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SOCIAL SCIENCES (602 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7     

Grief Matters : The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal  
GSTF Journal of Law and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hallazgos     Open Access  
He Puna Korero: Journal of Maori and Pacific Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Herencia     Open Access  
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
História e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Huria : Journal of the Open University of Tanzania     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hydra : Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IAMURE International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iberoforum. Revista de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Iberoamericana     Open Access  
Iconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IdeAs. Idées d'Amérique     Open Access  
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IDS Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
Illness, Crisis & Loss     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Immigrants & Minorities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Impact     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Informes Científicos - Técnicos UNPA     Open Access  
Infrastructure Complexity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InPsych : The Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society Ltd     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
INTERAÇÕES - Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Development Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bahamian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business and Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Canadian Studies / Revue internationale d’études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Cultural Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Language and Culture     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Social and Allied Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 197)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Is ve Insan Dergisi     Open Access  
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Academic Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Family Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Humanity     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Negro Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7     

Journal Cover Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
  [SJR: 0.78]   [H-I: 12]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0276-5624
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Delayed transitions in times of increasing uncertainty: School-to-work
           transition and the delay of first marriage in Jordan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Michael Gebel, Stefanie Heyne
      This paper describes and analyzes determinants and changes of the timing of transition to first marriage in Jordan for four birth cohorts born between 1950 and 1989. Using large-scale, nationally representative life history data from the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey 2010 and applying event history analyses, we find clear gender differences in marriage patterns and a general trend towards a delay of first marriage in Jordan. Regarding the determinants of individual marriage timing, we find for both men and women that individual education enrollment delays marriage, whereas the effect of the education level is hump-shaped and less pronounced. Inactivity and unemployment delays first marriage for men whereas inactive women experience early marriage. Men and women in public sector jobs make faster transition to first marriage than those in informal jobs. Regarding the changes across cohorts, our results show that the educational expansion partly explains the increasing marriage age of women but not for men. Changes in labor market activities and job quality across cohorts can only in part explain the increasing marriage age in Jordan. Popular explanations that the delay of marriage is caused by rising marriage costs or the marriage squeeze can be rejected.

      PubDate: 2016-01-30T22:25:42Z
  • Shadow Education and Educational Inequality in South Korea: Examining
           Effect Heterogeneity of Shadow Education on Middle School Seniors’
           Achievement Test Scores
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Yool Choi, Hyunjoon Park
      We examine the heterogeneous effects of private supplementary education, often called shadow education, on math test scores by propensity to use shadow education among middle school seniors in Korea. Our approach moves beyond existing studies that mostly assumed a uniform effect of shadow education across students of different characteristics. By applying two different propensity models - stratification-multilevel and smoothing-differencing methods, we find that the effect of intense shadow education significantly varies by the likelihood of using shadow education. Specifically, the positive effect of intense math shadow education is much stronger for students who have a lower propensity to use shadow education than their counterparts with a higher propensity. Considering that students who are least likely to use shadow education tend to have disadvantaged social backgrounds, we discuss implications for educational inequality of our findings that show the largest benefits of shadow education for most disadvantaged students.

      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
  • A generation lost? Prolonged effects of labour market entry in times
           of high unemployment in the Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Maarten H.J. Wolbers
      After the economic crisis of the 1980s, concerns arose about whether the high youth unemployment at that time would produce a ‘lost generation’ of young people in the Netherlands. The same concerns have recently arisen about the potential effects of the current high rate of youth unemployment. The issue is just how justified such concerns are. In order to answer this question, we investigated the permanence of initial labour market disadvantages for cohorts of young people in the Netherlands. Repeated cross-sections of the Dutch Labour Force Survey (1993-2011) were used and a synthetic cohort analysis was applied in order to ‘follow’ cohorts of young people throughout their early years on the labour market. Negative effects of high initial unemployment on later chances of work and attained level of occupation were detected. However, these negative effects started to dissipate after a few years on the labour market. These findings show the average negative effects of high initial unemployment on labour market entry to not be permanent: young people in the Netherlands experience negative effects of initially high unemployment on labour market entry, but these effects do not produce a lost generation.

      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
  • Parental Education, Class and Income over Early Life Course and Children's
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Jani Erola, Sanni Jalonen, Hannu Lehti
      Very few studies on intergenerational achievement consider the high correlation between separate measures of parental socioeconomic position and possible life course variation in their significance for children. We analyse how socioeconomic characteristics of mothers and fathers over children's life course explain children's occupational outcomes in adulthood. Using Finnish register data, we matched the occupational position (ISEI) of 29,282 children with information on parents’ education, occupational class and income when children are 0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, 20–24 and 25–29 years old. We fit three-level random effects linear regression models and decompose family-level variance of siblings’ ISEI by each measure of parental status. We show that parental education explains family variation in siblings’ occupation most and income explains it least. Status characteristics of fathers together explain approximately half of children's outcomes, and those of mothers explain slightly less. These explanations vary only a little during children's life course. We also find that independent, non-overlapping effects of observed parental indicators vary over time. Mothers’ education explains independently most in infancy, whereas that of fathers in early adulthood. The influence of class alone is minor and time constant, but the effect of income alone was negligible over the entire follow-up. The independent effects are overall relatively small. The largest proportion of children's outcomes explained by these parental measures is shared and cannot be decomposed into independent effects. We conclude that bias due to ignoring life course variation in studies on intergenerational attainment is likely to be small.

      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
  • Occupational Mobility Chains and the Role of Job Opportunities for Upward,
           Lateral and Downward Mobility in Switzerland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Stefan Sacchi, Irene Kriesi, Marlis Buchmann
      This paper addresses the rarely studied relationship between job vacancies and inter-firm upward, lateral, and downward status mobility in an occupationally segmented labor market, taking Switzerland as the example. To conceptualize mobility mechanisms in this type of labor market, we introduce the concept of “occupational mobility chains” and test its validity. This concept provides the backdrop for developing time-dependent measures of individual job opportunities based on Swiss Job Monitor data. We link these measures with career data taken from the Swiss Life History Study and employ event history analysis to test different propositions of the ways in which status mobility is contingent on the number and the status of vacant positions. Results support our assumption that in occupationally segmented labor markets vacant positions affect status mobility only to the degree that they are located within workers’ occupational mobility chains.

      PubDate: 2015-12-13T06:17:43Z
  • Educational Outcomes of Asian and Hispanic Americans: The Significance of
           Skin Color
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Igor Ryabov
      Existing evidence suggests that skin tone is an important determinant of one's life chances. Although social science research has a strong tradition of elucidating the link between race and educational outcomes, the effect of skin color on educational attainment has not received adequate attention. The main objective of the present investigation was, using a nationally representative longitudinal data, to evaluate educational attainment of Asian American and Hispanic young adults in the United States as a function of skin tone and other co-variates. Separate analyses were carried out for Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, other Hispanics, East Asian, Filipino American and other Asians. Additional analyses were conducted on a subsample of sibling pairs of Asian and Hispanic origin. Control variables included family socio-economic background, parental involvement, family social support, average school SES and others. Although we observed a certain degree of cross-ethnic heterogeneity, the results consistently point to a strong association between educational attainment and the lightness of skin tone. The findings also suggest that the aforementioned relationship is the strongest among U.S. young adults of Filipino and Puerto Rican descent.

      PubDate: 2015-11-20T03:51:09Z
  • What makes education positional? Institutions, overeducation and the
           competition for jobs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Valentina Di Stasio, Thijs Bol, Herman G. Van de Werfhorst
      We compare three theoretical models for the relationship between schooling and labor market outcomes. On the one hand, the job competition model, which views education as a positional good with relative value on the labor market; on the other hand, the human capital and the social closure models, which view the value of education as absolute but differ in their expectations about returns to years of education above what required for the job. We analyze European countries using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and investigate the incidence of overeducation and the returns to years of overeducation in order to distinguish between the three theoretical models. We then relate these theoretical perspectives to institutions of the education system and of labor market coordination. Our empirical results indicate that education is more likely to function as a positional good in countries with weakly developed vocational education systems, where individuals have an incentive to acquire higher levels of education in order to stay ahead of the labor queue. However, no convincing support was found for the relationship we hypothesized between wage coordination and returns to years of overeducation.

      PubDate: 2015-09-29T13:46:19Z
  • The openness of Britain during industrialisation. Determinants of career
           success of British men born between 1780 and 1880
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Cristóbal Montt Volosky, Ineke Maas
      In this article we study the occupational careers of British men during industrialisation. We ask whether careers became more successful during industrialisation and whether British society became more open. Using the Longitudinal Study of Residential Histories dataset we analysed the career of 6,229 men born between 1780 and 1880 with a multilevel growth model. Over time men's careers became somewhat more successful: men started their careers at a higher occupational status, but status did not grow at a faster rate. Father's occupational status and son's education were main determinants of career success. The importance of education did not increase, but the relevance of father's status declined, suggesting that with industrialisation Britain became a more open society.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
  • Race, gender, and public-sector work: Prioritizing occupational values as
           a labor market privilege
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Lauren Benditt
      This paper examines the role of occupational values injob choice. Using public service motivation (PSM), a value orientation associated with public workers, this analysis predicts public sector employment using a mixed-methods approach: a quantitative analysis of the 2006 General Social Survey and a qualitative analysis of 87 semi-structured interviews with state government workers in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Oregon. The results indicate variation within the public employee population in the effect of PSM on choosing to work in the public sector. They also suggest that prioritizing values in occupational choice may be a luxury, and assuming shared occupational values lacks consideration of the underlying rationales some individuals use when choosing a job.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
  • Inequality in social capital and labour market re-entry among unemployed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Giuliano Bonoli, Nicolas Turtschi
      Research on social capital inequality has tended to emphasize the fact that the distribution of social capital follows that of other resources, with the result that it tends to amplify social inequalities. More elaborated theoretical accounts and some empirical studies suggest, however, that under some circumstances, social capital can actually compensate for disadvantage in social position. In this paper we test these competing hypotheses on a population of newly unemployed people in the Swiss canton of Vaud (N= 3’521). It appears that in most cases the distribution of social capital reflects that of other dimensions of stratification that are associated with labour market disadvantage, such as education, immigrant status, gender, and occupational status. On one important component of social capital, the number of work-related contacts, some immigrant groups score better than Swiss nationals. While this is an important predictor of early exit from unemployment, it fails to translate into an improvement of labour market prospects for the relevant immigrant groups, most likely because its effect is counteracted by more powerful forces such as inequality in skills and discrimination.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
  • Temporal Developments in Intergenerational Transmission of Education: Case
           for Black South Africans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Prudence Kwenda, Miracle Ntuli, Tendai Gwatidzo
      This paper investigates trends in intergenerational transmission of education among black South Africans – changes in correlation between parents’ and children's education. Using data for 1954-1993 birth cohorts, we find a decrease in intergenerational transmission of education over the last four decades. The decline is strongest in the lower tail of the educational distribution. Nevertheless, a considerable portion of children's education still depends on family background. Children from poor educational backgrounds face significant barriers to attaining higher levels of education while the reverse applies to those from rich backgrounds. This suggests that initiatives to weaken the intergenerational link, particularly at higher levels of education, should target the offspring of educationally deprived parents.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T11:55:23Z
  • Social Capital and Immigrant Wealth Inequality: Visa Sponsorship and the
           Role of Ties, Education, and Race/Ethnicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Matthew A. Painter
      This paper examines how immigrants’ social capital affects their wealth holdings in the United States. I conceptualize visa sponsorship as a form of social capital and focus on three important factors – strength of ties, educational attainment, and race/ethnicity – that shape the relationship between immigrants’ social capital and wealth. I use the New Immigrant Survey and find that the relationship between visa sponsorship and wealth differs both by the strength of an immigrants’ tie to their network and their education. Notably, race/ethnicity only consistently stratifies the wealth of immigrants with employment sponsorship. Taken together, these results provide unique insight into immigrants’ economic integration in the United States and point to immigrants’ social capital as an important mechanism for wealth inequality.

      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:19:18Z
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Geoffrey T. Wodtke
      This study investigates changes in the American class structure—defined in terms of workplace ownership and authority relations—and trends in status group disparities in class attainment from 1972 to 2010. Although theory and prior research suggest a variety of appreciable changes in class structure and class attainment, data from the General Social Survey indicate that the sizes of different classes remained fairly stable during this time period and that status group disparities in access to ownership and authority persisted largely intact. The 1970s witnessed a decline in the proportion of workers and growth in the proportion of managers and proprietors, but these trends reversed in the 1980s. As a result, by the late 2000s, the ownership and authority structure of the U.S. economy closely resembled that of the early 1970s. Racial and gender disparities in class attainment also did not change significantly over time: blacks and women remained underrepresented (relative to whites and men) in positions of ownership and authority throughout this period. Even after controlling for an extensive set of human capital characteristics, family constraints, and structural economic factors, there is little evidence of status group integration across these key dimensions of economic power.

      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:19:18Z
  • What Do Computers Really Do? Computerization, Fading Pay-Setting
           Institutions and Rising Wage Inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Tali Kristal, Yinon Cohen
      In this paper we advance the argument that the widespread assumption that computerization and institutional changes are independent explanations for the resurgence of wage inequality is inaccurate. Instead we posit for complex dynamics between computerization and fading pay-setting institutions, arguing that the latter is a mechanism by which the former operates. To test our argument that computerization increases wage inequality not only via the mechanisms specified by skill-biased Technological Change, but also indirectly through structural processes, we utilize longitudinal U.S. industrial-level data on computerization, pay-setting institutions, and wage inequality. Estimating Error Correction Models, we find a stronger longitudinal association between computerization and wage inequality in industries where labor processes were subject to both computerization and the breakup of pay-setting institutions (such as labor unions) than in industries where these institutions never had much of a presence. These findings provide some evidence that computerization operates also through the mechanism of weakening labor market institutions.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T22:20:51Z
  • The High Cost of Missing a Boat under the Japanese Recruitment Practices:
           Timing of Regular and Non-Regular Employment after School Completion in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Eric Fong , Junya Tsutsui
      We explored the timing of obtaining regular and non-regular employment after school completion in Japan. Our study is based on a unique longitudinal data set, the Japanese Life Course Panel Survey. The results capture a peculiar recruitment system of the Japanese youth labor market. The likelihood of regular employment after school completion in Japan is highly influenced by the number of years after school completion. The likelihood of obtaining a regular job drops drastically after the first year. As job seekers realize that this employment window is closing, they look for non-regular employment. Our study also shows that educational level has a significant effect on the likelihood of overall employment and of regular employment after school completion. However, the effect is quickly diminished within a few years. In other words, the benefit of investing in additional years of education in order to secure a job applies for only a short time. Finally, our study suggests that gender is not significant to securing a regular job as the first job after school completion. Taken together, the results demonstrate how individuals are “channeled” to regular and non-regular employments is related to the unique recruitment system in Japan.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:44:54Z
  • Socioeconomic inequality in access to high-status colleges: A
           cross-country comparison
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): John Jerrim , Anna K. Chmielewski , Phil Parker
      This paper considers the relationship between family background, academic achievement in high school and access to high-status postsecondary institutions in three developed countries (Australia, England and the United States). We begin by estimating the unconditional association between family background and access to a high status university, before examining how this relationship changes once academic achievement in high school is controlled. Our results suggest that high achieving disadvantaged children are much less likely to enter a high-status college than their more advantaged peers, and that the magnitude of this socio-economic gradient is broadly similar across these three countries. However, we also find that socio-economic inequality in access to high-status private US colleges is much more pronounced than access to their public sector counterparts (both within the US and when compared overseas).

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:44:54Z
  • The Effect of Grandparents’ Economic, Cultural, and Social Capital
           on Grandchildren's Educational Success
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Stine Møllegaard Pedersen , Mads Meier Jæger
      This paper analyzes the effects of grandparents’ economic, cultural, and social capital on grandchildren's educational success. We analyze data from Denmark and hypothesize that grandparents’ economic capital should be of little importance in the Scandinavian context, while their cultural and social capital should be relatively more important. Our results partly confirm these hypotheses since, after controlling for parents’ capital, we find that grandparents’ cultural capital (but not their economic and social capital) has a positive effect on the likelihood that grandchildren choose the academic track in upper secondary education over all other tracks. These results suggest, at least in the Scandinavian context, that the ways in which grandparents affect grandchildren's educational success is via transmission of non-economic resources.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:44:54Z
  • Did social mobility increase during the industrialization process? A
           micro-level study of a transforming community in southern Sweden
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Martin Dribe , Jonas Helgertz , Bart van de Putte
      This article studies class attainment and mobility in a long-term perspective, covering the entire transition from a preindustrial to a mature industrial society. Using longitudinal individual-level data for men in a community of southern Sweden, we test different hypotheses linking changing patterns of social mobility and status attainment to the industrialization process. The data allows an analysis of Sweden's complete transition from an agrarian to an industrialized society, and thus to comprehensively address core hypotheses in the stratification literature. Both absolute and relative mobility increased, mainly explained by upward mobility becoming more prevalent. By looking at status attainment into different segments of the middle class and elite, we also see the increasing role played by formal education and meritocracy for the opportunities of people from low-class origin to advance socially. However, this development is more connected with the maturing of industrial society than with industrialization as such.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • The effects of English training abroad on labor market outcomes in Korea
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Yool Choi
      This study examines the effects of English training abroad (hereafter ETA) on labor market outcomes in South Korea. ETA has become increasingly popular in many non-English speaking countries and refers to short-term language study training abroad where students spend anywhere from 6 months to 2 years taking language courses at an educational institutions. In this article, I conduct survival analysis and quantile regression using data from the 2007 Korea Employment Information Service's Graduate Occupational Mobility Survey. This study finds that although the average effects of ETA seem to be modest as most prior research has indicated, ETA does appear to have substantial positive effects on getting a good job and earning higher wages. ETA proved especially helpful for those who did not attend elite colleges. That is, ETA is a useful tool for students with weaker formal education (often non-elite students) to supplement their educational credentials. Based on these findings, I conclude that ETA has a substantial impact on labor market outcomes in South Korea. This means that labor market opportunities are strongly determined by an individual's socioeconomic background, as the cost of participation in ETA presents a barrier to entry for individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Pushed out prematurely? Comparing objectively forced exits and
           subjective assessments of involuntary retirement across Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Bernhard Ebbinghaus , Jonas Radl
      Given the efforts in raising the statutory pension age in an aging Europe, this cross-national analysis investigates constrained retirement from a comparative perspective. Based on a conceptualization of retirement transitions as a multi-faceted phenomenon, the study distinguishes objective (external) constraints and the subjective self-assessment of involuntary retirement. Exploiting two survey items from the fifth round of the European Social Survey (ESS Round 5, 2010/2011), we examine which workers were objectively forced to retire due to economic or health reasons as well as which workers subjectively evaluate their retirement as involuntary as they would have wished to work longer. Using multilevel modeling, the study investigates the impact of national context conditions on both the individual risk to be objectively forced to terminate work and the subjective perception of retirement as occurring too early. We analyze institutional factors such as statutory pension ages and pension generosity, but also explore the role of structural factors such as unemployment and health. At the individual level, the empirical analysis reveals that objectively forced exits and subjective involuntariness do not always overlap. Ojectively forced exits are more readily explained by socio-economic characteristics like social class and unemployment experience. At the macro level, there are considerable cross-national variations that cannot be explained by compositional factors only. Relevant predictors of international differences in constrained retriement include early retirement options, statutory pension conditions, unemployment rates, labor market regulation and life expectancy.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Education as a positional good: Implications for social inequalities in
           educational attainment in Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Moris Triventi , Nazareno Panichella , Gabriele Ballarino , Carlo Barone , Fabrizio Bernardi
      The article examines trends of social inequalities in educational attainment in the second half of the twentieth century in Italy, comparing two approaches. The traditional approach uses years of education as a dependent variable and implicitly looks at the absolute/nominal value of education. The second approach refers to education as a ‘positional good’ and it captures its possibly changing occupational value over time. In this article, following this second perspective, two measures are developed and used: the Educational Competitive Advantage Score (ECAS) measures the value of educational degrees on the basis of their incidence in the population (credential inflation perspective). The second is an effect-proportional scale of education based on the average occupational prestige attained by individuals in each qualification (demand–supply balance perspective). Using data with large sample size from three waves of the Istat Multi-Purpose Survey (1998, 2003 and 2009), the article shows that inequalities based both on social class of origin and parental education declined between 1940 and 1980 birth cohorts, but the effect of parental education reduced less and it is stronger than that of social class in recent cohorts. Considering education as a positional good does not change the main findings obtained using years of education as outcome in the Italian case.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Too old to work – Too young to retire
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Ely Weitz , Efrat Herzberg-Druker , Haya Stier

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Michael Nau , Rachel E. Dwyer , Randy Hodson
      This article explores the role of personal debt in the transition to parenthood. We analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1997 cohort and find that for the generation coming of age in the 2000s, student loans delay fertility for women, particularly at very high levels of debt. Home mortgages and credit card debt, in contrast, appear to be precursors to parenthood. These results indicate that different forms of debt have different implications for early adulthood transitions: whereas consumer loans or home mortgages immediately increase access to consumption goods, there is often a significant delay between the accrual and realization of benefits for student loans. The double-edged nature of debt as both barrier and facilitator to life transitions highlights the importance of looking at debt both as a monetary issue and also as a carrier of social meanings.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Nominal and Positional Perspectives on Educational Stratification in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Assaf Rotman , Yossi Shavit , Michael Shalev
      This paper examines whether the rising accessibility of educational qualifications attenuates the association between social origin and educational attainment. Research is divided on the question of persistence of inequality of educational opportunities (IEO). Currently most studies on this issue focus on attainment of nominal levels of education and fail to acknowledge that educational expansion is accompanied by change in the value of qualifications and in their scarcity. This study employs measures of educational attainment that capture the changing scarcity and economic value of qualifications. Data from the 1995 and 2008 censuses in Israel are used to compare the association of socioeconomic origin with educational attainment between two birth cohorts. The results show that IEO tends to persist or decline, when attainment is measured in absolute terms, but tends to increase when relative measures of qualifications or measures representing their economic value are employed. The familiarity of better off parents with the school system and their awareness of changes in the value of qualifications are offered as a central factor that explains the findings.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Where do STEM majors lose their advantage? Contextualizing horizontal
           stratification of higher education in urban China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Anning Hu , Jacob Hibel
      While the average labor market advantage of college graduates with STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) degrees relative to non-STEM students is well established, how this STEM versus non-STEM income gap varies across institutional contexts has been understudied. From the perspective of new institutionalism, we investigate the moderating effects of hierarchically situated higher education institutions and labor market sectors on the economic disparity between STEM and non-STEM majors by pooling data from two nationwide representative surveys collected in contemporary urban China. The results of median regression models suggest that (1) On average, STEM majors are more lucrative than non-STEM majors in Reform-Era China, a pattern resembling that of many other societies. (2) The vertical stratification of higher education institutions, i.e., the postsecondary education sector's segmentation into “junior” and “regular” colleges, is relevant, where a smaller STEM advantage over non-STEM fields is detected among junior college graduates after accounting for potential cohort variation. Moreover, this moderating effect of college tiers declines across birth cohorts. (3) Working in the state sector, such as the Communist Party and government department and institutions, relative to the other sectors, significantly narrows the earnings gap between STEM and non-STEM graduates. However, this labor-market-sector heterogeneity in the STEM versus non-STEM income gap also declines across birth cohorts. Theoretical implications of empirical findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Communities of classes: A network approach to social mobility
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): David Melamed
      Based on recent insights in network analysis, a new approach to the analysis and interpretation of social mobility data is presented. The approach advocates using community detection methods to identify communities of classes within which classes share members at above expected rates and between which classes share members at below expected rates. This approach, when applied to mobility data, offers novel interpretations of mobility patterns and may be used to substantially improve the fit of models of social mobility. To illustrate, the community structure of social mobility is analyzed using data from the General Social Survey. Several models are employed to demonstrate both the interpretation of the community structure of social mobility as well as how the community structure may be implemented to improve model fit.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Understanding the educational attainment of sexual minority women and men
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 41
      Author(s): Stefanie Mollborn , Bethany Everett
      National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities.

      PubDate: 2015-06-11T15:27:14Z
  • Training opportunities for older workers in the Netherlands: A Vignette
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Kasia Karpinska , Kène Henkens , Joop Schippers , Mo Wang
      Demographic changes and labor market challenges highlight the importance of lifelong learning and development for all employees. The current study analyzes the factors that may influence managers’ propensity to offer older workers different kinds of training (specific or general). To investigate this question, a vignette study among 153 managers in Dutch organizations was conducted. Managers were randomly assigned into one of the four experimental conditions that involve a decision regarding specific or general training (aimed at internal or external mobility). The results suggest that managers perceive training incidences as a tool to increase productivity of older workers who perform well and are highly motivated, and far less as a tool to increase productivity of workers who need updating their human capital. The implication of these results is discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T17:17:10Z
  • Income inequality among older people in rapidly aging Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Sawako Shirahase
      This study examined the mechanisms by which income inequality among households with elderly members changed from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s, focusing on the transformation of household structure and on income sources. The data that I analyse in this paper comes from the Comprehensive Survey of People's Living Conditions in Japan (CSLCJ) conducted by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in the mid-1980s, the mid-1990s, and the mid-2000s. The CSLCJ is the cross-sectional data, but it fits well with our research questions because it includes the detailed income sources of every household member. Income inequality is measured by the post-transfer disposable equivalent income (with equivalent income calculated by dividing household income by the square root of household size). The sample used in the analysis is limited to those households with an elderly household member aged 65 or older. There were two measures of income inequality: (1) a squared coefficient of variance (SCV) and (2) a mean log deviation (MLD), because the SCV and the MLD are different in the extent of their sensitivity to changes in different economic groups. The former is sensitive to changes in higher income groups, whereas the latter is more sensitive to changes in lower income groups The main findings of this study can be summarized into the two points. First, income inequality among households with elderly members overall decreased after the mid-1980s. The extent of change using the SCV is higher than the extent of change using the MLD across time. This suggests a relatively large decrease in income inequality in elderly households during the bubble economy in the mid-1980s and after its collapse through the early 1990s had occurred at the high-income groups. The examination of the extent of income inequality among the elderly found that household structure is a critical factor. As of mid-2004, two-thirds of Japan's elderly population lived in one-person or couple-only households and that change in household structure relates to changes in the extent of income inequality. The decline in three-generation households lead to lowering the decline in income inequality among households with the elderly. Second, in examining the change in income package of the households with the elderly, it was found out that economic inequality is largely determined by the income of non-elderly members who co-reside with the old parents. Such a phenomenon has not changed despite the large change in the household structure with the elderly members associated with fast transformation of the population since the mid-1980s.

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T17:17:10Z
  • Foreword to the Special Issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 37
      Author(s): Yoshimichi Sato

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Social origin, conscientiousness, and school grades: Does early
           socialization of the characteristics orderliness and focus contribute to
           the reproduction of social inequality?
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Till Kaiser , Martin Diewald
      Among a child's skills and competencies, conscientiousness has been shown to be one of the most important predictors of school performance and later academic achievement. We refer this insight to the social reproduction of social inequality: Is socialization of personality characteristics in the parental home a significant mechanism that contributes to a child's life chances? Using school grades as the outcome measure, we combine different pathways toward their achievement: the impact of a child's conscientiousness on school grades, parental conscientiousness and parental stratification as sources for the differential conscientiousness of children, and the mediation of this interrelationship through different parenting styles. To date, almost no research has been conducted which integrates the unequal formation of personality and its consequences regarding life chances and compares it with the respective influences of social origin. Moreover, we add to existing research in social reproduction the distinction between different facets of conscientiousness. We show that it allows for more precise predictions of academic achievement than looking at the highly aggregated Big Five personality traits; moreover, these facets can be much better linked to the established body of sociological stratification theory. We combine data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and the related Familien in Deutschland (FiD) study involving children 9–10 years of age and their parents and households. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we found theoretical and empirical evidence that only the “focus” facet and not the “orderliness” facet is highly positively correlated with school grades even more than indicators of social background. Our main hypothesis—that conscientiousness, specifically the facet focus, acts as one “transmission belt” between social background and school grades—was confirmed.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Disability, structural inequality, and work: The influence of occupational
           segregation on earnings for people with different disabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Michelle Maroto , David Pettinicchio
      Occupational segregation is a fundamental cause of structural inequality within the labor market, but it remains under-researched in the case of disability status. Using 2011 American Community Survey data for working-age adults, we examine the representation of persons with different types of disabilities across occupations and industries. We find that employed workers with disabilities experience occupational segregation that limits their earnings potential. People with disabilities tend to work in lower-skilled jobs with limited educational and experience requirements. However, these disparities also vary by the nature of a person's disability, which perpetuates inequality by disability status. Although supply-side, human capital variables play a role in shaping earnings, we find that these broader, structural factors and occupational characteristics strongly influence the economic wellbeing of people with disabilities.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Class consciousness in a mature neoliberal society: Evidence from Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Pablo Pérez-Ahumada
      Class consciousness is a central element of the sociological analysis of class inequality. It indicates the mechanisms through which inequality creates subjective-level outcomes as dissimilar class identities and material interests. Despite its importance, class consciousness has been largely unexamined in current neoliberal society. With a few exceptions, the basic sociological question of how inequality brings about consequences at the subjective level has not been addressed in recent research. In this paper I address this question by analyzing the patterns of class consciousness in Chile. To do so, I examine how class location and class origins (as indicator of class experiences) shape the two main components of class consciousness: class identity and class interests. The results suggest that the identity component depends on both class experiences and class position, as well as on the way that the latter creates subjective experiences of economic inequality (i.e. inequality in individual resources). On the other hand, the second component of class consciousness—oppositional class interests—depends on both class experiences and class location, and on the way in which the latter brings about subjective experiences of opposition in the terrain of the relations of production.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • The effect of reading aloud daily—Differential effects of reading to
           native-born German and Turkish-origin immigrant children
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Oliver Klein , Nicole Biedinger , Birgit Becker
      Literature that examines possible heterogeneous effects of reading aloud to children of immigrants and children of native-born parents is scarce. The current study tries to address this scarcity by examining the effects of daily parent–child reading activities on the German vocabulary knowledge of children with (n =531) and without migration background (n =499) between the ages of three to five. Using propensity score matching (PSM), determinants of reading aloud daily to children are analyzed in the first step. Native parents are found to be more likely to read aloud daily to their children. Parents’ education, cultural capital and a high frequency of engaging parenting practices also predict the frequency of parent–child reading. Factors specific to immigrant families are the age of migration and the primary family language. The effect of reading aloud on the vocabulary skills of children is the focus of the second part of the analysis. Positive effects are found among children of immigrants and children of native-born parents. However, this positive effect is reduced over time for native children. Overall, reading aloud daily is most effective among children of immigrant families, using the language of the host country as the primary family language, and among parents with good receiving country language skills.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Transitions in secondary education: Exploring effects of social problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Britt Østergaard Larsen , Leif Jensen , Torben Pilegaard Jensen
      The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Population-based registers are used to include information on family upbringing, e.g. alcohol abuse, criminality, use of psychopharmaca and out-of-home placement. We estimate a parsimonious version of Cameron and Heckman's (2001) dynamic statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social problems. The results show that social problems during upbringing have a large and significant effect on children's educational outcome and that the indicators of social problems explain about 20–30 per cent of the class differences in the students’ educational outcomes.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Unequal returns to academic credentials as a hidden dimension of race and
           class inequality in American college enrollments
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Tina Wildhagen
      This study asks whether growing access to academic credentials for students from disadvantaged groups will lead to a decrease in the value of those credentials for these groups in college enrollments. Drawing on credentialing theory and the concept of adaptive social closure, I argue that as certain academic credentials become democratized (i.e., more accessible to disadvantaged students), their value decreases for students from disadvantaged race and class groups at the same time as it increases for students from privileged race and class groups. To test this idea, I use data from two cohorts of American high school graduates to estimate changes in the educational payoff of participation in the Advanced Placement (AP) program for students across racial and social class groups. The results show that at the same time as students from disadvantaged groups gained wider access to the AP program, its effect on their rates of college enrollment declined. During the same time period, the AP effect on the rates of college enrollment for students from privileged groups increased. I conclude that unequal returns to academic credentials for privileged and disadvantaged students represent a hidden dimension of race and class inequality in American college enrollments. Moreover, the results demonstrate the possibility that as access to an academic credential democratizes, as is the case with the AP program, privileged groups are better able to insulate themselves from the negative effects of credential inflation.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Does coresidence with grandparents reduce the negative association between
           sibship size and reading test scores? Evidence from 40 countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Martin Kreidl , Barbora Hubatková
      This paper investigates the effect of coresidence with grandparents in three-generation households on the nature and size of the association between sibship size and reading test scores. It also explores whether this interaction changes with the level of socioeconomic development of a society. We argue that coresidence in traditional three-generation households has a protective effect against resource dilution and thus decreases the magnitude of the negative association between family size and test scores. We also suggest that coresidence in more modern contexts magnifies the degree of this negative association, since modern families form three-generation households only when severely destabilized. We apply 3-level regression models to the PISA 2000 data to examine our hypotheses and use the Human Development Index as a measure of development. We find that the negative association between family size and test scores increases at higher levels of development and does so more strongly when students coreside with grandparents. We, however, find no context, in which coresidence would erase the negative consequences of having many brothers and sisters on one's own school test scores. These findings hold even when controlling statistically for the effects of public expenditure on education, public social security expenditure, and crude divorce rate as well as for the interactions of these variables with sibship size.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Employment transitions and labor market exits: Age and gender in the
           Israeli labor market
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Haya Stier , Miri Endeweld
      This study focuses on the employment difficulties of older workers in the Israeli labor market. Using administrative panel data for the years 2005–2010, it traces the employment transitions of workers and their consequences, focusing on age and gender differences. The findings show that in Israel older workers, men and women alike, are indeed less likely to leave their jobs. However, once out of the labor force, they face difficulties in finding new employment. These difficulties are severer for women than for men. Male workers who experience high instability experience job losses, with no substantial age differences. The wage penalties for women are much lower, probably because of their limited opportunities in terms of earnings.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Aging workers and the experience of job loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Lora A. Phillips Lassus , Steven Lopez , Vincent J. Roscigno
      Aging workers experience the longest unemployment spells of any segment of the labor force and are much more likely than their younger counterparts to drop out of employment entirely. Yet, we still know little about aging workers’ struggles to regain employment following job loss. Do they see themselves as structurally disadvantaged? And, what are the consequences for self-perceptions, notions of fairness, and even mental health? We fill this gap by drawing on 52 semi-structured qualitative interviews with workers aged 40–65 who lost jobs during the Great Recession and have been attempting to find work since. Notable is their keen awareness of both age-specific labor market disadvantages and processes complicating re-employment for all unemployed workers during this period. Respondents articulate sophisticated analyses of how employer biases, credentialism, the job search process, and changes in the economy present very real barriers to reemployment. These perceptions and experiences, our materials suggest, have far-reaching social-psychological consequences, including loss of belief in meritocracy within major institutions; questioning of self-worth; and feelings of isolation, hopelessness and depression—consequences to which stratification scholars should devote more attention, especially since many aging workers become discouraged and eventually drop out of the labor force.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Educational attainment - relative or absolute - as a mediator of
           intergenerational class mobility in Britain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Erzsébet Bukodi , John H. Goldthorpe
      In recent years much research has been concerned with the patterns of association that exist between individuals’ class origins, their educational attainment, and their eventual class destinations – the ‘OED triangle’. In particular, interest has focused on the possible role of educational expansion and reform in weakening the net association between class origins and destinations or, that is, increasing social fluidity, and thus countering other tendencies, such as increasing inequalities of condition, likely to reduce fluidity. In this paper we examine trends in the OED triangle in Britain on the basis of data from three successive birth cohort studies. We advance on previous research in measuring individuals’ educational attainment not only in absolute but also in relative terms – i.e. in this latter respect treating education as a ‘positional’ good. We show that measuring education in these two different ways leads to significantly differing results. In general, when education is measured in relative terms, associations within the OED triangle show a greater stability over time.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Influences of Monetary and Nonmonetary Family Resources on Children's
           Development in Verbal Ability in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Airan Liu , Yu Xie
      This paper addresses the debate over the significance of family's monetary versus non-monetary resources for children's achievement and development, within the context of contemporary China. We use data from the 2010 baseline survey of the China Family Panel Study to examine the relevance of several proposed determinants in Chinese children's cognitive achievement. Our findings suggest that: (1) family income is significantly associated with children's achievement, but family's assets and direct measures of monetary resources are found to have little effect; (2) non-monetary resources, particularly parenting, are of great importance to children's achievement; (3) parenting practices do not vary greatly by family's economic resources.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Family Resources and Male-Female Educational Attainment: Sex Specific
           Trends for Dutch Cohorts (1930–1984)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Margriet van Hek , Gerbert Kraaykamp , Maarten H.J. Wolbers
      This study investigates cross-temporal gender differences in the effects of family resources on educational attainment in the Netherlands. Our research question reads: to what extent has the influence of parental socio-economic features, cultural resources and school involvement on the educational attainment of women and men in the Netherlands changed over time? Employing three waves of the Family Survey Dutch Population (N=6,059), we test our hypotheses on the changing impact of parental background characteristics on male-female educational attainment. A general expectation is that all family resources have become more favorable to girls over time. Our results first show that especially in the earlier cohorts the effects of parental educational resources were gender-specific: mother's education affected women's educational attainment most, whereas father's education predominantly influenced men's. Second, our results indicate that only for girls, growing up with a working mother becomes increasingly beneficial over time. Finally, the impact of father's occupational resources seems to lose importance over time faster for boys than for girls.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Educational Mismatch, Gender, and Satisfaction in Self-employment: The
           Case of Russian-language Internet Freelancers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Andrey Shevchuk , Denis Strebkov , Shannon N. Davis
      In this paper, we examine the effect of horizontal educational mismatch on socio-economic outcomes among self-employed workers. Using unique data from 1,602 Russian-language internet freelancers, who are typically both contract professionals and teleworkers, we investigate the relatedness of education and work in this new occupational and social context. We provide rare evidence of the effects of horizontal educational mismatch on earnings, job satisfaction, and perceived job mobility of self-employed workers. We find that educational mismatch has differential influence on women's and men's experiences. Although both men and women have an earnings penalty for being mismatched, only mismatched women suffer from reduction in job satisfaction. Women who work outside their field of study while caring for their small children are in the most vulnerable position. They experience negative socio-economic outcomes in all dimensions: reduction in earnings, job satisfaction, and express intentions to change their current employment situation. We argue that these findings may be evidence of gendered career strategies and greater family demands for women in the new economy.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Measuring the effect of institutional change on gender inequality in the
           labour market
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Martina Dieckhoff , Vanessa Gash , Nadia Steiber
      This article examines the differential impact of labour market institutions on women and men. It carries out longitudinal analyses using repeat cross-sectional data from the EU Labour Force Survey 1992–2007 as well as time series data that measure institutional change over the same period. The results contribute to the literature on gendered employment, adding important insights into the impact of labour market institutions over and above family policies that have been the focus of most prior studies on the topic. We find differential effects of institutional change on male and female outcome. Our findings challenge the neo-classical literature on the topic. While our results suggest that men benefit more clearly than women from increases in employment protection, we do not find support for the neo-classical assertion that strong trade unions decrease female employment. Instead, increasing union strength is shown to have beneficial effects for both men's and women's likelihood of being employed on the standard employment contract. Furthermore, in line with other researchers, we find that rising levels of in kind state support to families improve women's employment opportunities.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Does upward social mobility increase life satisfaction? A longitudinal
           analysis using British and Swiss panel data
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Andreas Hadjar , Robin Samuel
      A main assumption of social production function theory is that status is a major determinant of subjective well-being (SWB). From the perspective of the dissociative hypothesis, however, upward social mobility may be linked to identity problems, distress, and reduced levels of SWB because upwardly mobile people lose their ties to their class of origin. In this paper, we examine whether or not one of these arguments holds. We employ the United Kingdom and Switzerland as case studies because both are linked to distinct notions regarding social inequality and upward mobility. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on panel data (UK: BHPS, Switzerland: SHP) allow us to reconstruct individual trajectories of life satisfaction (as a cognitive component of SWB) along with events of intragenerational and intergenerational upward mobility—taking into account previous levels of life satisfaction, dynamic class membership, and well-studied determinants of SWB. Our results show some evidence for effects of social class and social mobility on well-being in the UK sample, while there are no such effects in the Swiss sample. The UK findings support the idea of dissociative effects in terms of a negative effect of intergenerational upward mobility on SWB.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • College quality and the positive selection hypothesis: The ‘second
           filter’ on family background in high-paid jobs
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Nicolai T. Borgen
      This paper investigates the heterogeneous returns to college quality across the wage distribution, using Norwegian administrative data. An ongoing debate in the literature is whether students who are most likely to attend a high-quality college benefit the most from college quality (the positive selection hypothesis) or whether students who are least likely to attend a high-quality college benefit the most (the negative selection hypothesis). The findings in this paper support the predictions in the positive selection hypothesis, especially at the top of the wage distribution. But the findings suggest that this pattern of positive selection is not caused by students self-selecting into colleges based on expected gain. Instead, the findings suggest that a second filter on family background exists. Students from privileged background are not only more likely to attend a high-quality college (the first filter), but are also more likely to convert their high-quality college education into success at the labor market (the second filter).

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Inequality in skill development on college campuses
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Josipa Roksa , Richard Arum
      While patterns of inequality in access and attainment in higher education are well documented, sociologists have left largely unexplored the question of disparities in skill development during college. Following a cohort of students across 23 four-year U.S. institutions from entry into college through their senior year, we examine inequalities in development of general collegiate skills. Findings indicate that despite unequal starting points, students from less educated families gain skills at the same rate as those from more educated families. African-American students, in contrast, enter college with lower levels of general collegiate skills than their white peers and gain less over time. A substantial portion, but not all, of the African-American/white gap in general collegiate skills is explained by academic preparation and selectivity of the institutions attended. Notably, African-American and white students experience similar benefits from being academically prepared and attending more selective institutions. These findings provide valuable insights for research and policy concerned with inequality in higher education.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Getting more unequal: Rising labor market inequalities among low-skilled
           men in West Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Johannes Giesecke , Jan Paul Heisig , Heike Solga
      During recent decades, earnings differentials between educational groups have risen in most advanced economies. While these trends are well-documented, much less is known about inequality trends within educational groups. To address this issue, we study changes in labor market inequalities among low-skilled men in West Germany. Using data from the German Socio-economic Panel, we show that both risks of labor market exclusion and earnings dispersion have grown dramatically since the mid-1980s. We consider possible explanations for these trends, drawing on an analytic distinction between compositional changes with respect to worker/job characteristics and changes in the effects of these characteristics on labor market outcomes. Using a reweighting strategy and regression models, we find that both compositional trends and changes in the effects of important characteristics have contributed to the observed increase in labor market inequalities. We discuss the likely influence of German welfare state programs, labor market regulation, and of recent changes in these domains, and sketch promising avenues for future research.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Educational homogamy and earnings inequality of married couples: Urban
           China, 1988–2007
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 40
      Author(s): Anning Hu , Zhenchao Qian
      Using data from the urban sample of the Chinese Household Income Project in 1988, 1995, 2002, and 2007, we examine the association between increasing educational homogamy and rising earnings inequality of married couples. Using methods of counterfactual decomposition and random mating, we reveal that, over the years, increasing educational homogamy among urban married couples with senior high school and tertiary-level education is associated with a growing inter-household earnings gap and reduced intra-household earnings inequality. These two types of inequalities, in combination, have driven down the overall earnings inequality of married couples. This study highlights a demographic mechanism between large-scale institutional transition and increasing economic inequality in China, and helps understand the inequality formation process, especially in developing societies where mate selection patterns undergo rapid change as a result of improvement in educational attainment.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Pigmentocracies: Educational Inequality, Skin Color and Census Ethnoracial
           Identification in Eight Latin American Countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Edward Telles , René Flores , Fernando UrreaGiraldo
      For the first time, most Latin American censuses ask respondents to self-identify by race or ethnicity allowing researchers to examine long-ignored ethnoracial inequalities. However, reliance on census ethnoracial categories could poorly capture the manifestation(s) of race that lead to inequality in the region, because of classificatory ambiguity and within-category racial or color heterogeneity. To overcome this, we modeled the relation of both interviewer-rated skin color and census ethnoracial categories with educational inequality using innovative data from the 2010 America's Barometer from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) and 2010 surveys from the Project on Ethnicity and Race in Latin America (PERLA) for eight Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru). We found that darker skin color was negatively and consistently related to schooling in all countries, with and without extensive controls. Indigenous and black self-identification was also negatively related to schooling, though not always at a statistically significant and robust level like skin color. In contrast, results for self-identified mulattos, mestizos and whites were inconsistent and often counter to the expected racial hierarchy, suggesting that skin color measures often capture racial inequalities that census measures miss.

      PubDate: 2015-02-27T04:59:13Z
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