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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1201 journals)
    - HISTORY (783 journals)
    - History (General) (49 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (43 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (45 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AND OTHER AREAS (8 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (146 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (104 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (23 journals)

HISTORY (783 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Historical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Historical Reflections     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Historical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Historical Research Letter     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Historical Studies in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Historical Studies in Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Historically Speaking     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Histories of Anthropology Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Historiographia Linguistica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Historiography East and West     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Historische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Historiæ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History & Memory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
History Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
History Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
History in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
History of CERN     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
History of Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
History of Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
History of Education: Journal of the History of Education Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
History of European Ideas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
History of Political Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
History of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
History of Religions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
History of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
History Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HSE - Social and Education History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IKON     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Il Capitale Culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ILCEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Illawarra Unity - Journal of the Illawarra Branch of the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Images re-vues : histoire, anthropologie et théorie de l'art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Immigrants & Minorities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Economic & Social History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indonesia and the Malay World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Inner Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intellectual History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intermédialités : histoire et théorie des arts, des lettres et des techniques / Intermedialities: History and Theory of the Arts, Literature and Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Bibliography of Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Culture and History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
International Journal of Regional and Local History     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Society Systems Science     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Politics     Partially Free   (Followers: 21)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iran and the Caucasus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Irish Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Isis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Israel Studies Forum     Full-text available via subscription  
Itinerari di ricerca storica     Open Access  
Japanese Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal Asiatique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Contemporary History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal for Maritime Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for the Study of Judaism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal for the Study of Radicalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Aging, Humanities, and the Arts: Official Journal of the Gerontological Society of America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of American-East Asian Relations     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Australian Colonial History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Australian Naval History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Baltic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of British Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Conflict Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Contemporary Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Contemporary China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Contemporary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Coptic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cuneiform Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Early Modern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ecclesiastical History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of English and Germanic Philology (JEGP)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of European Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Family History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Global History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Historical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Historical Linguistics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Historical Pragmatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Historical Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover   Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
  [SJR: 1.15]   [H-I: 22]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1933-1711
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2800 journals]
  • Oxidative stress, oxidative balance score, and hypertension among a
           racially diverse population
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Francis B. Annor, Michael Goodman, Ike S. Okosun, Douglas W. Wilmot, Dora Il'yasova, Murugi Ndirangu, Sindhu Lakkur
      Hypertension is a risk factor for several vascular diseases. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress (OS) plays a significant role in its pathophysiology. Human studies have shown inconsistent results, varying based on the OS biomarker and study population. In a racially diverse population, examine the association between: (1) blood pressure or hypertension and four markers of OS and (2) blood pressure or hypertension and oxidative balance score (OBS). Using data (n = 317) from the cross-sectional study on race, stress, and hypertension, an OBS was constructed from various measures of pro-oxidant and antioxidant exposures. OS was assessed by four biomarkers: fluorescence oxidative products, F2-isoprostanes, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and gamma tocopherol. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of interest. None of the adjusted associations between hypertension and OS markers was statistically significant. OBS was inversely associated with hypertension after adjusting for study covariates. Persons with higher OBS have lower odds of having hypertension; however, the evidence on the relationship between OS markers and blood pressure remains unconvincing.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Uric acid levels within the normal range predict increased risk of
           hypertension: a cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Adi Leiba, Shlomo Vinker, Dganit Dinour, Eliezer J. Holtzman, Michal Shani
      There are data describing that cardiovascular risks related to serum uric acid (SUA) levels may begin below the current diagnostic level for hyperuricemia. Values from 5.2 to 6.0 mg/dL were positively associated with higher cardiovascular risk. The risk associated with lower SUA levels has not been fully assessed in healthy adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether normal SUA levels, even below 5–6 mg/dL, might be related to an increased risk of hypertension, compared with low–normal SUA. This cohort study was conducted in an outpatient setting: all clinics of the largest Health Maintenance Organization in Israel, in a national distribution. A total of 118,920 healthy adults (40–70 years old), who had SUA levels screened during 2002, were eligible for the study. They were stratified according to baseline SUA, and were followed for 10 years. The study endpoint was any new diagnosis of hypertension during the study period (until December 31, 2011). During 10 years of follow–up (2002–2011), 28,436 examinees developed hypertension (23.9%). Compared with the pre–defined SUA reference values (2–3 mg/dL), women with SUA within the normal range had a gradual, increased risk of developing new–onset hypertension, starting at values as low as 3–4 mg/dL (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.30). Women with SUA 5–6 mg/dL, still accepted as normouricemia, had a 66% increased risk of developing hypertension. Younger women (ages 40–50 years at baseline) in a similar SUA subgroup (5–6 mg/dL) had an even higher risk (odds ratio, 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.96–2.60). Similar results were seen among men. The possibility of subtle confounders exists, despite extensive adjustment. SUA within the normal range is associated with new–onset hypertension among healthy adults, compared with once very common low–normal range values. Further study is warranted to determine new cutoffs of hypo–, normo–, and hyperuricemia, which might be far lower than current scales.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Look carefully before you jump
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Stefan Engeli



      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • A mechanism for mineralocortcoid participation in renal disease and heart
           failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Richard N. Re
      Various forms of chronic renal disease as well as congestive heart failure progress irrespective of currently available supportive care. Clinical evidence indicates that blockade of the renin–angiotensin system and/or mineralocorticoid inhibition are partially effective. Recently, it was suggested that the initiation of feed–forward intracrine loops such as renin–angiotensin system up–regulation can explain the progression of disease in the face of the control of initiating factors such as high glucose or hypertension. Here, these notions are expanded to include a potential interaction of mineralocorticoid activity with intracrine renin–angiotensin system up–regulation. In addition to suggesting therapeutic interventions, these observations lead to an expanded view of intracrine physiology.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Simultaneously measured inter-arm and inter-leg systolic
           blood pressure differences and cardiovascular
           risk stratification: a systemic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Sukhchain Singh, Ankur Sethi, Mukesh Singh, Kavia Khosla, Navsheen Grewal, Sandeep Khosla
      Association of inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference (IASBPD) with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality remains controversial. We aimed to thoroughly examine all available evidence on inter-limb blood pressure (BP) difference and its association with CV risk and outcomes. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, and Ovid for studies reporting bilateral simultaneous BP measurements in arms or legs and risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, subclavian stenosis, or mortality. Random-effect meta-analysis was performed to compare effect estimates. Twenty-seven studies met inclusion criteria, but only 17 studies (18 cohorts) were suitable for analysis. IASBPD of 10 mmHg or more was associated with PAD (risk ratios, 2.22; 1.41–3.5; P = .0006; sensitivity 16.6%; 6.7–35.4; specificity 91.9%; 83.1–96.3; 8 cohorts; 4774 subjects), left ventricular mass index (standardized mean difference 0.21; 0.03–0.39; P = .02; 2 cohort; 1604 subjects), and brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) (one cohort). Association of PAD remained significant at cutoff of 15 mmHg (risk ratios, 1.91; 1.28–2.84; P = .001; 5 cohorts; 1914 subjects). We could not find statistically significant direct association of coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, CV, and all-cause mortality in subjects with IASBPD of 10 mmHg or more, 15 mmHg or more, and inter-leg systolic BP difference of 15 mmHg or more. Inter-leg BP difference of 15 mmHg or more was strong predictor of PAD (P = .0001) and brachial–ankle PWV (P = .0001). Two invasive studies showed association of IASBPD and subclavian stenosis (estimates could not be combined). In conclusion, inter-arm and leg BP differences are strong predictors of PAD. IASBPD may be associated with subclavian stenosis, high left ventricular mass effect, and higher brachial–ankle PWVs. Inter-leg BP difference may also be associated with high left ventricular mass effect and higher brachial–ankle PWVs. Presence of inter-limb BP difference may indicate higher global CV risk.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “RESPeRATE: the role of paced breathing in
           hypertension treatment” Journal of the American Society of
           Hypertension 9(1) (2015) 38-47
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Relu Cernes, Reuven Zimlichman



      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Re: “RESPeRATE: the role of paced breathing in hypertension
           treatment”
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Kornelis J.J. van Hateren, Gijs W.D. Landman, Nanne Kleefstra



      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • The reply
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Reuven Zimlichman



      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Treatment: special conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Clive Rosendorff



      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Treatment: special conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex during
           working memory in essential hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Hercules Grant, Yagesh Bhambhani, Anthony Singhal
      Behavioral performance and hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) represent cerebrovascular reserve and may indicate functional deficits related to essential hypertension. Fifteen stage 1 hypertensive and normotensive males (19–55 years) were compared on four tests of working memory (digit span and auditory consonant trigrams), and accompanying hemodynamic changes measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). With participants blindfolded, the four tests were randomized while fNIRS was used to monitor bilateral PFC changes in oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), total hemoglobin (tHb), and hemoglobin difference. The hypertensive group demonstrated significant impairment in performance on the working memory tests with a trend of decreased efficiency performance scores (tests score/O2Hb and tHb changes). Significant correlations were noted in the hypertensive group between test performance and changes in O2Hb and tHb in both the left and right PFC. These findings suggest that fNIRS combined with cognitive testing may provide important measures of cerebrovascular reserve in essential hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • The effect of the addition of allopurinol on blood pressure control in
           African Americans treated with a thiazide-like diuretic
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Mark S. Segal, Titte R. Srinivas, Rajesh Mohandas, Jonathan J. Shuster, Xuerong Wen, Elaine Whidden, JogiRaju Tantravahi, Richard J. Johnson
      We tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase inhibition among African Americans receiving the thiazide-type diuretic chlorthalidone may improve blood pressure control with fewer hyperuricemia-related side effects. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of African Americans with Stage 1 hypertension without clinically significant renal disease. One hundred fifty African American men or women between the ages of 18 and 65 years who met the exclusion/inclusion criteria with untreated or treated hypertension were started on chlorthalidone (25 mg/d) and potassium chloride. After a 5-week run-in on chlorthalidone, baseline testing was performed and they were randomized to allopurinol (300 mg/dL) or placebo with doses adjusted based on uric acid levels and followed for 8 weeks. One hundred ten subjects completed the study. Baseline systolic blood pressures after the 5-week chlorthalidone run-in were 119.9 ± 13.6 in the allopurinol group and 117 ± 11.2 in the placebo group indicating excellent blood pressure control with the single agent. After at least 4 week postrandomization, the difference in mean change in systolic blood pressure in allopurinol less placebo from visits 5 to 3 was 4.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, −0.2 to 8.7; P = .059). The difference in mean change in uric acid levels over the same period was 2.1 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, 1.7–2.6; P < .001). The use of chlorthalidone with or without allopurinol resulted in excellent blood pressure control. The addition of allopurinol tended to improve clinic blood pressure, but the difference from the group receiving chlorthalidone alone was not statistically significant.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Association between plasma adiponectin and arteriolar
           vessel caliber among elderly hypertensive subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 9, Issue 8
      Author(s): Marina Beltrami-Moreira, Lu Qi, Marcelo K. Maestri, Flávio D. Fuchs, Helena M. Pakter, Leila B. Moreira, Miguel Gus, Ursula S. Matte, Angela M.V. Tavares, Manuel M. Oliveira, Sandra C. Fuchs
      Circulating adiponectin has been related to vascular diseases, but few studies examined the relationship between plasma adiponectin and microvascular abnormalities among hypertensive individuals. We tested the association between plasma adiponectin level and retinal vessel calibers in patients with hypertension.This study included 172 patients with confirmed hypertension, aged 18–80 years. Subjects with recent cardiovascular events, advanced heart failure and end-stage renal disease were excluded. Arteriolar and venular calibers were measured in retinographies using a microdensitometric image-processing method. Blood pressure was measured using a validated oscillometric device. We observed a statistically significant inverse association between plasma adiponectin and arteriolar caliber among participants aged 60 years or older after controlling for confounders (Adjusted β = −0.42; P = .001). In the final model, HbA1C and low–density lipoprotein also remained independently associated with arteriolar caliber. There was no association of adiponectin with venular caliber and retinal vessel calibers in participants <60 years old.Adiponectin is inversely associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in elderly hypertensive participants, suggesting that plasma adiponectin may be a marker of microvascular damage and of higher cardiovascular risk in this age stratum


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T08:07:53Z
       
  • Stroke: cautions and promises
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-08-25T07:53:12Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2015-08-25T07:53:12Z
       
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Essential Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Songcang Chen, Yingxian Sun, Devendra K. Agrawal
      Essential hypertension (EH) results when the balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation is shifted in favor of vasoconstriction. This balance is controlled by the interaction of genetic and epigenetic factors. When there is an unstable balance, vitamin D deficiency as an epigenetic factor triggers a shift to the side of vasoconstriction. In this article, we critically analyze clinical findings on the effect of vitamin D on blood pressure, combined with progress in molecular mechanisms. We find that vitamin D repletion exerts a clinically significant antihypertensive effect in vitamin D-deficient EH patients. Of note, a few trials reported no antihypertensive effect from vitamin D due to suboptimal study design. Short-term vitamin D supplementation has no effect on blood pressure in normotensive subjects. This could explain the mixed results and may provide a theoretical basis for future trials to identify beneficial effects of vitamin D in intervention for EH.


      PubDate: 2015-08-21T07:14:43Z
       
  • Gender-specific protective effect of the -463G&gt;A polymorphism of
           myeloperoxidase gene against the risk of essential hypertension in
           Russians
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Olga Bushueva, Maria Solodilova, Vladimir Ivanov, Alexey Polonikov
      The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a common polymorphism -463G>A (rs2333227) in the promoter of myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene, an oxidant enzyme producing hypohalogenic radicals, is associated with the risk of essential hypertension (EH) in Russian population. A total of 2,044 unrelated subjects including 1,256 EH patients and 788 normotensive controls were recruited for this study. Genotyping of the MPO gene polymorphism was done using TaqMan-based assay. A genotype -463GA was associated with decreased risk of essential hypertension (OR=0.82, 95% CI 0.68-1.00) at a borderline significance level (P=0.05). The gender-stratified analysis showed that a carriage of the -463GA and AA genotypes is associated with decreased EH risk only in females (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.96, P=0.02). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting a negative association between the -463G>A polymorphism of the MPO gene and essential hypertension risk. Molecular mechanisms by which myeloperoxidase gene is involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-08-21T07:14:43Z
       
  • Editorial: Efficacy of Folic Acid in Primary Prevention of Stroke Among
           Patients With Hypertension in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Sangita Goel, Franz H. Messerli



      PubDate: 2015-08-21T07:14:43Z
       
  • Angiotensin-(1-7) Enhances the Effects of Angiotensin II on the Cardiac
           Sympathetic Afferent Reflex and Sympathetic Activity in Rostral
           Ventrolateral Medulla in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Peng Li, Feng Zhang, Hai-Jian Sun, Feng Zhang, Ying Han
      Excessive sympathetic activity propels the pathogenesis and progression of organ damage in hypertension. Enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is involved in sympathetic activation in hypertension. Given the important role of the renin–angiotensin (Ang) system in regulating sympathetic outflow and cardiovascular activity, the current study aimed to investigate the roles of Ang-(1-7) in Ang II-induced CSAR and the sympathetic activation responses in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of hypertensive rats. The two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) method was used to induce renovascular hypertension. Responses of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to epicardial application of capsaicin were used to evaluate the CSAR in sinoaortic-denervated and cervical-vagotomized rats with anesthesia. Both Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the RVLM caused greater increases in RSNA and MAP in 2K1C rats than in sham-operated (Sham) rats, and enhanced CSAR independently. RVLM pretreatment with Ang-(1-7) dose-dependently augmented the effects of Ang II on RSNA, MAP and CSAR in 2K1C rats. Mas receptor antagonist A-779 in the RVLM exhibited more powerful inhibitory effects on RSNA, MAP and CSAR than the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. The expression of both the AT1 receptor and Mas receptor proteins in the RVLM increased, but neither the Ang II nor Ang-(1-7) levels in the RVLM changed significantly in the 2K1C rats compared with the Sham rats. These results indicate that Ang-(1-7) in the RVLM enhances the CSAR and sympathetic output not only by itself but also through enhancing the effects of Ang II in renovascular hypertensive rats. Both endogenous Ang-(1-7) and Ang II in the RVLM contribute to the enhanced CSAR and sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-08-21T07:14:43Z
       
  • Uncertainty about the numbers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-08-17T06:27:20Z
       
  • Balancing the short- and long-term risks of endovascular compared with
           open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch



      PubDate: 2015-08-17T06:27:20Z
       
  • Circulating renalase, catecholamines and vascular adhesion protein 1 in
           hypertensive patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Dominika Maciorkowska, Edyta Zbroch, Jolanta Malyszko
      Objctives The aim of the study was to estimate and correlate circulating levels of renalase, VAP-1, catecholamines in patients with primary hypertension. Methods The renalase, VAP-1 and catecholamines concentration was estimated in 121 hypertensive patients. The correlation between renalase, VAP-1 levels and catecholamine concentration in blood, blood pressure control, pharmacological therapy and medical history were taken in to consideration. Results The median office blood pressure was 145.5/86 mmHg and was significantly higher than the median home blood pressure measurement value, which was 135/80 mmHg, p<0.05. Circulating renalase and VAP-1 (Me 9.57 μg/ml and Me=326.7 ng/ml) levels were significantly higher in patients with hypertension comparing to healthy individuals (3.83 μg/ml and 248.37ng/ml p<0.05). The correlation between renalase and noradrenalin concentration in blood was observed (r=0.549; p<0.05), also the correlation between VAP-1 and noradrenaline was noticed (r=0.21, p=0.029). Renalase level was higher in patients with coronary artery disease and correlated with decreased ejection fraction. VAP-1 concentration correlated also with left ventricular ejection fraction (r =-0.23, p=0.013). Hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus had almost statistically significant higher VAP-1 concentration compared to hypertensive patients without diabetes mellitus (Me=403.22 ng/ml vs Me=326,68 ng/ml, p=0.064). In multiple regression analysis renalase was predicted by plasma dopamine and norepinephrine as also diastolic office blood pressure and left ventricle ejection fraction. Conclusions Circulating renalase and VAP-1 levels are elevated in patients with poor blood pressure control. Its correlation with noradrenalin concentration need further studies to find out the role of renalase as also VAP-1 in pathogenesis and treatment of hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-08-12T04:57:24Z
       
  • Correlations of plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration with
           ambulatory blood pressure responses to nebivolol and valsartan, alone and
           in combination, in hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Thomas D. Giles, George Bakris, Suzanne Oparil, Michael A. Weber, Huiling Li, Madhuja Malick, David B. Bharucha, ChunLin Chen, William G. Ferguson
      Following demonstration of the antihypertensive efficacy of the combination of the beta-blocker nebivolol and the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) valsartan in an 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N=4,161), we now report the effects of this treatment on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in a substudy (n=805). Plasma renin activity (PRA) increased with valsartan (54-73%) and decreased with nebivolol (51-65%) and the combination treatment (17-39%). Plasma aldosterone decreased with individual treatments (valsartan: 11-22%; nebivolol, 20-26%), with the largest reduction (35%) observed with maximum combination dose (20 mg nebivolol/320 mg valsartan). Baseline ln(PRA) correlated with the 8-week reductions in 24-h systolic and diastolic BP following treatments with the combination (all doses combined, P=0.003 and P<0.001) and nebivolol (both: P<0.001), but not with valsartan. Baseline ln(aldosterone) correlated with 24-h systolic and diastolic BP reductions following combination treatment only (P<0.001 and P=0.005). The implications of the RAAS effects of this beta-blocker/ARB combination should be explored further.


      PubDate: 2015-08-12T04:57:24Z
       
  • An Analysis of the Blood Pressure and Safety Outcomes to Renal Denervation
           in African Americans and Non-African Americans in the SYMPLICITY HTN-3
           Trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): John M. Flack, Deepak L. Bhatt, David E. Kandzari, David Brown, Sandeep Brar, James W. Choi, Ralph D'Agostino, Cara East, Barry T. Katzen, Lilian Lee, Martin B. Leon, Laura Mauri, William W. O’Neill, Suzanne Oparil, Krishna Rocha-Singh, Raymond R. Townsend, George Bakris
      SYMPLICITY HTN-3, the first trial of renal denervation (RDN) vs. sham, enrolled 26% African Americans, a prospectively stratified cohort. While the 6-month systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction in African Americans (AAs) was similar in the RDN group (-15.5 ± 25.4 mmHg, n=85 vs. -17.8 ± 29.2, n=49, p=0.641), the sham SBP response was 9.2 mmHg greater (p = 0.057) in AAs than non-AAs. In multivariate analyses, sham SBP response was predicted by an interaction between AA and a complex antihypertensive regimen (at least one antihypertensive medication prescribed ≥3 times daily) while in the RDN group, SBP response was predicted by an interaction between AA race and baseline BP ≥ 180 mmHg. AA race did not independently predict SBP response in either sham or RDN. There appears to be effect modification by race with individual-level patient characteristics in both treatment arms that affect the observed pattern of SBP responses.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T04:20:34Z
       
  • Baseline Characteristics of African Americans in the Systolic Blood
           Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Carolyn H. Still, Timothy E. Craven, Barry I. Freedman, Peter Van Buren, Kaycee M. Sink, Anthony A. Killeen, Jeffrey T. Bates, Alberta Bee, Gabriel Contreras, Suzanne Oparil, Carolyn Pedley, Barry Wall, Suzanne White, Delia Woods, Carlos Rodriguez, Jackson T. Wright
      The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) will compare treatment to a systolic blood pressure goal of <120 mmHg to treatment to the currently recommended goal of <140 mmHg for effects on incident cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic outcomes including cognitive decline. Objectives The objectives of this analysis are to compare baseline characteristics of African American (AA) and non-AA SPRINT participants and explore factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) by race. Methods SPRINT enrolled 9,361 hypertensive participants over age 50. This cross-sectional analysis examines sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and study measures among AAs compared to non-AAs. Results AAs made up 31% of participants. AAs (compared to non-AAs) were younger and less frequently male, had less education, and were more likely uninsured or covered by Medicaid. In addition, AAs scored lower on the cognitive screening test when compared to non-AAs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found BP control rates to <140/90 mmHg were higher for AAs who were male, had higher number of chronic diseases, were on diuretic treatment, and had better medication adherence. Conclusion SPRINT is well poised to examine the effects of SBP targets on clinical outcomes as well as predictors influencing BP control in AAs.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T04:20:34Z
       
  • Hypertrophic and anti-hypertrophic microRNA levels in peripheral blood
           mononuclear cells and their relationship to left ventricular hypertrophy
           in patients with essential hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Joanna E. Kontaraki, Maria E. Marketou, Fragiskos I. Parthenakis, Spyros Maragkoudakis, Evangelos A. Zacharis, Stelios Petousis, George E. Kochiadakis, Panos E. Vardas
      Background MicroRNAs regulate several aspects of physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy and they represent promising therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results We assessed the expression levels of the microRNAs miR-1, miR-133a, miR-26b, miR-208b, miR-499 and miR-21, in 102 patients with essential hypertension and 30 healthy individuals. All patients underwent two-dimensional echocardiography. MicroRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hypertensive patients showed significantly lower miR-133a (5.06±0.50 versus 13.20±2.15, p<0.001) and miR-26b (6.76±0.53 versus 9.36±1.40, p=0.037) and higher miR-1 (25.99±3.07 versus 12.28±2.06, p=0.019), miR-208b (22.29±2.96 versus 8.73±1.59, p=0.016), miR-499 (10.06±1.05 versus 5.70±0.91, p=0.033) and miR-21 (2.75±0.15 versus 1.82±0.20, p=0.002) expression levels compared with healthy controls. In hypertensive patients, we observed significant negative correlations of miR-1 (r=-0.374, p<0.001) and miR-133a (r=-0.431, p<0.001) and significant positive correlations of miR-26b (r=0.302, p=0.002), miR-208b (r=0.426, p<0.001), miR-499 (r=0.433, p<0.001) and miR-21 (r=0.498, p<0.001) expression levels with left ventricular mass index. Conclusions Our data reveal that miR-1, miR-133a, miR-26b, miR-208b, miR-499 and miR-21, show distinct expression profiles in hypertensive patients relative to healthy individuals and they are associated with clinical indices of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. Thus, they may be related to heart hypertrophy in hypertensive patients and are possibly candidate therapeutic targets in hypertensive heart disease.


      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:48:22Z
       
  • Impact of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring on the diagnosis of
           hypertension in children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Riccardo Lubrano, Sara Paoli, Sara Spiga, Raffaele Falsaperla, Giovanna Vitaliti, Isotta Gentile, Marco Elli
      Objectives Screening of hypertension in children commonly starts with office measurement of the blood pressure according to the Fourth Report. The latter however does not account for masked hypertension on the one hand and white coat hypertension on the other. We aimed to investigate in a single large pediatric population how much the addition of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) helps to refine the allocation to the different classes of blood pressure. Method In a retrospective study, we reclassified the records of a cohort of 500 children, who attended our department for investigation of possible hypertension, according to the Fourth Report and the revised ABPM interpretation scheme. Results As expected, ABPM interpretation scheme detected masked hypertension and white coat hypertension; however, 14% of children evaluated according to this scheme did not fit in any categories. On the other hand, applying the Fourth Report criteria 80% of pre-hypertensive children ended up in the uncategorized or the masked hypertension groups. Conclusions Our data confirm that ABPM detects the cases of masked hypertension and white coat hypertension, and minimizes the misplacement of prehypertensive children; unfortunately however, it also leaves a significant number of patients remain unclassified.


      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:48:22Z
       
  • Reliability and Reactivity of the Prefrontal Hemodynamic Responses in
           Essential Hypertension: A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Hercules Grant, Yagesh Bhambhani, Anthony Singhal, Robert Haennel, Sharon Warren
      Prefrontal (PFC) cerebral vaso-reactivity may be altered in hypertension, but has not been studied during postural change and carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing. In this study, a dual procedure of 5% CO2 rebreathing with positional change (standing to supine and reverse) was performed on normotensive (N = 24) and essential hypertensive males (N = 16) (18 – 55yrs) to assess reliability of PFC responses using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The groups (matched on age levels, N = 13) were also compared on their hemodynamic reactivity [change of oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) or total hemoglobin (tHb) as a function of change in end tidal CO2]. Test-retest reliability within one session and seven days later was moderate to high (ICC = .63 - .901) in both normotensive and hypertensive groups for all hemodynamic measures; while reliability of reactivity measures for O2Hb and tHb was moderate (ICC = .68 - .762). fNIRS-measured PFC hemodynamic responses are highly reproducible in normotensive and adult essential hypertensive males.


      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:48:22Z
       
  • Spike rate of multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve fibers following
           catheter-based renal nerve ablation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jens Tank, Karsten Heusser, Julia Brinkmann, Bernhard M. Schmidt, Jan Menne, Johann Bauersachs, Hermann Haller, André Diedrich, Jens Jordan
      Patients with treatment-resistant arterial hypertension exhibited profound reductions in single sympathetic vasoconstrictor fiber firing rates following renal nerve ablation. In contrast, integrated multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) changed little or not at all. We hypothesized that conventional MSNA analysis may have missed single fiber discharges, thus, obscuring sympathetic inhibition following renal denervation. We studied patients with difficult to control arterial hypertension (age 45-74 years) before, 6 (n=11), and 12 months (n=8) following renal nerve ablation. Electrocardiogram, respiration, brachial, and finger arterial blood pressure (BP), as well as the MSNA raw MSNA signal were analyzed. We detected MSNA action potential spikes using 2 stage kurtosis wavelet denoising techniques to assess mean, median, and maximum spike rates for each beat-to-beat interval. Supine heart rate and systolic BP did not change at 6 (ΔHR: -2±3 bpm; ΔSBP: 2±9 mmHg) or at 12 months (ΔHR:-1±3 mmHg, ΔSBP: -1±9 mmHg) after renal nerve ablation. Mean burst frequency and mean spike frequency at baseline were 34±3 bursts per minute and 8±1 spikes per sec. Both measurements did not change at 6 months (-1.4±3.6 bursts/minute; -0.6±1.4 spikes per sec) or at 12 months (-2.5±4.0 bursts/minute; -2.0±1.6 spikes per sec) following renal nerve ablation. After renal nerve ablation, BP decreased in 3 out of 11 patients. BP and MSNA spike frequency changes were not correlated (slope=-0.06; p=0.369). Spike rate analysis of multi-unit MSNA neurograms further suggests that profound sympathetic inhibition is not a consistent finding following renal nerve ablation.


      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:48:22Z
       
  • Analysis of Arterial Wall Remodeling in Hypertension Based on Lamellar
           Modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Hadi Taghizadeh, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad B. Shadmehr
      Arterial wall remodels its geometry and mechanical properties in response to hypertension to maintain functionality. The elevated pressure is sensed through cellular mechanotransduction pathways and extra ECM is synthesized, leading to thickening and stiffening. Current study enquires the response of aortic lamellar structure to hypertensive blood pressure regarding unchanged circumferential stress “profile” across the media as remodeling criterion. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the thickness of structural layers contributes to maintain stress profile with least deviation from normotensive conditions. To test this notion, finite element analysis was recruited to evaluate stress profile, considering wall residual stress, and lamellar structure was adjusted through an optimization algorithm. Our results indicated 47% increased thickness of the aortic media that originates from non-homogenous thickening of the microstructural units. The thickening and stiffening responses of the wall tissue were coupled and the optimized pattern of hypertension-induced remodeling was established.


      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:48:22Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:48:22Z
       
  • Massage Therapy: Understanding the Mechanisms of Action on Blood Pressure.
           A Scoping Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Nicole L. Nelson
      Background Massage therapy (MT) has shown potential in reducing blood pressure (BP); however, the psychophysiological pathways and structures involved in this outcome are unclear. Purpose The aims of this scoping review were two fold. (1) To summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of MT on BP. (2) To highlight the research gaps and challenges that researchers must overcome in order to further elucidate how MT attenuates blood pressure. Methods A scoping review was conducted to examine the evidence regarding the mechanisms of action of massage therapy on blood pressure. Results This review included the thematic analysis of 27 publications that considered the influence of MT on BP. Based on this analysis, six potential BP mediating pathways were identified. Conclusions Current theories suggest that MT exerts sympatholytic effects through physiologic and psychological mechanisms, improves hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis function, and increases in blood flow, which, in turn, may improve endothelial function. Future study is needed, using more scientifically rigorous methodology, to fully elucidate the mechanism of action of MT.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:05:27Z
       
  • Frequency of intradialytic hypotensive episodes: old problem, new insights
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Ana Rocha, Clemente Sousa, Paulo Teles, Augusto Coelho, Eva Xavier
      Background Symptomatic intradialytic hypotension (IDH) continues to be an important complication of hemodialysis treatment. There is some evidence that besides had an IDH episode, repeated episodes could represent an even more important independent risk factor for mortality in hemodialysis patients. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to study 18 dialysis treatments in 43 patients during six weeks. Relationships of IDH episodes with baseline variables were examined using a Poisson regression model (generalized linear model). Results IDH was frequent (93% of patients) and highly variable by patient (0-100%). Multivariate analysis showed that patients who experienced frequent hypotensive episodes had a lower dry weight (90% CI: 0.95-0.99), higher phosphorus levels (90% CI: 1.07-1.47), greater prevalence of diabetes mellitus (90% CI: 1.11-2.71) and hypertension (90% CI: 1.04-2.45). Conclusions Dry weight, hypertension and phosphorus levels are modifiable risk factors in order to possibly reduce the rate of IDH episodes. The potential protective role of phosphorus warrants further investigation.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:05:27Z
       
  • A Pilot Study On The Impact Of a Low Fructose Diet and Allopurinol on
           Clinic Blood Pressure amongst Overweight and Prehypertensive Subjects: A
           randomized placebo controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Magdalena Madero, Francisco E. Rodríguez Castellanos, Diana Jalal, Maria Villalobos-Martín, Jonathan Salazar, Armando Vazquez-Rangel, Richard J. Johnson, L. Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada
      Background Fructose and sodium intake have been associated with hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS). Although various mechanisms are involved, fructose causes hypertension partly through rising intracellular and serum uric acid. To date, there are no studies in adults that have evaluated the impact of low fructose diets and allopurinol on prehypertensive and overweight subjects. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of low fructose diet and allopurinol or placebo on blood pressure and MS components. Methods The study was a controlled clinical trial and consisted of two phases; in the first phase of intervention (4 weeks) patients were randomized to either low fructose diet (34 patients) or control diet (38 patients). In the second phase of intervention (week 4-8) the same groups continued with the same diet prescriptions but were further randomized to receive placebo or allopurinol (300 mg/d). Clinic and 24hr ambulatory BP, anthropometric measures, laboratory data were determined at baseline, weeks 4 and 8. Results 72 patients were included in the trial. At the end of the dietary phase both diet groups significantly reduced their BP but there were no between group differences. Compared to placebo, at the end of follow up subjects in the allopurinol group had a lower clinic SBP and this was significant within and between group comparisons. The percentage of dippers was higher in the allopurinol group and weight was reduced significantly despite the absence of caloric restriction. Conclusions Allopurinol was associated with a significant reduction in clinic BP, an increase in the percentage of dippers and significant weight loss. Larger studies with longer follow up are needed to confirm our findings.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:05:27Z
       
  • Partnering with Patients Using Social Media to Develop a Hypertension
           Management Instrument
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Tamara Kear, Magdalena Harrington, Anand Bhattacharya
      Hypertension is a lifelong condition, thus long-term adherence to lifestyle modification, self-monitoring, and medication regimens remains a challenge for patients. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-reported hypertension instrument that measured attitudes, lifestyle behaviors, adherence, and barriers to hypertension management using patient-reported outcome data. The study was conducted using the Open Research Exchange (ORE) software platform created by PatientsLikeMe. A total of 360 participants completed the psychometric phase of the study; incomplete responses were obtained from 147 patients, and 150 patients opted-out. Principal component analysis (PCA) with orthogonal (varimax) rotation was executed on a data set with all completed responses (N = 249) and applied to 43 items. Based on the review of the factor solution, eigenvalues and item loadings 16 items were eliminated and model with 29 items was tested. The process was repeated two more times until final model with 14 items was established. In interpreting the rotated factor pattern, an item was said to load on any given component if the factor loading was 0.40 or greater for that component, and was less than 0.40 for the other. In addition to the newly generated instrument, demographic and self-reported clinical characteristics of the study participants such as the type of prescribed hypertension medications, frequency of blood pressure monitoring, and comorbid conditions were examined. The ORE platform allowed for ongoing input from patients through each stage of the 14-item instrument development.


      PubDate: 2015-07-27T07:10:01Z
       
  • Urinary Sodium/ Potassium Excretion and Blood Pressure in Adults of
           Shandong Province, China: Preliminary Results of the SMASH Project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Xi Chen, Xiaolei Guo, Jixiang Ma, Jiyu Zhang, Junli Tang, Liuxia Yan, Chunxiao Xu, Xiaofei Zhang, Jie Ren, Zilong Lu, Gaohui Zhang, Jing Dong, Aiqiang Xu
      Objective To estimate the urinary electrolyte excretion and assess the relationship between dietary sodium/potassium intake and blood pressure within a population of 18-69 adults in Shandong province, China. Method Random samples of 2184 adults enrolled in the SMASH project were collected from 20countries/districts. Electrolyte intake was estimated by 24 hour urine collections and urinary volume/creatinine were measured to estimate the accuracy of the collection. Anthropometry was measured with standard procedures. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results The mean sodium excretion was 241.8±7.9mmol among men and 222.3±7.9mmol among women respectively. The 24 hour average potassium excretion was 39.9±0.9mmol and 41.8±1.1mmol respectively. Some resident and geographical differences were found for 24 hour urinary electrolyte. Regression analysis showed increments of 1.15 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and 0.67 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure per gram increment in urinary sodium excretion. For each increment of 1 gram potassium excretion per day, there was a decrement of 0.81mmHg in systolic blood pressure and 0.76 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The highest blood pressure were observed in the group with lowest potassium and the highest sodium excretion, which was 13.6mmHg in systolic blood pressure and 7.3mmHg in diastolic blood pressure difference from group with highest potassium excretion and lowest sodium excretion (p<0.0001 for interaction). Conclusion The SMASH project results show a substantially higher sodium excretion and a lower potassium excretion than recommended in Shandong adults. The sodium/potassium intake is positively association with blood pressure. These results support the recommended approaches to lower the risk of hypertension, including lower sodium intake, higher potassium intake, and prevention and control of obesity.


      PubDate: 2015-07-27T07:10:01Z
       
  • Under or over: still not settled
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-07-23T05:28:45Z
       
  • Updated guidelines from the American Diabetes Association
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch



      PubDate: 2015-07-23T05:28:45Z
       
  • ACEIs and ARBs for Hypertension: Are They Equivalent?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-07-19T04:27:13Z
       
  • Is There a Bend in the Upward Trend of High Blood Pressure in
           Childhood?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Bonita Falkner



      PubDate: 2015-07-15T03:34:47Z
       
  • Hypertension in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease - Prevalence,
           Characteristics and Impact on Clinical Outcome. Experience of one
           Neurology Center in Poland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Ewa Warchol-Celinska , Maria Styczynska , Aleksander Prejbisz , Katarzyna Przybylowska , Małgorzata Chodakowska-Zebrowska , Paweł Kurjata , Walerian Piotrowski , Maria Polakowska , Marek Kabat , Tomasz Zdrojewski , Wojciech Drygas , Andrzej Januszewicz , Maria Barcikowska
      Purpose To evaluate hypertension (HT) prevalence, characteristics and impact on clinical outcome in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Results We evaluated 701 patients with AD (249 males, 452 females, mean age 74.9±7.5 years). As a group representing general population matched with regard to age, education level and place of residence, we included 762 subjects (438 males, 324 females, mean age 74.7±4.4 years) from the WOBASZ Studies. The AD patients were characterized by lower systolic blood pressure(BP) and diastolic BP values (134±21vs.151±23mmHg, p<0.001 and 77±11vs.86±12mmHg, p<0.001, respectively) as well as lower HT prevalence (66%vs.78.6%, p<0.001) compared to the WOBASZ group. In long-term follow-up of AD group, HT and BP levels were not associated with the decline in cognitive functions, nor the increased risk of death. Conclusions AD patients were characterized by lower prevalence of HT and other vascular risk factors. BP levels and HT had no impact on clinical outcome.


      PubDate: 2015-07-10T01:38:17Z
       
  • Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index and Circadian Blood Pressure
           Variability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jehan Bahrainwala , Ami Patel , Keith M. Diaz , Praveen Veerabhadrappa , Debbie L. Cohen , Andrew Cucchiara , Raymond R. Townsend
      The manner in which the circulation accommodates each heartbeat may underlie blood pressure variability. We used the Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index, which reflects this ventricular-vascular interaction, in untreated individuals with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension to evaluate two different measures of blood pressure variability using the brachial pulse pressure obtained over 24 hours. We enrolled 64 untreated adults with systolic blood pressure between 130-159 mmHg and diastolic values of < 100 mmHg who underwent 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with calculation of 24 hour ambulatory arterial stiffness indices. Variability in brachial pulse pressure was determined using the standard deviation of the measurements over 24 hours, as well as the average real variability. The 24 hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index correlated with both measures of 24 hour pulse pressure variability (p<0.001 for both). Subdividing the 24 hour stiffness index into daytime and night time components showed modest differences in their relationship to pulse pressure variability, with the daytime being significantly different from 24 hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index, and the standard deviation of the brachial pulse pressure consistently having a higher correlation to the ambulatory arterial stiffness index when compared with the average real variability. These observations may be useful to understand differences in variability measures of blood pressure measurements, such as pulse pressure, to measures like the ambulatory arterial stiffness index as reported in longitudinal studies.


      PubDate: 2015-07-10T01:38:17Z
       
  • Antecedent Blood Pressure as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Anthony Bonifonte , Turgay Ayer , Emir Veledar , Allison Clark , Peter W.F. Wilson
      Background Elevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and evidence suggest that prior BP levels may be at least as important as current BP in prediction models. Methods and Results We analyzed the determinants of CVD risk in Offspring Framingham Heart Study participants (n=3344). The baseline Cox model included the traditional risk factors and current systolic BP to predict 20 year risk of CVD (643 events). Current systolic BP was significant and the associated hazard ratio was 1.09 for 10mm Hg (CI 95%: 1.04-1.15). A second model used the traditional risk factors plus antecedent BP (HR=1.19, CI 95%: 1.10-1.24). In a third model that included traditional risk factors and both current and antecedent BP, the antecedent BP was significant (HR = 1.18, CI 95%: 1.08-1.23), but the current BP was not statistically significant (HR=1.01, CI 95%: 0.97-1.09). Conclusions Antecedent BP showed a significantly stronger effect on risk of CVD than current BP.


      PubDate: 2015-07-10T01:38:17Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy



      PubDate: 2015-07-05T00:31:43Z
       
  • Genetic risk scores and coronary heart disease risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch



      PubDate: 2015-06-30T23:54:56Z
       
  • The British have landed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Norman M. Kaplan



      PubDate: 2015-06-30T23:54:56Z
       
 
 
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