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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1108 journals)
    - HISTORY (741 journals)
    - History (General) (47 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (42 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (37 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AND OTHER AREAS (8 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (125 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (92 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (16 journals)

HISTORY (741 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Historische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Historiæ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History & Memory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
History Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
History Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
History in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
History of CERN     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
History of Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
History of Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
History of Education: Journal of the History of Education Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
History of European Ideas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
History of Political Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
History of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
History of Religions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
History of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
History Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Holocaust and Genocide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HSE - Social and Education History     Open Access  
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IKON     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Il Capitale Culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ILCEA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Illawarra Unity - Journal of the Illawarra Branch of the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Images re-vues : histoire, anthropologie et théorie de l'art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Immigrants & Minorities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Indian Economic & Social History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indonesia and the Malay World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Inner Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intellectual History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intermédialités : histoire et théorie des arts, des lettres et des techniques / Intermedialities: History and Theory of the Arts, Literature and Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
International Journal of Society Systems Science     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Politics     Partially Free   (Followers: 17)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iran and the Caucasus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Irish Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Isis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Israel Studies Forum     Full-text available via subscription  
Itinerari di ricerca storica     Open Access  
Japanese Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal Asiatique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Contemporary History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal for Maritime Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for the Study of Judaism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal for the Study of Radicalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aging, Humanities, and the Arts: Official Journal of the Gerontological Society of America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of American History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of American-East Asian Relations     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access  
Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Australian Colonial History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Australian Naval History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Baltic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of British Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'études canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Conflict Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Contemporary Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Contemporary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Coptic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cuneiform Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Early Modern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of East Asian Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ecclesiastical History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of English and Germanic Philology (JEGP)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of European Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Family History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Global History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Historical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Historical Pragmatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Historical Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Israeli History: Politics, Society, Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Jewish Identities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies: Travesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Latin American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Legal History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medieval History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medieval Religious Cultures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Military History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Modern Chinese History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Modern History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 206)
Journal of Modern Italian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Russian History and Historiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Journal of the American Society of Hypertension     [SJR: 0.803]   [H-I: 17]
   [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1933-1711
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2582 journals]
  • Outpatient Blood Pressure Monitoring using Bi-directional Text Messaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Chris A. Anthony , Linnea A. Polgreen , James Chounramany , Eric D. Foster , Christopher J. Goerdt , Michelle L. Miller , Manish Suneja , Alberto M. Segre , Barry L. Carter , Philip M. Polgreen
      To diagnose hypertension, multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements are recommended. We randomized patients into three groups: EMR-only (Patients recorded BP measurements in an electronic medical record (EMR) web portal), EMR+reminders (Patients were sent text-message reminders to record their BP measurements in the EMR), and bi-directional text messaging (Patients were sent a text message asking them to respond with their current BP). Subjects were asked to complete 14 measurements. Automated messages were sent to each patient in the bi-directional text messaging and EMR+reminder groups twice daily. Among 121 patients, those in the bi-directional text messaging group reported the full 14 measurements more often than both the EMR-only group (p<0.001) and the EMR+reminders group (p=0.038). Also, the EMR+reminders group outperformed the EMR-only group (p<0.001). Bi-directional automated text messaging is an effective way to gather patient BP data. Text-message-based reminders alone are an effective way to encourage patients to record BP measurements.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T13:23:56Z
       
  • Direct Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Stimulation by Compound 21 Prevents
           Vascular Dementia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jun Iwanami , Masaki Mogi , Kana Tsukuda , Xiao-Li Wang , Hirotomo Nakaoka , Harumi Kan-no , Toshiyuki Chisaka , Hui-Yu Bai , Bao-Shuai Shan , Masayoshi Kukida , Masatsugu Horiuchi
      Background Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor activation has been reported to play a role in cognitive function, although its detailed mechanisms and pathological significance are not fully understood. We examined the possibility that direct AT2 receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21) could prevent cognitive decline associated with hypoperfusion in the brain. Methods We employed a bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model in mice as a model of vascular dementia. The Morris water maze task was performed 6 weeks after BCAS operation. Azilsartan (0.1 mg/kg/day) or C21 (10 μg/kg/day) was administered from 1 week before BCAS. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and inflammatory cytokine levels were also determined. Results Wild-type (WT) mice showed significant prolongation of escape latency after BCAS, and this cognitive impairment was attenuated by pretreatment with azilsartan. Cognitive impairment was more marked in AT2 receptor knockout (AT2KO) mice, and the preventive effect of azilsartan on cognitive decline was weaker in AT2KO mice than in WT mice, suggesting that the improvement of cognitive decline by azilsartan may involve stimulation of the AT2 receptor. The significant impairment of spatial learning after BCAS in WT mice was attenuated by C21 treatment. The decrease in CBF in the BCAS-treated group was blunted by C21 treatment, and the increase in TNF-α and MCP-1 mRNA expression after BCAS was attenuated by C21 treatment. Conclusions These findings indicate that direct AT2 stimulation attenuates ischemic vascular dementia induced by hypoperfusion at least in part through an increase in CBF, and a reduction of inflammation.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T13:23:56Z
       
  • Relation of vitamin D deficiency and new-onset atrial fibrillation among
           hypertensive patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Ozgur Ulas Ozcan , Adalet Gurlek , Eren Gursoy , Demet Menekse Gerede , Cetin Erol
      Introduction Vitamin D deficiency is associated with various cardiovascular disorders including hypertension, coronary artery disease and heart failure. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) axis is activated in vitamin D deficiency. RAS axis also plays a role in the pathophysiology of AF. We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for the development of new-onset AF in hypertension. Methods A total of 227 hypertensive patients were enrolled, of whom 137 had new-onset atrial fibrillation and 90 patients without AF were included in the control group. Results Age of the patient, left atrial diameter and vitamin D deficiency increased the probability of new-onset AF independent from confounding factors [(OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, p=0.03 for age), (OR: 1.88, 95% CI 1.15-3.45, p=0.03 for left atrial diameter), (OR: 1.68, 95% CI 1.18-2.64, p=0.03 for vitamin D deficiency)]. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is associated with new-onset AF in hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T13:23:56Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 11




      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Elevated systolic blood pressure is associated with increased incidence of
           chronic kidney disease but not mortality in elderly veterans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): James W. Lohr , Mojgan Golzy , Randolph L. Carter , Pradeep Arora
      The optimal blood pressure to prevent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mortality in the elderly is unclear. Our objective was to determine the effect of differing levels of blood pressure on incidence of CKD and mortality in elderly veterans. This retrospective cohort study included 15,221 individuals ≥70 years of age without CKD (outpatient estimated glomular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m2) seen in the primary care clinic in the Veterans Affairs Health Care Upstate New York with Veterans Integrated Service Network 2 between 2001 and 2008. To examine the association of explanatory variables on hazard ratios for outcomes of interest, incident CKD, and death, competing risk analysis (with death as competing risk) was used for the analysis of incident CKD outcome, and time–dependent Cox model with CKD as the time–dependent covariate was used for the analysis of death outcome. The incidence of CKD was 16% over a median follow–up of 19 quarters. Compared with reference of systolic blood pressure of 130–139 mm Hg, there was an increased hazard of development of CKD with systolic blood pressure of 140–149 mm Hg or higher. As compared with a reference range of 130–139 mm Hg systolic blood pressure, the relative risk of mortality was higher in the range of 120–129 mm Hg systolic or less. The optimal achieved systolic blood pressure in elderly patients to prevent the development of CKD was <140 mm Hg. However, lowering the systolic blood pressure below 130 mm Hg was associated with increased mortality.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • SGLT2 inhibitors: their potential reduction in blood pressure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): George Maliha , Raymond R. Townsend
      The sodium glucose co–transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent a promising treatment option for diabetes and its common comorbidity, hypertension. Emerging data suggests that the SGLT2 inhibitors provide a meaningful reduction in blood pressure, although the precise mechanism of the blood pressure drop remains incompletely elucidated. Based on current data, the blood pressure reduction is partially due to a combination of diuresis, nephron remodeling, reduction in arterial stiffness, and weight loss. While current trials are underway focusing on cardiovascular endpoints, the SGLT2 inhibitors present a novel treatment modality for diabetes and its associated hypertension as well as an opportunity to elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension in diabetes.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Plasma visfatin/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase levels in
           hypertensive elderly – results from the PolSenior substudy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Piotr Kocelak , Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz , Aleksander Owczarek , Maria Bożentowicz-Wikarek , Aniceta Brzozowska , Małgorzata Mossakowska , Tomasz Zdrojewski , Tomasz Grodzicki , Andrzej Więcek , Jerzy Chudek
      Visfatin/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), is a 52 kDa adipokine with proinflammatory properties produced mostly by macrophages and adipocytes from visceral adipose tissue. It seems that visfatin/NAMPT plays a role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. As this condition is frequently present in the elderly, the aim of the study was to assess the plasma visfatin/NAMPT levels in normotensive and hypertensive subjects from the Polish elderly population. Visfatin/NAMPT levels were measured by specific enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay method in plasma samples from 2789 elderly subjects (1338 females, 1451 males) without heart failure, the PolSenior study participants, in addition to previously estimated serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, creatinine, C–reactive protein, and interleukin–6. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was calculated and used as a marker of insulin resistance. In the study group, 591 subjects were normotensive, 449 had untreated hypertension, and 1749 had treated hypertension. Plasma visfatin/NAMPT levels were not related to the presence of hypertension or the use of antihypertensive drugs, including angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists. The regression analysis revealed that plasma visfatin/NAMPT concentration variability is increased in subjects with high–sensitivity C–reactive protein concentration above 3 mg/L and with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance ≥2.5, and decreased in those aged over 80 years. Our study shows that the presence of hypertension is not associated with the plasma levels of visfatin/NAMPT in elderly subjects. Plasma visfatin/NAMPT concentrations positively correlate with inflammation and insulin resistance, and are decreased in the oldest.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Comparison of an in-pharmacy automated blood pressure kiosk
           to daytime ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Raj S. Padwal , Raymond R. Townsend , Luc Trudeau , Peter G. Hamilton , Mark Gelfer
      The objective of this study was to compare serial readings from an in–pharmacy automated blood pressure (BP) kiosk to mean daytime ambulatory BP. A total of 100 community–dwelling adults with hypertension underwent (1) three baseline automated office readings; (2) three in–pharmacy readings on each of four visits (12 total) using the PharmaSmart PS–2000 kiosk; and (3) 24–hour ambulatory BP monitoring between in–pharmacy visits two and three. Paired t–tests, Bland–Altman plots, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for analysis. Mean BPs were 137.8 ± 13.7/81.9 ± 12.2 mm Hg for in–pharmacy and 135.5 ± 11.7/79.7 ± 10.0 mm Hg for daytime ambulatory (difference of 2.3 ± 9.5/2.2 ± 6.9 mm Hg [P ≤ .05]). Bland–Altman plots depicted a high degree of BP variability but did not show clinically important systematic BP differences. With ambulatory BP as the reference standard, in–pharmacy device results were similar to automated office results. The PharmaSmart PS–2000 closely approximated mean daytime ambulatory BP, supporting the use of serial readings from this device in the assessment of BP.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Diagnostic evaluation Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical
           hypertension management
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): William B. White



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Diagnostic evaluation Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical
           hypertension management
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12




      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Secondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Stephen C. Textor



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Secondary hypertension Drugs and herbal preparations that increase
           pressure
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Gary E. Sander



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Thanks to Our Reviewers
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12




      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • The Association between Elevated Admission Systolic Blood Pressure in
           Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Favorable Early and Late
           Outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Gadi Shlomai , Eran Kopel , Ilan Goldenberg , Ehud Grossman
      Objectives In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) the predictive potential of admission systolic blood pressure (SBP) on early and late outcomes is not entirely clear. We investigated the association between admission SBP in patients hospitalized for ACS and subsequent morbidity and mortality in a real world setting. Methods The study population comprised 7,645 ACS patients enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndromes Israeli Survey (ACSIS) between 2002 and 2010. We analyzed the association between admission SBP, and the rates of 7-day and 1-year all-cause mortality and of 30-day major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE). Admission SBP was categorized as low (<110 mmHg), normal (110-140 mmHg), high (141-160 mmHg) and very high (>160 mmHg). Results Compared to patients with normal admission SBP, those with low SBP had a significantly increased hazard ratios (HRs) for 7-day and 1-year mortality, and MACE of 2.37, 1.92, 1.51, respectively (all p <0.001). In contrast, patients with very high admission SBP had significantly decreased HRs for 7-and 1-year mortality, and MACE of 0.46, 0.65, 0.84, respectively (p=0.004, <0.001, 0.07, respectively). Conclusion In patients with ACS, elevated admission SBP is associated with favorable early and late outcomes.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Oscillometric blood pressure: a review for clinicians
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Bruce S. Alpert , David Quinn , David Gallick
      Oscillometric devices for the non–invasive estimation of blood pressure (BP) have become the “clinical standard” because of training requirements for determination of BP by auscultation, cost, and the phasing–out/banning of mercury in many states and countries. Analysis of recent publications reveals a lack of understanding of the “meaning” of oscillometric blood pressure (OBP) measurements by authors, journal editors, and clinicians. We were invited to submit a review of OBP methodology written for clinicians. We hope that the material contained herein will clarify how clinicians should interpret OBP values for their patients.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Tick–tock–tick–tock: the impact of circadian rhythm
           disorders on cardiovascular health and wellness
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Charlene E. Gamaldo , Youjin Chung , Yu Min Kang , Rachel Marie E. Salas
      Humans spend a third of their lives asleep. A well–balanced synchrony between sleep and wakefulness is needed to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Optimal sleep is based on an individual's inherent sleep requirement and circadian rhythm. If either one or both of these critical elements are disrupted, daytime dysfunction, non–restorative sleep, and/or reduced sense of well-being may result. While the medical community is more familiar with sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, insomnia, and narcolepsy, circadian rhythm sleep wake disorders (CRSWDs) are less known, despite these being common within the general population. CRSWDs are comprised of the following: shiftwork disorder, delayed sleep phase disorder, advanced sleep phase disorder, jet lag disorder, non–24–hour sleep–wake disorder, and irregular sleep–wake rhythm disorder. In general, a CRSWD results when there is misalignment between the sleep pattern and the desired sleep schedule, dictated by work, family, and social schedules. Subsequently, patients have difficulty falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and/or experience poor quality sleep predisposing them to insomnia or excessive sleepiness. In this article, we review the core concepts related to sleep, and sleep deprivation in the context of CRSWDs.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Long-term safety of nebivolol and valsartan combination therapy in
           patients with hypertension: an open-label, single-arm, multicenter study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Joel M. Neutel , Thomas D. Giles , Henry Punzi , Robert J. Weiss , Huiling Li , Amy Finck
      Long–term safety of a free–tablet combination of nebivolol and valsartan was assessed in a Phase III, open–label trial (NCT01415505). Adults with hypertension entered a 4–week placebo run–in phase, followed by a 52–week treatment phase. Initial dosage (Neb/Val 5/160 mg/d) was titrated up to 20/320 mg/d to achieve blood pressure (BP) goal (JNC7 criteria), with the addition of hydrochlorothiazide (up to 25 mg/d) if needed. Safety and tolerability parameters included adverse events. Efficacy assessments included baseline–to–endpoint change in diastolic BP and systolic BP and the percentage of patients who achieved BP goal. All analyses were performed using descriptive statistics. Study completion rate was 60.4% (489/810). The most frequent reason for discontinuation was insufficient therapeutic response (8.4%). Adverse events were experienced by 59.2% of patients, with the most common being headache (5.7%), nasopharyngitis (5.0%), and upper respiratory tract infection (4.6%). Three (0.4%) deaths occurred during the study; none was considered related to study medication. Mean ± standard deviation changes from baseline at week 52 (observed cases) were −25.5 ± 15.9 mm Hg (systolic BP) and −19.0 ± 8.7 mm Hg (diastolic BP). A total of 75.7% nebivolol/valsartan–treated and 57.8% nebivolol/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide–treated completers achieved BP goal. Long–term treatment with nebivolol and valsartan in adults with hypertension was safe and well–tolerated.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Salt intake, knowledge of salt intake, and blood pressure control in
           Chinese hypertensive patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Yu Qin , Ting Li , Peian Lou , Guiqiu Chang , Pan Zhang , Peipei Chen , Cheng Qiao , Zongmei Dong
      A cross–sectional study involving 2502 subjects was conducted to evaluate salt intake, knowledge of salt intake, and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. The blood pressure control rate was 33.5% among the hypertensive patients. Of the patients, 69.9% had salt intake higher than 6 g/d. Overall 35.0% knew the recommended salt intake, and 94.9% knew that “excess salt intake can result in hypertension.” Altogether, 85.8% of patients had received health education related to a low–salt diet at some time. Patients who consumed less than 6 g/d of salt had a higher control rate than those who consumed more than 6 g/d (48.7% vs. 27.0%; χ2 = 111.0; P < .001). Patients with knowledge of the recommended salt intake had a higher control rate than those without (45.8% vs. 26.9%; χ2 = 91.3; P < .001). Our findings suggest a high salt intake and low blood pressure control rate among Chinese hypertensive patients. Knowledge of recommended salt intake is inappropriate for patients with education of a low–salt diet.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Rates, amounts, and determinants of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
           claim reimbursements among Medicare beneficiaries
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Shia T. Kent , Daichi Shimbo , Lei Huang , Keith M. Diaz , Anthony J. Viera , Meredith Kilgore , Suzanne Oparil , Paul Muntner
      Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can be used to identify white coat hypertension and guide hypertensive treatment. We determined the percentage of ABPM claims submitted between 2007 and 2010 that were reimbursed. Among 1970 Medicare beneficiaries with submitted claims, ABPM was reimbursed for 93.8% of claims that had an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis code of 796.2 (“elevated blood pressure reading without diagnosis of hypertension”) versus 28.5% of claims without this code. Among claims without an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis code of 796.2 listed, those for the component (eg, recording, scanning analysis, physician review, reporting) versus full ABPM procedures and performed by institutional versus non–institutional providers were each more than two times as likely to be successfully reimbursed. Of the claims reimbursed, the median payment was $52.01 (25th–75th percentiles, $32.95–$64.98). In conclusion, educating providers on the ABPM claims reimbursement process and evaluation of Medicare reimbursement may increase the appropriate use of ABPM and improve patient care.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring among Medicare
           beneficiaries in 2007–2010
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Daichi Shimbo , Shia T. Kent , Keith M. Diaz , Lei Huang , Anthony J. Viera , Meredith Kilgore , Suzanne Oparil , Paul Muntner
      The US Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services reimburses ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for suspected white coat hypertension. We estimated ABPM use between 2007 and 2010 among a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries (≥65 years). In 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, the percentage of beneficiaries with ABPM claims was 0.10%, 0.11%, 0.10%, and 0.09%, respectively. A prior diagnosis of hypertension was more common among those with versus without an ABPM claim (77.7% vs. 47.0%). Among hypertensive beneficiaries, 95.2% of those with an ABPM claim were taking antihypertensive medication. Age 75–84 versus 65–74 years, having coronary heart disease, having chronic kidney disease, having multiple prior hypertension diagnoses, and having filled multiple classes of antihypertensive medication were associated with an increased odds for an ABPM claim among hypertensive beneficiaries. ABPM use was very low among Medicare beneficiaries and was not primarily used for diagnosing white coat hypertension in untreated individuals.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Gender differences in antihypertensive drug treatment: results from the
           Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database (SPCCD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Charlotta Ljungman , Thomas Kahan , Linus Schiöler , Per Hjerpe , Jan Hasselström , Björn Wettermark , Kristina Bengtsson Boström , Karin Manhem
      There are gender differences in antihypertensive treatment. This study aimed to investigate if gender differences in treatment could be explained by comorbidities. In addition, we aimed to study whether blood pressure control is different in women and men, and whether women interrupt treatment more often with angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) compared with men.This cohort study within the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database included 40,825 patients with hypertension attending primary health care from 2007 to 2008. Cardiovascular comorbidities, with the exception of heart failure, were more common in men. Women were more often treated with diuretics, and men with ACEI, as were hypertensive patients with diabetes. Comorbidities could not entirely explain gender differences in antihypertensive treatment in a regression model. Women had higher systolic and lower diastolic blood pressure; this was also true in subgroups with cardiovascular comorbidity. Men more often than women were prescribed ACEIs/ARBs and interrupted treatment. Women and men are treated with different antihypertensive drugs, and this is not fully explained by differences in comorbidities. Women have higher systolic blood pressures, irrespective of comorbidity. Men have interrupted treatment more often with ACEIs/ARBs. These gender differences could affect outcome and warrant further investigation.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Amiloride lowers blood pressure and attenuates urine plasminogen
           activation in patients with treatment–resistant hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Christina S. Oxlund , Kristian B. Buhl , Ib A. Jacobsen , Mie R. Hansen , Jeppe Gram , Jan Erik Henriksen , Karoline Schousboe , Lise Tarnow , Boye L. Jensen
      In conditions with albuminuria, plasminogen is aberrantly filtered across the glomerular barrier and activated along the tubular system to plasmin. In the collecting duct, plasmin activates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) proteolytically. Hyperactivity of ENaC could link microalbuminuria/proteinuria to resistant hypertension. Amiloride, an ENaC inhibitor, inhibits urokinase–type plasminogen activator. We hypothesized that amiloride (1) reduces blood pressure (BP); (2) attenuates plasminogen–to–plasmin activation; and (3) inhibits urine urokinase–type plasminogen activator in patients with resistant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).In an open–label, non–randomized, 8–week intervention study, a cohort (n = 80) of patients with resistant hypertension and T2DM were included. Amiloride (5 mg/d) was added to previous triple antihypertensive treatment (including a diuretic and an inhibitor of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system) and increased to 10 mg if BP control was not achieved at 4 weeks. Complete dataset for urine analysis was available in 60 patients. Systolic and diastolic BP measured by ambulatory BP monitoring and office monitoring were significantly reduced. Average daytime BP was reduced by 6.3/3.0 mm Hg. Seven of 80 cases (9%) discontinued amiloride due to hyperkalemia >5.5 mol/L, the most frequent adverse event. Urinary plasmin(ogen) and albumin excretions were significantly reduced after amiloride treatment (P < .0001). Urokinase activity was detectable in macroalbuminuric urine, with a tendency toward reduction in activity after amiloride treatment. Amiloride lowers BP, urine plasminogen excretion and activation, and albumin/creatinine ratio, and is a relevant add–on medication for the treatment of resistant hypertension in patients with T2DM and microalbuminuria.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • From the Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Myron H. Weinberger



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • The effect of simvastatin and pravastatin on arterial blood pressure,
           baroreflex, vasoconstrictor, and hypertensive effects of angiotensin II in
           Sprague–Dawley rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12
      Author(s): Adrian Drapala , Marta Aleksandrowicz , Tymoteusz Zera , Mariusz Sikora , Janusz Skrzypecki , Ewa Kozniewska , Marcin Ufnal
      Research suggests that statins affect the regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP), however, the mechanisms remain obscure. We maintained male, 12–week–old, Sprague–Dawley rats on tap water (controls) or water containing simvastatin or pravastatin for 4 weeks. Subsequently, we measured mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate at baseline and after intravenous infusion of either saline or angiotensin II (Ang II). Additionally, we tested baroreflex function and the effect of statins on vasoconstrictor response to Ang II on isolated femoral artery branches. Controls and simvastatin and pravastatin groups showed a significant increase in mean arterial BP and heart rate in response to Ang II. The increase was significantly smaller in the simvastatin group than in controls and in the pravastatin group. In contrast, when pretreated with hexamethonium, a ganglionic blocker, simvastatin and pravastatin groups showed a similar hypertensive response to Ang II, which was smaller than in controls. Likewise, the Ang II–induced vasoconstrictor response of femoral artery branches was comparable between simvastatin and pravastatin groups and smaller than in controls. We found no effect of statins on the baroreflex. This study shows that simvastatin and pravastatin differ in their effects on the Ang II–dependent mechanisms controlling BP.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12




      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, Volume 8, Issue 12




      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Diagnosis of preeclampsia with soluble Fms–like tyrosine kinase
           1/placental growth factor ratio: an inter–assay comparison
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Louise Bjørkholt Andersen , Britta Frederiksen-Møller , Kathrine Work Havelund , Ralf Dechend , Jan Stener Jørgensen , Boye L. Jensen , Jan Nielsen , Sine Lykkedegn , Torben Barington , Henrik Thybo Christesen
      The angiogenic factor ratio soluble Fms–kinase 1 (sFlt–1)/placental growth factor (PlGF) is a novel diagnostic tool for preeclampsia. We compared the efficacy of the KRYPTOR (BRAHMS) automated assays for sFlt–1 and PlGF with the Elecsys (Roche) assays in a routine clinical setting. Preeclamptic women (n = 39) were included shortly after the time of diagnosis. Normotensive control pregnancies were matched by gestational age (n = 76). The KRYPTOR assays performed comparably or superior to Elecsys (sFlt–1/PlGF area under the curve 0.746 versus 0.735; P = .09; for non–obese 0.820 versus 0.805, P = .047). For early–onset preeclampsia, KRYPTOR area under the curve increased to 0.929 with a 100% specificity for preeclampsia at cut–off 85 and an 88.9% sensitivity for preeclampsia at cut–off 33. For women with preeclampsia and preterm delivery or Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, the KRYPTOR sFlt–1/PlGF ratio was manifold increased (P < .01). The sFlt–1/PlGF ratio proved especially useful in early–onset preeclampsia, preeclampsia with preterm delivery or HELLP, and among non–obese women.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Use of metabolomics to elucidate the metabolic perturbation
           associated with hypertension in a black South African male cohort:
           the SABPA study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Cynthia A. van Deventer , Jeremie Z. Lindeque , Peet J. Jansen van Rensburg , Leoné Malan , Francois H. van der Westhuizen , Roan Louw
      There is concern about the increasing burden of essential hypertension in urban–dwelling black South Africans, especially males. Several studies have investigated urbanization and hypertension in South Africans, but in–depth metabolomics studies on these urbanized hypertensives are still lacking. We aimed to investigate hypertension via two metabolomics methods in order to explore underlying biological mechanisms, demonstrating the effectiveness of these methods in cardiovascular research. A comprehensive characterization of a group (n = 25) of black male South Africans was performed using urinary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry metabolic profiling in conjunction with 24–hour ambulatory blood pressure readings and anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical markers. Average 24–hour blood pressure readings served as the grouping variable, and test subjects were divided into quintiles. Statistical analyses were performed on Quintile 1 (normotensive subjects) and Quintile 5 (extreme hypertensive subjects). After feature selection was performed, several metabolites and cardiometabolic risk markers, including abdominal obesity and markers of liver damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress were significantly perturbed in Quintile 5 (hypertensives) compared with Quintile 1 (P < .05). Pathway analysis revealed perturbations in several systems involved in ethanol metabolism via shifted global NADH/NAD+ ratio. Although alcohol abuse has been established as a risk factor for hypertension, this study illustrated a metabolic perturbation associated with alcohol abuse, contributing to the development of hypertension—possibly by altering bioenergetics through a shift in the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Following this finding, future intervention studies on alcohol moderation, as well as further enhancement of metabolomics methods in cardiovascular research are highly recommended.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Effects of high and low salt intake on left ventricular remodeling after
           myocardial infarction in normotensive rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Ludimila Forechi , Marcelo Perim Baldo , Isabela Binotti de Araujo , Breno Valentim Nogueira , José Geraldo Mill
      The dietary–sodium restriction is a standard approach following an acute myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the hypothesis in which the use of a high or low–sodium diet would worsen post–infarction left ventricular remodeling in rats and facilitate the development of heart failure. Left coronary artery ligation or sham–operated (SO) was produced in male Wistar rats (250–290 g). After surgery, animals were assigned to one of the three diets: standard amount of sodium (0.3% NaCl, SO and MI groups), a high–sodium diet (0.6% NaCl, SO–High and MI–High groups), or a low–sodium diet (0.03% NaCl, SO–Low and MI–Low groups). Diets were provided for 8 weeks post–surgery. Mortality rate was elevated in high–salt group (MI–Low, 21.4%; MI, 35.3%; MI–High, 47.6%). Contractility parameter was seen to be impaired in MI–Low animals (3195 ± 211 mm Hg/s) compared with MI (3751 ± 200 mm Hg/s). Low–salt diet did not prevent myocardial collagen deposition (MI–Low, 5.2 ± 0.5%; MI, 5.0 ± 0.4%) nor myocyte hypertrophy (MI–Low, 608 ± 41μ2; MI, 712 ± 53 μm2) in left ventricle after MI. High–salt intake increases collagen volume fraction (SO, 3.3 ± 0.4%; SO–High, 4.7 ± 0.4%) in animals sham, but no major changes after MI. Our results show that ventricular remodeling was not altered by immediate introduction of low sodium after MI, and it may be a safe strategy as a therapeutic intervention to avoid volume retention. However, high sodium can be harmful, accelerating the post–infaction ventricular remodeling.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • A Content Analysis of Smartphone-Based Applications for Hypertension
           Management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Nilay Kumar , Monica Khunger , Arjun Gupta , Neetika Garg
      Introduction Smartphone-based medical applications (apps) can facilitate self-management of hypertension (HTN). The content and consumer interaction metrics of HTN-related apps are unknown. Methods In this cross-sectional study to ascertain the content of medical apps designed for HTN management, we queried Google Play and Apple iTunes using the search terms “hypertension” and “high blood pressure”. Top 107 apps were analyzed. Major app functionalities including tracking (for BP, pulse, weight, BMI), medical device (to measure pulse or BP), general information on HTN and medication adherence tools was recorded along with consumer engagement parameters. Data were collected from May 28 to May 30, 2014. Results 72% of the apps had tracking function, 22% had tools to enhance medication adherence, 37% contained general information on HTN and 8% contained information on DASH diet. These data showed that a majority of apps for HTN are designed primarily for health management functions. However, 14% of Google Android apps could transform the smartphone into a medical device to measure BP. None of these apps employed the use of a BP cuff or had any documentation of validation against a gold standard. Only 3% of the apps were developed by healthcare agencies such as universities or professional organizations. In regression models the medical device function was highly predictive of greater number of downloads (OR 97.08, p<0.001) and positive consumer reviews (IRR 1204.39, p<0.001). Conclusion A large majority of medical apps designed for HTN serve health management functions such as tracking blood pressure, weight or BMI. Consumers have a strong tendency to download and favorably rate apps that are advertised to measure blood pressure and heart rate, despite a lack of validation for these apps. There is a need for greater oversight in medical app development for HTN, especially when they qualify as a medical device.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Is the Failure of SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial to Meet its Efficacy Endpoint the
           “End of the Road” for Renal Denervation?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Murray Epstein , Eduardo de Marchena
      Resistant hypertension is a common medical problem which is increasing with the advent of an increasingly older and heavier population. The etiology of resistant hypertension is almost always multifactorial, but the results of numerous studies indicate that renal sympathetic activation is a particularly common cause of resistance to antihypertensive treatment. Consistent with the belief in a pivotal role of renal sympathetic stimulation, there has been a growing interest in renal denervation (RDN) treatment strategies. The long-awaited results of SYMPLICITY HTN-3 study disclosed that the reduction in blood pressure by the SYMPLICITY device did not differ from (that) in the sham- procedure arm of the study. In the present article we identify several factors that explain why the study failed to demonstrate any benefit from the intervention. The reasons are multifactorial and include inadequate screening at entry and frequent medication changes during the study. Additional problems include the lack of experience of many operators with the SYMPLICITY device and procedure variability, as attested to by a diminished number of ablation “quadrants”. Also, the inability of the 1st generation Medtronic device to allow four ablations to be performed simultaneously. We recommend that future RDN studies adhere to more rigorous screening procedures, and utilize newer multi-site denervation systems that facilitate four ablations simultaneously. Drug optimization should be achieved by monitoring adherence throughout the study. Nevertheless, we are optimistic about a future role of RDN. To optimize chances of success, increased efforts are necessary to identify the appropriate patients for RDN and investigators must use second and third generation denervation devices and techniques.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Cornell product relates to albuminuria in hypertensive black adults
           independently of blood pressure: the SABPA study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Rudolph Schutte , Hugo W. Huisman , lisa J. Ware , Catherina MC. Mels , Wayne Smith , Nicolaas T. Malan , Leoné Malan , Johannes M. van Rooyen , Carla MT. Fourie , Aletta E. Schutte
      Background Evidence of the relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin excretion is contradictory and limited in black adults in whom hypertensive heart disease is common. We aimed to investigate the relationship between subclinical left ventricular hypertrophy and albuminuria in non-diabetic hypertensive blacks. Methods Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was determined from 8h overnight urine collection. We recorded ambulatory blood pressure and 12-lead electrocardiogram during a typical working day. Results Cornell product (P=0.002), UACR (P=0.042), 24h systolic pressure (P<0.0001) and 24h pulse pressure (P<0.0001) were higher in the hypertensive group. Cornell product was associated with UACR in single (r=0.25,P=0.012), partial (P trend=0.002) and multiple regression (β=0.326,P=0.0005) analyses in the hypertensive group only, even below the threshold for microalbuminuria and independent of 24h systolic pressure. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion is associated with subclinical left ventricular hypertrophy in non-diabetic hypertensive blacks and may be a useful marker of early cardiovascular disease in blacks.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment Special Conditions: Assessing Blood Pressure in Children
           &amp; Adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Donald L. Batisky



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment Special Conditions: Resistant Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Henry R. Black



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment: Special Conditions: Orthostatic Hypotension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Italo Biaggioni



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • MicroRNAs in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and
           Treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Julie Bienertova-Vasku , Jan Novak , Anna Vasku
      Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and increasingly prevalent disease, manifested by the maladaptation of pulmonary vasculature, which consequently leads to right heart failure and possibly even death. The development of PAH is characterized by specific functional as well as structural changes, primarily associated with the aberrant function of the pulmonary artery endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and vascular fibroblasts. MicroRNAs constitute a class of small ≈22-nucleotides-long non-coding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and which may lead to significant cell proteome changes. While the involvement of miRNAs in the development of various diseases – especially cancer – has been reported, numerous miRNAs have also been associated with PAH onset, progression or treatment responsiveness. This review focuses on the role of microRNAs in the development of PAH as well as on their potential use as biomarkers and therapeutic tools in both experimental PAH models and in humans. Special attention is given to the roles of miR-21, miR-27a, the miR-17-92 cluster, miR-124, miR-138, the miR-143/145 cluster, miR-150, miR-190, miR-204, miR-206, miR-210, miR-328 and the miR-424/503 cluster, specifically with the objective of providing greater insight into the pervasive roles of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of this deadly condition.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • BP Here, There, and Everywhere – Mobile Health Applications (Apps)
           and Hypertension Care
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Beverly B. Green



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Differential Effects of Nebivolol and Metoprolol on Arterial Stiffness,
           Circulating Progenitor Cells and Oxidative Stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Salim S. Hayek , Joseph C. Poole , Robert Neuman , Alanna A. Morris , Mohamed Khayata , Nino Kavtaradze , Matthew L. Topel , Jose G. Binongo , Qunna Li , Dean P. Jones , Edmund K. Waller , Arshed A. Quyyumi
      Unlike traditional beta receptor antagonists, nebivolol activates nitric oxide. We hypothesized that therapy with nebivolol compared to metoprolol would improve arterial stiffness, increase levels of circulating progenitor cells (PC) and decrease oxidative stress (OS). In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, 30 hypertensive subjects received either once daily nebivolol or metoprolol succinate for 3 months each. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (CAIx) were measured using tonometry. Flow cytometry was used to measure circulating PC. OS was measured as plasma aminothiols. Measurements were performed at baseline, and repeated at 3 and 6 months. No significant differences were present between the levels of OS, arterial stiffness, and PC numbers during treatment with metoprolol compared to nebivolol. In subgroup analyses of beta-blocker naïve subjects (n=19), nebivolol reduced PWV significantly compared to metoprolol (-1.4±1.9 versus -0.1±2.2, p=0.005). Both nebivolol and metoprolol increased circulating levels of CD34+/CD133+ PC similarly (p=0.05), suggesting improved regenerative capacity.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • The effect of Vitamin D supplementation on arterial stiffness in an
           elderly community based population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2014
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): C. McGreevy , M. Barry , C. Davenport , B. Byrne , C. Donaghy , G. Collier , W. Tormey , D. Smith , K. Bennett , D. Williams
      Aims Vitamin D deficiency may lead to impaired vascular function and abnormalities in central arterial stiffness. We compared the effects of two different doses of vitamin D3 on arterial stiffness in an elderly population with deficient serum 25OHD levels. Methods 119 known vitamin D deficient(<50nmol/L) subjects were randomised to receive either 50,000IU or 100,000IU single IM vitamin D3. Results In the group that received 100,000IU vitamin D, median PWV decreased from 12.2(5.1-40.3) m/sec to 11.59(4.3-14.9) m/sec after 8 weeks (p=0.22). A mean decrease of 3.803+/-1.7(p=0.032) in Augmentation Index (Aix)( a measure of systemic stiffness) was noted. Only 3/51(5.8%) who received 100,000IU vitamin D reached levels of sufficiency(>75nmol/L). Conclusions A significant decrease in Augmentation index was seen in the group that received 100,000IU vitamin D. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were still deficient at 8 weeks in the majority of patients which may be attributable to impaired bioavailability.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Home blood pressure profile in very elderly hypertensives: should we use
           the same thresholds as in younger patients?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Jessica Barochiner , Lucas S. Aparicio , Paula E. Cuffaro , Carlos R. Galarza , Marcos J. Marín , José Alfie , Margarita S. Morales , Marcelo A. Rada , Gabriel D. Waisman
      We aimed to determine the characteristics of home BP in very elderly hypertensives. 485 treated hypertensive patients ≥18 years (median age 70.8 (RI 18), 67.2% women) underwent home BP measurements. Characteristics of patients ≥80 and <80 years of age and prevalence of office and home uncontrolled hypertension, isolated morning- (IMH), isolated evening- (IEH), isolated office- (IOH) and masked hypertension (MH) were compared. Very elderly subjects had higher levels of systolic and lower levels of diastolic BP at home, a higher prevalence of home uncontrolled hypertension (68.5 vs. 37.7%, p<0.001), MH (30.6 vs. 14.9%, p=0.02) and IMH (19.4 vs. 10.9%, p=0.02) and a lower prevalence of IOH (8.3 vs. 18.8%, p=0.01). When using differential home BP thresholds in the very elderly, determined through the percentile method, statistical differences disappeared, except for IMH. The very elderly depict a particular home BP profile. Benefit from using differential home BP thresholds should be determined in prospective studies.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Emphasized warning reduces salt intake: a randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Nina Pinjuh Markota , Mirjana Rumboldt , Zvonko Rumboldt
      Background Excessive salt intake is a major cardiovascular risk factor. At variance to the developed countries, the main source of sodium in transitional and developing countries is salt added while cooking and/or at the table. The objective of this trial was to examine the impact of warning labels placed on home salt containers on daily salt intake. Subjects and methods A sample of treated hypertensives (n= 150) was randomised in two subgroups, one receiving just a leaflet about the harmful effects of excessive salt intake (control, n= 74), and the other one receiving in addition warning stickers for household salt containers (intervention, n= 76). Arterial blood pressure (BP) and 24 h urinary sodium excretion (24Na) were measured in all the subjects at the start of the trial, and one month and two months later. Results The average starting 24Na was 207 ± 71 mmol in the control group and 211 ± 85 mmol in the intervention group (p=0.745). One month and two months later a significant decrease was observed in the intervention group (to 183 ± 63 and 176 ± 55 mmol; P<0.0001), as opposed to the control group (203 ± 60 and 200 ± 58 mmol; P= 0.1466). Initial BP was 143.7/84.1 mm Hg in the control, and 142.9/84.7 mm Hg in the intervention group (P= 0.667). One month and two months later a significant drop in BP, by 5.3/2.9 mm Hg was observed in the intervention group as opposed to the control group (0.4/0.9 mm Hg). Decrease in 24Na positively correlated to BP lowering (r2 = 0.5989; p<0.0001). Conclusions A significant reduction in 24Na and BP is achieved with warning labels on harmful effects of excessive salt intake. Decreasing daily salt input by 35 mmol may result in an extra BP lowering by some 5-6/2-3 mm Hg.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Subclinical carotid artery disease and plasma homocysteine levels in
           patients with hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Cristiana Catena , GianLuca Colussi , Marion Url-Michitsch , Francesca Nait , Leonardo A. Sechi
      Information on the association between homocysteine (Hcy) levels and subclinical carotid artery disease is limited. We investigated the relationship of plasma Hcy concentration with carotid artery plaques and intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with hypertension. In 486 essential hypertensive patients who underwent ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries, we measured plasma levels of Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, and C-reactive protein. Plaques were detected in 34% of the study patients. Plasma Hcy levels were significantly greater in hypertensive patients with evidence of carotid plaques than patients without carotid plaques. Carotid IMT progressively increased across quartiles of plasma Hcy levels. Multivariate regression showed that carotid IMT was independently related with age, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, and Hcy levels. In a logistic regression, age, blood pressure, triglyceride, and Hcy independently predicted the presence of carotid plaques. Thus, elevated plasma Hcy levels are associated with asymptomatic carotid disease in hypertensive patients suggesting a role of Hcy in the development and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in these patients.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Rationale for a Single-Pill Combination of Perindopril Arginine and
           Amlodipine Besylate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): William J. Elliott
      A systematic review identified 86 outcome-based clinical trials involving perindopril, amlodipine, or other antihypertensive drugs. In fixed-effects meta-analyses of 11 clinical trials (90,208 subjects), amlodipine was associated with a significant 24% increase in heart failure, but a significant decrease in death, cardiovascular death, stroke, coronary heart disease, and first major cardiovascular adverse event. In 5 clinical trials (52,565 subjects), perindopril was associated with a significant reduction in all six cardiovascular endpoints. Network and Bayesian meta-analyses suggested that (with the exception of amlodipine and heart failure), each agent was at least as effective as an initial diuretic to prevent these events. Short-term trials have demonstrated that the combination of perindopril and amlodipine is safe and effective, with statistically greater lowering of blood pressure than either agent alone, and a potential synergistic effect on pedal edema. The single-pill combination of perindopril and amlodipine may be a useful addition to the antihypertensive armamentarium.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Sustained Pre-hypertensive Blood Pressure and Incident Atrial
           Fibrillation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Wesley T. O’Neal , Elsayed Z. Soliman , Waqas Qureshi , Alvaro Alonso , Susan R. Heckbert , David Herrington
      Background The association between sustained pre-hypertension and AF has not been thoroughly examined. Methods This study included 5,311 participants (mean age 62 ± 10 years; 47% male; 42.9% non-whites) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Sustained exposure was based on 2 or more visits within the same blood pressure category (optimal: <120/80 mm Hg; pre-hypertension: 120-139/80-89 mm Hg; hypertension: ≥140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use) during visits 1, 2, and 3. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between blood pressure category and AF. Results Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 182 (3.4%) participants developed AF. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were associated with an increased risk of AF compared with participants who had optimal blood pressure (optimal: HR=1.0, referent; pre-hypertension: HR=1.8, 95%CI=1.004, 3.2; hypertension: HR=2.6, 95%CI=1.6, 4.4). Conclusion Sustained pre-hypertension is associated with an increased risk of AF.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Basic Science. Target Organ Damage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Anil K. Bidani , Karen A. Griffin



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment, A. Prevention/Public Health Strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Paul K. Whelton



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Prevalence and Trends of Isolated Systolic Hypertension among Untreated
           Adults in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Xuefeng Liu , Carlos J. Rodriguez , Kesheng Wang
      Background Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is an important hypertension subtype that predominates in the old people. However, the prevalence and long-term trends of ISH among untreated adults have not been reported. Design and Methods A study sample of 24,653 participants aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 (12,018 persons from 1999-2004 and 12,635 persons from 2005-2010), representing a probability sample of the US civilian population. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of untreated ISH were estimated to compare differences in the prevalence over two 6-year periods by conducting the independent survey t-test. Results The prevalence of untreated ISH was 9.4% in 1999-2010 and decreased from 10.3% in 1999-2004 to 8.5% in 2005-2010 (p=0.00248). Old persons, females, and non-Hispanic blacks had higher prevalence of untreated ISH. Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 decreased among older (33.6%, 95% CI=30.9-36.3% vs. 25.1%, 95% CI=22.7-27.5%) and female individuals (8.3%, 95% CI=7.5-9.2% vs. 11.4%, 95% CI=10.4-12.3%). The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH declined in 2005-2010 (vs. 1999-2004) for older non-Hispanic whites (24.6% vs. 32.8%; p<0.0001) and blacks (27.7% vs. 40.8%; p=0.0013), non-Hispanic white females (7.5% vs. 10.8%; p<0.0001), older individuals with higher education (21.0% vs. 30.6%; p=0.0024) and females with lower education (10.1% vs. 13.1%; p=0.006). Conclusion Untreated ISH is more prevalent in older adults and females. Significant decreases in untreated ISH prevalence over time among these groups suggest that public health measures and/or treatment patterns are trending in the right direction.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Incidence of primary hypertension in a population-based cohort of
           HIV-infected compared to non-HIV-infected persons and the effect of
           combined antiretroviral therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Avnish Tripathi , Jeanette M. Jerrell , Thomas N. Skelton , Myrna A. Nickels , Wayne A. Duffus
      Literature remains scarce on the impact of antiretroviral medications on hypertension in the HIV population. We used South Carolina Medicaid database linked with the enhanced HIV/AIDS system surveillance database for 1994-2011 to evaluate incident hypertension and the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV/AIDS population compared a propensity matched non-HIV control group. Multivariable, time-dependent survival analysis suggested no significant difference in incidence of hypertension between HIV and non-HIV control group. However, subgroup analysis suggested that among the HIV-infected group, months of exposure to both non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) [aHR 1.52; 95% CI 1.3-1.75] and protease inhibitors (PI) [aHR 1.26; 95% CI 1.11-1.44] were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension after adjusting for traditional demographic and metabolic risk factors. In people with HIV/AIDS, prolonged exposure to both PI and NNRTI-based cART may increase the risk of incident hypertension.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment Drug Therapy of Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): William J. Elliott



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
  • Treatment: Special Conditions - Psychological Aspects Relating to the
           Treatment of Hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
      Author(s): Simon J.C. Davies , Steven L. Dubovsky



      PubDate: 2015-01-20T12:41:54Z
       
 
 
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