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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1114 journals)
    - HISTORY (742 journals)
    - History (General) (48 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (42 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (38 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AND OTHER AREAS (8 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (126 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (93 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (17 journals)

HISTORY (742 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Historiæ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History & Memory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
History Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
History Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
History in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
History of CERN     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
History of Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
History of Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
History of Education: Journal of the History of Education Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
History of European Ideas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
History of Political Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
History of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
History of Religions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
History of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
History Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HSE - Social and Education History     Open Access  
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
IKON     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Il Capitale Culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ILCEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Illawarra Unity - Journal of the Illawarra Branch of the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Images re-vues : histoire, anthropologie et théorie de l'art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Immigrants & Minorities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Indian Economic & Social History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indonesia and the Malay World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Inner Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intellectual History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intermédialités : histoire et théorie des arts, des lettres et des techniques / Intermedialities: History and Theory of the Arts, Literature and Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Culture and History     Open Access  
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
International Journal of Society Systems Science     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Politics     Partially Free   (Followers: 17)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iran and the Caucasus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Irish Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Isis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Israel Studies Forum     Full-text available via subscription  
Itinerari di ricerca storica     Open Access  
Japanese Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal Asiatique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Contemporary History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal for Maritime Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for the Study of Judaism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal for the Study of Radicalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aging, Humanities, and the Arts: Official Journal of the Gerontological Society of America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of American-East Asian Relations     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Australian Colonial History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Australian Naval History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Baltic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of British Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Conflict Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Contemporary Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Contemporary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Coptic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Cuneiform Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Early Modern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ecclesiastical History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of English and Germanic Philology (JEGP)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of European Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Family History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Global History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Historical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Historical Pragmatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Historical Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Israeli History: Politics, Society, Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Jewish Identities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies: Travesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Latin American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Legal History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medieval History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231)
Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medieval Religious Cultures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Military History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Modern Chinese History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Modern History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
Journal of Modern Italian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover   Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
  [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 17]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1933-1711
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2589 journals]
  • Design of Renal Denervation Studies not Confounded by Antihypertensive
           Drugs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Sverre E. Kjeldsen , Alexandre Persu , Michel Azizi



      PubDate: 2015-03-03T23:41:10Z
       
  • Comparison of Atenolol Versus Bisoprolol with Noninvasive Hemodynamic and
           Pulse Wave Assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Lucas S. Aparicio , José Alfie , Jessica Barochiner , Paula E. Cuffaro , Diego H. Giunta , Cristina M. Elizondo , Juan J. Tortella , Margarita S. Morales , Marcelo A. Rada , Gabriel D. Waisman
      We aimed to compare atenolol versus bisoprolol regarding general hemodynamics, central-peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave parameters and arterial stiffness. In this open-label, cross-over study, we recruited 19 hypertensives, untreated or with stable monotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive atenolol (25-50 mg) or bisoprolol (2.5-5 mg), and then switched medications totaling 4 weeks. Studies were performed at baseline and after each drug period. In pulse wave analyses, both drugs significantly increased augmentation index (p<0.01) and ejection duration (p<0.02), and reduced heart rate (p<0.001), brachial systolic BP (p≤0.01), brachial diastolic BP (p≤0.001) and central diastolic BP (p≤0.001), but not central systolic BP (p≥0.06). Impedance cardiographic assessment showed a significantly increased stroke volume (p≤0.02) . There were no significant differences in the effects between drugs. In conclusion, atenolol and bisoprolol show similar hemodynamic characteristics. Failure to decrease central systolic BP results from bradycardia with increased stroke volume and an earlier reflected aortic wave.


      PubDate: 2015-02-26T22:05:31Z
       
  • Grim status of hypertension in rural China: Results from Northeast China
           Rural Cardiovascular Health Study 2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Zhao Li , Xiaofan Guo , Liqiang Zheng , Hongmei Yang , Yingxian Sun
      Background The last study reported the prevalence of hypertension in rural Northeast China was conducted approximately ten years ago. We aimed to update the data on the prevalence and epidemiological features of hypertension in rural Northeast China. Methods This study examined a total of 11,576 adults using a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals 35 years or older. Sitting blood pressure was measured three times for each participant by trained observers using a standardized electric sphygmomanometer after resting for five minutes. Related medical histories were obtained using a standard questionnaire and blood biochemical indexes were collected by well-trained personnel. Results Prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%, 53.9% for men and 48.7% for women. Among subjects with hypertension, 43.5% were aware of the diagnosis, and 31.2% were taking antihypertensive medications, but only 6% had their blood pressure controlled. Besides traditional risk factors, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia were becoming risk factors for hypertension in rural area. Conclusion Status of hypertension in rural China is grim nowadays in rural Northeast China. Prevalence of hypertension remained seriously high, while the control rate was still frustrating low. Obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia were more likely associated with hypertension in rural area.


      PubDate: 2015-02-26T22:05:31Z
       
  • A pilot study comparison of a new method for aortic pulse wave velocity
           measurements using transthoracic bioimpedance and thigh cuff oscillometry
           with the standard tonometric method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Julia Brinkmann , Jens Jordan , Jens Tank
      Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) can be measured with different methodologies including applanation tonometry. These pilot study findings suggest that impedance cardiography combined with thigh oscillometry provides comparable results. Methods Intra- and inter-observer variability was tested by two observers in two subjects. We instrumented 41 patients and 12 healthy normotensive controls for impedance cardiography and consecutive applanation tonometry and compared methods using the Bland-Altman method. Results Observer variability for the impedance - thigh cuff method (range 3.61-7.77 %) was comparable with the tonometric method (range 2.93–7.37%). Comparison of the two methods based on the Bland–Altman plot revealed a good agreement between methods. The bias between impedance and tonometric measurements was - 0.28 ± 0.37 m/s. Both measurements were significantly correlated (r²= 0.94, p<0.0001, slope=1.038). Conclusion Impedance cardiography combined with thigh oscillometry is an easy to use approach which in addition to providing hemodynamic information yields aPWV measurements comparable to applanation tonometry. Following full validation according to current guidelines, the methodology could prove useful in cardiovascular risk stratification.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T21:01:26Z
       
  • Detecting Initial Orthostatic Hypotension: A Novel Approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Brittain McJunkin , Brandon Rose , Om Amin , Nirmita Shah , SachIn Sharma , Sujal Modi , Suzanne Kemper , Muhammad Yousaf
      Our purpose, by modification of standard bedside tilt testing, was to search for lesser known but important initial orthostatic hypotension (IOH), occurring transiently within the first 30 seconds of standing, heretofore only detectable with sophisticated continuous photoplethysmographic monitoring systems, not readily available in most medical facilities. In screened outpatients over 60 years of age, supine BP parameters were recorded. To achieve readiness for immediate BP after standing, the cuff was re-inflated prior to standing, rather than after. Immediate, 1, and 3 minute standing BPs were recorded. One-hundred fifteen patients were studied (mean age 71.1 years, male 50.5%). Eighteen (15.6%) had OH, of whom fourteen (12.1%) had classical OH (COH), and 4 (3.5%) had IOH. Early standing BP detection time was 20.1 ± 5.3 seconds. Immediate transient physiologic systolic BP decline was detected in Non-OH (-8.8 ± 9.9 mm Hg, P < .0001). In contrast to COH (with lesser but persistent orthostatic BP decrements), IOH patients had immediate mean orthostatic systolic/diastolic BP change of -32.8 (± 13.8) mm Hg/ -14.0 (± 8.5) mm Hg, P < .02, with recovery back to baseline by 1 minute. Two of the four IOH patients had pre-syncopal symptoms. For the first time, using standard inflation-deflation BP equipment, immediate transient standing physiologic BP decrement and IOH were demonstrated. This preliminary study confirms proof of principle that manual BP cuff inflation prior to standing may be useful and practical in diagnosing IOH, and may stimulate direct comparative studies with continuous monitoring systems.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T21:01:26Z
       
  • Risk factor panels associated with hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea
           patients with different body mass indexes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Wei Hu , Xian Jin , Jun Gu , Peng Zhang , Qiang Yu , Guizhi Yin , Yi Lu , Hongbing Xiao , Yueguang Chen , Dadong Zhang
      Although hypertension (HTN), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity frequently co-occur, the precise role of obesity in this interrelationship is not completely understood. A total of 727 OSA patients were assigned to BMI<25 (27.6%; n=201), 25≤BMI<29.99 (53.4%; n=388), and BMI≥30 (19%; n=138). HTN risk factors in each group were evaluated. A total of 244 (33.6%) patients exhibited comorbid HTN, of whom 20.5% (50/244), 52.9% (129/244) and 26.6% (65/244) were distributed between the BMI<25, 25≤BMI<29.99 and BMI≥30 groups, respectively. Multiple logistic regression indicated that age, male sex, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Apnea-Hypopnea Index scores (AHI) were HTN risk factors for the BMI<25 group. In the 25≤BMI<29.99 group, risk factors were age, BMI, diabetes and AHI. Finally, in the BMI≥30 group, risk factors were age, diabetes, TG, LDL-C and AHI. These results demonstrate that different risk factor panels were associated with HTN in OSA patients with different BMIs.


      PubDate: 2015-02-12T18:00:19Z
       
  • Resistant Hypertension: A volemic or nervous matter?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Rodrigo Modolo , Ana Paula de Faria , Heitor Moreno



      PubDate: 2015-02-12T18:00:19Z
       
  • III Secondary hypertension D. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): C. Anwar Ahmed Chahal , Virend K. Somers



      PubDate: 2015-02-12T18:00:19Z
       
  • Treatment: Special Conditions: Co-existing Heart Disease: Atrial
           Fibrillation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Rishi Arora , Clyde W. Yancy



      PubDate: 2015-02-12T18:00:19Z
       
  • Treatment: Special Conditions: Co-Existing Vascular Disease: Stroke
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Philip B. Gorelick



      PubDate: 2015-02-12T18:00:19Z
       
  • Racial impact of diurnal variations in blood pressure on cardiovascular
           events in chronic kidney disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Ciaran J. McMullan , Yuichiro Yano , George L. Bakris , Kazuomi Kario , Robert A. Phillips , John P. Forman
      Ambulatory blood pressure parameters, nocturnal dipping and morning surge, are associated with cardiovascular outcomes in several populations. While significant variation exists between racial groups in ambulatory blood pressure measurements and the incidence of cardiovascular disease, the effect of race on the associations of dipping and morning surge with cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In a prospective analysis of 197 African American and 197 Japanese individuals with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease matched by age and renal function we analyzed the associations of dipping and morning surge with cardiovascular events for both races and assessed whether these relations differed by race.. Higher sleep-trough morning surge was independently associated with cardiovascular events in Japanese (HR=1.93 per 10 mmHg; 95% CI, 1.20 – 3.10) but not in African American participants, with race an effect modifier (p-value <0.01). Dipping was not associated with cardiovascular events in either racial group. In individuals with chronic kidney disease the association between morning surge and cardiovascular events appears to be dependent upon race, with higher morning surge a risk factors in Japanese but not in African Americans.


      PubDate: 2015-02-12T18:00:19Z
       
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Treatment: special conditions Assessing blood pressure in children and
           adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Treatment: special conditions Orthostatic hypotension
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Treatment: special conditions Resistant hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • A possible mechanism for the progression of chronic renal disease and
           congestive heart failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1
      Author(s): Richard N. Re
      Chronic neurologic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as various forms of chronic renal disease and systolic congestive heart failure, are among the most common progressive degenerative disorders encountered in medicine. Each disease follows a nearly relentless course, albeit at varying rates, driven by progressive cell dysfunction and drop–out. The neurologic diseases are characterized by the progressive spread of disease–causing proteins (prion–like proteins) from cell to cell. Recent evidence indicates that cell autonomous renin angiotensin systems operate in heart and kidney, and it is known that functional intracrine proteins can also spread between cells. This then suggests that certain progressive degenerative cardiovascular disorders such as forms of chronic renal insufficiency and systolic congestive heart failure result from dysfunctional renin angiotensin system intracrine action spreading in kidney or myocardium.


      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • RESPeRATE: the role of paced breathing in hypertension treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1
      Author(s): Relu Cernes , Reuven Zimlichman
      Despite a good adherence to lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive drugs, hypertension remains resistant in more than one–third of patients, thus creating the need for additional strategies, including non–pharmacologic approaches. Slow and deep breathing (“paced breathing”) associated in the past with meditation has a direct antihypertensive effect by increasing baroreflex sensitivity. With the method of guiding the pace of breathing, a US Food and Drug Administration–certified device, RESPeRATE, may offer an easy, efficient, inexpensive, and noninvasive option for treating hypertension. Multiple studies showed a significant reduction of blood pressure when RESPeRATE was evaluated in a home and office setting. In conclusion, this review outlines the pathophysiologic background of paced respiration, describes RESPeRATE clinical trials, and presents briefly other guided breathing alternatives.


      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Natriuresis and blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with
           diabetes mellitus: the NESTOR study
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yi Zhang , Davide Agnoletti , Ji-Guang Wang , Yawei Xu , Michel E. Safar
      The antihypertensive effect of indapamide has never been clearly understood, particularly in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 565 patients were randomly selected to receive either indapamide 1.5 mg or enalapril 10 mg daily for 12 months. Brachial blood pressure (BP) and plasma and urinary electrolytes were measured at baseline and at the end of follow–up. Sodium and potassium levels and excretion rates were measured in overnight urine collections. After 12 months' treatment, similar significant reductions were observed in systolic and diastolic BP and pulse pressure levels in both treatment arms (P < .001). However, age, body mass index, diabetes duration, and plasma sodium reductions were shown to be major, independent factors influencing BP reduction with indapamide, but not with enalapril. Regression coefficients were positive for age and plasma sodium reductions (P ≤ .009) but negative for body mass index and diabetes duration (P ≤ .008). Similar findings were observed for pulse pressure. These results were more notable in elderly patients, did not differ regardless of whether BP reduction was measured in absolute or percent values, and were associated with increased sodium and potassium excretion rates.Indapamide is more effective than enalapril at reducing BP in elderly diabetic hypertensives with marked sodium retention.


      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Prevalence of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)–activating
           autoantibodies in primary aldosteronism
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hongliang Li , Xichun Yu , Maria Verena Cicala , Franco Mantero , Alexandria Benbrook , Vineet Veitla , Madeleine W. Cunningham , David C. Kem
      Autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) have been reported in patients with primary aldosteronism, including aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IAH). Sera from 25 primary aldosteronism subjects (12 with IAH and 13 with APA) and 15 normotensive control subjects were assayed for AT1R autoantibodies by enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay and an AT1R–transfected cell–based bioassay. Nine of 12 IAH subjects (75%) and six of 13 APA subjects (46%) were positive for AT1R autoantibodies in the bioactivity assay. The mean AT1R autoantibody activity for the IAH and APA subjects was significantly greater than controls (P < .001 and P < .01, respectively), and this in vitro activity was suppressed by the AT1R blocker losartan. None of the controls had significant AT1R autoantibody activity. Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay values were less sensitive but were positive in some subjects with IAH and APA. The mean arterial pressure of these primary aldosteronism subjects correlated modestly with AT1R autoantibody activity. These data confirm the presence of active AT1R autoantibodies in a high percentage of subjects with primary aldosteronism irrespective of their underlying etiology. These observations have both pathophysiological and clinical implications.


      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Comparison of the renal hyperemic effects of papaverine and dopamine in
           patients with renal artery stenosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1
      Author(s): Marcin Protasiewicz , Karol Początek , Rafał Poręba , Arkadiusz Derkacz , Maciej Podgórski , Katarzyna Gosławska , Anna Szymańska–Chabowska , Grzegorz Mazur , Andrzej Mysiak , Adam Witkowski
      The purpose of this study was to assess the hyperemic effects of papaverine and dopamine in the renal microcirculation of hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS). Although a poor correlation between angiographic lesion assessment and its hemodynamic significance is known, angiography is a major criterion for the decision of renal artery stenting. Assessment of the hyperemic translesional pressure gradient was recently shown to be conducive in identifying patients who may benefit from renal revascularization. The study included 14 patients (mean age, 66 ± 11.2 years) with resistant hypertension and moderate RAS. Using a pressure–sensing catheter, systolic, diastolic, and mean translesional pressure gradients, and the distal pressure (Pd):aortic pressure (Pa) ratio (Pd/Pa) were analyzed at baseline and after administration of 40 mg papaverine and 50 μg/kg dopamine. We did not observe significant changes in DG. Dopamine administration resulted in significant changes in systolic and mean translesional pressure gradients and Pd/Pa when compared with baseline (P < .05 for all). Changes in these parameters were caused by a decrease in systolic Pd in comparison with baseline conditions (119 ± 34 mm Hg vs. 101 mm Hg; P < .05). Systolic Pd pressure after papaverine (104 mm Hg) did not change significantly. Systolic and diastolic Pa values did not differ from baseline after either dopamine or papaverine bolus administration.This study indicates that, compared with papaverine, the intrarenal bolus of dopamine in hypertensive patients with RAS remains a more powerful hyperemic agent.


      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Treatment: Special Conditions - Metabolic Syndrome: Obesity and the
           Hypertension Connection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Efrain Reisin , Jonathan Owen



      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Perindopril Arginine + Amlodipine in Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): William J. Elliott , Jennifer Whitmore , Jeffrey D. Feldstein , George L. Bakris
      To study the efficacy and safety of a new combination of perindopril arginine and amlodipine besylate, 837 subjects were enrolled in a three-arm, prospective, 59-center, randomized clinical trial. For 42 days, subjects (average seated blood pressure [BP] 158±12/101±5 mm Hg, age 52±10 years, 52% male, 34% black, 20% diabetic) received amlodipine/perindopril arginine (10/14 mg/d), perindopril erbumine 16 mg/d, or amlodipine 10 mg/d. Goal BP was < 140/90 or < 130/80 mm Hg in diabetics, per JNC 7 guidelines. The combination showed the largest change in seated BP (-23.7/-15.7 vs. –13.7/-9.5 vs. –19.3/-13.2 mm Hg, respectively, P < 0.0001), the highest proportion at goal BP (51% vs. 26% vs. 37%, P < 0.0001), and a lower incidence of pedal edema and adverse events compared to amlodipine. No deaths or significant differences across groups in early discontinuation, serum potassium, or rates of total or serious adverse events or glomerular filtration, were observed.


      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Relationship between Different Blood Pressure Measurements and Left
           Ventricular Mass by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in End-stage Renal
           Disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Asad Merchant , Ron Wald , Marc B. Goldstein , Darren Yuen , Anish Kirpalani , Niki Dacouris , Joel G. Ray , Mercedeh Kiaii , Jonathan Leipsic , Vamshi Kotha , Djeven Deva , Andrew T. Yan
      Hypertension is prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is strongly associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Blood pressure (BP) monitoring in hemodialysis patients may be unreliable because of its lability and variability. We compared different methods of BP measurement and their relationship with LVH on cardiac MRI. 60 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis at a single dialysis center had BP recorded at each dialysis session over 12 weeks: pre-dialysis, initial dialysis, nadir during dialysis and post-dialysis. 45 of these patients also underwent 44-hour inter-dialytic ambulatory BP monitoring. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was measured using cardiac MRI and the presence of LVH was ascertained. ROC curves were generated for each BP measurement for predicting LVH. The mean LVMI was 68g/m2 (SD=15g/m2); 13/60 patients (22%) had LVH. Mean arterial pressure measured shortly after initiation of dialysis session was most strongly correlated with LVMI (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59, P <0.0001). LVH was best predicted by post-dialysis systolic BP (AUC 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.94) and initial-dialysis systolic BP (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.92). 44-hour ambulatory BP and BP variability did not significantly predict LVH. Initial-dialysis mean arterial pressure and systolic BP and post-dialysis systolic BP are the strongest predictors of LVH, and may represent the potentially best treatment targets in hemodialysis patients to prevent end-organ damage. Further studies are needed to confirm whether treatment targeting these BP measurements can optimize cardiovascular outcomes.


      PubDate: 2015-02-03T14:05:29Z
       
  • Outpatient Blood Pressure Monitoring using Bi-directional Text Messaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Chris A. Anthony , Linnea A. Polgreen , James Chounramany , Eric D. Foster , Christopher J. Goerdt , Michelle L. Miller , Manish Suneja , Alberto M. Segre , Barry L. Carter , Philip M. Polgreen
      To diagnose hypertension, multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements are recommended. We randomized patients into three groups: EMR-only (Patients recorded BP measurements in an electronic medical record (EMR) web portal), EMR+reminders (Patients were sent text-message reminders to record their BP measurements in the EMR), and bi-directional text messaging (Patients were sent a text message asking them to respond with their current BP). Subjects were asked to complete 14 measurements. Automated messages were sent to each patient in the bi-directional text messaging and EMR+reminder groups twice daily. Among 121 patients, those in the bi-directional text messaging group reported the full 14 measurements more often than both the EMR-only group (p<0.001) and the EMR+reminders group (p=0.038). Also, the EMR+reminders group outperformed the EMR-only group (p<0.001). Bi-directional automated text messaging is an effective way to gather patient BP data. Text-message-based reminders alone are an effective way to encourage patients to record BP measurements.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T13:23:56Z
       
  • Direct Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Stimulation by Compound 21 Prevents
           Vascular Dementia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jun Iwanami , Masaki Mogi , Kana Tsukuda , Xiao-Li Wang , Hirotomo Nakaoka , Harumi Kan-no , Toshiyuki Chisaka , Hui-Yu Bai , Bao-Shuai Shan , Masayoshi Kukida , Masatsugu Horiuchi
      Background Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor activation has been reported to play a role in cognitive function, although its detailed mechanisms and pathological significance are not fully understood. We examined the possibility that direct AT2 receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21) could prevent cognitive decline associated with hypoperfusion in the brain. Methods We employed a bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model in mice as a model of vascular dementia. The Morris water maze task was performed 6 weeks after BCAS operation. Azilsartan (0.1 mg/kg/day) or C21 (10 μg/kg/day) was administered from 1 week before BCAS. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and inflammatory cytokine levels were also determined. Results Wild-type (WT) mice showed significant prolongation of escape latency after BCAS, and this cognitive impairment was attenuated by pretreatment with azilsartan. Cognitive impairment was more marked in AT2 receptor knockout (AT2KO) mice, and the preventive effect of azilsartan on cognitive decline was weaker in AT2KO mice than in WT mice, suggesting that the improvement of cognitive decline by azilsartan may involve stimulation of the AT2 receptor. The significant impairment of spatial learning after BCAS in WT mice was attenuated by C21 treatment. The decrease in CBF in the BCAS-treated group was blunted by C21 treatment, and the increase in TNF-α and MCP-1 mRNA expression after BCAS was attenuated by C21 treatment. Conclusions These findings indicate that direct AT2 stimulation attenuates ischemic vascular dementia induced by hypoperfusion at least in part through an increase in CBF, and a reduction of inflammation.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T13:23:56Z
       
  • Relation of vitamin D deficiency and new-onset atrial fibrillation among
           hypertensive patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Ozgur Ulas Ozcan , Adalet Gurlek , Eren Gursoy , Demet Menekse Gerede , Cetin Erol
      Introduction Vitamin D deficiency is associated with various cardiovascular disorders including hypertension, coronary artery disease and heart failure. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) axis is activated in vitamin D deficiency. RAS axis also plays a role in the pathophysiology of AF. We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for the development of new-onset AF in hypertension. Methods A total of 227 hypertensive patients were enrolled, of whom 137 had new-onset atrial fibrillation and 90 patients without AF were included in the control group. Results Age of the patient, left atrial diameter and vitamin D deficiency increased the probability of new-onset AF independent from confounding factors [(OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, p=0.03 for age), (OR: 1.88, 95% CI 1.15-3.45, p=0.03 for left atrial diameter), (OR: 1.68, 95% CI 1.18-2.64, p=0.03 for vitamin D deficiency)]. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is associated with new-onset AF in hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T13:23:56Z
       
  • Elevated systolic blood pressure is associated with increased incidence of
           chronic kidney disease but not mortality in elderly veterans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): James W. Lohr , Mojgan Golzy , Randolph L. Carter , Pradeep Arora
      The optimal blood pressure to prevent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mortality in the elderly is unclear. Our objective was to determine the effect of differing levels of blood pressure on incidence of CKD and mortality in elderly veterans. This retrospective cohort study included 15,221 individuals ≥70 years of age without CKD (outpatient estimated glomular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m2) seen in the primary care clinic in the Veterans Affairs Health Care Upstate New York with Veterans Integrated Service Network 2 between 2001 and 2008. To examine the association of explanatory variables on hazard ratios for outcomes of interest, incident CKD, and death, competing risk analysis (with death as competing risk) was used for the analysis of incident CKD outcome, and time–dependent Cox model with CKD as the time–dependent covariate was used for the analysis of death outcome. The incidence of CKD was 16% over a median follow–up of 19 quarters. Compared with reference of systolic blood pressure of 130–139 mm Hg, there was an increased hazard of development of CKD with systolic blood pressure of 140–149 mm Hg or higher. As compared with a reference range of 130–139 mm Hg systolic blood pressure, the relative risk of mortality was higher in the range of 120–129 mm Hg systolic or less. The optimal achieved systolic blood pressure in elderly patients to prevent the development of CKD was <140 mm Hg. However, lowering the systolic blood pressure below 130 mm Hg was associated with increased mortality.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • SGLT2 inhibitors: their potential reduction in blood pressure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): George Maliha , Raymond R. Townsend
      The sodium glucose co–transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent a promising treatment option for diabetes and its common comorbidity, hypertension. Emerging data suggests that the SGLT2 inhibitors provide a meaningful reduction in blood pressure, although the precise mechanism of the blood pressure drop remains incompletely elucidated. Based on current data, the blood pressure reduction is partially due to a combination of diuresis, nephron remodeling, reduction in arterial stiffness, and weight loss. While current trials are underway focusing on cardiovascular endpoints, the SGLT2 inhibitors present a novel treatment modality for diabetes and its associated hypertension as well as an opportunity to elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension in diabetes.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Plasma visfatin/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase levels in
           hypertensive elderly – results from the PolSenior substudy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Piotr Kocelak , Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz , Aleksander Owczarek , Maria Bożentowicz-Wikarek , Aniceta Brzozowska , Małgorzata Mossakowska , Tomasz Zdrojewski , Tomasz Grodzicki , Andrzej Więcek , Jerzy Chudek
      Visfatin/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), is a 52 kDa adipokine with proinflammatory properties produced mostly by macrophages and adipocytes from visceral adipose tissue. It seems that visfatin/NAMPT plays a role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. As this condition is frequently present in the elderly, the aim of the study was to assess the plasma visfatin/NAMPT levels in normotensive and hypertensive subjects from the Polish elderly population. Visfatin/NAMPT levels were measured by specific enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay method in plasma samples from 2789 elderly subjects (1338 females, 1451 males) without heart failure, the PolSenior study participants, in addition to previously estimated serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, creatinine, C–reactive protein, and interleukin–6. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was calculated and used as a marker of insulin resistance. In the study group, 591 subjects were normotensive, 449 had untreated hypertension, and 1749 had treated hypertension. Plasma visfatin/NAMPT levels were not related to the presence of hypertension or the use of antihypertensive drugs, including angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists. The regression analysis revealed that plasma visfatin/NAMPT concentration variability is increased in subjects with high–sensitivity C–reactive protein concentration above 3 mg/L and with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance ≥2.5, and decreased in those aged over 80 years. Our study shows that the presence of hypertension is not associated with the plasma levels of visfatin/NAMPT in elderly subjects. Plasma visfatin/NAMPT concentrations positively correlate with inflammation and insulin resistance, and are decreased in the oldest.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Cornell product relates to albuminuria in hypertensive black adults
           independently of blood pressure: the SABPA study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Rudolph Schutte , Hugo W. Huisman , lisa J. Ware , Catherina MC. Mels , Wayne Smith , Nicolaas T. Malan , Leoné Malan , Johannes M. van Rooyen , Carla MT. Fourie , Aletta E. Schutte
      Background Evidence of the relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin excretion is contradictory and limited in black adults in whom hypertensive heart disease is common. We aimed to investigate the relationship between subclinical left ventricular hypertrophy and albuminuria in non-diabetic hypertensive blacks. Methods Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was determined from 8h overnight urine collection. We recorded ambulatory blood pressure and 12-lead electrocardiogram during a typical working day. Results Cornell product (P=0.002), UACR (P=0.042), 24h systolic pressure (P<0.0001) and 24h pulse pressure (P<0.0001) were higher in the hypertensive group. Cornell product was associated with UACR in single (r=0.25,P=0.012), partial (P trend=0.002) and multiple regression (β=0.326,P=0.0005) analyses in the hypertensive group only, even below the threshold for microalbuminuria and independent of 24h systolic pressure. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion is associated with subclinical left ventricular hypertrophy in non-diabetic hypertensive blacks and may be a useful marker of early cardiovascular disease in blacks.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment Special Conditions: Assessing Blood Pressure in Children
           &amp; Adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Donald L. Batisky



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment Special Conditions: Resistant Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Henry R. Black



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment: Special Conditions: Orthostatic Hypotension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Italo Biaggioni



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • MicroRNAs in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and
           Treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Julie Bienertova-Vasku , Jan Novak , Anna Vasku
      Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and increasingly prevalent disease, manifested by the maladaptation of pulmonary vasculature, which consequently leads to right heart failure and possibly even death. The development of PAH is characterized by specific functional as well as structural changes, primarily associated with the aberrant function of the pulmonary artery endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and vascular fibroblasts. MicroRNAs constitute a class of small ≈22-nucleotides-long non-coding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and which may lead to significant cell proteome changes. While the involvement of miRNAs in the development of various diseases – especially cancer – has been reported, numerous miRNAs have also been associated with PAH onset, progression or treatment responsiveness. This review focuses on the role of microRNAs in the development of PAH as well as on their potential use as biomarkers and therapeutic tools in both experimental PAH models and in humans. Special attention is given to the roles of miR-21, miR-27a, the miR-17-92 cluster, miR-124, miR-138, the miR-143/145 cluster, miR-150, miR-190, miR-204, miR-206, miR-210, miR-328 and the miR-424/503 cluster, specifically with the objective of providing greater insight into the pervasive roles of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of this deadly condition.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • BP Here, There, and Everywhere – Mobile Health Applications (Apps)
           and Hypertension Care
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Beverly B. Green



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Differential Effects of Nebivolol and Metoprolol on Arterial Stiffness,
           Circulating Progenitor Cells and Oxidative Stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Salim S. Hayek , Joseph C. Poole , Robert Neuman , Alanna A. Morris , Mohamed Khayata , Nino Kavtaradze , Matthew L. Topel , Jose G. Binongo , Qunna Li , Dean P. Jones , Edmund K. Waller , Arshed A. Quyyumi
      Unlike traditional beta receptor antagonists, nebivolol activates nitric oxide. We hypothesized that therapy with nebivolol compared to metoprolol would improve arterial stiffness, increase levels of circulating progenitor cells (PC) and decrease oxidative stress (OS). In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, 30 hypertensive subjects received either once daily nebivolol or metoprolol succinate for 3 months each. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (CAIx) were measured using tonometry. Flow cytometry was used to measure circulating PC. OS was measured as plasma aminothiols. Measurements were performed at baseline, and repeated at 3 and 6 months. No significant differences were present between the levels of OS, arterial stiffness, and PC numbers during treatment with metoprolol compared to nebivolol. In subgroup analyses of beta-blocker naïve subjects (n=19), nebivolol reduced PWV significantly compared to metoprolol (-1.4±1.9 versus -0.1±2.2, p=0.005). Both nebivolol and metoprolol increased circulating levels of CD34+/CD133+ PC similarly (p=0.05), suggesting improved regenerative capacity.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • The effect of Vitamin D supplementation on arterial stiffness in an
           elderly community based population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): C. McGreevy , M. Barry , C. Davenport , B. Byrne , C. Donaghy , G. Collier , W. Tormey , D. Smith , K. Bennett , D. Williams
      Aims Vitamin D deficiency may lead to impaired vascular function and abnormalities in central arterial stiffness. We compared the effects of two different doses of vitamin D3 on arterial stiffness in an elderly population with deficient serum 25OHD levels. Methods 119 known vitamin D deficient(<50nmol/L) subjects were randomised to receive either 50,000IU or 100,000IU single IM vitamin D3. Results In the group that received 100,000IU vitamin D, median PWV decreased from 12.2(5.1-40.3) m/sec to 11.59(4.3-14.9) m/sec after 8 weeks (p=0.22). A mean decrease of 3.803+/-1.7(p=0.032) in Augmentation Index (Aix)( a measure of systemic stiffness) was noted. Only 3/51(5.8%) who received 100,000IU vitamin D reached levels of sufficiency(>75nmol/L). Conclusions A significant decrease in Augmentation index was seen in the group that received 100,000IU vitamin D. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were still deficient at 8 weeks in the majority of patients which may be attributable to impaired bioavailability.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Home blood pressure profile in very elderly hypertensives: should we use
           the same thresholds as in younger patients?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jessica Barochiner , Lucas S. Aparicio , Paula E. Cuffaro , Carlos R. Galarza , Marcos J. Marín , José Alfie , Margarita S. Morales , Marcelo A. Rada , Gabriel D. Waisman
      We aimed to determine the characteristics of home BP in very elderly hypertensives. 485 treated hypertensive patients ≥18 years (median age 70.8 (RI 18), 67.2% women) underwent home BP measurements. Characteristics of patients ≥80 and <80 years of age and prevalence of office and home uncontrolled hypertension, isolated morning- (IMH), isolated evening- (IEH), isolated office- (IOH) and masked hypertension (MH) were compared. Very elderly subjects had higher levels of systolic and lower levels of diastolic BP at home, a higher prevalence of home uncontrolled hypertension (68.5 vs. 37.7%, p<0.001), MH (30.6 vs. 14.9%, p=0.02) and IMH (19.4 vs. 10.9%, p=0.02) and a lower prevalence of IOH (8.3 vs. 18.8%, p=0.01). When using differential home BP thresholds in the very elderly, determined through the percentile method, statistical differences disappeared, except for IMH. The very elderly depict a particular home BP profile. Benefit from using differential home BP thresholds should be determined in prospective studies.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Emphasized warning reduces salt intake: a randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Nina Pinjuh Markota , Mirjana Rumboldt , Zvonko Rumboldt
      Background Excessive salt intake is a major cardiovascular risk factor. At variance to the developed countries, the main source of sodium in transitional and developing countries is salt added while cooking and/or at the table. The objective of this trial was to examine the impact of warning labels placed on home salt containers on daily salt intake. Subjects and methods A sample of treated hypertensives (n= 150) was randomised in two subgroups, one receiving just a leaflet about the harmful effects of excessive salt intake (control, n= 74), and the other one receiving in addition warning stickers for household salt containers (intervention, n= 76). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and 24 h urinary sodium excretion (24Na) were measured in all the subjects at the start of the trial, and one month and two months later. Results The average starting 24Na was 207 ± 71 mmol in the control group and 211 ± 85 mmol in the intervention group (p=0.745). One month and two months later a significant decrease was observed in the intervention group (to 183 ± 63 and 176 ± 55 mmol; P<0.0001), as opposed to the control group (203 ± 60 and 200 ± 58 mmol; P= 0.1466). Initial BP was 143.7/84.1 mm Hg in the control, and 142.9/84.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P= 0.667). One month and two months later a significant drop in BP, by 5.3/2.9 mm Hg was observed in the intervention group as opposed to the control group (0.4/0.9 mm Hg). Decrease in 24Na positively correlated to BP lowering (r2 = 0.5989; p<0.0001). Conclusions A significant reduction in 24Na and BP is achieved with warning labels on harmful effects of excessive salt intake. Decreasing daily salt input by 35 mmol may result in an extra BP lowering by some 5-6/2-3 mm Hg.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Subclinical carotid artery disease and plasma homocysteine levels in
           patients with hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Cristiana Catena , GianLuca Colussi , Marion Url-Michitsch , Francesca Nait , Leonardo A. Sechi
      Information on the association between homocysteine (Hcy) levels and subclinical carotid artery disease is limited. We investigated the relationship of plasma Hcy concentration with carotid artery plaques and intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with hypertension. In 486 essential hypertensive patients who underwent ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries, we measured plasma levels of Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, and C-reactive protein. Plaques were detected in 34% of the study patients. Plasma Hcy levels were significantly greater in hypertensive patients with evidence of carotid plaques than patients without carotid plaques. Carotid IMT progressively increased across quartiles of plasma Hcy levels. Multivariate regression showed that carotid IMT was independently related with age, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, and Hcy levels. In a logistic regression, age, blood pressure, triglyceride, and Hcy independently predicted the presence of carotid plaques. Thus, elevated plasma Hcy levels are associated with asymptomatic carotid disease in hypertensive patients suggesting a role of Hcy in the development and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in these patients.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Rationale for a Single-Pill Combination of Perindopril Arginine and
           Amlodipine Besylate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): William J. Elliott
      A systematic review identified 86 outcome-based clinical trials involving perindopril, amlodipine, or other antihypertensive drugs. In fixed-effects meta-analyses of 11 clinical trials (90,208 subjects), amlodipine was associated with a significant 24% increase in heart failure, but a significant decrease in death, cardiovascular death, stroke, coronary heart disease, and first major cardiovascular adverse event. In 5 clinical trials (52,565 subjects), perindopril was associated with a significant reduction in all six cardiovascular endpoints. Network and Bayesian meta-analyses suggested that (with the exception of amlodipine and heart failure), each agent was at least as effective as an initial diuretic to prevent these events. Short-term trials have demonstrated that the combination of perindopril and amlodipine is safe and effective, with statistically greater lowering of blood pressure than either agent alone, and a potential synergistic effect on pedal edema. The single-pill combination of perindopril and amlodipine may be a useful addition to the antihypertensive armamentarium.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Sustained Pre-hypertensive Blood Pressure and Incident Atrial
           Fibrillation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Wesley T. O’Neal , Elsayed Z. Soliman , Waqas Qureshi , Alvaro Alonso , Susan R. Heckbert , David Herrington
      Background The association between sustained pre-hypertension and AF has not been thoroughly examined. Methods This study included 5,311 participants (mean age 62 ± 10 years; 47% male; 42.9% non-whites) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Sustained exposure was based on 2 or more visits within the same blood pressure category (optimal: <120/80 mm Hg; pre-hypertension: 120-139/80-89 mm Hg; hypertension: ≥140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use) during visits 1, 2, and 3. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between blood pressure category and AF. Results Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 182 (3.4%) participants developed AF. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were associated with an increased risk of AF compared with participants who had optimal blood pressure (optimal: HR=1.0, referent; pre-hypertension: HR=1.8, 95%CI=1.004, 3.2; hypertension: HR=2.6, 95%CI=1.6, 4.4). Conclusion Sustained pre-hypertension is associated with an increased risk of AF.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Basic Science. Target Organ Damage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Anil K. Bidani , Karen A. Griffin



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment, A. Prevention/Public Health Strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Paul K. Whelton



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Prevalence and Trends of Isolated Systolic Hypertension among Untreated
           Adults in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Xuefeng Liu , Carlos J. Rodriguez , Kesheng Wang
      Background Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is an important hypertension subtype that predominates in the old people. However, the prevalence and long-term trends of ISH among untreated adults have not been reported. Design and Methods A study sample of 24,653 participants aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 (12,018 persons from 1999-2004 and 12,635 persons from 2005-2010), representing a probability sample of the US civilian population. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of untreated ISH were estimated to compare differences in the prevalence over two 6-year periods by conducting the independent survey t-test. Results The prevalence of untreated ISH was 9.4% in 1999-2010 and decreased from 10.3% in 1999-2004 to 8.5% in 2005-2010 (p=0.00248). Old persons, females, and non-Hispanic blacks had higher prevalence of untreated ISH. Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 decreased among older (33.6%, 95% CI=30.9-36.3% vs. 25.1%, 95% CI=22.7-27.5%) and female individuals (8.3%, 95% CI=7.5-9.2% vs. 11.4%, 95% CI=10.4-12.3%). The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH declined in 2005-2010 (vs. 1999-2004) for older non-Hispanic whites (24.6% vs. 32.8%; p<0.0001) and blacks (27.7% vs. 40.8%; p=0.0013), non-Hispanic white females (7.5% vs. 10.8%; p<0.0001), older individuals with higher education (21.0% vs. 30.6%; p=0.0024) and females with lower education (10.1% vs. 13.1%; p=0.006). Conclusion Untreated ISH is more prevalent in older adults and females. Significant decreases in untreated ISH prevalence over time among these groups suggest that public health measures and/or treatment patterns are trending in the right direction.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Incidence of primary hypertension in a population-based cohort of
           HIV-infected compared to non-HIV-infected persons and the effect of
           combined antiretroviral therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Avnish Tripathi , Jeanette M. Jerrell , Thomas N. Skelton , Myrna A. Nickels , Wayne A. Duffus
      Literature remains scarce on the impact of antiretroviral medications on hypertension in the HIV population. We used South Carolina Medicaid database linked with the enhanced HIV/AIDS system surveillance database for 1994-2011 to evaluate incident hypertension and the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV/AIDS population compared a propensity matched non-HIV control group. Multivariable, time-dependent survival analysis suggested no significant difference in incidence of hypertension between HIV and non-HIV control group. However, subgroup analysis suggested that among the HIV-infected group, months of exposure to both non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) [aHR 1.52; 95% CI 1.3-1.75] and protease inhibitors (PI) [aHR 1.26; 95% CI 1.11-1.44] were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension after adjusting for traditional demographic and metabolic risk factors. In people with HIV/AIDS, prolonged exposure to both PI and NNRTI-based cART may increase the risk of incident hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment Drug Therapy of Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): William J. Elliott



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment: Special Conditions - Psychological Aspects Relating to the
           Treatment of Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Simon J.C. Davies , Steven L. Dubovsky



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
 
 
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