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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1261 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (19 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (235 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (28 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (17 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (85 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (46 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (629 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (38 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (148 journals)

SOCIAL SCIENCES (629 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 401 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Oregon Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal  
Outlines. Critical Practice Studies     Open Access  
Pacific Northwest Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Palgrave Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pandora's Box     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Panorama     Open Access  
Papeles de Europa     Open Access  
Parity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Península     Open Access  
Pensamento & Realidade. Revista do Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Administração     Open Access  
People and Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
People and Society (Mens & Maatschappij)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Percurso Acadêmico     Open Access  
Perfiles Latinoamericanos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Periférica. Revista para el análisis de la cultura y el territorio     Open Access  
Persona y Bioetica     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 109)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Perspective Youth Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives on Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Philippine Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Philosophy & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Planning News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Poblacion de Buenos Aires     Open Access  
Polêm!ca     Open Access  
Polis : Revista Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Ponto-e-Vírgula. Revista de Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Population Horizons     Open Access  
Portal de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Portuguese Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal  
Portularia     Open Access  
Postmodern Openings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PRACS : Revista Eletrônica de Humanidades do Curso de Ciências Sociais da UNIFAP     Open Access  
PRISMA Economia - Società - Lavoro     Full-text available via subscription  
Problems of Economic Transition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Problems of Post-Communism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 583)
Protée     Full-text available via subscription  
Psicologia y Ciencia Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychiatrie et violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Public Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Public Sector     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
PUBLICAR. En Antropología y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Qatar Foundation Annual Research Forum Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Qualit@s Revista Eletrônica     Open Access  
Qualitative Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Qualitative Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Qualitative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Quarterly Essay     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Qui Parle : Critical Humanities and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ra Ximhai     Open Access  
Raigal     Open Access  
Realidad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access  
Recherches sociographiques     Full-text available via subscription  
REDHECS     Open Access  
Reencuentro     Open Access  
Reflets : revue d'intervention sociale et communautaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reflexiones     Open Access  
Relaciones. Estudios de historia y sociedad     Open Access  
Representation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Research Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Research on Language and Social Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Researcher : A Research Journal of Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Rethinking Marxism: A Journal of Economics, Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Review of Social Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Review of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista ABRA : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Capital Científico     Open Access  
Revista Científica de la FAREM     Open Access  
Revista CITECSA : Ciencia, Tecnología, Sociedad y Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Collectivus     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Conexão UEPG     Open Access  
Revista CS en Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Sociales (Cl)     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Sociales (Ve)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de El Colegio de San Luis     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Estudos Sociais     Open Access  
Revista de Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
Revista de Teoria y Didáctica de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Revista del Centro de Investigacion. Universidad La Salle     Open Access  
Revista do Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica do Curso de Direito da UFSM     Open Access  
Revista Española de Discapacidad     Open Access  
Revista Estudios     Open Access  
Revista Estudios Hemisféricos y Polares     Open Access  
Revista Extraprensa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Guará     Open Access  
Revista Ingenierías Universidad de Medellín     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, SOCIOTAM     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Metodología de la Investigación Social     Open Access  
Revista MundoFesc     Open Access  
Revista Palobra     Open Access  
Revista Pensamiento Americano     Open Access  
Revista Pós Ciências Sociais     Open Access  
Revista Prelúdios     Open Access  
Revista Produção e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Revista San Gregorio     Open Access  
Revista Sociedad y Equidad     Open Access  
Revista Venezolana de Análisis de Coyuntura     Open Access  
Revue de l'OCDE sur le développement     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue de la régulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de Synthèse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revue des Etudes Multidisciplinaires en Sciences Economiques et Sociales     Open Access  
Revue du Nouvel-Ontario     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue européenne des sciences sociales     Open Access  
Revue multidisciplinaire sur l'emploi, le syndicalisme et le travail     Full-text available via subscription  
RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
RIMCIS : International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
Rivista di Sessuologia Clinica     Full-text available via subscription  
RSF : The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Runa : Archivo para las Ciencias del Hombre     Open Access  
Rural Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Russian Social Science Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Sabaragamuwa University Journal     Open Access  
SAGE Open     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Schmollers Jahrbuch     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sciences de la société     Open Access  
Selçuk Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi (SEFAD) / Selçuk University Journal of Faculty of Letters     Open Access  
Self and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
SHS Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Si Somos Americanos     Open Access  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Social & Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social and Basic Sciences Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Development Issues     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Social Research : An International Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Social Science & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Social Science Computer Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Social Science Today     Open Access  
Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Social Sciences in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Studies and the Young Learner     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Social Studies of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access  
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Societal Studies     Open Access  
Sociétés & Représentations     Full-text available via subscription  
Socio     Open Access  
Socio-analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sosio Didaktika : Social Science Education Journal     Open Access  
Soundings : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sozial Extra     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Sozialer Fortschritt     Full-text available via subscription  
Space and Culture, India     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Strates     Open Access  
Studia Zamorensia (segunda etapa)     Open Access  
Studies in Multidisciplinarity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Suma de Negocios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Suomen Sukututkimusseuran Vuosikirja     Open Access  
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Sydney Papers, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Symmetry     Open Access  
Symposion : Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Tangent     Hybrid Journal  
Társadalomkutatás     Full-text available via subscription  
TechTrends     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tempo Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tendencias & Retos     Open Access  
Terra Nueva Etapa     Open Access  
Textos & Contextos (Porto Alegre)     Open Access  
The New Yorker     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Winnower     Open Access  
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trabajos y Comunicaciones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
  [SJR: 1.126]   [H-I: 18]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0276-5624
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • A Stalled Revolution? What can we learn from Women’s Drop-Out to
           Part-time Jobs: A Comparative Analysis of Germany and the UK
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Martina Dieckhoff, Vanessa Gash, Antje Mertens, Laura Romeu Gordo
      This study examines how within-couple inequalities, that is power differences between men and women in a partnership, act as predictors of transitions from full-time to part-time employment applying Heckman corrected probit models in three different institutional and cultural contexts; Eastern Germany, Western Germany and the United Kingdom. The analyses show that when women are in a weaker position within their relationships they are more likely to drop-out of full-time work, but that this propensity varies by context. The authors also find an increased tendency over time for women to leave full-time for part-time employment in both Eastern and Western Germany, but observe no such trend in the UK. This is suggestive of ongoing incompatibilities in the institutional support for equality in dual-earning in Germany. The study uses longitudinal data covering the period 1992 until 2012 from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for Germany and from the British Household Panel (BHPS) and the ‘Understanding Society’ data for the UK.


      PubDate: 2016-09-22T09:38:36Z
       
  • Organizations and Stratification: Processes, Mechanisms, and Institutional
           Contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Donald Tomaskovic-Devey, Dustin Avent-Holt



      PubDate: 2016-09-03T11:17:17Z
       
  • Educational Stratification after a Decade of Reforms on Higher Education
           Access in Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Letícia Marteleto, Murillo Marschner, Flávio Carvalhaes
      The policies Brazil has implemented in the last decade to increase social inclusion—based on both socio-economic status and race—might have reduced the educational disadvantages associated with being non-white and poor. Recent research on Latin America has found a strengthening of the association between social origin and educational attainment—at least for early educational transitions—among cohorts who grew up in the 1980s, and a weakening of the association for cohorts growing up in the 2000s. This pattern aligns with signs of declining economic inequality in the continent. However, the decline in economic inequality coupled with an unprecedented expansion of education, including higher education, would suggest a weakening of the influence of social origin on educational opportunity for multiple educational transitions, not only early transitions. The goal of this paper is to examine recent changes in educational inequality by social origin and race in Brazil. We use a unique nationally representative data set collected by ILO in 2013 from respondents age 21-29 to answer the following two questions: As Brazil achieved universal enrollment in primary education and consistently high enrollment levels in secondary education, have the effects of social origin on secondary schooling entrance, secondary schooling completion and college access changed? Has the extent of the non-white disadvantage in education declined for younger cohorts? We provide the first assessment of inequality of opportunity in late educational transitions conducted after these key changes in Brazilian educational policy. The results show that while younger cohorts enjoy more egalitarian educational opportunities relative to older cohorts, important bottlenecks linked to persistent inequalities based on both social origin and race remain, particularly for the completion of secondary schooling,


      PubDate: 2016-08-25T10:46:22Z
       
  • Immigrant optimism or anticipated discrimination? explaining the first
           educational transition of ethnic minorities in England
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Mariña Fernández-Reino
      Recent studies have shown that ethnic minorities of immigrant origin are more likely to continue in education than students of the majority group with similar levels of achievement. Even though most research on this topic is still descriptive, different explanations have been proposed for these findings. The first explanation emerges from the social stratification literature on primary and secondary effects, which considers students’ decisions to continue in education a product of a rational strategy. According to this literature, the perception of labour market discrimination increases the costs of dropping out for ethnic minority students, who will therefore decide to continue into upper-secondary education more often than native majority students performing at the same level. The other explanation emerges from the literature on immigrants’ optimism and the positive selection of migration flows. According to these theories, ethnic minorities’ high continuation rates in education are a reflection of their ‘immigrant optimism’ and drive for success in the destination country. Building upon these prior investigations, this study aims to explain the high continuation rates to upper secondary education of ethnic minorities in England. First, I examine whether students’ anticipation of labour market discrimination motivates an ethnic compensation strategy in education, which translates into high educational expectations and, subsequently, high continuation rates to post-compulsory education. And second, I analyse the impact of students’ prior educational expectations on their transition rates to upper secondary education, particularly whether ethnic minorities’ early optimism eventually translates into actual educational choices. The survey Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) and the student census National Pupil Database (NPD) are used to test the hypotheses. The results show that the ethnic gap in expectations relative to the White British majority is not related to anticipated discrimination, and ethnic minority students who anticipate labour market discrimination do not make different educational choices compared to those who do not anticipate discrimination. In contrast, prior educational expectations represent the main factor driving the transitions of ethnic minority students, thus supporting the immigrant optimism explanation.


      PubDate: 2016-08-25T10:46:22Z
       
  • Migrant Poverty and Social Capital: The Impact of Intra- and Interethnic
           Contacts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Boris Heizmann, Petra Böhnke
      Previous research on immigrant economic incorporation has predominantly focused on dimensions of labor market access, while income poverty and its determinants have not yet received as much attention. The present study sets out to address this gap, and it has a particular focus on the relative utility of intra- and interethnic contacts. Applying social capital considerations, we investigate to what extent German first generation immigrants’ relationships in terms of the ethnic composition of their friendships and family size influence their likelihood of income poverty, net of various other factors. We furthermore ask whether the returns on interethnic contacts are dependent on immigrants’ host country language proficiency, a pivotal type of cultural competence. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, we find that both types of social relationships help to reduce poverty, which diverges from previous findings for labor market outcomes. Moreover, the utility of interethnic relationships varies according to language proficiency. These results illustrate the complex interrelations between cultural, social and economic integration, and they help to advance our understanding about the potential benefits of intra- and interethnic social capital by showing that both are useful in averting immigrant income poverty.


      PubDate: 2016-08-25T10:46:22Z
       
  • Parental Cultural Socialization and Educational Attainment Trend effects
           of Traditional Cultural Capital and Media Involvement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Gerbert Kraaykamp, Natascha Notten
      This article analyzes long-term developments in parental cultural socialization effects for children’s educational attainment. Retrospective information of 3.106 respondents from the Family Survey of the Dutch population are used to address questions on trends in the impact of traditional measures of parental cultural capital and the impact of parental media involvement activities. Foremost, our study highlights that the relevance of traditional parental cultural capital for children’s educational success in the Netherlands diminishes over time, while parental media involvement activities became more important. Over the past decades, especially parental reading instruction and parents’ setting television restriction rules became increasingly more meaningful for children’s educational performance.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T10:27:24Z
       
  • Do rising class differentials in earnings increase productivity? Evidence
           for non-production and production employees in U.S. manufacturing
           industries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Aytekin Guven, Arthur Sakamoto
      Quantitative sociological research rarely investigates productivity but it is pertinent to the study of inequality and social stratification. In this analysis, we focus on the earnings differential between non-production and production employees and evaluate the extent to which it has a net effect on productivity across U.S. manufacturing industries. Contrary to assumptions of traditional economics, the findings indicate that this earnings differential increased significantly since the 1980’s but actually had a negative effect on productivity. There is also some evidence that this effect has become more negative in recent years. We interpret these findings as suggesting that, rather than inexorably enhancing economic efficiency, rising earnings differentials between non-production and production employees partly derive from changes in the relative bargaining power of these two class categories in the labor market.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T10:27:24Z
       
  • Institutional constraints and the translation of college aspirations into
           intentions − Evidence from a factorial survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Claudia Finger
      This article examines under which conditions high school students’ college aspirations (unconstrained wishes) translate into (constrained) college intentions. Drawing on the Wisconsin model of status attainment and sociological rational choice theory, it is argued that—while educational aspirations are mainly the result of socialization processes within families and schools—educational intentions are constrained by institutional opportunities and barriers emerging from the higher education system, which might influence students from different social backgrounds in different ways. The focus lies on four institutional characteristics of German higher education institutions—namely geographical distance, reputation, selection procedures and the information provided by colleges. Methodologically, I draw on a factorial survey on application intentions for college programs that is integrated in a survey of Berlin high school students who indicated an aspiration to attend college one year before graduating. The findings suggest that distance from home is an especially strong constraint on college application intentions. The effects of the institutional dimensions, however, rarely differ for students from different social backgrounds. Nevertheless, social background differences can be observed regarding the overall strength of application intentions indicating that socially advantaged students feel generally less constrained by the institutional characteristics presented to them. The implications of these findings are discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T10:27:24Z
       
  • More Diversion than Inclusion? Social Stratification in the Bologna
           System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Martin Neugebauer, Sebastian Neumeyer, Bettina Alesi
      In the course of the Bologna process, traditional one-cycle degree programs have been re-arranged into two successive cycles (bachelor's and master's). In many European countries, this has created a new tertiary degree level below those previously offered. Focusing on Germany, this paper studies the consequences of this new form of differentiation for social inequality. First, we analyze social origin effects on the decision to continue higher education or to leave with a bachelor's degree for a recent post-Bologna cohort. We find that parents' education has a pronounced influence on the probability of their children's enrolment in the second cycle, comparable in size to the effect of parents' education on children's initial tertiary enrolment. Second, the observed gap in enrolment rates is largely the result of indirect influences, most importantly, type of institution. Third, we analyze changes in social origin effects on completion of a master's or traditional equivalent level program over time. Drawing on data from pre- and post-Bologna cohorts, we find that the share of graduates from low educated parents at the master's or equivalent traditional degree level decreases, when study courses adopt the two-cycle structure. Our findings stand in sharp contrast to an official goal of the Bologna Process, namely to support underrepresented groups in the framework of the so called ‘social dimension’.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T10:06:49Z
       
  • ☆Who Has the Advantage? Race and Sex Differences in Returns to Social
           Capital at Home and at School
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Mikaela J. Dufur, Toby L. Parcel, John P. Hoffmann, David B. Braudt
      A growing body of literature suggests that social capital is a valuable resource for children and youth, and that returns to that capital can increase academic success. However, relatively little is known about whether youth from different backgrounds build social capital in the same way and whether they receive the same returns to that capital. We examine the creation of and returns to social capital in family and school settings on academic achievement, measured as standardized test scores, for white boys, black boys, white girls, and black girls who were seniors in high school in the United States. Our findings suggest that while youth in different groups build social capital in largely the same way, differences exist by race and sex as to how family social capital affects academic achievement. Girls obtain greater returns to family social capital than do boys, but no group receives significant returns to school social capital after controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T07:16:09Z
       
  • The Returns to Education and Labor Market Sorting in Slovenia, 1993-2007
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Britni L. Adams, Joe King, Andrew M. Penner, Nina Bandelj, Aleksandra Kanjuo-Mrčela
      Research on the labor market returns to education focus on explanations based on human capital, signaling, and closure. Drawing on the case of Slovenia from 1993 through 2007–as it transitioned from a planned to a market-based economy–we propose an alternative institutionally coordinated perspective. We delineate the key features of this arrangement, which include: 1) strong educational criteria for occupations; 2) pre-set job-level pay; 3) within-job educational premia (pay sub-classes) in some sectors; and 4) a portion of pay that is performance-based. This institutionally coordinated perspective helps us understand both the role education plays in matching Slovenians to jobs, and how education contributes to differential pay between individuals in the same job. We use matched employer-employee data on all Slovenians to examine the degree to which the returns to education result from sorting into different establishments, occupations, and occupation-establishment units. We find that sorting processes account for the majority of the returns to education under this institutionally coordinated arrangement. Further, the degree to which sorting matters varies by education type, with the returns to vocational education being somewhat less driven by sorting processes.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T07:16:09Z
       
  • Computerization and wage inequality between and within German work
           establishments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Joe King, Malte Reichelt, Matt L. Huffman
      Recent evidence has revealed that a significant share of the rise in wage inequality has occurred at the establishment level, underscoring the importance of workplace-level analyses for understanding growing inequality. Using longitudinal matched employment data from Germany, we provide new insights into how investments in information and communication technologies (ICT) affect earnings inequality between and within establishments over time. Focusing on the mechanisms of inequality, cross-sectional estimates provide evidence of both skill- and class-biased technological change; however, establishment fixed effects models reveal that this relationship is driven by unobserved establishment heterogeneity. Despite a strong relationship between computerization and the rise in workplace heterogeneity, we find little evidence of a causal effect of computers on changes in establishment-level inequality. Rather, establishments that invest more greatly in ICT pay on average better wages and exhibit higher within-establishment inequality. These results challenge dominant explanations about the role of computerization in rising inequality, while also reinforcing the necessity of using organizational data to study inequality processes.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:23Z
       
  • Determinants of just earnings: The importance of comparisons with similar
           others and social relations with supervisors and coworkers in
           organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Carsten Sauer, Meike J. May
      Despite the well-known consequences of perceived injustice of earnings for individuals and organizations, little research exists that explore the determinants of just earnings in organizations. This paper investigates what employees think they deserve as just earnings and why. We argue that comparisons with others in the organization allow employees to evaluate the fairness of their rewards. Moreover, social relations to supervisors and coworkers indirectly affect just earnings, as they can be beneficial or burdensome. The analyses are based on unique linked employer-employee (LEE) data on more than 1,300 respondents surveyed in Germany in 2012/13. The results show that employees justify earnings not only by individual inputs but also by comparisons to coworkers. When people with similar characteristics who work in the same organization earn more, employees think they deserve more, too. Furthermore, employees with poor social relations at the workplace with their supervisors and their coworkers think they should receive higher fair earnings. These findings support the view that besides economic factors the comparisons and social relations within organizations are determinants for what people think they deserve as just earnings.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:23Z
       
  • Does gender equality increase economic inequality? Evidence from five
           countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Raffaele Grotti, Stefani Scherer
      Men and women have become increasingly similar in their education, employment and earnings over recent decades. It has been argued that these changes have implications for economic inequality, not least because couples tend to be formed by persons with similar traits. Given the family’s role in pooling and redistributing resources, increased equality within households may lead to the accumulation of either favorable or unfavorable situations. This has been expected to increase inequality between households. We investigate the extent to which the increased similarity in partners’ employment participation and earnings can account for changes in income inequality for households. We use LIS data for Denmark, Germany, Italy, the UK and the US from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s and employ decomposition techniques of the Theil index. We enrich the existing literature by providing internationally comparative evidence for a long time period up to more recent dates, and propose an innovative method to account for effects of employment and earnings similarity independently from changes in the overall earnings distribution. In contrast to the expectations, we show that an increased similarity among partners does not augment inequality to a relevant degree, and that the inflow of women in employment contributed to reducing inequality among households rather than augmenting it. Observed increases in inequality are instead driven by the increased polarization between high- and low-income families and by changes in the income dispersion within family types, suggesting that important social stratifiers are at work other than gender. Despite key institutional differences, this holds true for all five countries.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:23Z
       
  • Organizational environments and bonus payments: rent destruction or rent
           sharing?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Michael Schweiker, Martin Groß
      This paper investigates the impact that firms have on the amount of bonus payments employees receive from their employer. Bonus payments are an important component of a firm's pay regime and, like with wages, are subject to an interactional process of claims-making. Depending on the organizational environment, claims can be enforced more or less successfully by certain groups. Hence, we expect different effects depending on the organizational environment of a firm as well as interactions between individual attributes. We use four samples (1995, 2001, 2006, and 2010) of the German Structure of Earnings Survey (GSES), a large dataset linking employers to employees, employing unconditional quantile regression and detailed decomposition to trace the influence of three firm characteristics (mean human capital, stability, coverage by collective agreement) on bonus payments and the change of this relations between 1995 and 2010. We find that all three firm characteristics have considerable impact on bonuses and that the effects vary substantially along the bonus distribution. Over time, powerful employees seem to increase their share of the firm's revenue (rent sharing), while less powerful employees are less likely to secure their relatively small bonuses (rent destruction).


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T15:45:20Z
       
  • They May Not Have the Skills, but They Have the Desire: Why the Skill
           Composition of Trade Unions Matters for Wage Inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Kyung Joon Han, Eric Graig Castater
      There has been a scholarly consensus that greater union strength translates into lower levels of wage inequality. However, recent evidence indicates that this union effect disappeared in the 1990s. We argue that unions still reduce wage inequality, but that their effect is dependent on the type of workers that are actually unionized. Using survey data, we construct a variable that measures the proportion of union members that are unskilled manual workers in twenty wealthy democracies. We find that as the share of these workers rises, wage inequality falls, regardless of the level of union density, the level of union coverage, or whether a country has liberal, mixed, or coordinated market economy. However, the proportion of union members that are unskilled manual workers has no effect on wage inequality when wage bargaining institutions are decentralized, likely because such workers are unable to extract wage gains from their more skilled and higher paid union brethren in such an institutional context. These results suggest that the unitary actor assumption, so commonly employed by scholars to explain union effects on political and socio-economic outcomes, is misplaced; and that even though politicians may be more responsive to the policy preferences of the wealthy, poorer individuals can achieve relative economic gains when properly organized.


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T15:45:20Z
       
  • Education as a positional good: Implications for social inequalities in
           educational attainment in Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 43
      Author(s): Moris Triventi, Nazareno Panichella, Gabriele Ballarino, Carlo Barone, Fabrizio Bernardi
      The article examines trends of social inequalities in educational attainment in the second half of the twentieth century in Italy, comparing two approaches. The traditional approach uses years of education as a dependent variable and implicitly looks at the absolute/nominal value of education. The second approach refers to education as a ‘positional good’ and it captures its possibly changing occupational value over time. In this article, following this second perspective, two measures are developed and used: the Educational Competitive Advantage Score (ECAS) measures the value of educational degrees on the basis of their incidence in the population (credential inflation perspective). The second is an effect-proportional scale of education based on the average occupational prestige attained by individuals in each qualification (demand–supply balance perspective). Using data with large sample size from three waves of the Istat Multi-Purpose Survey (1998, 2003 and 2009), the article shows that inequalities based both on social class of origin and parental education declined between 1940 and 1980 birth cohorts, but the effect of parental education reduced less and it is stronger than that of social class in recent cohorts. Considering education as a positional good does not change the main findings obtained using years of education as outcome in the Italian case.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • Educational attainment - relative or absolute - as a mediator of
           intergenerational class mobility in Britain
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 43
      Author(s): Erzsébet Bukodi, John H. Goldthorpe
      In recent years much research has been concerned with the patterns of association that exist between individuals’ class origins, their educational attainment, and their eventual class destinations – the ‘OED triangle’. In particular, interest has focused on the possible role of educational expansion and reform in weakening the net association between class origins and destinations or, that is, increasing social fluidity, and thus countering other tendencies, such as increasing inequalities of condition, likely to reduce fluidity. In this paper we examine trends in the OED triangle in Britain on the basis of data from three successive birth cohort studies. We advance on previous research in measuring individuals’ educational attainment not only in absolute but also in relative terms – i.e. in this latter respect treating education as a ‘positional’ good. We show that measuring education in these two different ways leads to significantly differing results. In general, when education is measured in relative terms, associations within the OED triangle show a greater stability over time.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • School-to-work transitions across time and place—Introduction and
           summary
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Marlis Buchmann, Heike Solga



      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • Gender and the returns to attractiveness
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 44
      Author(s): Jaclyn S. Wong, Andrew M. Penner
      This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to (1) replicate research that documents a positive association between physical attractiveness and income; (2) examine whether the returns to attractiveness differ for women and men; and 3) explore the role that grooming plays in the attractiveness-income relationship. We find that attractive individuals earn roughly 20 percent more than people of average attractiveness, but this gap is reduced when controlling for grooming, suggesting that the beauty premium can be actively cultivated. Further, while both conventional wisdom and previous research suggest the importance of attractiveness might vary by gender, we find no gender differences in the attractiveness gradient. However, we do find that grooming accounts for the entire attractiveness premium for women, and only half of the premium for men. Our findings underscore the social construction of attractiveness, and in doing so illuminate a key mechanism for attractiveness premia that varies by gender.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • The suitability of tax data to study trends in inequality—A theoretical
           and empirical review with tax data from Switzerland
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 44
      Author(s): Oliver Hümbelin, Rudolf Farys
      In many countries results of inequality trends are ambiguous, because different methodological approaches blur the picture or because reliable data are not available. In this paper we assess whether tax data are suitable for the analysis of inequality trends. We do so by comparing tax data measurement concepts concerning income definition, statistical units and population coverage to theoretical-ideal concepts. We use Swiss tax data as an example to obtain a sense of the general direction and magnitude of potential biases and advantages. We therefore estimate the impact of the methodological options for measuring inequality based on tax data by comparing aggregated tax statistics and micro tax data results to corresponding results taken from surveys. While there are clear advantages to using tax data, such as long-term availability and reliable population coverage in more recent years, there are also drawbacks that lead to an overestimation of inequality based on aggregated tax statistics and hinder comparability over time. In sum, tax data are a source that should be used with care, but nonetheless seem to be indispensable for the analysis of inequality. Finally our estimations raise doubts about whether surveys are able to adequately track changes in income distribution tails, due to the undercoverage of very poor and very rich households.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • How schools structure opportunity: The role of curriculum and placement in
           math attainment
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 44
      Author(s): Will Tyson, Josipa Roksa
      Most of the research on math attainment focuses on whether students begin the 9th grade in algebra 1, geometry, or algebra 2, and how that affects their subsequent progression through math sequences. While providing valuable insights, this focus on vertical differentiation among math courses fails to consider the horizontal differentiation existing at the same math level (e.g., remedial, general, and honors versions of the same course). This study uses statewide longitudinal administrative transcript data to examine the consequences of horizontal differentiation in algebra 1, the most common ninth grade math course. Analyses reveal that many students were placed into remedial or honors algebra 1 despite not having corresponding low or high eighth grade math standardized test scores. The consequences of placement into less rigorous math courses were very difficult to overcome, even accounting for eighth grade test scores and ninth grade achievement. In addition, school algebra 1 curriculum was associated with attainment beyond students’ own course placement. These findings offer important insights into how school curricula structure opportunities, with implications for both theory and practice.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T07:23:55Z
       
  • Revisiting the Welfare State Paradox: A Firm-Level Analysis from Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Eunmi Mun, Mary C. Brinton
      Many cross-national studies of welfare states and gender inequality report adverse effects of work-family policies on women’s labor market outcomes. Countries with generous work-family policies tend to have a lower proportion of women in positions of authority and greater occupational sex segregation than countries without such policies. In order to explain this paradox, scholars have argued that work-family policies may create incentives for employers to exclude women from well-paying jobs. This argument, however, has been left untested due to the absence of firm-level data on promotions. This paper seeks to make both a theoretical and an empirical contribution to this literature. At the theoretical level, we argue that the effect of work-family policies is contingent upon labor market context and organizational practices, which shape employers’ incentives or disincentives to implement work-family policies to more fully utilize female workers. Empirically, we use over-time firm-level data to test how government policy interventions in Japan to increase work-family benefits have affected female promotion rates in private companies. Analyzing changes in women’s promotion rates across 1000 large companies from 1987 to 2009, we find evidence that employers have tended to promote more, not fewer, women subsequent to policy interventions. Additionally, employers who provided more generous work-family benefits promoted more women. Our findings point to the importance of labor market context in structuring employers’ incentives to leverage work-family policy reforms to utilize skilled female labor.


      PubDate: 2016-04-02T14:30:02Z
       
  • The Structure of Internal Job Mobility and Organizational Wage Inequality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Steve McDonald, Richard A. Benton
      The movement of people among jobs within an organization reflects a process of relational position-taking − a contest among individuals for valued resources. The structure of this mobility offers clues regarding the relational dynamics associated with position-taking and how these processes might vary across low and high inequality organizations. We explore these issues using data on intra-organizational mobility networks from 7347 workers in 428 positions in 11 distribution centers from a national grocery store chain. Exponential random graph models are used to identify the local network features that characterize each organization’s pattern of job mobility. This approach is then supplemented with meta-regression that examines the extent to which those network features are associated with organizational inequality (the wage gap between supervisors and non-supervisors). Organizational inequality is unrelated to the presence of purely structural mobility features (density, reciprocity, or transitivity), but instead is characterized by the confluence of mobility structure and positional hierarchy. The findings demonstrate that workers have fewer mobility pathways into high wage jobs in high inequality organizations than in low inequality organizations.


      PubDate: 2016-04-02T14:30:02Z
       
  • Congested Credentials: The Material and Positional Economies of Getting
           Schooled
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): David B. Bills



      PubDate: 2016-03-23T13:07:38Z
       
  • Introduction the Special Issue: Education as a Positional Good
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Yossi Shavit, Hyunjoon Park



      PubDate: 2016-03-23T13:07:38Z
       
  • The Absolute and Relative Values of Education and the Inequality of
           Educational Opportunity: Trends in Access to Education in Postwar Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Sho Fujihara, Hiroshi Ishida
      We propose three models of measuring the value of educational attainment, and we investigated using these models the changes in the effect of fathers’ education on educational attainment during the course of educational expansion in post-war Japan. The first model corresponds to a notion of the absolute level of educational attainment and the other two models present a conceptualization of educational achievement that considers education from a relative point of view. We used the data from the Social Stratification and Social Mobility surveys and the Japanese Life Course Panel surveys. The results showed that when we used years of schooling as an indicator of educational attainment in absolute terms, the inequality of educational opportunity by social background was reduced during the post-war period, and the least advantaged group benefited most from the general upgrading of education. However, when we measured the relative value of education by its occupational return in the labor market or by individuals’ ranking within the distribution of education, we observed an increasing gap between individuals whose fathers graduated from high school and those with university-educated fathers in access to advantageous education. We discuss the implications of these diverging findings.


      PubDate: 2016-03-18T12:25:53Z
       
  • Education Effects on the School-to-Work Transition in Egypt: A Cohort
           Comparison of Labor Market Entrants 1970–2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Stefanie Heyne, Michael Gebel
      Against the background of profound social and economic changes, this paper analyzes patterns of school-to-work transition for four cohorts of Egyptian school leaver during the period from 1970–2012. Using retrospective longitudinal data from the Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey 2012 our analyses reveal for women a U-shaped and for men an L-shaped relationship between education and transition rates to first job. We also find a divergent role of education for access to different labor market segments. Specifically, there is a strong positive education gradient on the probability of finding a first job in the privileged public sector and a reversed effect for access to the private informal sector for both men and women. Regarding time trends we find, counter to what is often suspected, that later cohorts of school leaver do not make slower first employment transitions than earlier cohorts. Males from later cohort have even higher transition rates to first jobs than earlier cohorts. For men, returns to higher education are decreasing with respect to the transition rate to the first job and remain stable at positive levels with respect to public sector access probability. For women, returns to higher education remain stable at positive levels with respect to the transition rate to the first job and are strongly increasing with respect to public sector access probability. These differences reflect that alternative employment opportunities in the private sector are education- and gender-specific.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Entering the highest and the lowest incomes: Intergenerational
           determinants and early-adulthood transitions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Outi Sirniö, Pekka Martikainen, Timo M. Kauppinen
      Early-adulthood transitions contribute to socioeconomic attainment, and these early-adulthood life courses are partly influenced by family background. Less is known about how parental background and early-adulthood transitions jointly determine chances of entering the most and the least affluent positions in society. Using a longitudinal, register-based data set, this study examines the intergenerational and life-course mechanisms related to entry into income quintiles in Finland among those born between 1972 and 1975, with follow-up until their mid-30s. The specific focus is to test whether a more affluent origin compensates for less favorable transitions in early adulthood. Parental income predicts entry to the lowest and the highest incomes in adulthood. Those with high-income parents are less likely to enter the middle income than those with low parental income, especially among men. The effects of lower educational achievement are compensated for by higher parental income among men, whereas women with higher education are more likely to benefit from their higher origin. High-income parents also protect from the harmful effects of long-term unemployment on adult income, although this compensatory effect disappears when long-term unemployment spells are very frequent. The positive parental income effect does not vary according to the age of having the first child, however, and does not apply to women with a more highly educated partner. These results indicate that the effects of early-adulthood transitions on income attainment differ across parental background groups, implying that those with higher origin have more beneficial resources. The mechanisms also vary by gender, possibly reflecting the strongly segregated labor markets in Finland.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Diverse Pathways in Becoming an Adult: The Role of Structure, Agency and
           Context
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Ingrid Schoon, Mark Lyons-Amos
      Although the transition from education to work has been a topic of much research, there is still lack of understanding regarding experiences of recent cohorts of young people. Moreover, much of the debate has focused on the polarization of youth transitions, at the neglect of a large group of young people who fall outside this dualism. This paper introduces a diverse pathways view offering a more comprehensive understanding of changing youth transitions and examines how transitions are shaped by interactions between structure and individual agency. The study is based on data from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) and the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UK-HLS) using sequence analysis to identify transition patterns among cohorts born in 1980-84 and 1985-1989. Five distinct clusters could be identified, differentiating between those who participate in extended education, two pathways dominated by continuous employment, either directly after completing compulsory schooling at age 16 or after some further education, and two pathways characterized by exclusion from the labor market (either through prolonged experience of unemployment or inactivity). Both structural and agency variables are associated with variations in transition patterns, pointing to the need of conceptualizing the role of the agent as well as that of structures and resources for a better understanding of the processes underlying the selection into different pathways.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Merit and Blame in Unequal Societies: Explaining Latin Americans’
           Beliefs about Wealth and Poverty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Mauricio Bucca
      Popular beliefs about the causes of inequality are often thought to reflect the actual processes behind social stratification. We use the case of Latin America to challenge this assumption. In these rigid and unequal societies, people are more likely to believe that wealth and poverty depend on individual merits or faults rather than structural constraints. Drawing on data from the 2007 Social Cohesion Survey, we use multinomial logistic regression and counterfactual simulation to investigate the factors that drive popular beliefs about wealth and poverty at the individual level, as well its distribution across countries. Our findings provide partial support to theories maintaining that being in an advantaged social position leads to favoring individualistic beliefs. We, however, report a novel effect of social class. More importantly, we show that unobserved country-level factors are the most powerful predictors and the only source of cross-country variation in the distribution of beliefs about the origins of inequality, thus ruling out a compositional explanation for cross-country heterogeneity.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Conspicuous consumption among Hispanics: Evidence from the Consumer
           Expenditure Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 44
      Author(s): Igor Ryabov
      Ethnic disparities in consumption patterns (clothing, jewellery, cars, etc.) have been a focus of social research for decades, yet little attention has been paid to conspicuous consumption and the relative importance of ethnicity and social class as its determinants. In an attempt to fill in this gap and to deconstruct the monolithic category of Hispanic consumers, the present study used nationally-representative data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) to investigate the expenditure patterns of Hispanic consumer households, with a special focus on conspicuous consumption. On the theoretical plane, this study evaluated two alternative explanations of the propensity to consume conspicuous items among ethnic minority households – conspicuous consumption and compensatory consumption theories. The findings demonstrated that, as compared to other Hispanic groups, Cuban Americans tended to spend less on conspicuous items. With the exception of Cuban Americans, Hispanics residing in more affluent neighbourhoods were prone to allocate greater shares of their expenditure to conspicuous goods. We also found a positive association between sociolinguistic assimilation into Anglo culture and conspicuous consumption of Hispanic households.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Social Status Attainment and Racial Category Selection in the Contemporary
           United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Robert DeFina, Lance Hannon
      Numerous studies have shown that individuals can change how they racially self-identify over time, potentially in response to changes in educational and occupational attainment. The value of that evidence is somewhat diminished, however, by reliance on survey questions about racial identity that are inconsistent over time. This study offers new evidence based on the 2008-2012 General Social Survey panel, which uses a consistent question about self-declared race throughout. Those data are used to estimate transition tables and fixed effects panel models, in which an individual's probability of choosing a racial category depends on social status indicators. We find that, on average, fluctuations in an individual's income, educational attainment and employment status are not significantly related to changes in racial self-identity in the contemporary United States. These results obtain for the total sample and for populations that historically have been more likely to change (Hispanics, Native Americans and individuals who identify as multi-racial). Implications for theory and policy are discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T11:19:17Z
       
  • Compressed, postponed, or disadvantaged? School-to-work-transition
           patterns and early occupational attainment in West Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Christian Brzinsky-Fay, Heike Solga
      We study school-to-work-transition (STWT) patterns and early occupational attainment for five West German birth cohorts. Although these cohorts experienced very different macro conditions, their STWTs were facilitated by Germany's strong vocational education and training (VET) system. The main research question is whether linearity of STWTs differed across and within cohorts. Linearity concerns the normatively expected order of different activity statuses during this life phase. High linearity is ideal-typically defined as entering VET or tertiary education programs after leaving general education, followed by rather direct entry into employment. Non-linear patterns diverge from this ordering or may also include other status activities, like unemployment and inactivity. We use data of the Adult Starting Cohort of the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS) and employ sequence analysis and regression methods. Our analyses reveal that the proportion of young people experiencing the ideal-typical transition patterns increased over the cohorts. Yet, the degree of non-linearity (in terms of number of status activities and status shifts, and some non-employment experience) of these ideal-typical STWT patterns also increased over the cohorts. Moreover, we find strong differences between men and women in early occupational attainment. Higher-educated women in particular had higher risks of long-term disadvantage, whereas men were able to compensate for disadvantages by achieving higher educational attainment and establishing themselves more quickly in the labor market.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
       
  • Family background and contemporary changes in young adults’ school-work
           transitions and family formation in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Chelsea Smith, Robert Crosnoe, Shih-Yi Chao
      The oft-discussed lengthening of the transition into adulthood is unlikely uniform across diverse segments of the population. This study followed youth in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts (n =12,686 and 8,984, respectively) from 16 to 32 years old to investigate this trend in the United States, examining cross-cohort changes in transitions with a focus on differences by family background. Logistic regressions revealed that young adults in the most recent cohort were less likely to have completed schooling, fully entered the labor force, married, or become parents by their 30s than those in the older cohort. The cross-cohort drop in young adults completing schooling was more pronounced among youth from more disadvantaged family backgrounds, the drop in entering the labor force and having children was more pronounced among those from more advantaged backgrounds, and the drop in marriage did not differ by family background.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
       
  • New dimensions of educational inequality: Changing patterns of combining
           college and work in the U.S. over time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Felix Weiss, Josipa Roksa
      Expansion of an educational system is often accompanied by differentiation. In the U.S., expansion of higher education included an increasing reliance on work. For a growing proportion of students, including those of traditional college-going age, going to college also involved going to work. This raises a crucial question of whether this form of differentiation has altered the patterns of inequality in higher education. While growing proportions of disadvantaged students are entering higher education, are they increasingly depending on work during their studies? We address this question using data from two waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97). We begin by presenting longitudinal profiles of engagement in school and work for young adults in the 1980s and 2000s. Following, we conduct multivariate analyses predicting the number of hours students are working while enrolled in college in two time periods. Presented analyses reveal a substantial amount of stability in social class inequality over time, with a modest increase in inequality among students attending four-year institutions full-time. Implications of these findings for policy and research on social stratification are discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
       
  • Intergenerational transmission of education in Europe: Do more
           comprehensive education systems reduce social gradients in student
           achievement?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Kaspar Burger
      Research has examined how education systems affect student achievement. Much of this research has compared comprehensive systems of schooling with tracked (selective) systems with regard to the degree to which they influence social class gradients in educational achievement. This study looks at comprehensive schooling in a broader way. Using standardised cross-national data for 31 European countries, it examines whether the comprehensiveness of education systems–in terms of pre-primary education, public/private sectors, educational tracking, and annual instruction time–contributes to explain the transmission of educational advantage from parents to children. Results suggest that the effect of parental education on a child's educational achievement is stronger in highly tracked education systems and in systems with a shorter annual instruction time. However, the social composition of a school's student population also affects the intergenerational transmission of education, and it interacts with the annual instruction time, such that the effect of school social composition on a child's achievement is stronger in education systems with a longer instruction time. This challenges the theory that by extending the school year policymakers could minimise social inequality in education (a theory that would be confirmed if we looked only at micro-level data). The findings inform debates about the influence of education policies on social stratification and mobility in Europe.


      PubDate: 2016-02-10T17:19:56Z
       
  • Delayed transitions in times of increasing uncertainty: School-to-work
           transition and the delay of first marriage in Jordan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Michael Gebel, Stefanie Heyne
      This paper describes and analyzes determinants and changes of the timing of transition to first marriage in Jordan for four birth cohorts born between 1950 and 1989. Using large-scale, nationally representative life history data from the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey 2010 and applying event history analyses, we find clear gender differences in marriage patterns and a general trend towards a delay of first marriage in Jordan. Regarding the determinants of individual marriage timing, we find for both men and women that individual education enrollment delays marriage, whereas the effect of the education level is hump-shaped and less pronounced. Inactivity and unemployment delays first marriage for men whereas inactive women experience early marriage. Men and women in public sector jobs make faster transition to first marriage than those in informal jobs. Regarding the changes across cohorts, our results show that the educational expansion partly explains the increasing marriage age of women but not for men. Changes in labor market activities and job quality across cohorts can only in part explain the increasing marriage age in Jordan. Popular explanations that the delay of marriage is caused by rising marriage costs or the marriage squeeze can be rejected.


      PubDate: 2016-01-30T22:25:42Z
       
  • Shadow Education and Educational Inequality in South Korea: Examining
           Effect Heterogeneity of Shadow Education on Middle School Seniors’
           Achievement Test Scores
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Yool Choi, Hyunjoon Park
      We examine the heterogeneous effects of private supplementary education, often called shadow education, on math test scores by propensity to use shadow education among middle school seniors in Korea. Our approach moves beyond existing studies that mostly assumed a uniform effect of shadow education across students of different characteristics. By applying two different propensity models - stratification-multilevel and smoothing-differencing methods, we find that the effect of intense shadow education significantly varies by the likelihood of using shadow education. Specifically, the positive effect of intense math shadow education is much stronger for students who have a lower propensity to use shadow education than their counterparts with a higher propensity. Considering that students who are least likely to use shadow education tend to have disadvantaged social backgrounds, we discuss implications for educational inequality of our findings that show the largest benefits of shadow education for most disadvantaged students.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
       
  • A generation lost? Prolonged effects of labour market entry in times of
           high unemployment in the Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Maarten H.J. Wolbers
      After the economic crisis of the 1980s, concerns arose about whether the high youth unemployment at that time would produce a ‘lost generation’ of young people in the Netherlands. The same concerns have recently arisen about the potential effects of the current high rate of youth unemployment. The issue is just how justified such concerns are. In order to answer this question, we investigated the permanence of initial labour market disadvantages for cohorts of young people in the Netherlands. Repeated cross-sections of the Dutch Labour Force Survey (1993-2011) were used and a synthetic cohort analysis was applied in order to ‘follow’ cohorts of young people throughout their early years on the labour market. Negative effects of high initial unemployment on later chances of work and attained level of occupation were detected. However, these negative effects started to dissipate after a few years on the labour market. These findings show the average negative effects of high initial unemployment on labour market entry to not be permanent: young people in the Netherlands experience negative effects of initially high unemployment on labour market entry, but these effects do not produce a lost generation.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
       
  • Parental Education, Class and Income over Early Life Course and Children's
           Achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Jani Erola, Sanni Jalonen, Hannu Lehti
      Very few studies on intergenerational achievement consider the high correlation between separate measures of parental socioeconomic position and possible life course variation in their significance for children. We analyse how socioeconomic characteristics of mothers and fathers over children's life course explain children's occupational outcomes in adulthood. Using Finnish register data, we matched the occupational position (ISEI) of 29,282 children with information on parents’ education, occupational class and income when children are 0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, 20–24 and 25–29 years old. We fit three-level random effects linear regression models and decompose family-level variance of siblings’ ISEI by each measure of parental status. We show that parental education explains family variation in siblings’ occupation most and income explains it least. Status characteristics of fathers together explain approximately half of children's outcomes, and those of mothers explain slightly less. These explanations vary only a little during children's life course. We also find that independent, non-overlapping effects of observed parental indicators vary over time. Mothers’ education explains independently most in infancy, whereas that of fathers in early adulthood. The influence of class alone is minor and time constant, but the effect of income alone was negligible over the entire follow-up. The independent effects are overall relatively small. The largest proportion of children's outcomes explained by these parental measures is shared and cannot be decomposed into independent effects. We conclude that bias due to ignoring life course variation in studies on intergenerational attainment is likely to be small.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T08:42:23Z
       
 
 
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