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SOCIAL SCIENCES (558 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

IdeAs. Idées d'Amérique     Open Access  
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IDS Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
Illness, Crisis & Loss     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Immigrants & Minorities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Impact     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Infrastructure Complexity     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InPsych : The Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society Ltd     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
INTERAÇÕES - Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Development Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Bahamian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business and Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Canadian Studies / Revue internationale d’études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Cultural Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Language and Culture     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Qualitative Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social and Allied Research     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
International Journal of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Review of Qualitative Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 220)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Internationale Revue Fur Soziale Sicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access  
Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigaciones Geográficas (Esp)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Issues in Social Science     Open Access  
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Applied Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Contemporary African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Critical Race inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Development Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Family Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Family Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Globalization and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies: JIGS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Negro Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Pan African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 168)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Relationships Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Research in National Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Responsible Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Social Studies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Studies in Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Technology in Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers     Open Access  
Journal of the Polynesian Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

Journal Cover   Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
  [SJR: 0.78]   [H-I: 12]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0276-5624
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Training opportunities for older workers in the Netherlands: A Vignette
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Kasia Karpinska , Kène Henkens , Joop Schippers , Mo Wang
      Demographic changes and labor market challenges highlight the importance of lifelong learning and development for all employees. The current study analyzes the factors that may influence managers’ propensity to offer older workers different kinds of training (specific or general). To investigate this question, a vignette study among 153 managers in Dutch organizations was conducted. Managers were randomly assigned into one of the four experimental conditions that involve a decision regarding specific or general training (aimed at internal or external mobility). The results suggest that managers perceive training incidences as a tool to increase productivity of older workers who perform well and are highly motivated, and far less as a tool to increase productivity of workers who need updating their human capital. The implication of these results is discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T17:17:10Z
  • Income inequality among older people in rapidly aging Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Sawako Shirahase
      This study examined the mechanisms by which income inequality among households with elderly members changed from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s, focusing on the transformation of household structure and on income sources. The data that I analyse in this paper comes from the Comprehensive Survey of People's Living Conditions in Japan (CSLCJ) conducted by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in the mid-1980s, the mid-1990s, and the mid-2000s. The CSLCJ is the cross-sectional data, but it fits well with our research questions because it includes the detailed income sources of every household member. Income inequality is measured by the post-transfer disposable equivalent income (with equivalent income calculated by dividing household income by the square root of household size). The sample used in the analysis is limited to those households with an elderly household member aged 65 or older. There were two measures of income inequality: (1) a squared coefficient of variance (SCV) and (2) a mean log deviation (MLD), because the SCV and the MLD are different in the extent of their sensitivity to changes in different economic groups. The former is sensitive to changes in higher income groups, whereas the latter is more sensitive to changes in lower income groups The main findings of this study can be summarized into the two points. First, income inequality among households with elderly members overall decreased after the mid-1980s. The extent of change using the SCV is higher than the extent of change using the MLD across time. This suggests a relatively large decrease in income inequality in elderly households during the bubble economy in the mid-1980s and after its collapse through the early 1990s had occurred at the high-income groups. The examination of the extent of income inequality among the elderly found that household structure is a critical factor. As of mid-2004, two-thirds of Japan's elderly population lived in one-person or couple-only households and that change in household structure relates to changes in the extent of income inequality. The decline in three-generation households lead to lowering the decline in income inequality among households with the elderly. Second, in examining the change in income package of the households with the elderly, it was found out that economic inequality is largely determined by the income of non-elderly members who co-reside with the old parents. Such a phenomenon has not changed despite the large change in the household structure with the elderly members associated with fast transformation of the population since the mid-1980s.

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T17:17:10Z
  • Who succeeds as an immigrant? Effects of ethnic community resources
           and external conditions on earnings attainment
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 36
      Author(s): Asaf Levanon
      Previous studies about contextual effects on immigrant economic attainment have generally relied on information from detailed case studies. Focusing simultaneously on characteristics of immigrant groups and the receiving society, these studies produced insightful but strikingly different accounts of the dimensions of the context that affect economic attainment. Responding to this limitation, this paper constructs a comprehensive model of effects of contextual factors on immigrant earnings attainment using 2000 US Census data on all immigrant groups. The paper employs multilevel modeling in studying the effects of both ethnic community resources and external conditions on earnings attainment. Results indicate that both ethnic community resources and external conditions are dominant in shaping earnings attainment by immigrants. Especially important are group resource advantage and the economic conditions at the local labor market.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Multiple job holding and income mobility in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 37
      Author(s): Arturo Martinez Jr , Mark Western , Michele Haynes , Wojtek Tomaszewski , Erlyn Macarayan
      Indonesia, one of the fastest growing economies in Asia, has lifted a significant portion of its population out of poverty and has experienced improved living standards over the past decade. However, this occurred within a context of growing inequality as indicated by a segmented labour market between standard and non-standard employment. This study examines the relationship between income mobility and non-standard employment using multiple job holding as a case study. Our empirical analysis based on the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) shows that multiple job holding is a prominent feature of Indonesia's labour market. However, for a significant bulk of the pluriactive workers, multiple job holding seems to be a necessary labour supply behaviour to make ends meet. Moreover, the data do not provide sufficient evidence that pluriactivity in the country is strongly correlated with long-term income mobility. This seems to be in contrast to findings from developed countries indicating that multiple job holding can be used to improve one's mobility prospects. We conclude that further investigation is needed to determine whether multiple job holding in Indonesia is correlated with other dimensions of social mobility.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Making a living in two labor markets: Earnings of Filipinos in the global
           and the domestic economy
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 37
      Author(s): Anastasia Gorodzeisky , Moshe Semyonov
      The present research examines earnings differentials between Filipino overseas global labor migrants and Filipinos employed in the domestic labor market (i.e. the Philippines) as well as income differentials between households of overseas workers and households without overseas workers. Data were obtained from the survey of households conducted during 1999–2000 in the four primary sending areas of overseas migrant workers. The data set for the present analysis consists of 4393 domestic workers and 1176 global migrant workers. The findings demonstrate that the average earnings of those employed in the Philippines is not only lower than the average earnings of Filipinos employed in the global market (regardless of region of destination) but their earnings distribution is also much more condensed than earnings distribution of Filipinos working in the global labor market. The multivariate analysis reveals that earnings returns in absolute terms (to education and occupations) are considerably higher among migrants employed in the global labor market than among those employed in the domestic labor market. By contrast, earnings returns in relative terms are lower for global labor migrants than for those employed in the domestic labor market (despite some variations across regions of destination). The results also suggest that earnings generated in the global labor market form a new source of economic inequality between households in the Philippines. Specifically, income of households with labor migrants tends to be considerably higher than that of households without labor migrants. The findings imply that global migration should be understood within the framework of ‘household theory of migration’.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Ethno-religious groups, identification, trust and social distance in the
           ethno-religiously stratified Philippines
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 37
      Author(s): Menandro S. Abanes , Peer L.H. Scheepers , Carl Sterkens
      Unlike in the West, people's identification with religion remains significant in the political and social arena in the ethno-religiously stratified Philippine society. At the height of the peace talks to end the protracted conflict between Christians and Muslims in the Southern Philippines, this study examines the relationship between ethno-religious categorization, identification and social distance by testing the mediation of out-group trust. It has been found that salience of religious identification influences willingness to maintain social distance with out-groups. The relationship between ethno-religious categories and social distance is explained by out-group trust. This main finding highlights the role of out-group trust in the ethno-religiously stratified society with collectivist culture.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Gender-oriented statistical discrimination theory: Empirical evidence from
           the Hong Kong labor market
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 37
      Author(s): Chi Man Yip , Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong
      This paper proposes a simple search model to shed light on the role of aggregate fertility as a form of statistical discrimination against young working women in the labor market. Our proposed theory assumes that workers generate identical production value that does not differ by gender. When matched with a firm, the worker and the firm bargain over wage rates. Since female pregnant workers receive wages during maternity leave and generate no production value, a matched pair with a female worker generates lower expected profit to the firm. Rent-sharing ensures a male worker to be paid more than a female worker even with the absence of overt discrimination, thus resulting in statistical discrimination against female workers. Using the 5% random subsamples of census and by-census data in Hong Kong in 1996, 2001, and 2006, the study provides unequivocal evidence that age-specific fertility rates exert negative impact on female wages, after controlling for other observable characteristics. More importantly, the negative effects of fertility on women's earnings are notably greater in female dominated occupations, whereas similarly situated men are unaffected. Since fertility rates tend to be increasing with age during the early stage of women's work careers, our theory partially explains why the gender gap rises with age.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Dual institutional structure and housing inequality in transitional urban
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 37
      Author(s): Wei Zhao , Jianhua Ge
      Enriching the Asian perspectives in the research of social stratification, this study sheds light on distinct housing inequality patterns after housing was transformed from the most important welfare benefit to the most valuable private property in the late 1990s in urban China. We develop a theoretical model of the dual institutional structure to highlight that housing allocation mechanisms are characterized by coexistence of socialist legacy and market logic. We draw empirical evidence from the 2003 Chinese General Social Survey data to capture the critical period following the radical housing reform. Statistical results show that individual attributes, work unit characteristics, and market development exert distinct impacts on state-channeled housing benefits and market-based housing rewards under the dual institutional structure. These findings indicate that we should conduct substantive institutional analyses to achieve a deeper understanding of complex stratification mechanisms and inequality patterns during the market transition.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Foreword to the Special Issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 37
      Author(s): Yoshimichi Sato

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Off to a good start: A comparative study of changes in men's first job
           prospects in East Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 37
      Author(s): Wei-hsin Yu , Chi-Tsun Chiu
      Research on young adults’ transition to the labor market rarely investigates how nation-level institutional arrangements shape changes over time. In particular, a systematic comparison of shifts in young adults’ job opportunities in East Asia is virtually absent. Using comparable data from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, we examine cohort differences in the timing, quality, and stability of men's first jobs. The results indicate overall declines in first occupational attainment for men in all three countries, but the main driving force for the decrease in Japan differs from that in Korea and Taiwan. Whereas macroeconomic pressure fully explains the decline in Japanese men's first occupational attainment, educational expansion accounts for a considerable part of the declines for men in Korea and Taiwan. Moreover, educational expansion has eroded better-educated men's advantages in speedily transitioning from school to work in Taiwan, but it has not had a similar effect on Japanese men. We argue that Japan's employment system, coupled with a fair amount of institutional ties between schools and firms, has shielded young men from the pressure of educational expansion, making the trends about their early-career outcomes different from those of their counterparts in Korea and Taiwan. The different degrees to which firm internal labor markets have been adopted in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also explain how increasing macroeconomic pressure has different impacts on men's first job stability in East Asia.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Social origin, conscientiousness, and school grades: Does early
           socialization of the characteristics orderliness and focus contribute to
           the reproduction of social inequality?
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Till Kaiser , Martin Diewald
      Among a child's skills and competencies, conscientiousness has been shown to be one of the most important predictors of school performance and later academic achievement. We refer this insight to the social reproduction of social inequality: Is socialization of personality characteristics in the parental home a significant mechanism that contributes to a child's life chances? Using school grades as the outcome measure, we combine different pathways toward their achievement: the impact of a child's conscientiousness on school grades, parental conscientiousness and parental stratification as sources for the differential conscientiousness of children, and the mediation of this interrelationship through different parenting styles. To date, almost no research has been conducted which integrates the unequal formation of personality and its consequences regarding life chances and compares it with the respective influences of social origin. Moreover, we add to existing research in social reproduction the distinction between different facets of conscientiousness. We show that it allows for more precise predictions of academic achievement than looking at the highly aggregated Big Five personality traits; moreover, these facets can be much better linked to the established body of sociological stratification theory. We combine data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and the related Familien in Deutschland (FiD) study involving children 9–10 years of age and their parents and households. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we found theoretical and empirical evidence that only the “focus” facet and not the “orderliness” facet is highly positively correlated with school grades even more than indicators of social background. Our main hypothesis—that conscientiousness, specifically the facet focus, acts as one “transmission belt” between social background and school grades—was confirmed.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Disability, structural inequality, and work: The influence of occupational
           segregation on earnings for people with different disabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Michelle Maroto , David Pettinicchio
      Occupational segregation is a fundamental cause of structural inequality within the labor market, but it remains under-researched in the case of disability status. Using 2011 American Community Survey data for working-age adults, we examine the representation of persons with different types of disabilities across occupations and industries. We find that employed workers with disabilities experience occupational segregation that limits their earnings potential. People with disabilities tend to work in lower-skilled jobs with limited educational and experience requirements. However, these disparities also vary by the nature of a person's disability, which perpetuates inequality by disability status. Although supply-side, human capital variables play a role in shaping earnings, we find that these broader, structural factors and occupational characteristics strongly influence the economic wellbeing of people with disabilities.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Class consciousness in a mature neoliberal society: Evidence from Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Pablo Pérez-Ahumada
      Class consciousness is a central element of the sociological analysis of class inequality. It indicates the mechanisms through which inequality creates subjective-level outcomes as dissimilar class identities and material interests. Despite its importance, class consciousness has been largely unexamined in current neoliberal society. With a few exceptions, the basic sociological question of how inequality brings about consequences at the subjective level has not been addressed in recent research. In this paper I address this question by analyzing the patterns of class consciousness in Chile. To do so, I examine how class location and class origins (as indicator of class experiences) shape the two main components of class consciousness: class identity and class interests. The results suggest that the identity component depends on both class experiences and class position, as well as on the way that the latter creates subjective experiences of economic inequality (i.e. inequality in individual resources). On the other hand, the second component of class consciousness—oppositional class interests—depends on both class experiences and class location, and on the way in which the latter brings about subjective experiences of opposition in the terrain of the relations of production.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • The effect of reading aloud daily—Differential effects of reading to
           native-born German and Turkish-origin immigrant children
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Oliver Klein , Nicole Biedinger , Birgit Becker
      Literature that examines possible heterogeneous effects of reading aloud to children of immigrants and children of native-born parents is scarce. The current study tries to address this scarcity by examining the effects of daily parent–child reading activities on the German vocabulary knowledge of children with (n =531) and without migration background (n =499) between the ages of three to five. Using propensity score matching (PSM), determinants of reading aloud daily to children are analyzed in the first step. Native parents are found to be more likely to read aloud daily to their children. Parents’ education, cultural capital and a high frequency of engaging parenting practices also predict the frequency of parent–child reading. Factors specific to immigrant families are the age of migration and the primary family language. The effect of reading aloud on the vocabulary skills of children is the focus of the second part of the analysis. Positive effects are found among children of immigrants and children of native-born parents. However, this positive effect is reduced over time for native children. Overall, reading aloud daily is most effective among children of immigrant families, using the language of the host country as the primary family language, and among parents with good receiving country language skills.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Transitions in secondary education: Exploring effects of social problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Britt Østergaard Larsen , Leif Jensen , Torben Pilegaard Jensen
      The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Population-based registers are used to include information on family upbringing, e.g. alcohol abuse, criminality, use of psychopharmaca and out-of-home placement. We estimate a parsimonious version of Cameron and Heckman's (2001) dynamic statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social problems. The results show that social problems during upbringing have a large and significant effect on children's educational outcome and that the indicators of social problems explain about 20–30 per cent of the class differences in the students’ educational outcomes.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Unequal returns to academic credentials as a hidden dimension of race and
           class inequality in American college enrollments
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Tina Wildhagen
      This study asks whether growing access to academic credentials for students from disadvantaged groups will lead to a decrease in the value of those credentials for these groups in college enrollments. Drawing on credentialing theory and the concept of adaptive social closure, I argue that as certain academic credentials become democratized (i.e., more accessible to disadvantaged students), their value decreases for students from disadvantaged race and class groups at the same time as it increases for students from privileged race and class groups. To test this idea, I use data from two cohorts of American high school graduates to estimate changes in the educational payoff of participation in the Advanced Placement (AP) program for students across racial and social class groups. The results show that at the same time as students from disadvantaged groups gained wider access to the AP program, its effect on their rates of college enrollment declined. During the same time period, the AP effect on the rates of college enrollment for students from privileged groups increased. I conclude that unequal returns to academic credentials for privileged and disadvantaged students represent a hidden dimension of race and class inequality in American college enrollments. Moreover, the results demonstrate the possibility that as access to an academic credential democratizes, as is the case with the AP program, privileged groups are better able to insulate themselves from the negative effects of credential inflation.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Does coresidence with grandparents reduce the negative association between
           sibship size and reading test scores? Evidence from 40 countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 38
      Author(s): Martin Kreidl , Barbora Hubatková
      This paper investigates the effect of coresidence with grandparents in three-generation households on the nature and size of the association between sibship size and reading test scores. It also explores whether this interaction changes with the level of socioeconomic development of a society. We argue that coresidence in traditional three-generation households has a protective effect against resource dilution and thus decreases the magnitude of the negative association between family size and test scores. We also suggest that coresidence in more modern contexts magnifies the degree of this negative association, since modern families form three-generation households only when severely destabilized. We apply 3-level regression models to the PISA 2000 data to examine our hypotheses and use the Human Development Index as a measure of development. We find that the negative association between family size and test scores increases at higher levels of development and does so more strongly when students coreside with grandparents. We, however, find no context, in which coresidence would erase the negative consequences of having many brothers and sisters on one's own school test scores. These findings hold even when controlling statistically for the effects of public expenditure on education, public social security expenditure, and crude divorce rate as well as for the interactions of these variables with sibship size.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Employment transitions and labor market exits: Age and gender in the
           Israeli labor market
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Haya Stier , Miri Endeweld
      This study focuses on the employment difficulties of older workers in the Israeli labor market. Using administrative panel data for the years 2005–2010, it traces the employment transitions of workers and their consequences, focusing on age and gender differences. The findings show that in Israel older workers, men and women alike, are indeed less likely to leave their jobs. However, once out of the labor force, they face difficulties in finding new employment. These difficulties are severer for women than for men. Male workers who experience high instability experience job losses, with no substantial age differences. The wage penalties for women are much lower, probably because of their limited opportunities in terms of earnings.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Aging workers and the experience of job loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Lora A. Phillips Lassus , Steven Lopez , Vincent J. Roscigno
      Aging workers experience the longest unemployment spells of any segment of the labor force and are much more likely than their younger counterparts to drop out of employment entirely. Yet, we still know little about aging workers’ struggles to regain employment following job loss. Do they see themselves as structurally disadvantaged? And, what are the consequences for self-perceptions, notions of fairness, and even mental health? We fill this gap by drawing on 52 semi-structured qualitative interviews with workers aged 40–65 who lost jobs during the Great Recession and have been attempting to find work since. Notable is their keen awareness of both age-specific labor market disadvantages and processes complicating re-employment for all unemployed workers during this period. Respondents articulate sophisticated analyses of how employer biases, credentialism, the job search process, and changes in the economy present very real barriers to reemployment. These perceptions and experiences, our materials suggest, have far-reaching social-psychological consequences, including loss of belief in meritocracy within major institutions; questioning of self-worth; and feelings of isolation, hopelessness and depression—consequences to which stratification scholars should devote more attention, especially since many aging workers become discouraged and eventually drop out of the labor force.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Educational attainment - relative or absolute - as a mediator of
           intergenerational class mobility in Britain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Erzsébet Bukodi , John H. Goldthorpe
      In recent years much research has been concerned with the patterns of association that exist between individuals’ class origins, their educational attainment, and their eventual class destinations – the ‘OED triangle’. In particular, interest has focused on the possible role of educational expansion and reform in weakening the net association between class origins and destinations or, that is, increasing social fluidity, and thus countering other tendencies, such as increasing inequalities of condition, likely to reduce fluidity. In this paper we examine trends in the OED triangle in Britain on the basis of data from three successive birth cohort studies. We advance on previous research in measuring individuals’ educational attainment not only in absolute but also in relative terms – i.e. in this latter respect treating education as a ‘positional’ good. We show that measuring education in these two different ways leads to significantly differing results. In general, when education is measured in relative terms, associations within the OED triangle show a greater stability over time.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Influences of Monetary and Nonmonetary Family Resources on Children's
           Development in Verbal Ability in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Airan Liu , Yu Xie
      This paper addresses the debate over the significance of family's monetary versus non-monetary resources for children's achievement and development, within the context of contemporary China. We use data from the 2010 baseline survey of the China Family Panel Study to examine the relevance of several proposed determinants in Chinese children's cognitive achievement. Our findings suggest that: (1) family income is significantly associated with children's achievement, but family's assets and direct measures of monetary resources are found to have little effect; (2) non-monetary resources, particularly parenting, are of great importance to children's achievement; (3) parenting practices do not vary greatly by family's economic resources.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Family Resources and Male-Female Educational Attainment: Sex Specific
           Trends for Dutch Cohorts (1930–1984)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Margriet van Hek , Gerbert Kraaykamp , Maarten H.J. Wolbers
      This study investigates cross-temporal gender differences in the effects of family resources on educational attainment in the Netherlands. Our research question reads: to what extent has the influence of parental socio-economic features, cultural resources and school involvement on the educational attainment of women and men in the Netherlands changed over time? Employing three waves of the Family Survey Dutch Population (N=6,059), we test our hypotheses on the changing impact of parental background characteristics on male-female educational attainment. A general expectation is that all family resources have become more favorable to girls over time. Our results first show that especially in the earlier cohorts the effects of parental educational resources were gender-specific: mother's education affected women's educational attainment most, whereas father's education predominantly influenced men's. Second, our results indicate that only for girls, growing up with a working mother becomes increasingly beneficial over time. Finally, the impact of father's occupational resources seems to lose importance over time faster for boys than for girls.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Pathways to gender inequality in faculty pay: The Impact of institution,
           academic division, and rank
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 34
      Author(s): Linda A. Renzulli , Jeremy Reynolds , Kimberly Kelly , Linda Grant
      Wage disparities remain an important source of gender inequality in U.S. labor markets including those for college and university faculty. Pay differences may result from the allocation of women and men to different locations defined by institution types, academic divisions, and ranks where pay scales differ. It may also reflect unequal earnings of men and women in similar locations. Using national data, we examine whether institution type, academic division, and rank influence salary independently of each other or whether they are interdependent such that their effects on salary depend on how they are combined. We find that they are interdependent. We then consider how these interdependent locations mediate or moderate the relationship between gender and pay. We find more evidence of mediation. Women are disproportionately located in academic locations that pay less than locations where men are more often found. This work contributes to the understanding of gender segregation and its ramifications for the academy.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Educational Mismatch, Gender, and Satisfaction in Self-employment: The
           Case of Russian-language Internet Freelancers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Andrey Shevchuk , Denis Strebkov , Shannon N. Davis
      In this paper, we examine the effect of horizontal educational mismatch on socio-economic outcomes among self-employed workers. Using unique data from 1,602 Russian-language internet freelancers, who are typically both contract professionals and teleworkers, we investigate the relatedness of education and work in this new occupational and social context. We provide rare evidence of the effects of horizontal educational mismatch on earnings, job satisfaction, and perceived job mobility of self-employed workers. We find that educational mismatch has differential influence on women's and men's experiences. Although both men and women have an earnings penalty for being mismatched, only mismatched women suffer from reduction in job satisfaction. Women who work outside their field of study while caring for their small children are in the most vulnerable position. They experience negative socio-economic outcomes in all dimensions: reduction in earnings, job satisfaction, and express intentions to change their current employment situation. We argue that these findings may be evidence of gendered career strategies and greater family demands for women in the new economy.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Measuring the effect of institutional change on gender inequality in the
           labour market
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Martina Dieckhoff , Vanessa Gash , Nadia Steiber
      This article examines the differential impact of labour market institutions on women and men. It carries out longitudinal analyses using repeat cross-sectional data from the EU Labour Force Survey 1992–2007 as well as time series data that measure institutional change over the same period. The results contribute to the literature on gendered employment, adding important insights into the impact of labour market institutions over and above family policies that have been the focus of most prior studies on the topic. We find differential effects of institutional change on male and female outcome. Our findings challenge the neo-classical literature on the topic. While our results suggest that men benefit more clearly than women from increases in employment protection, we do not find support for the neo-classical assertion that strong trade unions decrease female employment. Instead, increasing union strength is shown to have beneficial effects for both men's and women's likelihood of being employed on the standard employment contract. Furthermore, in line with other researchers, we find that rising levels of in kind state support to families improve women's employment opportunities.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Does upward social mobility increase life satisfaction? A longitudinal
           analysis using British and Swiss panel data
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Andreas Hadjar , Robin Samuel
      A main assumption of social production function theory is that status is a major determinant of subjective well-being (SWB). From the perspective of the dissociative hypothesis, however, upward social mobility may be linked to identity problems, distress, and reduced levels of SWB because upwardly mobile people lose their ties to their class of origin. In this paper, we examine whether or not one of these arguments holds. We employ the United Kingdom and Switzerland as case studies because both are linked to distinct notions regarding social inequality and upward mobility. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on panel data (UK: BHPS, Switzerland: SHP) allow us to reconstruct individual trajectories of life satisfaction (as a cognitive component of SWB) along with events of intragenerational and intergenerational upward mobility—taking into account previous levels of life satisfaction, dynamic class membership, and well-studied determinants of SWB. Our results show some evidence for effects of social class and social mobility on well-being in the UK sample, while there are no such effects in the Swiss sample. The UK findings support the idea of dissociative effects in terms of a negative effect of intergenerational upward mobility on SWB.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • The local Joneses: Household consumption and income inequality in large
           metropolitan areas
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 34
      Author(s): Maria Charles , Jeffrey D. Lundy
      Do household consumption practices depend upon local standards of decency or distinction? This article explores effects of local income structure on household consumption across 18 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Results show greater overall spending in high-inequality MSAs. But contrary to conventional depictions of “conspicuous consumption,” the additional spending goes mostly toward shelter and food, not more visible purchases of jewelry, vehicles, apparel, and entertainment. High median income, by contrast, is associated with greater spending in two visible goods categories (apparel and entertainment), but only among low-income households. Results support depictions of expenditure cascades, where spending by those better off ratchets up local standards of “normal” and socially acceptable living. Some unfortunate consequences include decreased investment in health care and heightened competition for access to quality public schooling. In this sense, growing economic inequality and positional consumption may be self-reinforcing processes.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Distinct paths to higher inequality? A Qualitative Comparative
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 34
      Author(s): Keith Gunnar Bentele
      In this paper Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is used to explore the extent to which states have taken distinct causal paths to higher levels of earnings inequality within the 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and during the early years of the 2007–09 recession. In these analyses special attention is paid to both the regional unfolding of the processes constituting economic restructuring and whether state institutional arrangements appear to mediate the impacts of inequality-increasing developments. Overall, these analyses suggest that industry and occupational shifts are critical to understanding state and regional experiences; state variation in changes in earnings inequality are, in large part, a story of the continuous playing out of economic restructuring in unique ways in different areas of the country. However, the subnational impact of the growth or decline of particular types of occupations on the earnings distribution is found to be highly contingent, depending on both the types of jobs gained or lost and the institutional and economic context in which those developments occur. It is suggested that the overall contribution of industry shifts to rising inequality may be underemphasized, in part, as a result of a reliance on analytical approaches that are ill-suited to capture the complicated and contingent nature of the impacts of processes such as deindustrialization. These analyses contribute to a growing body of work that employs a distinctly sociological approach in which earnings determination is viewed as multi-level phenomenon. Building on this insight, this paper suggests that changes in subnational levels of inequality may also be usefully conceptualized as an inherently combinatorial phenomenon.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • The occupational mismatch amongst Palestinians and Jews in Israel: A new
           evidence from the LFS 2000–2010
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 34
      Author(s): Nabil Khattab , Sami Miaari
      This article compares the occupational attainment of qualified Palestinians and Jews in Israel using data obtained from the Labor Force Survey for the years 2000–2010. Our findings show that Sephardi Jews are as likely as most Palestinians to be disadvantaged in their chances of obtaining jobs in certain occupational categories. Some qualified Palestinians tend to seek professions that facilitate self-employment within the ethnic enclave as a way to escape unfair practices on the part of Jewish employers such as attorneys and accounting. In relation to jobs that are scarce within the ethnic enclave such as in natural and life sciences and university lecturers, Palestinians tend to seek jobs within the Jewish controlled labor market where they face a harsher penalty.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • College quality and the positive selection hypothesis: The ‘second
           filter’ on family background in high-paid jobs
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Nicolai T. Borgen
      This paper investigates the heterogeneous returns to college quality across the wage distribution, using Norwegian administrative data. An ongoing debate in the literature is whether students who are most likely to attend a high-quality college benefit the most from college quality (the positive selection hypothesis) or whether students who are least likely to attend a high-quality college benefit the most (the negative selection hypothesis). The findings in this paper support the predictions in the positive selection hypothesis, especially at the top of the wage distribution. But the findings suggest that this pattern of positive selection is not caused by students self-selecting into colleges based on expected gain. Instead, the findings suggest that a second filter on family background exists. Students from privileged background are not only more likely to attend a high-quality college (the first filter), but are also more likely to convert their high-quality college education into success at the labor market (the second filter).

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Inequality in skill development on college campuses
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Josipa Roksa , Richard Arum
      While patterns of inequality in access and attainment in higher education are well documented, sociologists have left largely unexplored the question of disparities in skill development during college. Following a cohort of students across 23 four-year U.S. institutions from entry into college through their senior year, we examine inequalities in development of general collegiate skills. Findings indicate that despite unequal starting points, students from less educated families gain skills at the same rate as those from more educated families. African-American students, in contrast, enter college with lower levels of general collegiate skills than their white peers and gain less over time. A substantial portion, but not all, of the African-American/white gap in general collegiate skills is explained by academic preparation and selectivity of the institutions attended. Notably, African-American and white students experience similar benefits from being academically prepared and attending more selective institutions. These findings provide valuable insights for research and policy concerned with inequality in higher education.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Getting more unequal: Rising labor market inequalities among low-skilled
           men in West Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 39
      Author(s): Johannes Giesecke , Jan Paul Heisig , Heike Solga
      During recent decades, earnings differentials between educational groups have risen in most advanced economies. While these trends are well-documented, much less is known about inequality trends within educational groups. To address this issue, we study changes in labor market inequalities among low-skilled men in West Germany. Using data from the German Socio-economic Panel, we show that both risks of labor market exclusion and earnings dispersion have grown dramatically since the mid-1980s. We consider possible explanations for these trends, drawing on an analytic distinction between compositional changes with respect to worker/job characteristics and changes in the effects of these characteristics on labor market outcomes. Using a reweighting strategy and regression models, we find that both compositional trends and changes in the effects of important characteristics have contributed to the observed increase in labor market inequalities. We discuss the likely influence of German welfare state programs, labor market regulation, and of recent changes in these domains, and sketch promising avenues for future research.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Educational homogamy and earnings inequality of married couples: Urban
           China, 1988–2007
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 40
      Author(s): Anning Hu , Zhenchao Qian
      Using data from the urban sample of the Chinese Household Income Project in 1988, 1995, 2002, and 2007, we examine the association between increasing educational homogamy and rising earnings inequality of married couples. Using methods of counterfactual decomposition and random mating, we reveal that, over the years, increasing educational homogamy among urban married couples with senior high school and tertiary-level education is associated with a growing inter-household earnings gap and reduced intra-household earnings inequality. These two types of inequalities, in combination, have driven down the overall earnings inequality of married couples. This study highlights a demographic mechanism between large-scale institutional transition and increasing economic inequality in China, and helps understand the inequality formation process, especially in developing societies where mate selection patterns undergo rapid change as a result of improvement in educational attainment.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • The transmission of longevity across generations: The case of the settler
           Cape Colony
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Patrizio Piraino , Sean Muller , Jeanne Cilliers , Johan Fourie
      Evidence on long-term multigenerational dynamics is often inadequate as large datasets with multiple generations remain very uncommon. We posit that genealogical records can offer a valuable alternative. Rather than exploring the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status, we rely on birth and death dates of eighteenth and nineteenth century settlers in South Africa's Cape Colony to estimate the intergenerational transmission of longevity. We find that there is a positive and significant association between parents’ and offspring's life duration, as well as between siblings. Although these correlations persist over time, the coefficients are relatively small. While the effect of grandparents’ longevity on that of grandchildren is insignificant, the cousin correlations suggest that inequality in longevity might persist across more than two generations. We suggest that family and environmental factors shared by cousins, beyond grandparental longevity, can explain these results.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Multigenerational aspects of social stratification: Issues for further
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Robert D. Mare
      The articles in this special issue show the vitality and progress of research on multigenerational aspects of social mobility, stratification, and inequality. The effects of the characteristics and behavior of grandparents and other kin on the statuses, resources, and positions of their descendants are best viewed in a demographic context. Intergenerational effects work through both the intergenerational associations of socioeconomic characteristics and also differential fertility and mortality. A combined socioeconomic and demographic framework informs a research agenda which addresses the following issues: how generational effects combine with variation in age, period, and cohort within each generation; distinguishing causal relationships across generations from statistical associations; how multigenerational effects vary across socioeconomic hierarchies, including the possibility of stronger effects at the extreme top and bottom; distinguishing between endowments and investments in intergenerational effects; multigenerational effects on associated demographic behaviors and outcomes (especially fertility and mortality); optimal tradeoffs among diverse types of data on multigenerational processes; and the variability across time and place in how kin, education, and other institutions affect stratification.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Age at childbearing over two generations and grandchildren's cognitive
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Paula Fomby , Patrick M. Krueger , Nicole M. Wagner
      We examine whether grandparents’ and parents’ ages at birth are associated with grandchildren's early cognitive achievement, and whether grandparents’ or parents’ socioeconomic status, health, and marital status mediate those associations. Our analysis is based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. A grandparent's age at the birth of their own children is robustly and positively associated with grandchildren's verbal achievement, but not with grandchildren's applied mathematics achievement, after controlling for parents’ age at the grandchild's birth. The associations are similar in magnitude for grandmothers and grandfathers. A variety of indicators of social class in the grandparent and parent generations did not mediate this age effect. However, many of those indicators of grandparents’ social class were directly or indirectly related to grandchildren's achievement.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Understanding transmission of fertility across multiple generations
           – Socialization or socioeconomics?
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Martin Kolk
      A number of studies have documented consistent patterns in intergenerational transmission of fertility in contemporary societies. However, why children replicate the family size of their parents has received significantly less attention. The goal of this study is to examine whether observed fertility associations across generations are due in part to an intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. Swedish registry data on childbearing histories, other demographic events, and socioeconomic traits are used to disentangle possible explanations of intergenerational fertility continuities. Data are collected for the Swedish cohorts born between 1970 and 1982 for whom parents’ and grandparents’ family size can be observed. The inclusion of data on grandparents gives insights into pathways for multigenerational associations, and allows for comparisons between maternal and paternal characteristics that are otherwise hard to separate. Results show that some of the observed intergenerational continuity in fertility can be explained by continuities in education and socioeconomic status, but that most fertility associations remain and are related to other sources, such as transmission of values and preferred family size.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Inequality across three and four generations in Egalitarian Sweden: 1st
           and 2nd cousin correlations in socio-economic outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Martin Hällsten
      This paper estimates intergenerational associations in outcomes across more than two generations using cousin correlations. These correlations account for both observed and unobserved factors that cousins share, i.e., the joint influence of family and the community they are exposed to. The results show 1st cousin correlations in GPA, cognitive ability, and years of education above .15. For occupational prestige, the correlations were found to be close to .10. Accounting for detailed parental socio-economic characteristics reduces the correlations by merely one third to one half, which suggest that grandparents contribute over and above parents. For 2nd cousins, sample restriction allows only the study of correlations in 9th grade GPA. The 2nd cousin correlation is estimated to .07 unadjusted and .05 after adjusting for detailed parental characteristics. For 1st and 2nd cousins of grandparents with great economic wealth, the correlations double or triple, and remain very large even after parental characteristics are controlled for. In sum, this indicates strong persistence of inequality across at least four generations in contemporary Sweden.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Class mobility across three generations in the U.S. and Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Florian R. Hertel , Olaf Groh-Samberg
      Based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Socio-economic Panel, we study the class mobility of three concurrent generations in the U.S. and Germany. We find that, in both countries, the grandfathers’ class is directly associated with their grandchildren's social position. We propose three possible mechanisms which could explain the observed multigenerational mobility patterns. First, we consider the role of class-specific resources for mobility strategies. Second, we suggest a more general explanation by integrating grandparents’ class into the reference frame for mobility decisions. Third, we argue that multigenerational class associations could be the result of categorical inequality based on race or ethnicity. We find that outflow mobility rates differ across grandfathers’ class positions. Three-generational immobility is most frequent in lower and higher class positions. Log-linear analyses show that, in both countries, significant grandfather effects foster immobility within most classes and limit mobility between the working and service classes in Germany specifically. These effects partially lose significance if we only study white Americans and native Germans. Combining the two national mobility tables, we find that the pattern of three-generational mobility is similar in both countries.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Multi-generational income disadvantage and the educational attainment of
           young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Patrick Wightman , Sheldon Danziger
      We use data from three generations of participants of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the association between intergenerational socio-economic mobility and young adult outcomes. In particular, we investigate whether parents’ childhood conditions are associated with the educational attainment of their young adult children, conditional on young adults’ own childhood conditions. We examine the degree to which different paths leading to the same socio-economic position may differentially influence the outcomes of children raised under otherwise similar circumstances. We find some evidence that, conditional on young adults’ own adolescent conditions, the adolescent conditions of their parents influence their household environment and by extension their educational attainment. This association appears to be concentrated among low-income households.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Multigenerational approaches to social mobility. A multifaceted research
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Fabian T. Pfeffer

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Theoretical models of inequality transmission across multiple generations
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 35
      Author(s): Gary Solon
      Existing theoretical models of intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status have strong implications for the association of outcomes across multiple generations of a family. These models, however, are highly stylized and do not encompass many plausible avenues for transmission across multiple generations. This paper extends existing models to encompass some of these avenues and draws out empirical implications for the multigenerational persistence of socioeconomic status.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Economic change and occupational stasis: Puerto Rico as a case study of
           stratification and development
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 36
      Author(s): Harold J. Toro
      This article analyzes individual-level determinants of occupational status among adults in Puerto Rico to evaluate the applicability of theories of stratification to developing countries that are highly integrated to more industrialized nations. Drawing on microdata from the decennial U.S. census for Puerto Rico, the analysis focuses on the relative importance of labor cohort membership and education for occupational status among employed adults. Puerto Rico's occupational structure reflects only partial convergence with that of developed countries but shows no bifurcation in its status distribution since the 1970s. Net of education, no strong inter-cohort differences in occupational status are found. The evidence does not support the implications of dependency and world systems theories, but is only partially consistent with classical theories of social stratification.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Perceptions of meritocracy in the land of opportunity
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 36
      Author(s): Jeremy Reynolds , He Xian
      For years, sociologists have studied mobility patterns and status attainment to determine empirically how well societies meet meritocratic ideals. Few studies, however, have examined whether people believe they live in a meritocratic society. In this paper, we use the 1987 and 2010 General Social Survey to examine people's perceptions of meritocracy in the U.S. Although most Americans agree that getting ahead depends on meritocratic elements like hard work, their beliefs vary in strength. They disagree even more about the importance of non-meritocratic elements such as family wealth, and race. Furthermore, Americans layer these beliefs on top of each other to create a variety of perspectives on meritocracy. Young, upper class Whites are most likely to see the U.S. as a place where meritocratic elements rule. Older, lower class minorities, in contrast, are most likely to believe that non-meritocratic elements dominate. There are also Americans who believe strongly in both types of elements and those who do not believe strongly in either.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • School expansion and uneven modernization. Comparing educational
           inequality in Northern and Southern Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 36
      Author(s): Gabriele Ballarino , Nazareno Panichella , Moris Triventi
      The paper asks whether the patterns of educational expansion and inequality were the same in the two parts of Italy: the North, more industrialized and developed, and the more backwards South. This is a theoretically relevant issue as, despite this major socioeconomic heterogeneity, Italy has a centralized school system, whose main institutional features are the same all over the country. By means of an educational transition analysis of the five waves of the Italian Longitudinal Household Survey we analyze school expansion and long-term trends of educational inequality, both in general and at each specific school transition. The main results indicate that there has been increasing divergence between the two areas in educational expansion and in the effect of social background on years of education attained, favouring the North. The main difference between the two areas is found at two transitions, the one from elementary to lower secondary and the one from lower to upper secondary. While the first difference diminishes over time, the second grows over time and is currently crucial. Its reasons are found in the different propensity of the offspring of the working class to enrol in vocational schools, which is stronger in the North.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Pasts that last: The moderating role of education and former occupation
           for men's volunteering after retirement
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 36
      Author(s): Levi van den Bogaard , Kène Henkens , Matthijs Kalmijn
      This study uses nationally representative cross-sectional data to investigate the relationship between retirement and volunteering among men aged 50–70 in the Netherlands, and how this relationship is influenced by educational and occupational background. Based on a life-course perspective, it is hypothesized that education, socio-economic status related to the occupation and non-manual occupations will moderate the relation between retirement and volunteering activities for several reasons. Results from tobit regressions indicate that retirees, the highly educated, people with high occupational status and former non-manual workers are more involved in volunteering. While no interaction between retirement and educational level is found, the characteristics of the occupation (socio-economic status and non-manual versus manual work) are indeed found to interact with retirement, leading to higher volunteering rates for male retirees from occupations with high status, and retirees from non-manual occupations. Implications, strengths and limitations of the study are discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Economic inequality and ideological roll-call votes: Income
           stratification, minority threat and support for conservative legislation
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 36
      Author(s): David Jacobs , Chad Malone , Daniel B. Tope
      This study assesses whether the growth in economic inequality since the late 1960s produced enhanced support for conservative policies in the U.S. House of Representatives. Tests of the effects of inequality and tests of hypotheses derived from minority threat theory are conducted using a pooled time-series, fixed-effects design. The political influence of the most menacing street crime the public blames on underclass minorities is captured as well. Analyses based on 1.488 state-years show that income inequality, minority presence, and the murder rates reduce liberal roll-call votes. Interactions that assess period contrasts in the strength of relationships show that increases in inequality led to greater congressional support for conservative measures particularly in the later years of the post civil rights era. Such tests also support racial threat theory because they show that a strong negative relationship between African American presence and liberal roll-call votes persisted throughout this period. Such results corroborate claims (Bartels, 2008; Krugman, 2006) that the expansion in economic inequality since the late 1960s helped increase support for conservative legislation.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Employer's choice – Selection through job advertisements in the
           nineteenth and twentieth centuries
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 36
      Author(s): Wiebke Schulz , Ineke Maas , Marco H.D. van Leeuwen
      Dominant theories in stratification research suppose modernization processes to have caused societies to become more open. Employers are assumed to have increasingly selected from among applicants on the basis of job-related characteristics, such as their skills, rather than on characteristics unrelated to the job, such as social origin. We address this issue by studying employers’ selection criteria in job advertisements. We do so for the heyday of modernization, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Employers are found to have selected more on job-related than on other characteristics even at the start of the period, but the extent to which they did so did not increase over time. Job-related characteristics were no more important as selection criteria in modern occupations, or in modern municipalities. Despite what modernization theories suggest, employers were no more and no less inclined to select their personnel through job advertisements. Employers did, however, select more on job-related characteristics for occupations with a high status.

      PubDate: 2015-03-03T06:57:49Z
  • Pigmentocracies: Educational Inequality, Skin Color and Census Ethnoracial
           Identification in Eight Latin American Countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Edward Telles , René Flores , Fernando UrreaGiraldo
      For the first time, most Latin American censuses ask respondents to self-identify by race or ethnicity allowing researchers to examine long-ignored ethnoracial inequalities. However, reliance on census ethnoracial categories could poorly capture the manifestation(s) of race that lead to inequality in the region, because of classificatory ambiguity and within-category racial or color heterogeneity. To overcome this, we modeled the relation of both interviewer-rated skin color and census ethnoracial categories with educational inequality using innovative data from the 2010 America's Barometer from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) and 2010 surveys from the Project on Ethnicity and Race in Latin America (PERLA) for eight Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru). We found that darker skin color was negatively and consistently related to schooling in all countries, with and without extensive controls. Indigenous and black self-identification was also negatively related to schooling, though not always at a statistically significant and robust level like skin color. In contrast, results for self-identified mulattos, mestizos and whites were inconsistent and often counter to the expected racial hierarchy, suggesting that skin color measures often capture racial inequalities that census measures miss.

      PubDate: 2015-02-27T04:59:13Z
  • Intra-generational social mobility and educational qualifications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2013
      Source:Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
      Author(s): Ian Plewis , Mel Bartley
      The relation between intra-generational social class mobility of parents and their children's subsequent educational qualifications, and the implications of this relation for educational stratification, is explored by fitting statistical models to data from two UK longitudinal datasets: one based on the UK Census (ONS LS) and the 1970 birth cohort study (BCS70). Children whose parents are upwardly mobile gain higher educational qualifications than their peers in their class of origin, but obtain lower qualifications than their peers in their class of destination. The reverse pattern is observed for the downwardly mobile. These results mirror those obtained for the relation between adult intra-generational social mobility and a number of widely used measures of health. The implications of the findings for different explanations of the social class gradient in educational attainment are examined. The findings provide greater support for theoretical explanations of educational inequalities that are based on differences in economic circumstances between social classes than they do for explanations based on social class variations in the levels of cultural capital and aspirations. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that the overall pattern of results from these analyses is unchanged after statistically controlling for levels of parental education. The findings also have methodological implications for measuring the social class gradient in attainment and qualifications

      PubDate: 2013-10-25T02:04:32Z
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