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SOCIAL SCIENCES (635 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7     

Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription  
Genocide Studies and Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Genocide Studies International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Géographie et cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Graduate Journal of Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Grief Matters : The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of Law and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hallazgos     Open Access  
Harmoni Sosial : Jurnal Pendidikan IPS     Open Access  
He Puna Korero: Journal of Maori and Pacific Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Herencia     Open Access  
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
História e Cultura     Open Access  
Human Affairs     Open Access  
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hydra : Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IAMURE International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iberoforum. Revista de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Iberoamericana     Open Access  
Iconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IdeAs. Idées d'Amérique     Open Access  
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IDS Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Illness, Crisis & Loss     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Immigrants & Minorities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Impact     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Informes Científicos - Técnicos UNPA     Open Access  
Infrastructure Complexity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InPsych : The Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society Ltd     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interações : Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Development Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bahamian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business and Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Canadian Studies / Revue internationale d’études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Cultural Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Language and Culture     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social and Allied Research     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 168)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Is ve Insan Dergisi     Open Access  
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access  
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Family Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7     

Journal Cover Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
  [SJR: 0.78]   [H-I: 12]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0276-5624
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2805 journals]
  • Revisiting the Welfare State Paradox: A Firm-Level Analysis from Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Eunmi Mun, Mary C. Brinton
      Many cross-national studies of welfare states and gender inequality report adverse effects of work-family policies on women’s labor market outcomes. Countries with generous work-family policies tend to have a lower proportion of women in positions of authority and greater occupational sex segregation than countries without such policies. In order to explain this paradox, scholars have argued that work-family policies may create incentives for employers to exclude women from well-paying jobs. This argument, however, has been left untested due to the absence of firm-level data on promotions. This paper seeks to make both a theoretical and an empirical contribution to this literature. At the theoretical level, we argue that the effect of work-family policies is contingent upon labor market context and organizational practices, which shape employers’ incentives or disincentives to implement work-family policies to more fully utilize female workers. Empirically, we use over-time firm-level data to test how government policy interventions in Japan to increase work-family benefits have affected female promotion rates in private companies. Analyzing changes in women’s promotion rates across 1000 large companies from 1987 to 2009, we find evidence that employers have tended to promote more, not fewer, women subsequent to policy interventions. Additionally, employers who provided more generous work-family benefits promoted more women. Our findings point to the importance of labor market context in structuring employers’ incentives to leverage work-family policy reforms to utilize skilled female labor.

      PubDate: 2016-04-02T14:30:02Z
  • The Structure of Internal Job Mobility and Organizational Wage Inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Steve McDonald, Richard A. Benton
      The movement of people among jobs within an organization reflects a process of relational position-taking − a contest among individuals for valued resources. The structure of this mobility offers clues regarding the relational dynamics associated with position-taking and how these processes might vary across low and high inequality organizations. We explore these issues using data on intra-organizational mobility networks from 7347 workers in 428 positions in 11 distribution centers from a national grocery store chain. Exponential random graph models are used to identify the local network features that characterize each organization’s pattern of job mobility. This approach is then supplemented with meta-regression that examines the extent to which those network features are associated with organizational inequality (the wage gap between supervisors and non-supervisors). Organizational inequality is unrelated to the presence of purely structural mobility features (density, reciprocity, or transitivity), but instead is characterized by the confluence of mobility structure and positional hierarchy. The findings demonstrate that workers have fewer mobility pathways into high wage jobs in high inequality organizations than in low inequality organizations.

      PubDate: 2016-04-02T14:30:02Z
  • Congested Credentials: The Material and Positional Economies of Getting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): David B. Bills

      PubDate: 2016-03-23T13:07:38Z
  • Introduction the Special Issue: Education as a Positional Good
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Yossi Shavit, Hyunjoon Park

      PubDate: 2016-03-23T13:07:38Z
  • The Absolute and Relative Values of Education and the Inequality of
           Educational Opportunity: Trends in Access to Education in Postwar Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Sho Fujihara, Hiroshi Ishida
      We propose three models of measuring the value of educational attainment, and we investigated using these models the changes in the effect of fathers’ education on educational attainment during the course of educational expansion in post-war Japan. The first model corresponds to a notion of the absolute level of educational attainment and the other two models present a conceptualization of educational achievement that considers education from a relative point of view. We used the data from the Social Stratification and Social Mobility surveys and the Japanese Life Course Panel surveys. The results showed that when we used years of schooling as an indicator of educational attainment in absolute terms, the inequality of educational opportunity by social background was reduced during the post-war period, and the least advantaged group benefited most from the general upgrading of education. However, when we measured the relative value of education by its occupational return in the labor market or by individuals’ ranking within the distribution of education, we observed an increasing gap between individuals whose fathers graduated from high school and those with university-educated fathers in access to advantageous education. We discuss the implications of these diverging findings.

      PubDate: 2016-03-18T12:25:53Z
  • Education Effects on the School-to-Work Transition in Egypt: A Cohort
           Comparison of Labor Market Entrants 1970–2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Stefanie Heyne, Michael Gebel
      Against the background of profound social and economic changes, this paper analyzes patterns of school-to-work transition for four cohorts of Egyptian school leaver during the period from 1970–2012. Using retrospective longitudinal data from the Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey 2012 our analyses reveal for women a U-shaped and for men an L-shaped relationship between education and transition rates to first job. We also find a divergent role of education for access to different labor market segments. Specifically, there is a strong positive education gradient on the probability of finding a first job in the privileged public sector and a reversed effect for access to the private informal sector for both men and women. Regarding time trends we find, counter to what is often suspected, that later cohorts of school leaver do not make slower first employment transitions than earlier cohorts. Males from later cohort have even higher transition rates to first jobs than earlier cohorts. For men, returns to higher education are decreasing with respect to the transition rate to the first job and remain stable at positive levels with respect to public sector access probability. For women, returns to higher education remain stable at positive levels with respect to the transition rate to the first job and are strongly increasing with respect to public sector access probability. These differences reflect that alternative employment opportunities in the private sector are education- and gender-specific.

      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
  • Entering the highest and the lowest incomes: Intergenerational
           determinants and early-adulthood transitions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Outi Sirniö, Pekka Martikainen, Timo M. Kauppinen
      Early-adulthood transitions contribute to socioeconomic attainment, and these early-adulthood life courses are partly influenced by family background. Less is known about how parental background and early-adulthood transitions jointly determine chances of entering the most and the least affluent positions in society. Using a longitudinal, register-based data set, this study examines the intergenerational and life-course mechanisms related to entry into income quintiles in Finland among those born between 1972 and 1975, with follow-up until their mid-30s. The specific focus is to test whether a more affluent origin compensates for less favorable transitions in early adulthood. Parental income predicts entry to the lowest and the highest incomes in adulthood. Those with high-income parents are less likely to enter the middle income than those with low parental income, especially among men. The effects of lower educational achievement are compensated for by higher parental income among men, whereas women with higher education are more likely to benefit from their higher origin. High-income parents also protect from the harmful effects of long-term unemployment on adult income, although this compensatory effect disappears when long-term unemployment spells are very frequent. The positive parental income effect does not vary according to the age of having the first child, however, and does not apply to women with a more highly educated partner. These results indicate that the effects of early-adulthood transitions on income attainment differ across parental background groups, implying that those with higher origin have more beneficial resources. The mechanisms also vary by gender, possibly reflecting the strongly segregated labor markets in Finland.

      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
  • Diverse Pathways in Becoming an Adult: The Role of Structure, Agency and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Ingrid Schoon, Mark Lyons-Amos
      Although the transition from education to work has been a topic of much research, there is still lack of understanding regarding experiences of recent cohorts of young people. Moreover, much of the debate has focused on the polarization of youth transitions, at the neglect of a large group of young people who fall outside this dualism. This paper introduces a diverse pathways view offering a more comprehensive understanding of changing youth transitions and examines how transitions are shaped by interactions between structure and individual agency. The study is based on data from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) and the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UK-HLS) using sequence analysis to identify transition patterns among cohorts born in 1980-84 and 1985-1989. Five distinct clusters could be identified, differentiating between those who participate in extended education, two pathways dominated by continuous employment, either directly after completing compulsory schooling at age 16 or after some further education, and two pathways characterized by exclusion from the labor market (either through prolonged experience of unemployment or inactivity). Both structural and agency variables are associated with variations in transition patterns, pointing to the need of conceptualizing the role of the agent as well as that of structures and resources for a better understanding of the processes underlying the selection into different pathways.

      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
  • Merit and Blame in Unequal Societies: Explaining Latin Americans’
           Beliefs about Wealth and Poverty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Mauricio Bucca
      Popular beliefs about the causes of inequality are often thought to reflect the actual processes behind social stratification. We use the case of Latin America to challenge this assumption. In these rigid and unequal societies, people are more likely to believe that wealth and poverty depend on individual merits or faults rather than structural constraints. Drawing on data from the 2007 Social Cohesion Survey, we use multinomial logistic regression and counterfactual simulation to investigate the factors that drive popular beliefs about wealth and poverty at the individual level, as well its distribution across countries. Our findings provide partial support to theories maintaining that being in an advantaged social position leads to favoring individualistic beliefs. We, however, report a novel effect of social class. More importantly, we show that unobserved country-level factors are the most powerful predictors and the only source of cross-country variation in the distribution of beliefs about the origins of inequality, thus ruling out a compositional explanation for cross-country heterogeneity.

      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
  • Conspicuous consumption among Hispanics: Evidence from the Consumer
           Expenditure Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 44
      Author(s): Igor Ryabov
      Ethnic disparities in consumption patterns (clothing, jewellery, cars, etc.) have been a focus of social research for decades, yet little attention has been paid to conspicuous consumption and the relative importance of ethnicity and social class as its determinants. In an attempt to fill in this gap and to deconstruct the monolithic category of Hispanic consumers, the present study used nationally-representative data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) to investigate the expenditure patterns of Hispanic consumer households, with a special focus on conspicuous consumption. On the theoretical plane, this study evaluated two alternative explanations of the propensity to consume conspicuous items among ethnic minority households – conspicuous consumption and compensatory consumption theories. The findings demonstrated that, as compared to other Hispanic groups, Cuban Americans tended to spend less on conspicuous items. With the exception of Cuban Americans, Hispanics residing in more affluent neighbourhoods were prone to allocate greater shares of their expenditure to conspicuous goods. We also found a positive association between sociolinguistic assimilation into Anglo culture and conspicuous consumption of Hispanic households.

      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
  • Social Status Attainment and Racial Category Selection in the Contemporary
           United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Robert DeFina, Lance Hannon
      Numerous studies have shown that individuals can change how they racially self-identify over time, potentially in response to changes in educational and occupational attainment. The value of that evidence is somewhat diminished, however, by reliance on survey questions about racial identity that are inconsistent over time. This study offers new evidence based on the 2008-2012 General Social Survey panel, which uses a consistent question about self-declared race throughout. Those data are used to estimate transition tables and fixed effects panel models, in which an individual's probability of choosing a racial category depends on social status indicators. We find that, on average, fluctuations in an individual's income, educational attainment and employment status are not significantly related to changes in racial self-identity in the contemporary United States. These results obtain for the total sample and for populations that historically have been more likely to change (Hispanics, Native Americans and individuals who identify as multi-racial). Implications for theory and policy are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
  • Compressed, postponed, or disadvantaged? School-to-work-transition
           patterns and early occupational attainment in West Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Christian Brzinsky-Fay, Heike Solga
      We study school-to-work-transition (STWT) patterns and early occupational attainment for five West German birth cohorts. Although these cohorts experienced very different macro conditions, their STWTs were facilitated by Germany's strong vocational education and training (VET) system. The main research question is whether linearity of STWTs differed across and within cohorts. Linearity concerns the normatively expected order of different activity statuses during this life phase. High linearity is ideal-typically defined as entering VET or tertiary education programs after leaving general education, followed by rather direct entry into employment. Non-linear patterns diverge from this ordering or may also include other status activities, like unemployment and inactivity. We use data of the Adult Starting Cohort of the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS) and employ sequence analysis and regression methods. Our analyses reveal that the proportion of young people experiencing the ideal-typical transition patterns increased over the cohorts. Yet, the degree of non-linearity (in terms of number of status activities and status shifts, and some non-employment experience) of these ideal-typical STWT patterns also increased over the cohorts. Moreover, we find strong differences between men and women in early occupational attainment. Higher-educated women in particular had higher risks of long-term disadvantage, whereas men were able to compensate for disadvantages by achieving higher educational attainment and establishing themselves more quickly in the labor market.

      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
  • Family background and contemporary changes in young adults’
           school-work transitions and family formation in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Chelsea Smith, Robert Crosnoe, Shih-Yi Chao
      The oft-discussed lengthening of the transition into adulthood is unlikely uniform across diverse segments of the population. This study followed youth in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts (n =12,686 and 8,984, respectively) from 16 to 32 years old to investigate this trend in the United States, examining cross-cohort changes in transitions with a focus on differences by family background. Logistic regressions revealed that young adults in the most recent cohort were less likely to have completed schooling, fully entered the labor force, married, or become parents by their 30s than those in the older cohort. The cross-cohort drop in young adults completing schooling was more pronounced among youth from more disadvantaged family backgrounds, the drop in entering the labor force and having children was more pronounced among those from more advantaged backgrounds, and the drop in marriage did not differ by family background.

      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
  • New dimensions of educational inequality: Changing patterns of combining
           college and work in the U.S. over time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Felix Weiss, Josipa Roksa
      Expansion of an educational system is often accompanied by differentiation. In the U.S., expansion of higher education included an increasing reliance on work. For a growing proportion of students, including those of traditional college-going age, going to college also involved going to work. This raises a crucial question of whether this form of differentiation has altered the patterns of inequality in higher education. While growing proportions of disadvantaged students are entering higher education, are they increasingly depending on work during their studies? We address this question using data from two waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97). We begin by presenting longitudinal profiles of engagement in school and work for young adults in the 1980s and 2000s. Following, we conduct multivariate analyses predicting the number of hours students are working while enrolled in college in two time periods. Presented analyses reveal a substantial amount of stability in social class inequality over time, with a modest increase in inequality among students attending four-year institutions full-time. Implications of these findings for policy and research on social stratification are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
  • Intergenerational transmission of education in Europe: Do more
           comprehensive education systems reduce social gradients in student
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Kaspar Burger
      Research has examined how education systems affect student achievement. Much of this research has compared comprehensive systems of schooling with tracked (selective) systems with regard to the degree to which they influence social class gradients in educational achievement. This study looks at comprehensive schooling in a broader way. Using standardised cross-national data for 31 European countries, it examines whether the comprehensiveness of education systems–in terms of pre-primary education, public/private sectors, educational tracking, and annual instruction time–contributes to explain the transmission of educational advantage from parents to children. Results suggest that the effect of parental education on a child's educational achievement is stronger in highly tracked education systems and in systems with a shorter annual instruction time. However, the social composition of a school's student population also affects the intergenerational transmission of education, and it interacts with the annual instruction time, such that the effect of school social composition on a child's achievement is stronger in education systems with a longer instruction time. This challenges the theory that by extending the school year policymakers could minimise social inequality in education (a theory that would be confirmed if we looked only at micro-level data). The findings inform debates about the influence of education policies on social stratification and mobility in Europe.

      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
  • Delayed transitions in times of increasing uncertainty: School-to-work
           transition and the delay of first marriage in Jordan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Michael Gebel, Stefanie Heyne
      This paper describes and analyzes determinants and changes of the timing of transition to first marriage in Jordan for four birth cohorts born between 1950 and 1989. Using large-scale, nationally representative life history data from the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey 2010 and applying event history analyses, we find clear gender differences in marriage patterns and a general trend towards a delay of first marriage in Jordan. Regarding the determinants of individual marriage timing, we find for both men and women that individual education enrollment delays marriage, whereas the effect of the education level is hump-shaped and less pronounced. Inactivity and unemployment delays first marriage for men whereas inactive women experience early marriage. Men and women in public sector jobs make faster transition to first marriage than those in informal jobs. Regarding the changes across cohorts, our results show that the educational expansion partly explains the increasing marriage age of women but not for men. Changes in labor market activities and job quality across cohorts can only in part explain the increasing marriage age in Jordan. Popular explanations that the delay of marriage is caused by rising marriage costs or the marriage squeeze can be rejected.

      PubDate: 2016-01-30T22:25:42Z
  • Shadow Education and Educational Inequality in South Korea: Examining
           Effect Heterogeneity of Shadow Education on Middle School Seniors’
           Achievement Test Scores
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Yool Choi, Hyunjoon Park
      We examine the heterogeneous effects of private supplementary education, often called shadow education, on math test scores by propensity to use shadow education among middle school seniors in Korea. Our approach moves beyond existing studies that mostly assumed a uniform effect of shadow education across students of different characteristics. By applying two different propensity models - stratification-multilevel and smoothing-differencing methods, we find that the effect of intense shadow education significantly varies by the likelihood of using shadow education. Specifically, the positive effect of intense math shadow education is much stronger for students who have a lower propensity to use shadow education than their counterparts with a higher propensity. Considering that students who are least likely to use shadow education tend to have disadvantaged social backgrounds, we discuss implications for educational inequality of our findings that show the largest benefits of shadow education for most disadvantaged students.

      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
  • A generation lost? Prolonged effects of labour market entry in times
           of high unemployment in the Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Maarten H.J. Wolbers
      After the economic crisis of the 1980s, concerns arose about whether the high youth unemployment at that time would produce a ‘lost generation’ of young people in the Netherlands. The same concerns have recently arisen about the potential effects of the current high rate of youth unemployment. The issue is just how justified such concerns are. In order to answer this question, we investigated the permanence of initial labour market disadvantages for cohorts of young people in the Netherlands. Repeated cross-sections of the Dutch Labour Force Survey (1993-2011) were used and a synthetic cohort analysis was applied in order to ‘follow’ cohorts of young people throughout their early years on the labour market. Negative effects of high initial unemployment on later chances of work and attained level of occupation were detected. However, these negative effects started to dissipate after a few years on the labour market. These findings show the average negative effects of high initial unemployment on labour market entry to not be permanent: young people in the Netherlands experience negative effects of initially high unemployment on labour market entry, but these effects do not produce a lost generation.

      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
  • Parental Education, Class and Income over Early Life Course and Children's
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Jani Erola, Sanni Jalonen, Hannu Lehti
      Very few studies on intergenerational achievement consider the high correlation between separate measures of parental socioeconomic position and possible life course variation in their significance for children. We analyse how socioeconomic characteristics of mothers and fathers over children's life course explain children's occupational outcomes in adulthood. Using Finnish register data, we matched the occupational position (ISEI) of 29,282 children with information on parents’ education, occupational class and income when children are 0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, 20–24 and 25–29 years old. We fit three-level random effects linear regression models and decompose family-level variance of siblings’ ISEI by each measure of parental status. We show that parental education explains family variation in siblings’ occupation most and income explains it least. Status characteristics of fathers together explain approximately half of children's outcomes, and those of mothers explain slightly less. These explanations vary only a little during children's life course. We also find that independent, non-overlapping effects of observed parental indicators vary over time. Mothers’ education explains independently most in infancy, whereas that of fathers in early adulthood. The influence of class alone is minor and time constant, but the effect of income alone was negligible over the entire follow-up. The independent effects are overall relatively small. The largest proportion of children's outcomes explained by these parental measures is shared and cannot be decomposed into independent effects. We conclude that bias due to ignoring life course variation in studies on intergenerational attainment is likely to be small.

      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
  • Occupational Mobility Chains and the Role of Job Opportunities for Upward,
           Lateral and Downward Mobility in Switzerland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Stefan Sacchi, Irene Kriesi, Marlis Buchmann
      This paper addresses the rarely studied relationship between job vacancies and inter-firm upward, lateral, and downward status mobility in an occupationally segmented labor market, taking Switzerland as the example. To conceptualize mobility mechanisms in this type of labor market, we introduce the concept of “occupational mobility chains” and test its validity. This concept provides the backdrop for developing time-dependent measures of individual job opportunities based on Swiss Job Monitor data. We link these measures with career data taken from the Swiss Life History Study and employ event history analysis to test different propositions of the ways in which status mobility is contingent on the number and the status of vacant positions. Results support our assumption that in occupationally segmented labor markets vacant positions affect status mobility only to the degree that they are located within workers’ occupational mobility chains.

      PubDate: 2015-12-13T06:17:43Z
  • Educational Outcomes of Asian and Hispanic Americans: The Significance of
           Skin Color
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Igor Ryabov
      Existing evidence suggests that skin tone is an important determinant of one's life chances. Although social science research has a strong tradition of elucidating the link between race and educational outcomes, the effect of skin color on educational attainment has not received adequate attention. The main objective of the present investigation was, using a nationally representative longitudinal data, to evaluate educational attainment of Asian American and Hispanic young adults in the United States as a function of skin tone and other co-variates. Separate analyses were carried out for Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, other Hispanics, East Asian, Filipino American and other Asians. Additional analyses were conducted on a subsample of sibling pairs of Asian and Hispanic origin. Control variables included family socio-economic background, parental involvement, family social support, average school SES and others. Although we observed a certain degree of cross-ethnic heterogeneity, the results consistently point to a strong association between educational attainment and the lightness of skin tone. The findings also suggest that the aforementioned relationship is the strongest among U.S. young adults of Filipino and Puerto Rican descent.

      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:51:09Z
  • What makes education positional? Institutions, overeducation and the
           competition for jobs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Valentina Di Stasio, Thijs Bol, Herman G. Van de Werfhorst
      We compare three theoretical models for the relationship between schooling and labor market outcomes. On the one hand, the job competition model, which views education as a positional good with relative value on the labor market; on the other hand, the human capital and the social closure models, which view the value of education as absolute but differ in their expectations about returns to years of education above what required for the job. We analyze European countries using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and investigate the incidence of overeducation and the returns to years of overeducation in order to distinguish between the three theoretical models. We then relate these theoretical perspectives to institutions of the education system and of labor market coordination. Our empirical results indicate that education is more likely to function as a positional good in countries with weakly developed vocational education systems, where individuals have an incentive to acquire higher levels of education in order to stay ahead of the labor queue. However, no convincing support was found for the relationship we hypothesized between wage coordination and returns to years of overeducation.

      PubDate: 2015-09-29T13:46:19Z
  • The openness of Britain during industrialisation. Determinants of career
           success of British men born between 1780 and 1880
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Cristóbal Montt Volosky, Ineke Maas
      In this article we study the occupational careers of British men during industrialisation. We ask whether careers became more successful during industrialisation and whether British society became more open. Using the Longitudinal Study of Residential Histories dataset we analysed the career of 6,229 men born between 1780 and 1880 with a multilevel growth model. Over time men's careers became somewhat more successful: men started their careers at a higher occupational status, but status did not grow at a faster rate. Father's occupational status and son's education were main determinants of career success. The importance of education did not increase, but the relevance of father's status declined, suggesting that with industrialisation Britain became a more open society.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
  • Race, gender, and public-sector work: Prioritizing occupational values as
           a labor market privilege
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Lauren Benditt
      This paper examines the role of occupational values injob choice. Using public service motivation (PSM), a value orientation associated with public workers, this analysis predicts public sector employment using a mixed-methods approach: a quantitative analysis of the 2006 General Social Survey and a qualitative analysis of 87 semi-structured interviews with state government workers in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Oregon. The results indicate variation within the public employee population in the effect of PSM on choosing to work in the public sector. They also suggest that prioritizing values in occupational choice may be a luxury, and assuming shared occupational values lacks consideration of the underlying rationales some individuals use when choosing a job.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
  • Inequality in social capital and labour market re-entry among unemployed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Giuliano Bonoli, Nicolas Turtschi
      Research on social capital inequality has tended to emphasize the fact that the distribution of social capital follows that of other resources, with the result that it tends to amplify social inequalities. More elaborated theoretical accounts and some empirical studies suggest, however, that under some circumstances, social capital can actually compensate for disadvantage in social position. In this paper we test these competing hypotheses on a population of newly unemployed people in the Swiss canton of Vaud (N= 3’521). It appears that in most cases the distribution of social capital reflects that of other dimensions of stratification that are associated with labour market disadvantage, such as education, immigrant status, gender, and occupational status. On one important component of social capital, the number of work-related contacts, some immigrant groups score better than Swiss nationals. While this is an important predictor of early exit from unemployment, it fails to translate into an improvement of labour market prospects for the relevant immigrant groups, most likely because its effect is counteracted by more powerful forces such as inequality in skills and discrimination.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
  • Temporal Developments in Intergenerational Transmission of Education: Case
           for Black South Africans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Prudence Kwenda, Miracle Ntuli, Tendai Gwatidzo
      This paper investigates trends in intergenerational transmission of education among black South Africans – changes in correlation between parents’ and children's education. Using data for 1954-1993 birth cohorts, we find a decrease in intergenerational transmission of education over the last four decades. The decline is strongest in the lower tail of the educational distribution. Nevertheless, a considerable portion of children's education still depends on family background. Children from poor educational backgrounds face significant barriers to attaining higher levels of education while the reverse applies to those from rich backgrounds. This suggests that initiatives to weaken the intergenerational link, particularly at higher levels of education, should target the offspring of educationally deprived parents.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
  • Social Capital and Immigrant Wealth Inequality: Visa Sponsorship and the
           Role of Ties, Education, and Race/Ethnicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Matthew A. Painter
      This paper examines how immigrants’ social capital affects their wealth holdings in the United States. I conceptualize visa sponsorship as a form of social capital and focus on three important factors – strength of ties, educational attainment, and race/ethnicity – that shape the relationship between immigrants’ social capital and wealth. I use the New Immigrant Survey and find that the relationship between visa sponsorship and wealth differs both by the strength of an immigrants’ tie to their network and their education. Notably, race/ethnicity only consistently stratifies the wealth of immigrants with employment sponsorship. Taken together, these results provide unique insight into immigrants’ economic integration in the United States and point to immigrants’ social capital as an important mechanism for wealth inequality.

      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:19:18Z
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Geoffrey T. Wodtke
      This study investigates changes in the American class structure—defined in terms of workplace ownership and authority relations—and trends in status group disparities in class attainment from 1972 to 2010. Although theory and prior research suggest a variety of appreciable changes in class structure and class attainment, data from the General Social Survey indicate that the sizes of different classes remained fairly stable during this time period and that status group disparities in access to ownership and authority persisted largely intact. The 1970s witnessed a decline in the proportion of workers and growth in the proportion of managers and proprietors, but these trends reversed in the 1980s. As a result, by the late 2000s, the ownership and authority structure of the U.S. economy closely resembled that of the early 1970s. Racial and gender disparities in class attainment also did not change significantly over time: blacks and women remained underrepresented (relative to whites and men) in positions of ownership and authority throughout this period. Even after controlling for an extensive set of human capital characteristics, family constraints, and structural economic factors, there is little evidence of status group integration across these key dimensions of economic power.

      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:19:18Z
  • What Do Computers Really Do? Computerization, Fading Pay-Setting
           Institutions and Rising Wage Inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Tali Kristal, Yinon Cohen
      In this paper we advance the argument that the widespread assumption that computerization and institutional changes are independent explanations for the resurgence of wage inequality is inaccurate. Instead we posit for complex dynamics between computerization and fading pay-setting institutions, arguing that the latter is a mechanism by which the former operates. To test our argument that computerization increases wage inequality not only via the mechanisms specified by skill-biased Technological Change, but also indirectly through structural processes, we utilize longitudinal U.S. industrial-level data on computerization, pay-setting institutions, and wage inequality. Estimating Error Correction Models, we find a stronger longitudinal association between computerization and wage inequality in industries where labor processes were subject to both computerization and the breakup of pay-setting institutions (such as labor unions) than in industries where these institutions never had much of a presence. These findings provide some evidence that computerization operates also through the mechanism of weakening labor market institutions.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T22:20:51Z
  • The High Cost of Missing a Boat under the Japanese Recruitment Practices:
           Timing of Regular and Non-Regular Employment after School Completion in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Eric Fong , Junya Tsutsui
      We explored the timing of obtaining regular and non-regular employment after school completion in Japan. Our study is based on a unique longitudinal data set, the Japanese Life Course Panel Survey. The results capture a peculiar recruitment system of the Japanese youth labor market. The likelihood of regular employment after school completion in Japan is highly influenced by the number of years after school completion. The likelihood of obtaining a regular job drops drastically after the first year. As job seekers realize that this employment window is closing, they look for non-regular employment. Our study also shows that educational level has a significant effect on the likelihood of overall employment and of regular employment after school completion. However, the effect is quickly diminished within a few years. In other words, the benefit of investing in additional years of education in order to secure a job applies for only a short time. Finally, our study suggests that gender is not significant to securing a regular job as the first job after school completion. Taken together, the results demonstrate how individuals are “channeled” to regular and non-regular employments is related to the unique recruitment system in Japan.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:44:54Z
  • Socioeconomic inequality in access to high-status colleges: A
           cross-country comparison
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): John Jerrim , Anna K. Chmielewski , Phil Parker
      This paper considers the relationship between family background, academic achievement in high school and access to high-status postsecondary institutions in three developed countries (Australia, England and the United States). We begin by estimating the unconditional association between family background and access to a high status university, before examining how this relationship changes once academic achievement in high school is controlled. Our results suggest that high achieving disadvantaged children are much less likely to enter a high-status college than their more advantaged peers, and that the magnitude of this socio-economic gradient is broadly similar across these three countries. However, we also find that socio-economic inequality in access to high-status private US colleges is much more pronounced than access to their public sector counterparts (both within the US and when compared overseas).

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:44:54Z
  • The Effect of Grandparents’ Economic, Cultural, and Social Capital
           on Grandchildren's Educational Success
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Stine Møllegaard Pedersen , Mads Meier Jæger
      This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural and social capital should be relatively more important. Our results partly confirm these hypotheses since, after controlling for parents’ capital, we find that grandparents’ cultural capital (but not their economic and social capital) has a positive effect on the likelihood that grandchildren choose the academic track in upper secondary education over all other tracks. These results suggest, at least in the Scandinavian context, that the ways in which grandparents affect grandchildren's educational success is via transmission of non-economic resources.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:44:54Z
  • Did social mobility increase during the industrialization process? A
           micro-level study of a transforming community in southern Sweden
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Martin Dribe , Jonas Helgertz , Bart van de Putte
      This article studies class attainment and mobility in a long-term perspective, covering the entire transition from a preindustrial to a mature industrial society. Using longitudinal individual-level data for men in a community of southern Sweden, we test different hypotheses linking changing patterns of social mobility and status attainment to the industrialization process. The data allows an analysis of Sweden's complete transition from an agrarian to an industrialized society, and thus to comprehensively address core hypotheses in the stratification literature. Both absolute and relative mobility increased, mainly explained by upward mobility becoming more prevalent. By looking at status attainment into different segments of the middle class and elite, we also see the increasing role played by formal education and meritocracy for the opportunities of people from low-class origin to advance socially. However, this development is more connected with the maturing of industrial society than with industrialization as such.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • The effects of English training abroad on labor market outcomes in Korea
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Yool Choi
      This study examines the effects of English training abroad (hereafter ETA) on labor market outcomes in South Korea. ETA has become increasingly popular in many non-English speaking countries and refers to short-term language study training abroad where students spend anywhere from 6 months to 2 years taking language courses at an educational institutions. In this article, I conduct survival analysis and quantile regression using data from the 2007 Korea Employment Information Service's Graduate Occupational Mobility Survey. This study finds that although the average effects of ETA seem to be modest as most prior research has indicated, ETA does appear to have substantial positive effects on getting a good job and earning higher wages. ETA proved especially helpful for those who did not attend elite colleges. That is, ETA is a useful tool for students with weaker formal education (often non-elite students) to supplement their educational credentials. Based on these findings, I conclude that ETA has a substantial impact on labor market outcomes in South Korea. This means that labor market opportunities are strongly determined by an individual's socioeconomic background, as the cost of participation in ETA presents a barrier to entry for individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Pushed out prematurely? Comparing objectively forced exits and
           subjective assessments of involuntary retirement across Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Bernhard Ebbinghaus , Jonas Radl
      Given the efforts in raising the statutory pension age in an aging Europe, this cross-national analysis investigates constrained retirement from a comparative perspective. Based on a conceptualization of retirement transitions as a multi-faceted phenomenon, the study distinguishes objective (external) constraints and the subjective self-assessment of involuntary retirement. Exploiting two survey items from the fifth round of the European Social Survey (ESS Round 5, 2010/2011), we examine which workers were objectively forced to retire due to economic or health reasons as well as which workers subjectively evaluate their retirement as involuntary as they would have wished to work longer. Using multilevel modeling, the study investigates the impact of national context conditions on both the individual risk to be objectively forced to terminate work and the subjective perception of retirement as occurring too early. We analyze institutional factors such as statutory pension ages and pension generosity, but also explore the role of structural factors such as unemployment and health. At the individual level, the empirical analysis reveals that objectively forced exits and subjective involuntariness do not always overlap. Ojectively forced exits are more readily explained by socio-economic characteristics like social class and unemployment experience. At the macro level, there are considerable cross-national variations that cannot be explained by compositional factors only. Relevant predictors of international differences in constrained retriement include early retirement options, statutory pension conditions, unemployment rates, labor market regulation and life expectancy.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Too old to work – Too young to retire
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Ely Weitz , Efrat Herzberg-Druker , Haya Stier

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Michael Nau , Rachel E. Dwyer , Randy Hodson
      This article explores the role of personal debt in the transition to parenthood. We analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1997 cohort and find that for the generation coming of age in the 2000s, student loans delay fertility for women, particularly at very high levels of debt. Home mortgages and credit card debt, in contrast, appear to be precursors to parenthood. These results indicate that different forms of debt have different implications for early adulthood transitions: whereas consumer loans or home mortgages immediately increase access to consumption goods, there is often a significant delay between the accrual and realization of benefits for student loans. The double-edged nature of debt as both barrier and facilitator to life transitions highlights the importance of looking at debt both as a monetary issue and also as a carrier of social meanings.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Nominal and Positional Perspectives on Educational Stratification in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Assaf Rotman , Yossi Shavit , Michael Shalev
      This paper examines whether the rising accessibility of educational qualifications attenuates the association between social origin and educational attainment. Research is divided on the question of persistence of inequality of educational opportunities (IEO). Currently most studies on this issue focus on attainment of nominal levels of education and fail to acknowledge that educational expansion is accompanied by change in the value of qualifications and in their scarcity. This study employs measures of educational attainment that capture the changing scarcity and economic value of qualifications. Data from the 1995 and 2008 censuses in Israel are used to compare the association of socioeconomic origin with educational attainment between two birth cohorts. The results show that IEO tends to persist or decline, when attainment is measured in absolute terms, but tends to increase when relative measures of qualifications or measures representing their economic value are employed. The familiarity of better off parents with the school system and their awareness of changes in the value of qualifications are offered as a central factor that explains the findings.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Where do STEM majors lose their advantage? Contextualizing horizontal
           stratification of higher education in urban China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Anning Hu , Jacob Hibel
      While the average labor market advantage of college graduates with STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) degrees relative to non-STEM students is well established, how this STEM versus non-STEM income gap varies across institutional contexts has been understudied. From the perspective of new institutionalism, we investigate the moderating effects of hierarchically situated higher education institutions and labor market sectors on the economic disparity between STEM and non-STEM majors by pooling data from two nationwide representative surveys collected in contemporary urban China. The results of median regression models suggest that (1) On average, STEM majors are more lucrative than non-STEM majors in Reform-Era China, a pattern resembling that of many other societies. (2) The vertical stratification of higher education institutions, i.e., the postsecondary education sector's segmentation into “junior” and “regular” colleges, is relevant, where a smaller STEM advantage over non-STEM fields is detected among junior college graduates after accounting for potential cohort variation. Moreover, this moderating effect of college tiers declines across birth cohorts. (3) Working in the state sector, such as the Communist Party and government department and institutions, relative to the other sectors, significantly narrows the earnings gap between STEM and non-STEM graduates. However, this labor-market-sector heterogeneity in the STEM versus non-STEM income gap also declines across birth cohorts. Theoretical implications of empirical findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Communities of classes: A network approach to social mobility
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): David Melamed
      Based on recent insights in network analysis, a new approach to the analysis and interpretation of social mobility data is presented. The approach advocates using community detection methods to identify communities of classes within which classes share members at above expected rates and between which classes share members at below expected rates. This approach, when applied to mobility data, offers novel interpretations of mobility patterns and may be used to substantially improve the fit of models of social mobility. To illustrate, the community structure of social mobility is analyzed using data from the General Social Survey. Several models are employed to demonstrate both the interpretation of the community structure of social mobility as well as how the community structure may be implemented to improve model fit.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Understanding the educational attainment of sexual minority women and men
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Stefanie Mollborn , Bethany Everett
      National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Training opportunities for older workers in the Netherlands: A Vignette
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Kasia Karpinska , Kène Henkens , Joop Schippers , Mo Wang
      Demographic changes and labor market challenges highlight the importance of lifelong learning and development for all employees. The current study analyzes the factors that may influence managers’ propensity to offer older workers different kinds of training (specific or general). To investigate this question, a vignette study among 153 managers in Dutch organizations was conducted. Managers were randomly assigned into one of the four experimental conditions that involve a decision regarding specific or general training (aimed at internal or external mobility). The results suggest that managers perceive training incidences as a tool to increase productivity of older workers who perform well and are highly motivated, and far less as a tool to increase productivity of workers who need updating their human capital. The implication of these results is discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T17:17:10Z
  • Income inequality among older people in rapidly aging Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Sawako Shirahase
      This study examined the mechanisms by which income inequality among households with elderly members changed from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s, focusing on the transformation of household structure and on income sources. The data that I analyse in this paper comes from the Comprehensive Survey of People's Living Conditions in Japan (CSLCJ) conducted by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in the mid-1980s, the mid-1990s, and the mid-2000s. The CSLCJ is the cross-sectional data, but it fits well with our research questions because it includes the detailed income sources of every household member. Income inequality is measured by the post-transfer disposable equivalent income (with equivalent income calculated by dividing household income by the square root of household size). The sample used in the analysis is limited to those households with an elderly household member aged 65 or older. There were two measures of income inequality: (1) a squared coefficient of variance (SCV) and (2) a mean log deviation (MLD), because the SCV and the MLD are different in the extent of their sensitivity to changes in different economic groups. The former is sensitive to changes in higher income groups, whereas the latter is more sensitive to changes in lower income groups The main findings of this study can be summarized into the two points. First, income inequality among households with elderly members overall decreased after the mid-1980s. The extent of change using the SCV is higher than the extent of change using the MLD across time. This suggests a relatively large decrease in income inequality in elderly households during the bubble economy in the mid-1980s and after its collapse through the early 1990s had occurred at the high-income groups. The examination of the extent of income inequality among the elderly found that household structure is a critical factor. As of mid-2004, two-thirds of Japan's elderly population lived in one-person or couple-only households and that change in household structure relates to changes in the extent of income inequality. The decline in three-generation households lead to lowering the decline in income inequality among households with the elderly. Second, in examining the change in income package of the households with the elderly, it was found out that economic inequality is largely determined by the income of non-elderly members who co-reside with the old parents. Such a phenomenon has not changed despite the large change in the household structure with the elderly members associated with fast transformation of the population since the mid-1980s.

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T17:17:10Z
  • Employment transitions and labor market exits: Age and gender in the
           Israeli labor market
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Haya Stier , Miri Endeweld
      This study focuses on the employment difficulties of older workers in the Israeli labor market. Using administrative panel data for the years 2005–2010, it traces the employment transitions of workers and their consequences, focusing on age and gender differences. The findings show that in Israel older workers, men and women alike, are indeed less likely to leave their jobs. However, once out of the labor force, they face difficulties in finding new employment. These difficulties are severer for women than for men. Male workers who experience high instability experience job losses, with no substantial age differences. The wage penalties for women are much lower, probably because of their limited opportunities in terms of earnings.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Aging workers and the experience of job loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Lora A. Phillips Lassus , Steven Lopez , Vincent J. Roscigno
      Aging workers experience the longest unemployment spells of any segment of the labor force and are much more likely than their younger counterparts to drop out of employment entirely. Yet, we still know little about aging workers’ struggles to regain employment following job loss. Do they see themselves as structurally disadvantaged? And, what are the consequences for self-perceptions, notions of fairness, and even mental health? We fill this gap by drawing on 52 semi-structured qualitative interviews with workers aged 40–65 who lost jobs during the Great Recession and have been attempting to find work since. Notable is their keen awareness of both age-specific labor market disadvantages and processes complicating re-employment for all unemployed workers during this period. Respondents articulate sophisticated analyses of how employer biases, credentialism, the job search process, and changes in the economy present very real barriers to reemployment. These perceptions and experiences, our materials suggest, have far-reaching social-psychological consequences, including loss of belief in meritocracy within major institutions; questioning of self-worth; and feelings of isolation, hopelessness and depression—consequences to which stratification scholars should devote more attention, especially since many aging workers become discouraged and eventually drop out of the labor force.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Influences of Monetary and Nonmonetary Family Resources on Children's
           Development in Verbal Ability in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Airan Liu , Yu Xie
      This paper addresses the debate over the significance of family's monetary versus non-monetary resources for children's achievement and development, within the context of contemporary China. We use data from the 2010 baseline survey of the China Family Panel Study to examine the relevance of several proposed determinants in Chinese children's cognitive achievement. Our findings suggest that: (1) family income is significantly associated with children's achievement, but family's assets and direct measures of monetary resources are found to have little effect; (2) non-monetary resources, particularly parenting, are of great importance to children's achievement; (3) parenting practices do not vary greatly by family's economic resources.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Family Resources and Male-Female Educational Attainment: Sex Specific
           Trends for Dutch Cohorts (1930–1984)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Margriet van Hek , Gerbert Kraaykamp , Maarten H.J. Wolbers
      This study investigates cross-temporal gender differences in the effects of family resources on educational attainment in the Netherlands. Our research question reads: to what extent has the influence of parental socio-economic features, cultural resources and school involvement on the educational attainment of women and men in the Netherlands changed over time? Employing three waves of the Family Survey Dutch Population (N=6,059), we test our hypotheses on the changing impact of parental background characteristics on male-female educational attainment. A general expectation is that all family resources have become more favorable to girls over time. Our results first show that especially in the earlier cohorts the effects of parental educational resources were gender-specific: mother's education affected women's educational attainment most, whereas father's education predominantly influenced men's. Second, our results indicate that only for girls, growing up with a working mother becomes increasingly beneficial over time. Finally, the impact of father's occupational resources seems to lose importance over time faster for boys than for girls.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Educational Mismatch, Gender, and Satisfaction in Self-employment: The
           Case of Russian-language Internet Freelancers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Andrey Shevchuk , Denis Strebkov , Shannon N. Davis
      In this paper, we examine the effect of horizontal educational mismatch on socio-economic outcomes among self-employed workers. Using unique data from 1,602 Russian-language internet freelancers, who are typically both contract professionals and teleworkers, we investigate the relatedness of education and work in this new occupational and social context. We provide rare evidence of the effects of horizontal educational mismatch on earnings, job satisfaction, and perceived job mobility of self-employed workers. We find that educational mismatch has differential influence on women's and men's experiences. Although both men and women have an earnings penalty for being mismatched, only mismatched women suffer from reduction in job satisfaction. Women who work outside their field of study while caring for their small children are in the most vulnerable position. They experience negative socio-economic outcomes in all dimensions: reduction in earnings, job satisfaction, and express intentions to change their current employment situation. We argue that these findings may be evidence of gendered career strategies and greater family demands for women in the new economy.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Educational homogamy and earnings inequality of married couples: Urban
           China, 1988–2007
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 40
      Author(s): Anning Hu , Zhenchao Qian
      Using data from the urban sample of the Chinese Household Income Project in 1988, 1995, 2002, and 2007, we examine the association between increasing educational homogamy and rising earnings inequality of married couples. Using methods of counterfactual decomposition and random mating, we reveal that, over the years, increasing educational homogamy among urban married couples with senior high school and tertiary-level education is associated with a growing inter-household earnings gap and reduced intra-household earnings inequality. These two types of inequalities, in combination, have driven down the overall earnings inequality of married couples. This study highlights a demographic mechanism between large-scale institutional transition and increasing economic inequality in China, and helps understand the inequality formation process, especially in developing societies where mate selection patterns undergo rapid change as a result of improvement in educational attainment.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Pigmentocracies: Educational Inequality, Skin Color and Census Ethnoracial
           Identification in Eight Latin American Countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Edward Telles , René Flores , Fernando UrreaGiraldo
      For the first time, most Latin American censuses ask respondents to self-identify by race or ethnicity allowing researchers to examine long-ignored ethnoracial inequalities. However, reliance on census ethnoracial categories could poorly capture the manifestation(s) of race that lead to inequality in the region, because of classificatory ambiguity and within-category racial or color heterogeneity. To overcome this, we modeled the relation of both interviewer-rated skin color and census ethnoracial categories with educational inequality using innovative data from the 2010 America's Barometer from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) and 2010 surveys from the Project on Ethnicity and Race in Latin America (PERLA) for eight Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru). We found that darker skin color was negatively and consistently related to schooling in all countries, with and without extensive controls. Indigenous and black self-identification was also negatively related to schooling, though not always at a statistically significant and robust level like skin color. In contrast, results for self-identified mulattos, mestizos and whites were inconsistent and often counter to the expected racial hierarchy, suggesting that skin color measures often capture racial inequalities that census measures miss.

      PubDate: 2015-02-27T04:59:13Z
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