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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1281 journals)
    - HISTORY (805 journals)
    - History (General) (51 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (48 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (54 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AREAS (7 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (165 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (127 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (24 journals)

HISTORY (805 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 601 - 452 of 452 Journals sorted alphabetically
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (hardback)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Zoological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Procesos Historicos     Open Access  
Prose Studies: History, Theory, Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychoanalysis Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Publications du Centre Européen d'Etudes Bourguignonnes     Full-text available via subscription  
Purdue Historian     Open Access  
Quaderns d’Història de l’Enginyeria     Open Access  
Quaker History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Queensland Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription  
Questes : Revue pluridisciplinaire d'études médiévales     Open Access  
Quintana. Revista de Estudos do Departamento de Historia da Arte     Open Access  
Radical History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Rasenna : Journal of the Center for Etruscan Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rationality and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Raven : A Journal of Vexillology     Hybrid Journal  
Reinardus     Hybrid Journal  
Relaciones. Estudios de historia y sociedad     Open Access  
Renaissance Drama     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Renaissance Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Renaissance Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Rethinking History: The Journal of Theory and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Reti Medievali Rivista     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Review of Central and East European Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Reviews in American History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Revista Análisis Internacional     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Brasileira de História das Religiões     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Historia del Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Divulgação Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Historico-Juridicos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de História     Open Access  
Revista de História Bilros. História(s), Sociedade(s) e Cultura(s)     Open Access  
Revista de História da UEG     Open Access  
Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico do Rio Grande do Sul     Open Access  
Revista Historia Autónoma     Open Access  
Revista História da Educação - History of Education Journal     Open Access  
Revista Maracanan     Open Access  
Revista Mosaico     Open Access  
Revista Paginas     Open Access  
Revolutionary Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'Histoire de l'Eglise de France     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revue d'histoire de l'enfance     Open Access  
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue d'histoire du XIXe siècle     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue de l’Histoire des Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Revue des Études Arméniennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revue historique des armées     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue Mabillon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rhetoric Society Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Romanticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Royal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rúbrica Contemporánea     Open Access  
Russian Education & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Russian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Russian Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sacris Erudiri     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Saeculum : Jahrbuch für Universalgeschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Safundi : The Journal of South African and American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Scando-Slavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Science & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations     Open Access  
Scientia Canadensis: Canadian Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine / Scientia Canadensis : revue canadienne d'histoire des sciences, des techniques et de la médecine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientiae Studia     Open Access  
Scottish Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Scrineum Rivista     Open Access  
Scrutiny2: Issues in English Studies in Southern Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Senses and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sibirica     Full-text available via subscription  
Siècles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Signos Historicos     Open Access  
Slagmark - Tidsskrift for idéhistorie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Slavonica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Social History of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Sciences and Missions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Società e Storia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Society and Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SourceOECD National Accounts & Historical Statistics     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Historical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South African Journal of Art History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Cultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
South Asia Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
South Asian History and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South Asian Popular Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
South Asian Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
South Australian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription  
South Central Review     Full-text available via subscription  
South European Society and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Southeast European and Black Sea Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Southwestern Historical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Soviet and Post-Soviet Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Spontaneous Generations : A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Studia Aurea : Revista de Literatura Española y Teoría Literaria del Renacimiento y Siglo de Oro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Studia Historiae Oeconomicae     Open Access  
Studia Iranica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studia Litteraria et Historica     Open Access  
Studia z Historii Filozofii     Open Access  
Studies in East European Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Studies in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Studies in People’s History     Hybrid Journal  
Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Studies in Western Australian History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Studium : Tijdschrift voor Wetenschaps- en Universiteits-geschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire des Sciences et des Universités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Suomen Sukututkimusseuran Vuosikirja     Open Access  
Sydney Institute Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription  
T'oung Pao     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Tangence     Full-text available via subscription  
Tartu Ülikooli ajaloo küsimusi     Open Access  
Tasmanian Historical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Teaching History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Technology and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
temp - tidsskrift for historie     Full-text available via subscription  
Tempo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tempo e Argumento     Open Access  
The Corvette     Open Access  
The Court Historian : The International Journal of Court Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Eighteenth Century     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
The European Legacy: Toward New Paradigms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Hilltop Review : A Journal of Western Michigan University Graduate Student Research     Open Access  
The Historian     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
The International History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
The Irish Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
The Italianist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of the Historical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
The Public Historian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
The Seventeenth Century     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
The Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The South African Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Theatre History Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Theoria et Historia Scientiarum     Open Access  
Tiempo devorado     Open Access  
Tiempo y Espacio     Open Access  
Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire du Droit / The Legal History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Time & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Trabajos y Comunicaciones     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Traditio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Trans-pasando Fronteras     Open Access  
Transactions of the Philological Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transfers     Full-text available via subscription  
Transition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transmodernity : Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trocadero     Open Access  
Troianalexandrina     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turcica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Turkish Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Turkish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Twentieth Century British History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
U.S. Catholic Historian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
UCLA Historical Journal     Open Access  
Ufahamu : A Journal of African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
United Service     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Urban History Review / Revue d'histoire urbaine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Varia Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Vegueta : Anuario de la Facultad de Geografía e Historia     Open Access  
Vestiges : Traces of Record     Full-text available via subscription  
Viator     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Victorian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Victorian Periodicals Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Vigiliae Christianae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Viking and Medieval Scandinavia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Vínculos de Historia. Revista del Departamento de Historia de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha     Open Access  
Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vivarium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vulcan     Hybrid Journal  
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Welsh History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
West 86th     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
West Virginia History: A Journal of Regional Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Whispering Wind     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wicazo Sa Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Winterthur Portfolio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Women in German Yearbook : Feminist Studies in German Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Women's History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Journal Cover Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
  [SJR: 1.039]   [H-I: 31]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1933-1711
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Olmesartan with azelnidipine versus with trichlormethiazide on home blood
           pressure variability in patients with type II diabetes mellitus
    • Authors: Emi Ushigome; Shinobu Matsumoto; Chikako Oyabu; Hidetaka Ushigome; Isao Yokota; Goji Hasegawa; Naoto Nakamura; Muhei Tanaka; Masahiro Yamazaki; Michiaki Fukui
      Pages: 140 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 11, Issue 3
      Author(s): Emi Ushigome, Shinobu Matsumoto, Chikako Oyabu, Hidetaka Ushigome, Isao Yokota, Goji Hasegawa, Naoto Nakamura, Muhei Tanaka, Masahiro Yamazaki, Michiaki Fukui
      The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of olmesartan combined with azelnidipine versus olmesartan combined with trichlormethiazide, on home blood pressure (BP) and pressure variability in type II diabetes mellitus patients using home BP telemonitoring system. We performed an open-label cross-over pilot study of 28 patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Patients received combination treatment with either olmesartan 20 mg plus azelnidipine 16 mg or olmesartan 20 mg plus trichlormethiazide 1 mg for more than 6 weeks each in a cross-over method. The coefficient of morning systolic BP variability in the olmesartan plus azelnidipine group was significantly lower than that in the olmesartan plus trichlormethiazide group (6.4 ± 1.9 vs. 7.5 ± 2.6, P = .004). There were no significant differences in mean morning systolic BP between the two groups. Using home BP telemonitoring for hypertensive patients with type II diabetes, this study revealed for the first time that the olmesartan with azelnidipine combination is superior to the olmesartan with trichlormethiazide combination in reducing home BP variability.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:54:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.12.004
       
  • Schisandrin B displays a protective role against primary pulmonary
           hypertension by targeting transforming growth factor β1
    • Authors: Jianjun Wu; Jing Jia; Li Liu; Fan Yang; Yuhua Fan; Sen Zhang; Dongxia Yan; Rui Bu; Guangnan Li; Yanhui Gao; Yanjun Chen
      Pages: 148 - 157.e1
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 11, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jianjun Wu, Jing Jia, Li Liu, Fan Yang, Yuhua Fan, Sen Zhang, Dongxia Yan, Rui Bu, Guangnan Li, Yanhui Gao, Yanjun Chen
      Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in the medial layer of the vessel wall are involved in vessel homeostasis, but also for pathologic vascular remodeling in diverse diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH results in vascular disorders, but its underlying molecular mechanisms are still not to be fully disclosed. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in human PASMC cultured under the condition of hypoxia and elucidated the effect of schisandra chinensis and its active ingredients on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis in human PASMCs. We demonstrated that schisandrin B (Sch.B) alleviated the severity of PAH in PASMCs cultured under the condition of hypoxia. Significant upregulation of TGF-β1 was observed in hypoxia-induced human PASMCs. Interestingly, administration of Sch.B substantially attenuated TGF-β1 level in these PASMCs. In order to elucidate Sch.B function, the hypoxia-induced human PASMC was stimulated with Sch.B or cotreatment with TGF-β1 in vitro. In agreement with its TGF-β1-reducing effect, Sch B relieved human PASMCs migration and promoted the apoptosis of human PASMCs, by activation of TGF-β1 downstream signal pathways in PASMCs. In contrast, co-treatment with TGF-β1 promoted human PASMC proliferation and migration and inhibited the apoptosis of human PASMC, which can attenuate the protective role of Sch.B in human PASMC. Taken collectively, these findings suggest that the vascular relaxation evoked by Sch.B was mediated by direct effect on vascular smooth muscle cell via TGF-β1 downstream signal pathways.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:54:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.12.007
       
  • Increased plasma RBP4 concentration in older hypertensives is related to
           the decreased kidney function and the number of antihypertensive
           drugs—results from the PolSenior substudy
    • Authors: Marcin Majerczyk; Piotr Choręza; Maria Bożentowicz-Wikarek; Aniceta Brzozowska; Habibullah Arabzada; Aleksander Owczarek; Małgorzata Mossakowska; Tomasz Grodzicki; Tomasz Zdrojewski; Andrzej Więcek; Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz; Jerzy Chudek
      Pages: 71 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 11, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marcin Majerczyk, Piotr Choręza, Maria Bożentowicz-Wikarek, Aniceta Brzozowska, Habibullah Arabzada, Aleksander Owczarek, Małgorzata Mossakowska, Tomasz Grodzicki, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Andrzej Więcek, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Jerzy Chudek
      Increased plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, has been associated in previous studies with obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension (HT), atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between HT occurrence and its treatment, and plasma RBP4 concentrations in the older polish population. The study sample consisted of 1728 (890 men and 838 women) PolSenior study participants aged 65 years and older with available plasma samples and NT-proBNP values below 2000 pg/mL. The analysis included body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum glucose and insulin (and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), and plasma RBP4 levels. RBP4 plasma concentrations were higher in hypertensive (N = 645) than normotensive (N = 236) men (43.4 [30.4–64.8] vs. 38.1 [27.1–54.4] ng/mL, respectively; P < .01) but not in women (44.6 [29.6–63.5] vs. 40.7 [29.1–58.1] ng/mL, respectively; P = .21). In the subanalysis, higher plasma RBP4 levels were observed in women with treated than untreated HT and in subjects taking four of more antihypertensive drugs. The linear regression shown that estimated glomerular filtration rate (β = −0.015), thiazide diuretics (β = 0.041), and α-blockers (β = 0.049) were explaining log10RBP4 plasma levels variability in the study group. Older male Caucasians with HT are characterized by elevated plasma RBP4 levels. This increase is proportional to the number of antihypertensive drugs and decreased glomerular filtration rate. Among the antihypertensive drugs, only thiazide diuretics and α-blockers had a significant influence on RBP4 levels.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T22:37:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.11.009
       
  • An exploratory propensity score matched comparison of second-generation
           and first-generation baroreflex activation therapy systems
    • Authors: Rolf Wachter; Marcel Halbach; George L. Bakris; John D. Bisognano; Hermann Haller; Joachim Beige; Abraham A. Kroon; Mitra K. Nadim; Eric G. Lovett; Jill E. Schafer; Peter W. de Leeuw
      Pages: 81 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 11, Issue 2
      Author(s): Rolf Wachter, Marcel Halbach, George L. Bakris, John D. Bisognano, Hermann Haller, Joachim Beige, Abraham A. Kroon, Mitra K. Nadim, Eric G. Lovett, Jill E. Schafer, Peter W. de Leeuw
      Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) is a device-based therapy for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. In a randomized, controlled trial, the first-generation system significantly reduced blood pressure (BP) versus sham. Although an open-label validation study of the second-generation system demonstrated similar BP reductions, controlled data are not presently available. Therefore, this investigation compares results of first- and second-generation BAT systems. Two cohorts of first-generation BAT system patients were generated with propensity matching to compare against the validation group of 30 second-generation subjects. The first cohort was drawn from the first-generation randomized trial sham group and the second cohort from the active therapy group. Safety and efficacy were compared for the second-generation group relative to the first generation. At 6 months, second-generation BAT outperformed first-generation sham systolic BP reduction by 20 ± 28 mm Hg (mean ± standard deviation, P = .008), while BP reduction in first- and second-generation active groups was similar. At 12 months, efficacy was comparable between all three groups after the sham group had received 6 months of therapy; 47% of second-generation patients achieved goal systolic BP of 140 mm Hg or less after 12 months, comparable to 50% of patients at goal in the first-generation group (P > .999). Implant procedure time, system/procedural safety, and pulse generator longevity improved with the second-generation system. Propensity-matched cohort analysis of the first- and second-generation BAT systems suggests similar therapeutic benefit and superior BP reduction of the second-generation system relative to sham control. Implantation procedure duration and perioperative safety were improved with the second-generation device. These findings should be validated in a prospective randomized trial.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T22:37:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.12.003
       
  • A cross-sectional study of physical activity and arterial compliance: the
           effects of age and artery size
    • Authors: A. Maleah Holland; Jeffrey S. Martin; Christopher D. Mattson; Keith R. Lohse; Peter R. Finn; Joel M. Stager
      Pages: 92 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 11, Issue 2
      Author(s): A. Maleah Holland, Jeffrey S. Martin, Christopher D. Mattson, Keith R. Lohse, Peter R. Finn, Joel M. Stager
      Our study examined the relationship between habitual high levels of vigorous physical activity on large and small artery compliance via radial artery pulse wave analysis. Eighty-three healthy men (n = 44) and women (n = 39), aged 18–78 years, were recruited as habitually less active (light-to-moderate exercise ≤3 times/wk) or habitually highly active (vigorous exercise ≥5 times/wk). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction of age and activity level; habitual vigorous activity was associated with greater compliance in large and small arteries in older adults (40–78 years) and younger adults (18–22 years). In the large and small arteries, we observed an age-associated decrease in arterial compliance (aged ≥ 40 years), though it appears to be less pronounced in the large artery among habitually highly active subjects. This study suggests that aging may be associated with declines in large and small artery compliance that can be attenuated by habitual vigorous activity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T22:37:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.12.005
       
  • Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Older
           People in Central Africa: The Epidemca Study
    • Authors: Sophie Pilleron; Victor Aboyans; Pascal Mbelesso; Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi; Ileana Desormais; Philippe Lacroix; Pierre-Marie Preux; Maëlenn Guerchet; Maëlenn Guerchet; Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi; Pascal Mbelesso; Sophie Pilleron; Iléana Desormais; Philippe Lacroix; Victor Aboyans; Jean-Claude Desport; Pierre Jésus; Achille E. Tchalla; Benoît Marin; Jean-Pierre Clément; Jean-Charles Lambert; Jean-François Dartigues; Pierre-Marie Preux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Sophie Pilleron, Victor Aboyans, Pascal Mbelesso, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Ileana Desormais, Philippe Lacroix, Pierre-Marie Preux, Maëlenn Guerchet
      Hypertension represents a major global health burden. While older individuals of African descent are at higher risk of hypertension in western countries, epidemiological data on hypertension in older native Africans are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and the level of awareness and control of hypertension among older adults in Central Africa. A total of 1990 individuals 65 years of age and older from the Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic participated into a cross-sectional population-based survey. Hypertension was defined by self-reporting of on-going treatment and/or systolic (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) blood pressures at rest being ≥140 and/or 90 mmHg. Controlled hypertension was defined as treated hypertension with SBP <140 mmHg and DBP <90 mmHg. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 61.1%. Among hypertensive people, 46.7% were aware of their condition and 17.3% were treated. Among the latter 23.8% had their hypertension controlled. Correlates of hypertension were increasing age and body mass index, living in the Republic of Congo, occupation other than employee, no tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle and ≥ 3 meals a day. Our findings indicate a need for the implementation of public health policies to reduce hypertension in older Africans, and to prevent the subsequent burden of cardiovascular diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T02:32:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.013
       
  • Speckle tracking echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging reveal
           beneficial effect of pharmacotherapy in hypertensives with asymptomatic
           left ventricular dysfunction
    • Authors: Beata Uziębło-Życzkowska; Paweł Krzesiński; Grzegorz Gielerak; Andrzej Skrobowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Beata Uziębło-Życzkowska, Paweł Krzesiński, Grzegorz Gielerak, Andrzej Skrobowski
      Global longitudinal strain (GLS), assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), is a sensitive marker of myocardial systolic function and an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypotensive treatment on GLS and evaluate the relation between change in GLS and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Methods In a group of 125 hypertensive subjects, without any symptoms of heart failure, the detailed echocardiographic assessment of LV systolic and diastolic function was performed prior to and after 12 months of hypotensive treatment. Results The mean GLS improved from -18.1±2.6% to -19.3±2.3% (p=0.004). Positive change was also observed within parameters of LV diastolic function (E/A: 1.05±0.32 vs 1.15±0.34; p=0,008; e': 9.54±2.60cm/s vs 10.59±2.39cm/s; p=0.003; E/e': 7.35±1.85 vs 6.69±1.61; p=0.044). The greatest benefit from hypotensive treatment was noticed within the patients with the lowest baseline absolute values of GLS. The significant correlations between change in GLS and e' (r=-0.51; p<0.001) as well as GLS and E/e' ratio (0.23; p=0.022) were also observed. Conclusions Mild systolic and diastolic LV alterations are interdependent and partially reversible. The effects of hypotensive therapy are differentiated in particular individuals and those with more impaired LV function seem to benefit most.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T02:32:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.03.009
       
  • The Relation of Digital Vascular Function to Cardiovascular Risk Factors
           in African Americans Using Digital Tonometry: the Jackson Heart Study
    • Authors: Eric E. McClendon; Solomon K. Musani; Tandaw E. Samdarshi; Sushant Khaire; Donny Stokes; Naomi M. Hamburg; Koby Sheffy; Gary F. Mitchell; Herman R. Taylor; Emelia J. Benjamin; Ervin R. Fox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Eric E. McClendon, Solomon K. Musani, Tandaw E. Samdarshi, Sushant Khaire, Donny Stokes, Naomi M. Hamburg, Koby Sheffy, Gary F. Mitchell, Herman R. Taylor, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ervin R. Fox
      Digital vascular tone and function, as measured by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), are associated with cardiovascular risk and events in non-Hispanics whites. There are limited data on relations between PAT and cardiovascular risk in African Americans. PAT was performed on a subset of Jackson Heart Study participants using a fingertip tonometry device. Resting digital vascular tone was assessed as baseline pulse amplitude. Hyperemic vascular response to 5-minutes of ischemia was expressed as the PAT ratio (hyperemic/baseline amplitude ratio). Peripheral augmentation index, a measure of relative wave reflection, also was estimated. The association of baseline PA, PAT ratio and augmentation index to risk factors was assessed using stepwise multivariable models. The study sample consisted of 837 participants from the Jackson Heart Study (mean age, 54±11 years, 61% women). In stepwise multivariable regression models, baseline pulse amplitude was related to male sex, body mass index and diastolic BP, accounting for 16% of the total variability of the baseline pulse amplitude. Age, male sex, systolic BP, diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, and prevalent CVD contributed to 11% of the total variability of the PAT ratio. Risk factors (primarily age, sex and heart rate) explained 47% of the total variability of the augmentation index. We confirmed in our cohort of African Americans, a significant relation between digital vascular tone and function measured by PAT and multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of these measurements in predicting clinical outcomes in African Americans.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T01:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.008
       
  • Elastin microfibril interface located protein (EMILIN)1, Transforming
           growth factor beta (TGFβ), and Implications on Cardiovascular
           Complications
    • Authors: Amy Randell; Noriko Daneshtalab
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Amy Randell, Noriko Daneshtalab
      Elastin microfibril interface located protein (EMILIN), a glycoprotein, is associated with elastin in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of arteries, lymph vasculature and other tissues. EMILIN1 particularly has a niche role in elastin fiber biogenesis (elastogenesis) by aiding with the fusion of elastin fibers, rendering them more ordered. In addition to elastogenesis, EMILIN1 has been shown to have roles in maintenance of vascular cell morphology, smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion to elastic fibers, and transforming growth factor (TGFβ) regulation, by inhibiting TGFβ activation via blocking the proteolytic production of the latency associated peptide/active TGFβ complex. The increased TGFβ signaling induced during EMILIN1 deficiency alters TGFβ activity, resulting in vascular SMC growth and vascular remodeling. The increasing systemic blood pressure associated with TGFβ signaling may be closely linked to the activity of other mediators that affect cardiovascular homeostasis, such as angiotensin II. The increase in prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases in other disease states likely involve a complex activation of TGFβ signaling, and ECM dysfunction. Thus, the interaction of TGFβ and ECM components appears to be integrative involving both structural alterations to vessels through EMILIN1 and changes in TGFβ signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the EMILIN1 –TGFβ relationship; the specific roles of EMILIN1 and TGFβ in blood pressure regulation, their synergistic interaction, and in particular the role of TGFβ (in conjunction with ECM proteins) in other disease states altering cardiovascular homeostasis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T01:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.010
       
  • Comparison of central and peripheral haemodynamics in association with
           left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in the community-based elderly
           Chinese
    • Authors: Jing Xiong; Xuejing Yu; Shikai Yu; Bin Bai; Henry Xu; Hongwei Ji; Jiadela Teliewubai; Kai Wang; Chen Chi; Yuyan Lu; Yiwu Zhou; Ximin Fan; Jue Li; Yi Zhang; Yawei Xu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jing Xiong, Xuejing Yu, Shikai Yu, Bin Bai, Henry Xu, Hongwei Ji, Jiadela Teliewubai, Kai Wang, Chen Chi, Yuyan Lu, Yiwu Zhou, Ximin Fan, Jue Li, Yi Zhang, Yawei Xu
      Objective To investigate the association of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) with central and peripheral haemodynamics. Methods A total of 1,599 community-based senior residents (age ≥ 65 years) in northern Shanghai, China were recruited as of August 2015. Echocardiography was performed for each participant using the MyLab30 Gold CV system (ESAOTE SPA, Genoa, Italy). According to the recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE), the ratio of E (peak early diastolic transmitral flow velocity) to E’ (early diastolic lateral mitral annulus velocity) was assessed for the evaluation of LVDD. Central blood pressure components (BP) were measured using the SphygmoCor system (Atcor Medical, Australia). Results In community older population (72.7±6.01 years), brachial systolic blood pressure (BP, mmHg) was higher than central systolic BP (141.9±19.5 vs 130.3±20.1 mmHg). A total of 214 (13.4%) subjects showed left ventricle diastolic dysfunction, and female showed higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction than male (17.3% vs 8.4%, p<0.01). After adjustment for confounding variables, only central systolic BP, not brachial systolic BP, was significantly associated with E/E’ in the total population. Similar result was found in the subgroup analysis (participants without antihypertensive agents treatment, man, woman). Similar findings were obtained for the pulse pressure (PP) analysis. Within central haemodynamics, only central PP, but not central systolic BP or augmentation pressure (AP), was significantly associated with E/E’ after adjustment. When LVDD was defined by E/E’ and other echocardiographic parameters, our findings remained unaltered in the multivariate logistic regression with similar adjustment in the total population and subgroup analysis. Conclusion In the Chinese elderly cohort, central haemodynamics, especially central PP, is superior to other BP components in identifying LVDD. (NCT02368938)

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:54:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.009
       
  • Instructions for Authors
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 11, Issue 3


      PubDate: 2017-05-02T23:54:20Z
       
  • Relationship among Age, Insulin Resistance, and Blood Pressure
    • Authors: Chan-Hee Jung; Sang Hee Jung; Bora Lee; Melanie Rosenberg; Gerald M. Reaven; Sun H. Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Chan-Hee Jung, Sang Hee Jung, Bora Lee, Melanie Rosenberg, Gerald M. Reaven, Sun H. Kim
      The effect of age to modify the relationship between insulin resistance and hypertension are unclear. In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, median age was used to create two age groups (<52 vs. ≥52 years), and comparisons were made of metabolic characteristics, including steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations measured during the insulin suppression test to quantify insulin resistance. Individuals were stratified into SSPG tertiles and categorized as having normal BP, prehypertension, or hypertension. SSPG concentrations were similar in the two age groups (161 vs. 164 mg/dL). In the most insulin resistant tertile, distribution of normal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension was equal in those <52 years, whereas in those ≥52 years, prevalence of hypertension was increased approximately five-fold as compared to those with normal BP. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significant interaction between age and SSPG in predicting systolic BP (p=0.023). In stratified analysis, SSPG, but not age, was an independent predictor of systolic BP and diastolic BP in ≥52 year group, whereas the reverse was true in the younger group. The adverse impact of insulin resistance on blood pressure was accentuated in older individuals and may have a greater impact than further aging.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T22:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.005
       
  • Smoking before isometric exercise amplifies myocardial stress and
           dysregulates baroreceptor sensitivity and cerebral oxygenation
    • Authors: Panagiota Anyfanti; Eleftheria Triantafyllidou; Stavros Papadopoulos; Areti Triantafyllou; Michalis G. Nikolaidis; Antonis Kyparos; Ioannis S. Vrabas; Stella Douma; Andreas Zafeiridis; Konstantina Dipla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Panagiota Anyfanti, Eleftheria Triantafyllidou, Stavros Papadopoulos, Areti Triantafyllou, Michalis G. Nikolaidis, Antonis Kyparos, Ioannis S. Vrabas, Stella Douma, Andreas Zafeiridis, Konstantina Dipla
      This cross-over study examined whether acute cardiovascular responses, baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), and brain oxygenation during isometric exercise are altered following cigarette smoking. Twelve young, habitual smokers randomly performed a smoking and a control protocol, during which participants smoked one cigarette (0.9mg nicotine) or a sham-cigarette, prior to exercise. Testing involved baseline, a 5-min smoking, a 10-min post-smoking rest, 3 min handgrip-exercise (30% maximum voluntary-contraction), and recovery. Beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and cerebral oxygenation (Near-Infrared-Spectroscopy, NIRS) were continuously monitored. Double-product, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and BRS were assessed. During post-smoking rest, systolic/diastolic BP (140.8±12.1/87.0±6.9 vs. 125.9±7.1/77.3±5.5mmHg), HR, and double-product were higher in the smoking vs. the control protocol, whereas BRS was lower (p<0.05). During handgrip-exercise, smoking resulted in greater HR and double-product (17240±3893 vs. 15424±3173mmHg·bpm) and lower BRS vs. the control protocol (p<0.05), without significant differences in SV and SVR between protocols. During recovery, smoking elicited a delayed return of brain-oxygenation indices, lower BRS, and higher double-product. Smoking a cigarette shortly before the exercise session, amplifies myocardial stress and dysregulates autonomic function and cerebral oxygenation during exercise and recovery, even in young habitual smokers, perceived as free from long-term cardiovascular effects of smoking.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T22:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.004
       
  • Salt and Essential Hypertension: Pathophysiology and Implications for
           Treatment
    • Authors: Michael A. Garfinkle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael A. Garfinkle
      Essential hypertension is common and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, questions remain as to the exact physiologic mechanisms underlying this disease. First, we discuss how essential hypertension may be largely a result of a maladaptation to a high salt diet and that high blood pressure, rather than being an inactive side effect of high salt intake, may be an adaptive mechanism to improve salt secretion. Next we explain how any physiologic state that reduces urinary sodium concentrating ability may increase an individual’s risk for salt-induced hypertension. Finally, we conclude that natriuresis is a crucial criterion for effective long-term pharmacologic treatment of essential hypertension.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T22:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.006
       
  • The Number of Visits and Blood Pressure Measurements Influence the
           Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in Adolescents
    • Authors: Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório de Oliveira; Alison Oliveira da Silva; Paula Rejane Beserra Diniz; Breno Quintella Farah; André Luiz Torres Pirauá; Antônio José de Lima Neto; Wallacy Milton do Nascimento Feitosa; Rafael Miranda Tassitano; Raphael M. Ritti-Dias
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório de Oliveira, Alison Oliveira da Silva, Paula Rejane Beserra Diniz, Breno Quintella Farah, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, Antônio José de Lima Neto, Wallacy Milton do Nascimento Feitosa, Rafael Miranda Tassitano, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias
      Background The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the number of visits and the number of blood pressure (BP) measurements on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional epidemiological study with 481 adolescents (14 to 19 years old) selected using a random cluster sampling strategy. We measured the BP three times in a first visit. Adolescents with HBP performed subsequent visits. The final calculation of BP followed four strategies: the 1st measure, mean of 1st and 2nd measurements, mean of all three measurements and averaging the 2nd and 3rd measurement. Results The prevalence of HBP in the first and second visits were 6.4%, 1.9% and the prevalence of hypertension (after three visits) was 1.7%. The prevalence of HBP varied from 8.6% to 18.6% for boys and 4.6% to 9.2% for girls, using the average 2nd and 3rd measurements and the 1st measurement, respectively. In all strategies, HBP and hypertension were more prevalent in boys and students attending the nocturnal shift. Conclusion The number of visits and number of measurements affects the prevalence of HBP and hypertension in adolescents. Thus, clinicians and researchers should consider these aspects when assessing BP in adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T22:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.002
       
  • Aortic Backward Waves Rather Than Stiffness Account for Independent
           Associations Between Pulse Pressure Amplification and Left Ventricular
           Mass in a Young-to-Middle Aged Sample
    • Authors: Moekanyi J. Sibiya; Gavin R. Norton; Hendrik L. Booysen; Grace Tade; Carlos D. Libhaber; Imraan Ballim; Pinhas Sareli; Angela J. Woodiwiss
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Moekanyi J. Sibiya, Gavin R. Norton, Hendrik L. Booysen, Grace Tade, Carlos D. Libhaber, Imraan Ballim, Pinhas Sareli, Angela J. Woodiwiss
      A decreased aortic-to-brachial pulse pressure amplification (PP amplification), which is independently associated with cardiovascular outcomes, may index several aortic functional changes. However that aortic functional change most likely to account for this effect is uncertain. In 706 randomly selected community participants of African ancestry with a mean age of 44.4±18.2 years we assessed aortic function using radial applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software (including forward [Pf] and backward [Pb] wave separation analysis assuming a triangular flow waveform) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI)(echocardiography). In multivariate models with the inclusion of brachial PP, 1/PP amplification (partial r=0.12, p<0.005), reflected wave pressures (partial r=0,09, p<0.05), and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) (partial r=0.09, p<0.05) were independently associated with LVMI. Similarly, in multivariate models with the inclusion of brachial PP, 1/PP amplification (p<0.005), the reflected wave pressure (p<0.01), and aortic PWV (p<0.01) were independently associated with LVH. With adjustments for reflected wave pressures, the brachial PP-independent relationships between 1/PP amplification and LVMI or LVH were abolished (p>0.08 for both). However, adjustments for PWV failed to modify brachial PP-independent relations between 1/PP amplification and LVMI or LVH. Similar results were noted when brachial SBP rather than PP was included in regression models and in sensitivity analysis conducted in participants not receiving antihypertensive therapy. In conclusion, the independent relations between the reciprocal of aortic-to-brachial PP amplification and LVMI or LVH in a largely young-to-middle-aged sample are accounted for by variations in backward wave pressures rather than aortic stiffness.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T22:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.003
       
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 is Independently Associated with Cardiac Mass
           in African American Adolescent Males
    • Authors: Bonita Falkner; Scott W. Keith; Samuel S. Gidding; Craig B. Langman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Bonita Falkner, Scott W. Keith, Samuel S. Gidding, Craig B. Langman
      Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been documented in hypertensive adolescents and among some with prehypertension. Obesity also appears to be associated with cardiac mass, independent of blood pressure (BP). Fibroblast growth factor-23(FGF23) is a novel biomarker positively associated with LVH in adults with and without kidney disease. The aim of this study was to determine if there was a significant and independent association of FGF23 with cardiac mass in a Black American adolescent cohort including both normotensive and prehypertensive (PH) participants with and without obesity. Measurements of BP, body mass index (BMI), plasma c-terminal FGF23, and echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were obtained in 236 adolescents, aged 13-18 years, stratified by BMI as normal, overweight, or obese. LVMI differed significantly between normal, overweight, and obese groups (30.42+6.75 vs 33.49 +8.65 vs 37.26+6.99 gm/m2.7; P<0.01). FGF23 was significantly higher in both overweight (53.03 RU/ml) and obese (54.40 RU/ml) compared to the normal weight (32.83 RU/ml) group; both P<0.01). In multiple linear regression analysis, variables significantly related to LVMI in males were BMI (P<0.0001), and FGF23 (P=0.005), but not BP, hsCRP or insulin. The only significant variable associated with LVMI in females was BMI (P<0.0001). In males, the contribution of FGF23 to predicting LVMI was independent of and in addition to obesity. These results suggest that FGF23 is an integral part of a complex pathway, associated with higher cardiac mass in African Americans males with excess adiposity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T22:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.04.001
       
  • Achieving the BpTRUth: Emergency Department Hypertension Screening and the
           Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Quality Measure
    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Goldberg; Taneisha Wilson; Cory Saucier; Aaron M. Brody; Phillip D. Levy; Charles B. Eaton; Roland C. Merchant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Elizabeth M. Goldberg, Taneisha Wilson, Cory Saucier, Aaron M. Brody, Phillip D. Levy, Charles B. Eaton, Roland C. Merchant
      Background In 2012, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) instituted a Physician Quality Reporting System measure for screening and referring patients with elevated blood pressure (BP). Objectives To (1) assess the reliability of ED triage BP as a metric to establish when the CMS threshold (≥120/80 mm Hg), and other clinically relevant BP thresholds (≥140/90 and ≥160/100 mm Hg) have been met, using BP measured with a highly accurate device (BpTRU) in the ED as the gold standard; and (2) determine whether correct identification varies by gender, race, or triage acuity. Methods Using the BpTRU, we calculated the proportion of patients whose triage BP accurately indicated a need for further referral and treatment for hypertension according to three suggested BP thresholds (≥120/80, ≥140/90, and ≥160/100 mm Hg). Results Of 354 patients, the median age was 39 years, 48.9% were women, and 66.4% were white. At the three suggested BP thresholds (≥120/80, ≥140/90, and ≥160/100 mm Hg), 66.1%, 74.0%, and 88.8% of patients were confirmed to meet the CMS threshold, respectively. There were no differences by gender, race, or triage acuity. Conclusions ED triage BP would reliably identify elevated BP using the CMS threshold in up to two-thirds of those without known hypertension.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T20:58:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.03.003
       
  • The Influence of Hypertension on Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep
           Apnea
    • Authors: Helena Martynowicz; Robert Skomro; Paweł Gać; Grzegorz Mazur; Irena Porębska; Agnieszka Brylka; Wojciech Nowak; Michał Zieliński; Anna Wojakowska; Rafał Poręba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Helena Martynowicz, Robert Skomro, Paweł Gać, Grzegorz Mazur, Irena Porębska, Agnieszka Brylka, Wojciech Nowak, Michał Zieliński, Anna Wojakowska, Rafał Poręba
      Daytime sleepiness is a common symptom among hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to determine subjective sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and to asses sleep architecture in 304 patients with arterial hypertension. All patients underwent a standardized diagnostic overnight, polysomnography. The control group consisted of 67 normotensives. The hypertensive patients had a decreased sleep efficiency, mean and minimum oxygen saturation levels, increased apnea / hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index compared with normotensive patients. The lower ratio of N3 sleep, higher of N2 sleep and decreased sleep efficiency was observed in hypertensives without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In the moderate to severe OSA groups the total ESS score was significantly lower in hypertensives compared to normotensives. The ESS scores decreased with age in hypertensives, but not in normotensives. The study showed that ESS total score is lower in hypertensives than in normotensives with OSA, making the OSA more difficult to suspect. Thus the low ESS score in hypertensives should not discourage further evaluation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.03.004
       
  • Arterial stiffness and elevated left ventricular filling pressure in
           patients at risk for the development or a previous diagnosis of HF – a
           subgroup analysis from the DIAST-CHF study
    • Authors: Claus Lüers; Tobias Daniel Trippel; Sebastian Seeländer; Rolf Wachter; Gerd Hasenfuss; Ruhdja Lindhorst; Anna Bobenko; Kathleen Nolte; Burkert Pieske; Frank Edelmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Claus Lüers, Tobias Daniel Trippel, Sebastian Seeländer, Rolf Wachter, Gerd Hasenfuss, Ruhdja Lindhorst, Anna Bobenko, Kathleen Nolte, Burkert Pieske, Frank Edelmann
      Background Left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) is a marker for diastolic dysfunction and heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (pEF; HFpEF). The interaction between arterial stiffness (AS) and elevated LVFP has not been sufficiently investigated. Methods In 257 patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; mean age 66 years, 53% female, mean LVEF 61%) and at least one cardiovascular risk factor (e.g. hypertension, diabetes) for the development of HF or a previous diagnosis of HF, LVFP was estimated in accordance with the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography (elevated when E/e´ ≥ 13, left atrial volume index ≥ 34 ml/m2). LVFP was correlated with radial pulse wave analysis [augmentationindex normalised by 75 b/min (AIx@75)], and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV)]. Results 38% of patients demonstrated an elevated LVFP. These patients were significantly older (68.3±7.4 vs. 63.5±7.6 years, p<0.001), demonstrated a higher body-mass-index (29.8±4.6 vs 28.0±5.0; p<0.01), presented more often with hypertension (89.7% vs. 73.1%, p<0.01), hypercholesterolemia (32.0% vs. 21.3%, p<0.05), dyspnea on exertion (28.4% vs. 16.6%, p<0.05) and peripheral edema (25.3% vs. 10.2%, p<0.01). cfPWV and AIx@75 and were significantly elevated in patients with elevated LVFP (12.2±2.7 m/s vs. 10.5±2.6 m/s, p<0.001, an 29.2±6.7% vs. 27.4±6.7%, p<0.05 respectively). cfPWV and AIx@75 were correlated with echocardiographic parameters, i.e. posterior wall thickness (r=0.292, p<0.001; r=0.167, p<0.01), left ventricular mass index (r=0.255, p<0.001; r=-0.192, p<0.01), e´ (r=-0.508, p<0.001; r=-0.159, p<0.05) and E/e´ (r=0.380, p<0.001; r=0.200, p<0.01). cfPWV correlated with left atrial volume index (r=0.189, p<0.05) and increasing E/A ratio (r=-0.334, p<0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated age and PWV as most important and independent predictors LVFP elevation in the entire cohort. Conclusions Increased AS measured by cfPWV was associated with an elevated LVFP in patients with preserved systolic function. Whether targeting AS as a major component of diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF needs to be further investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.03.006
       
  • Response to Letter to editor “Lessons learned from the recent history of
           technologies for non-invasive estimation of aortic blood pressure using
           transfer functions and pulse wave analysis “ by Papaioannou et al.
    • Authors: Lama Ghazi; Fadi G. Hage
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Lama Ghazi, Fadi G. Hage


      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.03.007
       
  • Galectin-3 mediates the pulmonary arterial hypertension-induced right
           ventricular remodeling through interacting with NADPH oxidase 4
    • Authors: Jingni He; Xiaohui Li; Hui Luo; Tangzhiming Li; Lin Zhao; Qiangqiang Qi; Yuwei Liu; Zaixin Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jingni He, Xiaohui Li, Hui Luo, Tangzhiming Li, Lin Zhao, Qiangqiang Qi, Yuwei Liu, Zaixin Yu
      Objective Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disorder that affects both pulmonary vasculature and the heart. The response of the right ventricle (RV) to the increased afterload is an important determinant of the PAH final outcome. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a novel biomarker in left cardiac remodeling, takes part in multiple pathophysiological processes including the inflammation, fibrosis, immunity and oxidative stress. The levels of Gal-3 are elevated in PAH patients, though the exact mechanisms underlie the PAH-induced right ventricular structural changes remain unclear. Results Serum Gal-3 and Nox4 levels were significantly elevated and correlated in 26 human PAH patients when compared to 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In the MCT-induced PAH rat models of RV hypertrophy and fibrosis, the Gal-3 and Nox4 expressions were both significantly up-regulated compared to the controls. The exogenous Gal-3 recombinant protein stimulated the proliferation, differentiation, collagen deposition and Nox4 expression of CFs. These simulations were blocked by the Gal-3 knockdown. The pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-β1 on the CFs were partially mediated by the Gal-3. Subsequently, our results showed that Gal-3 mediated the TGF-β1-induced cardiac fibrotic process by interacting with the Nox4 and Nox4- derived oxidative stress. Conclusions Gal-3 plays an important role in the PAH-induced RV remodeling by interacting with Nox4 and Nox4-derived oxidative stress. Gal-3 may become a RV-specific diagnostic and therapeutic target for clinics.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.03.008
       
  • The Association of Endothelial Function and Tone by Digital Arterial
           Tonometry with MRI Left Ventricular Mass in African Americans: the Jackson
           Heart Study
    • Authors: Avnish Tripathi; Emelia J. Benjamin; Solomon K. Musani; Naomi M. Hamburg; Connie W. Tsao; Arti Saraswat; Ramachandran S. Vasan; Gary F. Mitchell; Ervin R. Fox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Avnish Tripathi, Emelia J. Benjamin, Solomon K. Musani, Naomi M. Hamburg, Connie W. Tsao, Arti Saraswat, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Gary F. Mitchell, Ervin R. Fox
      Background Peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction assessed by digital arterial tonometry (PAT) has been associated with risk for adverse cardiovascular events. We examined the relations of peripheral microvascular dysfunction and left ventricular mass in a community-based cohort of African Americans. Methods and Results We examined participants of the Jackson Heart Study who had PAT and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging evaluations between 2007- 2013. Consistent with pertinent literature left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was adjusted for body size by indexing to height2.7. Pearson’s correlation and general linear regression analyses were used to relate reactive hyperemia index (RHI), baseline pulse amplitude (BPA) and augmentation index (AI) (markers of microvascular vasodilator function, baseline vascular pulsatility, and relative wave reflection, respectively) to LVMI after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 440 participants (mean age 59 ± 10 years, 60% women) were included. Age- and sex-adjusted Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that natural log transformed LVMI was negatively correlated with RHI (coef.: -0.114; P = 0.02) and positively correlated with BPA (coef: 0.272; P <0.001). In multivariable analyses, higher loge LVMI was associated with higher BPA (β: 0.210; p = 0.03) after accounting for age, sex, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, ratio of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking and history of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions In a community-based sample of African Americans higher baseline pulsatility measured by PAT was associated with higher LVMI by cardiac MRI after adjusting for traditional risk factors.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.03.005
       
  • Contributions of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity and Backward Wave Pressure to
           Variations in Left Ventricular Mass are Independent of Each Other
    • Authors: Hamza Bello; Gavin R. Norton; Imraan Ballim; Carlos D. Libhaber; Pinhas Sareli; Angela J. Woodiwiss
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Hamza Bello, Gavin R. Norton, Imraan Ballim, Carlos D. Libhaber, Pinhas Sareli, Angela J. Woodiwiss
      Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and backward waves, as determined from wave separation analysis, predict cardiovascular events beyond brachial blood pressure (BP). However, the extent to which these aortic hemodynamic variables contribute independent of each other is uncertain. In 749 randomly selected participants of African ancestry we therefore assessed the extent to which relationships between aortic PWV or backward wave pressures (Pb)(and hence central aortic pulse pressure [PPc]) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) occur independent of each other. Aortic PWV, PPc, forward wave pressure (Pf) and Pb were determined using radial applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software and LVMI using echocardiography. 44.5% of participants had an increased LVMI-ht1.7. With adjustments for age, brachial systolic BP or PP and additional confounders, PPc and Pb, but not Pf was independently related to LVMI and LV hypertrophy (LVH) in both men and women. However, PWV was independently associated with LVMI in women (partial r=0.16, p<0.001), but not in men (partial r=0.03) and PWV was independently associated with LVH in women (p<0.05), but not in men (p=0.07). With PWV and Pb included in the same multivariate regression models, PWV (partial r=0.14, p<0.005) and Pb (partial r=0.10, p<0.05) contributed to a similar extent to variations in LVMI in women. In addition, with PWV and Pb included in the same multivariate regression models, PWV (p<0.05) and Pb (p<0.02) contributed to LVH in women. In conclusion, aortic PWV and backward wave pressure (and hence pulse pressure) although both associated with LVMI and LVH, produce effects which are independent of each other.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T15:26:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.03.001
       
  • Effect of gender and adiposity on in vivo vascular function in young
           African Americans
    • Authors: Namrata Dass; Sindhu Kilakkathi; Brittaney Obi; Andrea Moosreiner; Shanthi Krishnaswami; Michael E. Widlansky; Srividya Kidambi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Namrata Dass, Sindhu Kilakkathi, Brittaney Obi, Andrea Moosreiner, Shanthi Krishnaswami, Michael E. Widlansky, Srividya Kidambi
      Background The relationship between obesity and high blood pressure is not as strong among African Americans (AA) as compared to Caucasians. We designed the current study to determine the effect of adiposity on vascular endothelial function (a harbinger of hypertension) among young healthy AA without additional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods A total of 108 AA subjects (46 women) between the ages of 18-45 years were recruited. All the subjects were normotensive, non-smokers, and normoglycemic. Anthropometric and CVD risk factor measurements (lipid, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers) were obtained. Vascular endothelial function was measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilation. Adiposity distribution was measured by using MRI scan. Results There were no gender differences in age and levels of blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers. Women had higher total body fat percentage and higher peripheral adiposity compared to men. We observed that total and central adiposity did not correlate significantly with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in women (r= -0.12 and r=0.23 respectively; p=NS). However, in men waist circumference was positively associated with FMD (r= 0.3, p = <0.05). Hyperemic flow was negatively correlated significantly with total and central adiposity (r= -0.34 and r=-0.48 respectively; p < 0.05) in men, but not in women (r= -0.26 and r=0.03 respectively; p=NS) in women. Conclusions Our study suggests that increased adiposity may pose greater risk to AA men compared to AA women by adversely affecting resistance vessel function (as measured by hyperemic flow). Larger studies are necessary to validate these findings.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T15:26:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.03.002
       
  • Low dose sustained-release deoxycorticosterone acetate induced
           hypertension in Bama miniature pigs for renal sympathetic nerve
           denervation
    • Authors: Wenzheng Han; Weiyi Fang; Qian Gan; Shaofeng Guan; Yanjie Li; Ming Wang; Kaizheng Gong; Xinkai Qu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Wenzheng Han, Weiyi Fang, Qian Gan, Shaofeng Guan, Yanjie Li, Ming Wang, Kaizheng Gong, Xinkai Qu
      Background Recently, the effectiveness of renal sympathetic nerve denervation for treatment of hypertension has been doubted after SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial. An ideal animal model is still unavailable for pre-clinical study about catheter-based renal sympathetic nerve denervation (RDN) for treatment of hypertension. Traditional high dose deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) induced hypertension pig model has some problems due to extensive end-organ damage. Based on the similarity in the anatomic characteristics of renal artery between pigs and humans, this study was undertaken to establish a low dose sustained-release DOCA-induced hypertension model in pigs. Methods A total of 14 pigs were subcutaneously implanted with low dose DOCA in the abdomen and cannulated from the femoral artery for the measurement of blood pressure (BP). Plasma angiotensin-I (Ang-I), angiotensin-II (Ang-II), plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone (Ald), creatinine (CREA), epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) were determined before and after treatments. The kidneys were collected and processed for haematoxylin & eosin staining, Masson–Goldner trichromic and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining. Results 10 pigs survived for one month. Mean BP significantly increased after 2-week treatment (P<0.001). The plasma Ang I, Ang II, PRA and Ald significantly decreased (Ang I: 6.92±6.06 vs 2.22±3.08, P=0.002; Ang II: 768.85±525.8 vs 213.76±148.63, P=0.003; PRA: 1.68±1.67 vs 0.29±0.39, P=0.008; Ald: 0.37±0.12 vs 0.25±0.09, P<0.001), but NE significantly increased (7.59±4.57 vs 16.96±10.38, P=0.021). Plasma CREA remained unchanged. Hisotological examination showed mild damage to the kidney. Conclusion: Low dose sustained-release DOCA is able to induce hypertension in pigs. A femoral catheter is not only helpful for monitoring BP, but can be used to quickly exchange the RDN equipment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T14:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.02.006
       
  • Effects of Carvedilol or Amlodipine on Target Organ Damage in L-Name
           Hypertensive Rats: Their Relationship with Blood Pressure Variability
    • Authors: Julieta S. Del Mauro; Paula D. Prince; Martín Donato; Nahuel Fernandez Machulsky; Marcela A. Morettón; Germán E. González; Facundo M. Bertera; Andrea Carranza; Susana B. Gorzalczany; Diego A. Chiappetta; Gabriela Berg; Celina Morales; Ricardo J. Gelpi; Carlos A. Taira; Christian Höcht
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Julieta S. Del Mauro, Paula D. Prince, Martín Donato, Nahuel Fernandez Machulsky, Marcela A. Morettón, Germán E. González, Facundo M. Bertera, Andrea Carranza, Susana B. Gorzalczany, Diego A. Chiappetta, Gabriela Berg, Celina Morales, Ricardo J. Gelpi, Carlos A. Taira, Christian Höcht
      Objectives To compare the effects of chronic oral treatment with carvedilol or amlodipine on blood pressure and blood pressure variability and target organ damage in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertensive rats. Methods Wistar rats were treated with L-NAME administered in the drinking water for 8 weeks together with oral administration of carvedilol 30 mg/kg (n=6), amlodipine 10 mg/kg (n=6) or vehicle (n=6). At the end of the treatment, echocardiographic evaluation, blood pressure and short-term variability measurements were performed. Left ventricular and thoracic aortas were removed to assess activity of metalloproteinase 2 and 9 and expression levels of transforming growth factor β, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6. Histological samples were prepared from both tissues. Results Carvedilol and amlodipine induced a comparable reduction of systolic and mean arterial pressure and its short-term variability in L-NAME rats. The expression of transforming growth factor β, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 decreased in both organs after carvedilol or amlodipine treatment and the activity of metalloproteinase was reduced in aortic tissue. Treatment with carvedilol or amlodipine completely prevented left ventricular collagen deposition and morphometric alterations in aorta. Conclusion Oral chronic treatment with carvedilol or amlodipine significantly attenuates blood pressure variability and reduces target organ damage and biomarkers of tissue fibrosis and inflammation in L-NAME hypertensive rats.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T14:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.02.007
       
  • From the Editor
    • Authors: Daniel Levy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy


      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:12:13Z
       
  • Metformin lowers blood pressure in obese and insulin-resistant
           individuals without diabetes
    • Authors: Brent M. Egan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Brent M. Egan


      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.002
       
  • The relationship of alcohol consumption with left ventricular mass in
           people 35 years old or older in rural areas of western China
    • Authors: Yunjing Yang; Nan Zhang; Huang Wei; Rui Feng; Panpan Feng; Jun Gu; Gang Liu; Han Lei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Yunjing Yang, Nan Zhang, Huang Wei, Rui Feng, Panpan Feng, Jun Gu, Gang Liu, Han Lei
      The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol intake and left ventricular mass (LVM) independent of the effects of blood pressure and other factors in rural areas of western China. One thousand and seven subjects (487 men and 520 women) aged ≥35 years from the Tongan district, Chongqing, China. The quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption was estimated from a validated questionnaire. Echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular dimensions. Drinkers was associated with higher LVM compared with non-drinkers (β=6.9, 95% CI 1.3-12.5, P=0.015). A dose-dependent higher LVM across increasing alcohol consumption was observed (P < 0.05). LVM was significantly correlated with regular drinking (β=10.0, 95% CI 3.6-16.4). In subjects with hypertension, quantity of alcohol consumption (P for interaction= 0.013) and frequency of alcohol consumption (P for interaction= 0.025) were strongly associated with higher LVM when stratified by blood pressure. However, interactions linked to age, BMI and gender were found to be no significant difference. These results indicate that both quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption are independent predictors of LVM in rural areas of western China. The effects of alcohol consumption on LVM is enhanced among subjects with hypertension.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.02.002
       
  • Echocardiographic characteristics of Hypertensive patients affected by
           transient Ischemic attack: a cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Daniela Degli Esposti; Simone Stefano Finzi; Angelo Parini; Arrigo FG. Cicero; Giovanni Tomassoli; Stefano Bacchelli; Maria Guarino; Francesca Rondelli; Claudio Borghi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniela Degli Esposti, Simone Stefano Finzi, Angelo Parini, Arrigo FG. Cicero, Giovanni Tomassoli, Stefano Bacchelli, Maria Guarino, Francesca Rondelli, Claudio Borghi
      Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA), common finding in normal echocardiographies, has been described in association with transient ischemic attacks (TIA)/strokes, as well as hypertensive end organ damage such as left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Aim of this study was to assess if a cluster of echocardiographic aspects could characterize TIA hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional study on patients with history of TIA, referring to a Hypertension Center echolab, has been performed. 5223 patients received trans-thoracic echocardiography. TIA patients were 292 (5.6%). 102 age/sex matched patients without TIA have been collected as controls. The main characteristic of TIA patients resulted ASA/bulging (TIA 61%, controls 6%, p=0,0001). Other aspect were LV concentric remodeling (TIA 32.3%, controls 20.8%, p= 0.029) and mitral flow aspects of diastolic dysfunction. After adjustment for age and hypertension, ASA/bulging (O.R.=62.4, 95%CI: 13.6 – 73.9, p<0.001), followed by LV concentric hypertrophy (O.R.=2.1, 95%CI: 1.1–4.3, p=0.043), were associated with a positive TIA history. A binary logistic regression performed in ASA/bulging patients, identified relative wall thickness as the strongest TIA associated aspect (OR=53.4, 95%CI: 11.9–74.18, p=0.001). ASA/bulging, common finds in general population, could carry a significant incremental possibility of association with TIA when concentric geometry, frequent hypertensive aspect, is present as well.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.02.003
       
  • Lessons learned from the recent history of technologies for non-invasive
           estimation of aortic blood pressure using transfer functions and pulse
           wave analysis
    • Authors: Theodore G. Papaioannou; Costas P. Tsioufis; Marianna Karamanou; Dimitrios Tousoulis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Theodore G. Papaioannou, Costas P. Tsioufis, Marianna Karamanou, Dimitrios Tousoulis


      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.02.004
       
  • Clinic and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in a Population-Based Sample of
           African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study
    • Authors: S. Justin Thomas; John N. Booth; Samantha G. Bromfield; Samantha R. Seals; Tanya M. Spruill; Gbenga Ogedegbe; Srividya Kidambi; Daichi Shimbo; David Calhoun; Paul Muntner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): S. Justin Thomas, John N. Booth, Samantha G. Bromfield, Samantha R. Seals, Tanya M. Spruill, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Srividya Kidambi, Daichi Shimbo, David Calhoun, Paul Muntner
      Blood pressure (BP) can differ substantially when measured in the clinic versus outside of the clinic setting. Few population-based studies with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) include African Americans. We calculated the prevalence of clinic hypertension and ABPM phenotypes among 1,016 participants in the population-based Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African-American cohort. Mean daytime systolic BP was higher than mean clinic systolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (127.1[standard deviation 12.8] versus 124.5[15.7] mmHg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (131.2[13.6] versus 130.0[15.6] mmHg, respectively). Mean daytime diastolic BP was higher than clinic diastolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (78.2[standard deviation 8.9] versus 74.6[8.4] mmHg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (77.6[9.4] versus 74.3[8.5] mmHg, respectively). The prevalence of daytime hypertension was higher than clinic hypertension for participants not taking antihypertensive medication (31.8% versus 14.3%) and taking antihypertensive medication (43.0% versus 23.1%). A high percentage of participants not taking and taking antihypertensive medication had nocturnal hypertension (49.4% and 61.7%, respectively), white coat hypertension (30.2% and 29.3%, respectively), masked hypertension (25.4% and 34.6%, respectively), and a non-dipping BP pattern (62.4% and 69.6%, respectively). In conclusion, these data suggest hypertension may be misdiagnosed among African Americans without using ABPM.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:30:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.02.001
       
  • Association between Modified Shuttle Walk Test and Cardiorespiratory
           Fitness in Overweight/Obese Adults with Primary Hypertension: EXERDIET-HTA
           Study
    • Authors: Borja Jurio-Iriarte; Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga; G. Rodrigo Aispuru; Javier Pérez-Asenjo; Peter H. Brubaker; Sara Maldonado-Martín
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Borja Jurio-Iriarte, Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga, G. Rodrigo Aispuru, Javier Pérez-Asenjo, Peter H. Brubaker, Sara Maldonado-Martín
      Background The aims of the study were: to evaluate the relationship between Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) with peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) in overweight/obese people with primary hypertension (HTN), and to develop an equation for the MSWT to predict VO2peak. Methods Participants (N=256, 53.9±8.1 yr old) with HTN and overweight/obesity performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test to peak exertion on an upright bicycle ergometer using an incremental ramp protocol and the 15-level MSWT. The formula of Singh et al. was used as a template to predict V̇O2peak, and a new equation was generated from the measured V̇O2peak-MSWT relationship in this investigation. Results The correlation between measured and predicted V̇O2peak for Singh et al. equation was moderate (r=0.60, P<0.001) with a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 4.92 mL·kg-1·min-1; SEE%=21%. The correlation between MSWT and measured V̇O2peak, as well as for the new equation was strong (r=0.72, P<0.001) with a SEE of 4.35 mL·kg-1·min-1; SEE%=19%. Conclusion These results indicate that MSWT does not accurately predict functional capacity in overweight/obese people with HTN and questions the validity of using this test to evaluate exercise intolerance. A more accurate determination from a new equation in the current study incorporating more variables from MSWT to estimate V̇O2peak has been performed, but still results in substantial error.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T00:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.008
       
  • Anthropometric profile of Hong Kong children and adolescents: The Wellness
           Population of Youth Study
    • Authors: Regina L.T. Lee; Paul H. Lee; Daniel M.Y. Sze; Wai Tong Chien
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Regina L.T. Lee, Paul H. Lee, Daniel M.Y. Sze, Wai Tong Chien
      Childhood obesity has been a public health concern increasingly. We investigated the age- and sex-specific BMI, blood pressure level, and other obesity measures in Hong Kong children and adolescents. We used the data from Wellness Population of Youth Study, a health examination for anthropometric measurements among children and adolescents (aged 9 to 15 years) in Hong Kong, conducted in Oct 2012 – Jun 2013 (n=4,410). Anthropometric measures including weight, height, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triceps and scapula skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, were measured following universal standard protocol. Overweight and obesity were classified using the 2000 International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), 2007 World Health Organization (WHO), and 2000 Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) age- and sex-specific growth charts. Hypertension was categorized using CDC and Chinese standards. The prevalence of obesity, overweight, and hypertension of Hong Kong adolescents according to the above definitions were 5.4%-15.1%, 20.8%-25.9%, and 12.0%-13.8%, respectively. Boys had higher SBP, waist, BMI, and waist-to-height ratio (all p < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, scapula skinfold, waist, and BMI increased with age, while pulse and waist-to-height ratio decreased with age. To conclude, compared with worldwide data, the situations of obesity and overweight among Hong Kong children and adolescents were more severe.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T00:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.007
       
  • Activation of chemokine receptor CXCR2 is a crucial factor in the
           development of experimental hypertension
    • Authors: Michael J. Bloch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Michael J. Bloch


      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.001
       
  • Interleukin-6 -572C/G polymorphism is associated with serum interleukin-6
           levels and risk of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension
    • Authors: Ming Fang; Yueye Huang; Yuan Zhang; Zhongping Ning; Luoning Zhu; Xinming Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Ming Fang, Yueye Huang, Yuan Zhang, Zhongping Ning, Luoning Zhu, Xinming Li
      Interleukin (IL)-6 is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that is elevated in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of IL-6 have been reported to transcriptional regulate the expression of IL-6. The aim of the present study is to investigate the roles of two common polymorphisms [-572C/G (rs1800796) and -6331T/C (rs10499563)] of IL-6 in idiopathic PAH (IPAH). A total of 338 IPAH patients and 352 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Genotyping of the two polymorphisms were performed by PCR and direct sequencing. Serum IL-6 levels were determined by ELISA assay. The frequencies of -572C/G genotypes CC, CG, and GG were found to be 63.6%, 32.3%, and 4.1% in IPAH patients group, and 51.7%, 39.5%, and 8.8% in the controls, respectively. Compared with the individuals carrying the common genotype CC, the individuals carrying the GG genotype had a decreased risk of IPAH (adjusted odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.77; P= 0.006). The CG genotype and G allele carriers (CG/GG genotypes) were also observed to be associated with decreased risks of IPAH. Moreover, we found that individuals harboring -572GG or GC genotype showed significantly lower IL-6 levels than those harboring the -572CC genotype. No association between -6331T/C polymorphism and risk of IPAH or IL-6 levels was found. These results suggest that IL-6 promoter polymorphism -572C/G, but not -6331T/C, is associated with serum IL-6 levels and risk of IPAH.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.011
       
  • The importance of genetic counseling and genetic screening: A case report
           of a 16-year-old boy with resistant hypertension and severe hypokalemia
    • Authors: Ze-Min Kuang; Ying Wang; Jia-Jie Wang; Jing-Hua Liu; Rong Zeng; Qi Zhou; Zhen-Qiu Yu; Long Jiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Ze-Min Kuang, Ying Wang, Jia-Jie Wang, Jing-Hua Liu, Rong Zeng, Qi Zhou, Zhen-Qiu Yu, Long Jiang
      Liddle's syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of monogenic hypertension, is characterized by salt-sensitive hypertension with early penetrance, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, suppression of plasma rennin activity and aldosterone secretion, and a clear-cut response to epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blockers but not spironolactone therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 16-year-old boy patient with resistant hypertension (maintain 170-180/100-110 mmHg after administration four kinds of antiypertensive drugs) and severe hypokalemia. After a series of checks we exclude primary aldosteronism and renal artery stenosis and other diseases. Finally, the liddle syndrome was diagnosed because of the DNA sequencing found that the proband's mother and himself had mutations P616L (c.1847 C>T) in the SCNN1B gene. Liddle syndrome should be considered as a cause of hypertension in children or adolescents particularly with suppressed renin activity. Early diagnosis and appropriately tailored treatment avoid complications of long-term unrecognized or inappropriately managed hypertension.Genetic testing has made it possible to make accurate diagnoses and develop tailored therapies for mutation carriers. The role of genetic testing and genetic counseling in establishing the early diagnosis of Liddle's syndrome is important.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.012
       
  • Primate Response to Angiotensin Infusion and High Sodium Intake Differ by
           Sodium Lithium Countertransport Phenotype
    • Authors: Kimberly D. Spradling-Reeves; Robert E. Shade; Joseph R. Haywood; Laura A. Cox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Kimberly D. Spradling-Reeves, Robert E. Shade, Joseph R. Haywood, Laura A. Cox
      An increased level of sodium-lithium countertransport (SLC) activity has been associated with salt-sensitive hypertension. Previous findings have suggested that dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be involved in the mechanism linking elevated SLC activity and hypertension. Therefore, baboons with different levels of SLC activity were given two diets differing in sodium content, with and without an angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion, to investigate the relationship between SLC activity, the RAAS, and physiological regulation by sodium. Although we anticipated that high SLC (HSLC) activity would be associated with inappropriate function of the RAAS and greater arterial pressure sensitivity to dietary sodium and ANG II and that low SLC (LSLC) activity would be associated with the least BP sensitivity, we found that the LSLC phenotype correlated with BP sensitivity similar to the HSLC phenotype, and the normal SLC (NSLC) phenotype showed the least BP sensitivity to dietary sodium and ANG II.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.010
       
  • Metformin lowers blood pressure in obese and insulin-resistant individuals
           without diabetes
    • Authors: Brent M. Egan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Brent M. Egan


      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.002
       
  • Home, Automated Office and Conventional Office Blood Pressure as
           Predictors of Cardiovascular Risk
    • Authors: Emmanuel A. Andreadis; Vasilios Papademetriou; Charalampia V. Geladari; George N. Kolyvas; Epameinondas T. Angelopoulos; Konstantinos N. Aronis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Emmanuel A. Andreadis, Vasilios Papademetriou, Charalampia V. Geladari, George N. Kolyvas, Epameinondas T. Angelopoulos, Konstantinos N. Aronis
      Objective Automated office blood pressure (AOBP) has recently been shown to closely predict cardiovascular (CV) events in the elderly. Home blood pressure (HBP) has also been accepted as a valuable method in the prediction of CV disease. This study aimed to compare conventional office BP (OBP), HBP and AOBP in order to evaluate their value in predicting CV events and deaths in hypertensives. Methods We assessed 236 initially treatment naïve hypertensives, examined between 2009 and 2013. The end points were any CV and non-CV event including mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), hospitalization for heart failure (HF), severe arrhythmia, stroke, and intermittent claudication. We fitted proportional hazards models using the different modalities as predictors, and evaluated their predictive performance using three metrics: time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristics curves, the Akaike’s Information Criterion, and Harrell’s C-index. Results After a mean follow-up of 7 years, 23 participants (39% women) had experienced ≥1 CV event. Conventional office systolic(HR per 1mm Hg increase in BP, 1.028; 95%CI, 1.009-1.048), automated office systolic (HR per 1mm Hg increase in BP, 1.031; 95%CI, 1.008-1.054) and home systolic (HR, 1.025; 95%CI, 1.003-1.047) were predictive of CV events. All systolic BP measurements were predictive after adjustment for other CV risk factors (P<0.05). The predictive performance of the different modalities was similar. Conclusion Conventional OBP was significantly higher than AOBP and average HBP. AOBP predicts equally well to OBP and HBP CV events. It appears to be comparable to HBP in the assessment of CV risk and therefore its introduction into guidelines and clinical practice as the reference method for assessing BP in the office seems reasonable after verification of these findings by randomized trials.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.009
       
  • From the Editor
    • Authors: Daniel Levy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy


      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:48:06Z
       
  • What is the Association between Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and
           Six-Minute Walk Test in Hypertensive Patients?
    • Authors: El-Sayed M. Farag; Mohammad M. Al-Daydamony; Marwa M. Gad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): El-Sayed M. Farag, Mohammad M. Al-Daydamony, Marwa M. Gad
      Background Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem. Hypertension is an important cause of HF. Most hypertensive patients have some degree of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) provides objective data about the exercise tolerance. Aims We aimed to find the association between the degree of LV diastolic dysfunction and the functional capacity assessed by 6MWT in hypertensive patients. Patients and Methods The study included 200 asymptomatic hypertensive patients. All patients had undergone full history taking, complete clinical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography for assessment of LV dimensions, systolic, and diastolic dysfunction, and 6MWT. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of LV diastolic dysfunction. Results Clinical and echocardiographic data were comparable between the two groups. Regarding 6MWT, at the end of the test patients with diastolic dysfunction had significantly higher systolic (p =0.0088) and diastolic (p =0.019) blood pressure and higher Borg score for dyspnea (p <0.00001). The distant walked and percentage of the distance to predicted value were significantly lower in patients with diastolic dysfunction (p =0.0322, and 0.0002 respectively). Incidence of abnormal 6MWT was significantly higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction (p =0.00041). Patients with grade III diastolic dysfunction had significantly higher Borg score (p =0.013), lower distance walked (p =0.039), lower percentage of distance to predicted vale (p =0.009). Independent predictors for abnormal 6MWT were: E/E' ≥15 (p =0.0022), E'/A' <1 (p =0.0081), and deceleration time of E-wave <160 (p =0.013). Conclusion The presence of LV diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients has a bad effect on 6MWT. The degree of LV diastolic dysfunction was correlated with 6MWT results. It may be important to investigate LV diastolic function in asymptomatic hypertensive patients.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T22:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.004
       
  • Genetic testing helps to confirm the diagnosis and initiate appropriate
           treatment, a case of Liddle syndrome.
    • Authors: Pavel Pichurin; Garry L. Schwartz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Pavel Pichurin, Garry L. Schwartz


      PubDate: 2017-01-29T22:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.01.003
       
  • From the Editor
    • Authors: Daniel Levy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Daniel Levy


      PubDate: 2016-12-27T14:12:44Z
       
  • Assessment of vascular function in low socioeconomic status preschool
           children: A pilot study
    • Authors: Lama Ghazi; Tanja Dudenbostel; Daisy Xing; Deborah Ejem; Anne Turner-Henson; Cynthia Irwin Joiner; Olivia Affuso; Andres Azuero; Suzanne Oparil; David A. Calhoun; Marti Rice; Fadi G. Hage
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Lama Ghazi, Tanja Dudenbostel, Daisy Xing, Deborah Ejem, Anne Turner-Henson, Cynthia Irwin Joiner, Olivia Affuso, Andres Azuero, Suzanne Oparil, David A. Calhoun, Marti Rice, Fadi G. Hage
      Objective Elevated brachial blood pressure (BP) in childhood tracks into adulthood. Central BP and measures of arterial stiffness, such as aortic augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), have been associated with future cardiovascular disease (CVD). This pilot study assessed the feasibility of non-invasively measuring these parameters in preschool children and explored factors that may be associated with elevated BP in this age group.Methods: Brachial BP was measured using an electronic oscillometric unit (Dinamap PRO 100) and defined as elevated when systolic (SBP) and/or diastolic (DBP) BP was ≥ the 90th percentile for age, gender, and height. Central BP, AIx, and PWV were measured using applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor). C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured in serum samples.Results: Sixteen African American preschool children were recruited (4.4±0.8 years, 69% males), 6 (38%) of whom had an elevated brachial BP (110±10/69±4 vs. 96±8/55±6 mm Hg, Cohen’s d=2.2). Children with elevated brachial BP had higher central SBP (d=1.6) and DBP (d=1.96) (97±6/68±4 vs. 85±8/57±6 mm Hg), AIx (d=0.88) (31±8 vs.18±16%, standardized to heart rate) and CRP (3.1[2.3-6.3] vs. 0.1[0.1-0.3] mg/L, d=2). There was no significant difference in PWV between groups (d=0.26). CRP and SBP (Spearman r=0.70), DBP (r=0.68), central SBP (r=0.58), and central DBP (r=0.71) were positively correlated. Wide confidence intervals for the estimated effect sizes indicated a large degree of uncertainty about all estimates due to the small sample size. Conclusion Non-invasive assessment of central BP and arterial stiffness is feasible in preschool children. Vascular inflammation may be an important factor that influences BP at an early age. Further studies in preschool children are needed to elucidate mechanisms of early onset hypertension.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T14:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2016.12.006
       
 
 
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