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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1190 journals)
    - HISTORY (779 journals)
    - History (General) (49 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (42 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (45 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AND OTHER AREAS (8 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (142 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (104 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (21 journals)

HISTORY (779 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Historical Research Letter     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Historical Studies in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Historical Studies in Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Historically Speaking     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Histories of Anthropology Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Historiographia Linguistica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Historiography East and West     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Historische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Historiæ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History & Memory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
History Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
History Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
History in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
History of CERN     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
History of Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
History of Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
History of Education: Journal of the History of Education Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
History of European Ideas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
History of Political Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
History of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
History of Religions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
History of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
History Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HSE - Social and Education History     Open Access  
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IKON     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Il Capitale Culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ILCEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Illawarra Unity - Journal of the Illawarra Branch of the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Images re-vues : histoire, anthropologie et théorie de l'art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Immigrants & Minorities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Economic & Social History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indonesia and the Malay World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Inner Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intellectual History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intermédialités : histoire et théorie des arts, des lettres et des techniques / Intermedialities: History and Theory of the Arts, Literature and Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Bibliography of Military History     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Culture and History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
International Journal of Regional and Local History     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Society Systems Science     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Politics     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iran and the Caucasus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Irish Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Isis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Israel Studies Forum     Full-text available via subscription  
Itinerari di ricerca storica     Open Access  
Japanese Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal Asiatique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Contemporary History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal for Maritime Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for the Study of Judaism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal for the Study of Radicalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Aging, Humanities, and the Arts: Official Journal of the Gerontological Society of America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of American-East Asian Relations     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Australian Colonial History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Australian Naval History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Baltic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of British Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Conflict Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Contemporary Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Contemporary China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Contemporary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Coptic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Cuneiform Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Early Modern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ecclesiastical History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of English and Germanic Philology (JEGP)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of European Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Family History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Global History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Historical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Historical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Historical Pragmatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Historical Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Israeli History: Politics, Society, Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover   Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
  [SJR: 1.15]   [H-I: 22]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1933-1711
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2015-07-05T00:31:43Z
       
  • Enhanced Parathyroid Hormone Levels are Associated with Left Ventricle
           Hypertrophy in Very Elderly Men and Women
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Alexandre A.S. Soares , Wladimir M. Freitas , Andre V.T. Japiassú , Luiz A. Quaglia , Simone N. Santos , Alexandre C. Pereira , Wilson Nadruz Junior , Andrei C. Sposito
      Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been found to be associated with cardiovascular mortality in the elderly, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this association. This study investigated the association between PTH and structural and functional changes of the heart and arterial wall in a cohort of very elderly individuals. Healthy individuals aged 80 years or more (n=90) underwent evaluation of serum PTH, cardiac morphology and function by Doppler-echocardiography, endothelium dependent and independent vasodilatation by brachial reactivity, carotid stiffness and intima-media thickness by ultrasound, and coronary calcification by computed tomography. Participants with PTH levels above the median 5.8 pmol/l had higher left ventricular mass index (p=0.02), relative wall thickness (p=0.02), left atrial volume index (p=0.03), and shorter deceleration time of E mitral wave (p=0.04). Serum PTH levels (OR 1.027, p=0.032) and systolic blood pressure (OR 1.032, p=0.008) were independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). No difference was found between PTH groups in flow- or nitrate-mediated brachial artery dilatation, coronary artery calcification, intima-media thickness, or arterial stiffness. Elevation of serum PTH in the very elderly is associated with concentric LVH, but no association with arterial wall structure or function was found in this study.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T00:31:43Z
       
  • Look carefully before you jump
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-06-30T23:54:56Z
       
  • Genetic risk scores and coronary heart disease risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch



      PubDate: 2015-06-30T23:54:56Z
       
  • The British have landed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-06-30T23:54:56Z
       
  • Global longitudinal two-dimensional systolic strain is associated with
           hemodynamic alterations in arterial hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Paweł Krzesiński , Beata Uziębło-Życzkowska , Grzegorz Gielerak , Adam Stańczyk , Małgorzata Kurpaska , Katarzyna Piotrowicz
      Arterial hypertension (AH) can effect in progressive deterioration of the left ventricular (LV) performance. The aim of this study was to estimate the relation of global longitudinal systolic strain (GLSS) with central and systemic hemodynamics assessed by applanation tonometry and impedance cardiography in 125 hypertensive patients. Those with more impaired GLSS characterized with: 1/ worse diastolic function (mitral inflow early phase (E) to mitral septal annulus early diastolic velocity (e’) ratio: 8.0 vs 7.0, p=0.014); 2/ lower LV performance (cardiac index: 3.14 vs 3.64 l/min/m2; p=0.007) and 3/ higher afterload (systemic vascular resistance index: 2506 vs. 2107 dyn*s*m2/cm5; p=0.008). No relevant differences in i.e. gender, age, blood pressure, left ventricular mass index, left chambers dimensions and central blood pressure characteristics were identified. The results revealed that impaired GLSS is related to LV diastolic dysfunction and altered hemodynamics which may be markers of early systolic LV dysfunction related to AH.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T23:54:56Z
       
  • Vasoconstrictive inhibitory factor (VIF), a novel modulator of the RASS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch



      PubDate: 2015-06-25T22:28:14Z
       
  • Time to break an old habit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-06-25T22:28:14Z
       
  • How wasteful is hypertension?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-06-25T22:28:14Z
       
  • John H. Laragh, MD
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Suzanne Oparil



      PubDate: 2015-06-25T22:28:14Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Oxidative Stress, Oxidative Balance Score, and Hypertension among a
           Racially Diverse Population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Francis B. Annor , Michael Goodman , Ike S. Okosun , Douglas W. Wilmot , Dora Il’yasova , Murugi Ndirangu , Sindhu Lakkur
      Background Hypertension is a risk factor for several vascular diseases. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress (OS) plays a significant role in its pathophysiology. Human studies have shown inconsistent results, varying based on the OS biomarker and study population. Objectives In a racially diverse population, examine the association between: 1) blood pressure/hypertension and four markers of OS and 2) blood pressure/hypertension and oxidative balance score (OBS) Method Using data (n=317) from the cross-sectional Study on Race, Stress and Hypertension (SRSH), an OBS was constructed from various measures of pro- and anti-oxidant exposures. OS was assessed by 4 biomarkers: fluorescence oxidative products (FOP), F2-Isoprostanes (F2-isoP), mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) copy number and γ-tocopherol (γ-Toc). Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of interest. Results None of the adjusted associations between hypertension and OS markers was statistically significant. OBS was inversely associated with hypertension after adjusting for study covariates. Conclusion Persons with higher OBS have lower odds of having hypertension; however the evidence on the relationship between OS markers and blood pressure remains unconvincing.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Treatment: Special Conditions: Co-existing Heart Disease : Coronary Artery
           Disease, Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Clive Rosendorff



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Blockade of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor by PD123319 Inhibits Osteogenic
           Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Inhibition of ERK
           Signaling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Kenichi Matsushita , Yaojiong Wu , Richard E. Pratt , Victor J. Dzau
      Recent evidence indicates that the vasculature contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesized that angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptors (AT2R) play a role in the osteogenesis of MSCs and may have a role in vascular calcification. Human MSCs were differentiated into osteoblasts. Expression of AT2R was significantly increased during osteogenesis, whereas the expression of Ang II type 1 receptors (AT1R) was not significantly changed. Incubation with the AT2R blocker PD123319 with or without Ang II significantly inhibited calcium deposition, whereas AT1R blocker Valsartan had no significant effect. PD123319 inhibited ERK phosphorylation in the osteogenic process, whereas Valsartan had no effect. Furthermore, PD123319 combined with Ang II also inhibited acute ERK phosphorylation in MSCs induced by insulin. In conclusion, AT2R is up-regulated during osteogenesis. Blockade of AT2R inhibits osteogenesis and ERK phosphorylation of human MSCs. These results provide a novel insight into the pathophysiology of calcific vascular disease.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Refractory and resistant hypertension: characteristics and differences
           observed in a specialized clinic
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Rodrigo Modolo , Ana Paula de Faria , Andréa Rodrigues Sabbatini , Natália Ruggeri Barbaro , Alessandra M.V. Ritter , Heitor Moreno
      Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) despite the use of ≥3 anti–hypertensive drugs, or controlled requiring use of ≥4 drugs. Recently, a new definition for an extreme phenotype of RH (uncontrolled BP using at least five drugs) has emerged—the refractory hypertension (RfH). Although characteristics of RH are well established, little is known about this newly described subgroup. For this work, 116 subjects with RH were enrolled from a specialized clinic and divided into RH (n = 80) and RfH (n = 36). Subjects were submitted to echocardiography, 24–hour ambulatory BP measurement and biochemical analyses. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that: (1) white–coat effect (odds ratio [OR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–9.27; P = .03), (2) black race (OR, 6.67; 95% CI, 1.99–16.16; P < .001), and (3) left ventricular mass index (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03; P = .04) were independent predictors of refractoriness. In conclusion, RfH and RH present different patient characteristics, and these phenotypic aspects can be useful for better understanding this harder–to–treat subgroup.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Comparison of atenolol versus bisoprolol with noninvasive hemodynamic and
           pulse wave assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Lucas S. Aparicio , José Alfie , Jessica Barochiner , Paula E. Cuffaro , Diego H. Giunta , Cristina M. Elizondo , Juan J. Tortella , Margarita S. Morales , Marcelo A. Rada , Gabriel D. Waisman
      We aimed to compare atenolol versus bisoprolol regarding general hemodynamics, central–peripheral blood pressure (BP), pulse wave parameters, and arterial stiffness. In this open–label, crossover study, we recruited 19 hypertensives, untreated or with stable monotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive atenolol (25–50 mg) or bisoprolol (2.5–5 mg), and then switched medications after 4 weeks. Studies were performed at baseline and after each drug period. In pulse wave analyses, both drugs significantly increased augmentation index (P < .01) and ejection duration (P < .02), and reduced heart rate (P < .001), brachial systolic BP (P ≤ .01), brachial diastolic BP (P ≤ .001), and central diastolic BP (P ≤ .001), but not central systolic BP (P ≥ .06). Impedance cardiographic assessment showed a significantly increased stroke volume (P ≤ .02). There were no significant differences in the effects between drugs. In conclusion, atenolol and bisoprolol show similar hemodynamic characteristics. Failure to decrease central systolic BP results from bradycardia with increased stroke volume and an earlier reflected aortic wave.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Risk factor panels associated with hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea
           patients with different body mass indexes
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Wei Hu , Xian Jin , Jun Gu , Peng Zhang , Qiang Yu , Guizhi Yin , Yi Lu , Hongbing Xiao , Yueguang Chen , Dadong Zhang
      Although hypertension (HTN), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and obesity frequently co–occur, the precise role of obesity in this interrelationship is not completely understood. A total of 727 OSA patients were assigned to body mass index (BMI) <25 (27.6%; n = 201), 25≤ BMI <29.99 (53.4%; n = 388), and BMI ≥30 (19%; n = 138). HTN risk factors in each group were evaluated. A total of 244 (33.6%) patients exhibited co–morbid HTN, of whom 20.5% (50/244), 52.9% (129/244), and 26.6% (65/244) were distributed between the BMI <25, 25≤ BMI <29.99, and BMI ≥30 groups, respectively. Multiple logistic regression indicated that age, male gender, triglycerides (TG), low–density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL–C), and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) scores were HTN risk factors for the BMI<25 group. In the 25≤ BMI <29.99 group, risk factors were age, BMI, diabetes, and AHI. Finally, in the BMI ≥30 group, risk factors were age, diabetes, TG, LDL–C and AHI. These results demonstrate that different risk factor panels were associated with HTN in OSA patients with different BMIs.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Lack of blood pressure difference by race in professional American
           football players
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Andrew M. Tucker , Andrew E. Lincoln , Robert A. Vogel , Henry R. Black , Reginald E. Dunn , Peter W.F. Wilson , Elliot J. Pellman
      Previous findings suggest that professional American football players have higher blood pressures (BP) and a higher prevalence of pre–hypertension and hypertension than the general population. We sought to determine whether race is associated with differences in BP and prevalence of pre–hypertension and hypertension among a large sample of professional football players. BP was measured at 2009 team mini–camps for 1484 black (n = 1007) and white (n = 477) players from 27 National Football League (NFL) teams. Players were categorized into three position groups based on body mass index (BMI). There was no racial difference in mean systolic or diastolic BP in any of the three position groups. There were no racial differences in prevalence of hypertension (99 [9.8%] black players vs. 39 [8.2%] white players; P = .353) or pre–hypertension (557 [55.3%] black players vs. 264 [55.3%] white players; P = 1.0). Contrary to findings in the general population, BP and prevalence of pre–hypertension/hypertension did not vary with race in a large population of active NFL players.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Detecting initial orthostatic hypotension: a novel approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Brittain McJunkin , Brandon Rose , Om Amin , Nirmita Shah , Sachin Sharma , Sujal Modi , Suzanne Kemper , Muhammad Yousaf
      Our purpose, by modification of standard bedside tilt–testing, was to search for lesser known but important initial orthostatic hypotension (IOH), occurring transiently within the first 30 seconds of standing, heretofore only detectable with sophisticated continuous photoplethysmographic monitoring systems, not readily available in most medical facilities. In screened outpatients over 60 years of age, supine blood pressure (BP) parameters were recorded. To achieve readiness for immediate BP after standing, the cuff was re–inflated prior to standing, rather than after. Immediate, 1–, and 3–minute standing BPs were recorded. One hundred fifteen patients were studied (mean age, 71.1 years; 50.5% male). Eighteen (15.6%) had OH, of whom 14 (12.1%) had classical OH, and four (3.5%) had IOH. Early standing BP detection time was 20.1 ± 5.3 seconds. Immediate transient physiologic systolic BP decline was detected in non–OH (−8.8 ± 9.9 mm Hg; P < .0001). In contrast to classical OH (with lesser but persistent orthostatic BP decrements), IOH patients had immediate mean orthostatic systolic/diastolic BP change of −32.8 (±13.8) mm Hg/−14.0 (±8.5) mm Hg (P < .02), with recovery back to baseline by 1 minute. Two of the four IOH patients had pre–syncopal symptoms. For the first time, using standard inflation–deflation BP equipment, immediate transient standing physiologic BP decrement and IOH were demonstrated. This preliminary study confirms proof of principle that manual BP cuff inflation prior to standing may be useful and practical in diagnosing IOH, and may stimulate direct comparative studies with continuous monitoring systems.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Grim status of hypertension in rural China: results from Northeast China
           Rural Cardiovascular Health Study 2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Zhao Li , Xiaofan Guo , Liqiang Zheng , Hongmei Yang , Yingxian Sun
      The last study that reported the prevalence of hypertension in rural Northeast China was conducted approximately 10 years ago. We aimed to update the data on the prevalence and epidemiologic features of hypertension in rural Northeast China. This study examined a total of 11,576 adults using a multi–stage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals 35 years or older. Sitting blood pressure was measured three times for each participant by trained observers using a standardized electric sphygmomanometer after resting for 5 minutes. Related medical histories were obtained using a standard questionnaire, and blood biochemical indexes were collected by well–trained personnel. Prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%; 53.9% for men and 48.7% for women. Among subjects with hypertension, 43.5% were aware of the diagnosis, and 31.2% were taking antihypertensive medications, but only 6% had their blood pressure controlled. Besides traditional risk factors, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hyperuricemia were becoming risk factors for hypertension in this rural area.The status of hypertension is grim currently in rural Northeast China. The prevalence of hypertension remains seriously high, while the control rate is still frustratingly low. Obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hyperuricemia were more likely to be associated with hypertension in this rural area.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Incidence of primary hypertension in a population–based cohort of
           HIV–infected compared with non–HIV–infected persons and
           the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Avnish Tripathi , Jeanette M. Jerrell , Thomas N. Skelton , Myrna A. Nickels , Wayne A. Duffus
      Literature remains scarce on the impact of antiretroviral medications on hypertension in the HIV population. We used the South Carolina Medicaid database linked with the enhanced HIV/AIDS system surveillance database for 1994–2011 to evaluate incident hypertension and the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV/AIDS population compared with a propensity– matched non–HIV control group. Multivariable, time–dependent survival analysis suggested no significant difference in incidence of hypertension between the HIV group and the non–HIV control group. However, subgroup analysis suggested that among the HIV–infected group, months of exposure to both non–nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–1.75) and protease inhibitors (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–1.44) were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension after adjusting for traditional demographic and metabolic risk factors. In people with HIV/AIDS, prolonged exposure to both protease inhibitor–based and non–nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor–based cART may increase the risk of incident hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Design of renal denervation studies not confounded by antihypertensive
           drugs
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Sverre E. Kjeldsen , Alexandre Persu , Michel Azizi



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Renal denervation therapy for hypertension: pathways for moving
           development forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): William B. White , Zorina S. Galis , Jeffrey Henegar , David E. Kandzari , Ronald Victor , Domenic Sica , Raymond R. Townsend , J. Rick Turner , Renu Virmani , Laura Mauri
      This scientific statement provides a summary of presentations and discussions at a cardiovascular Think Tank co–sponsored by the American Society of Hypertension (ASH), the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) held in North Bethesda, Maryland, on June 26, 2014. Studies of device therapies for the treatment of hypertension are requested by regulators to evaluate their safety and efficacy during their development programs. Think Tank participants thought that important considerations in undertaking such studies were: (1) Preclinical assessment: how likely it is that both efficacy and safety data indicating benefit in humans will be obtained, and/or whether a plausible mechanism of action for efficacy can be identified; (2) Early human trial(s): the ability to determine that the device has an acceptable benefit–to–risk balance for its use in the intended patient population and without the influence of drug therapy during a short–term follow–up period; and (3) Pivotal Phase III trial(s): the ability to prove the effectiveness of the device in a broad population in which the trial can be made as non–confounded as possible while still allowing for the determination for benefits when added to antihypertensive therapies.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Should blood pressure be lowered in acute ischemic stroke? The CATIS
           trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Philip B. Gorelick



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Blood pressure targets in patients with diabetes – a new perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Clive Rosendorff



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Effect of Overcuffing on the Accuracy of Oscillometric Blood Pressure
           Measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jennifer Ringrose , Jack Millay , Stephanie Ann Babwick , Molly Neil , Lee Ann Langkaas , Raj Padwal
      Background/Objectives Overcuffing (using too large a BP cuff), is known to artificially lower auscultatory BP measurements; however, its effect on oscillometric readings is unclear. The possibility that overcuffing biases oscillometric readings is currently widely disregarded. We sought to confirm that overcuffing lowers auscultatory readings and to assess its effect on oscillometric measurements. Subjects/Methods Community-dwelling adults (aged ≥18y) with arm circumferences within the standard range 25-32 cm were recruited. Using primarily the International Standards Organization (ISO) 2009 protocol, we compared the standard Baum adult (25-35 cm) to the large adult (33-47 cm) cuff. The standard cuff was considered the ‘reference standard’. In Phase I, auscultatory measurements were performed by two trained observers. In Phase II, oscillometric measurements were performed. Each Phase was analyzed independently using paired t-tests and by generating Bland-Altman plots. Results Of 108 participants, 87 contributed data for Phase I, 85 for Phase II and 69 were common to both phases. Phase I mean age was 38.0±18.5 years, mean arm circumference was 28.0±1.9 cm, and 21% had a past hypertension. The Phase I results confirmed that, overcuffing reduced auscultatory BP measurements by 3.6±5.1/2.8±4.0 (p-values<0.0001 for both). For Phase 2, mean age was 39.30±18.3 years, mean arm circumference was 28.0±1.9 cm, and 22% had past hypertension. Mean BPs were 112.2±13.1/67.8±7.3 for the large cuff and 117.8±13.3/71.2±7.1 mmHg for the standard cuff (5.5±5.9/3.4±5.2 lower with the large cuff; p-values<0.0001). Conclusions Overcuffing leads to a clinically important downward bias in oscillometric measurements. An upper size limits for oscillometric cuffs should be specified.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Higher outdoor temperatures are progressively associated with lower blood
           pressure: a longitudinal study in 100,000 healthy individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Katja van den Hurk , Wim L.A.M. de Kort , Jaap Deinum , Femke Atsma
      This study investigated the shape of associations between climate parameters (mean daily temperature and humidity) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy individuals. The study population comprised 101,377 Dutch whole blood and plasma donors (50% men), who made 691,107 visits to the blood bank between 2007 and 2009. Climate parameters were acquired from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Associations with blood pressure, measured prior to each blood donation, were studied using (piecewise) linear regression analyses within Generalized Estimating Equation models. On average, systolic blood pressure was 0.18 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure was 0.11 mm Hg lower per one degree Celsius higher mean daily temperature. Higher daily temperatures were associated with lower blood pressure, independent of humidity and potentially confounding factors. These associations were stronger at older age and higher temperatures. Seasonality should therefore be taken into account when monitoring blood pressure, particularly in older individuals.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • A Mechanism for Mineralocortcoid Participation in Renal Disease and Heart
           Failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Richard N. Re
      Various forms of chronic renal disease as well as congestive heart failure progress irrespective of currently available supportive care. Clinical evidence indicates that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system and/or mineralocorticoid inhibition are partially effective. Recently it was suggested that the initiation of feedforward intracrine loops such as renin angiotensin system up-regulation can explain the progression of disease in the face of the control of initiating factors such as high glucose or hypertension. Here these notions are expanded to include a potential interaction of mineralocorticoid activity with intracrine renin-angiotensin system up-regulation. In addition to suggesting therapeutic interventions, these observations lead to an expanded view of intracrine physiology.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Farnesoid X Receptor Agonist CDCA Reduces Blood Pressure and Regulates
           Vascular Tone in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Chenyu Li , Jing Li , Xu Weng , Xiaofang Lan , Xiangbo Chi
      The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays an essential role in lipid homeostasis and glucose metabolism. However, whether or not FXR can prevent rise in blood pressure remains unknown. Here we investigate the possibility of using CDCA (Chenodeoxycholic Acids, CDCA), a natural ligand of FXR, to attenuate elevated blood pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats(SHR). SHR and Wistar-Kyoto Rats (WKY) were treated with CDCA (30mg/kg) for 8weeks. Compared to vehicle control, CDCA attenuated rise in blood pressure in SHR. In addition, CDCA improved vasorelaxation and diminished the contractile response to endothelin-1 in mesenteric arteries from SHR. CDCA also stimulated eNOS expression, repressed endothelin-1 levels, and inhibited NF-κB activities in mesenteric arteries of the SHR. Overall, we showed that CDCA treatment reduces systolic blood pressure, improves vascular relaxation, and inhibits vasoconstriction activity in SHR. The repressed endothelin-1 level, raised eNOS expression, and the ameliorated inflammation in mesenteric arteries could be responsible for the vasorelaxant and hypotensive effect of CDCA. These findings support a potential role for FXR as a regulator in vascular activities and in the development of treatment for hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Pharmacist intervention for blood pressure control: medication
           intensification and adherence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Tyler H. Gums , Liz Uribe , Mark W. Vander Weg , Paul James , Christopher Coffey , Barry L. Carter
      The objective of this study was to describe medication adherence and medication intensification in a physician–pharmacist collaborative management (PPCM) model compared with usual care. This study was a prospective, cluster, randomized study in 32 primary care offices from 15 states. The primary outcomes were medication adherence and anti–hypertensive medication changes during the first 9 months of the intervention. The 9–month visit was completed by 539 patients, 345 of which received the intervention. There was no significant difference between intervention and usual care patients in regards to medication adherence at 9 months. Intervention patients received significantly more medication changes (4.9 vs.1.1; P = .0003) and had significantly increased use of diuretics and aldosterone antagonists when compared with usual care (P = .01).The PPCM model increased medication intensification; however, no significant change in medication adherence was detected. PPCM models will need to develop non–adherence identification and intervention methods to further improve the potency of the care team.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Association between plasma adiponectin and arteriolar vessel caliber among
           elderly hypertensive subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Marina Beltrami-Moreira , Lu Qi , Marcelo K. Maestri , Flávio D. Fuchs , Helena M. Pakter , Leila B. Moreira , Miguel Gus , Ursula S. Matte , Angela MV. Tavares , Manoel M. Oliveira , Sandra C. Fuchs
      BACKGROUND Circulating adiponectin has been related to vascular diseases, but few studies examined the relationship between plasma adiponectin and microvascular abnormalities among hypertensive individuals. We tested the association between plasma adiponectin level and retinal vessel calibers in patients with hypertension. METHODS This study included 172 patients with confirmed hypertension, aged 18 to 80 years. Subjects with recent cardiovascular events, advanced heart failure and end-stage renal disease were excluded. Arteriolar and venular calibers were measured in retinographies using a microdensitometric image-processing method. Blood pressure was measured using a validated oscillometric device. RESULTS We observed a statistically significant inverse association between plasma adiponectin and arteriolar caliber among participants aged 60 years or older after controlling for confounders (Adjusted β=-0.42, P=0.001). In the final model, HbA1C and LDL also remained independently associated with arteriolar caliber. There was no association of adiponectin with venular caliber and retinal vessel calibers in participants <60 years old. CONCLUSIONS Adiponectin is inversely associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in elderly hypertensive participants, suggesting that plasma adiponectin may be a marker of microvascular damage and of higher cardiovascular risk in this age stratum.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Uric Acid Levels within the Normal Range Predict Increased Risk of
           Hypertension- A Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Adi Leiba , Shlomo Vinker , Dganit Dinour , Eliezer J. Holtzman , Michal Shani
      Background There are data describing that cardiovascular risks related to serum uric acid (SUA) levels may begin below the current diagnostic level for hyperuricemia. Values from 5.2 to 6.0 mg/dl were positively associated with higher cardiovascular risk. The risk associated with lower SUA levels has not been fully assessed in healthy adults. Objective To evaluate whether normal SUA levels, even below 5-6mg/dl, might be related to an increased risk of hypertension, compared to low-normal SUA. Design Cohort study. Setting An outpatient setting: all clinics of the largest Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in Israel, in a national distribution. Participants 118,920 healthy adults (40-70 years old), who had SUA levels screened during 2002, were eligible for the study. They were stratified according to baseline SUA, and were followed for 10 years. Measurements Study endpoint was any new diagnosis of hypertension during study period (until December, 31, 2011). Results During 10 years of follow up (2002-2011) 28,436 examinees developed hypertension (23.9%). Compared to the pre-defined SUA reference values (2-3mg/dl), women with SUA within the normal range had a gradual, increased risk of developing new-onset hypertension, starting at values as low as 3-4 mg/dl (adjusted OR 1.15; 95%CI 1.01-1.30). Women with SUA 5-6 mg/dl, still accepted as normouricemia, had a 66% increased risk of developing hypertension. Younger women (ages 40-50 at baseline) in a similar SUA subgroup (5-6mg/dl) had an even higher risk (OR 2.25 95% CI 1.96-2.60). Similar results were seen among men. Limitations The possibility of subtle confounders exists, despite extensive adjustment. Conclusions Serum uric acid within the normal range is associated with new-onset hypertension among healthy adults, compared to once very common low-normal range values. Further study is warranted to determine new cutoffs of hypo-, normo- and hyperuricemia, which might be far lower than current scales.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • The Effect of the Addition of Allopurinol on Blood Pressure Control in
           African Americans Treated with a Thiazide-Like Diuretic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Mark S. Segal , Titte Srinivas , Rajesh Mohandas , Jonathan J. Shuster , Xuerong Wen , Elaine Whidden , JogiRaju Tantravahi , Richard J. Johnson
      We tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase inhibition among African-Americans receiving the thiazide–type diuretic chlorthalidone may improve blood pressure control with fewer hyperuricemia related side effects. We performed a randomized double blind, placebo controlled study of African-Americans with stage I hypertension without clinically significant renal disease. 150 African-Americans men or women between the ages of 18 and 65 years of age who met the exclusion/inclusion criteria with untreated or treated hypertension were started on chlorthalidone (25 mg/day) and potassium chloride. After a 5 week run-in on chlorthalidone baseline testing was performed and they were randomized to allopurinol (300mg/dl) or placebo with doses adjusted based on uric acid levels and followed for 4 weeks. 110 subjects completed the study. Baseline systolic blood pressures after the 5 week chlorthalidone run-in was 119.9 ± 13.6 in the allopurinol group and 117 ± 11.2 in the placebo group indicating excellent blood pressure control with the single agent. After at least 4 weeks post-randomization, the difference in mean change in systolic blood pressure in allopurinol less placebo from visit 5 to 3 was 4.3 mm Hg (95% CI -0.2 to 8.7, p=0.059). The difference in mean change in uric acid levels over the same period was 2.1 mg/dl (95% CI 1.7 to 2.6 p<0.001). The use of chlorthalidone with or without allopurinol resulted in excellent blood pressure control. The addition of allopurinol tended to improve clinic blood pressure, but the difference from the group receiving chlorthalidone alone was not statistically significant.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Treatment of hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease A
           scientific statement from the American Heart Association, American College
           of Cardiology, and American Society of Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6
      Author(s): Clive Rosendorff , Daniel T. Lackland , Matthew Allison , Wilbert S. Aronow , Henry R. Black , Roger S. Blumenthal , Christopher P. Cannon , James A. de Lemos , William J. Elliott , Laura Findeiss , Bernard J. Gersh , Joel M. Gore , Daniel Levy , Janet B. Long , Christopher M. O'Connor , Patrick T. O'Gara , Olugbenga Ogedegbe , Suzanne Oparil , William B. White



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Stefan Engeli



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Regional and physician specialty–associated variations in the
           medical management of atherosclerotic renal–artery stenosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6
      Author(s): David A. Folt , Kaleigh L. Evans , Sravya Brahmandam , Wencan He , Pamela S. Brewster , Shipeng Yu , Timothy P. Murphy , Donald E. Cutlip , Lance D. Dworkin , Kenneth Jamerson , William Henrich , Philip A. Kalra , Sheldon Tobe , Ken Thomson , Andrew Holden , Brian L. Rayner , Liliana Grinfeld , Steven T. Haller , Christopher J. Cooper
      For people enrolled in Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL), we sought to examine whether variation exists in the baseline medical therapy of different geographic regions and if any variations in prescribing patterns were associated with physician specialty. Patients were grouped by location within the United States (US) and outside the US (OUS), which includes Canada, South America, Europe, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia. When comparing US to OUS, participants in the US took fewer anti–hypertensive medications (1.9 ± 1.5 vs. 2.4 ± 1.4; P < .001) and were less likely to be treated with an angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker (46% vs. 62%; P < .001), calcium channel antagonist (37% vs. 58%; P < .001), and statin (64% vs. 75%; P < .05). In CORAL, the identification of variations in baseline medical therapy suggests that substantial opportunities exist to improve the medical management of patients with atherosclerotic renal–artery stenosis.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Effects of carotid body tumor resection on the blood pressure of essential
           hypertensive patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6
      Author(s): Marat Fudim , Kelly L. Groom , Cheryl L. Laffer , James L. Netterville , David Robertson , Fernando Elijovich
      Removal of carotid body (CB) improves animal models of hypertension (HTN) and heart failure, via withdrawal of chemoreflex-induced sympathetic activation. Effect of CB tumor (CBT) resection on blood pressure (BP) in subjects with HTN is unknown. A retrospective analysis of 20 subjects with HTN (BP≥140/90 mmHg or anti-hypertensives use) out of 134 with CBT resection. Short-term (30 days from surgery) and long-term (slope of regressions on time over the entire follow-up) changes in BP and heart rate were adjusted for covariates (interval between readings, total follow-up, number of readings and changes in therapy). Age and duration of HTN were 56±4 and 9±5 years. Adjusted short-term decreases in systolic (SBP: -9.9±3.1, p<0.001) and pulse pressures (PP: -7.9±2.7, p<0.002) were significant and correlated with their respective long-term changes (SBP: r=0.47, p=0.047; PP: r=0.54, p=0.019). There was a strong relationship between adjusted short-term changes in SBP and PP (r=0.64, p<0.004). Six (50% of responders or 33% of the total) had short-term falls of SBP ≥10 mmHg and of PP ≥ 5mmHg. First study to show that unilateral CBT resection is associated with sustained reduction of BP in hypertensive patients. Targeted CB chemoreflex removal could play a role in the therapy of human HTN.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • The impact of kidney transplantation on 24–hour ambulatory blood
           pressure in end–stage renal disease patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6
      Author(s): Myung Hyun Lee , Kyung Min Ko , Seung Won Ahn , Myoung Nam Bae , Bum Soon Choi , Cheol Whee Park , Yong-Soo Kim , Chul Woo Yang , Byung Ha Chung
      In this study, we prospectively investigated the impact of kidney transplantation (KT) on the status of hypertension, including circadian rhythm in end–stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We performed 24–hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and office BP measurement in 48 patients before and 1 year after KT. According to the nocturnal reduction in systolic BP (ΔSBP), the patients were divided into dippers, non–dippers, and reverse dippers. After KT, the mean BP value in office BP and 24–hour ambulatory BP monitoring did not change, but the proportion of patients taking anti–hypertensive drugs and the pill number significantly decreased. In contrast, the mean ΔSBP significantly decreased, and the proportion of non–dippers and reverse dippers did not decrease. Decrease in ΔSBP after KT was associated with inferior allograft function during follow–up. Our study suggests that KT improved the overall BP level, but it did not affect abnormal circadian rhythm in ESRD patients.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • New guidelines for hypertension control in cardiac patients – lower
           may not be better
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6
      Author(s): Aram V. Chobanian



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Comparison of Morisky Medication Adherence Scale with therapeutic drug
           monitoring in apparent treatment–resistant hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ambarish Pandey , Fayez Raza , Alejandro Velasco , Stephanie Brinker , Colby Ayers , Sandeep R. Das , Donald E. Morisky , Ethan A. Halm , Wanpen Vongpatanasin
      The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS–8) is a questionnaire developed for screening of non–adherence in patients with several chronic conditions, including uncomplicated hypertension. However, its accuracy in predicting non–adherence in patients with apparent treatment–resistant hypertension (a–TRH) is not known. Accordingly, we performed a retrospective study in 47 patients with a–TRH who had completed the eight–item MMAS during the initial clinic visit. Non–adherence was defined as presence of undetected serum levels of at least one prescribed antihypertensive drug by therapeutic drug monitoring. We found that 26% of patients were considered to have low adherence score (<6), while the actual prevalence of non–adherence was 51% by therapeutic drug monitoring. Sensitivity of the MMAS–8 was 26% (95% confidence interval, 10.3%–48.4%) with specificity of 75% (95% confidence interval, 53.3%–90.2%). By multivariate analysis, the MMAS–8 score was not an independent predictor of non–adherence, while certain clinical parameters such as heart rate were found to be independent predictors of non–adherence. Our study suggested limited accuracy of the MMAS–8 in detecting medication non–adherence in a–TRH.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6




      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Personalizing precision medicine
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6
      Author(s): Friedrich C. Luft



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Simultaneously measured inter-arm &amp; inter-leg systolic blood
           pressure differences and cardiovascular risk stratification: A systemic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Sukhchain Singh , Ankur Sethi , Mukesh Singh , Kavia Khosla , Navsheen Grewal , Sandeep Khosla



      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 6




      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Hemodynamic Changes in the Prefrontal Cortex during Working Memory in
           Essential Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Hercules Grant , Yagesh Bhambhani , Anthony Singhal
      Behavioral performance and hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) represent cerebrovascular reserve and may indicate functional deficits related to essential hypertension. Fifteen stage 1 hypertensive and normotensive males (19 – 55yrs) were compared on four tests of working memory (digit span and auditory consonant trigrams), and accompanying hemodynamic changes measured by functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). With participants blindfolded, the four tests were randomized while fNIRS was used to monitor bilateral PFC changes in oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb), deoxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin (tHb) and hemoglobin difference. The hypertensive group demonstrated significant impairment in performance on the working memory tests with a trend of decreased efficiency performance scores (tests score/O2Hb, tHb changes). Significant correlations were noted in the hypertensive group between test performance and changes in O2Hb and tHb in both the left and right PFC. These findings suggest that fNIRS combined with cognitive testing may provide important measures of cerebrovascular reserve in essential hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:13:22Z
       
  • Outpatient blood pressure monitoring using bi–directional text
           messaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 5
      Author(s): Chris A. Anthony , Linnea A. Polgreen , James Chounramany , Eric D. Foster , Christopher J. Goerdt , Michelle L. Miller , Manish Suneja , Alberto M. Segre , Barry L. Carter , Philip M. Polgreen
      To diagnose hypertension, multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements are recommended. We randomized patients into three groups: EMR–only (patients recorded BP measurements in an electronic medical record [EMR] web portal), EMR + reminders (patients were sent text message reminders to record their BP measurements in the EMR), and bi–directional text messaging (patients were sent a text message asking them to respond with their current BP). Subjects were asked to complete 14 measurements. Automated messages were sent to each patient in the bi–directional text messaging and EMR + reminder groups twice daily. Among 121 patients, those in the bi–directional text messaging group reported the full 14 measurements more often than both the EMR–only group (P < .001) and the EMR + reminders group (P = .038). Also, the EMR + reminders group outperformed the EMR–only group (P < .001). Bi–directional automated text messaging is an effective way to gather patient BP data. Text–message–based reminders alone are an effective way to encourage patients to record BP measurements.


      PubDate: 2015-05-13T09:37:36Z
       
 
 
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