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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1238 journals)
    - HISTORY (779 journals)
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HISTORY (779 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 452 of 452 Journals sorted alphabetically
Quintana. Revista de Estudos do Departamento de Historia da Arte     Open Access  
Radical History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Rasenna : Journal of the Center for Etruscan Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rationality and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Raven : A Journal of Vexillology     Hybrid Journal  
Reinardus     Hybrid Journal  
Relaciones. Estudios de historia y sociedad     Open Access  
Renaissance Drama     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Renaissance Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Renaissance Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Rethinking History: The Journal of Theory and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Reti Medievali Rivista     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Review of Central and East European Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Reviews in American History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Revista Análisis Internacional     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Chilena de Historia del Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Historico-Juridicos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de História     Open Access  
Revista de História da UEG     Open Access  
Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico do Rio Grande do Sul     Open Access  
Revista Historia Autónoma     Open Access  
Revista História da Educação - History of Education Journal     Open Access  
Revista Maracanan     Open Access  
Revista Mosaico     Open Access  
Revista Paginas     Open Access  
Revolutionary Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'Histoire de l'Eglise de France     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revue d'histoire de l'enfance     Open Access  
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue d'histoire du XIXe siècle     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue de l’Histoire des Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Revue des Études Arméniennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue historique des armées     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue Mabillon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rhetoric Society Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Romanticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Royal Studies Journal     Open Access  
Rúbrica Contemporánea     Open Access  
Russian Education & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Russian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Russian Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Sacris Erudiri     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Saeculum : Jahrbuch für Universalgeschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Safundi : The Journal of South African and American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Scando-Slavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Science & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations     Open Access  
Scientia Canadensis: Canadian Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine / Scientia Canadensis : revue canadienne d'histoire des sciences, des techniques et de la médecine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientiae Studia     Open Access  
Scottish Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Scrineum Rivista     Open Access  
Scrutiny2: Issues in English Studies in Southern Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Senses and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Siècles     Open Access  
Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Signos Historicos     Open Access  
Slagmark - Tidsskrift for idéhistorie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Slavonica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Social History of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Società e Storia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Society and Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SourceOECD National Accounts & Historical Statistics     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Historical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South African Journal of Art History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Cultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South Asia Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
South Asian History and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South Asian Popular Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
South Asian Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
South Australian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription  
South Central Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South European Society and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Southeast European and Black Sea Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Southwestern Historical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Soviet and Post-Soviet Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Spontaneous Generations : A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Studia Aurea : Revista de Literatura Española y Teoría Literaria del Renacimiento y Siglo de Oro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Studia Historiae Oeconomicae     Open Access  
Studia Iranica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studia Litteraria et Historica     Open Access  
Studia z Historii Filozofii     Open Access  
Studies in East European Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Studies in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Studies in Western Australian History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Studium : Tijdschrift voor Wetenschaps- en Universiteits-geschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire des Sciences et des Universités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Suomen Sukututkimusseuran Vuosikirja     Open Access  
Sydney Institute Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription  
T'oung Pao     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Tangence     Full-text available via subscription  
Tasmanian Historical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Teaching History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Technology and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
temp - tidsskrift for historie     Full-text available via subscription  
Tempo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tempo e Argumento     Open Access  
The Court Historian : The International Journal of Court Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Eighteenth Century     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
The European Legacy: Toward New Paradigms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Hilltop Review : A Journal of Western Michigan University Graduate Student Research     Open Access  
The Historian     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
The International History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
The Irish Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
The Italianist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of the Historical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
The Public Historian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
The Seventeenth Century     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
The Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The South African Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Theatre History Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theoria et Historia Scientiarum     Open Access  
Tiempo y Espacio     Open Access  
Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire du Droit / The Legal History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Time & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Trabajos y Comunicaciones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Traditio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of the Philological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trocadero     Open Access  
Troianalexandrina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turcica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Turkish Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Turkish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Twentieth Century British History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
U.S. Catholic Historian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
UCLA Historical Journal     Open Access  
Ufahamu : A Journal of African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
United Service     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Urban History Review / Revue d'histoire urbaine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Varia Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Vegueta : Anuario de la Facultad de Geografía e Historia     Open Access  
Vestiges : Traces of Record     Full-text available via subscription  
Viator     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Victorian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Victorian Periodicals Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Vigiliae Christianae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Viking and Medieval Scandinavia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Vínculos de Historia. Revista del Departamento de Historia de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha     Open Access  
Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vivarium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vulcan     Hybrid Journal  
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Welsh History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
West 86th     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Whispering Wind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wicazo Sa Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Winterthur Portfolio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Women in German Yearbook : Feminist Studies in German Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Women's History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Yesterday and Today     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Zeitschrift für Weltgeschichte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Zutot     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Βυζαντινά Σύμμεικτα     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
  [SJR: 1.039]   [H-I: 31]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1933-1711
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • MRAs to the Rescue
    • Authors: Norman M. Kaplan
      Pages: 684 - 685
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 9
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan

      PubDate: 2016-09-03T01:44:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.08.001
  • “Complexity, Controversies and Disagreements in Hypertension
           Treatment Goals”
    • Authors: Allan B. Schwartz
      Pages: 686 - 687
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Allan B. Schwartz
      Recent reports and trials were intended to improve and simplify the management of hypertension. Instead the opposite has occurred. Complexity, controversies and disagreements in the treatment of Hypertension is noted in the last four years: JNC 7 to JNC 8 to JNC ?; 2013 to 2014 to SPRINT in 2015 to 2016. Was it possible that the future would be a return to the past? These questions require discussion and hopefully a comprehensive resolution in our journals and national meetings.” SPRINT, although answering some questions, raises other questions and creates controversies. The “twenty questions” that must be addressed by every practitioner to formulate hypertension treatment goals, since no two patients are alike, including: age, fraility, race, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, TIA, what number is too high or too low, what medicine category to start, what combinations, ACE/ARB, what diuretic, CCB, Beta B, alpha AB, BP recording posture, time of day or night, type of BP recording device, aneroid, hand held bulb, analogue vs digital, etc., etc., etc... We shall look forward to a comprehensive and coordinated explanation of theses multiple hypertension management issues in our upcoming national journals and clinical and scientific gatherings and our national cardiovascular organizations.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.07.004
  • Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Gestational Hypertension: Causal or
    • Authors: Andrea Kattah; Vesna D. Garovic
      Pages: 688 - 690
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Andrea Kattah, Vesna D. Garovic

      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.06.031
  • Subclinical hypothyroidism causing hypertension in pregnancy
    • Authors: Rishi Ramtahal; Andrew Dhanoo
      Pages: 691 - 693
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Rishi Ramtahal, Andrew Dhanoo
      This is a case of a 25-year-old primigravida who was referred to the hypertension specialist for elevated blood pressures. The patient had an elevated Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) with normal free Thyroxine (T4) levels and was positive for Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Ab) resulting in a diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. The patient was successfully treated with levothyroxine which normalised the blood pressure without the need for antihypertensive treatment. This case illustrates a cause of secondary hypertension that is not always considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with hypertension in pregnancy.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:42:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.06.039
  • Does masked hypertension impact left ventricular deformation?
    • Authors: Marijana Tadic; Cesare Cuspidi; Vladan Vukomanovic; Vera Celic; Ivan Tasic; Ana Stevanovic; Vesna Kocijancic
      Pages: 694 - 701
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Vladan Vukomanovic, Vera Celic, Ivan Tasic, Ana Stevanovic, Vesna Kocijancic
      Objective Our aim was to compare left ventricular (LV) deformation in subjects with masked hypertension (MH) to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. Methods This cross-sectional study included 185 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and complete two-dimensional echocardiographic examination (2DE) including multilayer strain analysis. MH was diagnosed if clinic blood pressure (BP) was normal (<140/90 mmHg) and 24-hour BP was increased (≥130/80 mmHg). Results 2DE LV longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually and significantly decreased from normotensive controls across MH individuals to sustained hypertensive patients. 2DE radial strain was not different between groups. 2DE longitudinal and circumferential endocardial and mid-myocardial layer strains progressively decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive individuals. Longitudinal and circumferential epicardial layer strains were lower in sustained hypertensive patients than in normotensive controls. Clinic and 24-hour systolic BP were associated with 2DE LV longitudinal endocardial strain, mid-myocardial strain and 2DE circumferential endocardial strain in the whole study population independent of LV structure and diastolic function. Conclusion MH significantly affect LV deformation assessed by 2DE traditional strain and 2DE multilayer strain. Clinic and 24h systolic BP were associated with LV mechanics evaluated with comprehensive 2DE strain analysis independent of LV structure and diastolic function.

      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.06.032
  • Prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities based on hypertension
           severity and blood pressure levels: The REasons for Geographic and Racial
           Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study
    • Authors: Hemal Bhatt; Christopher M. Gamboa; Monika M. Safford; Elsayed Z. Soliman; Stephen P. Glasser
      Pages: 702 - 713.e4
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Hemal Bhatt, Christopher M. Gamboa, Monika M. Safford, Elsayad Soliman, Stephen P. Glasser
      Background We evaluated the prevalence of major and minor electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities based on blood pressure (BP) control and hypertension (HTN) treatment resistance. Methods We analyzed data from the REGARDS study of 20,932 participants who were divided into presence of major (n = 3,782), only minor (n = 8,944) or no (n = 8,206) ECG abnormalities. The cohort was stratified into normotension (n = 3,373), prehypertension (n = 4,142), controlled HTN (n = 8,619), uncontrolled HTN (n = 3,544), controlled apparent treatment resistant HTN (aTRH, n = 400) and uncontrolled aTRH (n = 854) groups and the prevalence ratios (PR) of major and minor ECG abnormalities were assessed separately for each BP group. The full multi-variable adjustment included demographics, risk factors and HTN duration. Results Compared with normotension, the PRs of major ECG abnormalities for prehypertension, controlled HTN, uncontrolled HTN, controlled aTRH and uncontrolled aTRH groups were 1.01 (0.90 – 1.14), 1.30 (1.16 – 1.45), 1.37 (1.23 – 1.54), 1.42 (1.22 – 1.64) and 1.44 (1.26 – 1.65) respectively (p < 0.001), whereas, the PRs of minor ECG abnormalities among each of the above BP groups were similar. Conclusion Detection of major ECG abnormalities among hypertensive persons with poor control and treatment resistance may help improve their cardiovascular risk stratification and early intervention.

      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.06.033
  • Hypotension based on office and ambulatory monitoring blood pressure.
           Prevalence and clinical profile among a cohort of 70,997 treated
    • Authors: Juan A. Divisón-Garrote; José R. Banegas; Juan J. De la Cruz; Carlos Escobar-Cervantes; Alejandro De la Sierra; Manuel Gorostidi; Ernest Vinyoles; José Abellán-Aleman; Julián Segura; Luis M. Ruilope
      Pages: 714 - 723
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): J.A. Divisón-Garrote, J.R. Banegas, J.J. De la Cruz, C. Escobar-Cervantes, A. De la Sierra, M. Gorostidi, E. Vinyoles, J. Abellán-Aleman, J. Segura, L.M. Ruilope
      We aimed to determine the prevalence of hypotension and factors associated with the presence of this condition in treated hypertensive patients undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Data were taken from the Spanish ABPM Registry. Office blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP were determined using validated devices under standardized conditions. Based on previous studies, hypotension was defined as office systolic/diastolic BP <110 and/or 70 mmHg, daytime ABPM <105 and/or 65 mmHg, nighttime ABPM <90 and/or 50 mmHg, and 24-h ABPM <100 and/or 60 mmHg. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the variables associated with the presence of hypotension. A total of 70,997 hypertensive patients on treatment (mean age 61.8 years, 52.5% men) were included in the study. The prevalence of hypotension was 8.2% with office BP, 12.2% with daytime ABPM, 3.9% with nighttime ABPM and 6.8% with 24-h ABPM. Low diastolic BP values were responsible for the majority of cases of hypotension. Some 68% of the hypotension cases detected by daytime ABPM did not correspond to hypotension according to office BP. The variables independently and consistently associated with higher likelihood of office, daytime, and 24h-based hypotension were age, female gender, history of ischemic heart disease and body mass index <30 kg/ m2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, in this large cohort of patients in usual daily practice, one in 8 treated hypertensive patients are at risk of hypotension according to daytime BP. Two thirds of them are not adequately identified with office BP. ABPM could be especially helpful for identifying ambulatory hypotension, in particular in patients who are older, women, or with previous ischemic heart disease where antihypertensive treatment should be especially individualized and cautious.

      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.06.035
  • Worldwide prevalence of hypertension exceeds 1.3 billion
    • Authors: Michael J. Bloch
      Pages: 753 - 754
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T10:20:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.08.006
  • Long-term Safety of Droxidopa in Patients With Symptomatic Neurogenic
           Orthostatic Hypotension
    • Authors: Stuart Isaacson; Steven Vernino; Adam Ziemann; Gerald J. Rowse; Uwa Kalu; William B. White
      Pages: 755 - 762
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Stuart Isaacson, Steven Vernino, Adam Ziemann, Gerald J. Rowse, Uwa Kalu, William B. White
      The long-term safety of droxidopa for the treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) in patients with Parkinson disease, pure autonomic failure, multiple system atrophy, or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy was evaluated in a phase 3, multinational, open-label study in patients who previously participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of droxidopa. A total of 350 patients received droxidopa 100 to 600 mg 3 times daily. Mean duration of droxidopa exposure was 363 days (range, 2–1133 days). Rates of serious adverse events (AEs), cardiac-related AEs, and supine hypertension were 24%, 5%, and 5%, respectively. Most AEs, including those of a cardiovascular nature, were not attributed by investigators to droxidopa. In this large cohort of patients with nOH, droxidopa was well tolerated during long-term use.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.07.010
  • The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on cardiac patients’
           blood pressure, perceived stress and anger: a single-blind randomized
           controlled trial
    • Authors: Javad Momeni; Abdollah Omidi; Fariba Raygan; Hossein Akbari
      Pages: 763 - 771
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Javad Momeni, Abdollah Omidi, Fariba Raygan, Hossein Akbari
      This study aimed at assessing the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction(MBSR) on cardiac patients’ blood pressure, perceived stress and anger. In total, 60 cardiac patients were recruited between April and June 2015 from a specialized private cardiac clinic located in Kashan, Iran. Patients were allocated to the intervention and control groups. Patients in the experimental group received MBSR in eight 2.5-hour sessions while patients in the control group received no psychological therapy. The main outcomes were blood pressure, perceived stress, and anger. Analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between the study groups regarding the posttest values of systolic blood pressure, perceived stress and anger (P< 0.001). However, the study groups did not differ significantly in terms of diastolic blood pressure (P=0.061, P= 0.17). This study reveals that MBSR is effective in reducing cardiac patients’ systolic blood pressure, perceived stress and anger.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.07.007
  • Large artery stiffness is associated with gamma-glutamyltransferase in
           young, healthy adults: The African-PREDICT study
    • Authors: Melissa Maritz; Carla M.T. Fourie; Johannes M. Van Rooyen; Sarah J. Moss; Aletta E. Schutte
      Pages: 772 - 781.e1
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Melissa Maritz, Carla MT. Fourie, Johannes M. Van Rooyen, Sarah J. Moss, Aletta E. Schutte
      Increased arterial stiffness is linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, particularly in black populations. Since detrimental health behaviours in young adults may affect arterial stiffness, we determined whether arterial stiffness associates with specific health behaviours, and whether it is more pronounced in young healthy black compared to white adults. We included 373 participants, (49% black, 42% men) aged 20-30 years. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was higher for blacks than whites (p<0.001), but carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was similar (6.37 vs. 6.36 m/s; p=0.89) after adjustment for MAP. The black group had higher gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (p<0.001), cotinine, reactive oxygen species, interleukin-6 and monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (all p≤0.017). PWV related positively and independently to GGT in both groups before and after multiple-adjustments (both β=0.15; p≤0.049). Blacks had an unfavourable vascular profile and higher GGT, possibly indicating a higher vulnerability to CVD development, including changes in arterial stiffness. However, this observation needs confirmation.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.07.006
  • Aortic Root Dilatation in the Children and Young Adults: Prevalence,
           Determinants and Association with Target Organ Damage
    • Authors: Silvia Totaro; Franco Rabbia; Alberto Milan; Elaine M. Urbina; Franco Veglio
      Pages: 782 - 789
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Silvia Totaro, Franco Rabbia, Alberto Milan, Elaine M. Urbina, Franco Veglio
      Background Aortic root dilatation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensive adults. In the young, few data have been published evaluating the cardiovascular organ damage that may be present in patients with aortic dilatation. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of proximal aorta dilatation, its possible determinants and its relation with target organ damage in young subjects. Methods The aorta was measured at the level of the Sinus of Valsalva (SoV) and at its proximal ascending tract (pAA) in a total of 177 young subjects (11-35 years). Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between aortic size, clinical and haemodynamic parameters. Results Prevalence of pAA and SoV dilatation was 10.2% and 8.7%, respectively. No significant differences in prevalence were found in hypertensive, diabetic and obese subjects; aortic enlargement was less frequent in African-Americans. Age, sex and central pulse pressure were the most important determinants of aortic size Left ventricular mass was increased in patients with aortic enlargement and aortic size showed an inverse relation with indices of local distensibility. Conclusion The prevalence of aortic dilatation among young patients is high (10%). As in adults, age and BSA are the main determinants of aortic size. Dilatation of the ascending aorta is associated with an increased left ventricular mass, as in adults, but not with increased arterial stiffness. Local distensibility is reduced in patients with pAA enlargement.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:02:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.07.008
  • Morning Blood Pressure Surge and Markers of Cardiovascular Alterations in
           Untreated Middle-Aged Hypertensive Subjects
    • Authors: Barbara Pręgowska-Chwała; Aleksander Prejbisz; Marek Kabat; Bogna Puciłowska; Katarzyna Paschalis-Purtak; Elżbieta Florczak; Anna Klisiewicz; Beata Kuśmierczyk-Droszcz; Katarzyna Hanus; Michael Bursztyn; Andrzej Januszewicz
      Pages: 790 - 798.e2
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Barbara Pręgowska-Chwała, Aleksander Prejbisz, Marek Kabat, Bogna Puciłowska, Katarzyna Paschalis-Purtak, Elżbieta Florczak, Anna Klisiewicz, Beata Kuśmierczyk-Droszcz, Katarzyna Hanus, Michael Bursztyn, Andrzej Januszewicz
      Purpose To evaluate the degree of morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and its relationship with markers of cardiovascular alterations in untreated middle-aged hypertensives. Results We studied 241 patients (mean age 36.6±10.7 years). Subjects with higher sleep-through MBPS (st-MBPS) were older (p=0.003), had higher carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) (p=0.05) and lower E/A ratio (p=0.01), than those with lower MBPS. Subjects with higher pre-wakening MBPS (pw-MBPS) had significantly higher deceleration time (p=0.01), compared with those with lower pw-MBPS. St-MBPS correlated significantly with age, cIMT values, 24h systolic and diastolic BP and systolic BP night-time fall. The significant correlations between pw-MBPS and cIMT values, deceleration time, 24-h diastolic blood pressure and systolic BP night-time fall were observed. A relationship between MBPS and cardiovascular alterations was observed both in dippers and non-dippers, although in non-dippers it was less pronounced. Conclusions The results may imply a possible link between MBPS and markers of cardiovascular alterations in untreated hypertensive subjects.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T23:31:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.08.003
  • Effect of visit-to-visit blood pressure variability on cardiovascular
           events in patients with coronary artery disease and well-controlled blood
    • Authors: Sungha Park; Ping Yan; César Cerezo; Barrett W. Jeffers
      Pages: 799 - 810
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Sungha Park, Ping Yan, César Cerezo, Barrett W. Jeffers
      This post-hoc analysis of CAMELOT and PREVENT analyzed the impact of blood pressure variability (BPV, assessed as within-subject standard deviation of SBP from 12-weeks onwards) on the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, defined according to original studies). Patients (n=1677 CAMELOT; n=776 PREVENT) were stratified by BPV quartile. Regardless of study, BPV was significantly lower for amlodipine versus other treatments. In CAMELOT, a significant association between BPV quartile and MACE was observed with amlodipine treatment. Significant associations between BPV quartile and MACE were observed for both studies, when analyzed overall (adjusting for treatment). In CAMELOT, with amlodipine-treatment an increased risk for MACE was observed with high (BPV≥Q3) vs. low BPV (<Q1) (adjusting for characteristics and risk factors). In both studies, increased risk for MACE was observed for BPV≥Q3 versus BPV<Q1 (analyzed overall, adjusting for treatment and covariates). For both studies, BPV, but not mean SBP, was associated with cardiovascular events BPV was associated with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CAD and well-controlled BP.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T23:31:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.08.004
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 Attenuates Vascular Remodeling; Roles of
           Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor
    • Authors: Hirotomo Nakaoka; Masaki Mogi; Jun Suzuki; Harumi Kan-no; Li-Juan Min; Jun Iwanami; Masatsugu Horiuchi
      Pages: 811 - 818
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Hirotomo Nakaoka, Masaki Mogi, Jun Suzuki, Harumi Kan-no, Li-Juan Min, Jun Iwanami, Masatsugu Horiuchi
      We previously reported interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 plays physiological roles in “growth”-regulated angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor expression in fibroblasts. Here, we investigated whether IRF-1 is involved in attenuation of vascular remodeling in association with AT2 receptor up-regulation. Neointimal area in injured artery after 14 days of cuff placement was significantly increased in IRF-1 knockout mice (IRF-1KO) and AT2 receptor knockout mice (AT2KO) compared with wild-type mice (WT: C57BL/6J). Treatment with compound 21 attenuated neointima formation in both WT and IRF-1KO. AT2 receptor mRNA expression after 7 days of cuff placement was significantly decreased in IRF-1KO compared with WT; however, IRF-1 expression did not differ between AT2KO and WT. Apoptotic changes in injured artery after 14 days of cuff placement were significantly attenuated in IRF-1KO, with a decrease in ICE and iNOS mRNA levels. These results indicate IRF-1 is one of the key transcriptional factors for the prevention of neointimal formation involving AT2 receptors. (155 words)

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.07.005
  • Effects of the novel norepinephrine prodrug, droxidopa, on ambulatory
           blood pressure in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension
    • Authors: Horacio Kaufmann; Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann; L. Arthur Hewitt; Gerald J. Rowse; William B. White
      Pages: 819 - 826
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Horacio Kaufmann, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, L. Arthur Hewitt, Gerald J. Rowse, William B. White
      The prodrug droxidopa increases blood pressure (BP) in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH). The BP profile of droxidopa in nOH patients (n=18) was investigated using ambulatory BP monitoring. Following dose optimization and a washout period, 24-hour “off-drug” data were collected. “On-drug” assessment was conducted after 4–5 weeks of droxidopa treatment (mean dose, 444 mg, 3 times daily). Ambulatory monitoring off drug revealed that 90% of patients already had abnormalities in the circadian BP profile and did not meet criteria for normal nocturnal BP dipping. On treatment, both overall mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic BPs were higher compared to off drug (137/81 mmHg vs 129/76 mmHg; P=0.017/0.002). Mean daytime systolic BP was significantly higher with droxidopa (8.4 ± 3.1 mmHg; P=0.014). Although nocturnal BP was not significantly higher on droxidopa versus off treatment (P=0.122), increases in nocturnal (supine) BP ≥10 mmHg were observed in 4 cases (22%). Severe supine systolic hypertensive readings at night (>200 mmHg) were captured in 1 case, and only while on treatment. These data demonstrate that ambulatory BP monitoring is useful to evaluate the circadian BP profile after initiating treatment with a pressor agent.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.07.009
  • Extended Consensus on Blood Pressure Variability beyond Blood Pressure for
           Management of Hypertension
    • Authors: Ram B. Singh; Krasimira Hristova; Geir Bjørklund; Jan Fedacko; Salvatore Chirumbolo; Daniel Pella
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Ram B. Singh, Krasimira Hristova, Geir Bjørklund, Jan Fedacko, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Daniel Pella

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T06:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.11.005
  • Race-ethnicity on Blood Pressure Control after Ischemic Stroke: A
           Prospective Cohort Study
    • Authors: Mai N. Nguyen-Huynh; Nancy K. Hills; Stephen Sidney; Jeffrey Klingman; S. Claiborne Johnston
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Mai N. Nguyen-Huynh, Nancy K. Hills, Stephen Sidney, Jeffrey Klingman, S. Claiborne Johnston
      Disparities in healthcare access and socio-economic status (SES) have been associated with racial-ethnic differences in blood pressure (BP) control. We examined post-ischemic stroke BP in a multi-ethnic cohort with good healthcare access. We included all hypertensive patients (n=2972) from a randomized quality improvement trial on secondary stroke prevention, conducted in 14 Kaiser Permanente hospitals in Northern California from 2004-2006 (QUISP). Average age 73.2 ±12.2 years; 52% female, 66% non-Hispanic white, 14% African-American, 11% Asian, 8% Hispanic, and 1% other. Demographics, diagnoses, health care utilization, BP measurements and medications were obtained as part of routine care. We used random effects logistic regression models to examine race as a predictor of blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg) at 6 months post-discharge, adjusted for SES, age, gender, dementia, antihypertensive therapy, and attendance at follow-up visits. At 6 months, BP was controlled in 52.7% of blacks compared to 61.4% of whites (OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.82, p=0.001). Black race remained independently associated with poorer BP control in adjusted analysis, even though blacks were as likely to attend post-discharge visits, and more likely to be on any antihypertensive therapy, than whites. Greater difficulty in controlling BP and lifestyle differences may account for this difference.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.11.002
  • Sensitive detection of hemodynamic failure during orthostatic stress in
           patients with diabetic polyneuropathy using a mini laser Doppler blood
    • Authors: Masaki Goma; Masahiro Kaneshige; Sayaka Ichijo; Masashi Ichijo; Hideo Shindo; Nobuyuki Terada; Hiroshi Yokomichi; Zentaro Yamagata; Kenichiro Kitamura; Hiroki Shimura; Tetsuro Kobayashi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Masaki Goma, Masahiro Kaneshige, Sayaka Ichijo, Masashi Ichijo, Hideo Shindo, Nobuyuki Terada, Hiroshi Yokomichi, Zentaro Yamagata, Kenichiro Kitamura, Hiroki Shimura, Tetsuro Kobayashi
      Autonomic dysfunction in diabetes is serious but often underestimated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hemodynamics within the important initial phase just after standing, which cannot be evaluated by conventional instruments for orthostatic hypotension. Earlobe blood flow, which indirectly reflects the blood pressure response on standing, was evaluated using a mini laser Doppler flowmeter during standing from the sitting position in 58 healthy controls and 56 diabetic patients categorized as without (11), mild (27), and advanced diabetic polyneuropathy (18). The response-area of the earlobe blood flow waveform within 30 seconds after standing was calculated. An increased response-area indicates poor recovery of earlobe blood flow. Response-area increased significantly with the degree of neuropathy (P<0.001 for linear trend). Orthostatic hypotension was detected in two patients in the mild neuropathy group. The present approach may be sensitive and practical for detecting autonomic dysfunction not detected with the conventional orthostatic test.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.11.003
  • The risk of developing cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: Does diabetes
           mellitus matter? Which socio-economic status does it impact? A cross
           sectional study
    • Authors: G.M. Rabiul Islam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): G.M. Rabiul Islam
      Objectives The elevation of blood pressure levels has been recognized as a determinant of the risk for several common cardiovascular diseases. This work explores the evidence of disparities in the form of association between hypertension and diabetes mellitus in different socio-economic statuses (SES) at household level. Methods A population sample of 7,561 individuals aged 35 years or older from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) was used for this study. A concentration indexes are used to measure the disparities of myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus with SES. A two level hierarchical logit model was used to examine the effects of participants and household SES accompanied by other explanatory variables on having hypertension. Then, the analysis is stratified by SES groups to examine how the overall effect of diabetes mellitus on hypertension may vary with SES. Finally, predictive margins are determined to understand the predictive probability of diabetes and SES of having hypertension as a risk factor of developing cardiovascular disease. Results The descriptive summary measures of SES inequality indicate that prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were higher among high SES. The multivariate analysis covering all samples reveals that there is a strong association between diabetes and hypertension (p<0.01). Likewise, after stratifying, it is evident that in high SES there is a strong association between individuals with diabetes mellitus and hypertension development; they have around four-fold higher chance of being affected by hypertension in comparison to individuals with normal fasting plasma glucose (p<0.01). Moreover, there are strong associations between individuals in low and medium SES having diabetes and having hypertension (p<0.01): the likelihood of having hypertension is around double compared to individuals who have no diabetes. The result of this study also shed light on the chance of an increase in prevalence of hypertension in pre-diabetes individuals and in medium and high SES groups, though the association is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). Finally, the predictive analysis reveals that the predictive margin of having hypertension is high amongst individuals belonging to the high SES (23%; CI:20-23) and diabetic patients with high SES (37%; CI:33-47). Conclusions Contrary to other developed countries, hypertension in Bangladesh is prevalent among all SES, and the likelihood is high among diabetic patients in the medium and high SES. Hence, urgent preventive measures are needed to control the impending comorbidity of diabetes and developing cardiovascular disease risk.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.11.001
  • Opposing effects of sodium intake on uric acid and blood pressure and
           their causal implication
    • Authors: Stephen P. Juraschek; Hyon K. Choi; Olive Tang; Lawrence J. Appel; Edgar R. Miller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Stephen P. Juraschek, Hyon K. Choi, Olive Tang, Lawrence J. Appel, Edgar R. Miller
      Reducing uric acid is hypothesized to lower blood pressure, although evidence is inconsistent. In this ancillary of the DASH-Sodium trial, we examined whether sodium-induced changes in serum uric acid (SUA) were associated with changes in blood pressure. One hundred and three adults with pre- or stage 1 hypertension, were randomly assigned to receive either the DASH diet or a control diet (typical of the average American diet) and were fed each of 3 sodium levels (low, medium, and high) for 30 days in random order. Body weight was kept constant. SUA was measured at baseline and following each feeding period. Participants were 55% women and 75% black. Mean age was 52 (SD, 10) years, and mean SUA at baseline was 5.0 (SD, 1.3) mg/dL. Increasing sodium intake from low to high reduced SUA (-0.4 mg/dL; P < 0.001), but increased systolic (4.3 mm Hg; P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (2.3 mm Hg; P < 0.001). Furthermore, changes in SUA were independent of changes in systolic (P = 0.15) and diastolic (P = 0.63) blood pressure, regardless of baseline blood pressure, baseline SUA, and randomized diet, as well as sodium sensitivity. While both SUA and blood pressure were influenced by sodium, a common environmental factor, their effects were in opposite directions and were unrelated to each other. These findings do not support a consistent causal relationship between SUA and BP.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T00:40:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.012
  • Instructions for Authors
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 11

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T00:40:24Z
  • Electrocardiographic Measures of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in the
           Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering to Prevent Heart Attack Trial
    • Authors: Michael E. Ernst; Barry R. Davis; Elsayed Z. Soliman; Ronald J. Prineas; Peter M. Okin; Alokananda Ghosh; William C. Cushman; Paula T. Einhorn; Suzanne Oparil; Richard H. Grimm
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael E. Ernst, Barry R. Davis, Elsayed Z. Soliman, Ronald J. Prineas, Peter M. Okin, Alokananda Ghosh, William C. Cushman, Paula T. Einhorn, Suzanne Oparil, Richard H. Grimm
      Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. We analyzed baseline/follow-up ECGs in 26,376 ALLHAT participants randomized to amlodipine (A), lisinopril (L), or chlorthalidone (C). Prevalent/incident LVH were examined using continuous and categorical classifications of Cornell voltage. At 2- and 4-years, prevalence of LVH in the C-group (5.57%; 6.14%) was not statistically different from A-group (2-years: 5.47%; p=0.806, 4-years: 6.54%; p=0.857), or L-group (2-years: 5.64%; p=0.857, 4-years: 6.50%; p=0.430). Incident LVH followed similarly, with no difference at 2-years for C (2.99%) compared to A (2.57%; p=0.173) or L (3.16%; p=0.605), and at 4-years (C=3.52%, A=3.29%, L=3.71%; p=0.521 C vs A, p=0.618 C vs L). Mean Cornell voltage decreased comparably across treatment groups (Δ baseline, 2-years = +3 to -27 μV, ANOVA p=0.8612; 4-years = +10 to -17 μV, ANOVA p=0.9692). We conclude that risk reductions associated with C treatment in secondary endpoints of ALLHAT cannot be attributed to differential improvements in ECG LVH.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T00:40:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.010
  • Evaluating the risk of hypertension according to the metabolic health
           status stratified by degree of obesity
    • Authors: Jae-Hong Ryoo; Sung Keun Park; Chang-Mo Oh; Young-Jun Choi; Ju Youn Chung; Woo Taek Ham; Taegi Jung
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jae-Hong Ryoo, Sung Keun Park, Chang-Mo Oh, Young-Jun Choi, Ju Youn Chung, Woo Taek Ham, Taegi Jung
      Despite the accumulated evidence showing the significant association between hypertension and obesity, it remains unclear how metabolic healthy status of obesity have an impact on the development of hypertension. Thus, this study was to investigate the risk of hypertension according to the metabolic healthy status stratified by the degree of obesity. A cohort of 25,442 Korean men without hypertension at baseline was followed-up from 2005 to 2010. They were divided into the following 6 phenotypes according to their baseline metabolic health and obesity status: metabolically healthy normal weight (MH-NW), metabolically healthy overweight (MH-OW), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MU-NW), metabolically unhealthy overweight (MU-OW), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the risk for hypertension according to the metabolically healthy status stratified by degree of obesity. During 91,256.4 person-years of follow-up, 4,633 participants (18.2%) developed hypertension. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hypertension in MH-OW, MHO, MU-NW, MU-OW, and MUO phenotypes compared with MH-NW phenotype were 1.13 (1.04 – 1.23), 1.43 (1.15 – 1.69), 1.17 (1.02 – 1.34), 1.49 (1.27 – 1.72), and 1.54 (1.36 –1 .88), respectively. The interaction between metabolically healthy status and degree of obesity was not significant (P for interaction = 0.29). Compared with MH-NW, both the obese phenotype and metabolically unhealthy phenotype independently had an increased risk for hypertension. These results imply that both metabolic health status and obesity status play important roles independently in the risk of hypertension in Korean men.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.006
  • The Influence of Time Point of Blood Pressure Measurement on the Outcome
           in Hemodialysis Patients
    • Authors: Yu-Chen Han; Bi-Cheng Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Yu-Chen Han, Bi-Cheng Liu
      The blood pressure behaviors of hemodialysis population presented a unique pattern much different from that of the general population. This pattern is composed of chronic blood pressure burden over interdialytic period and acute blood pressure fluctuation during dialysis sessions. Peridialysis, interdialysis and intradialysis are three routinely-used time-points to capture this complex blood pressure behavior. However, blood pressure at each time-point was measured in various forms and conveyed different prognostic information. The measurement and interpretation of the tide-like blood pressure behavior in hemodialysis population posed great challenge. In this review, we focused on the prognostic information of the blood pressure behavior at each time point in hemodialysis patients and further discussed the optimal measurement of this unique blood pressure behavior to best capture the blood pressure- outcome association.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.011
  • Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients with Inclusion Criteria
           for the SPRINT Trial
    • Authors: Alejandro de la Sierra; José R. Banegas; Juan A. Divisón; Manuel Gorostidi; Ernest Vinyoles; Juan J. de la Cruz; Julián Segura; Luis M. Ruilope
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Alejandro de la Sierra, José R. Banegas, Juan A. Divisón, Manuel Gorostidi, Ernest Vinyoles, Juan J. de la Cruz, Julián Segura, Luis M. Ruilope
      We aimed to characterize 24-hour blood pressure (BP) values and categories in patients with inclusion/exclusion criteria of the SPRINT trial from the Spanish ABPM Registry. We selected patients older than 50 years, with office systolic BP above 130 mmHg and at high cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, previous stroke or symptomatic heart failure. Ambulatory BP were compared among BP categories. A total of 39132 patients (34%) fulfilled inclusion criteria of SPRINT trial. Ambulatory systolic BP was considerably lower than office BP, with 42% of patients having daytime values below 130 mmHg, and 21% 24-hour values below 120 mmHg. In conclusion, more than one-third of the hypertensive population included in the Spanish ABPM Registry can be considered as SPRINT candidates, although one out of five have values of 24-hour systolic BP below 120 mmHg. These data suggest that knowledge of ABPM values could be helpful when planning a treatment intensification in high-risk patients.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.013
  • Management of Severe Asymptomatic Hypertension in the Hospitalized Patient
    • Authors: Sheryl Vondracek; Sarah Scoular; Toral Patel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Sheryl Vondracek, Sarah Scoular, Toral Patel
      Hypertension is common in the hospital setting. While the epidemiology, management, and outcomes of chronic hypertension are well defined, data and clinical guidance on the management of severe blood pressure elevations in the hospitalized patient are lacking. This article aims to review the literature related to the risks and benefits of managing severe asymptomatic hypertension in the hospitalized patient, summarize the concerns regarding managing severe asymptomatic hypertension with as needed antihypertensive medication, and suggest alternative management strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.008
  • Effect of Placebo groups on Blood Pressure in Hypertension: A
           Meta-Analysis of beta-blocker trials
    • Authors: Marcel Wilhelm; Alexander Winkler; Winfried Rief; Bettina K. Doering
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Marcel Wilhelm, Alexander Winkler, Winfried Rief, Bettina K. Doering
      Hypertension is often treated pharmacologically. Since there is evidence that the cardiovascular system is sensitive to placebo mechanisms, our aim was to conduct an effect size analysis of placebo groups in double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group drug trials using beta-blockers to treat hypertensive patients. A comprehensive literature search via PubMed, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PQDT OPEN, OpenGREY, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform provided the basis of our meta-analysis. Effect sizes were estimated using a random effects model based on 23 studies covering a total of 11,067 participants. Main outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure was lowered in placebo groups with significant and robust effect sizes (Hedges’ g). The estimates for systolic blood pressure (-0.27, p <.001) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.49, p <.001) can be interpreted as small to moderate. The placebo response accounted for 34% of the drug response for systolic blood pressure, and 47% of the drug response for diastolic blood pressure. Our moderator analyses indicated that a higher study quality and more study site visits were marginally associated with a higher placebo response. In light of these strong placebo responses, placebo mechanisms need to be considered in order to improve antihypertensive treatment.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.009
  • Gut Hormones and Gut Microbiata: Implications for Kidney Function and
    • Authors: Baris Afsar; Nosratola D. Vaziri; Gamze Aslan; Kayhan Tarim; Mehmet Kanbay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Baris Afsar, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Gamze Aslan, Kayhan Tarim, Mehmet Kanbay
      Increased blood pressure (BP) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are 2 leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Increased sodium intake is one of the most important risk factors for development of hypertension. Recent data have shown that gut influences kidney function and BP by variety of mechanisms. Various hormones and peptides secreted from gut such as gastrin, glucocorticoids, Glucagon-like peptide-1 impact on kidney function and BP especially influencing sodium absorption from gut. These findings stimulate scientist to find new therapeutic options such as tenapanor for treatment of hypertension by blocking sodium absorption from gut. The gastrointestinal tract is also occupied by a huge community of microbes (microbiome) that under normal condition has a symbiotic relationship with the host. Alterations in the structure and function of the gut microbiota have been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis and complications of numerous diseases including hypertension. Based on these data, in this review we provide a summary of the available data on the role of gut and gut microbiata in regulation of BP and kidney function.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.007
  • Total Antihypertensive Therapeutic intensity score and its relationship to
           Blood Pressure Reduction
    • Authors: Phillip Levy; Robina Josiah Willock; Michael Burla; Aaron Brody; James Mahn; Alexander Marinica; Samar A. Nasser; John Flack
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Phillip Levy, Robina Josiah Willock, Michael Burla, Aaron Brody, James Mahn, Alexander Marinica, Samar A. Nasser, John Flack
      Predicting blood pressure (BP) response to antihypertensive therapy is challenging. The therapeutic intensity score (TIS) is a summary measure that accounts for the number of medications and the relative doses a patient received, but its relationship to BP change, and its utility as a method to project dosing equivalence has not been reported. We conducted a prospective, single center, randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of Joint National Committee (JNC) 7 compliant treatment with more intensive (< 120/80 mm Hg) BP goals, on left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with echocardiographically determined subclinical heart disease who were treated over a 12-month period. For this preplanned subanalysis, we sought to compare changes in BP over time with changes in TIS. Antihypertensive therapy was open label. TIS and BP were determined at 3-month intervals with titration of medication doses as needed to achieve targeted BP. Mixed linear models defined antihypertensive medication TIS as an independent variable and change in systolic BP as an outcome measure, while controlling for gender, age, baseline BP, and treatment group. 123 patients (mean age 49.4 ± 8.2 years; 66% female; 95.1% African American) were enrolled and 88 completed the protocol. For each single point increase in total antihypertensive TIS, a 14.5 (95% CI 11.5, 17.4) mm Hg decrease in systolic BP was noted (15.5 [95% CI 13.0, 18.0] mm Hg for those who completed the trial). Total TIS is a viable indicator of the anticipated BP lowering effect associated with antihypertensive therapy.

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T21:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.005
  • Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation improves endothelial function and
           arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with hypertriglyceridemia and
           high cardiovascular risk
    • Authors: Marcela A. Casanova; Fernanda Medeiros; Michelle Trindade; Célia Cohen; Wille Oigman; Mario Fritsch Neves
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Marcela A. Casanova, Fernanda Medeiros, Michelle Trindade, Célia Cohen, Wille Oigman, Mario Fritsch Neves
      Association between hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular (CV) disease is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare omega-3 and ciprofibrate effects on the vascular structure and function in low and high CV risk hypertensive patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Twenty-nine adults with triglycerides 150-499mg/dl were divided into low (<7.5%) and high (≥7.5%) CV risk, randomized to receive omega-3 fatty acids 1800mg/day or ciprofibrate 100mg/day for 12 weeks. Treatment was switched after 8-week washout. Clinical evaluation and vascular tests were assessed at baseline and after intervention. Peripheral (131±3 to 125±3mmHg, p<0.05) and aortic (124±3 to 118±2mg/dl, p<0.05) systolic BP were decreased by ciprofibrate in low-risk patients. In high-risk patients, pulse wave velocity was reduced (10.4±0.4 to 9.4±0.3m/s, p<0.05) and flow-mediated dilation was increased (11.1±1.6 to 13.5±1.2%, p<0.05) by omega-3. In conclusion, omega-3 improved arterial stiffness and endothelial function, pointing out the beneficial effect of this therapy on vascular aging, in high-risk patients.

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T21:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.004
  • Unfounded Concerns about the Use of Automated Office Blood Pressure
           Measurement in SPRINT
    • Authors: Martin G. Myers; Norm R.C. Campbell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Martin G. Myers, Norm R.C. Campbell
      SPRINT reported significantly fewer cardiovascular events when patients with a higher cardiovascular risk were treated to a target systolic blood pressure (BP) of <120 versus <140 mmHg. In SPRINT, BP was recorded using the automated office BP method, with multiple readings being taken automatically with the patient resting alone. This technique for BP measurement eliminates the white coat effect and gives lower BP readings than conventional manual office BP. Critics have questioned if the readings were actually taken with the subject alone and have expressed concerns about the time taken to obtain the readings and the cost of automated sphygmomanometers. Others have suggested that the findings in SPRINT can be applied to current clinical practice if a correction factor is used to convert conventional BP readings to automated office BP. This article responds to these criticisms and explains why current methods for recording BP in clinical practice should be changed to automated office BP, the technique for BP measurement used in SPRINT.

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T21:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.003
  • From the Editor
    • Authors: Daniel Levy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T16:26:33Z
  • Changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to dietary
           salt intake in normal and hypertensive pregnancy. A randomized trial
    • Authors: Lise H. Nielsen; Per Ovesen; Mie R. Hansen; Steven Brantlov; Bente Jespersen; Peter Bie; Boye L. Jensen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Lise H. Nielsen, Per Ovesen, Mie R. Hansen, Steven Brantlov, Bente Jespersen, Peter Bie, Boye L. Jensen
      It was hypothesized that primary renal sodium retention blunted the reactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to changes in salt intake in preeclampsia (PE). A randomized, cross-over, double-blinded, dietary intervention design was used to measure the effects of salt tablets or placebo during low-salt diet in PE patients (n=7), healthy pregnant women (HP, n=15) and non-pregnant women (NonP, n=13). High-salt intake decreased renin and ANGII concentrations significantly in HP (P<0.03) and in NonP (P<0.001), but not in PE (P=0.58) while decreases in aldosterone and increases in BNP were similar in the groups. In PE patients, uterine and umbilical artery indices were not adversely changed during low salt diet.. Creatinine clearance was significantly lower in PE with no change by salt intake. PE patients displayed alterations of plasma renin and ANGII in response to changes in dietary salt intake compatible with a primary increase in renal sodium reabsorption in hypertensive pregnancies.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T16:26:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.10.001
  • Blood pressure targets in acute intracerebral hemorrhage—no benefit from
           more intensive treatment
    • Authors: Michael J. Bloch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T14:50:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.09.003
  • Instructions for Authors
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 10

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T14:50:17Z
  • Patient characteristics associated with greater blood pressure control in
           a randomized trial of home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist
    • Authors: Stephen E. Asche; Patrick J. O'Connor; Steven P. Dehmer; Beverly B. Green; Anna R. Bergdall; Michael V. Maciosek; Rachel A. Nyboer; Pamala A. Pawloski; JoAnn M. Sperl-Hillen; Nicole K. Trower; Karen L. Margolis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Stephen E. Asche, Patrick J. O’Connor, Steven P. Dehmer, Beverly B. Green, Anna R. Bergdall, Michael V. Maciosek, Rachel A. Nyboer, Pamala A. Pawloski, JoAnn M. Sperl-Hillen, Nicole K. Trower, Karen L. Margolis
      This paper reports subgroup analysis of a successful cluster-randomized trial to identify attributes of hypertensive patients who benefited more or less from an intervention combining BP telemonitoring and pharmacist management. The endpoint was BP <140/90 mm Hg at six-month follow-up. Fourteen baseline patient characteristics were selected a-priori as subgroup variables. Among the 351 trial participants, 44% were female, 84% non-Hispanic white, mean age was 60.9 years, and mean BP was 149/86 mm Hg. The overall adjusted odds ratio for BP control in the intervention vs. usual care group was 3.64 (p<0.001). The effect of the intervention was significantly larger in patients who were younger (interaction p= 0.02), did not have diabetes (p=0.005), had high baseline DBP (p=0.02), added salt less than daily in food preparation (p=0.007), and took 0-2 (rather than 3-6) antihypertensive medication classes at baseline (p=0.02). These findings may help prioritize patients for whom the intervention is most effective.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T11:41:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.09.004
  • Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms are Associated with
           Cardiovascular Risks in Prehypertensives
    • Authors: Gopal Krushna Pal; Chandrasekaran Adithan; Gurusamy Umamaheswaran; Pravati Pal; Nivedita Nanda; Jagadeeswaran Indumathy; Avupati Naga Syamsunder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Gopal Krushna Pal, Adithan Chandrasekaran, Gurusamy Umamaheswaran, Pravati Pal, Nivedita Nanda, Jagadeeswaran Indumathy, Avupati Naga Syamsunder
      Background Though endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism is documented in the causation of hypertension, its role in prehypertension has not been investigated. Methods The present study was conducted in 172 subjects divided into prehypertensives (n=57) and normotensives (n=115). Cardiovascular (CV) parameters including baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) by continuous BP variability (BPV) assessment, and sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, were recorded. Biochemical parameters for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), oxidative stress, lipid risk factors, renin and inflammatory parameters were measured. Genotyping for eNOS polymorphisms rs1799983 (298G>T) and rs2070744 (-786T>C) was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the association between SVI and metabolic markers and multivariate logisitic regression was done to determine the prediction of prehypertension status by genotype, BRS and LF-HF ratio in these subjects. Results The BPV, HRV and biochemical parameters were significantly altered in prehypertensives. The eNOS polymorphisms was found to be associated with prehypertension. BRS, the marker of SVI was significantly associated with BP, HOMA-IR and tumor-necrosis factor (TNFα) in 298 GG genotype of prehypertensive population. Conclusion The eNOS gene polymorphisms appear to be associated with prehypertension. 298G>T and -786T>C contribute to SVI in young prehypertensives attributed by insulin resistance and inflammation. The CV risks were associated with prehypertension status in prehypertensives expressing both 298GG and -786TT genotypes. Association of CV risks with SVI appears to be stronger in prehypertensives expressing GG genotype.

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T09:19:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.09.001
  • Can Preeclampsia be Considered a Renal Compartment Syndrome? A Hypothesis
           and Analysis of the Literature
    • Authors: David G. Reuter; Yuk Law; Wayne C. Levy; Stephen Seslar; R. Eugene Zierler; Mark Ferguson; James Chattra; Tim McQuinn; Lenna Liu; Mark Terry; Patricia Coffey; Jane A. Dimer; Coral Hanevold; Joseph Flynn; F. Bruder Stapleton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): David G. Reuter, Yuk Law, Wayne C. Levy, Stephen Seslar, R. Eugene Zierler, Mark Ferguson, James Chattra, Tim McQuinn, Lenna Liu, Mark Terry, Patricia Coffey, Jane A. Dimer, Coral Hanevold, Joseph Flynn, F. Bruder Stapleton
      The morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia is staggering. The physiology of the Page kidney, a condition in which increased intra-renal pressure causes hypertension, appears to provide a unifying framework to explain the complex pathophysiology. Page kidney hypertension is renin-mediated acutely and ischemia-mediated chronically. Renal venous outflow obstruction also causes a Page kidney phenomenon, providing a hypothesis for the increased vulnerability of a subset of women who have what we are hypothesizing is a ‘renal compartment syndrome’ due to inadequate ipsilateral collateral renal venous circulation consistent with well-known variation in normal venous anatomy. Dynamic changes in renal venous anatomy and physiology in pregnancy appear to correlate with disease onset, severity, and recurrence. Since maternal recumbent position is well known to affect renal perfusion, and since chronic outflow obstruction makes women vulnerable to the ischemic/inflammatory sequelae, heightened awareness of renal compartment syndrome physiology is critical. The anatomic and physiologic insights provide immediate strategies to predict and prevent preeclampsia with straightforward, low-cost interventions that make renewed global advocacy for pregnant women a realistic goal.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T09:19:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.09.002
  • Sodium and potassium intake in South Africa: an evaluation of 24-hour
           urine collections in a White, Black and Indian population
    • Authors: Bianca Swanepoel; Aletta E. Schutte; Marike Cockeran; Krisela Steyn; Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Bianca Swanepoel, Aletta E. Schutte, Marike Cockeran, Krisela Steyn, Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen
      Limited number of studies on salt intake have been conducted in the South African. The present study established the sodium and potassium excretion (24-hour urine collection) of three different South African populations. In total, 692 successful 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for sodium, potassium and iodine levels. The median sodium and potassium excretion was 122.9 and 33.5mmol/day, respectively and the median salt intake was 7.2g/day. The majority (92.8%) of the population did not meet the recommended potassium intake per day and 65.6% consumed more than 6g of salt per day. Potassium excretion showed a linear relationship with salt intake (p-trend ≤0.001). The median sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.5. These findings support the South African government’s sodium reduction legislation, as well as global initiatives. More consideration should be given to promoting the intake of potassium-rich foods, as this may have a greater public health impact than focusing only on dietary sodium reduction.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T02:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.08.007
  • Prevalence of treatment resistant hypertension, and important associated
           factors – Results from the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database
    • Authors: Lina Holmqvist; Kristina Bengtsson Boström; Thomas Kahan; Linus Schiöler; Jan Hasselström; Per Hjerpe; Björn Wettermark; Karin Manhem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): L. Holmqvist, K. Bengtsson Boström, T. Kahan, L. Schiöler, J. Hasselström, P. Hjerpe, B. Wettermark, K. Manhem
      We aimed to describe the prevalence, treatment and associated co-morbidity of treatment resistant hypertension (TRH). This registry based cohort study from The Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database assessed 53090 hypertensive patients attending primary care. Patients adherent to antihypertensive treatment measured by pharmacy fills and with proportion of days covered ≥ 80% were included. The prevalence of TRH was 17 % when considering all current TRH definitions. Adherence to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists differed between TRH- and non-TRH-patients (8 vs. 4 %). Higher frequencies (prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals) of diabetes mellitus, (1.59, 1.53-1.66), heart failure, (1.55, 1.48-1.64), atrial fibrillation, (1.33, 1.27-1.40), ischemic heart disease, (1.25, 1.20-1.30) and chronic kidney disease, (1.38, 1.23-1.54) were seen in patients with TRH compared to patients without TRH. These findings, in a population with valid data on medication adherence, emphasize a broad preventive approach for these high-risk patients.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T02:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.08.008
  • The Association between Self-Reported Medication Adherence Scores and
           Systolic Blood Pressure Control: A SPRINT Baseline Data Study
    • Authors: William E. Haley; Olivia N. Gilbert; Robert F. Riley; Jill C. Newman; Christianne L. Roumie; Jeffrey Whittle; Ian M. Kronish; Leonardo Tamariz; Alan Wiggers; Donald E. Morisky; Molly B. Conroy; Eugene Kovalik; Nancy R. Kressin; Paul Muntner; David C. Goff
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): William E. Haley, Olivia N. Gilbert, Robert F. Riley, Jill C. Newman, Christianne L. Roumie, Jeffrey Whittle, Ian M. Kronish, Leonardo Tamariz, Alan Wiggers, Donald E. Morisky, Molly B. Conroy, Eugene Kovalik, Nancy R. Kressin, Paul Muntner, David C. Goff
      We examined baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to investigate whether medication adherence, measured by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), was associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), and whether MMAS-8 score and number of antihypertensive medications interacted in influencing SBP. 8,435 SPRINT participants were included: 21.2% had low adherence (MMAS-8: <6); 40.0% had medium adherence (6 to <8); and 38.8% had high adherence (8). SBP was <140 mmHg in 54.6%; 140 –160 mmHg in 36.6%; and >160 mmHg in 8.8%. In multivariable regression, medium vs. low adherence weakly associated with lower SBP (OR: 1.17, CI: 1.04, 1.31). SPRINT eligibility criteria should be considered when interpreting results. Efforts to understand and enhance adherence are crucial to improve population health and using self-report instruments might be considered for predicting treatment adherence and response in future efficacy trials and for identifying patients for adherence support in clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T02:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.08.009
  • Orthostatic changes in systolic blood pressure among SPRINT participants
           at baseline
    • Authors: Raymond R. Townsend; Tara I. Chang; Debbie L. Cohen; William C. Cushman; Gregory W. Evans; Stephen P. Glasser; William E. Haley; Christine Olney; Suzanne Oparil; Rita Del Pinto; Roberto Pisoni; Addison A. Taylor; Kausik Umanath; Jackson T. Wright; Joseph Yeboah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Raymond R. Townsend, Tara I. Chang, Debbie L. Cohen, William C. Cushman, Gregory W. Evans, Stephen P. Glasser, William E. Haley, Christine Olney, Suzanne Oparil, Rita Del Pinto, Roberto Pisoni, Addison A. Taylor, Kausik Umanath, Jackson T. Wright, Joseph Yeboah
      Orthostatic changes in SBP impact cardiovascular outcomes. In this study we aimed to determine the pattern of orthostatic systolic pressure changes in participants enrolled in the SBP Intervention Trial (SPRINT) at their baseline visit before randomization, and sought to understand clinical factors predictive of these changes. Of the 9323 participants enrolled in SPRINT 8662 had complete data for these analyses. The SBP (SBP) after 1 minute of standing was subtracted from the mean value of the three preceding seated systolic BP values. At the baseline visit medical history, medications, anthropometric measures and standard laboratory testing were undertaken. The mean age of SPRINT participants was 68 years, two-thirds were male, with 30% Black, 11% Hispanic and 55% Caucasian. The spectrum of SBP changes on standing demonstrated that increases in systolic BP were as common as declines, and about 5% of participants had an increase, and 5% had a decrease of >20 mmHg in SBP upon standing. Female sex, taller height, more advanced kidney disease, current smoking and several drug classes were associated with larger declines in BP upon standing while Black race, higher blood levels of glucose and sodium, and heavier weight were associated with more positive values of the change in BP upon standing. Our cross-sectional results show a significant spectrum of orthostatic SBP changes, reflecting known (e.g. age) and less well known (e.g. kidney function) relationships that may be important considerations in determining the optimal target blood pressure in long term outcomes of older hypertensive patients.

      PubDate: 2016-08-29T23:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.08.005
  • From the Editor
    • Authors: Daniel Levy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T16:31:53Z
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