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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1309 journals)
    - HISTORY (812 journals)
    - History (General) (51 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (50 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (56 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AREAS (9 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (171 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (134 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (26 journals)

HISTORY (812 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 452 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Acadiensis : Journal of the History of the Atlantic Region / Acadiensis : revue d'histoire de la region Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Accounting History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Historiae Artium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Orientalia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Actes d'Història de la Ciència i de la Tècnica     Open Access  
Advances in Historical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Africa Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
African Diaspora     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
albuquerque : revista de história     Open Access  
Almagest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Archivist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191)
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Jewish History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
American Nineteenth Century History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Periodicals : A Journal of History, Criticism, and Bibliography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Amérique Latine Histoire et Mémoire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur alteren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur neueren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analecta Bollandiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anales de Historia del Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anglican Historical Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Annales historiques de la Révolution française     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annales UMCS, Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza di Firenze     Hybrid Journal  
Annuaire de l'Ecole pratique des hautes etudes. Section des sciences historiques et philologiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Antike und Abendland     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Antiteses     Open Access  
Anuario de Estudios Atlánticos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ARAM Periodical     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Araucaria. Revista Iberoamericana de Filosofía, Política y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeion     Full-text available via subscription  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Architectural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Arenal. Revista de historia de las mujeres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269)
Arthuriana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arys: Antigüedad, Religiones y Sociedades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aschkenas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Asia-Pacific Journal : Japan Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Review of World Histories     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Aspasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Astérion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ateliê de História UEPG     Open Access  
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Australasian Journal of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 4)
Australian Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Australian Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Australian Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Australian Journal of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Balkanologie : Revue d'Études Pluridisciplinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic-Pontic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BIBLOS - Revista do Departamento de Biblioteconomia e História     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BibNum     Open Access  
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch für Antike und Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Book History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
Boom : A Journal of California     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Britain and the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
British Journal of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
British Mycological Society Symposia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin d'histoire politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de la Sabix     Open Access  
Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin d’études Orientales     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Hispanic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Latin American Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Bulletin of Spanish Studies: Hispanic Studies and Researches on Spain, Portugal and Latin America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Byzantinische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Byzantion Nea Hellás     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
C@hiers du CRHIDI     Open Access  
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cadernos de História     Open Access  
CADUS - Revista de Estudos de Política, História e Cultura     Open Access  
Cahiers d'histoire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers d'histoire. Revue d'histoire critique     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers des études anciennes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cahiers du Centre de recherches historiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cahiers du Monde Russe     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cahiers d’études africaines     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cahiers « Mondes anciens »     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La revue canadienne de linguistique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Review of American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian-American Slavic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Catholic Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central Asian Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaucer Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Childhood in the Past : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Studies in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Chronica Nova. Revista de Historia Moderna de la Universidad de Granada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chronique d'Egypte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Church History and Religious Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Civil War History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cleveland Studies in the History of Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clio y Asociados     Open Access  
Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Clio. Women, Gender, History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Collections électroniques de l'INHA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Collingwood and British Idealism Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Colonial Latin American Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Comitatus : A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Comparative Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Comptabilités     Open Access  
Concorso. Arti e lettere     Open Access  
Conservative Judaism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Conserveries mémorielles     Open Access  
Contemporaneity : Historical Presence in Visual Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Arab Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary British History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary French and Francophone Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Convivium     Full-text available via subscription  
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Critical Historical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cromohs : Cyber Review of Modern Historiography     Open Access  
Crossing Borders : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Historia Moderna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Ilustración y Romanticismo     Open Access  
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultura Histórica & Patrimônio     Open Access  
Cultural and Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultures & conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cultures et conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Czech-Polish Historical and Pedagogical Journal     Open Access  
Dapim : Studies on the Holocaust     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover Austral Ecology
  [SJR: 1.095]   [H-I: 66]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1442-9985 - ISSN (Online) 1442-9993
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Correlation of drought traits and the predictability of osmotic potential
           at full leaf turgor in vegetation from New Zealand
    • Authors: Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez; Timothy J. Curran, James S. Camac, Rainer W. Hofmann, Alexander Correa-Metrio, Víctor L. Barradas
      Abstract: Scientists do not know precisely how severe will be the impact of climate change on species. Evidence suggests that for some species, their future distributions might be jeopardized by local extinctions and drought-induced tree mortality. Thus, we require models capable of estimating drought tolerance across many species. We can approach this goal by assessing functional traits. The trait osmotic potential at full turgor, πO, is potentially a good drought indicator; however, few studies address its importance as a drought-tolerance predictor and it is difficult to measure in the field with accuracy. In this work, we aim to answer the questions: which drought traits correlate with πO'; do morpho-anatomical traits correlate with πO'; and which trees and shrubs are more (or less) vulnerable to drought' To achieve this aim, we assessed physiological and morpho-anatomical traits for 14 native species from New Zealand forests. We included leaf- and wood-related traits, πO, water potential and stomatal conductance. We examined how these traits correlate with πO and sought to generate models to predict πO as a function of other traits. We tested 33 different models and evaluated them using Akaike's information criterion. Unfortunately, none of the morpho-anatomical traits correlated well with πO. Instead, water potential correlated most strongly with πO. None of the models using only morpho-anatomical traits produced plausible results. The model with the best predictive performance incorporated the effects of both morpho-anatomical and physiological traits: water potential and wood saturated water content. Of the species analysed, and based on their πO response, Lophozonia menziesii was considered the most vulnerable to drought stress, whereas Plagianthus regius was the least vulnerable. Our findings imply that it is potentially valuable to keep exploring the use of πO as a drought indicator and that the effort required to measure some physiological traits, such as water potential, may be essential to consider plant drought responses and to predict πO.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20T00:42:46.645501-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12577
       
  • Time-since-fire and climate interact to affect the structural recovery of
           an Australian semi-arid plant community
    • Authors: Sally A. Kenny; Andrew F. Bennett, Michael F. Clarke, John W. Morgan
      Abstract: How does time-since-fire influence the structural recovery of semi-arid, eucalypt-dominated Murray-Mallee shrublands after fire, and is recovery affected by spatial variation in climate' We assessed the structure and dynamics of a hummock grass, Triodia scariosa N.T. Burb, and mallee eucalypts – two key structural components of mallee shrublands – using a>100 year time-since-fire chronosequence. The relative influence of climatic variables, both individually and combined with time-since-fire, was modelled to account for spatial variation in the recovery of vegetation structural components. Time-since-fire was the primary determinant of the structural recovery of T. scariosa and eucalypts. However, climate, notably mean annual rainfall and rainfall variability, also influenced the recovery of the eucalypt overstorey, T. scariosa cover and mean hummock height. We observed that (i) the mean number of live eucalypt stems per individual decreased while mean individual basal area increased, (ii) cover of T. scariosa peaked at ~30 years post-fire and gradually decreased thereafter, and (iii) the ‘hummock’ form of T. scariosa occurred throughout the chronosequence, whereas the ‘ring’ form tended not to occur until ~30 years post-fire. Time-since-fire was the key determinant of the structural recovery of eucalypt-dominated mallee shrublands, but there is geographical variation in recovery related to rainfall and its variability. Fire regimes are likely to have different effects across the geographic range of mallee shrublands.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:26:06.533929-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12582
       
  • Environmental drivers of ant species richness and composition across the
           Argentine Pampas grassland
    • Authors: Carolina S. Ramos; M. Isabel Bellocq, Carolina I. Paris, Julieta Filloy
      Abstract: Understanding the underlying mechanisms causing diversity patterns is a fundamental objective in ecology and science-based conservation biology. Energy and environmental-heterogeneity hypotheses have been suggested to explain spatial changes in ant diversity. However, the relative roles of each one in determining alpha and beta diversity patterns remain elusive. We investigated the main factors driving spatial changes in ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) species richness and composition (including turnover and nestedness components) along a 500 km longitudinal gradient in the Pampean region of Argentina. Ants were sampled using pitfall traps in 12 sample sites during the summer. We performed a model selection approach to analyse responses of ant richness and composition dissimilarity to environmental factors. Then, we computed a dissimilarity partitioning of the contributions of spatial turnover and nestedness to total composition dissimilarity. Temporal habitat heterogeneity and temperature were the primary factors explaining spatial patterns of epigean ant species richness across the Pampas. The distance decay in species composition similarity was best accounted by temperature dissimilarity, and turnover had the greatest contribution to the observed beta diversity pattern. Our findings suggest that both energy and environmental-heterogeneity-related variables are key factors shaping richness patterns of ants and niche-based processes instead of neutral processes appear to be regulating species composition of ant assemblages. The major contribution of turnover to the beta diversity pattern indicated that lands for potential reconversion to grassland should represent the complete environmental gradient of the Pampean region, instead of prioritizing a single site with high species richness.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08T02:40:25.428241-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12579
       
  • Passive brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) woodland regeneration fails to
           recover floristic composition in an agricultural landscape
    • Authors: Andrew F. Le Brocque; Peter M. Wagner
      Abstract: Regrowth (secondary) vegetation is increasingly seen as an important conservation alternative where there is inadequate cover of intact remnant, and more recently, the focus of potential biodiversity offsets. However, little is known of the functioning and dynamics of regrowth in comparison to remnant vegetation. This research tests whether the floristic composition and stand structure of brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) regrowth woodlands return to that of endangered brigalow remnant woodlands and the relationships of patterns in composition and structure to environmental drivers in the agricultural landscape of southern Queensland, Australia. Thirty-eight sites were sampled for species composition (frequency), stand structure (foliage projected cover of strata) and environmental variables (spatial/patch characteristics), encompassing ungrazed and grazed old-growth brigalow remnants and different aged brigalow regrowth (40 years since clearing). There was no difference in structure observed between grazed remnant and older regrowth (>40 years); however, ungrazed old-growth remnants were structurally different to older regrowth. Ungrazed and grazed old-growth remnants were compositionally different to all regrowth woodlands. The proportion of surrounding vegetation, land-use type, patch grazing intensity and soil properties were highly correlated with patterns in composition and stand structure observed across the brigalow woodlands. While the stand structure of brigalow regrowth returns to that of remnant brigalow, the distinct floristic species composition of older regrowth may indicate a longer time period is needed for equivalence or a possible alternate stable state in these highly modified agricultural landscapes. To ensure the long-term persistence of brigalow communities, further investigation of the development trajectory of brigalow regrowth is required; however, it is critical that intact brigalow remnant vegetation remains a priority for conservation strategy and policy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T23:15:29.39396-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12578
       
  • Occupancy patterns of the introduced, predatory sugar glider in Tasmanian
           forests
    • Authors: Mark Allen; Matthew H. Webb, Fernanda Alves, Robert Heinsohn, Dejan Stojanovic
      Abstract: Introduced mammals pose serious threats to native island fauna, and understanding their distribution is fundamental to evaluating their conservation impact. Introduced sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps) are the main predator of critically endangered swift parrots (Lathamus discolor) on mainland Tasmania. We surveyed sugar glider occurrence over ~800 km2 in an important swift parrot breeding area, the Southern Forests. During 4–5 visits per site, we used call broadcast of predatory owls to elicit sugar glider alarm calls and surveyed 100 sites during February/March 2016. Naïve occupancy by sugar gliders was high (0.79), as was detectability (0.52 ± 0.03 SE), resulting in a cumulative detection probability of effectively 1. Occupancy modelling indicated a positive effect of the proportion of mature forest cover on occupancy. The best model, based on AIC scores, included the proportion of mature forest cover within a 500 m radius with constant detectability. Our study revealed surprisingly high rates of occupancy of available forest habitat throughout the heavily logged study area, such that even when mature forest cover was 0.5; where forest cover approached 100% (i.e. in the best quality breeding habitat for swift parrots), occupancy by sugar gliders approached 1. Our results reveal that sugar gliders are widespread across the study area which may be indicative of occupancy rates elsewhere in the breeding range of the critically endangered swift parrot. As a result, the risk of predation by sugar gliders for small birds may be widespread across logged Tasmanian forests. Additional work to identify whether population densities of sugar gliders vary with forest cover (and whether this may impact predation likelihood) is critical to understanding the conservation consequences of deforestation in the breeding range of the swift parrot.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T03:10:39.049992-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12583
       
  • Biological legacies promote succession and soil development on tephra from
           the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle eruption (2011)
    • Authors: Nicolás Ferreiro; Patricia Satti, María J. Mazzarino
      Abstract: Volcanic deposits have frequently been studied from a successional point of view, but the main focus has been on vegetation dynamics, and less frequently on the development of invertebrate and microbial communities and soil properties. Biological legacies, understood as living organisms, seeds, organic debris and biologically derived patterns in soils and understories, are important in succession, and may also influence soil development on young volcanic deposits. The volcanic eruption of the Chilean Puyehue–Cordón Caulle complex (Northern Patagonia) in June 2011 deposited tephra in southern Argentina. Sandy tephra up to 30 cm deep was deposited in the De los Siete Lagos road in Nahuel Huapi and Lanín National Parks, where a road under construction had exposed sub-soil lacking vegetation, while adjacent forest supported a canopy of Nothofagus dombeyi with Chusquea culeou in the understory. This situation provided a unique opportunity to study soil development and succession on nearby young volcanic deposits with different biological legacies, considering several biological communities. Our hypothesis is that 29 months after the eruption the tephra in the forest would have higher organic C, total N, available P and biological activity than the tephra deposited on the roadside. Plant cover and species richness, invertebrate abundance and richness, as well as substrate respiration, N mineralization and enzymatic activities were highest in the forest. In addition, organic carbon and nutrient incorporation rates in the forest were twice those in the roadside substrate. Nevertheless, two and a half years after the eruption, most variables remained an order of magnitude lower than values expected for temperate forest soils. Surviving canopy and understory play a key role in ecosystem recovery after tephra deposition, providing seeds and organic matter and establishing conditions appropriate for plants, invertebrates, and microorganisms that would in turn accelerate soil development.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T02:26:25.00788-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12580
       
  • Evidence for species-specific plant responses to soil microbial
           communities from remnant and degraded land provides promise for
           restoration
    • Authors: Monique E. Smith; Steven Delean, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, José M. Facelli
      Abstract: Below-ground interactions between soil microbial communities and plants play important roles in shaping plant community structure, but are currently poorly understood. Understanding these processes has important practical implications, including for restoration. In this study, we investigated whether soil microbes from remnant areas can aid the restoration of old-fields, and whether soil microbes from an old-field encourages further invasive establishment. In a glasshouse experiment, we measured growth and survival of two native grasses (Austrostipa nodosa and Rytidosperma auriculatum) and an invasive grass (Lolium rigidum) grown in sterile soil inoculated with whole soil from three locations: an old-field, a remnant grassland, and a seed orchard planted with native grasses 7 years ago. Plants grown in sterile, non-inoculated soil acted as controls. The orchard inoculant was included to test whether soil microbes from an area cultivated with native grasses induced plant responses similar to remnant areas. The remnant treatment resulted in the highest biomass and no mortality for R. auriculatum. All inoculant types increased the biomass of the invasive species equally. The native grass, A. nodosa, was the most sensitive to the addition of inoculum, whereas the invasive L. rigidum suffered very low mortality across all treatments. Overall, mortality was highest in the old-field treatment at 42.9%. These results give insights into how soil microbes can affect community structure and dynamics, e.g. the high mortality of natives with old-field inoculant may be one mechanism that allows invasive species to dominate. Poorer performance of native species with the orchard inoculant suggests it would not make a suitable replacement for remnant soil; therefore, more work is needed to understand the requirements of target species and their interactions before this technique can be exploited to maximum benefit.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01T23:55:30.120302-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12567
       
  • Long-term phosphite application maintains species assemblages, richness
           and structure of plant communities invaded by Phytophthora cinnamomi
    • Authors: Sarah Barrett; Damien Rathbone
      Abstract: The impact of the plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi and the fungicide phosphite on species assemblages, richness, abundance and vegetation structure was quantified at three sites in Kwongkan communities in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region. Healthy and diseased vegetation treated with phosphite over 7–16 years was compared with non-treated healthy and diseased vegetation. After site differences, disease had the greatest effect on species assemblages, species richness and richness within families. Disease significantly reduced cover in the upper and lower shrub layers and increased sedge and bare ground cover. Seventeen of 21 species assessed from the families Ericaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Proteaceae were significantly less abundant in non-treated diseased vegetation. In diseased habitats, phosphite treatment significantly reduced the loss of shrub cover and reduced bare ground and sedge cover. In multivariate analysis of species assemblages, phosphite-treated diseased plots grouped more closely with healthy plots. Seven of 17 susceptible species were significantly more abundant in phosphite-treated diseased plots compared with diseased non-treated plots. The abundance of seven of 10 Phytophthora-susceptible species was significantly higher along transects in phosphite-treated vegetation. Comparison of the floristics of healthy non-treated with healthy-treated plots showed no significant differences in species assemblages. Of 21 species assessed, three increased in abundance and only one decreased significantly in phosphite-treated healthy plots. In three Kwongkan communities of the SWAFR, P. cinnamomi had a profound impact on species assemblages, richness, abundance and vegetation structure. There was no evidence of adverse effects of phosphite treatment on phosphorus-sensitive species, even after fire. Treatment with phosphite enhanced the survival of key susceptible species and mitigated disease-mediated changes in vegetation structure. In the absence of alternative methods of control in native communities, phosphite will continue to play an important role in the protection of high priority species and communities at risk of extinction due to P. cinnamomi.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30T03:33:32.230248-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12574
       
  • Dendrochronological analyses and climatic signals of Alchornea
           triplinervia in subtropical forest of southern Brazil
    • Authors: Daniela Granato-Souza; Eduardo Adenesky-Filho, Ana Carolina Maioli Campos Barbosa, Karin Esemann-Quadros
      Abstract: The predominance of secondary forest-species in Brazilian subtropical forests highlights the importance of understanding the ecology of these taxa, and dendrochronology provides valuable information about the growth and climate response of tree species. The wide distribution of Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), and the presence of growth rings in its wood, leds to its selection for this study. Samples were collected from 34 trees growing in rainy dense forest fragments in the cities of Blumenau and Brusque, in southern Brazil, and subjected to standard dendrochronological techniques. The local chronology spanned from 1889 to 2013 and the age of the trees ranged from 32 to 125 years. The mean age was 73 years and annual increment was 1.13 mm year−1; the diameter and age showed a weak correlation. The results suggest that A. triplinervia growth responded negatively to hot summers and increased rainfall in the previous spring and winter. The high perdiodicity trend characteristic of ENSO activity was reflected in wavelet power spectra of A. triplinervia chronology, affecting positively its growth after strong ENSO events (1970–2009). Negative influences occurred before 1970 during normal ENSO events. Also, there is evidence of the existence of a connection between Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures influencing on tree growth.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18T22:36:49.554927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12576
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 1
      PubDate: 2018-01-25T02:57:47.629858-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12537
       
  • The effect of forest canopy and flood disturbance on New Zealand stream
           food web structure and robustness
    • Authors: A. D. Canning; R. G. Death, E. M. Gardner
      Abstract: The effects of disturbance on communities have been a focus of both theoretical and empirical inquiries for many years. Food web stability is hypothesized to be affected by disturbance and the nature of the energy pathways (i.e. allochthonous or autochthonous) of a community. In this study, we investigated whether food webs at paired sites, one in forest and the other in grassland, in ten New Zealand streams along a disturbance gradient differ in their topological structure and robustness. Food web robustness (an indicator of web resistance) assesses the ease with which secondary extinctions permeate the food web following an initial random extinction (disturbance). We found that neither the nature of the energy source nor physical disturbance affected structural metrics or web robustness. As stream systems, particularly in New Zealand, are exposed to regular, unpredictable and dramatic physical disturbance from flooding, it may simply be that the floods result in generalist species dominating and increasing robustness irrespective of the energy source.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29T03:30:26.638419-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12573
       
  • Consistent temporal variation in the diet of an endangered alpine lizard
           across two south-eastern Australian sky-islands
    • Authors: Zak S. Atkins; Nick Clemann, Mellesa Schroder, David G. Chapple, Naomi E. Davis, Wayne A. Robinson, John Wainer, Kylie A. Robert
      Abstract: A species' diet and feeding strategy directly affect fitness and environmental interactions. Understanding spatial and temporal variation in diets can identify key resources, inform trophic relationships, and assist in managing threatened species. The nationally endangered Guthega skink, Liopholis guthega, is restricted to two isolated Australian alpine plateaux, the Bogong High Plains (BHP) in Victoria and Kosciuszko National Park (KNP) in New South Wales. We compared this species' foraging ecology over the summer period between these ‘sky-islands’ separated by ~100 km of lowland valleys. Scat composition did not differ between the two lizard populations, despite differences in the invertebrate assemblages present. However, L. guthega diet varied temporally over summer at both locations. Invertebrates, predominantly Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, were the dominant food group in early summer (78% volume (V), 100% frequency occurrence (F)) and mid-summer (80% V, 100% F). A significant dietary shift occurred in late summer, when lizards consumed predominantly plant material (63% V, 95.5% F), consisting primarily of seasonally abundant berries from the snow beard heath, Acrothamnus montanus. In contrast to similar-sized Egerniinae species, it appears L. guthega is capable of opportunistically shifting its diet towards plant material in response to temporal variation in resource availability. Furthermore, the prevalence of intact seeds in scats indicates L. guthega may play a significant role in seed dispersal. Understanding these trophic interactions will assist conservation management of L. guthega, allowing conditions for an already established captive colony to mimic the temporally variable diets present in situ, as well as informing revegetation initiatives aimed at maintaining and expanding wild populations.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T23:20:28.806839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12572
       
  • Abundance, diet and prey selection of arboreal lizards in a grazed
           tropical woodland
    • Authors: Eric J. Nordberg; Paul Murray, Ross Alford, Lin Schwarzkopf
      Abstract: The diet of predators is a critical determinant of their ecological effects. Small vertebrate predators of invertebrates are often characterized as diet generalists based on diet descriptions, but few studies examine prey availability to determine whether prey choice occurs. We studied the prey availability in relation to the diet of two common and abundant, but understudied small vertebrates: Gehyra dubia, an arboreal nocturnal gecko, and Cryptoblepharus australis, an arboreal diurnal skink. We sampled lizards in two major woodland habitat types, Reid River box (Eucalyptus brownii) and Silver-leaf ironbark (Eucalyptus melanophloia) and among four cattle grazing regimes (ranging from moderate – heavy stocking). Cryptoblepharus australis were more abundant in the Silver-leaf ironbark habitat, but there was no effect of grazing regime on their abundance. In contrast, G. dubia did not differ significantly in abundance in relation to habitat type, but were more abundant in paddocks with heavier stocking rates. We quantified invertebrate prey available to lizards in these habitats using defined-area searches and light trapping. Invertebrate community composition did not differ significantly between the habitat types or among the four grazing regimes. Although G. dubia and C. australis both occupied the same microhabitats, they were temporally segregated based on their activity times. While both species are apparently habitat generalists, we found that G. dubia and C. australis are selective in their diets. Only half of the invertebrate groups available in the environment occurred in the diets of either lizard species. Both species positively selected Coleoptera (beetles), Araneae (spiders), and Scorpiones (scorpions), and they exhibited high dietary niche overlap (O = 0.97). We suggest the increased availability of the top three preferred prey groups (beetles, spiders, and scorpions) may contribute to the high abundances of G. dubia in heavily grazed areas.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25T23:25:35.116257-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12570
       
  • Testing top-down and bottom-up effects on arid zone beetle assemblages
           following mammal reintroduction
    • Authors: Heloise Gibb; Simon J. Verdon, Tom Weir, Therese Johansson, Felicity L'Hotellier, Matthew W. Hayward
      Abstract: Species extinctions and declines are occurring globally and commonly have cascading effects on ecosystems. In Australia, mammal extinctions have been extensive, particularly in arid areas, where precipitation drives ecosystems. Many ecologically extinct mammals feed on soil-dwelling insects. However, how this top-down pressure affected their prey and how this contrasts with the bottom-up impacts of fluctuating precipitation remains unclear. We constructed a long-term exclusion experiment in a multi-species mammal reintroduction zone in semi-arid Australia to test how top-down (reintroduced mammals) and bottom-up (precipitation) factors affect root-feeding chafer beetles (Coleoptera: Melolonthinae). We used emergence traps in ten replicate 20 × 20 m plots of control, exclusion and procedural control treatments to trap chafers biannually from 2009 to 2015. Annual precipitation during this period varied from 173 to 481 mm. Mammal exclusion did not affect chafers, indicating that top-down regulation was not important. Instead, chafer abundance, species density and biomass increased with precipitation. Chafer body size and assemblage composition were best predicted by sampling year, suggesting that random drift determined species abundances. Increased resource availability therefore favoured all species similarly. We thus found no evidence that mammal predation alters chafer populations and conclude that they may be driven primarily by bottom-up processes. Further research should determine if the cascading effects of species loss are less important for herbivores generally than for higher level trophic groups and the role of ecosystem stability in mediating these patterns.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T07:36:06.597278-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12564
       
  • Contrasting intraspecific foliar trait responses to stressful conditions
           of two rhizomatous granite outcrop species at different scales in
           southwestern Australia
    • Authors: G. Ottaviani; G. Keppel
      Abstract: Plants respond to changing environmental conditions, and their ability to adjust intra-specifically to such shifts represents an ecological and evolutionary advantage. We studied seven plant traits for two common, rhizomatous granite outcrop species (the fern Cheilanthes austrotenuifolia, and the herb Stypandra glauca) with seasonal foliage during the cooler, wetter winter months at seven sites across an aridity gradient in southwestern Australia. We investigated trait patterns at regional and habitat scale, by investigating changes in trait values along the aridity gradient, and by comparing two different habitats types (sun-exposed and sheltered). We expected plants occurring in more arid sites and highly irradiated, shallow-soil (sun-exposed) habitats, to exhibit traits indicative of more conservative resource acquisition, retention and use strategies. At the habitat scale, we found support for our prediction, with plants in more stressful, sun-exposed habitats showing traits’ values associated with more conservative strategies (especially for water), such as smaller plants, denser leaves, higher foliar δ13C and C/N. However, at the regional scale many traits displayed the opposite pattern, suggesting less conservative resource acquisition in more arid sites. This evidence was particularly pronounced for specific leaf area (SLA), which exhibited a significant, positive relationship with increasing aridity. We suggest that the unexpected regional trends in foliar traits relate to shorter lived, faster growing leaves linked to highly efficient resource acquisition and use strategies during the shorter growing season in the more arid regions. These highly exploitative strategies may enable plants to avoid climate extremes, that is, hot and dry periods in the more arid sites. Our findings of contrasting foliar traits responses at different scales support the importance of multi-scale approaches to quantify the role of intraspecific trait variability.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T07:35:26.268118-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12571
       
  • Dust does impact plant survivorship in semi-arid environments: Comment on
           Matsuki et al. (2016)
    • Authors: Matthew R. Williams; Colin J. Yates
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T07:00:06.036844-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12565
       
  • Reply to Williams and Yates: Dust does impact plant survivorship in
           semi-arid environments: comment on Matsuki et al. (2016)
    • Authors: Mamoru Matsuki; Robert K. Howard, Mark R. Gardener, Andrew Smith, Aaron Gove
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T07:00:04.552669-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12566
       
  • Relative roles of termites and saprotrophic microbes as drivers of wood
           decay: A wood block test
    • Authors: Alexander W. Cheesman; Lucas A. Cernusak, Amy E. Zanne
      Abstract: Deadwood in tropical ecosystems represents an important but poorly studied carbon (C) pool. Biologically mediated decay of this pool occurs by both saprotrophic microbes and macro-invertebrates, such as termites. The activity of these decay agents is influenced by abiotic conditions, especially water availability in tropical systems. While saprotrophic microbial activity is directly controlled by moisture, termites employ various morphological and behavioural modifications that should allow for continued activity in dry conditions. We therefore hypothesized that the relative role of termites would be enhanced in the dry season and a dry compared to a wet site. We deployed a novel wood bait (Pinus radiata) at two sites (rainforest and savanna), with or without access holes cut into termite-excluding mesh. Mass loss from wood baits was measured after a dry season and after a full dry/wet annual cycle. Mass loss was higher at the rainforest site, demonstrating the overall role of moisture in driving wood decay. Counter to expectations, we found no evidence that the relative role of termites was higher at the dry site, nor during the dry season. However, the prevalence of termites was higher in the savanna compared to the rainforest. While termites clearly impact wood decay, these findings indicate that the relative importance of termites in the fate of deadwood may not reflect their mere presence within and across ecosystems. If moisture availability shifts under climate change, our results suggest similar functional responses between termites and saprotrophic microbes in driving C loss from deadwood.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15T08:06:26.171091-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12561
       
  • How do goannas find sea turtle nests'
    • Authors: Juan Lei; David T. Booth
      Abstract: Squamate reptiles rely heavily on visual and chemical cues to detect their prey, so we expected yellow-spotted goannas (Varanus panoptes) which are predators of sea turtle nests on mainland beaches in northern Australia would use these cues to find sea turtle nests. Ghost crabs (Ocypode ceratophthalmus and Ocypode cordimanus) are also common on Australian sea turtle nesting beaches and frequently burrow into sea turtle nests. However, the potential for ghost crab burrowing activity at sea turtle nests to signal the location of a nest to goannas has not been investigated. Here, we used camera traps and presence of tracks at nests to record goanna activity around selected nests during the incubation period and 10 days after hatchling turtles emerged from their nests. We also recorded the number of ghost crab burrows around nests to evaluate ghost crab activity. Our results indicated that nest discovery by goannas was independent of nest age, but that the nest visitation rate of goannas and crabs increased significantly after a nest had been opened by a goanna or after hatchlings had emerged from the nest. There was no apparent connection between ghost crab burrows into a nest and the likelihood of that nest being predated by goannas.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T23:56:08.247218-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12568
       
  • Incorporating biotic interactions in the distribution models of African
           wild silk moths (Gonometa species, Lasiocampidae) using different
           representations of modelled host tree distributions
    • Authors: Morgan Jade Raath; Peter Christiaan Roux, Ruan Veldtman, Michelle Greve
      Abstract: Biotic interactions influence species niches and may thus shape distributions. Nevertheless, species distribution modelling has traditionally relied exclusively on environmental factors to predict species distributions, while biotic interactions have only seldom been incorporated into models. This study tested the ability of incorporating biotic interactions, in the form of host plant distributions, to increase model performance for two host-dependent lepidopterans of economic interest, namely the African silk moth species, Gonometa postica and Gonometa rufobrunnea (Lasiocampidae). Both species are dependent on a small number of host tree species for the completion of their life cycle. We thus expected the host plant distribution to be an important predictor of Gonometa distributions. Model performance of a species distribution model trained only on abiotic predictors was compared to four species distribution models that additionally incorporated biotic interactions in the form of four different representations of host plant distributions as predictors. We found that incorporating the moth–host plant interactions improved G. rufobrunnea model performance for all representations of host plant distribution, while for G. postica model performance only improved for one representation of host plant distribution. The best performing representation of host plant distribution differed for the two Gonometa species. While these results suggest that incorporating biotic interactions into species distribution models can improve model performance, there is inconsistency in which representation of the host tree distribution best improves predictions. Therefore, the ability of biotic interactions to improve species distribution models may be context-specific, even for species which have obligatory interactions with other organisms.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T00:08:37.992615-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12569
       
  • Herpetofaunal species presence in buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) versus
           native vegetation-dominated habitats at Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park
           
    • Authors: Drew E. Dittmer; Joseph R. Bidwell
      Abstract: Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) has been established in Uluṟu-Kata Tjuta National Park since 1968. To date, the influence of buffel grass on the Park's flora and fauna has been largely unassessed. The objectives of this study were to determine if buffel grass dominates vegetation communities at the base of Uluṟu and if buffel grass habitats are associated with lower reptile and amphibian species richness than endemic vegetation communities. We used vegetation transects to measure the amount of buffel grass and genera of endemic vegetation at 26 sampling locations around the base of Uluṟu. The vegetation survey data were paired with pitfall trap data from reptile and amphibian captures at the same sampling locations. Indicator species analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling were used to analyse the vegetation and herpetofaunal community data. Our analyses determined five distinct vegetation communities around Uluṟu. At the base of Uluṟu, buffel grass dominated half of sampled areas and the rest of the inselberg's base was dominated by Themeda grasses. Buffel grass habitats had significantly higher herpetofaunal species richness than the Themeda habitats that dominated other areas at Uluṟu's base. Herpetofauna species richness in buffel grass-dominated habitats was also significantly higher than all vegetation communities except for Triodia-dominated habitats. These observations do not directly indicate that buffel grass presence promotes higher species richness of reptiles and amphibians since the observed patterns may be driven by factors such as proximity to breeding sites and abiotic variables not directly related to the grass itself.
      PubDate: 2017-12-10T23:57:40.491005-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12557
       
  • Species traits and abundance influence the organization of
           liana–tree antagonistic interaction
    • Authors: Julia C. Sfair; Veridiana de L. Weiser, Fernando R. Martins, Mariana M. Vidal, Paulo R. Guimarães
      Abstract: The interaction among species can be influenced by neutral processes, in which more abundant species have high effect on the structure of interaction, or can be influenced by trait matching. Despite both variables (abundance and species traits) influencing the interaction of species in mutualistic networks, few studies showed their importance in antagonistic networks. Here, we posed the question: what are the main predictors of the liana–tree interactions: species abundance, biological traits or both' In a savanna woodland fragment in south-eastern Brazil, we sampled lianas and trees in 1 ha, where we recorded the abundance, maximum height and bark roughness of tree species, as well as abundance, maximum diameter and climbing system of liana species. For each species, we calculated their contribution to nestedness (ni), which is a measure of network structure, and performed simple linear regressions between ni and abundance and species traits. Abundant species contribute more to ni than rare species, indicating that neutral processes affect interactions between lianas and trees, probably because lianas are opportunistic and climb trees in their neighbourhood. The only trait related to ni was tree height, which can indicate that light availability can have a considerable role on network structure between both growth forms. Therefore, the importance of species abundance and tree height can be related to opportunism of lianas on climbing the most suitable tree in their neighbourhood.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T09:05:30.436747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12560
       
  • Fine-scale spatial distribution of murundus structures in the semi-arid
           region of Brazil
    • Authors: Henrique J. De Souza; Jacques H. C. Delabie
      Abstract: Murundus are earth mounds widespread in most landscapes in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Evidence obtained from predictive modelling has suggested a termite origin for these structures, opening up new opportunities for further research. Distribution of densely packed murundus at larger spatial scales is most related to climatic regime and soil nutrient availability. However, factors and processes underlying their distribution and density at smaller spatial scales are not yet fully understood. In this study, we adopted an approach based on mapping point data using high-resolution satellite imagery, multi-scale second-order analysis and general linear models to examine the fine-scale spatial distribution and density of murundus. Our results suggest that the distribution of those structures within densely packed areas is regulated by more than one process acting or interacting across multiple spatial scales. All densely packed murundus showed a significant regular distribution at the distance scale of up to 50 m radially and a completely random distribution across all other upper distance scales. We interpret the regular pattern as a result of competition for foraging territories between different termite colonies during the process formation of densely packed murundus. The random pattern at larger distance scales (above 50 m radially) can be attributed to habitat selection preferences by termite species builders of murundus mediated by local environmental resources and conditions (i.e. availability of food resources and nesting and open habitat), which would be randomly distributed in space. Thus, at finer spatial scales murundus distributions are associated with biotic interactions acting on an abiotic template. On the basis of significant linear correlations, we suggest that the density of murundus is strongly related to local temperature regime with soil-type influencing its effect on the murundus densities. Our findings provide novel evidences that mound-building termites are involved in the formation of murundus in the semi-arid region of Brazil.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T05:22:49.197898-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12562
       
  • Savannas: A Very Short Introduction Peter A. Furley. Oxford University
           Press, Oxford, 2016. xvii + 157 pp. Price £7.99 (paperback, also
           available as Ebook). ISBN 9780198717225.
    • Authors: Friedrich P. Graz
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T02:26:39.476917-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12514
       
  • Community level impacts of invasive mosquitofish may exacerbate the impact
           to a threatened amphibian
    • Authors: Kaya Klop-Toker; Jose Valdez, Michelle Stockwell, Simon Clulow, John Clulow, Michael Mahony
      Abstract: Invasive fish threaten many native freshwater fauna. However, it can be difficult to determine how invasive fish impact animals with complex life cycles as interaction may be driven by either predation of aquatic larvae or avoidance of fish-occupied waterbodies by the terrestrial adult stage. Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) are highly successful and aggressive invaders that negatively impact numerous aquatic fauna. One species potentially threatened by Gambusia holbrooki is the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea). However, G. holbrooki's role in this frog's decline was unclear due to declines driven by the chytrid fungal disease and the continued co-existence of these fish and frogs in multiple locations. To clarify the extent to which Gambusia is impacting L. aurea, we conducted 3 years of field surveys across a deltaic wetland system in south-east Australia. We measured the presence and abundance of aquatic taxa including G. holbrooki, and L. aurea frogs and tadpoles, along with habitat parameters at the landscape and microhabitat scale. Generalized linear models were used to explore patterns in the abundance and distributions of L. aurea and G. holbrooki. We found strong negative associations between G. holbrooki and tadpoles of most species, including L. aurea, but no apparent avoidance of G. holbrooki by adult frogs. Native invertebrate predators (Odonata and Coleoptera) were also absent from G. holbrooki-occupied ponds. Due to the apparent naivety of adult frogs toward G. holbrooki, the separation of G. holbrooki and tadpoles, plus the abundance of alternative predators in G. holbrooki-free ponds, we conclude that the impact of G. holbrooki on L. aurea recruitment is likely substantial and warrants management action.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:16:29.252651-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12558
       
  • The Biology of Deserts David Ward, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press,
           Oxford, 2016. xv + 370 pp. Price AUD $66 (paperback, also available as
           hardback and Ebook). ISBN: 9780198732761.
    • Authors: Aaron Greenville
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:54.594302-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12523
       
  • Phylogenies in Ecology: A Guide to Concepts and Methods Marc W. Cadotte
           and T. Jonathan Davies, eds. Princeton University Press, Princeton and
           Oxford, 2016. x + 252 pp. Price USD $55.00 (hardcover; also available as
           Ebook). ISBN 978-0-6911-5768-9.
    • Authors: Stephanie A. Stuart
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:53.279911-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12522
       
  • Organism & Environment; Ecological development, Niche Construction, and
           Adaptation Sonia E. Sultan. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2015. xi +
           240 pp. Price A$59.07 (paperback). ISBN 978-0-19-958706-3.
    • Authors: Renee A. Rossini
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:51.695831-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12513
       
  • How Evolution Shapes Our Lives: Essays on Biology and Society Jonathan B.
           Losos and Richard E. Lenski, eds. Princeton University Press, New Jersey,
           2016. xii + 396 pp. Price US$39.50 (paperback). ISBN 978 0 691 17039 8.
    • Authors: Suzanne M. Schibeci
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:50.437638-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12512
       
  • The Scientist's Guide to Writing Stephen B. Heard. Princeton University
           Press, Princeton, NJ, 2016. ix + 306 pp. Price AU$44.99 (paperback, also
           in hardback and as an Ebook). ISBN 978-0-691-17022-0.
    • Authors: Manu E. Saunders
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:49.468783-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12511
       
  • Theory-Based Ecology. A Darwinian Approach Liz Pásztor, Zoltán
           Botta-Dukát, Gabriella Magyar, Tamás Gzárán and Géza Meszéna. Oxford
           University Press, Cambridge, 2016. xxii + 301 pp. Price £75.0, €88.12
           (hardback, also available as paperback and Ebook). ISBN 9780199577859.
    • Authors: María Pérez-Fernández
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:48.397355-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12510
       
  • Land Use Change Impacts on Soil Process: Tropical and Savannah Ecosystems
           Francis Q. Brearley and Andrew D. Thomas, eds. CABI Publishing,
           Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, 2015. xiv + 190 pp. Price AUD $75.00. ISBN
           978 1 78064 210 9 (hardback).
    • Authors: Lisa Lobry Bruyn
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:47.47972-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12505
       
  • Wildlife Conservation on Farmland (Vol.1): Managing for Nature on Lowland
           Farms (Vol.2): Conflict in the Countryside David W. Macdonald and Ruth E.
           Feber (eds.). University Press, Oxford, 2015, (Vol.1) xii + 323 pp. Price
           AU$118.95. ISBN: 9780198745488, (Vol.2) xi + 324 pp. Price AU$118.95.
           ISBN: 9780198745501 (hardback).
    • Authors: Mark Hall
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:46.424851-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12499
       
  • Collected Papers of Michael E. Soulé. Early Years in Modern Conservation
           Biology Michael E. Soulé. Island Press, Washington. 2014. xvi + 355 pp.
           Price A$49.99*(hardback). ISBN 978-1-61091-574-8
    • Authors: Alison Haynes
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:20:19.29553-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12500
       
  • Intersexual segregation in foraging microhabitat use by Magellanic
           Woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus): Seasonal and habitat effects at
           the world's southernmost forests
    • Authors: Quiterie Duron; Jaime E. Jiménez, Pablo M. Vergara, Gerardo E. Soto, Marlene Lizama, Ricardo Rozzi
      Abstract: Animals facing seasonal food shortage and habitat degradation may adjust their foraging behaviour to reduce intraspecific competition. In the harsh environment of the world's southernmost forests in the Magellanic sub-Antarctic ecoregion in Chile, we studied intersexual foraging differences in the largest South American woodpecker species, the Magellanic Woodpecker (Campephilus magellanicus). We assessed whether niche overlap between males and females decrease when food resources are less abundant or accessible, that is, during winter and in secondary forests, compared to summer and in old-growth forests, respectively. We analysed 421 foraging microhabitat observations from six males and six females during 2011 and 2012. As predicted, the amount of niche overlap between males and females decreased during winter, when provisioning is more difficult. During winter, males and females (i) used trees with different diameter at breast height (DBH); (ii) fed in trunk sections with different diameters; and (iii) fed at different heights on tree trunks or branches. Vertical niche partitioning between sexes was found in both old-growth and secondary forests. Such a niche partitioning during winter may be a seasonal strategy to avoid competition between sexes when prey resources are less abundant or accessible. Our results suggest that the conservation of this forest specialist, dimorphic and charismatic woodpecker species requires considering differences in habitat use between males and females.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T05:30:45.772576-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12531
       
  • Seasonal patterns in rainforest litterfall: Detecting endogenous and
           environmental influences from long-term sampling
    • Authors: Will Edwards; Michael J. Liddell, Peter Franks, Cassandra Nichols, Susan G. W. Laurance
      Abstract: Tropical rainforests play an important role in the storage and cycling of global terrestrial carbon. In the carbon cycle, net primary productivity of forests is linked to soil respiration through the production and decomposition of forest litter. Climate seasonality appears to influence the production of litter although there is considerable variability within and across forests that makes accurate estimates challenging. We explored the effects of climate seasonality on litterfall dynamics in a lowland humid rainforest over a 7-year period from 2007 to 2013, including an El Niño/La Niña cycle in 2010/2011. Litterfall was sampled fortnightly in 24 traps of 0.50 m diameter within a 1-ha forest plot. Total mean litterfall was 10.48 ± 1.32 (±SD, dry weight) Mg ha−1 year−1 and seasonal in distribution. The different components of litterfall were divided into LLeaf (63.5%), LWood (27.7%) and LFF[flowers & fruit] (8.8%), which all demonstrated seasonal dynamics. Peak falls in LLeaf and LWood were highly predictable, coinciding with maximum daily temperatures and 1 and 2 months prior to maximum monthly rainfall. The El Niño/La Niña cycle coincided with elevated local winter temperatures and peak falls of LLeaf and LWood. Importantly, we establish how sampling length and generalized additive models eliminate the requirement for extensive within-site sampling when the intention is to describe dynamics in litterfall patterns. Further, a greater understanding of seasonal cycles in litterfall allows us to distinguish between endogenous controls and environmental factors, such as El Niño events, which may have significant impacts on biochemical cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T07:00:26.751216-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12559
       
  • Is the spatial pattern of a tree population in a seasonally dry tropical
           climate explained by density-dependent mortality'
    • Authors: Andréa Pereira Silveira; Fernando Roberto Martins, Bruno Sousa Menezes, Francisca Soares Araújo
      Abstract: Spatial pattern of tropical plants is initially generated by limited seed dispersal, but the role of density-dependent and independent mechanisms as modifiers of these patterns across ontogeny is poorly understood. We investigated whether density-dependent mortality (DDM) and environmental heterogeneity can drive spatial pattern across the ontogeny of a tree in a seasonally dry tropical climate. We used Moran's I correlograms and spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) to assess the spatial patterns of the pre- and post-germinative stages of Cordia oncocalyx (Boraginaceae), an abundant tree endemic in the deciduous thorny woodland in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid region. We also used RDA to analyse the effect of DDM and environmental heterogeneity (measured by microtopography and canopy openness) in the mortality and recruitment. Seeds, seedlings, juveniles and adults showed aggregated spatial patterns; infants and immatures were randomly distributed; adults, seeds and seedlings attracted each other while adult, juveniles and immatures repulsed each other. Infant and seedling mortality rates were related to DDM and the recruitment from infant to juvenile was more influenced by spatial heterogeneity. Attraction was determined by local dispersal; repulsion was related to DDM and environment heterogeneity, which allowed the return to aggregation in adult stage. Together, these results indicated that spatial pattern can change across ontogeny, in which the initial stages are responsive to DDM and the final stages are influenced by spatial heterogeneity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T23:20:36.174275-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12556
       
  • Environmentally- and human-induced body-size responses in Macropus
           robustus and Macropus rufus, two widespread kangaroo species with largely
           overlapping distributions
    • Authors: Rachel A. Correll; Thomas A. A. Prowse, Gavin J. Prideaux
      Abstract: Progressive body-size dwarfing of animal populations is predicted under chronic mortality stress, such as that inflicted by human harvesting. However, empirical support for such declines in body size due to elevated mortality is lacking. In fact, the size of three macropodid species ─ the two grey kangaroo species, Macropus fuliginosus and M. giganteus, and the Red-necked Wallaby, M. rufogriseus ─ appears to have increased since European settlement in Australia, despite these species being subjected to size-selective harvesting over this period. To test whether this unexpected trend also characterises other species, we sought evidence of human-induced body-size changes in the two most widely distributed kangaroo species, the Euro Macropus robustus and Red Kangaroo M. rufus, from the late 19th Century onwards. Spatial autoregressive models controlling for age, sex and island effects were first used to identify environmental predictors of body size and to evaluate multi-causal explanations for spatial body-size patterns. Primary productivity emerged as the key driver of body size in both species, while heat conservation was supported as a further mechanism explaining the large body size of M. robustus in cold climatic regions. After controlling for these environmental factors, we find that the size of M. rufus has been stable over time and limited support for a small increase in the size of M. robustus. Hence, there is no empirical evidence that contemporary size-selective harvesting has reduced body size in these species. Rather, the latter result supports the possibility that pasture improvement and/or dingo control (and associated reduction in predation pressure) facilitated body-size increases following European settlement in Australia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T07:10:29.534941-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12530
       
  • Traffic noise impacts on urban forest soundscapes in south-eastern
           Australia
    • Authors: Jasmine Munro; Ian Williamson, Susan Fuller
      Abstract: While the negative impacts of road infrastructure on faunal diversity and abundance have been extensively studied, many traffic noise studies have been conducted in the presence of confounding factors. Therefore, the extent to which traffic noise alone is responsible for impacts is not well known and a better understanding is required to inform urban planning and management decisions. We examined the impact of traffic noise on soundscape patterns at road edges in urban forests. Acoustic sensors were deployed at road and powerline edges, as well as within interior habitat, at three sites in south-east Queensland, Australia. Powerline edges were included to separate edge effects from traffic noise impacts. We used soundscape power (normalized watts per kHz) of technophony (traffic noise in the 1–2 kHz range) and biophony (animal sounds in the 3–11 kHz range) to investigate soundscape patterns. The results showed that biophony was consistently lower at road edges and was negatively correlated with traffic noise and positively correlated with distance to road edge. Technophony was higher at road edges and was found to correlate negatively with distance to road edge and positively with traffic noise. Technophony and biophony at powerline edges generally exhibited values comparable to interior habitat. These results indicate that traffic noise affects urban forest soundscape patterns at road edges in south-eastern Australia.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T05:00:35.177671-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12555
       
  • Is the proportion of clonal species higher at higher latitudes in
           Australia'
    • Authors: Hongxiang Zhang; Stephen P. Bonser, Si-Chong Chen, Timothy Hitchcock, Angela T. Moles
      Abstract: We provide a large-scale quantification of the relationship between latitude and the proportion of species with clonal reproduction. Parasite pressure is thought to be higher at low latitudes, while abiotic stress is thought to be higher at high latitudes. We therefore predicted that there would be a higher proportion of clonal species at high latitudes than at low latitudes. We collected data of 4386 native seed plant species from 446 genera and 99 families present in ABRSFlora of Australia. Species' occurrence records were taken from the Atlas of Living Australia, including 817 450 species-site combinations spanning 34.5° of latitude. Logistic regression showed that the proportion of clonal species significantly increased with latitude, rising from 3.3% clonal species at 9.25°S to 26.7% clonal species at 43.75°S. The overall average proportion of clonal species in Australian seed plants was 9.4%. This study adds to our growing understanding of dramatic latitudinal gradients in the way plants grow and reproduce. It also reveals that Australian vegetation contains a relatively low proportion of clonally reproducing species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:45:35.095873-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12536
       
  • Edge effects on small mammals: Differences between arboreal and
           ground-dwelling species living near roads in Brazilian fragmented
           landscapes
    • Authors: Clarissa Alves Rosa; Helio Secco, Nathália Carvalho, Ana Carolina Maia, Alex Bager
      Abstract: Habitat fragmentation often induces edge effects that can increase, decrease or have minimal effect upon the population density of a species, depending upon environmental conditions and the requirements of the species. Using a trapping study and generalized linear mixed models, we evaluated edge effects on small tropical mammals living near roads, including two ground-dwelling (Akodon sp. and Cerradomys subflavus) and two arboreal (Marmosops incanus and Riphidomys sp.) species. We examined the relationship of these edge effects to environmental factors at both plot and patch scales. Generalist ground-dwelling species were attracted to edges, with higher population densities recorded in habitats close to road or matrix edges where vegetation density was lower. In contrast, populations of the generalist arboreal species avoided edge habitats, their populations were found in greater density in habitats far from roads/matrix edges. Thus, our results show that patterns of edge habitat utilization were related to the ecological requirements of each species. These findings are especially important in the tropics, where demand for economic growth in many countries has accelerated the fragmentation process and has recently culminated in increased road construction and expansion. Fragmented habitats promote an increase in edge environments, and consequently will reduce the abundance of arboreal small mammal species, such as those used as models in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:40:30.056659-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12549
       
  • Feeling the pressure at home: Predator activity at the burrow entrance of
           an endangered arid-zone skink
    • Authors: Danae Moore; Michael Ray Kearney, Rachel Paltridge, Steve McAlpin, Adam Stow
      Abstract: Habitat modification and invasive species are among the most important contemporary drivers of biodiversity loss. These two threatening processes are often studied independently and few studies have focused on how they interact to influence species declines. Here we assess the predation pressure placed on the threatened great desert skink (Liopholis kintorei) and how this interacts with fire-induced habitat modifications. We collected daily track data of potential predators for 1 month at 30 great desert skink burrow-systems where vegetation cover varied significantly after experimental burns. We used these data to evaluate potential predation pressure at the burrow-system and assess whether fire influenced predator pressure. We supplemented this analysis by documenting predation via the inspection of large mammalian predator scats collected from great desert skink habitat. The level of feral cat activity at a burrow-system entrance was significantly higher than that of any other potential predator, however fire had no effect on the visitation rates of feral cats, dingoes or large snakes to great desert skink burrow-systems. The remains of great desert skink were found significantly more frequently in feral cat scats, compared to fox and dingo scats. We provide the first direct evidence that feral cats are a significant predator for great desert skink, thus supporting the hypothesis that feral cat predation is a key threatening process. Feral cat activity was not influenced by small-scale experimental burns, however, this does not preclude an effect of larger scale fires and we recommend further research exploring this possible interaction.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:30:23.808999-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12547
       
  • A fungal endophyte of a palatable grass affects preference of large
           herbivores
    • Authors: Ignacio M. Hernández-Agramonte; María Semmartin, Marina Omacini, Martín Durante, Pedro E. Gundel, José De Battista
      Abstract: Temperate grasses frequently acquire resistance to herbivores through a symbiosis with epichloid fungi that produces alkaloids of variable deterrent effects. However, in those cases without apparent endophyte negative effects on domestic herbivores, it is not clear whether plant consumption or preference is affected or not. We performed three experiments with 1-year-old steers (Bos taurus, Aberdeen Angus) and the annual grass Lolium multiflorum, infected or not by Epichloë occultans to evaluate preference and to identify the underlying tolerance mechanisms. The first experiment evaluated steer preference for L. multiflorum cultivated in plots with three endophyte infection frequencies (low, medium and high), and investigated the role of canopy structure and plant nutritional traits on preference. The second experiment evaluated preference for chopped grass, offered in individual trays with contrasting infection frequencies (low and high), to discard possible effects associated with canopy structure and to focus on nutritional traits. The third experiment was performed with a tray + basket design that separated visual and olfactory stimuli from nutritional traits. High endophyte infection frequencies reduced consistently animal preference, even after short (~10 min) feeding events. However, we did not find significant evidence of plant structural, nutritional, visual or olfactory traits. Our results discarded several potential mechanisms; therefore, the dissuasive effect of fungal endophytes on animal consumption might be related to other mechanisms, including, likely, alkaloids and changes on grass metabolome.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:16:21.530422-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12554
       
  • Out of the frying pan: Reintroduction of toad-smart northern quolls to
           southern Kakadu National Park
    • Authors: Christopher J. Jolly; Ella Kelly, Graeme R. Gillespie, Ben Phillips, Jonathan K. Webb
      Abstract: Invasive species are a leading cause of native biodiversity loss. In Australia, the toxic, invasive cane toad Rhinella marina has caused massive and widespread declines of northern quolls Dasyurus hallucatus. Quolls are fatally poisoned if they mistakenly prey on adult toads. To prevent the extinction of this native dasyurid from the Top End, an insurance population was set up in 2003 on two toad-free islands in Arnhem Land. In 2015, quolls were collected from one of these islands (Astell) for reintroduction. We used conditioned taste aversion to render 22 of these toad-naïve quolls toad averse. Seven quolls received no taste aversion training. The source island was also predator-free, so all quolls received very basic predator-aversion training. In an attempt to re-establish the mainland population, we reintroduced these 29 northern quolls into Kakadu National Park in northern Australia where cane toads have been established for 13 years. The difference in survival between toad-averse and toad-naive quolls was immediately apparent. Toad-naive quolls were almost all killed by toads within 3 days. Toad-averse quolls, on the other hand, not only survived longer but also were recorded mating. Our predator training, however, was far less effective. Dingo predation accounted for a significant proportion of toad-smart quoll mortality. In Kakadu, dingoes have been responsible for high levels of quoll predation in the past and reintroduced animals are often vulnerable to predation-mediated population extinction. Dingoes may also be more effective predators in fire degraded landscapes. Together, these factors could explain the extreme predation mortality that we witnessed. In addition, predator aversion may have been lost from the predator-free island populations. These possibilities are not mutually exclusive but need to be investigated because they have clear bearing on the long-term recovery of the endangered northern quoll.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:16:03.108579-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12551
       
  • Peak hour in the bush: linear anthropogenic clearings funnel predator and
           prey species
    • Authors: Stuart J. Dawson; Peter J. Adams, Katherine E. Moseby, Kris I. Waddington, Halina T. Kobryn, Philip W. Bateman, Patricia A. Fleming
      Abstract: Linear clearings, such as roads and tracks, are an obvious anthropogenic feature in many remote environments, even where infrastructure is sparse. Predator species have been shown to prefer moving down linear clearings, and therefore, clearings could increase predation risk for other species. We investigated whether tracks cleared for seismic surveys are preferentially used by predators and herbivores in a landscape inhabited by bilbies (Macrotis lagotis), a vulnerable species of conservation concern. We used a paired camera trap array to investigate the use of cleared seismic lines at four time points after clearing (1 month, 3 months, 7 months, 48 months) by six mammal species. Bilbies, cattle (Bos indicus/B. taurus), dingoes (Canis familiaris), feral cats (Felis catus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) preferred to use seismic lines compared with adjacent undisturbed vegetation for almost all surveys, while spectacled hare wallabies (Lagorchestes conspicillatus) avoided them. Bilbies and agile wallabies showed similar temporal activity patterns on and off seismic lines but feral cats, dingoes and cattle used seismic lines at different times of day to control areas. We also investigated microhabitat selection by spool tracking individual bilbies. Bilbies selected a route through vegetation that was more open than surrounding vegetation. While spatial and temporal funnelling of bilbies and their predators (especially cats) may increase the frequency of encounter between the two, it is important to note that bilbies were active at significantly different times to predators both on and off seismic lines. The identified selection for seismic lines, and changes in spatial and temporal overlap between species, can be used to develop effective management strategies, to minimize potential impacts on native species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-21T04:00:59.422744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12553
       
  • Are germination cues for soil-stored seed banks different in structurally
           different fire-prone communities'
    • Authors: Gloria Neo Maikano; Janet Cohn, Julian Di Stefano
      Abstract: Many plant species are dependent on soil-stored seeds for their persistence in fire-prone systems. Seed germination is often stimulated by fire-related cues including heat and smoke, but the way these cues promote germination may differ between structurally distinct plant communities with historically different fire regimes. In this study, we examined the effects of heat, smoke and their interactions on the germination of soil-stored seeds from shrubby woodlands and herbaceous forests in south-east Australia. The effect of these treatments on species richness, diversity and composition, and species richness and density of germinants within life-forms (grass, forb and shrub) were assessed. Soils from each community were subjected to low heat (40°C), low heat with smoke, smoke, high heat (80°C), high heat with smoke and untreated (control) before being placed in a glasshouse, where the germinants were identified and counted. Greater species richness was stimulated by high heat treatments and smoke in both communities, a trend driven by shrubs and forbs, rather than grasses. Greater species diversity was stimulated by high heat with smoke in both communities. Greater densities of grass germinants were stimulated by all treatments, except low heat, in both communities. For forbs and shrubs, the effect of treatment depended on community. Compared to the control, low heat with smoke (forbs) and both low heat and low heat with smoke (shrubs) increased densities in the woodland but not in the forest. There were unique species compositions, different from the control, in all treatments in the forest but not in the woodland, where composition in low heat was not different from the control. These results indicate the importance of high soil temperatures and smoke in both communities. In the absence of wildfires, recurring prescribed burns that heat the soil to low temperatures are likely to reduce plant richness, diversity, and density resulting in a change in understorey species composition and structure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-21T04:00:30.640452-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12546
       
  • The role of Rhytidoponera metallica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in
           facilitating post-fire seed germination of three ant-dispersed legume
           species
    • Authors: Kieren P. Beaumont; Duncan A. Mackay, Molly A. Whalen
      Abstract: The fire avoidance hypothesis proposes that a benefit of seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory) is to protect seeds from being killed during fire and to facilitate post-fire germination of seeds that require heat shock to break their physical dormancy. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of fire and seed burial by a predominant seed-dispersing ant, Rhytidoponera metallica (subfamily: Ectatomminae) on germination levels of three ant-dispersed legume species (Pultenaea daphnoides, Acacia myrtifolia and Acacia pycnantha). Experimental burial of seeds within aluminium cans at a site prior to being burnt and at an adjacent unburnt site showed that fire increased germination levels, particularly for seeds buried at 1- and 2-cm deep and that overall, germination levels differed among the three plant species. To quantify seed burial depths and post-fire germination levels facilitated by R. metallica ants, seeds were fed to colonies prior to fire at the burnt and unburnt sites. Of the seeds buried within nests that were recovered, between 45% and 75% occurred within the upper 6 cm of the soil profile, although unexpectedly, greater percentages of seeds were recovered from the upper 0–2 cm of nests in the unburnt site compared with nests in the burnt site. Germination levels of buried seeds associated with R. metallica nests ranged from 21.2% to 29.5% in the burnt site compared with 3.1–14.8% in the unburnt site. While increased seed germination levels were associated with R. metallica nests following fire, most seeds were buried at depths below those where optimal temperatures for breaking seed dormancy occurred during the fire. We suggest that R. metallica ants may provide fire avoidance benefits to myrmecochorous seeds by burying them at a range of depths within a potential germination zone defined by intra- and inter-fire variation in levels of soil heating.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T02:10:34.466479-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12550
       
  • Interindividual patterns of resource use in three subtropical Atlantic
           Forest frogs
    • Authors: Vítor Carvalho-Rocha; Benedito Cortês Lopes, Selvino Neckel-Oliveira
      Abstract: Studies with disparate taxa suggest that generalist populations are composed of relatively specialist individuals that use a narrow part of a population's resource pool. Models based on optimum diet theory (ODT) can be used to predict different patterns of variation in resource use among individuals. In this work, we investigated the diet and measured the degree of individual specialization of three anuran species, Hypsiboas leptolineatus, Pseudis cardosoi and Scinax granulatus, from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The study is based on gut content obtained using a stomach-flushing technique. Additionally, we tested for a correlation between the individuals’ diet and morphological variation. Furthermore, we applied methods based on network theory to investigate patterns of resource use among individuals of each species. All three study species showed generalized diets and significant values of individual specialization. However, we did not find any correlation between diet and morphology, indicating that diet variation is not a consequence of morphological trade-offs. The individual-resource networks of H. leptolineatus and S. granulatus showed a nested pattern. This result indicates the presence of individuals with more diverse diets than others, and the diets of the more specialist individuals are a predictable subset of the diets of the more generalist ones. The individual-resource network of P. cardosoi did not show a distinct pattern, diverging from what was predicted by optimal diet theory-based models. Although nested or modular patterns are commonly found in individual-resource networks, our results indicate that they are not ubiquitous and that random patterns can also be found.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T02:10:22.384757-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12552
       
  • Functional and phylogenetic dimensions are more important than the
           taxonomic dimension for capturing variation in stream fish communities
    • Authors: Gabriel Nakamura; Wagner Vicentin, Yzel Rondon Súarez
      Abstract: Biodiversity is inherently multidimensional in nature, differences in evolutionary history, attributes of species, taxonomic composition constitutes a small fraction of whole variation present in this multidimensional space. Despite its multidimensional characteristic, biodiversity has been traditionally measured by assessing its dimensions separately through metrics of diversity. However, assessing multiple dimensions in a common framework opens the possibility of answering interesting questions that, until now, are poorly understood, such as: What dimensions capture most of the variation present in biodiversity among communities' We assess this question by extending the framework of Importance Values (IVs) to three dimensions of variation in biodiversity, functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic, and evaluate which of these captures the most variation in biodiversity space. To address this question we used data from stream fish communities of the Ivinhema River Basin in Brazil. We found that functional and phylogenetic dimensions are more important than the taxonomic dimension (represented by richness) in capturing variation in the biodiversity space formed by these three dimensions together. Furthermore, the IVs of these three dimensions were similar along an altitudinal gradient, indicating similar contributions by a given dimension in different environmental conditions. We highlight the importance of adopting a multidimensional approach when describing biodiversity, since richness (the proxy for taxonomic dimension), despite being the most commonly used, is an incomplete surrogate to capture the variation present in the biodiversity space of stream fish communities.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:41:16.44275-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12529
       
  • Alien and native plant seed dispersal by vehicles
    • Authors: I. Khan; S. Navie, D. George, C. O'Donnell, S. W. Adkins
      Abstract: Vehicles play a significant role in spreading plants, both in terms of quantity and quality (species). This study was conducted in Southeast Queensland to determine the role of utility vehicles in spreading seeds. These vehicles were found to carry up to 397 seeds per vehicle and in all four seasons of the year, with the majority of these species being alien to Australia and/or Queensland. The largest seed loads were found in autumn in this summer rainfall environment. Seeds were shown to attach to all parts of the vehicle, often in mud picked up from the ground, affixed directly to the engine or radiator, or carried into the cabin by the driver. Therefore, much of the seed load is to be found on the underside, on the back and front mudguards while smaller collections were found in the cabin, on the radiator and engine, and on the tyres. Fewer viable seeds were found on the engine, presumably as desiccation and heat contributed more to their death on this part of the vehicle. One method used to reduce weed seed spread by vehicles in Queensland is washing and vacuuming of vehicles. From the present study, these procedures would need to be applied to all parts of the vehicle and in all seasons of the year.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:40:33.871666-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12545
       
  • Investigating the demographics and intrapopulation spatial patterns of the
           endangered Cycas megacarpa K.D.Hill in central Queensland, Australia
    • Authors: Rohan Etherington; Bradley Jeffers, Lainie Grigg, Alex Paddock
      Abstract: Cycads are threatened globally due to land clearing and unsustainable harvesting impacting upon long-living mature plants that are essential for population viability. Cycas megacarpa K.D.Hill is an endangered cycad endemic to central Queensland, Australia. Populations of this species have been impacted by recent infrastructure projects resulting in translocation of individuals to ameliorate losses. Translocations require an understanding of the species demographics and intrapopulation spatial distributions to inform planting design. This project studied the demography and spatial patterns of a population of C. megacarpa (≈5600 individuals) within a 96.3 ha area in central Queensland to design a translocation planting that replicates a healthy population. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the demography of the population. Spatial Point Pattern Analyses (SPPA) were used to determine if the population's spatial arrangement departed from complete spatial randomness across height, gender classes and between female and juvenile cycads. We found this population to possess a 1:1 ratio of male and female cycads. However, male C. megacarpa were on average ≈0.5 m shorter than female cycads and reached reproductive maturity at shorter heights. SPPA found this population of C. megacarpa to be clustered irrespective of height or gender. A significant spatial relationship was detected between female and juvenile cycads. The results of this study suggest that to replicate a healthy C. megacarpa population, the translocated cycads could be planted in a clustered spatial pattern with known male and female individuals distributed through the clusters at a 1:1 ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:40:26.150411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12548
       
  • Impacts of the invasive fungus Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) on
           three Australian Myrtaceae species of coastal swamp woodland
    • Authors: Laura Fernandez Winzer; Angus J. Carnegie, Geoff S. Pegg, Michelle R. Leishman
      Abstract: Exotic fungal pathogens can substantially affect individuals and populations of susceptible native plant species, potentially resulting in changes in community structure and composition. Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) is a pathogenic fungus native to South America that affects species in the plant family Myrtaceae. The pathogen was introduced accidentally to Australia and first detected in NSW in April 2010. Ecological impacts have been poorly studied in the native range of A. psidii and even less in its Australian introduced range. In order to assess the potential impact of A. psidii on coastal swamp woodland, two glasshouse experiments were conducted using three co-occurring species: Melaleuca quinquenervia, Leptospermum laevigatum and Baeckea linifolia. Plants of each species were grown individually (Experiment 1) and in mixed species assemblages (Experiment 2), with half inoculated with A. psidii and the other half remaining as controls. Infection level was assessed and impact on seedling survival and growth recorded. In both experiments L. laevigatum and M. quinquenervia seedlings were heavily infected and showed high degrees of susceptibility with negative effects on growth (height, biomass and number of leaves). In contrast, no B. linifolia seedling presented visible symptoms of disease, although seedlings showed reduced growth. Melaleuca quinquenervia seedlings had greater infection levels and suffered greater growth reductions than L. laevigatum in both experiments. However, there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of the three species in the mixed-species experiment. This study provides a better understanding of the potential impacts of A. psidii in this vegetation community and has significant implications for the conservation and management of Australian Myrtaceae-dominated plant communities generally.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:56:11.542256-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12534
       
  • Fire effects on the soil seed bank and post-fire resilience of a semi-arid
           shrubland in central Argentina
    • Authors: M. Lucrecia Lipoma; Guillermo Funes, Sandra Díaz
      Abstract: Soil seed bank is an important source of resilience of plant communities who suffered disturbances. We analysed the effect of an intense fire in the soil seed bank of a semi-arid shrubland of Córdoba Argentina. We asked if the fire affected seed abundance, floristic and functional composition of the soil seed bank at two different layers (0–5 cm and 5–10 cm), and if fire could compromise the role of the soil seed bank as a source of resilience for the vegetation. We collected soil samples from a burned site and from a control site that had not burned. Samples were installed in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. During 12 months, we recorded all germinated seedlings. We compare soil seed bank with pre-fire vegetation in terms of floristic and functional composition. The high-intensity fire deeply affected the abundance of seeds in the soil, but it did not affect its floristic or functional composition. Floristic and functional composition of soil seed banks – at burned and unburned sites- differed markedly from that of the pre-fire vegetation, although a previous study at the same site indicated high resilience after fire of this plant community. Our results indicate that resilience of this system is not strongly dependent on direct germination from seeds buried in the soil. Other sources of resilience, like colonization from neighbouring vegetation patches and resprouting from underground organs appear to gain relevance after an intense fire.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:45:27.859571-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12533
       
  • Body size variation and sexual size dimorphism across climatic gradients
           in the widespread treefrog Scinax fuscovarius (Anura, Hylidae)
    • Authors: Javier Goldberg; Darío Cardozo, Francisco Brusquetti, Diego Bueno Villafañe, Andrea Caballero Gini, Carlos Bianchi
      Abstract: Variation in body size represents one of the crucial raw materials for evolution. However, at present, it is still being debated what is the main factor affecting body size or if the final body size is the consequence of several factors acting synergistically. To evaluate this, widespread species seem to be suitable models because the different populations occur along a geographical gradient and under contrasted climatic and environmental conditions. Here we describe the spatial pattern of variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism in the snouted treefrog Scinax fuscovarius (Anura, Hylidae) along a 10° range in latitude, 25° longitude, and 2000 m in altitude from Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay using an information-theoretic approach to evaluate the support of the data for eight a priori hypotheses proposed in the literature to account for geographical body size, and three hypotheses for sexual size dimorphism variation. Body size of S. fuscovarius varied most dramatically with longitude and less so with latitude; frogs were largest in the northwestern populations. Body size was positively related with precipitation seasonality, and negatively with annual precipitation. Furthermore, the degree of sexual size dimorphism was greatest in the western populations with less annual precipitation, as the increase in body size was stronger for females. Our results on body size variation are consistent with two ecogeographical hypotheses, the starvation resistance and the water availability hypotheses, while our results on sexual size dimorphism in S. fuscovarius supports the differential-plasticity hypothesis but the inverse to Rensch's rule and the parental investment hypothesis. Due to the weak association between environmental variables and body size and sexual size dimorphism variation, we stress that there are other factors, mainly those related to the life history, driving the geographical variation of S. fuscovarius.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:15:25.838215-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12532
       
 
 
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