications attenuates the association between social origin and educational attainment. Research is divided on the question of persistence of inequality of educational opportunities (IEO). Currently most studies on this issue focus on attainment of nominal levels of education and fail to acknowledge that educational expansion is accompanied by change in the value of qualifications and in their scarcity. This study employs measures of educational attainment that capture the changing scarcity and economic value of qualifications. Data from the 1995 and 2008 censuses in Israel are used to compare the association of socioeconomic origin with educational attainment between two birth cohorts. The results show that IEO tends to persist or decline, when attainment is measured in absolute terms, but tends to increase when relative measures of qualifications or measures representing their economic value are employed. The familiarity of better off parents with the school system and their awareness of changes in the value of qualifications are offered as a central factor that explains the findings.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
       
  • Where do STEM majors lose their advantage? Contextualizing horizontal
           stratification of higher education in urban China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Anning Hu , Jacob Hibel
      While the average labor market advantage of college graduates with STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) degrees relative to non-STEM students is well established, how this STEM versus non-STEM income gap varies across institutional contexts has been understudied. From the perspective of new institutionalism, we investigate the moderating effects of hierarchically situated higher education institutions and labor market sectors on the economic disparity between STEM and non-STEM majors by pooling data from two nationwide representative surveys collected in contemporary urban China. The results of median regression models suggest that (1) On average, STEM majors are more lucrative than non-STEM majors in Reform-Era China, a pattern resembling that of many other societies. (2) The vertical stratification of higher education institutions, i.e., the postsecondary education sector's segmentation into “junior” and “regular” colleges, is relevant, where a smaller STEM advantage over non-STEM fields is detected among junior college graduates after accounting for potential cohort variation. Moreover, this moderating effect of college tiers declines across birth cohorts. (3) Working in the state sector, such as the Communist Party and government department and institutions, relative to the other sectors, significantly narrows the earnings gap between STEM and non-STEM graduates. However, this labor-market-sector heterogeneity in the STEM versus non-STEM income gap also declines across birth cohorts. Theoretical implications of empirical findings are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
       
  • Communities of classes: A network approach to social mobility
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): David Melamed
      Based on recent insights in network analysis, a new approach to the analysis and interpretation of social mobility data is presented. The approach advocates using community detection methods to identify communities of classes within which classes share members at above expected rates and between which classes share members at below expected rates. This approach, when applied to mobility data, offers novel interpretations of mobility patterns and may be used to substantially improve the fit of models of social mobility. To illustrate, the community structure of social mobility is analyzed using data from the General Social Survey. Several models are employed to demonstrate both the interpretation of the community structure of social mobility as well as how the community structure may be implemented to improve model fit.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
       
  • Understanding the educational attainment of sexual minority women and men
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Stefanie Mollborn , Bethany Everett
      National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
       
  • Income inequality among older people in rapidly aging Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Sawako Shirahase
      This study examined the mechanisms by which income inequality among households with elderly members changed from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s, focusing on the transformation of household structure and on income sources. The data that I analyse in this paper comes from the Comprehensive Survey of People's Living Conditions in Japan (CSLCJ) conducted by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in the mid-1980s, the mid-1990s, and the mid-2000s. The CSLCJ is the cross-sectional data, but it fits well with our research questions because it includes the detailed income sources of every household member. Income inequality is measured by the post-transfer disposable equivalent income (with equivalent income calculated by dividing household income by the square root of household size). The sample used in the analysis is limited to those households with an elderly household member aged 65 or older. There were two measures of income inequality: (1) a squared coefficient of variance (SCV) and (2) a mean log deviation (MLD), because the SCV and the MLD are different in the extent of their sensitivity to changes in different economic groups. The former is sensitive to changes in higher income groups, whereas the latter is more sensitive to changes in lower income groups The main findings of this study can be summarized into the two points. First, income inequality among households with elderly members overall decreased after the mid-1980s. The extent of change using the SCV is higher than the extent of change using the MLD across time. This suggests a relatively large decrease in income inequality in elderly households during the bubble economy in the mid-1980s and after its collapse through the early 1990s had occurred at the high-income groups. The examination of the extent of income inequality among the elderly found that household structure is a critical factor. As of mid-2004, two-thirds of Japan's elderly population lived in one-person or couple-only households and that change in household structure relates to changes in the extent of income inequality. The decline in three-generation households lead to lowering the decline in income inequality among households with the elderly. Second, in examining the change in income package of the households with the elderly, it was found out that economic inequality is largely determined by the income of non-elderly members who co-reside with the old parents. Such a phenomenon has not changed despite the large change in the household structure with the elderly members associated with fast transformation of the population since the mid-1980s.


      PubDate: 2015-04-12T17:17:10Z
       
  • Aging workers and the experience of job loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Lora A. Phillips Lassus , Steven Lopez , Vincent J. Roscigno
      Aging workers experience the longest unemployment spells of any segment of the labor force and are much more likely than their younger counterparts to drop out of employment entirely. Yet, we still know little about aging workers’ struggles to regain employment following job loss. Do they see themselves as structurally disadvantaged? And, what are the consequences for self-perceptions, notions of fairness, and even mental health? We fill this gap by drawing on 52 semi-structured qualitative interviews with workers aged 40–65 who lost jobs during the Great Recession and have been attempting to find work since. Notable is their keen awareness of both age-specific labor market disadvantages and processes complicating re-employment for all unemployed workers during this period. Respondents articulate sophisticated analyses of how employer biases, credentialism, the job search process, and changes in the economy present very real barriers to reemployment. These perceptions and experiences, our materials suggest, have far-reaching social-psychological consequences, including loss of belief in meritocracy within major institutions; questioning of self-worth; and feelings of isolation, hopelessness and depression—consequences to which stratification scholars should devote more attention, especially since many aging workers become discouraged and eventually drop out of the labor force.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
       
 
 
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