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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1237 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (18 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (242 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (32 journals)
    - HOMOSEXUALITY (36 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (14 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (17 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (143 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (502 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (38 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (195 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (502 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (7 followers)
International Journal of Cultural Policy     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (3 followers)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (12 followers)
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (79 followers)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (5 followers)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (8 followers)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (30 followers)
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (28 followers)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (19 followers)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (5 followers)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (1 follower)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access  
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (4 followers)
Ius et Praxis     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (29 followers)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (12 followers)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Family Issues     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Family Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Journal of Globalization and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (8 followers)
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free   (1 follower)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (17 followers)
Journal of Negro Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (144 followers)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (17 followers)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (16 followers)
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (15 followers)
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Society and Communication     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access  
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access  
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (1 follower)
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access   (1 follower)
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access  
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Labyrinthe     Open Access   (2 followers)
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Learning in Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription  
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access  
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Liminar. Estudios Sociales y Humanisticos     Open Access   (1 follower)
Literacy Learning: The Middle Years     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Local-Global: Identity, Security, Community     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal  
Lucero     Open Access  
Lúdicamente     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Macedon Digest, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (1 follower)
Mathématiques et sciences humaines     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
McNair Scholars Research Journal     Open Access  
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Meanjin     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

Research in Social Stratification and Mobility    [10 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0276-5624
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2556 journals]   [SJR: 0.715]   [H-I: 9]
  • School expansion and uneven modernization. Comparing educational
           inequality in Northern and Southern Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Gabriele Ballarino , Nazareno Panichella , Moris Triventi
      The paper asks whether the patterns of educational expansion and inequality were the same in the two parts of Italy: the North, more industrialized and developed, and the more backwards South. This is a theoretically-relevant issue as, despite this major socioeconomic heterogeneity, Italy has a centralised school system, whose main institutional features are the same all over the country. By means of an educational transition analysis of the five waves of the Italian Longitudinal Household Survey we analyse school expansion and long-term trends of educational inequality, both in general and at each specific school transition. The main results indicate that there has been increasing divergence between the two areas in educational expansion and in the effect of social background on years of education attained, favouring the North. The main difference between the two areas is found at two transitions, the one from elementary to lower secondary and the one from lower to upper secondary. While the first difference diminishes over time, the second grows over time and is currently crucial. Its reasons are found in the different propensity of the working class to enroll in vocational schools, which is stronger in the North.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:35:25Z
       
  • Employer's choi Selection through job advertisements in the nineteenth and
           twentieth centuries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Wiebke Schulz , Ineke Maas , Marco H.D. van Leeuwen
      Dominant theories in stratification research suppose modernization processes to have caused societies to become more open. Employers are assumed to have increasingly selected from among applicants on the basis of job-related characteristics, such as their skills, rather than on characteristics unrelated to the job, such as social origin. We address this issue by studying employers’ selection criteria in job advertisements. We do so for the heyday of modernization, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Employers are found to have selected more on job-related than on other characteristics even at the start of the period, but the extent to which they did so did not increase over time. Job-related characteristics were no more important as selection criteria in modern occupations, nor in modern municipalities. Despite what modernization theories suggest, employers were no more and no less inclined to select their personnel through job advertisements. Employers did, however, select more on job-related characteristics for occupations with a high status.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:35:25Z
       
  • Multigenerational Approaches to Social Mobility. A Multifaceted Research
           Agenda
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Fabian T. Pfeffer



      PubDate: 2014-01-21T04:31:37Z
       
  • Economic Inequality and Ideological Roll-Call Votes: Income
           Stratification, Minority Threat and Support for Conservative Legislation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): David Jacobs , Chad Malone , Daniel B. Tope
      This study assesses whether the growth in economic inequality since the late 1960s produced enhanced support for conservative policies in the U.S. House of Representatives. Tests of the effects of inequality and tests of hypotheses derived from minority threat theory are conducted using a pooled time-series, fixed-effects design. The political influence of the most menacing street crime the public blames on underclass minorities is captured as well. Analyses based on 1,488 state-years show that income inequality, minority presence, and the murder rates reduce liberal roll-call votes. Interactions that assess period contrasts in the strength of relationships show that increases in inequality led to greater congressional support for conservative measures particularly in the later years of the post civil rights era. Such tests also support racial threat theory because they show that a strong negative relationship between African American presence and liberal roll-call votes persisted throughout this period. Such results corroborate claims (Bartels, 2008; Krugman, 2006) that the expansion in economic inequality since the late 1960s helped increase support for conservative legislation.


      PubDate: 2013-12-04T09:04:16Z
       
  • Who Succeeds as an Immigrant? Effects of Ethnic Community Resources
           and External Conditions on Earnings Attainment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Asaf Levanon
      Previous studies about contextual effects on immigrant economic attainment have generally relied on information from detailed case studies. Focusing simultaneously on characteristics of immigrant groups and the receiving society, these studies produced insightful but strikingly different accounts of the dimensions of the context that affect economic attainment. Responding to this limitation, this paper constructs a comprehensive model of effects of contextual factors on immigrant earnings attainment using 2000 U.S. Census data on all immigrant groups. The paper employs multilevel modeling in studying the effects of both ethnic community resources and external conditions on earnings attainment. Results indicate that both ethnic community resources and external conditions are dominant in shaping earnings attainment by immigrants. Especially important are group resource advantage and the economic conditions at the local labor market.


      PubDate: 2013-11-30T04:34:59Z
       
  • Announcement
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 34




      PubDate: 2013-11-26T04:37:17Z
       
  • Off to a Good Start: A Comparative Study of Changes in Men's First Job
           Prospects in East Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Wei-hsin Yu , Chi-Tsun Chiu
      Research on young adults’ transition to the labor market rarely investigates how nation-level institutional arrangements shape changes over time. In particular, a systematic comparison of shifts in young adults’ job opportunities in East Asia is virtually absent. Using comparable data from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, we examine cohort differences in the timing, quality, and stability of men's first jobs. The results indicate overall declines in first occupational attainment for men in all three countries, but the main driving force for the decrease in Japan differs from that in Korea and Taiwan. Whereas macroeconomic pressure fully explains the decline in Japanese men's first occupational attainment, educational expansion accounts for a considerable part of the declines for men in Korea and Taiwan. Moreover, educational expansion has eroded better-educated men's advantages in speedily transitioning from school to work in Taiwan, but it has not had a similar effect on Japanese men. We argue that Japan's employment system, coupled with a fair amount of institutional ties between schools and firms, has shielded young men from the pressure of educational expansion, making the trends about their early-career outcomes different from those of their counterparts in Korea and Taiwan. The different degrees to which firm internal labor markets have been adopted in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also explain how increasing macroeconomic pressure has different impacts on men's first job stability in East Asia.


      PubDate: 2013-11-26T04:37:17Z
       
  • Class mobility across three generations in the U.S. and Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Florian R. Hertel , Olaf Groh–Samberg
      Based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Socio-economic Panel, we study the class mobility of three concurrent generations in the U.S. and Germany. We find that, in both countries, the grandfathers’ class is directly associated with their grandchildren's social position. We propose three possible mechanisms which could explain the observed multigenerational mobility patterns. First, we consider the role of class-specific resources for mobility strategies. Second, we suggest a more general explanation by integrating grandparents’ class into the reference frame for mobility decisions. Third, we argue that multigenerational class associations could be the result of categorical inequality based on race or ethnicity. We find that outflow mobility rates differ across grandfathers’ class positions. Three-generational immobility is most frequent in lower and higher class positions. Log-linear analyses show that, in both countries, significant grandfather effects foster immobility within most classes and limit mobility between the working and service classes in Germany specifically. These effects partially lose significance if we only study white Americans and native Germans. Combining the two national mobility tables, we find that the pattern of three-generational mobility is similar in both countries.


      PubDate: 2013-11-14T04:32:31Z
       
  • Understanding Transmission of Fertility Across Multiple
           Generations–, Socialization or Socioeconomics?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Martin Kolk
      A number of studies have documented consistent patterns in intergenerational transmission of fertility in contemporary societies. However, why children replicate the family size of their parents has received significantly less attention. The goal of this study is to examine whether observed fertility associations across generations are due in part to an intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. Swedish registry data on childbearing histories, other demographic events, and socioeconomic traits are used to disentangle possible explanations of intergenerational fertility continuities. Data are collected for the Swedish cohorts born between 1970-1982 for whom parents’ and grandparents’ family size can be observed. The inclusion of data on grandparents gives insights into pathways for multigenerational associations, and allows for comparisons between maternal and paternal characteristics that are otherwise hard to separate. Results show that some of the observed intergenerational continuity in fertility can be explained by continuities in education and socioeconomic status, but that most fertility associations remain and are related to other sources, such as transmission of values and preferred family size.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-10-28T21:39:24Z
       
  • Theoretical Models of Inequality Transmission across Multiple Generations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Gary Solon
      Existing theoretical models of intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status have strong implications for the association of outcomes across multiple generations of a family. These models, however, are highly stylized and do not encompass many plausible avenues for transmission across multiple generations. This paper extends existing models to encompass some of these avenues and draws out empirical implications for the multigenerational persistence of socioeconomic status.


      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
       
  • Intra-generational social mobility and educational qualifications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Ian Plewis , Mel Bartley
      The relation between intra-generational social class mobility of parents and their children's subsequent educational qualifications, and the implications of this relation for educational stratification, is explored by fitting statistical models to data from two UK longitudinal datasets: one based on the UK Census (ONS LS) and the 1970 birth cohort study (BCS70). Children whose parents are upwardly mobile gain higher educational qualifications than their peers in their class of origin, but obtain lower qualifications than their peers in their class of destination. The reverse pattern is observed for the downwardly mobile. These results mirror those obtained for the relation between adult intra-generational social mobility and a number of widely used measures of health. The implications of the findings for different explanations of the social class gradient in educational attainment are examined. The findings provide greater support for theoretical explanations of educational inequalities that are based on differences in economic circumstances between social classes than they do for explanations based on social class variations in the levels of cultural capital and aspirations. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that the overall pattern of results from these analyses is unchanged after statistically controlling for levels of parental education. The findings also have methodological implications for measuring the social class gradient in attainment and qualifications


      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
       
  • Inequality across Three and Four Generations in Egalitarian Sweden: 1st
           and 2nd Cousin Correlations in Socio-Economic Outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Martin Hällsten
      This paper estimates intergenerational associations in outcomes across more than two generations using cousin correlations. These correlations account for both observed and unobserved factors that cousins share, i.e., the joint influence of family and the community they are exposed to. The results show 1st cousin correlations in GPA, cognitive ability, and years of education above .15. For occupational prestige, the correlations was found to be close to .10. Accounting for detailed parental socio-economic characteristics reduces the correlations by merely one third to one half, which suggest that grandparents contribute over and above parents. For 2nd cousins, sample restriction allows only the study of correlations in 9th grade GPA. The 2nd cousin correlation is estimated to .07 unadjusted and .05 after adjusting for detailed parental characteristics. For 1st and 2nd cousins of grandparent with great economic wealth, the correlations double or triple, and remain very large even after parental characteristics are controlled for. In sum, this indicates strong persistence of inequality across at least four generations in contemporary Sweden.


      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
       
  • The transmission of longevity across generations: The case of the settler
           Cape Colony
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Patrizio Piraino , Jeanne Cilliers , Johan Fourie , Sean Muller
      Evidence on long-term multigenerational dynamics is often inadequate as large datasets with multiple generations remain very uncommon. We posit that genealogical records can offer a valuable alternative. Rather than exploring the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status, we rely on birth and death dates of eighteenth and nineteenth century settlers in South Africa's Cape Colony to estimate the intergenerational transmission of longevity. We find that there is a positive and significant association between parents’ and offspring's life duration, as well as between siblings. Although these correlations persist over time, the coefficients are relatively small. While the effect of grandparents’ longevity on that of grandchildren is insignificant, the cousin correlations suggest that inequality in longevity might persist across more than two generations. We suggest that family and environmental factors shared by cousins, beyond grandparental longevity, can explain these results.


      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
       
  • Age at Childbearing over Two Generations and Grandchildren's Cognitive
           Achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Paula Fomby , Patrick M. Krueger , Nicole M. Wagner
      We examine whether grandparents’ and parents’ ages at birth are associated with grandchildren's early cognitive achievement, and whether grandparents’ or parents’ socioeconomic status, health, and marital status mediate those associations. Our analysis is based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. A grandparent's age at the birth of their own children is robustly and positively associated with grandchildren's verbal achievement, but not with grandchildren's applied mathematics achievement, after controlling for parents’ age at the grandchild's birth. The associations are similar in magnitude for grandmothers and grandfathers. A variety of indicators of social class in the grandparent and parent generations did not mediate this age effect. However, many of those indicators of grandparents’ social class were directly or indirectly related to grandchildren's achievement.


      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
       
  • Multi-Generational Income Disadvantage and the Educational Attainment of
           Young Adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Patrick Wightman , Sheldon Danziger
      We use data from three generations of participants of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the association between intergenerational socio-economic mobility and young adult outcomes. In particular, we investigate whether parents’ childhood conditions are associated with the educational attainment of their young adult children, conditional on young adults’ own childhood conditions. We examine the degree to which different paths leading to the same socio-economic position may differentially influence the outcomes of children raised under otherwise similar circumstances. We find some evidence that, conditional on young adults’ own adolescent conditions, the adolescent conditions of their parents influence their household environment and by extension their educational attainment. This association appears to be concentrated among low-income households.


      PubDate: 2013-10-21T02:07:55Z
       
  • The role of networks and connections in educational elites’ labour
           market entrance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Gerbrand Tholen , Phillip Brown , Sally Power , Annabelle Allouch
      Despite extensive research on the role of ‘personal’ capital on labour market transitions, little is known about how those with elite credentials use networks and connection to improve their labour market chances. This becomes especially relevant within debates on the meritocratic nature of the post-industrial labour market. This article investigates how networks and connections aid educational elites to gain entrance into the upper echelons of the graduate labour market in two countries: France and England. Using interview data from final year students from two elite higher education institutions, Science Po and the University of Oxford, it is assessed whether their elite educational experiences are translated into networks and connections that aid their future labour market positions. The findings reveal that in both countries students have extensive opportunities to familiarise themselves with elite employers and create useful networks. In addition, students frequently arrange exclusive internships to seek future opportunities. We argue that these networks and connections are inherent to the elite educational experience and they could therefore help contribute to a credentialisation of the graduate labour market


      PubDate: 2013-10-13T03:32:32Z
       
  • Religious Affiliation and Hiring Discrimination in New England: A Field
           Experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Bradley R.E. Wright , Michael Wallace , John Bailey , Allen Hyde
      This article describes a field experiment in which we sent fictitious resumes to advertised job openings in New England, in the Northeast region of the United States. We randomly altered the resumes to indicate affiliation in one of seven religious groups or a control group. Resumes that mentioned any religious affiliation received about one-quarter fewer phone calls than did the control group but there were no significant difference in e-mails received. Muslim applicants received one-third fewer responses from employers, either as phone calls or e-mails, than did the control group. There was also evidence of discrimination against atheists, Catholics and pagans. These findings are consistent with theoretical models of secularization and cultural distaste theory


      PubDate: 2013-10-13T03:32:32Z
       
  • The Implications of Family Policy Regimes for Mothers’ Autonomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Alexander L. Janus
      This article is concerned with the implications of different state strategies in the area of family policy for mothers’ autonomy, which I conceptualize as their freedom to choose between employment and homemaking as alternative means of self-fulfillment and economic independence. Using data on 15 OECD countries from the International Social Survey Program, I examine cross-national variation in “the gap” between mothers’ work-family orientations and employment trajectories. Cross-national variation in support for mothers’ choice to work, mothers’ choice to stay at home, or mothers’ life-course flexibility differs from the broad picture suggest by previous research. Specifically, in contrast to suggestions that the well-developed childcare-related provisions in the Scandinavian countries and Belgium and France offer uniquely strong support for mothers’ choice to work, I find that the large majority of countries (13 out of 15) offer at least moderately strong support for “work-centered” mothers’ choice or autonomy. In addition, I find that actual levels of labor force involvement exceeded ideals among the majority of “home-centered” mothers in 7 out of 15 countries. Single mothers living in policy contexts with underdeveloped maternity leave provisions were especially likely to face incentives to work.


      PubDate: 2013-10-01T03:34:44Z
       
  • The Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Military Servi Evidence from the
           Wisconsin Longitudinal Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Daniel J. DellaPosta
      This article documents heterogeneous economic returns to military service that vary with the individual propensity to serve, even within a relatively privileged sample of mostly white high school graduates. Using a rich set of covariates from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I estimate propensity scores for male respondents’ likelihood of voluntary military enlistment or involuntary draft conscription. Then, I use recently-developed HLM-based methods for causal inference to analyze systematic variation in veteran status’ effect on later earnings as a function of these propensity scores. Among individuals with low propensities for military service—but not among others—veterans suffer large wage penalties. While this pattern applies to both voluntary enlisters and draftees, the timing of the wage penalty differs by mode of military entry. These effects are shown to correlate strongly with differences in educational attainment between veterans and nonveterans with low propensities for military service, suggesting the greater value of opportunities for human capital accumulation in the civilian sphere.


      PubDate: 2013-09-13T02:06:39Z
       
  • Pathways to Gender Inequality in Faculty Pay: The Impact of Institution,
           Academic Division, and Rank
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Linda A. Renzulli , Jeremy Reynolds , Kimberly Kelly , Linda Grant
      Wage disparities remain an important source of gender inequality in United States’ labor markets including those for college and university faculty. Pay differences may result from the allocation of women and men to different locations defined by institution types, academic divisions, and ranks where pay scales differ. It may also reflect unequal earnings of men and women in similar locations. Using national data, we examine whether institution type, academic division, and rank influence salary independently of each other or whether they are interdependent such that their effects on salary depend on how they are combined. We find that they are interdependent. We then consider how these interdependent locations mediate or moderate the relationship between gender and pay. We find more evidence of mediation. Women are disproportionately located in academic locations that pay less than locations where men are more often found. This work contributes to the understanding of gender segregation and its ramifications for the academy.


      PubDate: 2013-09-09T02:08:08Z
       
  • Distinct Paths to Higher Inequality? A Qualitative Comparative
           Analysis of Rising Earnings Inequality Among U.S. States, 1980-2010
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Keith Bentele
      In this paper Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is used to explore the extent to which states have taken distinct causal path to higher levels of earnings inequality within the 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and during the early years of the 2007-09 recession. In these analyses special attention is paid to both the regional unfolding of the processes constituting economic restructuring and whether state institutional arrangements appear to mediate the impacts of inequality-increasing developments. Overall, these analyses suggest that industry and occupational shifts are critical to understanding state and regional experiences; state variation in changes in earnings inequality are, in large part, a story of the continuous playing out of economic restructuring in unique ways in different areas of the country. However, the subnational impact of the growth or decline of particular types of occupations on the earnings distribution is found to be highly contingent, depending on both the types of jobs gained or lost and the institutional and economic context in which those developments occur. It is suggested the overall contribution of industry shifts to rising inequality may be underemphasized, in part, as a result of a reliance on analytical approaches that are ill-suited to capture the complicated and contingent nature of the impacts of processes such as deindustrialization. These analyses contribute to a growing body of work that employs a distinctly sociological approach in which earnings determination is viewed as multi-level phenomenon. Building on this insight, this paper suggests that changes in subnational levels of inequality may also be usefully conceptualized as an inherently combinatorial phenomenon.


      PubDate: 2013-09-01T08:00:50Z
       
  • The Local Joneses: Household Consumption and Income Inequality in Large
           Metropolitan Areas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Maria Charles , Jeffrey D. Lundy
      Do household consumption practices depend upon local standards of decency or distinction? This article explores effects of local income structure on household consumption across 18 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Consistent with understandings of consumption as socially embedded, results show greater overall spending in high-inequality MSAs. But contrary to conventional depictions of “conspicuous consumption,” the additional spending goes mostly toward shelter and food, not more visible purchases of jewelry, vehicles, apparel, and entertainment. High median income, by contrast, is associated with greater spending in two visible goods categories (apparel and entertainment), but only among low-income households. Results support depictions of expenditure cascades, where spending by those better off ratchets up local standards of “normal” and socially acceptable living. Some unfortunate consequences include decreased investment in health care and heightened competition for access to quality public schooling. In this sense, growing economic inequality and positional consumption may be self-reinforcing processes.


      PubDate: 2013-08-20T17:00:26Z
       
  • The Impact of Wealth on Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of Three
           Welfare-State Regimes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Oshrat Hochmann , Nora Skopek
      This paper provides new insights into the association between economic standing and subjective well-being (SWB) among aging individuals in three industrialized countries: Germany, Israel, and Sweden. Specifically, we compare the effects of wealth, in line with the growing consensus that wealth is an important determinant of economic standing alongside income, on SWB across three welfare-state regimes: conservative (Germany), liberal (Israel), and social-democratic (Sweden). Drawing on needs theory, we hypothesize that individuals of poor wealth would report lower levels of SWB in all countries. We expect, however, the association between poor wealth and SWB to be stronger in the liberal system (Israel) and weaker in the conservative system (Germany) with the weakest effect found in the social-democratic system (Sweden) due to differences in the extent of social benefits each welfare-state regime provides its residents. To test our hypotheses, we utilize data from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE 1 1 This paper uses data from SHARE release 2.5.0, as of May 24th 2011. The SHARE data collection has been primarily funded by the European Commission through the 5th framework programme (project QLK6-CT-2001- 00360 in the thematic programme Quality of Life), through the 6th framework programme (projects SHARE-I3, RII-CT- 2006-062193, COMPARE, CIT5-CT-2005-028857, and SHARELIFE, CIT4-CT-2006-028812) and through the 7th framework programme (SHARE-PREP, 211909 and SHARE-LEAP, 227822). Additional funding from the U.S. National Institute on Aging (U01 AG09740-13S2, P01 AG005842, P01 AG08291, P30 AG12815, Y1-AG-4553-01 and OGHA 04-064, IAG BSR06-11, R21 AG025169) as well as from various national sources is gratefully acknowledged (see www.share-project.org for a full list of funding institutions). For further information on the SHARE project, see Börsch-Supan et al. (2005). ). Results indicate that income and wealth explain a greater part of the variance in SWB when taken together. We find a ‘poor penalty’ on SWB in Germany and Israel while in Sweden wealth has no impact on SWB. Finally, when controlling for subjective economic hardship, the negative effect of poor wealth on SWB disappears in Germany, but maintains significance in Israel, suggesting that needs theory alone cannot explain the poor penalty in Israel. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the welfare-state has an impact on the wealth-SWB relation and that the mechanisms that underlie this relation operate differently in Germany and Israel.


      PubDate: 2013-07-26T15:32:52Z
       
  • The Occupational Mismatch amongst Palestinians and Jews in Israel: A new
           evidence from the LFS 2000-2010
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Nabil Khattab , Sami Miaari
      This article compares the occupational attainment of qualified Palestinians and Jews in Israel using data obtained from the Labour Force Survey for the years 2000-2010. Our findings show that Sephardi Jews are as likely as most Palestinians to be disadvantaged in their chances of obtaining jobs in certain occupational categories. Some qualified Palestinians tend to seek professions that facilitate self-employment within the ethnic enclave as a way to escape unfair practices on the part of Jewish employers such as attorneys and accounting. In relation to jobs that are scarce within the ethnic enclave such as in natural and life sciences and university lecturers, Palestinians tend to seek jobs within the Jewish controlled labour market where they face a harsher penalty.


      PubDate: 2013-07-26T15:32:52Z
       
  • Making a Living in Two Labor Markets: Earnings of Filipinos in the Global
           and the Domestic Economy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Anastasia Gorodzeisky , Moshe Semyonov
      The present research examines earnings differentials between Filipino overseas global labor migrants and Filipinos employed in the domestic labor market (i.e. the Philippines) as well as income differentials between households of overseas workers and households without overseas workers. Data were obtained from the survey of households conducted during 1999-2000 in the four primary sending areas of overseas migrant workers. The data set for the present analysis consists of 4,393 domestic workers and 1,176 global migrant workers. The findings demonstrate that the average earnings of those employed in the Philippines is not only lower than the average earnings of Filipinos employed in the global market (regardless of region of destination) but their earnings distribution is also much more condensed than earnings distribution of Filipinos working in the global labor market. The multivariate analysis reveals that earnings returns in absolute terms (to education and occupations) are considerably higher among migrants employed in the global labor market than among those employed in the domestic labor market. By contrast, earnings returns in relative terms are lower for global labor migrants than for those employed in the domestic labor market (despite some variations across regions of destination). The results also suggest that earnings generated in the global labor market form a new source of economic inequality between households in the Philippines. Specifically, income of households with labor migrants tends to be considerably higher than that of households without labor migrants. The findings imply that global migration should be understood within the framework of ‘household theory of migration’.


      PubDate: 2013-07-22T15:35:33Z
       
  • The relation between social class and economic inequality: a strengthening
           or weakening nexus? Evidence from the last three decades of inequality
           in Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Marco Albertini
      Recent sociological research has shown that in contemporary western societies social class remains a relevant factor in the structuration of socio-economic inequalities and individuals’ life courses. However, in the framework of class analysis, there is one aspect that has received relatively little attention: the relation between social class and earnings and income inequality. Using data from the historical archive of the Survey of Household Income and Wealth, the paper explores how it has changed the relation between social class and economic inequality in Italy in the last three decades. The findings suggest that in 2010 the quota of inequality that is accounted for by between-classes differences is similar to that registered in the late 1970s, and social class is signalling earnings and income with the same, if not more, reliability than it was the case in the late 1970s. in the last three decades, however, there have been relevant changes in the horizontal redistribution of earnings and income. In particular, there has been a significant deterioration in the economic situation of blue-collar families vis-à-vis white-collar ones. Also, the distance in median earnings and income between manager and professionals vs. white-collars has dramatically increased. The gap between high and low service class has widened so much as to suggest the existence of a process of dichotomization within the service class.


      PubDate: 2013-05-19T15:31:31Z
       
  • Intergenerational transmission of occupational status: the role of
           voluntary association membership as an emerging compensatory strategy of
           reproduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Jasper M.A. van Houten , Maurice Gesthuizen , Maarten H.J. Wolbers
      In this article, we raised the question as to what extent members from higher status groups effectuated social resources, more specifically voluntary association membership, as a possible new compensatory strategy to guarantee a successful intergenerational transmission of their occupational status. For that purpose, we investigated whether voluntary association membership (of parents and their child) mediate the positive effect of parental occupational status on that of their child and whether it has become more important over time as an explanation of social reproduction. In the empirical analysis, we incorporated voluntary association membership into the classic status attainment model and estimated path models using retrospective life course data from the Family Survey Dutch Population 2000. The empirical results showed that voluntary association membership does not play a mediating role in the intergenerational transmission of occupational status for the 1916-1947 birth cohort. However, it does so for the 1948-1960 birth cohort, thereby becoming an effective compensatory strategy in the intergenerational transmission of occupation status.


      PubDate: 2013-04-25T15:31:56Z
       
  • Men's Race-Based Mobility into Management: Analyses at the Blue Collar and
           White Collar Job Levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): George Wilson , David Maume
      There are few theoretical perspectives that address the dynamics of race-based mobility in the American workplace. The “particularistic mobility thesis” fills this gap: it maintains that even when groups work in similar jobs, discriminatorily-induced dynamics associated with the relative inability of minorities to demonstrate informal characteristics—such as loyalty and sound judgment –constitute a handicap in mobility into managerial positions. Findings based on the 2004-2010 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics support theory and indicate that from both white collar and blue collar job levels African American and Latino men, relative to White gender counterparts, are disadvantaged: they have lower rates of mobility, are restricted to a formal route to reach managerial positions that is less dependent on a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors including background status, human capital, and job/labor market characteristics, and take longer to reach management. Further, as predicted by theory, along all issues differences, relative to Whites, are greater among African Americans than Latinos and greater among those tracked from blue collar jobs than white collar jobs. Implications of the findings for understanding short-term and long-term minority disadvantage in the American labor market are discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-04-21T15:31:41Z
       
  • Social Mobility and Equality in the Life Course: Exploring the Relevance
           of Context
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      The causes and consequences of social inequality have been highly debated issues among social scientists of various disciplines for several decades. On the one hand, there have been economic growth and increasing wealth levels, accompanied by educational expansion and high (absolute) mobility rates. On the other hand, contemporary research suggests that patterns of educational and occupational stratification largely seem to be resistant to these changes. Given these conflicting developments, examining the structures and consequences of social inequalities in modern societies thus remains among the most challenging questions in the social sciences. Given the high topicality of the issue, some recent special issues of Research in Social Stratification and Mobility (RSSM) have explored different aspects in the emergence of social inequalities and its repercussions for both individual life courses as well as social structures at the national level. In their special issue on “Inequality across the globe”, Moshe Semyonov and Anstasia Gorodzeisky (2011) accentuate the differential ways in which nation-specific institutions, such as education systems, labour markets, consumption systems and marriage markets are influencing social and economic inequalities at the individual level. Herman Van de Werfhorst and Wiemer Salverda (2012) take a different, more micro-oriented angle when bringing together a selection of articles that investigate empirically the consequences of economic inequalities for various dimensions such as political participation, solidarity, subjective well-being or health. This special issue aims to bridge between the macro-level and the micro-level by linking individual-level inequalities to various types of relevant context conditions affecting them. Notably, “context” may refer to very different phenomena, combining various aspects of place and time into which individuals and their life courses are being embedded (e.g. Elder, Kirkpatrick Johnson, & Crosnoe, 2003).


      PubDate: 2013-04-09T15:31:43Z
       
  • Intergenerational class mobility in Hungary between 1865 and 1950: Testing
           models of change in social openness
    • Abstract: Available online 14 March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      This article describes long-term changes in the occupational class structure and intergenerational social mobility in Hungary between 1865 and 1950, a period that has not been studied in previous mobility research. The study's long time span and the fact that the Hungarian economy began to industrialize in the second half of the 19th century allows us to test several competing hypotheses about changes in social mobility. We use a large, individual-level, historical dataset with over 73,000 marriage records, representing all regions of present-day Hungary. Although the occupational structure remained predominantly agrarian, total mobility increased over the observed period, with an upward shift in the occupational distribution. Log-multiplicative association models were used to compare relative mobility patterns of men across 17 mobility tables over five-year periods. Relative mobility increased, lending partial support to the modernization thesis. The increase of relative mobility can be attributed to decreasing diagonal association. Off-diagonal association, indicating class-based inequalities in mobility chances, increased during the first period of industrialization. The results call for a closer examination of the mechanisms causing changes in social mobility during industrialization.


      PubDate: 2013-03-16T16:31:47Z
       
  • Links between immigration and social inequality in education: A comparison
           among five European countries
    • Abstract: Available online 20 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      Empirical studies indicate that immigrant students are disadvantaged in most educational systems, but also that the international variation in their relative situation is remarkable. However, little is known about the processes that lead to their disadvantage and to corresponding international differences. This paper explores the role of specific national contexts that determine the educational situation of migrants. The main assumption is that the relative performance of migrants in education can be attributed not only to individual characteristics, but also to macro-level conditions in particular societies. Analyzed are selected relationships between immigration, immigrant and educational policies; patterns of migration; and the performance of migrants within the national education systems. This study covers five European cases that show considerable variation in the major explanatory variables: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Regarding the empirical consequences of these determinants for educational performance, the analyses draw upon comparative micro-level data from the large-scale assessment studies PIRLS 2001 and PISA 2006. These allow conducting multivariate comparisons while controlling for differences in group-level composition. In all countries, a major part of the relative disadvantage can be explained by the social composition of migrants in combination with general patterns of social inequality in education; however, in some cases significant differences remain even when controlling for such group differences. Institutions and policies of immigration, integration and education obviously interact when determining the situation of migrants in education.


      PubDate: 2013-02-24T12:06:01Z
       
  • Immigration and Wealth Inequality in Old Age: The Case of Israel
    • Abstract: Available online 17 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      Relatively little research has been devoted to the long term implications of immigration for the accumulation of household wealth. This accumulation has significance both for the well-being in old age and for intergenerational transmission of advantage and disadvantage. Our study addresses the nativity wealth gap and examines its sources. Data for the analysis were obtained from the SHARE-Israel study conducted in 2005-06. Our sample includes 1,366 Jewish households, either native-born or immigrant. We use OLS regression to estimate the nativity wealth gap and arrive at a number of noteworthy findings. First, immigrant–native disparities are large and do not disappear even after many decades of residence. Second, an important source of the disparity in accumulated household wealth is the fact that immigrants are considerably less likely than natives to have received a substantial inheritance. Third, wealth is strongly related to household income and more so among some immigrant groups than among natives. Fourth, there is substantial variation in the wealth of immigrant groups defined by their geo-cultural origin.


      PubDate: 2013-02-20T12:06:25Z
       
  • Demographic changes, labor markets and their consequences on
           post-school-transitions in West Germany 1975–2005
    • Abstract: Available online 5 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      The German system of post-school education and training is well-known for its high degree of standardization and stratification. Whereas transitions from this system to the labor market have been examined widely, much less is known about the transition patterns of school-leavers to post-school education. In particular, there is a shortage of research applying a comprehensive view of school-leavers from different tracks and investigating changing overall transition patterns over time. In our paper we fill this research gap by investigating school-leavers’ transitions to post-school education in West Germany over the last 30 years. Particular attention is given to the influence of contextual conditions, such as demographic fluctuations, economic cycles, and changes in the social composition of school-leavers. The empirical analyses are based on the retrospective life-course survey ALWA, which contains detailed information on the education and work trajectories of 10,000 adults in Germany. Our results show that school-leavers with low and medium attainment need more time to enter training when unemployment is high or when the school-leaver cohort is large. Overall, access to post-school education has become increasingly difficult for these groups, over and above the market shortages and the changes in group composition. By contrast, the transitions of school-leavers from higher secondary schools are unaffected by market fluctuations and long-term structural change. In the period looked at here, their chances remained almost stable. Accordingly, we conclude that the transition rates of school-leavers with different educational attainment have diverged in (West) Germany over the last 30 years.


      PubDate: 2013-02-08T13:35:13Z
       
  • Diverging Performances the detrimental effects of early selection on
           equality of opportunity in Hungary
    • Abstract: Available online 8 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      The Hungarian system is ideal to test the effect of early-selection on inequality of opportunity, since students are selected at three different ages. The early-selective academic tracks skim off the best students first at age 10, then at age 12, and finally at age 14 all students enter secondary level. The paper first shows that higher socioeconomic status students are more likely to attend the early-selective academic tracks, even if previous test scores are controlled for. The second part of the empirical analysis looks at the value-added of the separate tracks between 6th and 8th grade, and between 8th and 10th grade, and shows that their mathematical and reading performance diverges, even if skill and status selection is taken into account. Since higher socioeconomic status students are more likely to attend academic tracks than their lower status peers, the divergence in test scores translates to increasing inequality of opportunity. The third section of the empirics looks at whether this process is a Pareto improvement, or whether there are groups in society that lose by the early-selection. It is shown that those who are left in general schools in areas where the best students can opt-out to early-selective tracks perform worse in mathematics than similar students in general tracks with no option of leaving. That is, selection harms those who are left behind. The paper speculates that these results are due to the different peer and teacher quality of the different tracks.


      PubDate: 2013-02-08T13:35:13Z
       
  • The role of higher education stratification in the reproduction of social
           inequality in the labor market
    • Abstract: Available online 8 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      This paper analyses whether social origins affect labor market outcomes (wage and occupational status) of a recent cohort of graduates and whether the type of qualification obtained (program length, field of study and institutional quality) accounts for this relationship. We use data from the 2005 Reflex survey on European graduates in 4 countries (Germany, Norway, Italy, and Spain) which were selected on the basis of their institutional profiles. Results from binomial logistic regression models indicate that those with tertiary educated parents are more likely to have a highly rewarded occupation in all the countries except Germany. Moreover, the effect of parental education is greater on occupational status than on wages. The Karlson-Holm-Breen decomposition method shows that the type of qualification obtained contributes to the reproduction of social inequality in the labor market, but its mediating role is greater in Norway and smaller in Italy, with Spain in the middle. A discussion of the institutional differences between the countries tries to explain the sources of this variation.
      Highlights ► Parental education positively affects recent graduates’ occupational returns (status and wage). ► The strength of this association varies according to higher education and labor market features. ► Type of qualification mediates the relation between parental education and occupational outcomes. ► This mediation role is stronger in Norway and lower in Italy.

      PubDate: 2013-02-08T13:35:13Z
       
  • Summarizing primary and secondary effects
    • Abstract: Available online 1 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      Current methods for decomposing class differentials in educational decisions into primary and secondary effects produce many parameters, rendering them ill-equipped for parsimonious comparisons across countries or birth cohorts. This paper develops a parametric method that provides an optimal summary of primary and secondary effects across discrete class origins. Under the testable assumption that the pattern of effects of class origins on academic ability is proportional to the pattern of effects of class origins on educational choice net of academic ability, the method returns a single summary measure. Applying the method to two cohorts born in the UK in 1958 and 1970 suggests that––even with increasing overall inequality of educational opportunity––the relative contribution of secondary effects to class differentials in A-level completion has changed little between the two cohorts.


      PubDate: 2013-02-03T23:35:15Z
       
  • Exploring the impact of male and female facial attractiveness on
           occupational prestige
    • Abstract: Available online 12 November 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      Traditionally, social scientists have studied socio-economic inequalities mainly by looking at the impact of individuals’ economic, cultural and social capital. Some scholars have recently argued that other types of resources, such as genetic and erotic capital, may also play a role in the processes that lead to the formation of social inequalities. Using a unique longitudinal dataset, the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, this paper explores the impact of facial attractiveness on people's socio-economic standing over the life course. Methodologically, we employ a set of multilevel Growth Curve Models. Two findings clearly stand out from our analysis. Firstly, facial attractiveness does matter, both for men and women, and secondly, its impact is constant over the employment history.


      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Job loss among rich and poor in the United States and Germany: Who loses
           more income'
    • Abstract: Available online 22 November 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      This article compares household income losses after involuntary job loss between household income quintiles in the United States and Germany. I argue that income trajectories after job loss vary between social strata in country-specific ways because of differences in the labor market, the family and the welfare state. Using panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the German Socio-Economic Panel, I calculate household income after job loss for each household income quintile. The results show that job loss in the United States has the most severe effect on the poorest quintile whereas in Germany, the middle quintiles lose most after job loss. My analysis reveals that this is due to differences in the factors that buffer income losses between the strata: In both countries, the lower quintiles have the highest losses in earnings and family income support is comparatively low among them. In Germany, the welfare state ameliorates this because it has a higher impact on the lower quintiles than on the upper quintiles. In the United States on the other hand, the welfare state has a more equal impact among the quintiles and hence does not offset the disadvantages of the lower quintiles that the labor market and the family generate.


      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • The impact of income inequality on self-rated general health: Evidence
           from a cross-national study
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 30, Issue 4

      Previous studies report a strong negative association between income inequality and population health at the aggregate level. However, it is still in hot debate whether this ecological association indicates a genuine, causal effect of income inequality on health, as asserted by the Wilkinson hypothesis, or it simply reflects a nonlinear effect of individual income on health, as suggested by the absolute income hypothesis. Drawing data from the 2005 round of the World Values Survey, I analyze the relationship between individual income, income inequality, and self-rated general health in a multilevel framework. Results show no independent detrimental effect of country income inequality on individual self-rated general health. In contrast, self-rated general health is strongly associated with absolute material conditions both at the individual and at the country level. Therefore, this study gives more evidence to the absolute income hypothesis, i.e., the strong ecological association between income inequality and population health is more likely a reflection of the nonlinear effect of individual income on health rather than a genuine effect of income inequality.
      Highlights ► Whether income inequality has a genuine harmful effect on health is in hot debate in social studies of health. ► Data from the 2005 round of the World Values Survey are analyzed to examine the “income inequality-health” relationship. ► Adjusted estimates of income inequality are used to improve international comparability. ► Results provide little evidence in support of an independent, detrimental effect of income inequality on health. ► Absolute material conditions are more important predictors of health than relative distribution of income.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Economic inequality, status perceptions, and subjective well-being in
           China's transitional economy
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 30, Issue 4

      Situated in the dynamic institutional environment of China's transitional economy, this study investigates the intricate relationships among economic inequality, status perceptions, and subjective well-being. Empirical evidence is drawn from national survey data collected from urban China. Statistical analyses show that multiple indicators of economic well-being exert a significant effect on self-perceived social status and status change and on subjective well-being. Positive status perceptions further enhance one's subjective well-being. Some of these effects are also moderated by contextual inequality. This study advances the literature by moving beyond income-based measures to examine the consequences of economic disparity. It also shows that status perceptions are the key nexus to probe the impacts of economic well-being and the sources of life satisfaction. Findings further direct our attention to important interplays between the individual-level socioeconomic conditions and the contextual inequality in achieving a deeper understanding of the consequences of socioeconomic inequality.


      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Income inequality and solidarity in Europe
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 30, Issue 4

      This paper studies the relationship between income inequality, a macro-level characteristic, and solidarity of Europeans. To this aim, solidarity is defined as the ‘willingness to contribute to the welfare of other people’. We rely on a theoretical idea according to which feelings of solidarity are derived from both affective and calculating considerations – we derive competing hypotheses relating the extent of income inequality to these ‘underlying’ motivations for solidarity. Using data from the 1999 European Values Study (EVS), we apply multilevel analysis for 26 European countries. Controlling for household income and a range of macro-level characteristics, we find evidence that in more unequal countries people are less willing to take action to improve the living conditions of their fellow-countrymen. This is true for respondents living in both low- and high-income households. According to our theoretical framework, this finding suggests that, at least when measured in terms of ‘willingness to contribute to the welfare of other people’, feelings of solidarity seem to be influenced more strongly by affective, rather than by calculating considerations.
      Highlights ► We compare countries in Europe in terms of their level of social solidarity. ► We attain concept validity with a more direct measure of solidarity – ‘willingness to help other people’. ► We examine whether income inequality in a society is related to the level of solidarity. ► Higher inequality is related to lower willingness to help improve the living conditions of others. ► Solidarity is more dependent on affective than calculating considerations.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Education, inequality and electoral participation
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 30, Issue 4

      In comparative terms, Italian electoral turnout has been very high since 1946. However, during the five elections from 1994 to 2008, turnout dropped more steeply than it did over the previous 12 elections from 1946 to 1992. The difference between maximum turnout in the early 1950s and the 2008 election was about 12%, and most of this decline (8%) occurred in the period 1992–2008. This paper finds robust evidence that individual and contextual social inequalities have been key factors in the recent fall of turnout. In particular our results clearly suggest that contextual social inequality lowers the turnout of less-educated voters and leaves it unaffected among high-educated ones. The recent decline in turnout may therefore be indicative of an important shift towards more unequal political participation. These findings are consistent with data showing that the post-1994 parties performed very poorly as mobilisation agencies compared with the old parties. Indeed, according to Franklin (2004), turnout trends can be effectively explained by changes in institutional rules and by the degree of electoral competitiveness. This paper suggests that, in order to explain turnout trends, the interactive effects of social and individual inequality should also be considered.
      Highlights ► The recent fall of turnout in Italy depends on the early 1990s institutional change, most notably the end of compulsory vote. ► Individual and contextual social inequalities are key factors in explaining the individual choice of turn out. ► After 1994, party organisations seemed unable to countervail the effects of individual and social inequalities. ► As expected, young cohorts did not develop the habit of turning out to vote. ► There are signals not only of a further decline in participation rates, but also of an increase in political inequality.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Support for democracy in cross-national perspective: The detrimental
           effect of economic inequality
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 30, Issue 4

      Using survey data and national statistics on 35 modern democracies, this research explores the relationship between economic and political conditions and support for democracy. As expected from modernization theory, support for democracy tends to be highest in countries with a high level of economic development. More importantly, however, I contribute a new finding that income inequality matters much more. Specifically, citizens from countries with relatively low levels of income inequality tend to be more likely than others to support democracy. I also find that household income is positively related to support for democracy in most countries, though it tends to have its strongest effect if economic development is high and income inequality is low. Finally, even after taking into account the level of economic development in one's country, people from former Communist countries tend to have far less support for democracy than those from more established democracies.


      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Consequences of economic inequality: Introduction to a special issue
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 30, Issue 4

      As an introduction to the papers of this special issue on Consequences of Economic Inequality we first underline with a simple empirical exercise the relevance of studying the subject of consequences of economic inequality in many socially important fields. Next, we sketch the two main theoretical perspectives on the channels by which inequality exerts its effects: on the one hand, the psychosocial, which stresses the role of individual status and stratification, and, on the other hand, the neo-material, which puts the focus on resources at people's disposal. In our view the two are not mutually exclusive. Thirdly, we present each of the contributions and relate their results to these main perspectives. We find support for the view that inequality can magnify not only the differences between individuals or households in the resources at their disposal, but also the association between these resources and politics, well-being and social stratification.
      Highlights ► Income inequality is related to lower levels of well-being, political involvement, and more personal worries. ► Both material and psychological theories find support in this special issue. ► Comparative analyses on European Social Survey data.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • The Social Maximum: American Attitudes toward Extremely High Incomes
    • Abstract: Available online 7 December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      In light of the dramatic rise in income inequality at the top of the income distribution, this study investigates how the American public is reacting to extremely high incomes. Tolerance for high incomes is measured using survey items about a cap on compensation. The paper aims to answer the following questions: What do people think about compensation caps' What are the determinants of favoring a cap and favoring various levels of caps' Do characteristics of high earners affect these preferences' Why do people favor or oppose a cap on compensation' Analyses show that 61% of Americans support a cap on compensation and that this support for a cap is remarkably stable even when high earners are described as being exceptionally productive or hard-working. Common reasons for favoring a cap include a concern about scarcity of resources, a belief that high incomes are disproportionate to contribution, a commitment to equality and the belief that the legitimate needs of high earners are sated. Common reasons for opposing a cap include seeing the idea of a cap as conflicting with a free market system, a belief that high earners deserve their incomes, and a concern that a cap is a restriction on individual freedom. It is suggested that these attitudes should not be understood as arising mainly or only due to the economic recession. The findings show some support for the proposition that economic individualism, which inoculates modestly high incomes from criticism, may be weakened at the extreme.
      Highlights ► Sixty-one percent of Americans favor a cap indicating low tolerance for high incomes. ► Support for a cap is stable even for exceptionally meritorious high earners. ► Top reason for favoring a cap is a concern about scarcity and lower earners. ► Top reason for opposing a cap is that it is against the principles of a free market. ► The results observed here are not solely or mainly a reaction to the recession.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Do they progress or do they lag behind' Educational attainment of
           immigrants’ children in Italy: The role played by generational
           status, country of origin and social class
    • Abstract: March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 31

      In this paper we investigate immigrant-native differentials in Italian upper secondary education. We use Italian Labour Force Survey data to provide evidence from a new context of immigration which has been not adequately covered by research so far. We focus on the population of 15–19-year-olds and investigate their educational participation in upper secondary education both in its horizontal dimension, by examining the choice among three school branches (i.e., vocational, technical and general schools), and in its vertical dimension, by assessing dropout risks. We find compelling evidence of a pronounced educational gap between natives and children of immigrants, which reaches its maximum when considering first-generation youths, sensibly decreases when considering the second generation and totally disappears when looking at children of mixed-parentage. However, these overall generational patterns disguise a highly heterogeneous situation. Some national-origin groups severely disadvantaged in the first generation (e.g., Eastern Asians) completely catch up with natives when considering the second generation, while some others (e.g., Northern Africans) still lag behind. Hence, immigrants’ scholastic adaptation in Italy follows heterogeneous paths rather than being a straight way to full integration into the host society. Finally, in line with previous research, social class accounts for nearly half of the gap for the first generation and over 70 per cent for the second generation, clearly indicating that the educational success of immigrants’ children results not only from a positive acculturation process of the children but also from a positive socioeconomic integration of their parents. However, the contribution of social class varies substantially across national-origin groups: the relative contribution of social origins is stronger for the least disadvantaged groups, suggesting that the particularly high drawbacks of the most severely disadvantaged groups may be rooted in linguistic and cultural factors.
      Highlights ► Immigrants’ children exhibit markedly higher dropout risks and vocational school enrollment. ► The second generation substantially improves and closes the gap with natives. ► Social class explains half of the gap for the first generation and 70 per cent for the second generation. ► Ethnic heterogeneity exists in generational patterns and social class’ contribution. ► Hence, immigrants’ adaptation follows highly differentiated paths in Italy.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Is more always better' Early career returns to education in the United
           States and Norway
    • Abstract: March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 31

      This paper compares early career returns to education in the United States and Norway. Longitudinal data is used to follow national cohorts of 10th graders who have made the transition from school to work within 10 years. OLS and quantile regression analyses show that whereas the relationship between educational attainment and income in the United States follows a linear pattern with higher returns to longer and more intellectually prestigious educations, this is not the case in Norway. In Norway, it pays off to choose vocational education in high school and college, especially for men. The results show that women and minorities benefit more from education than non-minority men in both countries. The findings from the quantile regressions indicate that this has partly to do with the fact that women and minorities are more disadvantaged at the lower end of the income distribution and at the lowest levels of educational attainment.


      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Women and their memberships: Gender gap in relational dimension of social
           inequality
    • Abstract: March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 31

      Women tend to have fewer memberships in voluntary associations than men. Since voluntary associations create opportunity structures for the establishment of interpersonal contacts, memberships are considered to have beneficial ramifications by generating access to social resources. Using the European Social Survey 2002/2003, we examine variations in the gender gap in associational involvement in a cross-national context. We find systematic variation in the gender gap that cannot be explained solely by individual attributes. Using multilevel Poisson regression models and employing a gendered version of the theory of social origins of civil society (Salamon & Anheier, 1998), we find that women in the social democratic countries have the highest participation rates, followed by women in conservative and liberal regimes. In Mediterranean and post-socialist countries, women face a dual disadvantage. Their average number of voluntary association memberships is low, both in absolute terms and in comparison to their male counterparts. This study reveals a complex relationship between societal context and the gender gap in associational involvement. Inequality in voluntary association participation between the genders may be another piece in the jigsaw puzzle of overall gender inequality in contemporary societies.


      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Expansion and inequality of educational opportunity: A comparative study
    • Abstract: March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 31

      Educational attendance rates increased dramatically during the twentieth century, especially in the decades following World War II. In most countries for which data are available, inequality of educational opportunity between social strata declined in those decades, but stabilized thereafter. Analyzing ESS (European Social Survey) data for 24 countries and for cohorts born between the 1950s and 1970s, we study whether educational expansion affected change in equality of educational opportunity among social strata. Our results show educational expansion enhanced inequality of opportunity for tertiary education among cohorts born in the 1950s and 1970s and enhanced inequality of opportunity at the secondary level for the cohort of the 1970s. We also tested and refuted Raftery and Hout's (1993) saturation hypothesis that once the affluent strata reached universal attendance at a given level of education, its further expansion would reduce inequality among strata in the odds of its attainment. These results corroborate the hypothesis that the privileged strata are better poised the benefit from educational expansion than the sons and daughters of the lower strata. From a policy perspective, we conclude that expansion is not necessarily an effective tool for the reduction of inequality of educational opportunity. Furthermore, the perpetual expansion of education that is pursued in most countries may hinder the reduction of gaps in education.


      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
  • Does capital at home matter more than capital at school' Social
           capital effects on academic achievement
    • Abstract: March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 31

      A relatively neglected problem is how individuals derive social capital from more than one context and the extent to which they benefit from the capital in each. We examine whether social capital created at home and at school has differing effects on child academic achievement. We hypothesize that children derive social capital from both their families and their schools and that capital from each context promotes achievement. Using data from the National Longitudinal Education Study and structural equation modeling, we show that capital from each context is helpful, with social capital in the family more influential than social capital at school. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on child achievement and for studies of inequality generally.
      Highlights ► We model youth social capital separately in families and in schools. ► We use these measures of social capital to predict youth academic achievement. ► Models compare capital effects across latent constructs rather than single variables. ► Both family and school capital matter, with stronger effects of family capital. ► Findings show how access to social capital creates inequality in education outcomes.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
       
 
 
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