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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1289 journals)
    - HISTORY (808 journals)
    - History (General) (51 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (49 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (54 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AREAS (8 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (169 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (126 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (24 journals)

HISTORY (808 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 452 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Acadiensis : Journal of the History of the Atlantic Region / Acadiensis : revue d'histoire de la region Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Accounting History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Historiae Artium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Orientalia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Actes d'Història de la Ciència i de la Tècnica     Open Access  
Advances in Historical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Africa Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
African Diaspora     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
albuquerque : revista de história     Open Access  
Almagest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Archivist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Jewish History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Nineteenth Century History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Periodicals : A Journal of History, Criticism, and Bibliography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Amérique Latine Histoire et Mémoire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur alteren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur neueren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analecta Bollandiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Historia del Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anglican Historical Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales historiques de la Révolution française     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annales UMCS, Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza di Firenze     Hybrid Journal  
Annuaire de l'Ecole pratique des hautes etudes. Section des sciences historiques et philologiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Antike und Abendland     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Antiteses     Open Access  
Anuario de Estudios Atlánticos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ARAM Periodical     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Araucaria. Revista Iberoamericana de Filosofía, Política y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeion     Full-text available via subscription  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Architectural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arenal. Revista de historia de las mujeres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Arthuriana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arys: Antigüedad, Religiones y Sociedades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aschkenas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Asia-Pacific Journal : Japan Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Review of World Histories     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aspasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Astérion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ateliê de História UEPG     Open Access  
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Australasian Journal of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 4)
Australian Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australian Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australian Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Australian Journal of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Balkanologie : Revue d'Études Pluridisciplinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic-Pontic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BIBLOS - Revista do Departamento de Biblioteconomia e História     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BibNum     Open Access  
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch für Antike und Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Book History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 132)
Boom : A Journal of California     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Britain and the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
British Journal of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
British Mycological Society Symposia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin d'histoire politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de la Sabix     Open Access  
Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin d’études Orientales     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Hispanic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Latin American Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Spanish Studies: Hispanic Studies and Researches on Spain, Portugal and Latin America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Byzantinische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Byzantion Nea Hellás     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
C@hiers du CRHIDI     Open Access  
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cadernos de História     Open Access  
CADUS - Revista de Estudos de Política, História e Cultura     Open Access  
Cahiers d'histoire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers d'histoire. Revue d'histoire critique     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers des études anciennes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cahiers du Centre de recherches historiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cahiers du Monde Russe     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cahiers d’études africaines     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cahiers « Mondes anciens »     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La revue canadienne de linguistique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Review of American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian-American Slavic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Catholic Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central Asian Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaucer Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Childhood in the Past : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Studies in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chronica Nova. Revista de Historia Moderna de la Universidad de Granada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chronique d'Egypte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Church History and Religious Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Civil War History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cleveland Studies in the History of Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clio y Asociados     Open Access  
Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Clio. Women, Gender, History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Collections électroniques de l'INHA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Collingwood and British Idealism Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Colonial Latin American Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Comitatus : A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Comparative Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Comptabilités     Open Access  
Concorso. Arti e lettere     Open Access  
Conservative Judaism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Conserveries mémorielles     Open Access  
Contemporaneity : Historical Presence in Visual Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Arab Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary British History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary French and Francophone Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Convivium     Full-text available via subscription  
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Critical Historical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cromohs : Cyber Review of Modern Historiography     Open Access  
Crossing Borders : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Historia Moderna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Ilustración y Romanticismo     Open Access  
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultura Histórica & Patrimônio     Open Access  
Cultural and Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultures & conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cultures et conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Czech-Polish Historical and Pedagogical Journal     Open Access  
Dapim : Studies on the Holocaust     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Das Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover Austral Ecology
  [SJR: 1.095]   [H-I: 66]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1442-9985 - ISSN (Online) 1442-9993
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1580 journals]
  • Savannas: A Very Short Introduction Peter A. Furley. Oxford University
           Press, Oxford, 2016. xvii + 157 pp. Price £7.99 (paperback, also
           available as Ebook). ISBN 9780198717225.
    • Authors: Friedrich P. Graz
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T02:26:39.476917-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12514
       
  • Community level impacts of invasive mosquitofish may exacerbate the impact
           to a threatened amphibian
    • Authors: Kaya Klop-Toker; Jose Valdez, Michelle Stockwell, Simon Clulow, John Clulow, Michael Mahony
      Abstract: Invasive fish threaten many native freshwater fauna. However, it can be difficult to determine how invasive fish impact animals with complex life cycles as interaction may be driven by either predation of aquatic larvae or avoidance of fish-occupied waterbodies by the terrestrial adult stage. Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) are highly successful and aggressive invaders that negatively impact numerous aquatic fauna. One species potentially threatened by Gambusia holbrooki is the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea). However, G. holbrooki's role in this frog's decline was unclear due to declines driven by the chytrid fungal disease and the continued co-existence of these fish and frogs in multiple locations. To clarify the extent to which Gambusia is impacting L. aurea, we conducted 3 years of field surveys across a deltaic wetland system in south-east Australia. We measured the presence and abundance of aquatic taxa including G. holbrooki, and L. aurea frogs and tadpoles, along with habitat parameters at the landscape and microhabitat scale. Generalized linear models were used to explore patterns in the abundance and distributions of L. aurea and G. holbrooki. We found strong negative associations between G. holbrooki and tadpoles of most species, including L. aurea, but no apparent avoidance of G. holbrooki by adult frogs. Native invertebrate predators (Odonata and Coleoptera) were also absent from G. holbrooki-occupied ponds. Due to the apparent naivety of adult frogs toward G. holbrooki, the separation of G. holbrooki and tadpoles, plus the abundance of alternative predators in G. holbrooki-free ponds, we conclude that the impact of G. holbrooki on L. aurea recruitment is likely substantial and warrants management action.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:16:29.252651-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12558
       
  • The Biology of Deserts David Ward, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press,
           Oxford, 2016. xv + 370 pp. Price AUD $66 (paperback, also available as
           hardback and Ebook). ISBN: 9780198732761.
    • Authors: Aaron Greenville
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:54.594302-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12523
       
  • Phylogenies in Ecology: A Guide to Concepts and Methods Marc W. Cadotte
           and T. Jonathan Davies, eds. Princeton University Press, Princeton and
           Oxford, 2016. x + 252 pp. Price USD $55.00 (hardcover; also available as
           Ebook). ISBN 978-0-6911-5768-9.
    • Authors: Stephanie A. Stuart
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:53.279911-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12522
       
  • Organism & Environment; Ecological development, Niche Construction, and
           Adaptation Sonia E. Sultan. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2015. xi +
           240 pp. Price A$59.07 (paperback). ISBN 978-0-19-958706-3.
    • Authors: Renee A. Rossini
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:51.695831-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12513
       
  • How Evolution Shapes Our Lives: Essays on Biology and Society Jonathan B.
           Losos and Richard E. Lenski, eds. Princeton University Press, New Jersey,
           2016. xii + 396 pp. Price US$39.50 (paperback). ISBN 978 0 691 17039 8.
    • Authors: Suzanne M. Schibeci
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:50.437638-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12512
       
  • The Scientist's Guide to Writing Stephen B. Heard. Princeton University
           Press, Princeton, NJ, 2016. ix + 306 pp. Price AU$44.99 (paperback, also
           in hardback and as an Ebook). ISBN 978-0-691-17022-0.
    • Authors: Manu E. Saunders
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:49.468783-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12511
       
  • Theory-Based Ecology. A Darwinian Approach Liz Pásztor, Zoltán
           Botta-Dukát, Gabriella Magyar, Tamás Gzárán and Géza Meszéna. Oxford
           University Press, Cambridge, 2016. xxii + 301 pp. Price £75.0, €88.12
           (hardback, also available as paperback and Ebook). ISBN 9780199577859.
    • Authors: María Pérez-Fernández
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:48.397355-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12510
       
  • Land Use Change Impacts on Soil Process: Tropical and Savannah Ecosystems
           Francis Q. Brearley and Andrew D. Thomas, eds. CABI Publishing,
           Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, 2015. xiv + 190 pp. Price AUD $75.00. ISBN
           978 1 78064 210 9 (hardback).
    • Authors: Lisa Lobry Bruyn
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:47.47972-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12505
       
  • Wildlife Conservation on Farmland (Vol.1): Managing for Nature on Lowland
           Farms (Vol.2): Conflict in the Countryside David W. Macdonald and Ruth E.
           Feber (eds.). University Press, Oxford, 2015, (Vol.1) xii + 323 pp. Price
           AU$118.95. ISBN: 9780198745488, (Vol.2) xi + 324 pp. Price AU$118.95.
           ISBN: 9780198745501 (hardback).
    • Authors: Mark Hall
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T08:15:46.424851-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12499
       
  • Collected Papers of Michael E. Soulé. Early Years in Modern Conservation
           Biology Michael E. Soulé. Island Press, Washington. 2014. xvi + 355 pp.
           Price A$49.99*(hardback). ISBN 978-1-61091-574-8
    • Authors: Alison Haynes
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:20:19.29553-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12500
       
  • Intersexual segregation in foraging microhabitat use by Magellanic
           Woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus): Seasonal and habitat effects at
           the world's southernmost forests
    • Authors: Quiterie Duron; Jaime E. Jiménez, Pablo M. Vergara, Gerardo E. Soto, Marlene Lizama, Ricardo Rozzi
      Abstract: Animals facing seasonal food shortage and habitat degradation may adjust their foraging behaviour to reduce intraspecific competition. In the harsh environment of the world's southernmost forests in the Magellanic sub-Antarctic ecoregion in Chile, we studied intersexual foraging differences in the largest South American woodpecker species, the Magellanic Woodpecker (Campephilus magellanicus). We assessed whether niche overlap between males and females decrease when food resources are less abundant or accessible, that is, during winter and in secondary forests, compared to summer and in old-growth forests, respectively. We analysed 421 foraging microhabitat observations from six males and six females during 2011 and 2012. As predicted, the amount of niche overlap between males and females decreased during winter, when provisioning is more difficult. During winter, males and females (i) used trees with different diameter at breast height (DBH); (ii) fed in trunk sections with different diameters; and (iii) fed at different heights on tree trunks or branches. Vertical niche partitioning between sexes was found in both old-growth and secondary forests. Such a niche partitioning during winter may be a seasonal strategy to avoid competition between sexes when prey resources are less abundant or accessible. Our results suggest that the conservation of this forest specialist, dimorphic and charismatic woodpecker species requires considering differences in habitat use between males and females.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T05:30:45.772576-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12531
       
  • Seasonal patterns in rainforest litterfall: Detecting endogenous and
           environmental influences from long-term sampling
    • Authors: Will Edwards; Michael J. Liddell, Peter Franks, Cassandra Nichols, Susan G. W. Laurance
      Abstract: Tropical rainforests play an important role in the storage and cycling of global terrestrial carbon. In the carbon cycle, net primary productivity of forests is linked to soil respiration through the production and decomposition of forest litter. Climate seasonality appears to influence the production of litter although there is considerable variability within and across forests that makes accurate estimates challenging. We explored the effects of climate seasonality on litterfall dynamics in a lowland humid rainforest over a 7-year period from 2007 to 2013, including an El Niño/La Niña cycle in 2010/2011. Litterfall was sampled fortnightly in 24 traps of 0.50 m diameter within a 1-ha forest plot. Total mean litterfall was 10.48 ± 1.32 (±SD, dry weight) Mg ha−1 year−1 and seasonal in distribution. The different components of litterfall were divided into LLeaf (63.5%), LWood (27.7%) and LFF[flowers & fruit] (8.8%), which all demonstrated seasonal dynamics. Peak falls in LLeaf and LWood were highly predictable, coinciding with maximum daily temperatures and 1 and 2 months prior to maximum monthly rainfall. The El Niño/La Niña cycle coincided with elevated local winter temperatures and peak falls of LLeaf and LWood. Importantly, we establish how sampling length and generalized additive models eliminate the requirement for extensive within-site sampling when the intention is to describe dynamics in litterfall patterns. Further, a greater understanding of seasonal cycles in litterfall allows us to distinguish between endogenous controls and environmental factors, such as El Niño events, which may have significant impacts on biochemical cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T07:00:26.751216-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12559
       
  • Is the spatial pattern of a tree population in a seasonally dry tropical
           climate explained by density-dependent mortality'
    • Authors: Andréa Pereira Silveira; Fernando Roberto Martins, Bruno Sousa Menezes, Francisca Soares Araújo
      Abstract: Spatial pattern of tropical plants is initially generated by limited seed dispersal, but the role of density-dependent and independent mechanisms as modifiers of these patterns across ontogeny is poorly understood. We investigated whether density-dependent mortality (DDM) and environmental heterogeneity can drive spatial pattern across the ontogeny of a tree in a seasonally dry tropical climate. We used Moran's I correlograms and spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) to assess the spatial patterns of the pre- and post-germinative stages of Cordia oncocalyx (Boraginaceae), an abundant tree endemic in the deciduous thorny woodland in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid region. We also used RDA to analyse the effect of DDM and environmental heterogeneity (measured by microtopography and canopy openness) in the mortality and recruitment. Seeds, seedlings, juveniles and adults showed aggregated spatial patterns; infants and immatures were randomly distributed; adults, seeds and seedlings attracted each other while adult, juveniles and immatures repulsed each other. Infant and seedling mortality rates were related to DDM and the recruitment from infant to juvenile was more influenced by spatial heterogeneity. Attraction was determined by local dispersal; repulsion was related to DDM and environment heterogeneity, which allowed the return to aggregation in adult stage. Together, these results indicated that spatial pattern can change across ontogeny, in which the initial stages are responsive to DDM and the final stages are influenced by spatial heterogeneity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T23:20:36.174275-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12556
       
  • Environmentally- and human-induced body-size responses in Macropus
           robustus and Macropus rufus, two widespread kangaroo species with largely
           overlapping distributions
    • Authors: Rachel A. Correll; Thomas A. A. Prowse, Gavin J. Prideaux
      Abstract: Progressive body-size dwarfing of animal populations is predicted under chronic mortality stress, such as that inflicted by human harvesting. However, empirical support for such declines in body size due to elevated mortality is lacking. In fact, the size of three macropodid species ─ the two grey kangaroo species, Macropus fuliginosus and M. giganteus, and the Red-necked Wallaby, M. rufogriseus ─ appears to have increased since European settlement in Australia, despite these species being subjected to size-selective harvesting over this period. To test whether this unexpected trend also characterises other species, we sought evidence of human-induced body-size changes in the two most widely distributed kangaroo species, the Euro Macropus robustus and Red Kangaroo M. rufus, from the late 19th Century onwards. Spatial autoregressive models controlling for age, sex and island effects were first used to identify environmental predictors of body size and to evaluate multi-causal explanations for spatial body-size patterns. Primary productivity emerged as the key driver of body size in both species, while heat conservation was supported as a further mechanism explaining the large body size of M. robustus in cold climatic regions. After controlling for these environmental factors, we find that the size of M. rufus has been stable over time and limited support for a small increase in the size of M. robustus. Hence, there is no empirical evidence that contemporary size-selective harvesting has reduced body size in these species. Rather, the latter result supports the possibility that pasture improvement and/or dingo control (and associated reduction in predation pressure) facilitated body-size increases following European settlement in Australia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T07:10:29.534941-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12530
       
  • Wood-rotting basidiomycetes associated with declining native trees in
           timber-harvesting compartments of the Garden Route National Park of South
           Africa
    • Authors: James Michel Tchotet Tchoumi; Martin Petrus Albertus Coetzee, Maria Vivas, Mario Rajchenberg, Jolanda Roux
      Abstract: Trees in the Garden Route National Park (GRNP) indigenous forests in South Africa are selectively harvested for timber based on criteria that include signs and symptoms induced by wood-rotting fungi. However, virtually nothing is known regarding the identity and host associations of these macro-fungi in this natural ecosystem. Surveys were conducted in three harvesting compartments in the GRNP to investigate the taxonomic affiliation and species richness of these fungi on standing and recently harvested trees. Samples were collected from basidiomes on infected trees and tree stumps, and from diseased tissues on symptomatic trees. Phylogenetic analyses using ITS sequences characterized the isolates obtained into 26 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to 17 genera after clustering the sequences at a 97% identity threshold. Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) and Inonotus (Hymenochaetaceae) were the most species-rich genera and the Bloukrans compartment, with 22 OTUs, showed the highest species richness. A fungus (OTU1) affiliated with Ganoderma pfeifferi was the most abundant in the surveyed areas. Its predominance was also evidenced on host trees since it occurred on 15 of the 20 tree species sampled, with Olea capensis subsp. macrocarpa (Oleaceae) being the most colonized host. Given the wide variety of wood-rotting basidiomycetes revealed by this study and particularly the preponderance of species with pathogenic potential, more attention should be given to better understand their ecological role in this natural ecosystem as well as the effects of logging that may enhance their dissemination or negatively affect their diversity and the health of trees in the region.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T06:50:54.72351-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12524
       
  • Traffic noise impacts on urban forest soundscapes in south-eastern
           Australia
    • Authors: Jasmine Munro; Ian Williamson, Susan Fuller
      Abstract: While the negative impacts of road infrastructure on faunal diversity and abundance have been extensively studied, many traffic noise studies have been conducted in the presence of confounding factors. Therefore, the extent to which traffic noise alone is responsible for impacts is not well known and a better understanding is required to inform urban planning and management decisions. We examined the impact of traffic noise on soundscape patterns at road edges in urban forests. Acoustic sensors were deployed at road and powerline edges, as well as within interior habitat, at three sites in south-east Queensland, Australia. Powerline edges were included to separate edge effects from traffic noise impacts. We used soundscape power (normalized watts per kHz) of technophony (traffic noise in the 1–2 kHz range) and biophony (animal sounds in the 3–11 kHz range) to investigate soundscape patterns. The results showed that biophony was consistently lower at road edges and was negatively correlated with traffic noise and positively correlated with distance to road edge. Technophony was higher at road edges and was found to correlate negatively with distance to road edge and positively with traffic noise. Technophony and biophony at powerline edges generally exhibited values comparable to interior habitat. These results indicate that traffic noise affects urban forest soundscape patterns at road edges in south-eastern Australia.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T05:00:35.177671-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12555
       
  • Is the proportion of clonal species higher at higher latitudes in
           Australia'
    • Authors: Hongxiang Zhang; Stephen P. Bonser, Si-Chong Chen, Timothy Hitchcock, Angela T. Moles
      Abstract: We provide a large-scale quantification of the relationship between latitude and the proportion of species with clonal reproduction. Parasite pressure is thought to be higher at low latitudes, while abiotic stress is thought to be higher at high latitudes. We therefore predicted that there would be a higher proportion of clonal species at high latitudes than at low latitudes. We collected data of 4386 native seed plant species from 446 genera and 99 families present in ABRSFlora of Australia. Species' occurrence records were taken from the Atlas of Living Australia, including 817 450 species-site combinations spanning 34.5° of latitude. Logistic regression showed that the proportion of clonal species significantly increased with latitude, rising from 3.3% clonal species at 9.25°S to 26.7% clonal species at 43.75°S. The overall average proportion of clonal species in Australian seed plants was 9.4%. This study adds to our growing understanding of dramatic latitudinal gradients in the way plants grow and reproduce. It also reveals that Australian vegetation contains a relatively low proportion of clonally reproducing species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:45:35.095873-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12536
       
  • Edge effects on small mammals: Differences between arboreal and
           ground-dwelling species living near roads in Brazilian fragmented
           landscapes
    • Authors: Clarissa Alves Rosa; Helio Secco, Nathália Carvalho, Ana Carolina Maia, Alex Bager
      Abstract: Habitat fragmentation often induces edge effects that can increase, decrease or have minimal effect upon the population density of a species, depending upon environmental conditions and the requirements of the species. Using a trapping study and generalized linear mixed models, we evaluated edge effects on small tropical mammals living near roads, including two ground-dwelling (Akodon sp. and Cerradomys subflavus) and two arboreal (Marmosops incanus and Riphidomys sp.) species. We examined the relationship of these edge effects to environmental factors at both plot and patch scales. Generalist ground-dwelling species were attracted to edges, with higher population densities recorded in habitats close to road or matrix edges where vegetation density was lower. In contrast, populations of the generalist arboreal species avoided edge habitats, their populations were found in greater density in habitats far from roads/matrix edges. Thus, our results show that patterns of edge habitat utilization were related to the ecological requirements of each species. These findings are especially important in the tropics, where demand for economic growth in many countries has accelerated the fragmentation process and has recently culminated in increased road construction and expansion. Fragmented habitats promote an increase in edge environments, and consequently will reduce the abundance of arboreal small mammal species, such as those used as models in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:40:30.056659-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12549
       
  • Feeling the pressure at home: Predator activity at the burrow entrance of
           an endangered arid-zone skink
    • Authors: Danae Moore; Michael Ray Kearney, Rachel Paltridge, Steve McAlpin, Adam Stow
      Abstract: Habitat modification and invasive species are among the most important contemporary drivers of biodiversity loss. These two threatening processes are often studied independently and few studies have focused on how they interact to influence species declines. Here we assess the predation pressure placed on the threatened great desert skink (Liopholis kintorei) and how this interacts with fire-induced habitat modifications. We collected daily track data of potential predators for 1 month at 30 great desert skink burrow-systems where vegetation cover varied significantly after experimental burns. We used these data to evaluate potential predation pressure at the burrow-system and assess whether fire influenced predator pressure. We supplemented this analysis by documenting predation via the inspection of large mammalian predator scats collected from great desert skink habitat. The level of feral cat activity at a burrow-system entrance was significantly higher than that of any other potential predator, however fire had no effect on the visitation rates of feral cats, dingoes or large snakes to great desert skink burrow-systems. The remains of great desert skink were found significantly more frequently in feral cat scats, compared to fox and dingo scats. We provide the first direct evidence that feral cats are a significant predator for great desert skink, thus supporting the hypothesis that feral cat predation is a key threatening process. Feral cat activity was not influenced by small-scale experimental burns, however, this does not preclude an effect of larger scale fires and we recommend further research exploring this possible interaction.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:30:23.808999-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12547
       
  • A fungal endophyte of a palatable grass affects preference of large
           herbivores
    • Authors: Ignacio M. Hernández-Agramonte; María Semmartin, Marina Omacini, Martín Durante, Pedro E. Gundel, José De Battista
      Abstract: Temperate grasses frequently acquire resistance to herbivores through a symbiosis with epichloid fungi that produces alkaloids of variable deterrent effects. However, in those cases without apparent endophyte negative effects on domestic herbivores, it is not clear whether plant consumption or preference is affected or not. We performed three experiments with 1-year-old steers (Bos taurus, Aberdeen Angus) and the annual grass Lolium multiflorum, infected or not by Epichloë occultans to evaluate preference and to identify the underlying tolerance mechanisms. The first experiment evaluated steer preference for L. multiflorum cultivated in plots with three endophyte infection frequencies (low, medium and high), and investigated the role of canopy structure and plant nutritional traits on preference. The second experiment evaluated preference for chopped grass, offered in individual trays with contrasting infection frequencies (low and high), to discard possible effects associated with canopy structure and to focus on nutritional traits. The third experiment was performed with a tray + basket design that separated visual and olfactory stimuli from nutritional traits. High endophyte infection frequencies reduced consistently animal preference, even after short (~10 min) feeding events. However, we did not find significant evidence of plant structural, nutritional, visual or olfactory traits. Our results discarded several potential mechanisms; therefore, the dissuasive effect of fungal endophytes on animal consumption might be related to other mechanisms, including, likely, alkaloids and changes on grass metabolome.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:16:21.530422-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12554
       
  • Out of the frying pan: Reintroduction of toad-smart northern quolls to
           southern Kakadu National Park
    • Authors: Christopher J. Jolly; Ella Kelly, Graeme R. Gillespie, Ben Phillips, Jonathan K. Webb
      Abstract: Invasive species are a leading cause of native biodiversity loss. In Australia, the toxic, invasive cane toad Rhinella marina has caused massive and widespread declines of northern quolls Dasyurus hallucatus. Quolls are fatally poisoned if they mistakenly prey on adult toads. To prevent the extinction of this native dasyurid from the Top End, an insurance population was set up in 2003 on two toad-free islands in Arnhem Land. In 2015, quolls were collected from one of these islands (Astell) for reintroduction. We used conditioned taste aversion to render 22 of these toad-naïve quolls toad averse. Seven quolls received no taste aversion training. The source island was also predator-free, so all quolls received very basic predator-aversion training. In an attempt to re-establish the mainland population, we reintroduced these 29 northern quolls into Kakadu National Park in northern Australia where cane toads have been established for 13 years. The difference in survival between toad-averse and toad-naive quolls was immediately apparent. Toad-naive quolls were almost all killed by toads within 3 days. Toad-averse quolls, on the other hand, not only survived longer but also were recorded mating. Our predator training, however, was far less effective. Dingo predation accounted for a significant proportion of toad-smart quoll mortality. In Kakadu, dingoes have been responsible for high levels of quoll predation in the past and reintroduced animals are often vulnerable to predation-mediated population extinction. Dingoes may also be more effective predators in fire degraded landscapes. Together, these factors could explain the extreme predation mortality that we witnessed. In addition, predator aversion may have been lost from the predator-free island populations. These possibilities are not mutually exclusive but need to be investigated because they have clear bearing on the long-term recovery of the endangered northern quoll.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:16:03.108579-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12551
       
  • Peak hour in the bush: linear anthropogenic clearings funnel predator and
           prey species
    • Authors: Stuart J. Dawson; Peter J. Adams, Katherine E. Moseby, Kris I. Waddington, Halina T. Kobryn, Philip W. Bateman, Patricia A. Fleming
      Abstract: Linear clearings, such as roads and tracks, are an obvious anthropogenic feature in many remote environments, even where infrastructure is sparse. Predator species have been shown to prefer moving down linear clearings, and therefore, clearings could increase predation risk for other species. We investigated whether tracks cleared for seismic surveys are preferentially used by predators and herbivores in a landscape inhabited by bilbies (Macrotis lagotis), a vulnerable species of conservation concern. We used a paired camera trap array to investigate the use of cleared seismic lines at four time points after clearing (1 month, 3 months, 7 months, 48 months) by six mammal species. Bilbies, cattle (Bos indicus/B. taurus), dingoes (Canis familiaris), feral cats (Felis catus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) preferred to use seismic lines compared with adjacent undisturbed vegetation for almost all surveys, while spectacled hare wallabies (Lagorchestes conspicillatus) avoided them. Bilbies and agile wallabies showed similar temporal activity patterns on and off seismic lines but feral cats, dingoes and cattle used seismic lines at different times of day to control areas. We also investigated microhabitat selection by spool tracking individual bilbies. Bilbies selected a route through vegetation that was more open than surrounding vegetation. While spatial and temporal funnelling of bilbies and their predators (especially cats) may increase the frequency of encounter between the two, it is important to note that bilbies were active at significantly different times to predators both on and off seismic lines. The identified selection for seismic lines, and changes in spatial and temporal overlap between species, can be used to develop effective management strategies, to minimize potential impacts on native species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-21T04:00:59.422744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12553
       
  • Are germination cues for soil-stored seed banks different in structurally
           different fire-prone communities'
    • Authors: Gloria Neo Maikano; Janet Cohn, Julian Di Stefano
      Abstract: Many plant species are dependent on soil-stored seeds for their persistence in fire-prone systems. Seed germination is often stimulated by fire-related cues including heat and smoke, but the way these cues promote germination may differ between structurally distinct plant communities with historically different fire regimes. In this study, we examined the effects of heat, smoke and their interactions on the germination of soil-stored seeds from shrubby woodlands and herbaceous forests in south-east Australia. The effect of these treatments on species richness, diversity and composition, and species richness and density of germinants within life-forms (grass, forb and shrub) were assessed. Soils from each community were subjected to low heat (40°C), low heat with smoke, smoke, high heat (80°C), high heat with smoke and untreated (control) before being placed in a glasshouse, where the germinants were identified and counted. Greater species richness was stimulated by high heat treatments and smoke in both communities, a trend driven by shrubs and forbs, rather than grasses. Greater species diversity was stimulated by high heat with smoke in both communities. Greater densities of grass germinants were stimulated by all treatments, except low heat, in both communities. For forbs and shrubs, the effect of treatment depended on community. Compared to the control, low heat with smoke (forbs) and both low heat and low heat with smoke (shrubs) increased densities in the woodland but not in the forest. There were unique species compositions, different from the control, in all treatments in the forest but not in the woodland, where composition in low heat was not different from the control. These results indicate the importance of high soil temperatures and smoke in both communities. In the absence of wildfires, recurring prescribed burns that heat the soil to low temperatures are likely to reduce plant richness, diversity, and density resulting in a change in understorey species composition and structure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-21T04:00:30.640452-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12546
       
  • Responding to Climate Change: Lessons from a Hot-Spot Paul Burton (ed.).
           CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, 2014. x + 203 pp. Price US $79.95
           (paperback). ISBN: 9780643108615.
    • Authors: Greg Hunt
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T02:37:45.239348-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12452
       
  • Nests, Eggs, & Incubation: New Ideas about Avian Reproduction D. Charles
           Deeming & S. James Reynolds (eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK,
           2015, xiv + 293 pp. Price AUD $133.09 (hardback). ISBN 9780198718666.
    • Authors: Kit (AMY) S. Prendergast
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T02:37:44.431326-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12453
       
  • Free-ranging Cats: Behaviour, Ecology, Management Stephen Spotte.
           Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK, 2014. xiii + 295 pp. AU $140.95
           (hardcover, also available as an Ebook). ISBN 978-1-118-88401-0.
    • Authors: Frances Zewe
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T02:37:43.25934-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12451
       
  • The role of Rhytidoponera metallica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in
           facilitating post-fire seed germination of three ant-dispersed legume
           species
    • Authors: Kieren P. Beaumont; Duncan A. Mackay, Molly A. Whalen
      Abstract: The fire avoidance hypothesis proposes that a benefit of seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory) is to protect seeds from being killed during fire and to facilitate post-fire germination of seeds that require heat shock to break their physical dormancy. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of fire and seed burial by a predominant seed-dispersing ant, Rhytidoponera metallica (subfamily: Ectatomminae) on germination levels of three ant-dispersed legume species (Pultenaea daphnoides, Acacia myrtifolia and Acacia pycnantha). Experimental burial of seeds within aluminium cans at a site prior to being burnt and at an adjacent unburnt site showed that fire increased germination levels, particularly for seeds buried at 1- and 2-cm deep and that overall, germination levels differed among the three plant species. To quantify seed burial depths and post-fire germination levels facilitated by R. metallica ants, seeds were fed to colonies prior to fire at the burnt and unburnt sites. Of the seeds buried within nests that were recovered, between 45% and 75% occurred within the upper 6 cm of the soil profile, although unexpectedly, greater percentages of seeds were recovered from the upper 0–2 cm of nests in the unburnt site compared with nests in the burnt site. Germination levels of buried seeds associated with R. metallica nests ranged from 21.2% to 29.5% in the burnt site compared with 3.1–14.8% in the unburnt site. While increased seed germination levels were associated with R. metallica nests following fire, most seeds were buried at depths below those where optimal temperatures for breaking seed dormancy occurred during the fire. We suggest that R. metallica ants may provide fire avoidance benefits to myrmecochorous seeds by burying them at a range of depths within a potential germination zone defined by intra- and inter-fire variation in levels of soil heating.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T02:10:34.466479-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12550
       
  • Interindividual patterns of resource use in three subtropical Atlantic
           Forest frogs
    • Authors: Vítor Carvalho-Rocha; Benedito Cortês Lopes, Selvino Neckel-Oliveira
      Abstract: Studies with disparate taxa suggest that generalist populations are composed of relatively specialist individuals that use a narrow part of a population's resource pool. Models based on optimum diet theory (ODT) can be used to predict different patterns of variation in resource use among individuals. In this work, we investigated the diet and measured the degree of individual specialization of three anuran species, Hypsiboas leptolineatus, Pseudis cardosoi and Scinax granulatus, from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The study is based on gut content obtained using a stomach-flushing technique. Additionally, we tested for a correlation between the individuals’ diet and morphological variation. Furthermore, we applied methods based on network theory to investigate patterns of resource use among individuals of each species. All three study species showed generalized diets and significant values of individual specialization. However, we did not find any correlation between diet and morphology, indicating that diet variation is not a consequence of morphological trade-offs. The individual-resource networks of H. leptolineatus and S. granulatus showed a nested pattern. This result indicates the presence of individuals with more diverse diets than others, and the diets of the more specialist individuals are a predictable subset of the diets of the more generalist ones. The individual-resource network of P. cardosoi did not show a distinct pattern, diverging from what was predicted by optimal diet theory-based models. Although nested or modular patterns are commonly found in individual-resource networks, our results indicate that they are not ubiquitous and that random patterns can also be found.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T02:10:22.384757-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12552
       
  • Functional and phylogenetic dimensions are more important than the
           taxonomic dimension for capturing variation in stream fish communities
    • Authors: Gabriel Nakamura; Wagner Vicentin, Yzel Rondon Súarez
      Abstract: Biodiversity is inherently multidimensional in nature, differences in evolutionary history, attributes of species, taxonomic composition constitutes a small fraction of whole variation present in this multidimensional space. Despite its multidimensional characteristic, biodiversity has been traditionally measured by assessing its dimensions separately through metrics of diversity. However, assessing multiple dimensions in a common framework opens the possibility of answering interesting questions that, until now, are poorly understood, such as: What dimensions capture most of the variation present in biodiversity among communities' We assess this question by extending the framework of Importance Values (IVs) to three dimensions of variation in biodiversity, functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic, and evaluate which of these captures the most variation in biodiversity space. To address this question we used data from stream fish communities of the Ivinhema River Basin in Brazil. We found that functional and phylogenetic dimensions are more important than the taxonomic dimension (represented by richness) in capturing variation in the biodiversity space formed by these three dimensions together. Furthermore, the IVs of these three dimensions were similar along an altitudinal gradient, indicating similar contributions by a given dimension in different environmental conditions. We highlight the importance of adopting a multidimensional approach when describing biodiversity, since richness (the proxy for taxonomic dimension), despite being the most commonly used, is an incomplete surrogate to capture the variation present in the biodiversity space of stream fish communities.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:41:16.44275-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12529
       
  • Which seed origin provides better tolerance to flooding and drought when
           restoring to face climate change'
    • Authors: Angela Bustos-Salazar; Cecilia Smith-Ramírez, Alejandra Zúñiga-Feest, Fernanda Alves, Rodrigo Ivanovich
      Abstract: Our goal was to establish the tolerance to flooding and drought of seedlings from a hydric gradient of different seed sources to provide recommendations for forest restoration in the face of climate change. We used Drimys winteri var. chilensis, a tree species that grows from extreme arid zones to wetlands along Chile, as the study subject. We expected that seedlings of xeric origin would perform better in drought conditions than populations from moist environments, and vice versa for flooding tolerance. We collected D. winteri seeds from xeric, mesic and wet environments. Seedlings at two development stages were submitted to an extreme flooding and drought treatment during 2 or 4 months in a common garden. After the flooding and drought assays finished, the number of surviving and damaged seedlings, lenticels and adventitious root presence, height, new leaves and specific leaf area, shoot/root ratio, water potential and/or chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), were recorded. We found that flooding and drought affected almost all the parameters studied negatively. The xeric population seedlings, at both development stages studied, were the most tolerant to the drought and, unexpectedly, also to the flooding treatment. We recommend restoring with seedlings of xeric origin especially in arid areas where sudden flooding is frequent, as occurs in the Andes Mountains. In the face of climate change, we recommend carrying out common garden and field studies before advising which population origin should be used for restoration, since they do not always respond in accordance with expected patterns of local adaptation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:40:50.8336-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12521
       
  • Alien and native plant seed dispersal by vehicles
    • Authors: I. Khan; S. Navie, D. George, C. O'Donnell, S. W. Adkins
      Abstract: Vehicles play a significant role in spreading plants, both in terms of quantity and quality (species). This study was conducted in Southeast Queensland to determine the role of utility vehicles in spreading seeds. These vehicles were found to carry up to 397 seeds per vehicle and in all four seasons of the year, with the majority of these species being alien to Australia and/or Queensland. The largest seed loads were found in autumn in this summer rainfall environment. Seeds were shown to attach to all parts of the vehicle, often in mud picked up from the ground, affixed directly to the engine or radiator, or carried into the cabin by the driver. Therefore, much of the seed load is to be found on the underside, on the back and front mudguards while smaller collections were found in the cabin, on the radiator and engine, and on the tyres. Fewer viable seeds were found on the engine, presumably as desiccation and heat contributed more to their death on this part of the vehicle. One method used to reduce weed seed spread by vehicles in Queensland is washing and vacuuming of vehicles. From the present study, these procedures would need to be applied to all parts of the vehicle and in all seasons of the year.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:40:33.871666-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12545
       
  • Investigating the demographics and intrapopulation spatial patterns of the
           endangered Cycas megacarpa K.D.Hill in central Queensland, Australia
    • Authors: Rohan Etherington; Bradley Jeffers, Lainie Grigg, Alex Paddock
      Abstract: Cycads are threatened globally due to land clearing and unsustainable harvesting impacting upon long-living mature plants that are essential for population viability. Cycas megacarpa K.D.Hill is an endangered cycad endemic to central Queensland, Australia. Populations of this species have been impacted by recent infrastructure projects resulting in translocation of individuals to ameliorate losses. Translocations require an understanding of the species demographics and intrapopulation spatial distributions to inform planting design. This project studied the demography and spatial patterns of a population of C. megacarpa (≈5600 individuals) within a 96.3 ha area in central Queensland to design a translocation planting that replicates a healthy population. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the demography of the population. Spatial Point Pattern Analyses (SPPA) were used to determine if the population's spatial arrangement departed from complete spatial randomness across height, gender classes and between female and juvenile cycads. We found this population to possess a 1:1 ratio of male and female cycads. However, male C. megacarpa were on average ≈0.5 m shorter than female cycads and reached reproductive maturity at shorter heights. SPPA found this population of C. megacarpa to be clustered irrespective of height or gender. A significant spatial relationship was detected between female and juvenile cycads. The results of this study suggest that to replicate a healthy C. megacarpa population, the translocated cycads could be planted in a clustered spatial pattern with known male and female individuals distributed through the clusters at a 1:1 ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:40:26.150411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12548
       
  • Rapid prioritization of alien plants for eradication based on climatic
           suitability and eradication feasibility
    • Authors: Jorge L. Renteria; Mathieu Rouget, Vernon Visser
      Abstract: Identifying which introduced species have the greatest potential for establishment, spread and impact is critical for prioritizing pre- and post-border control. Using species distribution modelling and existing species locations we assessed the establishment risk based on the climatic suitability areas of 25 plant species listed as eradication targets under South African regulations. To improve confidence, three bioclimatic models were used to predict the potential distribution of each species. This information was combined with the number of localities and the “eradication feasibility syndromes” in a scoring-categorical system to rank the species. Three management groups were identified. Group “A” includes species with medium-high establishment risk and higher likelihood to be eradicated, these species should be a priority for eradication. Group “B” includes species with a medium-low establishment risk but given the low number of known population and the species characteristics, eradication is likely to be feasible. Finally species in group “C” scored a medium-high establishment risk but the eradication would be difficult due to the high number of known localities. This ranking provides a rapid method to prioritize the management towards the eradication of new potential invasive plant species in the country combining the establishment risk, known number of localities and the inferred eradication success.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T00:05:27.986682-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12528
       
  • Estimating carbon stock in lowland Papua New Guinean forest: Low density
           of large trees results in lower than global average carbon stock
    • Authors: Mika Robert Peck; Graham S. Kaina, Richard John Hazell, Brus Isua, Clant Alok, Luda Paul, Alan J. A. Stewart
      Abstract: Papua New Guinean forests (PNG), sequestering up to 3% of global forest carbon, are a focus of climate change mitigation initiatives, yet few field-based studies have quantified forest biomass and carbon for lowland PNG forest. We provide an estimate for the 10 770 ha Wanang Conservation Area (WCA) to investigate the effect of calculation methodology and choice of allometric equation on estimates of above-ground live biomass (AGLB) and carbon. We estimated AGLB and carbon from 43 nested plots at the WCA. Our biomass estimate of 292.2 Mg AGLB ha−1 (95% CI 233.4–350.6) and carbon at 137.3 Mg C ha−1 (95% CI 109.8–164.8) is higher than most estimates for PNG but lower than mean global estimates for tropical forest. Calculation method and choice of allometric model do not significantly influence mean biomass estimates; however, the most recently calibrated allometric equation generates estimates 13% higher for lower 95% confidence intervals of mean biomass than previous allometric models – a value often used as a conservative estimate of biomass. Although large trees at WCA (>70 cm diameter at breast height) accounted for 1/5 total biomass, their density was lower than that seen in SE Asian and Australia forests. Lower density of large trees accounts for lower AGLB than in neighbouring forests – as large trees contribute disproportionately to forest biomass. Reduced frequency of larger trees at WCA is explained by the lack of diversity of large dipterocarp species common to neighbouring SE Asian forests and, potentially, higher rates of local disturbance dynamics. PNG is susceptible to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extreme drought events to which large trees are particularly sensitive and, with still over 20% carbon in large trees, differential mortality under increasing ENSO drought stress raises the risk of PNG forest switching from carbon sink to source with reduced long-term carbon storage capacity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T06:25:32.058168-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12525
       
  • Impacts of the invasive fungus Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) on
           three Australian Myrtaceae species of coastal swamp woodland
    • Authors: Laura Fernandez Winzer; Angus J. Carnegie, Geoff S. Pegg, Michelle R. Leishman
      Abstract: Exotic fungal pathogens can substantially affect individuals and populations of susceptible native plant species, potentially resulting in changes in community structure and composition. Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) is a pathogenic fungus native to South America that affects species in the plant family Myrtaceae. The pathogen was introduced accidentally to Australia and first detected in NSW in April 2010. Ecological impacts have been poorly studied in the native range of A. psidii and even less in its Australian introduced range. In order to assess the potential impact of A. psidii on coastal swamp woodland, two glasshouse experiments were conducted using three co-occurring species: Melaleuca quinquenervia, Leptospermum laevigatum and Baeckea linifolia. Plants of each species were grown individually (Experiment 1) and in mixed species assemblages (Experiment 2), with half inoculated with A. psidii and the other half remaining as controls. Infection level was assessed and impact on seedling survival and growth recorded. In both experiments L. laevigatum and M. quinquenervia seedlings were heavily infected and showed high degrees of susceptibility with negative effects on growth (height, biomass and number of leaves). In contrast, no B. linifolia seedling presented visible symptoms of disease, although seedlings showed reduced growth. Melaleuca quinquenervia seedlings had greater infection levels and suffered greater growth reductions than L. laevigatum in both experiments. However, there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of the three species in the mixed-species experiment. This study provides a better understanding of the potential impacts of A. psidii in this vegetation community and has significant implications for the conservation and management of Australian Myrtaceae-dominated plant communities generally.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:56:11.542256-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12534
       
  • Fire effects on the soil seed bank and post-fire resilience of a semi-arid
           shrubland in central Argentina
    • Authors: M. Lucrecia Lipoma; Guillermo Funes, Sandra Díaz
      Abstract: Soil seed bank is an important source of resilience of plant communities who suffered disturbances. We analysed the effect of an intense fire in the soil seed bank of a semi-arid shrubland of Córdoba Argentina. We asked if the fire affected seed abundance, floristic and functional composition of the soil seed bank at two different layers (0–5 cm and 5–10 cm), and if fire could compromise the role of the soil seed bank as a source of resilience for the vegetation. We collected soil samples from a burned site and from a control site that had not burned. Samples were installed in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. During 12 months, we recorded all germinated seedlings. We compare soil seed bank with pre-fire vegetation in terms of floristic and functional composition. The high-intensity fire deeply affected the abundance of seeds in the soil, but it did not affect its floristic or functional composition. Floristic and functional composition of soil seed banks – at burned and unburned sites- differed markedly from that of the pre-fire vegetation, although a previous study at the same site indicated high resilience after fire of this plant community. Our results indicate that resilience of this system is not strongly dependent on direct germination from seeds buried in the soil. Other sources of resilience, like colonization from neighbouring vegetation patches and resprouting from underground organs appear to gain relevance after an intense fire.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:45:27.859571-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12533
       
  • Dwarf shrub and grass vegetation resistant to long-term experimental
           warming while microarthropod abundance declines on the Falkland Islands
    • Authors: S. Bokhorst; P. Convey, A. Huiskes, R. Aerts
      Abstract: Dwarf shrubs are a dominant plant type across many regions of the Earth and have hence a large impact on carbon and nutrient cycling rates. Climate change impacts on dwarf shrubs have been extensively studied in the Northern Hemisphere, and there appears to be large variability in response between ecosystem types and regions. In the Southern Hemisphere, less data are available despite dwarf shrub vegetation being a dominant feature of southern South America and mountainous regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we present the response of an Empetrum rubrum dwarf shrub and a Poa grass community to 12 years of experimental climate manipulation achieved using open top chambers on the Falkland Islands, a cold temperate island group in the South Atlantic. The dwarf shrub and grass vegetation did not change significantly in cover, biomass or species richness over the 12 years period in response to climate warming scenarios of up to 1°C reflecting annual warming levels predicted in this region for the coming decades. The soil microarthropod community, however, responded with declines in abundance (37%) under warming conditions in the grass community, but no such changes were observed in the dwarf shrub community. Overall, our data indicate that dwarf shrub communities are resistant to the levels of climate warming predicted over the coming decades in the southern South America region and will, therefore, remain a dominant driver of local ecosystem properties.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:15:54.238958-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12527
       
  • Body size variation and sexual size dimorphism across climatic gradients
           in the widespread treefrog Scinax fuscovarius (Anura, Hylidae)
    • Authors: Javier Goldberg; Darío Cardozo, Francisco Brusquetti, Diego Bueno Villafañe, Andrea Caballero Gini, Carlos Bianchi
      Abstract: Variation in body size represents one of the crucial raw materials for evolution. However, at present, it is still being debated what is the main factor affecting body size or if the final body size is the consequence of several factors acting synergistically. To evaluate this, widespread species seem to be suitable models because the different populations occur along a geographical gradient and under contrasted climatic and environmental conditions. Here we describe the spatial pattern of variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism in the snouted treefrog Scinax fuscovarius (Anura, Hylidae) along a 10° range in latitude, 25° longitude, and 2000 m in altitude from Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay using an information-theoretic approach to evaluate the support of the data for eight a priori hypotheses proposed in the literature to account for geographical body size, and three hypotheses for sexual size dimorphism variation. Body size of S. fuscovarius varied most dramatically with longitude and less so with latitude; frogs were largest in the northwestern populations. Body size was positively related with precipitation seasonality, and negatively with annual precipitation. Furthermore, the degree of sexual size dimorphism was greatest in the western populations with less annual precipitation, as the increase in body size was stronger for females. Our results on body size variation are consistent with two ecogeographical hypotheses, the starvation resistance and the water availability hypotheses, while our results on sexual size dimorphism in S. fuscovarius supports the differential-plasticity hypothesis but the inverse to Rensch's rule and the parental investment hypothesis. Due to the weak association between environmental variables and body size and sexual size dimorphism variation, we stress that there are other factors, mainly those related to the life history, driving the geographical variation of S. fuscovarius.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:15:25.838215-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12532
       
  • Responses of aquatic food webs to the addition of structural complexity
           and basal resource diversity in degraded Neotropical streams
    • Authors: Mônica Ceneviva-Bastos; Carmen G. Montaña, Christopher M. Schalk, Plínio B. Camargo, Lilian Casatti
      Abstract: The loss of riparian forests can disrupt the structure and function of lotic ecosystems through increased habitat homogenization and decreased resource diversity. We conducted a field experiment and manipulated structural complexity and basal resource diversity to determine their effect on multiple aspects of community and food-web structure of degraded tropical streams. In-stream manipulations included the addition of woody debris (WD) and the addition of wood and leaf packs (WLP). The addition of structural complexity to degraded streams promoted detritus retention and had a positive effect on stream taxonomic richness, abundance and biomass. At the conclusion of the experiment, abundance and richness in the WD-treated reaches increased by over 110% and 80%, respectively, while abundance and richness in the WLP-treated reaches increased by over 280% and 170% respectively. Wood debris and leaves were consumed only by few taxa. Detritivorous taxa were the most abundant trophic guild at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Food webs in treated reaches were relatively more complex in terms of links and species at the conclusion of the experiment, with highest maximum food chain length in the WD treatments and highest number of trophic species, links, link density, predators and prey at the WLP treatment. Despite differences observed in diet-based food webs, there was little variation in isotopic niche space, likely due to the high degree of omnivory and trophic redundancy, which was attributed to the importance of fine detritus that supported a broad range of consumers. Even in these degraded streams, aquatic taxa responded to the addition of increased complexity suggesting that these efforts may be an effective first step to restoring the structure and function of these food webs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T00:51:25.21182-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12518
       
  • The distribution of vascular epiphytes over gradients of light and
           humidity in north-east Australian rainforest
    • Authors: Jennifer C. Sanger; Jamie B. Kirkpatrick
      Abstract: Microclimatic conditions have a strong influence on the distribution of vascular epiphytes, among which orchids often occur in sunnier and more drought-prone situations than ferns. However, very few studies have looked at the distribution of ferns and orchids in Australian tropical rainforests. By using transmitted light measurements at the locations of individual epiphytes and vapour pressure deficit from the canopy and base of host trees, we were able to determine the patterns of light and humidity in the rainforest environment, and the responses of ferns and orchids to variation in the physical environments. We surveyed five sites, ranging from 800 to 1180 m in elevation in the lower montane rainforests of north-east Australia. Data loggers recorded the vapour pressure deficit (VPD) at the forest floor and canopy of each site. Light was correlated with height within the host tree and VPD differed significantly over position in the host tree and elevation. There was a strong partitioning of taxonomic groups over the light and VPD gradients. Orchids occurred in environments that had higher mean light levels and mean daily maximum VPD (27% and 0.43 kPa, respectively) than ferns (21% and 0.28 kPa). There was also strong microclimatic partitioning of species within taxonomic groups, suggesting that microclimatic factors play an important role in the realized niche spaces of epiphytes within the tropical Australian rainforest. Thus, the tested ecological generalizations made on tropical rainforest epiphytes apply in Australia.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T00:40:31.889662-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12526
       
  • No signs of Na+/K+-ATPase adaptations to an invasive exotic toxic prey in
           native squamate predators
    • Authors: Kimberly Pinch; Thomas Madsen, Beata Ujvari
      Abstract: Invasions by exotic toxic prey, like the release of the South American cane toad (Bufo (Rhinella) marinus) to the toad-free Australian continent in 1935, have been shown to result in massive declines in native predator numbers. Due to minor nucleotide mutations of the Na+/K+-ATPase gene most Australian squamate predators are highly susceptible to cane toad toxin. However, in spite of this, predators like yellow-spotted goannas (Varanus panoptes) and red-bellied black snakes (Pseudechis porhyriacus) still persist in parts of Queensland where they, in some areas, have co-existed with cane toads for more than 70 years. Here, we show that the amino acids of the Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme in the two species do not provide toad toxin resistance, and hence the two Queensland predators are still highly susceptible to cane toad toxin. Both yellow-spotted goannas and lace monitors (Varanus varius) have, however, been recorded avoiding feeding on cane toads in areas where they co-exist with this toxic amphibian. Moreover, both varanids have also been shown to learn to avoid feeding on toads when first subjected to conditioned taste aversion. Such behavioural shifts may therefore explain why yellow-spotted goannas and red-bellied black snakes still exist in cane toad infested areas of Queensland. The process appears, however, to be unable to rapidly restore varanid populations to pre-toad population numbers as even after 10 years of co-existence with cane toads in the Northern Territory, we see no signs of an increase in yellow-spotted goanna numbers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T00:05:56.670281-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12520
       
  • Addendum
    • PubDate: 2017-08-21T02:10:19.252038-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12535
       
  • Acacia saligna's soil legacy effects persist up to 10 years after
           clearing: Implications for ecological restoration
    • Authors: Mlungele M. Nsikani; Ana Novoa, Brian W. Wilgen, Jan-Hendrik Keet, Mirijam Gaertner
      Abstract: To reduce the negative impacts of invasive plants, management interventions such as control or eradication are usually necessary. It is often assumed that the impacts of invasive plants will diminish immediately after such interventions. However, in some cases the invader can have legacy effects in the soil that might persist for long periods, preventing the natural restoration of the areas managed. Therefore, to achieve the re-establishment of a functional native ecosystem it is important to understand for how long such legacies can persist in the soil. This paper explores this issue, using Acacia saligna in South Africa as case study. We collected soil samples in invaded, non-invaded and previously invaded sites (representing 2, 6 and 10 years after clearing) and analysed the levels of pH, carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and electrical conductivity. We also analysed enzyme activities (β-1,4-glucosidase, urease and acid phosphatase). Acacia saligna invasion alters overall soil characteristics but specifically raises pH by 0.6–1.8. Moreover, soil characteristics (e.g. pH) are not restored to natural conditions after control (soil legacy effects persist up to 10 years after clearing). Furthermore, A. saligna control elevates soil NO3− levels and these can remain higher than in invaded (1.55–6.67 mg kg−1) and non-invaded (2.16–4.35 mg kg−1) sites up to 10 years after clearing. Elevated NO3− often facilitates secondary invasion and/or weedy native species dominance which may hinder the restoration of functional native ecosystems. Therefore, strategies to manage areas previously invaded by A. saligna should take into account the removal of litter from the target invader, secondary invaders and weedy native species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T00:55:28.499486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12515
       
  • Consequences of disperser behaviour for seedling establishment of a
           mistletoe species
    • Authors: Guillermo C. Amico; Yamila Sasal, Romina Vidal-Russell, Marcelo A. Aizen, Juan Manuel Morales
      Abstract: The dispersal process in plants links adults and their offspring. For frugivore-dispersed plants, animal behaviour can have a strong effect on plant fitness. Many mistletoes are totally dependent on animals that deposit seeds on suitable hosts and particular branch diameters. We characterised the seed dispersal and seedling establishment of the mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus, which at our study site, is exclusively dispersed by the marsupial Dromiciops gliroides. Mistletoes’ fruits have a viscous pulp that remains in the seed even after dispersal. This substance adheres the seed to the host branch. We estimated host branch availability in the forest and seed deposition (faeces) by the marsupial in the study area. Specifically, the branch suitability factors we assessed were host identity, branch status (alive or dead), branch diameter, height, and canopy cover. Lodged faeces were individually marked and the number of seed deposited within these droppings was counted, and we recorded the number of seedlings with true leaves that had established after 1 year to estimate the probability of seedling establishment. Branch diameter and canopy cover had a significant positive effect on seed deposition probability. Seedling establishment probability decreased with the number of seeds deposited per faeces and with canopy cover. In general, the marsupial deposited mistletoe seeds in microsites that increase the chance of seedling establishment. Thus, the movement behaviour of the marsupial has a positive effect on the regeneration process of this mistletoe species.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T03:35:44.740323-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12517
       
  • Does the morphology of animal foraging pits influence secondary seed
           dispersal by ants'
    • Authors: Gabriella N. Radnan; David J. Eldridge
      Abstract: Secondary seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory) is an important process in semi-arid environments where seeds are transported from the soil surface to an ant nest. Microsites from which ants often remove seeds are the small pits and depressions made by native and exotic animals that forage in the soil. Previous studies have demonstrated greater seed retention in the pits of native than exotic animals, but little is known about how biotic factors such as secondary seed dispersal by ants affect seed removal and therefore retention in these foraging pits. We used an experimental approach to examine how the morphology of burrowing bettong (Bettongia lesueur), greater bilby (Macrotis lagotis), short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) foraging pits and ant body size influenced ant locomotion and seed removal from pits along an aridity gradient. Ants took 3.7-times longer to emerge from echidna pits (19.6 s) and six-times longer to emerge from bettong pits (30.5 s) than from rabbit pits (5.2 s), resulting in lower seed removal from bettong pits than other pit types. Fewer seeds were removed from pits when cages were used to exclude large body-sized (>2 mm) ants. Few seeds were removed from the pits or surface up to aridity values of 0.5 (humid and dry sub-humid), but removal increased rapidly in semi-arid and arid zones. Our study demonstrates that mammal foraging pit morphology significantly affects ant locomotion, the ability of ants to retrieve seeds, and therefore the likelihood that seeds will be retained within foraging pits.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T02:41:18.008519-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12519
       
  • Defining the fire trap: Extension of the persistence equilibrium model in
           mesic savannas
    • Authors: Michelle E. Freeman; Peter A. Vesk, Brett P. Murphy, Garry D. Cook, Anna E. Richards, Richard J. Williams
      Abstract: Mesic savannas are dominated by trees that are strong resprouters caught in a frequent fire trap. Persistence within this fire trap has been described by a resprout curve of SizeNext ~ f(Pre-fire size), defined by the Michaelis-Menten function. A key feature of this resprout curve is a stable persistence equilibrium that represents the size of individual plants upon which a population will converge over successive inter-fire time steps under a given fire regime. Here, we contend that such a resprout curve does not adequately describe resprout tree dynamics in frequently burnt mesic savannas because it is constrained to an asymptote. We propose a new framework for modelling the resprout curve, which recognizes that local environmental stochasticity and growth patterns can interact to change the growth response function entirely, and thus more readily reflect the range of feasible resprout responses. Importantly, we define an unstable equilibrium representing the size above which individuals have escaped the fire trap and explore mechanisms that can shift an individual from persistence to escape. Through a case study from northern Australia, we confirm that our framework provides a simple yet practical approach to defining these critical aspects of savanna tree growth dynamics: persistence and escape.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T02:35:54.350309-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12516
       
  • Fine-scale drivers of beetle diversity are affected by vegetation context
           and agricultural history
    • Authors: Catherine E. Ross; Philip S. Barton, Sue McIntyre, Saul A. Cunningham, Adrian D. Manning
      Abstract: Environmental gradients have been shown to affect animal diversity, but knowledge of fine-scale drivers of insect diversity is, in many cases, poorly developed. We investigated the drivers of beetle diversity and composition at different microhabitats, and how this may be mediated by past agricultural activities. The study was undertaken in temperate eucalypt grassy woodland near Canberra, south-eastern Australia, with a 200-year history of pastoral land use. We sampled beetles using pitfall traps at three microhabitats (open grassland, logs and under trees). We analysed the effects of soil properties, vegetation structure, and plant composition on beetle composition, and compared beetle responses among the microhabitats. We found that microhabitat was a strong determinant of the way beetle communities responded to their environment. Soil nutrients (C, N and P) were the strongest drivers of beetle species richness, abundance and composition at open and log microhabitat, however vegetation structure (tree basal area) was more important for beetle richness, abundance and biomass under trees. We also found significant differences in beetle composition among distinct ground-layer plant communities at log and tree microhabitat. We show that prior agricultural land use, particularly fertilization, has altered soil and plant communities, and that these effects continue to flow through the system affecting beetle assemblages. These findings have implications for future management of microhabitat structures in temperate grassy woodlands with a history of agricultural use.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T23:40:27.537498-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12506
       
  • Mutualism influences species distribution predictions for a
           bromeliad-breeding anuran under climate change
    • Authors: Tiago Silveira Vasconcelos; Caio Pastana Antonelli, Marcelo Felgueiras Napoli
      Abstract: Ecological niche models, or species distribution models, have been widely used to identify potentially suitable areas for species in future climate change scenarios. However, there are inherent errors to these models due to their inability to evaluate species occurrence influenced by non-climatic factors. With the intuit to improve the modelling predictions for a bromeliad-breeding treefrog (Phyllodytes melanomystax, Hylidae), we investigate how the climatic suitability of bromeliads influences the distribution model for the treefrog in the context of baseline and 2050 climate change scenarios. We used point occurrence data on the frog and the bromeliad (Vriesea procera, Bromeliaceae) to generate their predicted distributions based on baseline and 2050 climates. Using a consensus of five algorithms, we compared the accuracy of the models and the geographic predictions for the frog generated from two modelling procedures: (i) a climate-only model for P. melanomystax and V. procera; and (ii) a climate-biotic model for P. melanomystax, in which the climatic suitability of the bromeliad was jointly considered with the climatic variables. Both modelling approaches generated strong and similar predictive power for P. melanomystax, yet climate-biotic modelling generated more concise predictions, particularly for the year 2050. Specifically, because the predicted area of the bromeliad overlaps with the predictions for the treefrog in the baseline climate, both modelling approaches produce reasonable similar predicted areas for the anuran. Alternatively, due to the predicted loss of northern climatically suitable areas for the bromeliad by 2050, only the climate-biotic models provide evidence that northern populations of P. melanomystax will likely be negatively affected by 2050.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T06:15:53.075496-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12509
       
  • Growth races in The Mallee: Height growth in woody plants examined with a
           trait-based model
    • Authors: Freya M. Thomas; Peter A. Vesk
      Abstract: Plant height and growth are fundamental to the understanding of species ecological strategies, to the description and prediction of ecosystem dynamics and to vegetation management, such as plant species’ fire responses. However, a convenient way to characterize the height growth strategies for multiple species have been elusive. We examine the height growth trajectories in 18 woody plant species in a light-saturated, fire-prone, semi-arid environment as well as the influence of functional traits on those trajectories. We test trait-growth relationships by examining the influence of specific leaf area, woody density, seed size and leaf nitrogen content on three aspects of plant growth; maximum relative growth rate, age at maximum growth and asymptotic height. Woody plant species in the semi-arid mallee exhibit fast growth trajectories. Small seeded species were likely to be the fastest to reach maximum height, while large-seeded species with high leaf nitrogen were likely the slowest. Tall species had low stem densities and tended to have low specific leaf area. We modelled plant growth using a hierarchical multi-species model that formally incorporates plant functional traits as species-level predictors of growth, which provides a method for predicting species height growth strategies as a function of their traits. We extend this approach by using the modelled relationships from our trait-growth model to predict: growth trajectories of species with limited data; real species with only trait data and; hypothetical species based only on trait coordination. We hope this highlights the potential to use trait information for ecological inference and to generate predictions that could be used for management.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T06:40:32.165335-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12501
       
  • Measuring the effects of reduced snow cover on Australia's alpine
           arthropods
    • Authors: Rachel A. Slatyer; Michael A. Nash, Ary A. Hoffmann
      Abstract: Snow is one of the most important factors in the ecology of alpine ecosystems. In Australia, both the depth and duration of snow cover have declined significantly in recent decades and this trend is projected to continue with global warming. Many small arthropods remain active throughout the winter, within a space beneath the snowpack (subnivean) where the snow's insulation creates a thermally stable environment. Using field surveys and experimental manipulation of snow depth at two locations in the Australian alpine region, we explored the diversity of winter-active arthropods and their response to reduced snow. Individuals from 18 arthropod Orders were detected beneath the snow during winter, with Collembola, Araneae, Acari and Coleoptera accounting for 95–98% of the individuals collected. The subnivean taxa represented a distinct subset of those active outside the winter months. Removal of the snow layer increased daily temperature fluctuations, increased the number of days below freezing and raised the mean surface temperatures. Community composition was altered by snow removal, driven by changes in the numbers of two abundant springtail taxa at each location. We found a strong reduction in the abundances of both taxa at one study site, and contrasting responses (one strong positive and one strong negative) to snow removal at the second study site. Subnivean arthropod communities in Australia thus appear sensitive to snow conditions at small spatial scales.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T02:45:39.677676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12507
       
  • Movements and habitat use of the night parrot Pezoporus occidentalis in
           south-western Queensland
    • Authors: Stephen A. Murphy; Jennifer Silcock, Rachel Murphy, Julian Reid, Jeremy J. Austin
      Abstract: The nocturnal, cryptic and geographically remote nature of night parrots, combined with their apparent rapid decline, means that very little is known of their biology or ecology. The discovery of a resident population in south-western Queensland in 2013 provides the first opportunity to undertake detailed studies on this most enigmatic of birds. We attached a radio tag to a bird for 20 days in April 2015 and a GPS tag to another bird for 5 days in May 2016 to study movement patterns and habitat use. Both birds displayed similar behaviour but the GPS-tagging provided a much finer resolution of spatial data. They called at dusk from their diurnal roosts amongst spinifex hummocks and then flew to more floristically diverse habitats dominated by large-seeded species to feed. We conducted floristic surveys to describe the feeding grounds of the GPS-tagged bird and make dietary inferences. This individual spent most of its time in highly diverse but ephemeral habitats, including seasonally inundated plains and depressions associated with the outer Diamantina floodplain and gilgais on ironstone plains. Prolifically seeding ephemeral species, most notably the annual grass Uranthoecium truncatum, dominate these feeding grounds. This work suggests that the habitat mosaic containing roost sites in close proximity to feeding grounds with key seed-producing species is an important factor, rather than an association with spinifex or samphire alone. Further work is needed to examine movement patterns and habitat use in more typical dry seasons and the impact of cattle grazing on night parrot feeding areas, particularly with regard to seed production. The information presented here is vital for both in situ conservation of the Pullen-Pullen-Mt Windsor-Diamantina population and for setting future research and survey priorities.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T02:40:51.91572-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12508
       
  • Influence of sedimentation in the absence of macrograzers on recruitment
           of an annual population of Macrocystis pyrifera in Metri Bay, Chile
    • Authors: Arley F. Muth; Eduardo A. Henríquez-Tejo, Alejandro H. Buschmann
      Abstract: The effects of sedimentation and substrate orientation on algal and sessile invertebrate assemblages were tested on an annual population of Macrocystis pyrifera in Metri Bay, southern Chile. In the laboratory, M. pyrifera zoospores were seeded on Crepipatella fecunda shells, the primary substrate for M. pyrifera in this system. The seeded shells were deployed at Metri Bay inside cages and were orientated vertically and horizontally under two sedimentation regimes (bottom and suspended). Due to differences in grazer accessibility and the species present between the sedimentation treatments, grazers (>1 cm) were excluded. We followed sporophyte development of M. pyrifera and the natural recruitment of other algal and invertebrate species. Sedimentation rates were significantly higher in the cages attached to the bottom compared to suspended cages (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T00:40:33.165532-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12496
       
  • The secondary invasion of giant African land snail has little impact on
           litter or seedling dynamics in rainforest
    • Authors: Luke S. O'loughlin; Peter T. Green
      Abstract: In the absence of empirical evidence, invasive species are often assumed to have negative impacts because of their conspicuously high abundance. The giant African land snail Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica is one such invader where its impact in natural ecosystems remains completely untested. On Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), A. fulica has become established across large tracts of rainforest following the impacts of invasive yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) in mutualism with non-native scale insects. Yellow crazy ants facilitate the secondary invasion of A. fulica by extirpating native red land crabs (Gecarcoidea natalis) that are normally effective predators of A. fulica. We used a multifaceted approach to investigate some potential impacts of abundant A. fulica in invaded rainforest. Over the course of a wet season, diel activity transects showed that A. fulica consumed detrital material almost exclusively. However, stable isotope analysis did not confidently identify A. fulica as a predominantly detritivorous species. We found no statistically significant treatment effects of A. fulica exclusion on standing leaf litter and seedling recruitment processes during a 6-month manipulative field study. However, litter cover and biomass did remain slightly higher where A. fulica were excluded, albeit with overlapping confidence intervals with control plots. Our study constitutes the first empirical test for impact of A. fulica in a natural ecosystem and suggests that for Christmas Island rainforest, this species is not a damaging invader. Other studies will need to assess the impacts of A. fulica in other natural areas before these findings could be considered broadly applicable.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T06:42:34.872992-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12504
       
  • Root proliferation strategies and exploration of soil patchiness in arid
           communities
    • Authors: Maria Fernanda Reyes; Martín Roberto Aguiar
      Abstract: Soil patchiness is a key feature of arid rangelands. As root proliferation contributes to soil exploration and resource uptake, it is ecologically relevant to understand how species respond to soil heterogeneity and coexist. Campbell et al.'s influential 1991 hypothesis proposes that dominant species deploy root systems (scale) that maximize soil volume explored. Instead, subordinate species show accurate root systems that exclusively proliferate in nutrient-rich patches (precision). After many experiments under controlled conditions, the generality of this hypothesis has been questioned but a field perspective is necessary to increase realism in the conceptual framework. We worked with a guild of perennial graminoid species inside a grazing exclosure in an arid Patagonian steppe, a model system for ecological studies in arid rangelands for four decades. We buried root traps in bare ground patches with sieved soil, with or without a pulse of nitrogen addition, to measure specific root biomass and precision at 6 and 18 months after burial. We also estimated scale (root density) in naturally established plants, and root decomposition in litter bags. Several species grew in root traps. Dominant species showed the highest root biomass (in both harvests) and scale. Subordinate species grew more frequently with nitrogen addition and showed lower biomass and scale. Similar total root biomass was found with and without nitrogen addition. Species differed in root decomposition, but correcting species biomass by decomposition did not change our conclusions. We did not find a relation between scale and precision, indicating that Campbell's hypothesis is probably not supported in this Patagonian steppe. Soil resource acquisition differences probably do not utterly explain the coexistence of dominant and subordinate species because the steppe is also affected by large herbivore grazing. We propose that root proliferation in this steppe is the result of the interaction between individual density in the community and specific root growth rates.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:00:54.285514-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12503
       
  • Agropastoral activities increase fluctuating asymmetry in tadpoles of two
           neotropical anuran species
    • Authors: Renan N. Costa; Mirco Solé, Fausto Nomura
      Abstract: Agriculture and pasture activities are the main drivers for habitat reduction, directly affecting amphibian assemblages. In the Cerrado, the progress of agricultural and pasture areas negatively affects aquatic environments and their organisms, once the suppression of marginal vegetation reduces the natural protection against allochtone stressors. One possible way to measure the stress level is the Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA), which is calculated based on the deviations in the development of bilateral morphological traits of the organism. Herein, we evaluated whether environments with a higher degree of agropastoral influence and reduced marginal vegetation can increase FA levels in tadpoles of two common and widely distributed anuran species in the Cerrado (Physalaemus cuvieri and Scinax fuscomarginatus). We sampled and classified water bodies according to the percentage of agropastoral land use and marginal vegetation, and measured four morphological traits of tadpoles to evaluate the degree of FA. We found that in environments with intensive agropastoral land use, tadpoles of P. cuvieri and S. fuscomarginatus had higher FA in nostril-snout distance (NSD). In environments with reduced marginal vegetation, tadpoles of S. fuscomarginatus had higher FA in eye width (EW), but no effect was detected for tadpoles of P. cuvieri. These morphological traits (i.e. nostrils and eyes) are associated to individual fitness of tadpoles. Thus, these developmental deviations can affect species fitness and population homeostasis over time, contributing to generate stochastic population dynamics and increasing the vulnerability of native species to local extinctions. The use of FA as a tool to measure environmental impact on species with potential to be used as bioindicators can contribute to generate and test hypothesis when integrated with long-term studies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T04:10:47.218553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12502
       
  • Variable rainfall has a greater effect than fire on the demography of the
           dominant tree in a semi-arid Eucalyptus savanna
    • Authors: Roderick J. Fensham; Michelle E. Freeman, Boris Laffineur, Harry Macdermott, Lynda D. Prior, Patricia A. Werner
      Abstract: Rainfall, fire and competition are emphasized as determinants of the density and basal area of woody vegetation in savanna. The semi-arid savannas of Australia have substantial multi-year rainfall deficits and insufficient grass fuel to carry annual fire in contrast to the mesic savannas in more northern regions. This study investigates the influence of rainfall deficit and excess, fire and woody competition on the population dynamics of a dominant tree in a semi-arid savanna. All individuals of Eucalyptus melanophloia were mapped and monitored in three, 1-ha plots over an 8.5 year period encompassing wet and dry periods. The plots were unburnt, burnt once and burnt twice. A competition index incorporating the size and distance of neighbours to target individuals was determined. Supplementary studies examined seedling recruitment and the transition of juvenile trees into the sapling layer. Mortality of burnt seedlings was related to lignotuber area but the majority of seedlings are fire resistant within 12 months of germination. Most of the juveniles (≤1 cm dbh) of E. melanophloia either died in the dry period or persisted as juveniles throughout 8.5 years of monitoring. Mortality of juveniles was positively related to woody competition and was higher in the dry period than the wet period. The transition of juveniles to a larger size class occurred at extremely low rates, and a subsidiary study along a clearing boundary suggests release from woody competition allows transition into the sapling layer. From three fires the highest proportion of saplings (1–10 cm dbh) reduced to juveniles was only 5.6% suggesting rates of ‘top-kill’ of E. melanophloia as a result of fire are relatively low. Girth growth was enhanced in wet years, particularly for larger trees (>10 cm dbh), but all trees regardless of size or woody competition levels are vulnerable to drought-induced mortality. Overall the results suggest that variations in rainfall, especially drought-induced mortality, have a much stronger influence on the tree demographics of E. melanophloia in a semi-arid savanna of north-eastern Australia than fire.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T04:40:26.000832-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12495
       
  • Veligers of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei in the diet of
           indigenous fish larvae in a eutrophic subtropical reservoir
    • Authors: Esteban M. Paolucci; Valentín Leites, Daniel H. Cataldo, Demetrio Boltovskoy
      Abstract: Larval fish development depends largely on their ability to capture and ingest food items, and on food availability. In this context, invasive species, eutrophication and river impoundments have complex impacts on fish larvae. Using samples collected in 2005–2009 in the Salto Grande reservoir (Argentina–Uruguay), periodically affected by cyanobacterial blooms, we studied the impact of the larvae of the exotic bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Bivalvia) on larval fish diets. Compared with other nearby waterbodies, the abundance of fish larvae was scarcer in the reservoir, especially during algal bloom periods. Only 20% of the larval fish with gut contents fed on L. fortunei veligers. Seven fish taxa (of a total of 12) consumed veligers of L. fortunei, but only two showed a preference for this prey. Taxonomic changes in the larval fish assemblages due to the river's impoundment, and temporal uncoupling between veliger densities (affected by the toxigenic effects of Microcystis spp.) and ichthyoplankton could account for the comparatively low trophic importance of the invasive bivalve's veligers. These results reflect the complexity of interactions brought about when the same invasive species invades different environments, underscoring that the impacts involved depend as much on the invader, as on the regional and ecological settings of the area invaded.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:05:49.21086-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12493
       
  • Recent invasion of European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on to Fraser Island
           (K'gari) and South Stradbroke Island
    • Authors: Benjamin L. Allen; Linda Behrendorff, Lyn Willsher, Janina Kaluza, Jane Oakey
      Abstract: Invasive predators are globally significant drivers of threatened fauna population decline and extinction, and the early detection of new incursions is critical to the chances of successful predator eradication and fauna conservation. Here, we provide evidence of the recent invasion of European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on to two large and internationally significant islands off the southeast coast of Queensland, Australia – Fraser Island (K'gari) and South Stradbroke Island. From camera trap footage collected on Fraser Island since 2009, foxes have now been observed on seven different occasions between 2012 and 2016. Two scats collected on South Stradbroke Island in 2013 and 2014 tested positive for fox DNA (and negative for Canis spp. DNA), with fox presence confirmed by subsequent camera trap footage in 2016. These data confirm the recent incursion of foxes on to these islands and suggest that small populations now exist there. Fraser Island and South Stradbroke Island represent key RAMSAR wetland areas of refuge for populations of multiple threatened fauna that have never been previously been exposed to foxes. Fox impacts on these fauna can only be expected to increase without management intervention to eradicate them before they become widespread.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:40:50.171905-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12494
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 751 - 751
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T02:37:42.760145-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12444
       
 
 
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