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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1265 journals)
    - HISTORY (798 journals)
    - History (General) (51 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (47 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (54 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AREAS (7 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (162 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (122 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (24 journals)

HISTORY (798 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 452 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Acadiensis : Journal of the History of the Atlantic Region / Acadiensis : revue d'histoire de la region Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Accounting History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Historiae Artium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Orientalia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Actes d'Història de la Ciència i de la Tècnica     Open Access  
Advances in Historical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Africa Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
African Diaspora     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Almagest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Archivist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Jewish History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Nineteenth Century History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Periodicals : A Journal of History, Criticism, and Bibliography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Amérique Latine Histoire et Mémoire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur alteren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur neueren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analecta Bollandiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anales de Historia del Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anglican Historical Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales historiques de la Révolution française     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annales UMCS, Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza di Firenze     Hybrid Journal  
Annuaire de l'Ecole pratique des hautes etudes. Section des sciences historiques et philologiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Antike und Abendland     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Antiteses     Open Access  
Anuario de Estudios Atlánticos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ARAM Periodical     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Araucaria. Revista Iberoamericana de Filosofía, Política y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Architectural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Arenal. Revista de historia de las mujeres     Open Access  
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Arthuriana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arys: Antigüedad, Religiones y Sociedades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aschkenas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Asia-Pacific Journal : Japan Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aspasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Astérion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ateliê de História UEPG     Open Access  
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Australasian Journal of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 4)
Australian Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australian Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australian Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Balkanologie : Revue d'Études Pluridisciplinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic-Pontic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BIBLOS - Revista do Departamento de Biblioteconomia e História     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch für Antike und Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Book History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 112)
Boom : A Journal of California     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Britain and the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
British Journal of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
British Mycological Society Symposia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin d'histoire politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de la Sabix     Open Access  
Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin d’études Orientales     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Hispanic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Latin American Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Spanish Studies: Hispanic Studies and Researches on Spain, Portugal and Latin America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Byzantinische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Byzantion Nea Hellás     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
C@hiers du CRHIDI     Open Access  
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cadernos de História     Open Access  
CADUS - Revista de Estudos de Política, História e Cultura     Open Access  
Cahiers d'histoire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers d'histoire. Revue d'histoire critique     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers des études anciennes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cahiers du Centre de recherches historiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cahiers du Monde Russe     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cahiers d’études africaines     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cahiers « Mondes anciens »     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La revue canadienne de linguistique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Review of American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian-American Slavic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central Asian Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chaucer Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Childhood in the Past : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Studies in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chronica Nova. Revista de Historia Moderna de la Universidad de Granada     Open Access  
Chronique d'Egypte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Church History and Religious Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Civil War History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cleveland Studies in the History of Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CLIO : Revista de Pesquisa Histórica     Open Access  
Clio y Asociados     Open Access  
Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cliodynamics     Open Access  
Collections électroniques de l'INHA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Collingwood and British Idealism Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Colonial Latin American Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Comitatus : A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Comparative Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Comptabilités     Open Access  
Concorso. Arti e lettere     Open Access  
Conservative Judaism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Conserveries mémorielles     Open Access  
Contemporaneity : Historical Presence in Visual Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Arab Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary British History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Contemporary French and Francophone Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Convivium     Full-text available via subscription  
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Historical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cromohs : Cyber Review of Modern Historiography     Open Access  
Crossing Borders : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de Historia Moderna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Ilustración y Romanticismo     Open Access  
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultura Histórica & Patrimônio     Open Access  
Cultural and Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultures & conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cultures et conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Czech-Polish Historical and Pedagogical Journal     Open Access  
Dapim : Studies on the Holocaust     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Das Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
De Arte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Austral Ecology
  [SJR: 1.095]   [H-I: 66]   [12 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1442-9985 - ISSN (Online) 1442-9993
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1616 journals]
  • Climate Change Adaptation Plan for Australian Birds Stephen T. Garnett and
           Donald C. Franklin, eds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, 2014. viii +
           272 pp. Price AUD $69.95 (paperback). ISBN 9780643108028.
    • Authors: Nick J. Mooney
      PubDate: 2017-03-12T19:56:39.006339-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12409
       
  • Fynbos: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation of a Megadiverse Region Nicky
           Allsopp, Jonathan F. Colville and G. Anthony Verboom. Oxford University
           Press, Oxford, 2014. xiii + 382 pp. Price A$133.95 (hardcover). ISBN
           9780199679584.
    • Authors: Suzanne M. Schibeci
      PubDate: 2017-03-12T19:56:35.824182-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12372
       
  • Environmental and spatial drivers of spider diversity at contrasting
           microhabitats
    • Authors: Philip S. Barton; Maldwyn J. Evans, Claire N. Foster, Saul A. Cunningham, Adrian D. Manning
      Abstract: The relative importance of environmental and spatial drivers of animal diversity varies across scales, but identifying these scales can be difficult if a sampling design does not match the scale of the target organisms' interaction with their habitat. In this study, we quantify and compare the effects of environmental variation and spatial proximity on ground-dwelling spider assemblages sampled from three distinct microhabitat types (open grassland, logs, trees) that recur across structurally heterogeneous grassy woodlands. We used model selection and multivariate procedures to compare the effects of different environmental attributes and spatial proximity on spider assemblages at each microhabitat type. We found that species richness and assemblage composition differed among microhabitat types. Bare ground cover had a negative effect on spider richness under trees, but a positive effect on spider richness in open grassland. Turnover in spider assemblages from open grassland was correlated with environmental distance, but not geographic distance. By contrast, turnover in spiders at logs and trees was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance. Our study suggests that spider assemblages from widespread and connected open grassland habitat were more affected by environmental than spatial gradients, whereas spiders at log and tree habitats were more affected by spatial distance among these discrete but recurring microhabitats. Deliberate selection and sampling of small-scale habitat features can provide robust information about the drivers of arthropod diversity and turnover in landscapes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-05T21:55:33.744213-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12488
       
  • Extreme specialization to rocky habitats in Tropidurus lizards from
           Brazil: Trade-offs between a fitted ecomorph and autoecology in a harsh
           environment
    • Authors: Nicolás Pelegrin; Daniel Oliveira Mesquita, Pâmela Albinati, Francis Luiz Santos Caldas, Lucas Barbosa de Queiroga Cavalcanti, Tais Borges Costa, Diego Alejandro Falico, Jéssica Yara A. Galdino, Derek B. Tucker, Adrian Antonio Garda
      Abstract: Ecomorphological theory indicates that different ecological requirements lead to different organismal designs. Given that species with equal requirements could not coexist, traits leading to more efficient use of resources may be selected to avoid competition among closely related syntopic species, generating specialized ecomorphs. We compared habitat use, diet, thermal biology and morphology among the syntopic Tropidurus semitaeniatus, T. helenae and T. hispidus in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil. Tropidurus semitaeniatus and T. helenae are flattened lizards specialized to rocks and rock crevices, whereas T. hispidus has a robust body and generalist habits. We aimed to test the hypothesis that morphological modifications observed in the flattened ecomorphs are related to modifications in diet and habitat use. Also, we hypothesized that specialization to habitat induces morphological modifications, which in turn may constrain lizard performance. Flattened species differed in habitat use, morphology and prey size when compared with the generalist ecomorph. Morphological modifications were related to specializations to rocky habitats and constrained the variety of prey items consumed. This phenotype also reduced their reproductive output when compared with a robust, generalist ecomorph.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T22:35:45.146783-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12486
       
  • Establishment of native grasses and their impact on exotic annuals in
           degraded box gum woodlands
    • Authors: Ian Cole; Suzanne Prober, Ian Lunt, Terry Koen
      Abstract: Restoration goals often involve the addition of new species to resident, degraded communities but in box gum woodlands such restoration is often constrained by competition from persistent exotic annuals that control critical ecological processes. Nutrient reduction (via carbon addition) and seed bank depletion are two approaches to reduce competition from exotic annuals but to be effective these treatments must allow establishment of species such as native grasses. This experiment was conducted in two degraded Austrostipa understoreys in the box gum woodlands of south-east Australia. It compares the effects of carbon addition (sugar), seed depletion (spring burning or spring grazing) and combinations of carbon addition and seed depletion treatments on the establishment of C3 and C4 native grasses, and measured the effects of their establishment on soil nitrate concentration and exotic annuals. Treatments that reduced exotic annual abundance did not increase initial germination of the C4 native grasses, Bothriochloa or Themeda. However, sugar increased seedling survival of Themeda and Bothriochloa and grazing increased seedling survival of Bothriochloa, presumably by reducing effects of exotic annuals. Poa and Rytidosperma (C3 native grasses) failed to establish. Although we were unable to detect any reduction in soil nitrate concentration, swards with successful recruitment of C4 grasses suppressed exotic annuals more than the Austrostipa-only swards at one site (the other was affected by wildfire). Further, Austrostipa-Themeda swards were more effective than Austrostipa-Bothriochloa for suppressing exotics, pointing to a role for both functional and species identity in the degree of resistance conferred.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T01:20:29.583849-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12482
       
  • Changes in the realized niche of the invasive succulent CAM plant Furcraea
           foetida
    • Authors: Cristiana Barbosa; Juan Manuel Otalora, Eduardo L. H. Giehl, Fabricio Villalobos, Rafael Loyola, Geiziane Tessarolo, Nathália Machado, Tânia Tarabini Castellani
      Abstract: Furcraea foetida (Asparagaceae) is a native plant of Central America and northern South America but there is no information about its country of origin. The species was introduced into Brazil and is now considered invasive, particularly in coastal ecosystems. To date, nothing is known about the environmental factors that constrain its distribution and there is only inconclusive information about its location of origin. We used reciprocal distribution models (RDM) to assess invasion risk of F. foetida across Brazil and to identify source regions in its native range. We also tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using Principal Components Analyses and statistical tests of niche equivalency and similarity between its native and invaded ranges. For RDM analysis, we built two models using maximum entropy, one using records in the native range to predict the invaded distribution (forward-Ecological Niche Model or forward-ENM) and one using records in the invaded range to predict the native distribution (reverse-ENM). Forward-ENM indicated invasion risk in the Cerrado region and the innermost region of the Atlantic Forest, however, failed to predict the current occurrence in southern Brazil. Reverse-ENM supported an existing hypothesis that F. foetida originated in the Orinoco river basin, Amazon basin and Caribbean islands. Prediction errors in the RDM and multivariate analysis indicated that the species expanded its realized niche in Brazil. The niche similarity test further suggested that the niche differences are because of differences in habitat availability between the two ranges, not because of evolutionary changes. We hypothesize that physiological pre-adaptation (especially, the crassulacean acid metabolism), human-driven propagule pressure and high competitive ability are the main factors determining the current spatial distribution of the species in Brazil. Our study highlights the need to include F. foetida in plant invasion monitoring programs, especially in priority conservation areas where the species has still not been introduced.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T21:15:32.410072-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12483
       
  • Patterns of storage tissue and starch distribution in the young taproot of
           obligate seeders and resprouters of Australian Proteaceae (Juss.):
           Possible evidence of homoplastic evolution
    • Authors: Barbara J. Bowen; John S. Pate
      Abstract: The ancient Gondwanan family Proteaceae has its greatest speciation in fire-prone environments of Australia. Fire response is either by seedling recruitment from parent plants that succumb to fire (obligate seeders), or survival and resprouting from protected buds (resprouters). Starch is the main source of energy for resprouting and in roots is restricted to parenchyma tissue. This study compared the size and distribution of storage parenchyma and the magnitude of starch reserves in roots of several proteaceous species from different genera in relation to their fire response and taxonomy. Cross-sections (2 μm) of roots of 51 resprouter and 42 seeder species from 12 genera were stained for starch. Areas of cortex and ray parenchyma along with starch grain density were measured using image analysis software (Assess 2.0) and comparable samples of root tissue were assayed chemically for starch. Starch, where present, predominated in ray and cortex tissue with a greater percentage in resprouters (13.4 ± 1.03) than seeders (1.8 ± 0.26); these results correlated significantly with the chemical assay for starch (r = 0.93, P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T20:55:38.763937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12481
       
  • Sampling grain influences trends in vegetation composition and diversity
           with time since fire in Australian heathland
    • Authors: Timothy J. Wills; Jennifer Read
      Abstract: Scale-dependency of pattern and process is well-understood for many ecological communities; however, the influence of spatial scale (sampling grain) in detecting temporal change in communities is less well-understood. The temperate lowland heathlands of south-east Australia are one of the most fire-prone ecosystems on earth. Despite the extensive literature documenting the effect of time since fire on heathlands, we know little about how sampling grain influences trends in vegetation variables over time, and whether these trends are scale-dependent. Using 3500 ha of heathland in the Gippsland Lakes Coastal Park, south-east Australia, we investigated how above-ground species composition and diversity, and trends in these variables with increasing time since fire, were influenced by sampling grain (1 m2, 10 m2, 100 m2, 900 m2, 1 ha, 4 ha). Sampling grain influenced patterns detected in vegetation variables and in some instances, significantly affected their relationship with time since fire. Richness decreased with time since fire, with mean richness decreasing at three of the four grains, while total richness decreased at half of the sampled grains. Evenness (J) decreased with increasing time since fire for all grains except 1 m2. The decline in diversity (H) with time since fire appeared to be independent of scale, as all grains decreased significantly with increasing time since fire. Community heterogeneity demonstrated a weak response to time since fire across most grains. Changes in composition among young (0–6 years since fire), intermediate (9–19 years) and old (23–27 years) sites were dependent on sampling grain, with all grains exhibiting significant differences in composition, apart from the 1 m2 grain and the 100 m2 grain (presence/absence data). Overall, species composition, richness, evenness, diversity and community heterogeneity were dependent on the scale at which the vegetation was sampled. In addition, trends in many of these vegetation variables with increasing time since fire were scale-dependent. This work provides strong evidence that sampling at multiple grains contributes substantially to understanding pattern and process in heathlands.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T02:52:48.979565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12484
       
  • Growing faster and colonizing first: Evolutionary and ecological
           advantages of the tallest individuals within a cohort
    • Authors: Natashi A. L. Pilon; Giselda Durigan
      Abstract: The transition between ontogenetic stages, from juvenile to reproductive adult, is an important moment in the life history of individuals in a plant population, since the persistence of their genes depends on it. The size of an individual is recognized as a predictor for this transition, but little is known about what determines the minimum size to become a reproductive adult, or if a higher growth rate can anticipate or not that transition. In addition, the relationship between size and ontogeny have not yet been studied for woody species. To verify whether the change in ontogenetic stage in woody plants is dependent on plant size, we followed the development of even-aged cultivated seedlings of 53 native species of the Brazilian savanna, Assis State Forest, State of São Paulo, up to their first reproductive event. In 83% of the species the tallest individual – the fastest growing in height – was the first to bloom. Our results support previous studies that consider plant size as one of the most important factors driving certain demographic processes, and allow inferences about the importance of size and growth rate on plant fitness and community assembly. Individuals with higher growth rates during the juvenile stage are the first to reach maturity. Consequently, among individuals of the same cohort, those growing faster will take ecological and evolutionary advantage since they can reproduce precociously and leave descendants prior to their smaller conspecifics, increasing the expression of their genes in the community. It is therefore expected that, along the evolutionary scale, growth rate of Brazilian savanna woody species should continuously increase.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T03:30:58.570169-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12479
       
  • Local habitat complexity correlates with song complexity in a vocally
           elaborate honeyeater
    • Authors: Samuel D. Hill; Matthew D. M. Pawley, Weihong Ji
      Abstract: Song complexity is an important behavioural trait in songbirds, subject to sexual selection. Elucidation of intraspecific variation in song complexity can provide insights into its evolution. In this study, we investigated song complexity variation in tūī (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), a vocally complex songbird endemic to New Zealand. At two separate nature reserves, we recorded male songs in two habitat types: forest remnants with high habitat complexity, and open habitats with lower habitat complexity. Analyses indicated strong evidence that song complexity was higher in forest habitats. Possible explanations for this divergence include: (i) competition between individuals results in higher quality, dominant males with more complex songs occupying forest habitats, and less competitive males occupying open habitat zones; (ii) forest habitats provide more abundant resources therefore higher tūī density, resulting in more complex songs; and (iii) a higher abundance of food in dense forest habitats may reduce nutritional stress during development resulting in full development of song nuclei. However, these hypotheses on the drivers of habitat effects on tūī song complexity remain to be tested.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04T20:30:34.099997-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12477
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 121 - 121
      PubDate: 2017-03-12T19:56:35.946833-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12439
       
  • Ecology and conservation of insectivorous bats in fragmented areas of
           macadamia production in eastern Australia
    • Authors: Eduardo Crisol-Martínez; Greg Ford, Finbarr G. Horgan, Philip H. Brown, Kevin R. Wormington
      Abstract: Microbats perform important ecological services in agro-ecosystems, but several species are globally threatened by loss of roosting and breeding habitats. The successful conservation of bats in agricultural land requires adequate knowledge of their ecology. Using ultrasonic recorders, we studied the activity of insectivorous bats in areas of macadamia production in eastern Australia at two spatial scales: across woodland-orchard transects at the local scale and across three levels of fragmentation at the landscape scale. At the local scale, activity patterns of ‘clutter’ and ‘edge’ specialists were consistently higher in woodland patches, gradually decreasing towards isolated orchards, where only a few ‘open’ specialists were active. At the landscape scale, bat community activity was affected by the level of fragmentation, partly because three of the most recorded taxa (Austronomus australis, Saccolaimus flaviventris and Miniopterus australis) had their highest activity in less-fragmented areas. A distance-based model explained 24% of the bat community activity based on a combination of six environmental variables. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that a number of bat taxa were associated with open areas of macadamia, whereas other taxa were associated with increasing values of landscape composition, and arthropod and water availability. In addition, total bat activity was highly correlated with foraging rate. These results suggest that most bat taxa were influenced by proximity to woodland and the degree of fragmentation, and only few taxa were able to exploit isolated orchards. Environmental factors that promote bat activity could be exploited to strengthen conservation efforts. Preserving remnant woodland and promoting habitat heterogeneity will benefit several bat species. In particular, the foraging activity of ‘edge’ specialists could be fostered by increasing landscape connectivity and maintaining unobstructed water bodies near macadamia orchards. Considering that bats forage as they navigate these areas, conservation efforts could also bring benefits to farmers through pest-reduction services.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T00:00:02.714589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12478
       
  • Interspecies interference and monitoring duration affect detection rates
           in chew cards
    • Authors: Olivia R. Burge; Dave Kelly, Janet M. Wilmshurst
      Abstract: Pest monitoring methods should provide unbiased accurate estimates of pest densities and locations, while also minimizing time-in-field and costs. Recent pest mammal monitoring studies have found that chew cards are more effective than conventional mammal monitoring methods, but little experimental work has been done to determine optimal experimental duration or quantify the risks of saturation by one species biasing detections of other species. Here, we used chew cards in three sites within Awarua wetland (Southland, New Zealand) to investigate the optimal amount of time required to detect targeted pest species (rats, possums and mice), and to examine the potential of rats and possums to bias detection rates of other species. We found depressed detections of possums and rats where a contraspecific had been detected on a card, which is consistent with previous studies of a similar duration on interspecies interference. This experiment is the first to analyse the rates at which species detections accrue over the course of a survey, and we found rat detections lagged behind possums for the first four nights. We modelled the effect of survey duration and relative rat abundance on the likelihood of further possum detections. Duration and rat abundance interacted, meaning there are trade-offs to be considered with regard to duration: shorter durations may avoid the risk of saturation in areas of high pest density, but risk not sampling sparse or neophobic populations. Our data suggest that chew cards remain one of the most sensitive pest monitoring tools for rats and possums, compared to conventional methods such as tracking tunnels and wax tags. In areas of moderate pest densities, we suggest that a duration of five nights is optimal for detecting pests. However, in areas of high pest density the sensitivity of chew cards may render them unsuitable because of saturation and interspecies interference effects.
      PubDate: 2016-12-12T01:15:25.985442-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12471
       
  • Towards the top: niche expansion of Taraxacum officinale and Ulex
           europaeus in mountain regions of South America
    • Authors: Ricardo Enrique Hernández-Lambraño; Pablo González-Moreno, José Ángel Sánchez-Agudo
      Abstract: In the current context of ongoing global change, the understanding of how the niches of invasive species may change between different geographical areas or time periods is extremely important for the early detection and control of future invasions. We evaluated the effect of climate and non-climate variables and the sensitivity to various spatial resolutions (i.e. 1 and 20 km) on niche changes during the invasion of Taraxacum officinale and Ulex europaeus in South America. We estimated niche changes using a combination of principal components analyses (PCA) and reciprocal Ecological Niche Modelling (rENM). We further investigated future invasion dynamics under a severe warming scenario for 2050 to unravel the role of niche shifts in the future potential distribution of the species. We observed a clear niche expansion for both species in South America towards higher temperature, precipitation and radiation relative to their native ranges. In contrast, the set of environmental conditions only occupied in the native ranges (i.e. niche unfilling) were less relevant. The magnitude of the niche shifts did not depend on the resolution of the variables. Models calibrated with occurrences from native range predicted large suitable areas in South America (outside of the Andes range) where T. officinale and U. europaeus are currently absent. Additionally, both species could increase their potential distributions by 2050, mostly in the southern part of the continent. In addition, the niche unfilling suggests high potential to invade additional regions in the future, which is extremely relevant considering the current impact of these species in the Southern Hemisphere. These findings confirm that invasive species can occupy new niches that are not predictable from knowledge based only on climate variables or information from the native range.
      PubDate: 2016-12-04T22:00:37.14886-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12476
       
  • Environmental and species-specific controls on δ13C and δ15N in dominant
           woody plants from central-western Argentinian drylands
    • Authors: Mario Gabriel Gatica; Julieta N. Aranibar, Eduardo Pucheta
      Abstract: Spatial variation in mean annual precipitation is the principal driver of plant water and nitrogen status in drylands. The natural abundance of carbon stable isotopes (δ13C) in photosynthetic tissues of C3 plants is an indicator of time-integrated behaviour of stomatal conductance; while that of nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) is an indicator of the main source of plant N (soil N vs. atmospheric N2). Previous studies in drylands have documented that plant δ13C and δ15N values increase with decreasing mean annual precipitation due to reductions in stomatal conductance, and soil enriched in 15N, respectively. However, evidence for this comes from studies focused on stable isotopes measurements integrated at the plant community level or on dominant plants at the site level, but little effort has been made to study C and N isotope variations within a species growing along rainfall gradients. We analysed plant δ13C, δ15N and C/N values of three woody species having different phenological leaf traits (deciduous, perennial and aphyllous) along a regional mean annual precipitation gradient from the central-western Argentinian drylands. Noticeably, plant δ13C and δ15N values in the three woody species did not increase towards sites with low precipitation or at the start of the growing season (drier period), as we expected. These results suggest that environmental factors other than mean annual precipitation may be affecting plant δ13C and δ15N. The short-term environmental conditions may interact with species-specific plant traits related to water and nitrogen use strategies and override the predictive influence of the mean annual precipitation on plant δ13C and δ15N widely reported in drylands.
      PubDate: 2016-12-04T21:41:42.557754-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12473
       
  • Grassland connectivity explains entomophilous plant species assemblages in
           an agricultural landscape of the Pampa Region, Argentina
    • Authors: Lorena Herrera; Malena Sabatino, Aitor Gastón, Santiago Saura
      Abstract: The Pampa grassland of Argentina is one of the most highly threatened biomes in the world. A high proportion of the original grassland cover has been transformed into land for agriculture or degraded. In the southern part of the region, fragmented semi-natural grasslands over exposed rock still persist and connectivity between them is assumed to be crucial for maintaining viable populations. We quantified overall connectivity of grassland patches in a sector of the Southern Pampa region, and investigated the degree to which landscape connectivity explains entomophilous plant species assemblages in a subset of patches. We characterized each of the 301 patches in the landscape by their degree of intra-patch and inter-patch connectivity based on graph theory, and considering threshold dispersal distances from 100 to 1000 m. We surveyed entomophilous plant species in 39 grassland patches and classified the species in three categories (annual herbs, perennial herbs and shrubs) considering their different growth form and longevity. The influence of connectivity variables on entomophilous plant species assemblages variation was explored using Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Although grassland patches were poorly connected at all threshold distances, some of them were found to be critical for global connectivity. Connectivity significantly explained total, annual-biennial and shrub assemblages for all threshold dispersal distances (6–13% of total variation). Variation in annual species assemblages was associated with intra-patch and inter-patch connectivity at short distance (100 m), while variation in shrub species assemblages was explained by intra-patch and inter-patch connectivity for distances between 100 m and 1000 m. This study evidenced the low connectivity of the study system, allowed the identification of critical areas for conservation, and provided valuable information to develop management strategies in increasingly human-dominated landscapes.
      PubDate: 2016-12-04T21:36:38.525753-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12468
       
  • Stress responses of native and exotic grasses in a Neotropical savanna
           predict impacts of global change on invasion spread
    • Authors: Rafael de Oliveira Xavier; Marcelo Boccia Leite, Dalva Maria da Silva-Matos
      Abstract: Communities subject to stress, including those with low invasibility, may be dominated by exotic generalist species. African grasses are aggressive invasive species in Neotropical savannas, where their response to abiotic stress remains unknown. We assessed the role of waterlogging and canopy closure on the presence, abundance and reproductive tillering of African and native grasses in a Neotropical savanna in southeastern Brazil. We obtained abundance and reproductive tillering data of exotic (Melinis minutiflora, Melinis repens and Urochloa decumbens) and common native grasses in 20 sites. We also determined the groundwater depth, soil surface water potential and canopy cover at these sites. The grass species generally had a low frequency and performed poorly where soil remained waterlogged throughout the year, except for two native species. Most native species were exclusive to either well-drained savannas or better drained wet grasslands. However, two species (Loudetiopsis chrysothrix and Trachypogon spicatus) occurred in both vegetation types. Two exotic species (M. minutiflora and M. repens) were less common but demonstrated reasonable performance in wet grasslands, possibly due to their root system plasticity. Furthermore, U. decumbens had a lower occurrence, density and reproductive tillering at these sites, but was successful at sites where the groundwater level was slightly deeper. Although the favourable water regime in the savannas increases their invasibility in general, resistance to invasion by African grasses may be greater at microsites with high canopy closure, where these species showed lower performance and did not affect the abundance of co-occurring native grasses. In summary, the Brazilian savanna becomes more susceptible to the spread of African grasses when disturbances decrease canopy closure or lower rainfall associated with climate change reduces the average groundwater depth and consequently releases invasive species from soil waterlogging in grasslands.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01T02:30:25.320394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12475
       
  • Leaf trait associations with environmental variation in the wide-ranging
           shrub Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustissima (Sapindaceae)
    • Authors: Zdravko Baruch; Matthew J. Christmas, Martin F. Breed, Greg R. Guerin, Stefan Caddy-Retalic, John McDonald, Duncan I. Jardine, Emrys Leitch, Nick Gellie, Kathryn Hill, Kimberly McCallum, Andrew J. Lowe
      Abstract: Intra-species variation in specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area (LA) provides mechanistic insight into the persistence and function of plants, including their likely success under climate change and their suitability for revegetation. We measured SLA and LA in 101 Australian populations of the perennial shrub Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. subsp. angustissima (narrow-leaf hop-bush) (Sapindaceae). Populations were located across about a 1000 km north–south gradient, with climate grading from arid desert to mesic Mediterranean. We also measured leaves from 11 populations across an elevational gradient (300–800 m asl), where aridity and temperature decrease with elevation. We used regression and principal component analyses to relate leaf traits to the abiotic environment. SLA displayed clinal variation, increasing from north to south and correlated with latitude and the first principal component of joint environmental variables. Both SLA and LA correlated positively with most climatic and edaphic variables. Across latitude, LA showed more variability than SLA. Changes in leaf density and thickness may have caused the relative stability of SLA. Only LA decreased with elevation. The absence of a SLA response to elevation could be a consequence of abiotic conditions that favour low SLA at both ends of the elevational gradient. We demonstrated that the widely distributed narrow-leaf hop-bush shows considerable variability in LA and SLA, which allows it to persist in a broad environmental envelope. As this shrub is widely used for revegetation in Australia, South America and the Asia-Pacific region, our results are consistent with the notion that seed used to revegetate mesic environments could be sourced from more arid areas to increase seed suitability to future climate change.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01T02:10:37.537737-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12474
       
  • Long-distance dispersal in Odonata: Examples from arid Namibia
    • Authors: Frank Suhling; Andreas Martens, Ida Suhling
      Abstract: We report cases of long-distance dispersal in Odonata, some of which were directly observed by identifying single individuals of riverine species in unsuitable habitat, mostly desert, far distant from reproduction habitats. The shortest possible linear distances of the observation points to reproduction habitats were measured. Furthermore, established populations of riverine species were recorded in artificial lakes in central and southern Namibia far distant from the next regular reproduction sites. Our records demonstrate that single individuals of riverine species were probably covering distances of several hundred kilometres over arid landscape without any intervening possible reproduction habitat. Although it is likely that only small numbers of individuals of the river populations may disperse long distances, relatively recent colonizations of artificial habitats suggest that a few, or even single, dispersing individuals may lead to large-scale-range expansions.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T22:00:26.762805-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12472
       
  • Avian responses to an emergent, wetland weed
    • Authors: Emma H. Carlos; Michael A. Weston, Maria Gibson
      Abstract: African boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum Solanaceae) is a Weed of National Significance in Australia. It is particularly problematic in Victoria and is thought to not only threaten native wildlife but also provide important habitat, particularly to birds, when there is no native alternative. In a wetland ecosystem such as a saltmarsh, boxthorn has the potential to increase structural complexity because it can stand as an emergent above surrounding vegetation. We compared bird assemblages and behaviour in saltmarsh vegetation with and without boxthorn in a coastal wetland in south-east Australia. Species assemblage, but not richness, changed with the presence of boxthorn. The presence of singing honeyeaters (Lichenostomus virescens) and white-fronted chats (Epthianura albifrons), the two most common native bird species (based on numerical and spatial dominance), appeared to drive these differences; singing honeyeaters preferred boxthorn while white-fronted chats avoided it. The presence of boxthorn increased the seasonal availability of fruit and flowers, which was reflected by a high frequency of foraging for fruit and nectar where boxthorn was present. In saltmarshes without boxthorn, there was a higher frequency of foraging for insects. Some, but not all, species responded to increased structural complexity and fruit/floral resources provided by boxthorn. Consequently, management by reducing boxthorn is likely to alter bird communities and the usage of sites by some native species, thus management success should consider fine-scale biodiversity objectives, such as managing for particular types or species of birds.
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T01:25:45.400969-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12430
       
  • Selecting plant species for practical restoration of degraded lands using
           a multiple-trait approach
    • Authors: Tereza C. Giannini; Ana M. Giulietti, Raymond M. Harley, Pedro L. Viana, Rodolfo Jaffe, Ronnie Alves, Carlos E. Pinto, Nara F. O. Mota, Cecílio F. Caldeira, Vera L. Imperatriz-Fonseca, Antonio E. Furtini, Jose O. Siqueira
      Abstract: Ecological restoration is essential in rehabilitating degraded areas and safeguarding biodiversity, ecosystem services and human welfare. Using functional traits to plan restoration strategies has been suggested as they are the main ecological attributes that underlie ecosystem processes and services. However, few studies have translated ecological theory into actual restoration practices that can be easily used by different stakeholders. In this article, we applied a multiple-trait approach to select plant species for the restoration of degraded lands inside the Brazilian Amazon Forests. We selected 10 traits encompassing ease of management, geographical distribution and interactions with animals and other ecosystem services and scored these traits using 118 native species. Then, we ranked all species according to the total number of traits that they exhibited to obtain a list of 53 highly ranked species. In addition, we employed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) to assess the variation in these traits across the entire group of species. Based on the results, we selected a subset of species that maximizes functional diversity (high variability). We performed a sparse linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) to highlight a minimum set of traits to effectively discriminate botanical families. The final list of species and their traits highlight the importance of preserving not only the historical reference of a focused ecosystem but also its functional diversity to restore the interaction with local fauna, enrich the food chain and guarantee ecosystem services for local communities.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T23:51:57.811212-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12470
       
  • Contrasting effects of two mammalian soil engineers on microbial
           communities
    • Authors: David J. Eldridge; Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Jason N. Woodhouse, Brett A. Neilan
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T21:35:47.507362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12467
       
  • Can protective attributes of artificial refuges offset predation risk in
           lizards'
    • Authors: Gaye Bourke; Alison Matthews, Damian R. Michael
      Abstract: Artificial refuges are often used to supplement habitat in areas where natural shelters have been degraded or removed. Although artificial refuges are intended to support particular species, they may be equally attractive and accessible to others, including predators. We explored the influence of snake predation risk and shelter attributes on the overnight use of different artificial refuges (timber, tiles, and iron) using the predator-prey relationship between Boulenger's skink, Morethia boulengeri and the curl snake, Suta suta. We collected adult M. boulengeri from two bioregions in south-eastern Australia: the Riverina, where the two species co-occur, and the South Western Slopes, where S. suta does not occur. Two adult S. suta were collected for use as chemical donors. We conducted four experiments on overnight refuge choice to determine: (i) predator-scent avoidance, (ii) artificial refuge preferences, (iii) a trade-off between a preferred refuge and predator-avoidance, and (iv) the effect of gap height on refuge preference. We found that skinks avoided predator-scented refuges in favour of identical, but unscented refuges. Skinks preferred timber refuges, and most skinks maintained this preference when predator-scent was added. However, when gap height was manipulated, skinks shifted to the refuge with the smallest gap. Skinks displayed complex regional variation in behaviour; skinks from both bioregions avoided predator-scent, but in the trade-off experiment, skinks from the South Western Slopes were less likely to avoid predator-scented timber refuges than those from the Riverina. Our findings suggest that protective refuge attributes, such as small gap height, can offset the risk implied by predator-scent within a refuge. This study highlights the need to consider predator-prey interactions when designing and using artificial refuges for habitat restoration or biological monitoring.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T22:05:21.38545-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12469
       
  • Temperature, invaders and patchy habitat interact to limit the
           distribution of a vulnerable freshwater fish
    • Authors: Nixie C. Boddy; Angus R. McIntosh
      Abstract: Interacting global-change drivers such as invasive species and climate warming are likely to have major and potentially unexpected influences on aquatic ecosystems. In river networks, modified water temperature combined with patchy physical conditions will likely cause shifts in the amount and distribution of suitable habitat, with influential invasive species further altering habitat availability. We examined how distributions of a thermally sensitive galaxiid fish native to the alpine rivers of New Zealand, Galaxias paucispondylus, were influenced by these drivers using spatially extensive presence–absence electrofishing surveys of 46 sites spread over four subcatchments. A unimodal response to water temperature and an interaction with substratum size meant G. paucispondylus were limited to streams with average summer water temperatures between 10.6 and 13.8 °C and were absent when average substratum sizes were 150 mm long excluded G. paucispondylus, but were only found in streams with average summer water temperatures
      PubDate: 2016-11-21T22:00:38.199653-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12463
       
  • Interspecific interactions between feral pigs and native birds reveal both
           positive and negative effects
    • Authors: Daniel J. D. Natusch; Martin Mayer, Jessica A. Lyons, Richard Shine
      Abstract: In tropical Australian rainforests, predators and scavengers aggregate beneath emergent trees that house large colonies of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica), feeding in the nutrient-rich open areas below. Analysis of camera-trap records shows that the presence of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) is associated with an absence of birds (cockatoos and brush turkeys), presumably reflecting behavioural avoidance (pigs pose a direct danger to birds). However, bird numbers increase as soon as pigs depart, then fall if pigs are absent for long periods. Feral pigs thus displace native birds from these resource hotspots; but by turning over the soil and enhancing the birds' access to food, the pigs also have a positive impact on food availability for the avifauna. Thus, although invasive species have caused irreparable environmental damages worldwide, they may also provide positive benefits for certain species. The net benefit of such interspecific interactions will depend on the outcome of both positive and negative effects.
      PubDate: 2016-11-15T22:06:33.390914-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12465
       
  • Fire, food and sexual deception in the neighbourhood of some Australian
           orchids
    • Authors: Julian Brown; Alan York
      Abstract: The effective use of prescribed fire in biodiversity conservation is currently inhibited by a limited understanding of fire effects on ecosystem processes such as pollination. Orchids inhabiting fire-prone landscapes are likely to be particularly sensitive because they often exhibit highly specialized pollination systems and provide no reward to pollinators, making them dependent on co-flowering heterospecifics to attract and support pollinators. We investigated the hypothesis that fire-driven changes in the local abundance of rewarding heterospecific flowers influence pollination in two rewardless Australian orchid species, Diuris maculata sensu lato and Caladenia tentaculata. Diuris maculata s.l. is thought to achieve pollination by mimicking papilionoid Fabaceae flowers. Caladenia tentaculata attracts male thynnine wasps through sexual deceit, and these wasps forage on the open-access flowers of other taxa. We used a space-for-time substitution design with sites in different stages of post-fire succession where we recorded capsule set in D. maculata s.l., pollinator visitation to C. tentaculata, the floral abundance of rewarding heterospecifics and abiotic conditions. Many rewarding taxa responded to fire age, but there was only weak evidence that capsule set in D. maculata s.l. was positively related to the local floral abundance of rewarding species. There was evidence of an overriding effect of rainfall on capsule set that may have obscured effects of the floral community. Visitation to C. tentaculata was not positively associated with any rewarding heterospecifics, and was negatively associated with rewarding Burchardia umbellata. Our preliminary findings highlight the need to account for multiple factors when trying to detect fire effects on pollination.
      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:05:46.851175-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12464
       
  • Heat and smoke pre-treatment of seeds to improve restoration of an
           endangered Mediterranean climate vegetation type
    • Authors: Stuart A. Hall; Rosemary J. Newton, Patricia M. Holmes, Mirijam Gaertner, Karen J. Esler
      Abstract: Invasive alien plants impact ecosystems, which often necessitates their removal. Where indigenous species recovery fails following removal alone, an active intervention involving reintroduction of seed of native species may be needed. This study investigated the potential for a combination of the fire cues of smoke and heat as a pre-treatment of seeds in breaking dormancy and facilitating increased germination. Species were selected to represent different functional types within Cape Flats Sand Fynbos; a fire-prone, critically endangered vegetation type in South Africa. Seeds were exposed to either a heat pulse (temperatures between 60 and 300°C for durations of between 30 s and 20 min) or dry after-ripening (1 or 2 months at milder temperatures of 45°C or less). Thereafter, seeds were soaked in smoke solution for 18 h and subsequently placed on agar at 10/20°C for germination. Most species fell into one of two main groups: Seed germination in the first group was greatest following a lower temperature (60°C) heat pulse, an extended period of mild temperature (20/40°C or 45°C) exposure, or no pre-treatment with heat. Seed germination in the second group was promoted after brief exposure to higher (100°C) temperatures. No germination occurred in any species following heat treatments of 150°C or higher. Species which responded better to higher temperatures were mainly those possessing physical dormancy, but seed morphology did not correlate with germination success. This study showed that heat stimulation of seeds is more widespread in fynbos plant families than previously known and will enable the development of better seed pre-treatment protocols before large-scale sowing as an active restoration treatment after alien plant clearing.
      PubDate: 2016-11-06T21:57:16.050857-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12449
       
  • Responses of an Australian freshwater turtle to drought-flood cycles along
           a natural to urban gradient
    • Authors: Bruno O. Ferronato; John H. Roe, Arthur Georges
      Abstract: Urban areas provide habitat for numerous native species, but life in towns and cities presents many challenges. The effect of climate on the ecology and the behaviour of non-volant vertebrates inhabiting urban habitats have received little attention. In this study, we investigated demography, growth rates, movements and reproduction of a semi-aquatic freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis, along a natural to urban gradient during a period of relatively high rainfall (2011–2014) and compared this to a previous study in the same system during drought (2006–2007). In addition to changes in rainfall, urbanization increased considerably over the same time period and a pest-exclusion fence was constructed to mitigate against urban hazards encroaching on the adjacent reserve. Turtles grew at similar rates, had similar abundances and sex ratios and had similar reproductive output across the gradient from urban to non-urban sites during the wet period. Despite increasing urbanization, recruitment occurred at all sites and survivorship estimates were similar among sites. Turtles moved among wetlands at high rates and over long distances (6 km), underscoring the importance of movements in urban landscapes. Our results contrast with those for the same system during drought, when turtles were less abundant and grew slower in the nature reserve compared with the urban environment. Our results underscore the strong influence climate can have on population dynamics and resilience of species to changes brought about by urbanization. Further monitoring is required to understand the long-term population responses of long-lived species to drought cycles.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:10:23.968166-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12462
       
  • The role of leaf cellulose content in determining host plant preferences
           of three defoliating insects present in the Andean-Patagonian forest
    • Authors: A. L. Pietrantuono; O. A. Bruzzone, V. Fernández-Arhex
      Abstract: Phytophagous insects choose their feeding resources according to their own requirements in addition to properties of the host plants, such as biomechanical defences. The feeding preferences of the native folivorous insects of the Andean-Patagonian forest (Argentina) have rarely been studied. These environments present a wide diversity and abundance of insects associated with trees of the Nothofagus and Lophozonia (Nothofagaceae) genera, which represent the main tree species of the forests of the southern hemisphere. In particular, Lophozonia alpina and Lophozonia obliqua are of great interest because they have a wide distribution, a high capacity for hybridization and exhibit great phenotypic plasticity. This versatility causes substantial variation in the biomechanical properties of leaves, affecting the feeding preferences of insects. The purpose of this work was to study the food selection behaviour of three leaf-chewing insects (Polydrusus nothofagii, Polydrusus roseaus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Perzelia arda (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae)) associated with L. alpina and L. obliqua as host plants. Based on their choices, our aim was to determine a preference scale for each insect species and the variables on which these preferences were based. Therefore, we selected trees of L. alpina and L. obliqua, measured several properties such as cellulose content and recorded which leaves were eaten. As a result, we determined that the three species of insects feed on both host plants but prefer the leaves of L. obliqua, with cellulose content being the main determining factor for their decisions. However, in the case of P. arda, there was a positive relationship between cellulose and host plant preference, whereas there was an opposite relationship for the weevils. We conclude that during feeding selection, there are some properties of the leaves that have a more important role than others and that the same property does not exert the same behavioural response in all folivorous insects.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T23:57:43.869832-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12460
       
  • Survival and life expectancy of the tree Protea roupelliae subsp.
           roupelliae in a montane grassland savanna: Effects of fire regime and
           plant structure
    • Authors: Francois Richard Smith; James Edmund Granger
      Abstract: Survival and life expectancy are key demographic determinants of population dynamics. Using data collected in a field experiment monitored over 14 years in montane grassland of the Ukhahlamba-Drakensberg Park, South Africa, we determined the effects of components of fire regime and plant structure on the survival and life expectancy of the tree Protea roupelliae subsp. roupelliae (Proteaceae). The field experiment comprised six plots (0.2–0.5 ha in area) from which the survival and life expectancies of 1567 juveniles (non-reproductives) and 329 adults (reproductives) were estimated in response to differences in fire frequency, biennial seasonal fire, flame height, juvenile height, adult height, basal area and canopy vigour. Juvenile survival and life expectancies were highest when fires were excluded for 8 years. However, a fire after 12 years of fire exclusion and another fire 2 years later eliminated all juveniles. Over the same 14-year period of biennial fires, juvenile survival was 5%. Juvenile survival and life expectancy were higher after biennial, winter fires than after annual, winter fires. Flame height had no effect on juvenile survival and life expectancy. Both survival and life expectancy of juveniles increased as plants got older and grew taller. Adult survival was unaffected by fire frequency, flame height or tree size, but the survival of adults in response to fire seasonality was inconclusive. Adults with low canopy vigour (
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T03:00:56.116473-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12459
       
  • An experimental demonstration of the impact of predation on sexual
           segregation and primary sex ratios among ungulates
    • Authors: Christopher A. J. O'Kane; David W. Macdonald
      Abstract: Underlying mechanisms of sexual segregation among ungulates, and Trivers and Willard's hypothesis that mothers can influence primary sex ratios, continue to be topical theoretical issues. Over 2 years, using monthly repeated road transects, we determined the habitat and social segregation of male vs. female impala (Aepyceros melampus) and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in a predator-free, vs. a predator-laden, South African reserve. We also determined, by the same technique but over 4 years, the primary sex ratio of the impala population free from predation. Significant overlap in habitat usage (Schoener's Index 0.63–0.8) was found between the two sexes when free from predation, but not (Schoener's Index 0.46–0.47) when under predation. While occupying the same habitats impala, kudu and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) male and female groups maintained rigid social segregation throughout the year, even when at close quarters. Impala primary sex ratios were significantly biased towards females (male/female = 0.72; χ² = 4.3175, d.f. = 1, P-value = 0.038) in the absence of predation. Our findings suggest that while risk of predation is a proximal cause of sexual segregation, thus lending support to the predator-risk hypothesis, the underlying, functional mechanism of sexual segregation is the difference in the activity budgets of males vs. females (the activity-budget hypothesis). Our findings also suggest that mothers may indeed be able to adjust primary sex ratios, with the postulated driver in this case being an abnormally high density of adult males.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T02:35:30.67785-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12458
       
  • Unravelling the coordination between leaf and stem economics spectra
           through local and global scale approaches
    • Authors: Sebastián R. Zeballos; Melisa A. Giorgis, Marcelo Cabido, Diego E. Gurvich
      Abstract: The existence of a coordination between leaf and stem economic spectra in woody species has been postulated repeatedly in the literature, with contrasting results. Here, we postulated that this coordination is conditioned by climate factors, being stronger in stressful environments. To test this hypothesis we explored the coordination between leaf and stem economic spectra in a seasonally dry forest in central Argentina and at the global scale, we analysed if the outcome of their coordination varies along a climatic gradient. At the local scale, we characterized leaf and stem economic spectra in 37 woody species by measuring six leaf and stem functional traits related to resource acquisition and use, and two functional traits used as proxies of water transport and use capacities. At the global scale, a meta-regression was performed to analyse if the outcome of the coordination among leaf and stem traits varies along gradients of the mean precipitation of the driest quarter and of the minimum temperature of the coldest month. At the local scale, we observed a high integration among the measured leaf and stem traits, and this coordination seemed to be linked to hydraulic properties. At the global scale, we found not only that the overall weighted mean effect size of the correlation between specific leaf area and wood density was significant and negative but also that the coordination between leaf and stem traits seemed to be shaped by climate and tends to become stronger under harsh climate conditions. Furthermore, although our results seem to suggest that their coordination is context-dependent, alternative strategies could be observed under stressful conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07T02:30:58.003935-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12455
       
  • Assessing the frequency and drivers of early-greening in broad-leaved
           woodlands along a latitudinal gradient in southern Africa
    • Authors: Melissa A. Whitecross; Ed T. F. Witkowski, Sally Archibald
      Abstract: Savannas are the only deciduous system where new leaf flush pre-empts the onset of suitable conditions for growth, a phenological phenomenon known as early-greening. Limited understanding of the frequency and drivers of the occurrence of early-greening in southern African savanna trees exists. We aimed to estimate the frequency of early-greening events across southern Africa and investigated potential environmental drivers of green-up. We selected and compared seven broad-leaved woodland sites where Burkea africana was a dominant species using remotely sensed data along a latitudinal gradient from South Africa to Zambia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were extracted from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery at each site from January 2002 to June 2014. Using an austral year (July 1st–June 30th), early-greening was recorded if the green-up start date occurred prior to the onset date of seasonal rainfall. A latitudinal gradient of early-green-up was detected across southern Africa (R2 = 0.74) with the two most northerly (Zambian) sites showing the earliest and most consistent green-up start dates (3 October ± 5.34 days). A strong latitudinal gradient was observed between the variability in the amount of rainfall in the first 6 months of green-up and the green-up start dates across southern Africa (R2 = 0.92). Photoperiod appeared to play a role in areas where the onset of rainfall commenced late into the austral year. Mean maximum temperatures recorded 10 days prior to green-up start dates suggested a potential threshold of about 35°C, which could drive early-greening in the absence of rainfall. Correlations between the proportion of early-greening years and the above mentioned environmental factors indicated that rainfall variability had the strongest influence over the observed phenological gradient (R2 = 0.96). Understanding early-greening in complex savanna systems is a vital step in furthering predictive phenological models under changing climatic conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-06T04:27:18.377496-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12448
       
  • Right here, right now: Populations of Actinotus helianthi differ in their
           early performance traits and interactions
    • Authors: Nathan J. Emery; Murray J. Henwood, Catherine A. Offord, Glenda M. Wardle
      Abstract: Populations across the geographical distribution of a species are shaped by different local environments to produce distinctive patterns of variation in plant traits. Among-population variation is, therefore, important for understanding potential shifts in distributions under changing environments, but is often not included in studies. In particular, critical data on the suitability of local environments for plant traits expressed at different life stages are lacking. To address this we performed two experiments to disentangle the influence of the local environment on multiple plant traits for populations of Actinotus helianthi from across its latitudinal range. A common environment experiment was used to compare early plant traits of germination, early seedling growth and survival for 17 populations of A. helianthi. To examine how biotic interactions vary across populations, we evaluated whether plant traits, including height and number of pseudanthia, influence visitor diversity and abundance, and if insect visitor abundance or diversity was associated with seed set success. We found that populations varied in germination success between 0.2 ± 0.1% and 64.2 ± 2.3%. Seedling growth and early survival varied among populations by as much as a factor of two and 44 respectively. We recorded variation in plant traits across hierarchical spatial scales from the maternal plant to biogeographical regions. The abundance and diversity of insect visitors also varied among populations and seed set was found to be site specific. There was a trend for populations with taller plants and larger floral display sizes to be more frequently visited by pollinators. We also identified a positive linear relationship between the number of visits by flies and seed set success. These results suggest that the local environment has a strong role in directly and indirectly influencing variation in plant traits within populations of A. helianthi, and potentially other perennial species.
      PubDate: 2016-10-05T01:25:44.075503-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12450
       
  • Differences in life-cycle stage components between native and introduced
           ranges of five woody Fabaceae species
    • Authors: Carla J. Harris; Anthony Manea, Angela T. Moles, Brad R. Murray, Michelle R. Leishman
      Abstract: Understanding differences in the components of life-cycle stages of species between their native and introduced ranges can provide insights into the process of species transitioning from introduction to naturalization and invasion. We examined reproductive variables of the germination (seed predation, seed viability, time to germination), seed output (crown projection, seed production, seed weight) and dispersal (seed weight, dispersal investment) stages of five woody Fabaceae species, comparing native and introduced ranges. We predicted that each species would differ in reproductive variables of at least one life-cycle stage between their native and introduced ranges, thus allowing us to determine the life-cycle stage most associated with invasion success in the introduced range. Acacia melanoxylon and Paraserianthes lophantha had reduced seed predation in their introduced ranges while P. lophantha also had higher seed viability indicating that the germination life-cycle stage is most strongly associated with their invasion success in the introduced range. Only Acacia longifolia varied between ranges for the seed output stage due to larger plant size, greater seed production and smaller seed size in its introduced range. Similar to A. longifolia, Acacia cyclops had smaller seed size in its introduced range but did not have any other variable differences between ranges suggesting that the dispersal stage is best associated with its invasion success in the introduced range. Surprisingly, Acacia saligna was the only species without a clear life-cycle stage difference between ranges despite it being one of the more invasive acacia species in Australia. Although we found clear differences in reproductive variables associated with life-cycle stages between native and introduced ranges of these five species, these differences were largely species-specific. This suggests that a species invasion strategy into a novel environment is complex and varies among species depending on the environmental context, phenotypic plasticity and genotypic variation in particular traits.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T02:40:29.187792-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12456
       
  • An invasive tree facilitates the persistence of native rodents on an
           over-grazed floodplain in tropical Australia
    • Authors: Georgia Ward-Fear; Gregory P. Brown, David J. Pearson, Richard Shine
      Abstract: In an ecosystem under simultaneous threat from multiple alien species, one invader may buffer the impact of another. Our surveys on a remote floodplain in the Kimberley region of north western Australia show that invasive chinee apple trees (Ziziphus mauritiana) provide critical refuge habitat for native rodents (pale field rats, Rattus tunneyi). Feral horses (Equus caballus) have trampled most of the remaining floodplain, but are excluded from the area around each chinee apple tree by thorny foliage. Although chinee apple trees constituted 50% of trees that harboured rat burrows. The mean number of burrows under each chinee apple tree was twice as high as under most other tree species, and we trapped more than seven times as many rats under chinee apple trees as under other types of trees. The extensive burrow systems under chinee apple trees contained female as well as male rats, whereas we only captured males around the smaller burrow systems under other tree species. Our data suggest that this invasive tree plays a critical role in the persistence of pale field rat populations in this degraded ecosystem, and that managers should maintain these trees (despite their alien origins) at least until feral horses have been removed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T02:20:37.874505-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12454
       
  • Life history and population dynamics of a tree species in tropical
           semi-arid climate: A case study with Cordia oncocalyx
    • Authors: Andréa P. Silveira; Fernando R. Martins, Francisca S. Araújo
      Abstract: In semi-arid climates, plant population dynamics are strongly influenced by the amount and temporal distribution of rainfall. We monitored a population of the tree species Cordia oncocalyx (Boraginaceae) for 24 months in the dry thorny woodland of semi-arid northeastern Brazil, to investigate which life-history traits allow this tree to be locally dominant. We used horizontal life tables and a Lefkovitch matrix and tested for relationships among demographic parameters of seedling, infant, juvenile, immature, virginile and reproductive ontogenetic stages with rainfall and canopy openness. Germination and recruitment occurred in the rainy months, and dry-season mortality occurred only in seedlings (76% and 100%, first and second years, respectively) and infants (3% and 6%). Juveniles showed greater height growth under more open canopies (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.24), suggesting that light availability influences growth. The population growth rate was λ = 1.0336, and the highest sensitivity occurred in the infant-juvenile transition. Our results show light as a restrictive growth factor for plants in the juvenile stage and confirm the strong influence of rainfall on the dynamics of trees in a seasonally dry environment. The formation of a persistent seed bank with germination concentrated at the rainfall onset but spreading over the rainy season are strategies that hedge bets before establishment. The formation of a bank of infants, which can resume growth as soon as there is water, hedges bets after establishment. We attribute the positive population growth rate of Cordia oncocalyx to survival strategies allowing bet-hedging both before and after establishment.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T02:09:14.684297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12447
       
  • Extrafloral-nectaries and interspecific aggressiveness regulate day/night
           turnover of ant species foraging for nectar on Bionia coriacea
    • Authors: Diego V. Anjos; Bárbara Caserio, Felipe T. Rezende, Sérvio P. Ribeiro, Kleber Del-Claro, Roberth Fagundes
      Abstract: Plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) vary the secretion of nectar between day and night, which creates turnover in the composition of interacting ant species. Daily variation in the composition of ant species foraging on vegetation is commonly observed, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the daily variation in nectar availability and interspecific aggressiveness between ants as possible regulatory mechanisms of the turnover in ant–plant interactions. We hypothesized that (i) plants would interact with more ant species during periods of higher secretion of nectar and that (ii) aggressive ant species would compete for nectar, creating a daily turnover of species collecting nectar. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the production of nectar during the day and night and by experimentally removing EFNs of Bionia coriacea (=Camptosema coriaceum) (Nees & Mart.) Benth. (Fabaceae: Faboideae) plants in a Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). We then compared the abundance and composition of ant species between those treatments and during the day. Our results indicate that more ant workers forage on plants during the day, when nectar was sugary, while more ant species forage at night, when aggressiveness between ant species was lower. We also detected a day/night turnover in ant species composition. Ant species foraging for nectar during the day were not the same at night, and this turnover did not occur on plants without EFNs. Both dominant ant species, diurnal Camponotus crassus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and nocturnal Camponotus rufipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were the most aggressive species, attacking other ants in their specific periods of forage while also being very aggressive toward each other. However, this aggressiveness did not occur in the absence of nectar, which allowed non-aggressive nocturnal ant species to forage only during the daytime, disrupting the turnover. We conclude that extrafloral-nectar presence and interspecific aggressiveness between ants, along with other environmental factors, are important mechanisms creating turnovers in ants foraging on plants.
      PubDate: 2016-09-21T01:30:23.044661-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12446
       
  • Moving from autonomous to planned adaptation in the montane forests of
           southeastern Australia under changing fire regimes
    • Authors: Michael D. Doherty; Sandra Lavorel, Matthew J. Colloff, Kristen J. Williams, Richard J. Williams
      Abstract: Forest ecosystems and their associated natural, cultural and economic values are highly vulnerable to climate driven changes in fire regimes. A detailed knowledge of forest ecosystem responses to altered fire regimes is a necessary underpinning to inform options for adaptive responses under climate change, as well as for providing a basis for understanding how patterns of distribution of vegetation communities that comprise montane forest ecosystems may change in the future. Unplanned consequential adaptation of both natural and human systems, i.e. autonomous adaptation, will occur without planned intervention, with potentially negative impacts on ecosystem services. The persistence of forest stands under changing fire regimes and the maintenance of the ecosystem services that they provide pivot upon underlying response traits, such as the ability to resprout, that determine the degree to which composition, structure and function are likely to change. The integration of ecosystem dynamics into conceptual models and their use in exploring adaptation pathways provides options for policy makers and managers to move from autonomous to planned adaptation responses. Understanding where autonomous adaptation provides a benefit and where it proves potentially undesirable is essential to inform adaptation choices. Plausible scenarios of ecological change can be developed to improve an understanding of the nature and timing of interventions and their consequences, well before natural and human systems autonomously adapt in ways that may be detrimental to the long-term provision of ecosystem services. We explore the utility of this approach using examples from temperate montane forest ecosystems of southeastern Australia.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14T04:41:07.350176-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12437
       
  • No effect of elevation and fragmentation on genetic diversity and
           structure in Polylepis australis trees from central Argentina
    • Authors: Yanling Peng; Laura Morales, Isabell Hensen, Daniel Renison
      Abstract: Phenological differences in flowering arising along elevational gradients may be caused by either local adaptation or phenotypic plasticity. Local adaptation can lead to reproductive isolation of populations at different elevational zones and thus produce elevational genetic structuring, while phenotypic plasticity does not produce elevational genetic structuring. In this study, we examined the effects of elevation and fragmentation on genetic diversity and structure of Polylepis australis populations, where individuals exhibit phenological differences in flowering along an elevational gradient. We assessed the polymorphism of amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in adults and saplings from one conserved and one fragmented forest covering elevations from 1600 to 2600 m asl. Over 98% of variation was found within populations, and we found very low and similar genetic differentiation along elevational gradients for adults and saplings in both continuous and fragmented forests. In addition, there was no significant relationship between genetic diversity and elevation. Results indicated that phenological differences along elevational gradients are more likely caused by phenotypic plasticity than local adaptation, and fragmentation does not appear to have affected genetic diversity and differentiation in the studied populations. Results therefore imply that if necessary, seeds for reforestation purposes may be collected from different elevations to the seeding or planting sites.
      PubDate: 2016-09-06T22:00:34.530485-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12432
       
  • Eliciting and integrating expert knowledge to assess the viability of the
           critically endangered golden sun-moth Synemon plana
    • Authors: Luis Mata; Georgia E. Garrard, Alex S. Kutt, Bonnie C. Wintle, Yung En Chee, Anna Backstrom, Brian Bainbridge, Jake Urlus, Geoff W. Brown, Arn D. Tolsma, Alan L. Yen, Timothy R. New, Sarah A. Bekessy
      Abstract: The critically endangered golden sun-moth Synemon plana occurs in urban fringe areas of southeastern Australia that are currently experiencing rapid and extensive development. The urban fringe is a complex and uncertain environment in which to manage threatened species with the intersection of fragmented natural habitats, built environments and human populations generating novel, poorly understood interactions. In this context, management frameworks must incorporate ecological processes as well as social considerations. Here, we explore how biodiversity sensitive urban design might improve the fate of the golden sun-moth, and threatened species generally, in urban fringe environments. We: (i) developed an expert-informed Bayesian Belief Network model that synthesizes the current understanding of key determinants of golden sun-moth population viability at sites experiencing urbanizing pressure; (ii) quantified the nature and strength of cause-effect relationships between these factors using expert knowledge; and (iii) used the model to assess expectations of moth population viability in response to different combinations of management actions. We predict that adult survival, bare ground cover and cover of resource plants are the most important variables affecting the viability of golden sun-moth populations. We also demonstrate the potential for biodiversity sensitive urban design as a complementary measure to conventional management for this species. Our findings highlight how expert knowledge may be a valuable component of conservation management, especially in addressing uncertainty around conservation decisions when empirical data are lacking, and how structured expert judgements become critical in supporting decisions that may help ameliorate extinction risks faced by threatened species in urban environments.
      PubDate: 2016-09-06T21:41:11.566582-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12431
       
  • Scratching beneath the surface: Bandicoot bioturbation contributes to
           ecosystem processes
    • Authors: Leonie E. Valentine; Michael Bretz, Katinka X. Ruthrof, Rebecca Fisher, Giles E. St J. Hardy, Patricia A. Fleming
      Abstract: Animals that forage for food or dig burrows by biopedturbation can alter the biotic and abiotic characteristics of their habitat. The digging activities of such ecosystem engineers, although small at a local scale, may be important for broader scale landscape processes by influencing soil and litter properties, trapping organic matter and seeds, and subsequently altering seedling recruitment. We examined environmental characteristics (soil moisture content, hydrophobicity and litter composition) of foraging pits created by the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus; Peramelidae), a digging Australian marsupial, over a 6-month period. Fresh diggings typically contained a higher moisture content and lower hydrophobicity than undisturbed soil. A month later, foraging pits contained greater amounts of fine litter and lower amounts of coarse litter than adjacent undug surfaces, indicating that foraging pits may provide a conducive microhabitat for litter decomposition, potentially reducing litter loads and enhancing nutrient decomposition. We tested whether diggings might affect seedling recruitment (seed removal by seed harvesters and seed germination rates) by artificially mimicking diggings. Although there were no differences in the removal of seeds, seedling recruitment for three native plant species (Acacia saligna, Kennedia prostrata and Eucalyptus gomphocephala) was higher in plots containing artificial diggings compared with undug sites. The digging actions of bandicoots influenced soil moisture and hydrophobicity, the size distribution of litter and seedling recruitment at a local scale. The majority of Australian digging mammals are threatened, with many suffering substantial population and range contraction. However, their persistence in landscapes plays an important role in maintaining the health and function of ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2016-08-29T02:05:43.499354-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12428
       
  • Biodiversity friend or foe: land use by a top predator, the dingo in
           contested landscapes of the Australian Wet Tropics
    • Authors: Damian S. Morrant; Christopher N. Johnson, James R. A. Butler, Bradley C. Congdon
      Abstract: Dingoes (Canis dingo) in the coastal lowlands of Australia's Wet Tropics are perceived as a major threat to biodiversity and subjected to broad-spectrum lethal control. However, evidence of their impacts is equivocal, and control programmes generally ignore the ecological benefits that dingoes might provide. Previous diet analysis has shown that dingoes in the Wet Tropics primarily prey on common, terrestrial mammals. However, little is known of dingo habitat use or prey acquisition in the region despite these activities having major implications for biodiversity conservation. We investigated land use by dingoes in the lowland Wet Tropics to enable predictions of potential prey types, relative prey use and modes of prey acquisition. Nine dingoes were tracked for 3–6 months. Home ranges and resting areas were estimated using multiple estimators, and habitat use was analysed using compositional analysis of habitat use and generalized additive models. Dingo ranging behaviour suggested that anthropogenic food subsidies were infrequently used. Each territory comprised several sclerophyll forest rest areas with adjacent sugarcane-grassland high activity areas. Individuals used each rest-activity area for extended durations before moving on to another. Sclerophyll and rainforests, which contain the fauna species of primary conservation concern, were generally used for rest/sleep, or movement between rest-activity areas. Activity patterns were consistent with dingoes hunting in open sugarcane-grassland habitats during daylight hours. Dingo activity was low in areas where fauna species of conservation concern occur, which suggests that dingoes do not pose a threat to their survival. Consequently, current broad-spectrum lethal control may have minimal benefits or even incur costs for biodiversity. Maximizing the ecosystem services provided by dingoes while simultaneously minimizing their negative impacts requires a more targeted location-specific management approach, one that assesses and mitigates impacts specifically where background circumstances suggest particular packs may be either a conservation or economic threat.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T01:15:32.099495-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12427
       
  • On pessimism in Australian ecology
    • Authors: S. R. Morton
      Pages: 122 - 131
      Abstract: In the face of massive human impacts upon the environment, a prevailing attitude among Australian ecologists seems to have become one of pessimism. The essay explores the consequences of this stance. Pessimism arises understandably from personal values favouring care for the natural world under conditions of rapid global change. Expression of such values is in no way illegitimate; pessimism is as justifiable a perspective as is optimism when interpreting ecology. Examples are mentioned of areas of Australian ecology where pessimism does not predominate, and where the ecological changes being wrought by the Anthropocene are accepted. But, the predominance of gloom can cause ecologists to flirt with exaggeration and with misanthropy, and perversely it can cause them to strive to prevent ecological change even though the discipline is rooted in the reality of flux. Most profoundly, it causes many citizens to switch off: gloom has limited capacity to motivate, whereas hope is the elixir of action. Because of predominant negativity, we risk losing the confidence of society. The solution is for the discipline to develop more diverse strands of interpretation, characterized by more equal doses of acceptance and hope. By balancing dejection, ecology may achieve the efficacy in debate and decision-making that it warrants in these challenging times.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17T21:30:21.850405-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12410
       
  • Seasonal variation in epifaunal communities associated with giant kelp
           (Macrocystis pyrifera) at an upwelling-dominated site
    • Authors: Natalia S. Winkler; Alejandro Pérez-Matus, Álvaro A. Villena, Martin Thiel
      Pages: 132 - 144
      Abstract: Kelp forests are highly productive and species-rich benthic ecosystems in temperate regions that provide biogenic habitat for numerous associated species. Diverse epifaunal communities inhabit kelp sporophytes and are subject to variations in the physical environment and to changes experienced by the kelp habitat itself. We assessed seasonal variations in epifaunal invertebrate communities inhabiting giant kelps, Macrocystis pyrifera, and their effects on this seaweed. Six seasonal samplings were conducted over a year at an upwelling-dominated site in northern-central Chile where physical conditions are known to fluctuate temporally. More than 30 taxa were identified, among which peracarid crustaceans stood out in both diversity and abundance. Species richness and abundance differed among sporophyte sections (holdfast and fronds) and throughout the year. The frond community was dominated by two grazers (the amphipod Peramphithoe femorata and the isopod Amphoroidea typa), while suspension feeders, grazers, and omnivores (the amphipod Aora typica, the isopod Limnoria quadripunctata, and polychaetes) dominated the holdfasts. Abundances of the dominant species fluctuated throughout the year but patterns of variation differed among species. The most abundant grazer (P. femorata) had highest densities in summer, while the less abundant grazer (A. typa) reached its peak densities in winter. Interestingly, the area of kelp damaged by grazers was highest in autumn and early winter, suggesting that grazing impacts accumulate during periods of low kelp growth, which can thus be considered as ‘vestiges of herbivory past.’ Among the factors determining the observed seasonal patterns, strong variability of environmental conditions, reproductive cycles of associated fauna, and predation by fishes vary in importance. Our results suggest that during spring and early summer, bottom-up processes shape the community structure of organisms inhabiting large perennial seaweeds, whereas during late summer and autumn, top-down processes are more important.
      PubDate: 2016-08-16T22:46:07.884306-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12407
       
  • The effect of wildfire on scattered trees, ‘keystone structures’, in
           agricultural landscapes
    • Authors: Mason Crane; David B. Lindenmayer, Ross B. Cunningham, John A. R. Stein
      Pages: 145 - 153
      Abstract: Scattered trees are considered ‘keystone structures’ in many agricultural landscapes worldwide because of the disproportionate effect they have on ecosystem function and biodiversity. Populations of these trees are in decline in many regions. Understanding the processes driving these declines is crucial for better management. Here, we examine the impact of wildfire on populations of this keystone resource. We examined 62 observation plots affected by wildfire and matched with 62 control observation plots where fire was absent. Counts of scattered trees were conducted pre-fire in 2005 and repeated post-fire in 2011. Changes in populations were compared between the control and fire-affected observation plots. Our results show wildfire had a significant local impact, with an average decline of 19.9% in scattered tree populations on burned plots. In contrast, scattered trees increased on average by 5.3% in the control observation plots. The impact of wildfire was amplified (as revealed by greater percentage tree losses) by larger wildfires. Wildfire effects on scattered tree populations are of concern, given a background of other (usually) chronic stressors (often associated with agriculture) and that the frequency and intensity of wildfire are predicted to increase in many landscapes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T03:06:30.058747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12414
       
  • Vegetation, fire and soil feedbacks of dynamic boundaries between
           rainforest, savanna and grassland
    • Authors: Harry J. MacDermott; Roderick J. Fensham, Quan Hua, David M. J. S. Bowman
      Pages: 154 - 164
      Abstract: At fine spatial scales, savanna-rainforest-grassland boundary dynamics are thought to be mediated by the interplay between fire, vegetation and soil feedbacks. These processes were investigated by quantifying tree species composition, the light environment, quantities and flammability of fuels, bark thickness, and soil conditions across stable and dynamic rainforest boundaries that adjoin grassland and eucalypt savanna in the highlands of the Bunya Mountains, southeast Queensland, Australia. The size class distribution of savanna and rainforest stems was indicative of the encroachment of rainforest species into savanna and grassland. Increasing dominance of rainforest trees corresponds to an increase in woody canopy cover, the dominance of litter fuels (woody debris and leaf), and decline in grass occurrence. There is marked difference in litter and grass fuel flammability and this result is largely an influence of strongly dissimilar fuel bulk densities. Relative bark thickness, a measure of stem fire resistance, was found to be generally greater in savanna species when compared to that of rainforest species, with notable exceptions being the conifers Araucaria bidwillii and Araucaria cunninghamii. A transect study of soil nutrients across one dynamic rainforest – grassland boundary indicated the mass of carbon and nitrogen, but not phosphorus, increased across the successional gradient. Soil carbon turnover time is shortest in stable rainforest, intermediate in dynamic rainforest and longest in grassland highlighting nutrient cycling differentiation. We conclude that the general absence of fire in the Bunya Mountains, due to a divergence from traditional Aboriginal burning practices, has allowed for the encroachment of fire-sensitive rainforest species into the flammable biomes of this landscape. Rainforest invasion is likely to have reduced fire risk via changes to fuel composition and microclimatic conditions, and this feedback will be reinforced by altered nutrient cycling. The mechanics of the feedbacks here identified are discussed in terms of landscape change theory.
      PubDate: 2016-08-23T22:30:30.429729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12415
       
  • Going feral: Time and propagule pressure determine range expansion of
           Asian house geckos into natural environments
    • Authors: Louise K. Barnett; Ben L. Phillips, Conrad J. Hoskin
      Pages: 165 - 175
      Abstract: Upon establishment in a new area, invasive species may undergo a prolonged period of relatively slow population growth and spread, known as a lag period. Lag periods are, apparently, common in invasions, but studies of the factors that facilitate subsequent expansions are lacking in natural systems. We used 10 semi-independent invasions of the Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) to investigate which factors facilitate expansion of this human-associated species across the urban–woodland interface. We conducted 590 surveys over 12 months on 10 transects running from the urban edge to 2 km into adjacent natural woodland. We recorded H. frenatus out to 2 km from the urban edge on nine of 10 transects, and at high abundance at many woodland sites. Body size, body condition, sex ratio and proportion of gravid females did not vary with distance from the urban edge, suggesting viable, self-sustaining populations in natural habitats. The extent of expansion was, however, strongly dependent on propagule pressure (the abundance of H. frenatus at the urban edge), and time (time since H. frenatus established in the urban area). The size of the urban area and the structure of the surrounding environment did not impact invasion. Our results show that an invasive species that is deemed ‘human-associated’ over most of its range is invading natural habitats, and propagule pressure strongly controls the lag time in this system, a finding that echoes results for establishment probability at larger scales.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14T04:41:25.597697-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12416
       
  • The importance of food supply in high-productivity ecosystems: Short-term
           experimental tests with small rodents
    • Authors: Jayme A. Prevedello; Marcus V. Vieira, Emerson M. Vieira, Chris R. Dickman
      Pages: 176 - 186
      Abstract: Food availability is considered to be a primary factor affecting animal populations, yet few experimental tests have been performed to evaluate its actual importance in species-rich ecosystems such as rainforests. It has been suggested that in such systems certain plant species may act as “keystone” resources for animals, but the importance of presumed keystone resources for populations has not been quantified experimentally. Using complementary seed removal and seed-addition experiments, we determined how the supply of a presumed keystone resource, seeds of Araucaria angustifolia, affects short-term demography of their main consumer group (small rodents) in a biodiversity hotspot, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We hypothesized that (i) the harvest of A. angustifolia seeds by human populations has negative impacts on rodents, and (ii) these seeds are a limiting resource for rodent populations. To test these hypotheses, we monitored populations of two species of numerically dominant rodents (Delomys dorsalis and Akodon montensis) within replicated control-experimental plots. Manipulations of seed supply over 2 years had little effect on population size, body condition, survival, or reproduction of the two rodents, suggesting that, in the short-term (within one generation), their populations are not food limited in Araucaria forests. Despite apparently having all the characteristics of a keystone resource, as currently defined in the literature, the seeds of A. angustifolia had limited influence on the short-term demography of their main consumer group. In situations where purported keystone resources are seasonally abundant, their actual importance may be lower than generally assumed, and these resources then may have only localized and temporary effects on consumer populations.
      PubDate: 2016-08-23T22:35:24.885806-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12417
       
  • Edge influence on plant litter biomass in forest and savanna in the
           Brazilian cerrado
    • Authors: Pavel Dodonov; Andreza L. Braga, Karen A. Harper, Dalva M. Silva Matos
      Pages: 187 - 197
      Abstract: Edge influence, characterized by differences in ecosystem characteristics between the edge and the interior of remnants in fragmented landscapes, affects a variety of organisms and ecosystem processes. An important feature that may be affected by edges is the amount of plant litter, which provides important habitat for a large variety of organisms and influences ecological processes such as fire dynamics. We studied edge influence on plant litter and fine woody debris in the cerrado of São Paulo state, south-eastern Brazil. We collected, sorted, dried and weighed plant litter along 180 m-long transects perpendicular to three savanna and eleven forest edges adjacent to different anthropogenic land uses, with four to five transect per edge. There tended to be less biomass of the finer portions of fine woody debris at both savanna and forest edges. Graminoid litter at savanna edges was greater than in the corresponding interior areas, whereas other litter portions were either unaffected by edges or did not show consistent patterns in either savanna or forest. Edge influence was usually restricted to the first 20 m from the edge, was not influenced by edge characteristics and exhibited no clear differences between savanna and forest areas. Several mechanisms may have led to the variable patterns observed including variation in the plant community, plant architecture, and invasive species. The edge-related variation in plant litter may putatively lead to, for example, increased fire frequency and intensity at the savanna edges and altered trophic dynamics at forest edges; the mechanisms and consequences of this edge influence should be addressed in future studies.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24T00:10:29.402438-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12420
       
  • Trial reintroduction of buff weka to an unfenced mainland site in central
           South Island, New Zealand
    • Authors: Jim O. Watts; Antoni Moore, Dawn Palmer, Tim C. A. Molteno, Mariano R. Recio, Philip J. Seddon
      Pages: 198 - 209
      Abstract: While there have been significant conservation successes through restoration of island biodiversity following the eradication of invasive predators, a major challenge remains to reintroduce native species within larger mainland systems that support suites of introduced mammalian predators. Strategies to enhance establishment and persistence of reintroduced populations include pre-release management to reduce post-release dispersal, and habitat restoration such as predator control at release sites. Evaluation of such strategies critically requires strategic and intensive post-release monitoring to identify drivers of success or the specific causes of failures. The buff weka (Gallirallus australis hectori), a flightless rail, was reintroduced to an unfenced mainland island on New Zealand's South. Past reintroductions on the mainland have all failed, but lack of post-release monitoring has meant the exact cause and timing of failures is unknown. We investigate the ability of buff weka to establish a mainland population in conjunction with high intensity predator control. Nineteen buff weka (15 males, 4 females) were transferred from predator-free islands in Lake Wakatipu, South Island, to Motatapu Station and held in a pre-release enclosure for 6 weeks. Using a combination of very high frequency (VHF) and Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry, released birds were monitored every 2 days for 4 months post-release. Following release, no buff weka dispersed off Motatapu Station. Survival, however, was low and by the end of the study, 12 (63%) buff weka had been predated by introduced mustelids, ferrets (Mustela furo) and stoats (Mustela erminea). The lack of dispersal by buff weka suggests the presence of favourable resources on Motatapu Station. However, the low survival rate indicates that the predator-trapping network was insufficient to suppress predator numbers to a level low enough for buff weka population persistence.
      PubDate: 2016-08-31T02:41:10.843853-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12422
       
  • Environmental factors exert predominant effects on testate amoeba
           metacommunities during droughts in floodplains
    • Authors: Rodrigo Leite Arrieira; Leilane Talita Fatoreto Schwind, Claudia Costa Bonecker, Fábio Amodêo Lansac-Tôha
      Pages: 210 - 217
      Abstract: Metacommunities have been evaluated as models for the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes in assembling ecological communities. Here, we tested the hypothesis that different hydrological periods (drought and flooding) influence the environmental associations of planktonic testate amoeba metacommunities. We predicted that environmental factors would exert the strongest effects on species dispersal under drought, but that they would be less significant during flooding. Testate amoebae were sampled during drought and flooding, from 72 lakes in four Brazilian floodplains (Amazonian, Araguaia, Pantanal and Paraná). Partial redundancy analysis indicated that only environmental factors were significant; they were significant in all floodplain lakes during the drought. Only the Paraná floodplain had significant results for environmental factors during both hydrological periods. Spatial factors did not contribute significantly to any of the metacommunities. The depth, pH and variables related to environmental productivity were identified as major predictors in the assembly of testate amoeba communities. Our results highlight that different hydrological periods vary in their relative importance in environmental and spatial processes. The species-sorting model was predominant during drought, while stochastic processes prevailed during flooding in all but the Paraná floodplain. In the Paraná floodplain, the construction of dams could potentially alter the effects of environmental and spatial factors on the dispersal of planktonic testate amoebae. The pH and the environmental productivity factors were largely responsible for species selection and the structuring of the planktonic testate amoebae metacommunities in Brazilian floodplains.
      PubDate: 2016-08-28T23:40:26.917983-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12423
       
  • Recovery from a fish kill in a semi-arid Australian river: Can stocking
           augment natural recruitment processes'
    • Authors: Jason D. Thiem; Ian J. Wooden, Lee J. Baumgartner, Gavin L. Butler, Jamin P. Forbes, John Conallin
      Pages: 218 - 226
      Abstract: Localized catastrophic events can dramatically affect fish populations. Management interventions, such as stocking, are often undertaken to re-establish populations that have experienced such events. Evaluations of the effectiveness of these interventions are required to inform future management actions. Multiple hypoxic blackwater events in 2010–2011 substantially reduced fish communities in the Edward-Wakool river system in the southern Murray-Darling Basin, New South Wales, Australia. These events led to extensive fish kills across large sections of the entire system following a period of prolonged drought. To expedite recovery efforts, 119 661 golden perch Macquaria ambigua and 59 088 Murray cod Maccullochella peelii fingerlings were stocked at five locations over 3 years. All fish stocked were chemically marked with calcein to enable retrospective evaluation of wild or hatchery origin. Targeted collections were undertaken 3 years post-stocking to investigate the relative contribution of stocking efforts and recovery via natural recruitment in the system. Of the golden perch retained for annual ageing (n = 93) only nine were of an age that could have coincided with stocking activities. Of those, six were stocked. The dominant year-class of golden perch were spawned in 2009; before the stocking programme began and prior to blackwater events. All Murray cod retained (n = 136) were of an age that coincided with stocking activities, although only eight were stocked. Among the Murray cod captured, the dominant year-class was spawned in 2011, after the blackwater events occurred. The results from this study provide first evidence that natural spawning and recruitment, and possibly immigration, were the main drivers of golden perch and Murray cod recovery following catastrophic fish kills. Interpreted in the context of other recent examples, the collective results indicate limited benefit of stocking to existing connected populations already naturally recruiting in riverine systems.
      PubDate: 2016-08-29T02:11:04.338946-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12424
       
  • Space–time interactions and invertebrate assemblage change in stream
           networks
    • Authors: Rebecca E. Campbell; Angus R. McIntosh
      Pages: 227 - 237
      Abstract: Streams form hierarchical, dendritic physical networks, but relatively little is known about how this spatial structure affects community assembly. We investigated interactions between changes over time in macroinvertebrate assemblages and their distribution in space (the space–time interaction) in stream networks. Assemblages were sampled from every tributary, and every reach between tributaries, to determine effects of network position on assemblage composition, in four West Coast, South Island, New Zealand, headwater networks. Using canonical redundancy analysis, we found that macroinvertebrate assemblages were significantly spatially structured and species assemblages changed significantly between two sampling periods. The most important environmental variables (averaged over all AIC models) explaining change in assemblage composition were related to disturbance, local habitat/resources and habitat size. The lack of a significant interaction between space and time, however, indicated the spatial pattern of assemblages remained the same over time, regardless of changes in assemblage composition. Consistent spatial structuring could be the result of unchanging processes such as those arising from the universal nature of stream topology and hydrology acting both on habitat- and dispersal- related community processes. Thus, we conclude that although community assemblages changed over time, the spatial arrangement of communities could potentially be predicted from stream network topology and hydrology.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T21:50:25.858328-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12425
       
  • Rainforest seed rain into abandoned tropical Australian pasture is
           dependent on adjacent rainforest structure and extent
    • Authors: Lachlan S. Charles; John M. Dwyer, Margaret M. Mayfield
      Pages: 238 - 249
      Abstract: It is well known that the recovery of abandoned tropical pastures to secondary rainforest benefits from the arrival of seeds from adjacent rainforest patches. Less is known, however, about how the structural attributes of adjacent rainforest (e.g. tree density, canopy cover and tree height) impact seed rain patterns into abandoned pastures. Between 2011 and 2013, we used seed traps and ground seed surveys to track the richness and abundance of rainforest seeds entering abandoned pastures in Australia's wet tropics. We also tested how seed rain diversity is related to the distance from forest, the proportion of forest cover in the landscape and several structural attributes of adjacent forest patches, specifically average tree height, canopy cover, tree species richness and density. Almost no seeds were captured in elevated pasture seed traps, even near forest remnants. Abundant forest seeds were found in ground surveys but only within 10 m of forest edges. In ground surveys, seeds from wind-dispersed species were more abundant, but less species rich, than animal-dispersed species. A survey of pasture seedling recruits suggested that some forest seeds must be dispersing more than 10 m into pasture at very low frequencies, but only a few species are establishing there. Recruits were predominantly animal-dispersed not wind-dispersed species. In addition to distance from forest and the proportion of forest within a 100- to 200-m radius of sampling sites, the richness and density of adjacent forest trees were the most important factors for explaining the probability of seed occurrence in abandoned pastures. Results suggest that without some restoration assistance, the recovery of abandoned pastures into secondary rainforest in Australia's tropical rainforests will likely be limited, at least in part, by a very low rate of seed dispersal away from forest edges and by the diversity and density of trees in adjacent remnant forests.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T22:00:29.157533-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12426
       
 
 
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