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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1234 journals)
    - HISTORY (778 journals)
    - History (General) (50 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (47 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (52 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AREAS (7 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (160 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (116 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (24 journals)

HISTORY (778 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 452 of 452 Journals sorted alphabetically
Rationality and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Raven : A Journal of Vexillology     Hybrid Journal  
Reinardus     Hybrid Journal  
Relaciones. Estudios de historia y sociedad     Open Access  
Renaissance Drama     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Renaissance Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Renaissance Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Rethinking History: The Journal of Theory and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Reti Medievali Rivista     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Review of Central and East European Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Reviews in American History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Revista Análisis Internacional     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Chilena de Historia del Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Historico-Juridicos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de História     Open Access  
Revista de História da UEG     Open Access  
Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico do Rio Grande do Sul     Open Access  
Revista Historia Autónoma     Open Access  
Revista História da Educação - History of Education Journal     Open Access  
Revista Maracanan     Open Access  
Revista Paginas     Open Access  
Revolutionary Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'Histoire de l'Eglise de France     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revue d'histoire de l'enfance     Open Access  
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue d'histoire du XIXe siècle     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue de l’Histoire des Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Revue des Études Arméniennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue historique des armées     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue Mabillon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rhetoric Society Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Romanticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Royal Studies Journal     Open Access  
Rúbrica Contemporánea     Open Access  
Russian Education & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Russian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Russian Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Sacris Erudiri     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Saeculum : Jahrbuch für Universalgeschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Safundi : The Journal of South African and American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Scando-Slavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Science & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations     Open Access  
Scientia Canadensis: Canadian Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine / Scientia Canadensis : revue canadienne d'histoire des sciences, des techniques et de la médecine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientiae Studia     Open Access  
Scottish Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Scrineum Rivista     Open Access  
Scrutiny2: Issues in English Studies in Southern Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Senses and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Siècles     Open Access  
Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Signos Historicos     Open Access  
Slagmark - Tidsskrift for idéhistorie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Slavonica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Social History of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Società e Storia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Society and Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SourceOECD National Accounts & Historical Statistics     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Historical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South African Journal of Art History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Cultural History     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South Asia Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
South Asian History and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South Asian Popular Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
South Asian Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
South Australian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription  
South Central Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South European Society and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Southeast European and Black Sea Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Southwestern Historical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Soviet and Post-Soviet Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Spontaneous Generations : A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Stewart Postharvest Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Studia Aurea : Revista de Literatura Española y Teoría Literaria del Renacimiento y Siglo de Oro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Studia Historiae Oeconomicae     Open Access  
Studia Iranica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studia Litteraria et Historica     Open Access  
Studia z Historii Filozofii     Open Access  
Studies in East European Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Studies in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Studies in Western Australian History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Studium : Tijdschrift voor Wetenschaps- en Universiteits-geschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire des Sciences et des Universités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Suomen Sukututkimusseuran Vuosikirja     Open Access  
Sydney Institute Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription  
T'oung Pao     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Tangence     Full-text available via subscription  
Tasmanian Historical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Teaching History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Technology and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
temp - tidsskrift for historie     Full-text available via subscription  
Tempo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tempo e Argumento     Open Access  
The Court Historian : The International Journal of Court Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
The Eighteenth Century     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
The European Legacy: Toward New Paradigms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Hilltop Review : A Journal of Western Michigan University Graduate Student Research     Open Access  
The Historian     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
The International History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
The Irish Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
The Italianist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of the Historical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
The Public Historian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
The Seventeenth Century     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
The Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The South African Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Theatre History Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theoria et Historia Scientiarum     Open Access  
Tiempo y Espacio     Open Access  
Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire du Droit / The Legal History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Time & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Trabajos y Comunicaciones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Traditio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of the Philological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trocadero     Open Access  
Troianalexandrina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turcica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Turkish Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Turkish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Twentieth Century British History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
U.S. Catholic Historian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
UCLA Historical Journal     Open Access  
Ufahamu : A Journal of African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
United Service     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Urban History Review / Revue d'histoire urbaine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Varia Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Vegueta : Anuario de la Facultad de Geografía e Historia     Open Access  
Vestiges : Traces of Record     Full-text available via subscription  
Viator     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Victorian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Victorian Periodicals Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Vigiliae Christianae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Viking and Medieval Scandinavia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Vínculos de Historia. Revista del Departamento de Historia de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha     Open Access  
Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Vivarium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vulcan     Hybrid Journal  
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Water History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Welsh History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
West 86th     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Whispering Wind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wicazo Sa Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Winterthur Portfolio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Women in German Yearbook : Feminist Studies in German Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Women's History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Yesterday and Today     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Zeitschrift für Weltgeschichte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Zutot     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Βυζαντινά Σύμμεικτα     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
  [SJR: 1.039]   [H-I: 31]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1933-1711
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Worldwide prevalence of hypertension exceeds 1.3 billion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch



      PubDate: 2016-09-22T10:20:04Z
       
  • Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms are Associated with
           Cardiovascular Risks in Prehypertensives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Gopal Krushna Pal, Adithan Chandrasekaran, Gurusamy Umamaheswaran, Pravati Pal, Nivedita Nanda, Jagadeeswaran Indumathy, Avupati Naga Syamsunder
      Background Though endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism is documented in the causation of hypertension, its role in prehypertension has not been investigated. Methods The present study was conducted in 172 subjects divided into prehypertensives (n=57) and normotensives (n=115). Cardiovascular (CV) parameters including baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) by continuous BP variability (BPV) assessment, and sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, were recorded. Biochemical parameters for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), oxidative stress, lipid risk factors, renin and inflammatory parameters were measured. Genotyping for eNOS polymorphisms rs1799983 (298G>T) and rs2070744 (-786T>C) was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the association between SVI and metabolic markers and multivariate logisitic regression was done to determine the prediction of prehypertension status by genotype, BRS and LF-HF ratio in these subjects. Results The BPV, HRV and biochemical parameters were significantly altered in prehypertensives. The eNOS polymorphisms was found to be associated with prehypertension. BRS, the marker of SVI was significantly associated with BP, HOMA-IR and tumor-necrosis factor (TNFα) in 298 GG genotype of prehypertensive population. Conclusion The eNOS gene polymorphisms appear to be associated with prehypertension. 298G>T and -786T>C contribute to SVI in young prehypertensives attributed by insulin resistance and inflammation. The CV risks were associated with prehypertension status in prehypertensives expressing both 298GG and -786TT genotypes. Association of CV risks with SVI appears to be stronger in prehypertensives expressing GG genotype.


      PubDate: 2016-09-17T09:19:28Z
       
  • Can Preeclampsia be Considered a Renal Compartment Syndrome? A Hypothesis
           and Analysis of the Literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): David G. Reuter, Yuk Law, Wayne C. Levy, Stephen Seslar, R. Eugene Zierler, Mark Ferguson, James Chattra, Tim McQuinn, Lenna Liu, Mark Terry, Patricia Coffey, Jane A. Dimer, Coral Hanevold, Joseph Flynn, F. Bruder Stapleton
      The morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia is staggering. The physiology of the Page kidney, a condition in which increased intra-renal pressure causes hypertension, appears to provide a unifying framework to explain the complex pathophysiology. Page kidney hypertension is renin-mediated acutely and ischemia-mediated chronically. Renal venous outflow obstruction also causes a Page kidney phenomenon, providing a hypothesis for the increased vulnerability of a subset of women who have what we are hypothesizing is a ‘renal compartment syndrome’ due to inadequate ipsilateral collateral renal venous circulation consistent with well-known variation in normal venous anatomy. Dynamic changes in renal venous anatomy and physiology in pregnancy appear to correlate with disease onset, severity, and recurrence. Since maternal recumbent position is well known to affect renal perfusion, and since chronic outflow obstruction makes women vulnerable to the ischemic/inflammatory sequelae, heightened awareness of renal compartment syndrome physiology is critical. The anatomic and physiologic insights provide immediate strategies to predict and prevent preeclampsia with straightforward, low-cost interventions that make renewed global advocacy for pregnant women a realistic goal.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T09:19:28Z
       
  • Sodium and potassium intake in South Africa: an evaluation of 24-hour
           urine collections in a White, Black and Indian population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Bianca Swanepoel, Aletta E. Schutte, Marike Cockeran, Krisela Steyn, Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen
      Limited number of studies on salt intake have been conducted in the South African. The present study established the sodium and potassium excretion (24-hour urine collection) of three different South African populations. In total, 692 successful 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for sodium, potassium and iodine levels. The median sodium and potassium excretion was 122.9 and 33.5mmol/day, respectively and the median salt intake was 7.2g/day. The majority (92.8%) of the population did not meet the recommended potassium intake per day and 65.6% consumed more than 6g of salt per day. Potassium excretion showed a linear relationship with salt intake (p-trend ≤0.001). The median sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.5. These findings support the South African government’s sodium reduction legislation, as well as global initiatives. More consideration should be given to promoting the intake of potassium-rich foods, as this may have a greater public health impact than focusing only on dietary sodium reduction.


      PubDate: 2016-09-09T02:16:03Z
       
  • Prevalence of treatment resistant hypertension, and important associated
           factors – Results from the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database
           (SPCCD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): L. Holmqvist, K. Bengtsson Boström, T. Kahan, L. Schiöler, J. Hasselström, P. Hjerpe, B. Wettermark, K. Manhem
      We aimed to describe the prevalence, treatment and associated co-morbidity of treatment resistant hypertension (TRH). This registry based cohort study from The Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database assessed 53090 hypertensive patients attending primary care. Patients adherent to antihypertensive treatment measured by pharmacy fills and with proportion of days covered ≥ 80% were included. The prevalence of TRH was 17 % when considering all current TRH definitions. Adherence to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists differed between TRH- and non-TRH-patients (8 vs. 4 %). Higher frequencies (prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals) of diabetes mellitus, (1.59, 1.53-1.66), heart failure, (1.55, 1.48-1.64), atrial fibrillation, (1.33, 1.27-1.40), ischemic heart disease, (1.25, 1.20-1.30) and chronic kidney disease, (1.38, 1.23-1.54) were seen in patients with TRH compared to patients without TRH. These findings, in a population with valid data on medication adherence, emphasize a broad preventive approach for these high-risk patients.


      PubDate: 2016-09-09T02:16:03Z
       
  • The Association between Self-Reported Medication Adherence Scores and
           Systolic Blood Pressure Control: A SPRINT Baseline Data Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): William E. Haley, Olivia N. Gilbert, Robert F. Riley, Jill C. Newman, Christianne L. Roumie, Jeffrey Whittle, Ian M. Kronish, Leonardo Tamariz, Alan Wiggers, Donald E. Morisky, Molly B. Conroy, Eugene Kovalik, Nancy R. Kressin, Paul Muntner, David C. Goff
      We examined baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to investigate whether medication adherence, measured by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), was associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), and whether MMAS-8 score and number of antihypertensive medications interacted in influencing SBP. 8,435 SPRINT participants were included: 21.2% had low adherence (MMAS-8: <6); 40.0% had medium adherence (6 to <8); and 38.8% had high adherence (8). SBP was <140 mmHg in 54.6%; 140 –160 mmHg in 36.6%; and >160 mmHg in 8.8%. In multivariable regression, medium vs. low adherence weakly associated with lower SBP (OR: 1.17, CI: 1.04, 1.31). SPRINT eligibility criteria should be considered when interpreting results. Efforts to understand and enhance adherence are crucial to improve population health and using self-report instruments might be considered for predicting treatment adherence and response in future efficacy trials and for identifying patients for adherence support in clinical practice.


      PubDate: 2016-09-09T02:16:03Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 9




      PubDate: 2016-09-03T01:44:54Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 9




      PubDate: 2016-09-03T01:44:54Z
       
  • MRAs to the Rescue
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 9
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2016-09-03T01:44:54Z
       
  • Corrigendum
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 9




      PubDate: 2016-09-03T01:44:54Z
       
  • Instructions for Authors
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 9




      PubDate: 2016-09-03T01:44:54Z
       
  • Orthostatic changes in systolic blood pressure among SPRINT participants
           at baseline
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Raymond R. Townsend, Tara I. Chang, Debbie L. Cohen, William C. Cushman, Gregory W. Evans, Stephen P. Glasser, William E. Haley, Christine Olney, Suzanne Oparil, Rita Del Pinto, Roberto Pisoni, Addison A. Taylor, Kausik Umanath, Jackson T. Wright, Joseph Yeboah
      Orthostatic changes in SBP impact cardiovascular outcomes. In this study we aimed to determine the pattern of orthostatic systolic pressure changes in participants enrolled in the SBP Intervention Trial (SPRINT) at their baseline visit before randomization, and sought to understand clinical factors predictive of these changes. Of the 9323 participants enrolled in SPRINT 8662 had complete data for these analyses. The SBP (SBP) after 1 minute of standing was subtracted from the mean value of the three preceding seated systolic BP values. At the baseline visit medical history, medications, anthropometric measures and standard laboratory testing were undertaken. The mean age of SPRINT participants was 68 years, two-thirds were male, with 30% Black, 11% Hispanic and 55% Caucasian. The spectrum of SBP changes on standing demonstrated that increases in systolic BP were as common as declines, and about 5% of participants had an increase, and 5% had a decrease of >20 mmHg in SBP upon standing. Female sex, taller height, more advanced kidney disease, current smoking and several drug classes were associated with larger declines in BP upon standing while Black race, higher blood levels of glucose and sodium, and heavier weight were associated with more positive values of the change in BP upon standing. Our cross-sectional results show a significant spectrum of orthostatic SBP changes, reflecting known (e.g. age) and less well known (e.g. kidney function) relationships that may be important considerations in determining the optimal target blood pressure in long term outcomes of older hypertensive patients.


      PubDate: 2016-08-29T23:45:00Z
       
  • Morning Blood Pressure Surge and Markers of Cardiovascular Alterations in
           Untreated Middle-Aged Hypertensive Subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Barbara Pręgowska-Chwała, Aleksander Prejbisz, Marek Kabat, Bogna Puciłowska, Katarzyna Paschalis-Purtak, Elżbieta Florczak, Anna Klisiewicz, Beata Kuśmierczyk-Droszcz, Katarzyna Hanus, Michael Bursztyn, Andrzej Januszewicz
      Purpose To evaluate the degree of morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and its relationship with markers of cardiovascular alterations in untreated middle-aged hypertensives. Results We studied 241 patients (mean age 36.6±10.7 years). Subjects with higher sleep-through MBPS (st-MBPS) were older (p=0.003), had higher carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) (p=0.05) and lower E/A ratio (p=0.01), than those with lower MBPS. Subjects with higher pre-wakening MBPS (pw-MBPS) had significantly higher deceleration time (p=0.01), compared with those with lower pw-MBPS. St-MBPS correlated significantly with age, cIMT values, 24h systolic and diastolic BP and systolic BP night-time fall. The significant correlations between pw-MBPS and cIMT values, deceleration time, 24-h diastolic blood pressure and systolic BP night-time fall were observed. A relationship between MBPS and cardiovascular alterations was observed both in dippers and non-dippers, although in non-dippers it was less pronounced. Conclusions The results may imply a possible link between MBPS and markers of cardiovascular alterations in untreated hypertensive subjects.


      PubDate: 2016-08-24T23:31:06Z
       
  • Effect of visit-to-visit blood pressure variability on cardiovascular
           events in patients with coronary artery disease and well-controlled blood
           pressure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Sungha Park, Ping Yan, César Cerezo, Barrett W. Jeffers
      This post-hoc analysis of CAMELOT and PREVENT analyzed the impact of blood pressure variability (BPV, assessed as within-subject standard deviation of SBP from 12-weeks onwards) on the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, defined according to original studies). Patients (n=1677 CAMELOT; n=776 PREVENT) were stratified by BPV quartile. Regardless of study, BPV was significantly lower for amlodipine versus other treatments. In CAMELOT, a significant association between BPV quartile and MACE was observed with amlodipine treatment. Significant associations between BPV quartile and MACE were observed for both studies, when analyzed overall (adjusting for treatment). In CAMELOT, with amlodipine-treatment an increased risk for MACE was observed with high (BPV≥Q3) vs. low BPV (<Q1) (adjusting for characteristics and risk factors). In both studies, increased risk for MACE was observed for BPV≥Q3 versus BPV<Q1 (analyzed overall, adjusting for treatment and covariates). For both studies, BPV, but not mean SBP, was associated with cardiovascular events BPV was associated with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CAD and well-controlled BP.


      PubDate: 2016-08-24T23:31:06Z
       
  • Involvement of vascular peroxidase 1 in angiotensin II- induced
           hypertrophy of H9c2 cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Wei Yang, Zhaoya Liu, Qian Xu, Haiyang Peng, Luyao Chen, Xiao Huang, Tianlun Yang, Zaixin Yu, Guangjie Cheng, Guogang Zhang, Ruizheng Shi
      Oxidative stress has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1), a peroxidase in the cardiovascular system, utilizes the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) derived from co-expressed NADPH oxidases (NOX) to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and catalyze peroxidative reactions. Our previous studies showed that VPO1 contributes to the vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs), however, the role of VPO1 in cardiomyocytes hypertrophy is still uninvestigated. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the role of VPO1 in the angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism by which VPO1 regulates the redox signaling. As compared to WKY rats, the SHRs exhibited increased myocyte cross sectional area, enhanced Nox2 and VPO1 expression level in cardiac tissue, and an increased Ang II level in plasma. In cultured H9c2 cell line, Ang II increased the hypertrophy related gene (BNP/ANF) expression and the cellular surface area, which was attenuated by knocking down of VPO1 via VPO1 siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of NOX/VPO1 pathway. Moreover, the enhanced hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was suppressed by VPO1 knockdown. Furthermore, the protective role of VPO1 siRNA transfection on H9c2 cardiomyocytes hypertrophy was abrogated upon the HOCl stimulation, and the phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression level was found also up-regulated following HOCl stimulation. In conclusion, these results suggest that the Nox2/VPO1/HOCl/ERK1/2 redox signaling pathway was implicated in the pathogenesis of Ang II induced cardiac hypertrophy.


      PubDate: 2016-08-24T23:31:06Z
       
  • Instructions for Authors
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:02:59Z
       
  • Low-intensity isometric handgrip exercise has no transient effect on blood
           pressure in patients with coronary artery disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 8
      Author(s): Karla Goessler, Roselien Buys, Véronique A. Cornelissen
      Hypertension is highly prevalent among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation reduces blood pressure (BP). However, less is known about the transient effect of a single bout of exercise on BP. Isometric handgrip exercise has been proposed as a new nonpharmacologic tool to lower BP. We aimed to investigate the acute effect of isometric handgrip exercise on BP in CAD patients. Twenty-one male CAD patients were included. All patients completed two experimental sessions in random order: one control and one low-intensity isometric handgrip session. BP was measured by means of a 24-hour ambulatory BP monitor preintervention, for 1 hour in the office and subsequently for 24 hours. Our results suggest that isometric handgrip exercise performed at low intensity is safe in patients with CAD but does not induce a transient reduction in BP.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:02:59Z
       
  • Impaired metabolic profile is a predictor of capillary rarefaction in a
           population of hypertensive and normotensive individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 8
      Author(s): Areti Triantafyllou, Panagiota Anyfanti, Georgios Triantafyllou, Xenophon Zabulis, Spyros Aslanidis, Stella Douma
      Capillary rarefaction is typically encountered in essential hypertension, yet identification of factors interfering with this phenomenon remains substantially underinvestigated. We examined whether components of metabolic profile (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance), inflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor) factors are implicated in this phenomenon in a population of newly diagnosed, never-treated hypertensive patients and normotensive controls. Nailfold capillary density was estimated with nailfold capillaroscopy using specifically designed software. A total of 159 individuals, 93 hypertensives, and 66 normotensives were included. Nailfold capillary density was lower among hypertensives compared to normotensives (146.4 ± 31.0 vs. 155.4 ± 26.9, respectively; P = .047). In the total population, capillary density significantly correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = 0.232; P = .003), HDL/low-density lipoprotein ratio (r = 0.175; P = .025), age (r = 0.236; P = .003), but neither with vascular endothelial growth factor or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. An inverse association was found with body mass index (r = −0.174; P = .029), insulin levels (r = −0.200; P = .018), and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r = −0.223; P = .009). In the separate analysis for the hypertensive population, sex (P = .014) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (P = .011) were identified as significant predictors of capillary rarefaction after adjustment for other factors. On the contrary, only HDL levels (P = .036) predicted capillary density in the multiple regression model for the normotensive population. Different aspects of impaired metabolic profile, that is, insulin resistance and low HDL levels, but not angiogenic or inflammatory markers, appear to be independently associated with capillary rarefaction in hypertensive and normotensive individuals.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:02:59Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:02:59Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:02:59Z
       
  • Problems with the new guidelines
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 8
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:02:59Z
       
  • Aortic Root Dilatation in the Children and Young Adults: Prevalence,
           Determinants and Association with Target Organ Damage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Silvia Totaro, Franco Rabbia, Alberto Milan, Elaine M. Urbina, Franco Veglio
      Background Aortic root dilatation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensive adults. In the young, few data have been published evaluating the cardiovascular organ damage that may be present in patients with aortic dilatation. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of proximal aorta dilatation, its possible determinants and its relation with target organ damage in young subjects. Methods The aorta was measured at the level of the Sinus of Valsalva (SoV) and at its proximal ascending tract (pAA) in a total of 177 young subjects (11-35 years). Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between aortic size, clinical and haemodynamic parameters. Results Prevalence of pAA and SoV dilatation was 10.2% and 8.7%, respectively. No significant differences in prevalence were found in hypertensive, diabetic and obese subjects; aortic enlargement was less frequent in African-Americans. Age, sex and central pulse pressure were the most important determinants of aortic size Left ventricular mass was increased in patients with aortic enlargement and aortic size showed an inverse relation with indices of local distensibility. Conclusion The prevalence of aortic dilatation among young patients is high (10%). As in adults, age and BSA are the main determinants of aortic size. Dilatation of the ascending aorta is associated with an increased left ventricular mass, as in adults, but not with increased arterial stiffness. Local distensibility is reduced in patients with pAA enlargement.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:02:59Z
       
  • “Complexity, Controversies and Disagreements in Hypertension
           Treatment Goals”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Allan B. Schwartz
      Recent reports and trials were intended to improve and simplify the management of hypertension. Instead the opposite has occurred. Complexity, controversies and disagreements in the treatment of Hypertension is noted in the last four years: JNC 7 to JNC 8 to JNC ?; 2013 to 2014 to SPRINT in 2015 to 2016. Was it possible that the future would be a return to the past? These questions require discussion and hopefully a comprehensive resolution in our journals and national meetings.” SPRINT, although answering some questions, raises other questions and creates controversies. The “twenty questions” that must be addressed by every practitioner to formulate hypertension treatment goals, since no two patients are alike, including: age, fraility, race, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, TIA, what number is too high or too low, what medicine category to start, what combinations, ACE/ARB, what diuretic, CCB, Beta B, alpha AB, BP recording posture, time of day or night, type of BP recording device, aneroid, hand held bulb, analogue vs digital, etc., etc., etc... We shall look forward to a comprehensive and coordinated explanation of theses multiple hypertension management issues in our upcoming national journals and clinical and scientific gatherings and our national cardiovascular organizations.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
       
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 Attenuates Vascular Remodeling; Roles of
           Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Hirotomo Nakaoka, Masaki Mogi, Jun Suzuki, Harumi Kan-no, Li-Juan Min, Jun Iwanami, Masatsugu Horiuchi
      We previously reported interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 plays physiological roles in “growth”-regulated angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor expression in fibroblasts. Here, we investigated whether IRF-1 is involved in attenuation of vascular remodeling in association with AT2 receptor up-regulation. Neointimal area in injured artery after 14 days of cuff placement was significantly increased in IRF-1 knockout mice (IRF-1KO) and AT2 receptor knockout mice (AT2KO) compared with wild-type mice (WT: C57BL/6J). Treatment with compound 21 attenuated neointima formation in both WT and IRF-1KO. AT2 receptor mRNA expression after 7 days of cuff placement was significantly decreased in IRF-1KO compared with WT; however, IRF-1 expression did not differ between AT2KO and WT. Apoptotic changes in injured artery after 14 days of cuff placement were significantly attenuated in IRF-1KO, with a decrease in ICE and iNOS mRNA levels. These results indicate IRF-1 is one of the key transcriptional factors for the prevention of neointimal formation involving AT2 receptors. (155 words)


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
       
  • The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on cardiac patients’
           blood pressure, perceived stress and anger: a single-blind randomized
           controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Javad Momeni, Abdollah Omidi, Fariba Raygan, Hossein Akbari
      This study aimed at assessing the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction(MBSR) on cardiac patients’ blood pressure, perceived stress and anger. In total, 60 cardiac patients were recruited between April and June 2015 from a specialized private cardiac clinic located in Kashan, Iran. Patients were allocated to the intervention and control groups. Patients in the experimental group received MBSR in eight 2.5-hour sessions while patients in the control group received no psychological therapy. The main outcomes were blood pressure, perceived stress, and anger. Analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between the study groups regarding the posttest values of systolic blood pressure, perceived stress and anger (P< 0.001). However, the study groups did not differ significantly in terms of diastolic blood pressure (P=0.061, P= 0.17). This study reveals that MBSR is effective in reducing cardiac patients’ systolic blood pressure, perceived stress and anger.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
       
  • Effects of the novel norepinephrine prodrug, droxidopa, on ambulatory
           blood pressure in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Horacio Kaufmann, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, L. Arthur Hewitt, Gerald J. Rowse, William B. White
      The prodrug droxidopa increases blood pressure (BP) in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH). The BP profile of droxidopa in nOH patients (n=18) was investigated using ambulatory BP monitoring. Following dose optimization and a washout period, 24-hour “off-drug” data were collected. “On-drug” assessment was conducted after 4–5 weeks of droxidopa treatment (mean dose, 444 mg, 3 times daily). Ambulatory monitoring off drug revealed that 90% of patients already had abnormalities in the circadian BP profile and did not meet criteria for normal nocturnal BP dipping. On treatment, both overall mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic BPs were higher compared to off drug (137/81 mmHg vs 129/76 mmHg; P=0.017/0.002). Mean daytime systolic BP was significantly higher with droxidopa (8.4 ± 3.1 mmHg; P=0.014). Although nocturnal BP was not significantly higher on droxidopa versus off treatment (P=0.122), increases in nocturnal (supine) BP ≥10 mmHg were observed in 4 cases (22%). Severe supine systolic hypertensive readings at night (>200 mmHg) were captured in 1 case, and only while on treatment. These data demonstrate that ambulatory BP monitoring is useful to evaluate the circadian BP profile after initiating treatment with a pressor agent.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
       
  • Large artery stiffness is associated with gamma-glutamyltransferase in
           young, healthy adults: The African-PREDICT study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Melissa Maritz, Carla MT. Fourie, Johannes M. Van Rooyen, Sarah J. Moss, Aletta E. Schutte
      Increased arterial stiffness is linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, particularly in black populations. Since detrimental health behaviours in young adults may affect arterial stiffness, we determined whether arterial stiffness associates with specific health behaviours, and whether it is more pronounced in young healthy black compared to white adults. We included 373 participants, (49% black, 42% men) aged 20-30 years. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was higher for blacks than whites (p<0.001), but carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was similar (6.37 vs. 6.36 m/s; p=0.89) after adjustment for MAP. The black group had higher gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (p<0.001), cotinine, reactive oxygen species, interleukin-6 and monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (all p≤0.017). PWV related positively and independently to GGT in both groups before and after multiple-adjustments (both β=0.15; p≤0.049). Blacks had an unfavourable vascular profile and higher GGT, possibly indicating a higher vulnerability to CVD development, including changes in arterial stiffness. However, this observation needs confirmation.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
       
  • Long-term Safety of Droxidopa in Patients With Symptomatic Neurogenic
           Orthostatic Hypotension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Stuart Isaacson, Steven Vernino, Adam Ziemann, Gerald J. Rowse, Uwa Kalu, William B. White
      The long-term safety of droxidopa for the treatment of symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) in patients with Parkinson disease, pure autonomic failure, multiple system atrophy, or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy was evaluated in a phase 3, multinational, open-label study in patients who previously participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of droxidopa. A total of 350 patients received droxidopa 100 to 600 mg 3 times daily. Mean duration of droxidopa exposure was 363 days (range, 2–1133 days). Rates of serious adverse events (AEs), cardiac-related AEs, and supine hypertension were 24%, 5%, and 5%, respectively. Most AEs, including those of a cardiovascular nature, were not attributed by investigators to droxidopa. In this large cohort of patients with nOH, droxidopa was well tolerated during long-term use.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:35:53Z
       
  • Acculturation and Changes in Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and
           Waist-Hip Ratio among Filipino Americans with Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Reimund Serafica, Alona D. Angosta
      The purpose of this research study was to examine whether level of acculturation is a predictor of body mass index (BMI), wait circumference (WC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in Filipino Americans with hypertension in the United States (U.S.) The Filipino Americans (N=108) were recruited from a primary care clinic in the U.S. Two instruments were used to collect and operationalize the variables, specifically: (1) Socioeconomic/Demographic Questionnaire; and (2) A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Descriptive statistics and Partial Least Squares (PLS) were used to calculate the results. The PLS path model identified acculturation as a predictor of BMI, WC, and WHR among Filipino Americans. The positive path coefficient (β = .384) was statistically significant (t = 5.92, p < .001). Health care providers need to stress the importance of the degree of acculturation when developing culturally appropriate lifestyle and health promotion interventions among immigrant patients with hypertension.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T16:31:53Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2016-07-29T16:31:53Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 7




      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:42:46Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 10, Issue 7




      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:42:46Z
       
  • Subclinical hypothyroidism causing hypertension in pregnancy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Rishi Ramtahal, Andrew Dhanoo
      This is a case of a 25-year-old primigravida who was referred to the hypertension specialist for elevated blood pressures. The patient had an elevated Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) with normal free Thyroxine (T4) levels and was positive for Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Ab) resulting in a diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. The patient was successfully treated with levothyroxine which normalised the blood pressure without the need for antihypertensive treatment. This case illustrates a cause of secondary hypertension that is not always considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with hypertension in pregnancy.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:42:46Z
       
  • Hypovitaminosis D Predicts the Onset of Orthostatic Hypotension in Older
           Adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Nicola Veronese, Caterina Trevisan, Francesco Bolzetta, Marina De Rui, Sabina Zambon, Estella Musacchio, Leonardo Sartori, Brendon Stubbs, Egle Perissinotto, Gaetano Crepaldi, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi
      A number of small cross sectional studies have demonstrated that hypovitaminosis D (represented by low 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels) is associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH). We investigated if hypovitaminosis D is associated with the onset of OH in older adults over a follow-up of 4.4 years. 25OHD was categorized using sex specific quartiles; OH was defined as a drop of ≤20 mm Hg in systolic or ≤10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure <3 minutes of standing. Among 1,308 elderly without OH at baseline, using an adjusted logistic regression analysis and taking those with higher baseline serum 25OHD as reference, there was a significant increase in the onset of OH in those with lower serum 25OHD levels. The association was significant only in women when we stratified by sex. In conclusion, hypovitaminosis D predicts the onset of OH in older adults, particularly in women.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T10:57:21Z
       
  • Hypotension based on office and ambulatory monitoring blood pressure.
           Prevalence and clinical profile among a cohort of 70,997 treated
           hypertensives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): J.A. Divisón-Garrote, J.R. Banegas, J.J. De la Cruz, C. Escobar-Cervantes, A. De la Sierra, M. Gorostidi, E. Vinyoles, J. Abellán-Aleman, J. Segura, L.M. Ruilope
      We aimed to determine the prevalence of hypotension and factors associated with the presence of this condition in treated hypertensive patients undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Data were taken from the Spanish ABPM Registry. Office blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP were determined using validated devices under standardized conditions. Based on previous studies, hypotension was defined as office systolic/diastolic BP <110 and/or 70 mmHg, daytime ABPM <105 and/or 65 mmHg, nighttime ABPM <90 and/or 50 mmHg, and 24-h ABPM <100 and/or 60 mmHg. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the variables associated with the presence of hypotension. A total of 70,997 hypertensive patients on treatment (mean age 61.8 years, 52.5% men) were included in the study. The prevalence of hypotension was 8.2% with office BP, 12.2% with daytime ABPM, 3.9% with nighttime ABPM and 6.8% with 24-h ABPM. Low diastolic BP values were responsible for the majority of cases of hypotension. Some 68% of the hypotension cases detected by daytime ABPM did not correspond to hypotension according to office BP. The variables independently and consistently associated with higher likelihood of office, daytime, and 24h-based hypotension were age, female gender, history of ischemic heart disease and body mass index <30 kg/ m2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, in this large cohort of patients in usual daily practice, one in 8 treated hypertensive patients are at risk of hypotension according to daytime BP. Two thirds of them are not adequately identified with office BP. ABPM could be especially helpful for identifying ambulatory hypotension, in particular in patients who are older, women, or with previous ischemic heart disease where antihypertensive treatment should be especially individualized and cautious.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
       
  • Does masked hypertension impact left ventricular deformation?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Vladan Vukomanovic, Vera Celic, Ivan Tasic, Ana Stevanovic, Vesna Kocijancic
      Objective Our aim was to compare left ventricular (LV) deformation in subjects with masked hypertension (MH) to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. Methods This cross-sectional study included 185 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and complete two-dimensional echocardiographic examination (2DE) including multilayer strain analysis. MH was diagnosed if clinic blood pressure (BP) was normal (<140/90 mmHg) and 24-hour BP was increased (≥130/80 mmHg). Results 2DE LV longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually and significantly decreased from normotensive controls across MH individuals to sustained hypertensive patients. 2DE radial strain was not different between groups. 2DE longitudinal and circumferential endocardial and mid-myocardial layer strains progressively decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive individuals. Longitudinal and circumferential epicardial layer strains were lower in sustained hypertensive patients than in normotensive controls. Clinic and 24-hour systolic BP were associated with 2DE LV longitudinal endocardial strain, mid-myocardial strain and 2DE circumferential endocardial strain in the whole study population independent of LV structure and diastolic function. Conclusion MH significantly affect LV deformation assessed by 2DE traditional strain and 2DE multilayer strain. Clinic and 24h systolic BP were associated with LV mechanics evaluated with comprehensive 2DE strain analysis independent of LV structure and diastolic function.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
       
  • Controversies in Hypertension: Is lower blood pressure always better?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Sheldon Tobe, Joseph L. Izzo
      Cardiovascular disease risk is continuously related to BP over the range of about 115/75 to 185/115 mmHg, yet all clinical guidelines use arbitrary cutoffs to determine acceptable antihypertensive therapy. There is substantial conflict in the results of clinical trials with respect to how low the most appropriate BP threshold should be to reduce CVD and renal risk. This divergence should not be surprising given the intrinsic differences in circulatory anatomy and physiology among the heart, brain, vessels, and kidney. In the real world, however, discreet BP targets or even ranges may be a tolerable practical necessity as long as it is recognized that any arbitrary threshold in a continuous relationship can serve as both a stimulus and a barrier to effective treatment. Overall, it may be necessary to assess risk differentially by organ or disease process; lower systolic pressure is most beneficial in preventing recurrent stroke and heart failure episodes, benefits on kidney function and ischemic heart disease are less demonstrable for a variety of scientific and experimental design reasons. It may also be a good time for practice guideline writers and individual physicians to re-evaluate the benefits of lower BP targets.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
       
  • HOPE-3—Finding the positive in the negative
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch



      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
       
  • Vascular Peroxidase 1 Up-Regulation by Angiotensin II Attenuates Nitric
           Oxide Production Through Increasing Asymmetrical Dimethylarginine in
           HUVECs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Haiyang Peng, Luyao Chen, Xiao Huang, Tianlun Yang, Zaixin Yu, Guangjie Cheng, Guogang Zhang, Ruizheng Shi
      Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), contributes to endothelial dysfunction and subsequent cardiovascular events including hypertension. Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) is a novel heme-containing peroxidase that utilizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated from co-expressed nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase to catalyze peroxidative reactions. Our previous study revealed a clear connection between VPO1 gene expression and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the present study, we explored whether VPO1 participates in endothelial dysfunction during hypertension by increasing ADMA production. Spontaneously hypertensive rats displayed impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, decreased eNOS expression and nitric oxide production, significantly increased VPO1 expression in both plasma and aorta tissue, and an increased ADMA level in plasma. In cultured endothelial cells, angiotensin II increased the ADMA level by inhibiting dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity, which was inhibited by knockdown of VPO1 using small hairpin RNA. Moreover, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and the hydrogen peroxide scavenger attenuated angiotensin II-mediated up-regulation of VPO1 and generation of hypochlorous acid. Furthermore, VPO1-derived hypochlorous acid suppressed recombinant dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity and increased ADMA production. VPO1 plays a critical role in ADMA production via H2O2–VPO1– hypochlorous acid pathways, which may contribute to endothelial dysfunction in hypertension.
      Teaser The present study revealed that VPO1 plays a role in endothelial dysfunction in SHR by enhancing ADMA production and that this effect of VPO1 was fulfilled by inhibiting DDAH-2 activity via the VPO1 product HOCl. The present study also elucidated that VPO1 acts downstream of NOX and plays an important role in NOX-mediated oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension.

      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
       
  • Target blood pressure for patients with hypertension: Lower Blood Pressure
           is not better
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Simon W. Rabkin
      The ‘lower is better’ hypothesis for BP management, is too simplistic, does not take into account the complexity of the other conditions that patients with hypertension may have and ignores: the basic and sometimes complex pathophysiology of organ blood flow; the presence, severity and location of atherosclerosis; the mechanism of the effects of antihypertensive drugs on SBP and DBP and the epidemiologic data relating BP to cardiovascular outcomes at lower DBP levels. A number of studies in conditions including coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus have demonstrated that BP reductions to much lower levels than 140/90 either do not further reduce or may increase cardiovascular events. In summary, rigid adherence to a lower is better strategy for all patients is not warranted. Rather clinicians must treat their patients recognize the patients’ co-morbid diseases along with their severity, as well as the patient’s risk for cardiovascular events and drug-induced complications.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
       
  • Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Gestational Hypertension: Causal or
           Coincidence?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Andrea Kattah, Vesna D. Garovic



      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
       
  • Prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities based on hypertension
           severity and blood pressure levels: The REasons for Geographic and Racial
           Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Hemal Bhatt, Christopher M. Gamboa, Monika M. Safford, Elsayad Soliman, Stephen P. Glasser
      Background We evaluated the prevalence of major and minor electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities based on blood pressure (BP) control and hypertension (HTN) treatment resistance. Methods We analyzed data from the REGARDS study of 20,932 participants who were divided into presence of major (n = 3,782), only minor (n = 8,944) or no (n = 8,206) ECG abnormalities. The cohort was stratified into normotension (n = 3,373), prehypertension (n = 4,142), controlled HTN (n = 8,619), uncontrolled HTN (n = 3,544), controlled apparent treatment resistant HTN (aTRH, n = 400) and uncontrolled aTRH (n = 854) groups and the prevalence ratios (PR) of major and minor ECG abnormalities were assessed separately for each BP group. The full multi-variable adjustment included demographics, risk factors and HTN duration. Results Compared with normotension, the PRs of major ECG abnormalities for prehypertension, controlled HTN, uncontrolled HTN, controlled aTRH and uncontrolled aTRH groups were 1.01 (0.90 – 1.14), 1.30 (1.16 – 1.45), 1.37 (1.23 – 1.54), 1.42 (1.22 – 1.64) and 1.44 (1.26 – 1.65) respectively (p < 0.001), whereas, the PRs of minor ECG abnormalities among each of the above BP groups were similar. Conclusion Detection of major ECG abnormalities among hypertensive persons with poor control and treatment resistance may help improve their cardiovascular risk stratification and early intervention.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T08:36:49Z
       
  • Lower is better in hypertension, but how low should blood pressure be
           targeted?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Rhian M. Touyz



      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:35:39Z
       
  • Important practice lessons from the SPRINT study beyond the blood pressure
           goal: All well-known and now confirmed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): George S. Stergiou, Michael Doumas, Anastasios Kollias, Vasilios Papademetriou



      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:35:39Z
       
  • Significance of adjusting salt intake by body weight in the evaluation of
           dietary salt and blood pressure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Tomomi Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Takase, Tateo Okado, Tomonori Sugiura, Sumiyo Yamashita, Genjiro Kimura, Nobuyuki Ohte, Yasuaki Dohi
      The close association between dietary salt and hypertension is well established. However, previous studies generally assessed salt intake without adjustment for body weight. Herein, we investigated the significance of body weight-adjusted salt intake in the general population. The present cross-sectional study included 7,629 participants from our yearly physical checkup program and their salt intake was assessed using a spot urine test to estimate 24-hour urinary salt excretion. Total salt intake increased with increasing body weight. Body weight-adjusted salt intake was greater in participants with hypertension than in those without hypertension. Systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin were independently correlated with body weight-adjusted salt intake after adjustment for possible cardiovascular risk factors. Excessive body weight-adjusted salt intake could be related to an increase in blood pressure and hypertensive organ damage. Adjustment for body weight might therefore provide clinically important information when assessing individual salt intake.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:35:39Z
       
  • Spironolactone and glucose metabolism, a systematic review and
           meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jie V. Zhao, Lin Xu, Shi Lin Lin, C Mary Schooling
      Diabetes predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD); some drugs are effective for CVD prevention but increase the risk of diabetes. In a systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials we assessed if spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, affected glycemic control. We searched PubMed using (“spironolactone” or “aldactone”) and trial and (“glucose” or “diabetes” or “insulin” or “insulin resistance”) from March 3, 2015 to January 4, 2016. In total, 18 eligible trials were identified; 10 on fasting glucose, 8 on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 7 on homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (IR) and 8 on insulin. Spironolactone increased HbA1c (0.16%, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.30), but had no clear effect on fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and insulin. A mechanistic randomized controlled trial in people with and without diabetes might provide insight concerning these pleiotropic effects on diabetes and CVD relevant to prevention of both diseases.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:20Z
       
  • Renal denervation in the era of HTN-3. Comprehensive review and glimpse
           into the future
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Joana Delgado Silva, Marco Costa, Bernard J. Gersh, Lino Gonçalves
      The pathophysiologic role of sympathetic overactivity in conditions such as hypertension has been well documented. [1] Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) is a minimally invasive percutaneous procedure which aims to disrupt sympathetic nerve afferent and efferent activity through the application of radiofrequency energy directly within the renal artery wall. This technique has emerged as a very promising treatment with dramatic effects upon refractory hypertension but also in other conditions in which a sympathetic influence is present. Several studies have evaluated the safety and efficacy of this procedure, presently surrounded by controversy since the recent outcome of Symplicity HTN-3, the first randomized, sham-control trial, which failed to confirm RDN previous reported benefits on BP and cardiovascular risk lowering. Consequently, although some centers halted their RDN programs, research continues and both the concept of denervation and treatment strategies are being redefined in order to identify patients who can drive the most benefit from this technology. In the United States, The FDA has appropriately mandated that RDN remains an investigative procedure and a new generation of sham controlled trials are ongoing and aimed to assess not only its efficacy against pharmacotherapy but also trials in drug free patients with the objective of demonstrating once and for all whether the procedure actually does lower BP in comparison to a placebo arm. In this article, we present an overview of the sympathetic nervous system and its role in hypertension, examine the current data on RDN and share some insights and future expectations.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:20Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:20Z
       
  • Gender, Race, Age, and Regional Differences in the Association of Pulse
           Pressure with Atrial Fibrillation: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial
           Differences in Stroke Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Lama Ghazi, Monika M. Safford, Yulia Khodneva, Wesley T. O’Neal, Elsayed Z. Soliman, Stephen P. Glasser
      Background Pulse pressure (PP) has been associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) independent of other measures of arterial pressure, and other AF risk factors. However, the impact of gender, race, age, and geographic region on the association between PP and AF is unclear. Method A cross-sectional study of data from 25,109 participants (65±9 years of age), 54% women, 40% black) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study recruited between 2003 and 2007 were analyzed. AF was defined as a self-reported history of a previous physician diagnosis, or presence of AF on ECG. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio for AF. Interactions for age (< and >75 years), gender, race, and region were examined in the multivariable adjusted model. Results The prevalence of AF increased with widening PP (7.9%, 7.9%, 8.4%, and 11.6%, for PP <45, 45-54.9, 55-64.9, and >65 mm Hg, respectively, [p for trend <0.001]), but attenuated with adjustment. No differences by gender, race, and region were observed. However, there was evidence of significant effect modification by age (interaction p=0.0002). For those <75 years of age, PP >65 mm Hg compared to PP<45 mm Hg was significantly associated with higher risk of AF in both the unadjusted and multivariable adjusted models (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.42-1.94] and 1.32 [95% CI 1.03-1.70], respectively). In contrast, higher PP (55-64.9 mm Hg) among those >75 years of age was significantly associated with a lower risk of AF. Conclusion The relationship between PP and AF may differ for older vs. younger individuals.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:07:20Z
       
 
 
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