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International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access  
Journal of Transnational American Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Kaleidoscope     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Knowledge Management for Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Korean Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Kotuitui : New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online     Open Access  
KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Labyrinthe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Learning in Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Les Cahiers des dix     Full-text available via subscription  
Les Cahiers d’EMAM     Open Access  
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science     Open Access  
Lilith: A Feminist History Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Liminar. Estudios Sociales y Humanisticos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Literacy Learning: The Middle Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

Journal Cover Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0276-5624
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 0.715]   [H-I: 9]
  • Perceptions of meritocracy in the land of opportunity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Jeremy Reynolds , He Xian
      For years, sociologists have studied mobility patterns and status attainment to determine empirically how well societies meet meritocratic ideals. Few studies, however, have examined whether people believe they live in a meritocratic society. In this paper, we use the 1987 and 2010 General Social Survey to examine people's perceptions of meritocracy in the U.S. Although most Americans agree that getting ahead depends on meritocratic elements like hard work, their beliefs vary in strength. They disagree even more about the importance of non-meritocratic elements such as family wealth, and race. Furthermore, Americans layer these beliefs on top of each other to create a variety of perspectives on meritocracy. Young, upper class Whites are most likely to see the U.S. as a place where meritocratic elements rule. Older, lower class minorities, in contrast, are most likely to believe that non-meritocratic elements dominate. There are also Americans who believe strongly in both types of elements and those who do not believe strongly in either.

      PubDate: 2014-04-28T17:18:41Z
  • Multigenerational aspects of social stratification: Issues for further
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Robert D. Mare
      The articles in this special issue show the vitality and progress of research on multigenerational aspects of social mobility, stratification, and inequality. The effects of the characteristics and behavior of grandparents and other kin on the statuses, resources, and positions of their descendants are best viewed in a demographic context. Intergenerational effects work through both the intergenerational associations of socioeconomic characteristics and also differential fertility and mortality. A combined socioeconomic and demographic framework informs a research agenda which addresses the following issues: how generational effects combine with variation in age, period, and cohort within each generation; distinguishing causal relationships across generations from statistical associations; how multigenerational effects vary across socioeconomic hierarchies, including the possibility of stronger effects at the extreme top and bottom; distinguishing between endowments and investments in intergenerational effects; multigenerational effects on associated demographic behaviors and outcomes (especially fertility and mortality); optimal tradeoffs among diverse types of data on multigenerational processes; and the variability across time and place in how kin, education, and other institutions affect stratification.

      PubDate: 2014-04-28T17:18:41Z
  • Multiple job holding and income mobility in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Arturo Martinez Jr , Mark Western , Michele Haynes , Wojtek Tomaszewski , Erlyn Macarayan
      Indonesia, one of the fastest growing economies in Asia, has lifted a significant portion of its population out of poverty and has experienced improved living standards over the past decade. However, this occurred within a context of growing inequality as indicated by a segmented labour market between standard and non-standard employment. This study examines the relationship between income mobility and non-standard employment using multiple job holding as a case study. Our empirical analysis based on the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) shows that multiple job holding is a prominent feature of Indonesia's labour market. However, for a significant bulk of the pluriactive workers, multiple job holding seems to be a necessary labour supply behaviour to make ends meet. Moreover, the data do not provide sufficient evidence that pluriactivity in the country is strongly correlated with long-term income mobility. This seems to be in contrast to findings from developed countries indicating that multiple job holding can be used to improve one's mobility prospects. We conclude that further investigation is needed to determine whether multiple job holding in Indonesia is correlated with other dimensions of social mobility.

      PubDate: 2014-04-28T17:18:41Z
  • Ethno-religious groups, identification, trust and social distance in the
           ethno-religiously stratified Philippines
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Menandro S. Abanes , Peer L.H. Scheepers , Carl Sterkens
      Unlike in the West, people's identification with religion remains significant in the political and social arena in the ethno-religiously stratified Philippine society. At the height of the peace talks to end the protracted conflict between Christians and Muslims in the Southern Philippines, this study examines the relationship between ethno-religious categorization, identification and social distance by testing the mediation of out-group trust. It has been found that salience of religious identification influences willingness to maintain social distance with out-groups. The relationship between ethno-religious categories and social distance is explained by out-group trust. This main finding highlights the role of out-group trust in the ethno-religiously stratified society with collectivist culture.

      PubDate: 2014-04-28T17:18:41Z
  • Gender-oriented statistical discrimination theory: Empirical evidence from
           the Hong Kong labor market
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Chi Man Yip , Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong
      This paper proposes a simple search model to shed light on the role of aggregate fertility as a form of statistical discrimination against young working women in the labor market. Our proposed theory assumes that workers generate identical production value that does not differ by gender. When matched with a firm, the worker and the firm bargain over wage rates. Since female pregnant workers receive wages during maternity leave and generate no production value, a matched pair with a female worker generates lower expected profit to the firm. Rent-sharing ensures a male worker to be paid more than a female worker even with the absence of overt discrimination, thus resulting in statistical discrimination against female workers. Using the 5% random subsamples of census and by-census data in Hong Kong in 1996, 2001, and 2006, the study provides unequivocal evidence that age-specific fertility rates exert negative impact on female wages, after controlling for other observable characteristics. More importantly, the negative effects of fertility on women's earnings are notably greater in female dominated occupations, whereas similarly situated men are unaffected. Since fertility rates tend to be increasing with age during the early stage of women's work careers, our theory partially explains why the gender gap rises with age.

      PubDate: 2014-04-28T17:18:41Z
  • Economic change and occupational stasis: Puerto Rico as a case study of
           stratification and development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Harold J. Toro
      This article analyzes individual-level determinants of occupational status among adults in Puerto Rico to evaluate the applicability of theories of stratification to developing countries that are highly integrated to more industrialized nations. Drawing on microdata from the decennial U.S. census for Puerto Rico, the analysis focuses on the relative importance of labor cohort membership and education for occupational status among employed adults. Puerto Rico's occupational structure reflects only partial convergence with that of developed countries but shows no bifurcation in its status distribution since the 1970s. Net of education, no strong inter-cohort differences in occupational status are found. The evidence does not support the implications of dependency and world systems theories, but is only partially consistent with classical theories of social stratification.

      PubDate: 2014-04-28T17:18:41Z
  • Dual institutional structure and housing inequality in transitional urban
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Wei Zhao , Jianhua Ge
      Enriching the Asian perspectives in the research of social stratification, this study sheds light on distinct housing inequality patterns after housing was transformed from the most important welfare benefit to the most valuable private property in the late 1990s in urban China. We develop a theoretical model of the dual institutional structure to highlight that housing allocation mechanisms are characterized by coexistence of socialist legacy and market logic. We draw empirical evidence from the 2003 Chinese General Social Survey data to capture the critical period following the radical housing reform. Statistical results show that individual attributes, work unit characteristics, and market development exert distinct impacts on state-channeled housing benefits and market-based housing rewards under the dual institutional structure. These findings indicate that we should conduct substantive institutional analyses to achieve a deeper understanding of complex stratification mechanisms and inequality patterns during the market transition.

      PubDate: 2014-04-28T17:18:41Z
  • Pasts that last: The moderating role of education and former occupation
           for men's volunteering after retirement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Levi van den Bogaard , Kène Henkens , Matthijs Kalmijn
      This study uses nationally representative cross-sectional data to investigate the relationship between retirement and volunteering among men aged 50–70 in the Netherlands, and how this relationship is influenced by educational and occupational background. Based on a life-course perspective, it is hypothesized that education, socio-economic status related to the occupation and non-manual occupations will moderate the relation between retirement and volunteering activities for several reasons. Results from tobit regressions indicate that retirees, the highly educated, people with high occupational status and former non-manual workers are more involved in volunteering. While no interaction between retirement and educational level is found, the characteristics of the occupation (socio-economic status and non-manual versus manual work) are indeed found to interact with retirement, leading to higher volunteering rates for male retirees from occupations with high status, and retirees from non-manual occupations. Implications, strengths and limitations of the study are discussed.

      PubDate: 2014-04-28T17:18:41Z
  • School expansion and uneven modernization. Comparing educational
           inequality in Northern and Southern Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Gabriele Ballarino , Nazareno Panichella , Moris Triventi
      The paper asks whether the patterns of educational expansion and inequality were the same in the two parts of Italy: the North, more industrialized and developed, and the more backwards South. This is a theoretically-relevant issue as, despite this major socioeconomic heterogeneity, Italy has a centralised school system, whose main institutional features are the same all over the country. By means of an educational transition analysis of the five waves of the Italian Longitudinal Household Survey we analyse school expansion and long-term trends of educational inequality, both in general and at each specific school transition. The main results indicate that there has been increasing divergence between the two areas in educational expansion and in the effect of social background on years of education attained, favouring the North. The main difference between the two areas is found at two transitions, the one from elementary to lower secondary and the one from lower to upper secondary. While the first difference diminishes over time, the second grows over time and is currently crucial. Its reasons are found in the different propensity of the working class to enroll in vocational schools, which is stronger in the North.

      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:35:25Z
  • Employer's choi Selection through job advertisements in the nineteenth and
           twentieth centuries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Wiebke Schulz , Ineke Maas , Marco H.D. van Leeuwen
      Dominant theories in stratification research suppose modernization processes to have caused societies to become more open. Employers are assumed to have increasingly selected from among applicants on the basis of job-related characteristics, such as their skills, rather than on characteristics unrelated to the job, such as social origin. We address this issue by studying employers’ selection criteria in job advertisements. We do so for the heyday of modernization, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Employers are found to have selected more on job-related than on other characteristics even at the start of the period, but the extent to which they did so did not increase over time. Job-related characteristics were no more important as selection criteria in modern occupations, nor in modern municipalities. Despite what modernization theories suggest, employers were no more and no less inclined to select their personnel through job advertisements. Employers did, however, select more on job-related characteristics for occupations with a high status.

      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:35:25Z
  • Multigenerational Approaches to Social Mobility. A Multifaceted Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Fabian T. Pfeffer

      PubDate: 2014-01-21T04:31:37Z
  • Economic Inequality and Ideological Roll-Call Votes: Income
           Stratification, Minority Threat and Support for Conservative Legislation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): David Jacobs , Chad Malone , Daniel B. Tope
      This study assesses whether the growth in economic inequality since the late 1960s produced enhanced support for conservative policies in the U.S. House of Representatives. Tests of the effects of inequality and tests of hypotheses derived from minority threat theory are conducted using a pooled time-series, fixed-effects design. The political influence of the most menacing street crime the public blames on underclass minorities is captured as well. Analyses based on 1,488 state-years show that income inequality, minority presence, and the murder rates reduce liberal roll-call votes. Interactions that assess period contrasts in the strength of relationships show that increases in inequality led to greater congressional support for conservative measures particularly in the later years of the post civil rights era. Such tests also support racial threat theory because they show that a strong negative relationship between African American presence and liberal roll-call votes persisted throughout this period. Such results corroborate claims (Bartels, 2008; Krugman, 2006) that the expansion in economic inequality since the late 1960s helped increase support for conservative legislation.

      PubDate: 2013-12-04T09:04:16Z
  • Who Succeeds as an Immigrant? Effects of Ethnic Community Resources
           and External Conditions on Earnings Attainment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Asaf Levanon
      Previous studies about contextual effects on immigrant economic attainment have generally relied on information from detailed case studies. Focusing simultaneously on characteristics of immigrant groups and the receiving society, these studies produced insightful but strikingly different accounts of the dimensions of the context that affect economic attainment. Responding to this limitation, this paper constructs a comprehensive model of effects of contextual factors on immigrant earnings attainment using 2000 U.S. Census data on all immigrant groups. The paper employs multilevel modeling in studying the effects of both ethnic community resources and external conditions on earnings attainment. Results indicate that both ethnic community resources and external conditions are dominant in shaping earnings attainment by immigrants. Especially important are group resource advantage and the economic conditions at the local labor market.

      PubDate: 2013-11-30T04:34:59Z
  • Announcement
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 34

      PubDate: 2013-11-26T04:37:17Z
  • Off to a Good Start: A Comparative Study of Changes in Men's First Job
           Prospects in East Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Wei-hsin Yu , Chi-Tsun Chiu
      Research on young adults’ transition to the labor market rarely investigates how nation-level institutional arrangements shape changes over time. In particular, a systematic comparison of shifts in young adults’ job opportunities in East Asia is virtually absent. Using comparable data from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, we examine cohort differences in the timing, quality, and stability of men's first jobs. The results indicate overall declines in first occupational attainment for men in all three countries, but the main driving force for the decrease in Japan differs from that in Korea and Taiwan. Whereas macroeconomic pressure fully explains the decline in Japanese men's first occupational attainment, educational expansion accounts for a considerable part of the declines for men in Korea and Taiwan. Moreover, educational expansion has eroded better-educated men's advantages in speedily transitioning from school to work in Taiwan, but it has not had a similar effect on Japanese men. We argue that Japan's employment system, coupled with a fair amount of institutional ties between schools and firms, has shielded young men from the pressure of educational expansion, making the trends about their early-career outcomes different from those of their counterparts in Korea and Taiwan. The different degrees to which firm internal labor markets have been adopted in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also explain how increasing macroeconomic pressure has different impacts on men's first job stability in East Asia.

      PubDate: 2013-11-26T04:37:17Z
  • Class mobility across three generations in the U.S. and Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Florian R. Hertel , Olaf Groh–Samberg
      Based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Socio-economic Panel, we study the class mobility of three concurrent generations in the U.S. and Germany. We find that, in both countries, the grandfathers’ class is directly associated with their grandchildren's social position. We propose three possible mechanisms which could explain the observed multigenerational mobility patterns. First, we consider the role of class-specific resources for mobility strategies. Second, we suggest a more general explanation by integrating grandparents’ class into the reference frame for mobility decisions. Third, we argue that multigenerational class associations could be the result of categorical inequality based on race or ethnicity. We find that outflow mobility rates differ across grandfathers’ class positions. Three-generational immobility is most frequent in lower and higher class positions. Log-linear analyses show that, in both countries, significant grandfather effects foster immobility within most classes and limit mobility between the working and service classes in Germany specifically. These effects partially lose significance if we only study white Americans and native Germans. Combining the two national mobility tables, we find that the pattern of three-generational mobility is similar in both countries.

      PubDate: 2013-11-14T04:32:31Z
  • Understanding Transmission of Fertility Across Multiple
           Generations–, Socialization or Socioeconomics?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Martin Kolk
      A number of studies have documented consistent patterns in intergenerational transmission of fertility in contemporary societies. However, why children replicate the family size of their parents has received significantly less attention. The goal of this study is to examine whether observed fertility associations across generations are due in part to an intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. Swedish registry data on childbearing histories, other demographic events, and socioeconomic traits are used to disentangle possible explanations of intergenerational fertility continuities. Data are collected for the Swedish cohorts born between 1970-1982 for whom parents’ and grandparents’ family size can be observed. The inclusion of data on grandparents gives insights into pathways for multigenerational associations, and allows for comparisons between maternal and paternal characteristics that are otherwise hard to separate. Results show that some of the observed intergenerational continuity in fertility can be explained by continuities in education and socioeconomic status, but that most fertility associations remain and are related to other sources, such as transmission of values and preferred family size.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-10-28T21:39:24Z
  • Theoretical Models of Inequality Transmission across Multiple Generations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Gary Solon
      Existing theoretical models of intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status have strong implications for the association of outcomes across multiple generations of a family. These models, however, are highly stylized and do not encompass many plausible avenues for transmission across multiple generations. This paper extends existing models to encompass some of these avenues and draws out empirical implications for the multigenerational persistence of socioeconomic status.

      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
  • Intra-generational social mobility and educational qualifications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Ian Plewis , Mel Bartley
      The relation between intra-generational social class mobility of parents and their children's subsequent educational qualifications, and the implications of this relation for educational stratification, is explored by fitting statistical models to data from two UK longitudinal datasets: one based on the UK Census (ONS LS) and the 1970 birth cohort study (BCS70). Children whose parents are upwardly mobile gain higher educational qualifications than their peers in their class of origin, but obtain lower qualifications than their peers in their class of destination. The reverse pattern is observed for the downwardly mobile. These results mirror those obtained for the relation between adult intra-generational social mobility and a number of widely used measures of health. The implications of the findings for different explanations of the social class gradient in educational attainment are examined. The findings provide greater support for theoretical explanations of educational inequalities that are based on differences in economic circumstances between social classes than they do for explanations based on social class variations in the levels of cultural capital and aspirations. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that the overall pattern of results from these analyses is unchanged after statistically controlling for levels of parental education. The findings also have methodological implications for measuring the social class gradient in attainment and qualifications

      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
  • Inequality across Three and Four Generations in Egalitarian Sweden: 1st
           and 2nd Cousin Correlations in Socio-Economic Outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Martin Hällsten
      This paper estimates intergenerational associations in outcomes across more than two generations using cousin correlations. These correlations account for both observed and unobserved factors that cousins share, i.e., the joint influence of family and the community they are exposed to. The results show 1st cousin correlations in GPA, cognitive ability, and years of education above .15. For occupational prestige, the correlations was found to be close to .10. Accounting for detailed parental socio-economic characteristics reduces the correlations by merely one third to one half, which suggest that grandparents contribute over and above parents. For 2nd cousins, sample restriction allows only the study of correlations in 9th grade GPA. The 2nd cousin correlation is estimated to .07 unadjusted and .05 after adjusting for detailed parental characteristics. For 1st and 2nd cousins of grandparent with great economic wealth, the correlations double or triple, and remain very large even after parental characteristics are controlled for. In sum, this indicates strong persistence of inequality across at least four generations in contemporary Sweden.

      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
  • The transmission of longevity across generations: The case of the settler
           Cape Colony
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Patrizio Piraino , Jeanne Cilliers , Johan Fourie , Sean Muller
      Evidence on long-term multigenerational dynamics is often inadequate as large datasets with multiple generations remain very uncommon. We posit that genealogical records can offer a valuable alternative. Rather than exploring the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status, we rely on birth and death dates of eighteenth and nineteenth century settlers in South Africa's Cape Colony to estimate the intergenerational transmission of longevity. We find that there is a positive and significant association between parents’ and offspring's life duration, as well as between siblings. Although these correlations persist over time, the coefficients are relatively small. While the effect of grandparents’ longevity on that of grandchildren is insignificant, the cousin correlations suggest that inequality in longevity might persist across more than two generations. We suggest that family and environmental factors shared by cousins, beyond grandparental longevity, can explain these results.

      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
  • Age at Childbearing over Two Generations and Grandchildren's Cognitive
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Paula Fomby , Patrick M. Krueger , Nicole M. Wagner
      We examine whether grandparents’ and parents’ ages at birth are associated with grandchildren's early cognitive achievement, and whether grandparents’ or parents’ socioeconomic status, health, and marital status mediate those associations. Our analysis is based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. A grandparent's age at the birth of their own children is robustly and positively associated with grandchildren's verbal achievement, but not with grandchildren's applied mathematics achievement, after controlling for parents’ age at the grandchild's birth. The associations are similar in magnitude for grandmothers and grandfathers. A variety of indicators of social class in the grandparent and parent generations did not mediate this age effect. However, many of those indicators of grandparents’ social class were directly or indirectly related to grandchildren's achievement.

      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
  • Multi-Generational Income Disadvantage and the Educational Attainment of
           Young Adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Patrick Wightman , Sheldon Danziger
      We use data from three generations of participants of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the association between intergenerational socio-economic mobility and young adult outcomes. In particular, we investigate whether parents’ childhood conditions are associated with the educational attainment of their young adult children, conditional on young adults’ own childhood conditions. We examine the degree to which different paths leading to the same socio-economic position may differentially influence the outcomes of children raised under otherwise similar circumstances. We find some evidence that, conditional on young adults’ own adolescent conditions, the adolescent conditions of their parents influence their household environment and by extension their educational attainment. This association appears to be concentrated among low-income households.

      PubDate: 2013-10-21T02:07:55Z
  • The role of networks and connections in educational elites’ labour
           market entrance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Gerbrand Tholen , Phillip Brown , Sally Power , Annabelle Allouch
      Despite extensive research on the role of ‘personal’ capital on labour market transitions, little is known about how those with elite credentials use networks and connection to improve their labour market chances. This becomes especially relevant within debates on the meritocratic nature of the post-industrial labour market. This article investigates how networks and connections aid educational elites to gain entrance into the upper echelons of the graduate labour market in two countries: France and England. Using interview data from final year students from two elite higher education institutions, Science Po and the University of Oxford, it is assessed whether their elite educational experiences are translated into networks and connections that aid their future labour market positions. The findings reveal that in both countries students have extensive opportunities to familiarise themselves with elite employers and create useful networks. In addition, students frequently arrange exclusive internships to seek future opportunities. We argue that these networks and connections are inherent to the elite educational experience and they could therefore help contribute to a credentialisation of the graduate labour market

      PubDate: 2013-10-13T03:32:32Z
  • Religious Affiliation and Hiring Discrimination in New England: A Field
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Bradley R.E. Wright , Michael Wallace , John Bailey , Allen Hyde
      This article describes a field experiment in which we sent fictitious resumes to advertised job openings in New England, in the Northeast region of the United States. We randomly altered the resumes to indicate affiliation in one of seven religious groups or a control group. Resumes that mentioned any religious affiliation received about one-quarter fewer phone calls than did the control group but there were no significant difference in e-mails received. Muslim applicants received one-third fewer responses from employers, either as phone calls or e-mails, than did the control group. There was also evidence of discrimination against atheists, Catholics and pagans. These findings are consistent with theoretical models of secularization and cultural distaste theory

      PubDate: 2013-10-13T03:32:32Z
  • The Implications of Family Policy Regimes for Mothers’ Autonomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Alexander L. Janus
      This article is concerned with the implications of different state strategies in the area of family policy for mothers’ autonomy, which I conceptualize as their freedom to choose between employment and homemaking as alternative means of self-fulfillment and economic independence. Using data on 15 OECD countries from the International Social Survey Program, I examine cross-national variation in “the gap” between mothers’ work-family orientations and employment trajectories. Cross-national variation in support for mothers’ choice to work, mothers’ choice to stay at home, or mothers’ life-course flexibility differs from the broad picture suggest by previous research. Specifically, in contrast to suggestions that the well-developed childcare-related provisions in the Scandinavian countries and Belgium and France offer uniquely strong support for mothers’ choice to work, I find that the large majority of countries (13 out of 15) offer at least moderately strong support for “work-centered” mothers’ choice or autonomy. In addition, I find that actual levels of labor force involvement exceeded ideals among the majority of “home-centered” mothers in 7 out of 15 countries. Single mothers living in policy contexts with underdeveloped maternity leave provisions were especially likely to face incentives to work.

      PubDate: 2013-10-01T03:34:44Z
  • The Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Military Servi Evidence from the
           Wisconsin Longitudinal Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Daniel J. DellaPosta
      This article documents heterogeneous economic returns to military service that vary with the individual propensity to serve, even within a relatively privileged sample of mostly white high school graduates. Using a rich set of covariates from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I estimate propensity scores for male respondents’ likelihood of voluntary military enlistment or involuntary draft conscription. Then, I use recently-developed HLM-based methods for causal inference to analyze systematic variation in veteran status’ effect on later earnings as a function of these propensity scores. Among individuals with low propensities for military service—but not among others—veterans suffer large wage penalties. While this pattern applies to both voluntary enlisters and draftees, the timing of the wage penalty differs by mode of military entry. These effects are shown to correlate strongly with differences in educational attainment between veterans and nonveterans with low propensities for military service, suggesting the greater value of opportunities for human capital accumulation in the civilian sphere.

      PubDate: 2013-09-13T02:06:39Z
  • Pathways to Gender Inequality in Faculty Pay: The Impact of Institution,
           Academic Division, and Rank
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Linda A. Renzulli , Jeremy Reynolds , Kimberly Kelly , Linda Grant
      Wage disparities remain an important source of gender inequality in United States’ labor markets including those for college and university faculty. Pay differences may result from the allocation of women and men to different locations defined by institution types, academic divisions, and ranks where pay scales differ. It may also reflect unequal earnings of men and women in similar locations. Using national data, we examine whether institution type, academic division, and rank influence salary independently of each other or whether they are interdependent such that their effects on salary depend on how they are combined. We find that they are interdependent. We then consider how these interdependent locations mediate or moderate the relationship between gender and pay. We find more evidence of mediation. Women are disproportionately located in academic locations that pay less than locations where men are more often found. This work contributes to the understanding of gender segregation and its ramifications for the academy.

      PubDate: 2013-09-09T02:08:08Z
  • Distinct Paths to Higher Inequality? A Qualitative Comparative
           Analysis of Rising Earnings Inequality Among U.S. States, 1980-2010
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Keith Bentele
      In this paper Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is used to explore the extent to which states have taken distinct causal path to higher levels of earnings inequality within the 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and during the early years of the 2007-09 recession. In these analyses special attention is paid to both the regional unfolding of the processes constituting economic restructuring and whether state institutional arrangements appear to mediate the impacts of inequality-increasing developments. Overall, these analyses suggest that industry and occupational shifts are critical to understanding state and regional experiences; state variation in changes in earnings inequality are, in large part, a story of the continuous playing out of economic restructuring in unique ways in different areas of the country. However, the subnational impact of the growth or decline of particular types of occupations on the earnings distribution is found to be highly contingent, depending on both the types of jobs gained or lost and the institutional and economic context in which those developments occur. It is suggested the overall contribution of industry shifts to rising inequality may be underemphasized, in part, as a result of a reliance on analytical approaches that are ill-suited to capture the complicated and contingent nature of the impacts of processes such as deindustrialization. These analyses contribute to a growing body of work that employs a distinctly sociological approach in which earnings determination is viewed as multi-level phenomenon. Building on this insight, this paper suggests that changes in subnational levels of inequality may also be usefully conceptualized as an inherently combinatorial phenomenon.

      PubDate: 2013-09-01T08:00:50Z
  • The Local Joneses: Household Consumption and Income Inequality in Large
           Metropolitan Areas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Maria Charles , Jeffrey D. Lundy
      Do household consumption practices depend upon local standards of decency or distinction? This article explores effects of local income structure on household consumption across 18 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Consistent with understandings of consumption as socially embedded, results show greater overall spending in high-inequality MSAs. But contrary to conventional depictions of “conspicuous consumption,” the additional spending goes mostly toward shelter and food, not more visible purchases of jewelry, vehicles, apparel, and entertainment. High median income, by contrast, is associated with greater spending in two visible goods categories (apparel and entertainment), but only among low-income households. Results support depictions of expenditure cascades, where spending by those better off ratchets up local standards of “normal” and socially acceptable living. Some unfortunate consequences include decreased investment in health care and heightened competition for access to quality public schooling. In this sense, growing economic inequality and positional consumption may be self-reinforcing processes.

      PubDate: 2013-08-20T17:00:26Z
  • The Impact of Wealth on Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of Three
           Welfare-State Regimes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Oshrat Hochmann , Nora Skopek
      This paper provides new insights into the association between economic standing and subjective well-being (SWB) among aging individuals in three industrialized countries: Germany, Israel, and Sweden. Specifically, we compare the effects of wealth, in line with the growing consensus that wealth is an important determinant of economic standing alongside income, on SWB across three welfare-state regimes: conservative (Germany), liberal (Israel), and social-democratic (Sweden). Drawing on needs theory, we hypothesize that individuals of poor wealth would report lower levels of SWB in all countries. We expect, however, the association between poor wealth and SWB to be stronger in the liberal system (Israel) and weaker in the conservative system (Germany) with the weakest effect found in the social-democratic system (Sweden) due to differences in the extent of social benefits each welfare-state regime provides its residents. To test our hypotheses, we utilize data from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE 1 1 This paper uses data from SHARE release 2.5.0, as of May 24th 2011. The SHARE data collection has been primarily funded by the European Commission through the 5th framework programme (project QLK6-CT-2001- 00360 in the thematic programme Quality of Life), through the 6th framework programme (projects SHARE-I3, RII-CT- 2006-062193, COMPARE, CIT5-CT-2005-028857, and SHARELIFE, CIT4-CT-2006-028812) and through the 7th framework programme (SHARE-PREP, 211909 and SHARE-LEAP, 227822). Additional funding from the U.S. National Institute on Aging (U01 AG09740-13S2, P01 AG005842, P01 AG08291, P30 AG12815, Y1-AG-4553-01 and OGHA 04-064, IAG BSR06-11, R21 AG025169) as well as from various national sources is gratefully acknowledged (see for a full list of funding institutions). For further information on the SHARE project, see Börsch-Supan et al. (2005). ). Results indicate that income and wealth explain a greater part of the variance in SWB when taken together. We find a ‘poor penalty’ on SWB in Germany and Israel while in Sweden wealth has no impact on SWB. Finally, when controlling for subjective economic hardship, the negative effect of poor wealth on SWB disappears in Germany, but maintains significance in Israel, suggesting that needs theory alone cannot explain the poor penalty in Israel. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the welfare-state has an impact on the wealth-SWB relation and that the mechanisms that underlie this relation operate differently in Germany and Israel.

      PubDate: 2013-07-26T15:32:52Z
  • The Occupational Mismatch amongst Palestinians and Jews in Israel: A new
           evidence from the LFS 2000-2010
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Nabil Khattab , Sami Miaari
      This article compares the occupational attainment of qualified Palestinians and Jews in Israel using data obtained from the Labour Force Survey for the years 2000-2010. Our findings show that Sephardi Jews are as likely as most Palestinians to be disadvantaged in their chances of obtaining jobs in certain occupational categories. Some qualified Palestinians tend to seek professions that facilitate self-employment within the ethnic enclave as a way to escape unfair practices on the part of Jewish employers such as attorneys and accounting. In relation to jobs that are scarce within the ethnic enclave such as in natural and life sciences and university lecturers, Palestinians tend to seek jobs within the Jewish controlled labour market where they face a harsher penalty.

      PubDate: 2013-07-26T15:32:52Z
  • Making a Living in Two Labor Markets: Earnings of Filipinos in the Global
           and the Domestic Economy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Anastasia Gorodzeisky , Moshe Semyonov
      The present research examines earnings differentials between Filipino overseas global labor migrants and Filipinos employed in the domestic labor market (i.e. the Philippines) as well as income differentials between households of overseas workers and households without overseas workers. Data were obtained from the survey of households conducted during 1999-2000 in the four primary sending areas of overseas migrant workers. The data set for the present analysis consists of 4,393 domestic workers and 1,176 global migrant workers. The findings demonstrate that the average earnings of those employed in the Philippines is not only lower than the average earnings of Filipinos employed in the global market (regardless of region of destination) but their earnings distribution is also much more condensed than earnings distribution of Filipinos working in the global labor market. The multivariate analysis reveals that earnings returns in absolute terms (to education and occupations) are considerably higher among migrants employed in the global labor market than among those employed in the domestic labor market. By contrast, earnings returns in relative terms are lower for global labor migrants than for those employed in the domestic labor market (despite some variations across regions of destination). The results also suggest that earnings generated in the global labor market form a new source of economic inequality between households in the Philippines. Specifically, income of households with labor migrants tends to be considerably higher than that of households without labor migrants. The findings imply that global migration should be understood within the framework of ‘household theory of migration’.

      PubDate: 2013-07-22T15:35:33Z
  • The relation between social class and economic inequality: a strengthening
           or weakening nexus? Evidence from the last three decades of inequality
           in Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Marco Albertini
      Recent sociological research has shown that in contemporary western societies social class remains a relevant factor in the structuration of socio-economic inequalities and individuals’ life courses. However, in the framework of class analysis, there is one aspect that has received relatively little attention: the relation between social class and earnings and income inequality. Using data from the historical archive of the Survey of Household Income and Wealth, the paper explores how it has changed the relation between social class and economic inequality in Italy in the last three decades. The findings suggest that in 2010 the quota of inequality that is accounted for by between-classes differences is similar to that registered in the late 1970s, and social class is signalling earnings and income with the same, if not more, reliability than it was the case in the late 1970s. in the last three decades, however, there have been relevant changes in the horizontal redistribution of earnings and income. In particular, there has been a significant deterioration in the economic situation of blue-collar families vis-à-vis white-collar ones. Also, the distance in median earnings and income between manager and professionals vs. white-collars has dramatically increased. The gap between high and low service class has widened so much as to suggest the existence of a process of dichotomization within the service class.

      PubDate: 2013-05-19T15:31:31Z
  • Intergenerational transmission of occupational status: the role of
           voluntary association membership as an emerging compensatory strategy of
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Jasper M.A. van Houten , Maurice Gesthuizen , Maarten H.J. Wolbers
      In this article, we raised the question as to what extent members from higher status groups effectuated social resources, more specifically voluntary association membership, as a possible new compensatory strategy to guarantee a successful intergenerational transmission of their occupational status. For that purpose, we investigated whether voluntary association membership (of parents and their child) mediate the positive effect of parental occupational status on that of their child and whether it has become more important over time as an explanation of social reproduction. In the empirical analysis, we incorporated voluntary association membership into the classic status attainment model and estimated path models using retrospective life course data from the Family Survey Dutch Population 2000. The empirical results showed that voluntary association membership does not play a mediating role in the intergenerational transmission of occupational status for the 1916-1947 birth cohort. However, it does so for the 1948-1960 birth cohort, thereby becoming an effective compensatory strategy in the intergenerational transmission of occupation status.

      PubDate: 2013-04-25T15:31:56Z
  • Men's Race-Based Mobility into Management: Analyses at the Blue Collar and
           White Collar Job Levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): George Wilson , David Maume
      There are few theoretical perspectives that address the dynamics of race-based mobility in the American workplace. The “particularistic mobility thesis” fills this gap: it maintains that even when groups work in similar jobs, discriminatorily-induced dynamics associated with the relative inability of minorities to demonstrate informal characteristics—such as loyalty and sound judgment –constitute a handicap in mobility into managerial positions. Findings based on the 2004-2010 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics support theory and indicate that from both white collar and blue collar job levels African American and Latino men, relative to White gender counterparts, are disadvantaged: they have lower rates of mobility, are restricted to a formal route to reach managerial positions that is less dependent on a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors including background status, human capital, and job/labor market characteristics, and take longer to reach management. Further, as predicted by theory, along all issues differences, relative to Whites, are greater among African Americans than Latinos and greater among those tracked from blue collar jobs than white collar jobs. Implications of the findings for understanding short-term and long-term minority disadvantage in the American labor market are discussed.

      PubDate: 2013-04-21T15:31:41Z
  • Social Mobility and Equality in the Life Course: Exploring the Relevance
           of Context
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      The causes and consequences of social inequality have been highly debated issues among social scientists of various disciplines for several decades. On the one hand, there have been economic growth and increasing wealth levels, accompanied by educational expansion and high (absolute) mobility rates. On the other hand, contemporary research suggests that patterns of educational and occupational stratification largely seem to be resistant to these changes. Given these conflicting developments, examining the structures and consequences of social inequalities in modern societies thus remains among the most challenging questions in the social sciences. Given the high topicality of the issue, some recent special issues of Research in Social Stratification and Mobility (RSSM) have explored different aspects in the emergence of social inequalities and its repercussions for both individual life courses as well as social structures at the national level. In their special issue on “Inequality across the globe”, Moshe Semyonov and Anstasia Gorodzeisky (2011) accentuate the differential ways in which nation-specific institutions, such as education systems, labour markets, consumption systems and marriage markets are influencing social and economic inequalities at the individual level. Herman Van de Werfhorst and Wiemer Salverda (2012) take a different, more micro-oriented angle when bringing together a selection of articles that investigate empirically the consequences of economic inequalities for various dimensions such as political participation, solidarity, subjective well-being or health. This special issue aims to bridge between the macro-level and the micro-level by linking individual-level inequalities to various types of relevant context conditions affecting them. Notably, “context” may refer to very different phenomena, combining various aspects of place and time into which individuals and their life courses are being embedded (e.g. Elder, Kirkpatrick Johnson, & Crosnoe, 2003).

      PubDate: 2013-04-09T15:31:43Z
  • Intergenerational class mobility in Hungary between 1865 and 1950: Testing
           models of change in social openness
    • Abstract: Available online 14 March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      This article describes long-term changes in the occupational class structure and intergenerational social mobility in Hungary between 1865 and 1950, a period that has not been studied in previous mobility research. The study's long time span and the fact that the Hungarian economy began to industrialize in the second half of the 19th century allows us to test several competing hypotheses about changes in social mobility. We use a large, individual-level, historical dataset with over 73,000 marriage records, representing all regions of present-day Hungary. Although the occupational structure remained predominantly agrarian, total mobility increased over the observed period, with an upward shift in the occupational distribution. Log-multiplicative association models were used to compare relative mobility patterns of men across 17 mobility tables over five-year periods. Relative mobility increased, lending partial support to the modernization thesis. The increase of relative mobility can be attributed to decreasing diagonal association. Off-diagonal association, indicating class-based inequalities in mobility chances, increased during the first period of industrialization. The results call for a closer examination of the mechanisms causing changes in social mobility during industrialization.

      PubDate: 2013-03-16T16:31:47Z
  • Links between immigration and social inequality in education: A comparison
           among five European countries
    • Abstract: Available online 20 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      Empirical studies indicate that immigrant students are disadvantaged in most educational systems, but also that the international variation in their relative situation is remarkable. However, little is known about the processes that lead to their disadvantage and to corresponding international differences. This paper explores the role of specific national contexts that determine the educational situation of migrants. The main assumption is that the relative performance of migrants in education can be attributed not only to individual characteristics, but also to macro-level conditions in particular societies. Analyzed are selected relationships between immigration, immigrant and educational policies; patterns of migration; and the performance of migrants within the national education systems. This study covers five European cases that show considerable variation in the major explanatory variables: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Regarding the empirical consequences of these determinants for educational performance, the analyses draw upon comparative micro-level data from the large-scale assessment studies PIRLS 2001 and PISA 2006. These allow conducting multivariate comparisons while controlling for differences in group-level composition. In all countries, a major part of the relative disadvantage can be explained by the social composition of migrants in combination with general patterns of social inequality in education; however, in some cases significant differences remain even when controlling for such group differences. Institutions and policies of immigration, integration and education obviously interact when determining the situation of migrants in education.

      PubDate: 2013-02-24T12:06:01Z
  • Immigration and Wealth Inequality in Old Age: The Case of Israel
    • Abstract: Available online 17 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      Relatively little research has been devoted to the long term implications of immigration for the accumulation of household wealth. This accumulation has significance both for the well-being in old age and for intergenerational transmission of advantage and disadvantage. Our study addresses the nativity wealth gap and examines its sources. Data for the analysis were obtained from the SHARE-Israel study conducted in 2005-06. Our sample includes 1,366 Jewish households, either native-born or immigrant. We use OLS regression to estimate the nativity wealth gap and arrive at a number of noteworthy findings. First, immigrant–native disparities are large and do not disappear even after many decades of residence. Second, an important source of the disparity in accumulated household wealth is the fact that immigrants are considerably less likely than natives to have received a substantial inheritance. Third, wealth is strongly related to household income and more so among some immigrant groups than among natives. Fourth, there is substantial variation in the wealth of immigrant groups defined by their geo-cultural origin.

      PubDate: 2013-02-20T12:06:25Z
  • Demographic changes, labor markets and their consequences on
           post-school-transitions in West Germany 1975–2005
    • Abstract: Available online 5 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      The German system of post-school education and training is well-known for its high degree of standardization and stratification. Whereas transitions from this system to the labor market have been examined widely, much less is known about the transition patterns of school-leavers to post-school education. In particular, there is a shortage of research applying a comprehensive view of school-leavers from different tracks and investigating changing overall transition patterns over time. In our paper we fill this research gap by investigating school-leavers’ transitions to post-school education in West Germany over the last 30 years. Particular attention is given to the influence of contextual conditions, such as demographic fluctuations, economic cycles, and changes in the social composition of school-leavers. The empirical analyses are based on the retrospective life-course survey ALWA, which contains detailed information on the education and work trajectories of 10,000 adults in Germany. Our results show that school-leavers with low and medium attainment need more time to enter training when unemployment is high or when the school-leaver cohort is large. Overall, access to post-school education has become increasingly difficult for these groups, over and above the market shortages and the changes in group composition. By contrast, the transitions of school-leavers from higher secondary schools are unaffected by market fluctuations and long-term structural change. In the period looked at here, their chances remained almost stable. Accordingly, we conclude that the transition rates of school-leavers with different educational attainment have diverged in (West) Germany over the last 30 years.

      PubDate: 2013-02-08T13:35:13Z
  • Diverging Performances the detrimental effects of early selection on
           equality of opportunity in Hungary
    • Abstract: Available online 8 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      The Hungarian system is ideal to test the effect of early-selection on inequality of opportunity, since students are selected at three different ages. The early-selective academic tracks skim off the best students first at age 10, then at age 12, and finally at age 14 all students enter secondary level. The paper first shows that higher socioeconomic status students are more likely to attend the early-selective academic tracks, even if previous test scores are controlled for. The second part of the empirical analysis looks at the value-added of the separate tracks between 6th and 8th grade, and between 8th and 10th grade, and shows that their mathematical and reading performance diverges, even if skill and status selection is taken into account. Since higher socioeconomic status students are more likely to attend academic tracks than their lower status peers, the divergence in test scores translates to increasing inequality of opportunity. The third section of the empirics looks at whether this process is a Pareto improvement, or whether there are groups in society that lose by the early-selection. It is shown that those who are left in general schools in areas where the best students can opt-out to early-selective tracks perform worse in mathematics than similar students in general tracks with no option of leaving. That is, selection harms those who are left behind. The paper speculates that these results are due to the different peer and teacher quality of the different tracks.

      PubDate: 2013-02-08T13:35:13Z
  • The role of higher education stratification in the reproduction of social
           inequality in the labor market
    • Abstract: Available online 8 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      This paper analyses whether social origins affect labor market outcomes (wage and occupational status) of a recent cohort of graduates and whether the type of qualification obtained (program length, field of study and institutional quality) accounts for this relationship. We use data from the 2005 Reflex survey on European graduates in 4 countries (Germany, Norway, Italy, and Spain) which were selected on the basis of their institutional profiles. Results from binomial logistic regression models indicate that those with tertiary educated parents are more likely to have a highly rewarded occupation in all the countries except Germany. Moreover, the effect of parental education is greater on occupational status than on wages. The Karlson-Holm-Breen decomposition method shows that the type of qualification obtained contributes to the reproduction of social inequality in the labor market, but its mediating role is greater in Norway and smaller in Italy, with Spain in the middle. A discussion of the institutional differences between the countries tries to explain the sources of this variation.
      Highlights ► Parental education positively affects recent graduates’ occupational returns (status and wage). ► The strength of this association varies according to higher education and labor market features. ► Type of qualification mediates the relation between parental education and occupational outcomes. ► This mediation role is stronger in Norway and lower in Italy.

      PubDate: 2013-02-08T13:35:13Z
  • Summarizing primary and secondary effects
    • Abstract: Available online 1 February 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      Current methods for decomposing class differentials in educational decisions into primary and secondary effects produce many parameters, rendering them ill-equipped for parsimonious comparisons across countries or birth cohorts. This paper develops a parametric method that provides an optimal summary of primary and secondary effects across discrete class origins. Under the testable assumption that the pattern of effects of class origins on academic ability is proportional to the pattern of effects of class origins on educational choice net of academic ability, the method returns a single summary measure. Applying the method to two cohorts born in the UK in 1958 and 1970 suggests that––even with increasing overall inequality of educational opportunity––the relative contribution of secondary effects to class differentials in A-level completion has changed little between the two cohorts.

      PubDate: 2013-02-03T23:35:15Z
  • Exploring the impact of male and female facial attractiveness on
           occupational prestige
    • Abstract: Available online 12 November 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      Traditionally, social scientists have studied socio-economic inequalities mainly by looking at the impact of individuals’ economic, cultural and social capital. Some scholars have recently argued that other types of resources, such as genetic and erotic capital, may also play a role in the processes that lead to the formation of social inequalities. Using a unique longitudinal dataset, the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, this paper explores the impact of facial attractiveness on people's socio-economic standing over the life course. Methodologically, we employ a set of multilevel Growth Curve Models. Two findings clearly stand out from our analysis. Firstly, facial attractiveness does matter, both for men and women, and secondly, its impact is constant over the employment history.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
  • Job loss among rich and poor in the United States and Germany: Who loses
           more income'
    • Abstract: Available online 22 November 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility

      This article compares household income losses after involuntary job loss between household income quintiles in the United States and Germany. I argue that income trajectories after job loss vary between social strata in country-specific ways because of differences in the labor market, the family and the welfare state. Using panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the German Socio-Economic Panel, I calculate household income after job loss for each household income quintile. The results show that job loss in the United States has the most severe effect on the poorest quintile whereas in Germany, the middle quintiles lose most after job loss. My analysis reveals that this is due to differences in the factors that buffer income losses between the strata: In both countries, the lower quintiles have the highest losses in earnings and family income support is comparatively low among them. In Germany, the welfare state ameliorates this because it has a higher impact on the lower quintiles than on the upper quintiles. In the United States on the other hand, the welfare state has a more equal impact among the quintiles and hence does not offset the disadvantages of the lower quintiles that the labor market and the family generate.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
  • Is more always better' Early career returns to education in the United
           States and Norway
    • Abstract: March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 31

      This paper compares early career returns to education in the United States and Norway. Longitudinal data is used to follow national cohorts of 10th graders who have made the transition from school to work within 10 years. OLS and quantile regression analyses show that whereas the relationship between educational attainment and income in the United States follows a linear pattern with higher returns to longer and more intellectually prestigious educations, this is not the case in Norway. In Norway, it pays off to choose vocational education in high school and college, especially for men. The results show that women and minorities benefit more from education than non-minority men in both countries. The findings from the quantile regressions indicate that this has partly to do with the fact that women and minorities are more disadvantaged at the lower end of the income distribution and at the lowest levels of educational attainment.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
  • Women and their memberships: Gender gap in relational dimension of social
    • Abstract: March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 31

      Women tend to have fewer memberships in voluntary associations than men. Since voluntary associations create opportunity structures for the establishment of interpersonal contacts, memberships are considered to have beneficial ramifications by generating access to social resources. Using the European Social Survey 2002/2003, we examine variations in the gender gap in associational involvement in a cross-national context. We find systematic variation in the gender gap that cannot be explained solely by individual attributes. Using multilevel Poisson regression models and employing a gendered version of the theory of social origins of civil society (Salamon & Anheier, 1998), we find that women in the social democratic countries have the highest participation rates, followed by women in conservative and liberal regimes. In Mediterranean and post-socialist countries, women face a dual disadvantage. Their average number of voluntary association memberships is low, both in absolute terms and in comparison to their male counterparts. This study reveals a complex relationship between societal context and the gender gap in associational involvement. Inequality in voluntary association participation between the genders may be another piece in the jigsaw puzzle of overall gender inequality in contemporary societies.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
  • Expansion and inequality of educational opportunity: A comparative study
    • Abstract: March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 31

      Educational attendance rates increased dramatically during the twentieth century, especially in the decades following World War II. In most countries for which data are available, inequality of educational opportunity between social strata declined in those decades, but stabilized thereafter. Analyzing ESS (European Social Survey) data for 24 countries and for cohorts born between the 1950s and 1970s, we study whether educational expansion affected change in equality of educational opportunity among social strata. Our results show educational expansion enhanced inequality of opportunity for tertiary education among cohorts born in the 1950s and 1970s and enhanced inequality of opportunity at the secondary level for the cohort of the 1970s. We also tested and refuted Raftery and Hout's (1993) saturation hypothesis that once the affluent strata reached universal attendance at a given level of education, its further expansion would reduce inequality among strata in the odds of its attainment. These results corroborate the hypothesis that the privileged strata are better poised the benefit from educational expansion than the sons and daughters of the lower strata. From a policy perspective, we conclude that expansion is not necessarily an effective tool for the reduction of inequality of educational opportunity. Furthermore, the perpetual expansion of education that is pursued in most countries may hinder the reduction of gaps in education.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
  • Does capital at home matter more than capital at school' Social
           capital effects on academic achievement
    • Abstract: March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 31

      A relatively neglected problem is how individuals derive social capital from more than one context and the extent to which they benefit from the capital in each. We examine whether social capital created at home and at school has differing effects on child academic achievement. We hypothesize that children derive social capital from both their families and their schools and that capital from each context promotes achievement. Using data from the National Longitudinal Education Study and structural equation modeling, we show that capital from each context is helpful, with social capital in the family more influential than social capital at school. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on child achievement and for studies of inequality generally.
      Highlights ► We model youth social capital separately in families and in schools. ► We use these measures of social capital to predict youth academic achievement. ► Models compare capital effects across latent constructs rather than single variables. ► Both family and school capital matter, with stronger effects of family capital. ► Findings show how access to social capital creates inequality in education outcomes.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T21:25:54Z
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