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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1295 journals)
    - HISTORY (811 journals)
    - History (General) (51 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (48 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (55 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AREAS (7 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (170 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (129 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (24 journals)

HISTORY (811 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 452 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Acadiensis : Journal of the History of the Atlantic Region / Acadiensis : revue d'histoire de la region Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Accounting History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Historiae Artium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Orientalia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Actes d'Història de la Ciència i de la Tècnica     Open Access  
Advances in Historical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Africa Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
African Diaspora     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
albuquerque : revista de história     Open Access  
Almagest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Archivist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168)
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Jewish History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Nineteenth Century History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Periodicals : A Journal of History, Criticism, and Bibliography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Amérique Latine Histoire et Mémoire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur alteren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur neueren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analecta Bollandiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Historia del Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anglican Historical Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales historiques de la Révolution française     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annales UMCS, Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza di Firenze     Hybrid Journal  
Annuaire de l'Ecole pratique des hautes etudes. Section des sciences historiques et philologiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Antike und Abendland     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Antiteses     Open Access  
Anuario de Estudios Atlánticos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ARAM Periodical     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Araucaria. Revista Iberoamericana de Filosofía, Política y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archeion     Full-text available via subscription  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Architectural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arenal. Revista de historia de las mujeres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229)
Arthuriana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arys: Antigüedad, Religiones y Sociedades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aschkenas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Asia-Pacific Journal : Japan Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Review of World Histories     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aspasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Astérion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ateliê de História UEPG     Open Access  
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 4)
Australian Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australian Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australian Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Australian Journal of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Balkanologie : Revue d'Études Pluridisciplinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic-Pontic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BIBLOS - Revista do Departamento de Biblioteconomia e História     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch für Antike und Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Book History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 125)
Boom : A Journal of California     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Britain and the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
British Journal of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
British Mycological Society Symposia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin d'histoire politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de la Sabix     Open Access  
Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin d’études Orientales     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Hispanic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Latin American Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Spanish Studies: Hispanic Studies and Researches on Spain, Portugal and Latin America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Byzantinische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Byzantion Nea Hellás     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
C@hiers du CRHIDI     Open Access  
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cadernos de História     Open Access  
CADUS - Revista de Estudos de Política, História e Cultura     Open Access  
Cahiers d'histoire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers d'histoire. Revue d'histoire critique     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers des études anciennes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cahiers du Centre de recherches historiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cahiers du Monde Russe     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cahiers d’études africaines     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cahiers « Mondes anciens »     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La revue canadienne de linguistique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Review of American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian-American Slavic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Catholic Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central Asian Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chaucer Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Childhood in the Past : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Studies in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chronica Nova. Revista de Historia Moderna de la Universidad de Granada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chronique d'Egypte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Church History and Religious Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Civil War History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cleveland Studies in the History of Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CLIO : Revista de Pesquisa Histórica     Open Access  
Clio y Asociados     Open Access  
Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cliodynamics     Open Access  
Collections électroniques de l'INHA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Collingwood and British Idealism Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Colonial Latin American Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Comitatus : A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Comparative Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Comptabilités     Open Access  
Concorso. Arti e lettere     Open Access  
Conservative Judaism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Conserveries mémorielles     Open Access  
Contemporaneity : Historical Presence in Visual Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Arab Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary British History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary French and Francophone Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Convivium     Full-text available via subscription  
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Critical Historical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cromohs : Cyber Review of Modern Historiography     Open Access  
Crossing Borders : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de Historia Moderna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Ilustración y Romanticismo     Open Access  
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultura Histórica & Patrimônio     Open Access  
Cultural and Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultures & conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cultures et conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Czech-Polish Historical and Pedagogical Journal     Open Access  
Dapim : Studies on the Holocaust     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Das Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover Austral Ecology
  [SJR: 1.095]   [H-I: 66]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1442-9985 - ISSN (Online) 1442-9993
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • No signs of Na+/K+-ATPase adaptations to an invasive exotic toxic prey in
           native squamate predators
    • Authors: Kimberly Pinch; Thomas Madsen, Beata Ujvari
      Abstract: Invasions by exotic toxic prey, like the release of the South American cane toad (Bufo (Rhinella) marinus) to the toad-free Australian continent in 1935, have been shown to result in massive declines in native predator numbers. Due to minor nucleotide mutations of the Na+/K+-ATPase gene most Australian squamate predators are highly susceptible to cane toad toxin. However, in spite of this, predators like yellow-spotted goannas (Varanus panoptes) and red-bellied black snakes (Pseudechis porhyriacus) still persist in parts of Queensland where they, in some areas, have co-existed with cane toads for more than 70 years. Here, we show that the amino acids of the Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme in the two species do not provide toad toxin resistance, and hence the two Queensland predators are still highly susceptible to cane toad toxin. Both yellow-spotted goannas and lace monitors (Varanus varius) have, however, been recorded avoiding feeding on cane toads in areas where they co-exist with this toxic amphibian. Moreover, both varanids have also been shown to learn to avoid feeding on toads when first subjected to conditioned taste aversion. Such behavioural shifts may therefore explain why yellow-spotted goannas and red-bellied black snakes still exist in cane toad infested areas of Queensland. The process appears, however, to be unable to rapidly restore varanid populations to pre-toad population numbers as even after 10 years of co-existence with cane toads in the Northern Territory, we see no signs of an increase in yellow-spotted goanna numbers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T00:05:56.670281-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12520
       
  • Carnivores of Australia: Past, Present and Future Alistair Glen and Chris
           Dickman, eds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, 2014. ix + 438 pp. Price AU
           $89.95 (hardback, also available as an E-book). ISBN 9780643103108.
    • Authors: George Wilson
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T21:59:58.431358-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12435
       
  • Addendum
    • PubDate: 2017-08-21T02:10:19.252038-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12535
       
  • Acacia saligna's soil legacy effects persist up to 10 years after
           clearing: Implications for ecological restoration
    • Authors: Mlungele M. Nsikani; Ana Novoa, Brian W. Wilgen, Jan-Hendrik Keet, Mirijam Gaertner
      Abstract: To reduce the negative impacts of invasive plants, management interventions such as control or eradication are usually necessary. It is often assumed that the impacts of invasive plants will diminish immediately after such interventions. However, in some cases the invader can have legacy effects in the soil that might persist for long periods, preventing the natural restoration of the areas managed. Therefore, to achieve the re-establishment of a functional native ecosystem it is important to understand for how long such legacies can persist in the soil. This paper explores this issue, using Acacia saligna in South Africa as case study. We collected soil samples in invaded, non-invaded and previously invaded sites (representing 2, 6 and 10 years after clearing) and analysed the levels of pH, carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and electrical conductivity. We also analysed enzyme activities (β-1,4-glucosidase, urease and acid phosphatase). Acacia saligna invasion alters overall soil characteristics but specifically raises pH by 0.6–1.8. Moreover, soil characteristics (e.g. pH) are not restored to natural conditions after control (soil legacy effects persist up to 10 years after clearing). Furthermore, A. saligna control elevates soil NO3− levels and these can remain higher than in invaded (1.55–6.67 mg kg−1) and non-invaded (2.16–4.35 mg kg−1) sites up to 10 years after clearing. Elevated NO3− often facilitates secondary invasion and/or weedy native species dominance which may hinder the restoration of functional native ecosystems. Therefore, strategies to manage areas previously invaded by A. saligna should take into account the removal of litter from the target invader, secondary invaders and weedy native species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T00:55:28.499486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12515
       
  • Consequences of disperser behaviour for seedling establishment of a
           mistletoe species
    • Authors: Guillermo C. Amico; Yamila Sasal, Romina Vidal-Russell, Marcelo A. Aizen, Juan Manuel Morales
      Abstract: The dispersal process in plants links adults and their offspring. For frugivore-dispersed plants, animal behaviour can have a strong effect on plant fitness. Many mistletoes are totally dependent on animals that deposit seeds on suitable hosts and particular branch diameters. We characterised the seed dispersal and seedling establishment of the mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus, which at our study site, is exclusively dispersed by the marsupial Dromiciops gliroides. Mistletoes’ fruits have a viscous pulp that remains in the seed even after dispersal. This substance adheres the seed to the host branch. We estimated host branch availability in the forest and seed deposition (faeces) by the marsupial in the study area. Specifically, the branch suitability factors we assessed were host identity, branch status (alive or dead), branch diameter, height, and canopy cover. Lodged faeces were individually marked and the number of seed deposited within these droppings was counted, and we recorded the number of seedlings with true leaves that had established after 1 year to estimate the probability of seedling establishment. Branch diameter and canopy cover had a significant positive effect on seed deposition probability. Seedling establishment probability decreased with the number of seeds deposited per faeces and with canopy cover. In general, the marsupial deposited mistletoe seeds in microsites that increase the chance of seedling establishment. Thus, the movement behaviour of the marsupial has a positive effect on the regeneration process of this mistletoe species.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T03:35:44.740323-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12517
       
  • Does the morphology of animal foraging pits influence secondary seed
           dispersal by ants'
    • Authors: Gabriella N. Radnan; David J. Eldridge
      Abstract: Secondary seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory) is an important process in semi-arid environments where seeds are transported from the soil surface to an ant nest. Microsites from which ants often remove seeds are the small pits and depressions made by native and exotic animals that forage in the soil. Previous studies have demonstrated greater seed retention in the pits of native than exotic animals, but little is known about how biotic factors such as secondary seed dispersal by ants affect seed removal and therefore retention in these foraging pits. We used an experimental approach to examine how the morphology of burrowing bettong (Bettongia lesueur), greater bilby (Macrotis lagotis), short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) foraging pits and ant body size influenced ant locomotion and seed removal from pits along an aridity gradient. Ants took 3.7-times longer to emerge from echidna pits (19.6 s) and six-times longer to emerge from bettong pits (30.5 s) than from rabbit pits (5.2 s), resulting in lower seed removal from bettong pits than other pit types. Fewer seeds were removed from pits when cages were used to exclude large body-sized (>2 mm) ants. Few seeds were removed from the pits or surface up to aridity values of 0.5 (humid and dry sub-humid), but removal increased rapidly in semi-arid and arid zones. Our study demonstrates that mammal foraging pit morphology significantly affects ant locomotion, the ability of ants to retrieve seeds, and therefore the likelihood that seeds will be retained within foraging pits.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T02:41:18.008519-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12519
       
  • Defining the fire trap: Extension of the persistence equilibrium model in
           mesic savannas
    • Authors: Michelle E. Freeman; Peter A. Vesk, Brett P. Murphy, Garry D. Cook, Anna E. Richards, Richard J. Williams
      Abstract: Mesic savannas are dominated by trees that are strong resprouters caught in a frequent fire trap. Persistence within this fire trap has been described by a resprout curve of SizeNext ~ f(Pre-fire size), defined by the Michaelis-Menten function. A key feature of this resprout curve is a stable persistence equilibrium that represents the size of individual plants upon which a population will converge over successive inter-fire time steps under a given fire regime. Here, we contend that such a resprout curve does not adequately describe resprout tree dynamics in frequently burnt mesic savannas because it is constrained to an asymptote. We propose a new framework for modelling the resprout curve, which recognizes that local environmental stochasticity and growth patterns can interact to change the growth response function entirely, and thus more readily reflect the range of feasible resprout responses. Importantly, we define an unstable equilibrium representing the size above which individuals have escaped the fire trap and explore mechanisms that can shift an individual from persistence to escape. Through a case study from northern Australia, we confirm that our framework provides a simple yet practical approach to defining these critical aspects of savanna tree growth dynamics: persistence and escape.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T02:35:54.350309-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12516
       
  • Fine-scale drivers of beetle diversity are affected by vegetation context
           and agricultural history
    • Authors: Catherine E. Ross; Philip S. Barton, Sue McIntyre, Saul A. Cunningham, Adrian D. Manning
      Abstract: Environmental gradients have been shown to affect animal diversity, but knowledge of fine-scale drivers of insect diversity is, in many cases, poorly developed. We investigated the drivers of beetle diversity and composition at different microhabitats, and how this may be mediated by past agricultural activities. The study was undertaken in temperate eucalypt grassy woodland near Canberra, south-eastern Australia, with a 200-year history of pastoral land use. We sampled beetles using pitfall traps at three microhabitats (open grassland, logs and under trees). We analysed the effects of soil properties, vegetation structure, and plant composition on beetle composition, and compared beetle responses among the microhabitats. We found that microhabitat was a strong determinant of the way beetle communities responded to their environment. Soil nutrients (C, N and P) were the strongest drivers of beetle species richness, abundance and composition at open and log microhabitat, however vegetation structure (tree basal area) was more important for beetle richness, abundance and biomass under trees. We also found significant differences in beetle composition among distinct ground-layer plant communities at log and tree microhabitat. We show that prior agricultural land use, particularly fertilization, has altered soil and plant communities, and that these effects continue to flow through the system affecting beetle assemblages. These findings have implications for future management of microhabitat structures in temperate grassy woodlands with a history of agricultural use.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T23:40:27.537498-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12506
       
  • Mutualism influences species distribution predictions for a
           bromeliad-breeding anuran under climate change
    • Authors: Tiago Silveira Vasconcelos; Caio Pastana Antonelli, Marcelo Felgueiras Napoli
      Abstract: Ecological niche models, or species distribution models, have been widely used to identify potentially suitable areas for species in future climate change scenarios. However, there are inherent errors to these models due to their inability to evaluate species occurrence influenced by non-climatic factors. With the intuit to improve the modelling predictions for a bromeliad-breeding treefrog (Phyllodytes melanomystax, Hylidae), we investigate how the climatic suitability of bromeliads influences the distribution model for the treefrog in the context of baseline and 2050 climate change scenarios. We used point occurrence data on the frog and the bromeliad (Vriesea procera, Bromeliaceae) to generate their predicted distributions based on baseline and 2050 climates. Using a consensus of five algorithms, we compared the accuracy of the models and the geographic predictions for the frog generated from two modelling procedures: (i) a climate-only model for P. melanomystax and V. procera; and (ii) a climate-biotic model for P. melanomystax, in which the climatic suitability of the bromeliad was jointly considered with the climatic variables. Both modelling approaches generated strong and similar predictive power for P. melanomystax, yet climate-biotic modelling generated more concise predictions, particularly for the year 2050. Specifically, because the predicted area of the bromeliad overlaps with the predictions for the treefrog in the baseline climate, both modelling approaches produce reasonable similar predicted areas for the anuran. Alternatively, due to the predicted loss of northern climatically suitable areas for the bromeliad by 2050, only the climate-biotic models provide evidence that northern populations of P. melanomystax will likely be negatively affected by 2050.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T06:15:53.075496-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12509
       
  • Growth races in The Mallee: Height growth in woody plants examined with a
           trait-based model
    • Authors: Freya M. Thomas; Peter A. Vesk
      Abstract: Plant height and growth are fundamental to the understanding of species ecological strategies, to the description and prediction of ecosystem dynamics and to vegetation management, such as plant species’ fire responses. However, a convenient way to characterize the height growth strategies for multiple species have been elusive. We examine the height growth trajectories in 18 woody plant species in a light-saturated, fire-prone, semi-arid environment as well as the influence of functional traits on those trajectories. We test trait-growth relationships by examining the influence of specific leaf area, woody density, seed size and leaf nitrogen content on three aspects of plant growth; maximum relative growth rate, age at maximum growth and asymptotic height. Woody plant species in the semi-arid mallee exhibit fast growth trajectories. Small seeded species were likely to be the fastest to reach maximum height, while large-seeded species with high leaf nitrogen were likely the slowest. Tall species had low stem densities and tended to have low specific leaf area. We modelled plant growth using a hierarchical multi-species model that formally incorporates plant functional traits as species-level predictors of growth, which provides a method for predicting species height growth strategies as a function of their traits. We extend this approach by using the modelled relationships from our trait-growth model to predict: growth trajectories of species with limited data; real species with only trait data and; hypothetical species based only on trait coordination. We hope this highlights the potential to use trait information for ecological inference and to generate predictions that could be used for management.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T06:40:32.165335-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12501
       
  • Measuring the effects of reduced snow cover on Australia's alpine
           arthropods
    • Authors: Rachel A. Slatyer; Michael A. Nash, Ary A. Hoffmann
      Abstract: Snow is one of the most important factors in the ecology of alpine ecosystems. In Australia, both the depth and duration of snow cover have declined significantly in recent decades and this trend is projected to continue with global warming. Many small arthropods remain active throughout the winter, within a space beneath the snowpack (subnivean) where the snow's insulation creates a thermally stable environment. Using field surveys and experimental manipulation of snow depth at two locations in the Australian alpine region, we explored the diversity of winter-active arthropods and their response to reduced snow. Individuals from 18 arthropod Orders were detected beneath the snow during winter, with Collembola, Araneae, Acari and Coleoptera accounting for 95–98% of the individuals collected. The subnivean taxa represented a distinct subset of those active outside the winter months. Removal of the snow layer increased daily temperature fluctuations, increased the number of days below freezing and raised the mean surface temperatures. Community composition was altered by snow removal, driven by changes in the numbers of two abundant springtail taxa at each location. We found a strong reduction in the abundances of both taxa at one study site, and contrasting responses (one strong positive and one strong negative) to snow removal at the second study site. Subnivean arthropod communities in Australia thus appear sensitive to snow conditions at small spatial scales.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T02:45:39.677676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12507
       
  • Movements and habitat use of the night parrot Pezoporus occidentalis in
           south-western Queensland
    • Authors: Stephen A. Murphy; Jennifer Silcock, Rachel Murphy, Julian Reid, Jeremy J. Austin
      Abstract: The nocturnal, cryptic and geographically remote nature of night parrots, combined with their apparent rapid decline, means that very little is known of their biology or ecology. The discovery of a resident population in south-western Queensland in 2013 provides the first opportunity to undertake detailed studies on this most enigmatic of birds. We attached a radio tag to a bird for 20 days in April 2015 and a GPS tag to another bird for 5 days in May 2016 to study movement patterns and habitat use. Both birds displayed similar behaviour but the GPS-tagging provided a much finer resolution of spatial data. They called at dusk from their diurnal roosts amongst spinifex hummocks and then flew to more floristically diverse habitats dominated by large-seeded species to feed. We conducted floristic surveys to describe the feeding grounds of the GPS-tagged bird and make dietary inferences. This individual spent most of its time in highly diverse but ephemeral habitats, including seasonally inundated plains and depressions associated with the outer Diamantina floodplain and gilgais on ironstone plains. Prolifically seeding ephemeral species, most notably the annual grass Uranthoecium truncatum, dominate these feeding grounds. This work suggests that the habitat mosaic containing roost sites in close proximity to feeding grounds with key seed-producing species is an important factor, rather than an association with spinifex or samphire alone. Further work is needed to examine movement patterns and habitat use in more typical dry seasons and the impact of cattle grazing on night parrot feeding areas, particularly with regard to seed production. The information presented here is vital for both in situ conservation of the Pullen-Pullen-Mt Windsor-Diamantina population and for setting future research and survey priorities.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T02:40:51.91572-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12508
       
  • Influence of sedimentation in the absence of macrograzers on recruitment
           of an annual population of Macrocystis pyrifera in Metri Bay, Chile
    • Authors: Arley F. Muth; Eduardo A. Henríquez-Tejo, Alejandro H. Buschmann
      Abstract: The effects of sedimentation and substrate orientation on algal and sessile invertebrate assemblages were tested on an annual population of Macrocystis pyrifera in Metri Bay, southern Chile. In the laboratory, M. pyrifera zoospores were seeded on Crepipatella fecunda shells, the primary substrate for M. pyrifera in this system. The seeded shells were deployed at Metri Bay inside cages and were orientated vertically and horizontally under two sedimentation regimes (bottom and suspended). Due to differences in grazer accessibility and the species present between the sedimentation treatments, grazers (>1 cm) were excluded. We followed sporophyte development of M. pyrifera and the natural recruitment of other algal and invertebrate species. Sedimentation rates were significantly higher in the cages attached to the bottom compared to suspended cages (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T00:40:33.165532-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12496
       
  • The secondary invasion of giant African land snail has little impact on
           litter or seedling dynamics in rainforest
    • Authors: Luke S. O'loughlin; Peter T. Green
      Abstract: In the absence of empirical evidence, invasive species are often assumed to have negative impacts because of their conspicuously high abundance. The giant African land snail Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica is one such invader where its impact in natural ecosystems remains completely untested. On Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), A. fulica has become established across large tracts of rainforest following the impacts of invasive yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) in mutualism with non-native scale insects. Yellow crazy ants facilitate the secondary invasion of A. fulica by extirpating native red land crabs (Gecarcoidea natalis) that are normally effective predators of A. fulica. We used a multifaceted approach to investigate some potential impacts of abundant A. fulica in invaded rainforest. Over the course of a wet season, diel activity transects showed that A. fulica consumed detrital material almost exclusively. However, stable isotope analysis did not confidently identify A. fulica as a predominantly detritivorous species. We found no statistically significant treatment effects of A. fulica exclusion on standing leaf litter and seedling recruitment processes during a 6-month manipulative field study. However, litter cover and biomass did remain slightly higher where A. fulica were excluded, albeit with overlapping confidence intervals with control plots. Our study constitutes the first empirical test for impact of A. fulica in a natural ecosystem and suggests that for Christmas Island rainforest, this species is not a damaging invader. Other studies will need to assess the impacts of A. fulica in other natural areas before these findings could be considered broadly applicable.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T06:42:34.872992-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12504
       
  • Root proliferation strategies and exploration of soil patchiness in arid
           communities
    • Authors: Maria Fernanda Reyes; Martín Roberto Aguiar
      Abstract: Soil patchiness is a key feature of arid rangelands. As root proliferation contributes to soil exploration and resource uptake, it is ecologically relevant to understand how species respond to soil heterogeneity and coexist. Campbell et al.'s influential 1991 hypothesis proposes that dominant species deploy root systems (scale) that maximize soil volume explored. Instead, subordinate species show accurate root systems that exclusively proliferate in nutrient-rich patches (precision). After many experiments under controlled conditions, the generality of this hypothesis has been questioned but a field perspective is necessary to increase realism in the conceptual framework. We worked with a guild of perennial graminoid species inside a grazing exclosure in an arid Patagonian steppe, a model system for ecological studies in arid rangelands for four decades. We buried root traps in bare ground patches with sieved soil, with or without a pulse of nitrogen addition, to measure specific root biomass and precision at 6 and 18 months after burial. We also estimated scale (root density) in naturally established plants, and root decomposition in litter bags. Several species grew in root traps. Dominant species showed the highest root biomass (in both harvests) and scale. Subordinate species grew more frequently with nitrogen addition and showed lower biomass and scale. Similar total root biomass was found with and without nitrogen addition. Species differed in root decomposition, but correcting species biomass by decomposition did not change our conclusions. We did not find a relation between scale and precision, indicating that Campbell's hypothesis is probably not supported in this Patagonian steppe. Soil resource acquisition differences probably do not utterly explain the coexistence of dominant and subordinate species because the steppe is also affected by large herbivore grazing. We propose that root proliferation in this steppe is the result of the interaction between individual density in the community and specific root growth rates.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:00:54.285514-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12503
       
  • Agropastoral activities increase fluctuating asymmetry in tadpoles of two
           neotropical anuran species
    • Authors: Renan N. Costa; Mirco Solé, Fausto Nomura
      Abstract: Agriculture and pasture activities are the main drivers for habitat reduction, directly affecting amphibian assemblages. In the Cerrado, the progress of agricultural and pasture areas negatively affects aquatic environments and their organisms, once the suppression of marginal vegetation reduces the natural protection against allochtone stressors. One possible way to measure the stress level is the Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA), which is calculated based on the deviations in the development of bilateral morphological traits of the organism. Herein, we evaluated whether environments with a higher degree of agropastoral influence and reduced marginal vegetation can increase FA levels in tadpoles of two common and widely distributed anuran species in the Cerrado (Physalaemus cuvieri and Scinax fuscomarginatus). We sampled and classified water bodies according to the percentage of agropastoral land use and marginal vegetation, and measured four morphological traits of tadpoles to evaluate the degree of FA. We found that in environments with intensive agropastoral land use, tadpoles of P. cuvieri and S. fuscomarginatus had higher FA in nostril-snout distance (NSD). In environments with reduced marginal vegetation, tadpoles of S. fuscomarginatus had higher FA in eye width (EW), but no effect was detected for tadpoles of P. cuvieri. These morphological traits (i.e. nostrils and eyes) are associated to individual fitness of tadpoles. Thus, these developmental deviations can affect species fitness and population homeostasis over time, contributing to generate stochastic population dynamics and increasing the vulnerability of native species to local extinctions. The use of FA as a tool to measure environmental impact on species with potential to be used as bioindicators can contribute to generate and test hypothesis when integrated with long-term studies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T04:10:47.218553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12502
       
  • A hierarchical multi-scale analysis of the spatial relationship between
           parasitism and host density in urban habitats
    • Authors: María Silvina Fenoglio; Victoria Werenkraut, Juan Manuel Morales, Adriana Salvo
      Abstract: Studies on spatial density dependence in parasitism have paid scarce attention to how changes in host density at different hierarchical scales could influence parasitism in an herbivore at a particular scale. Here, we evaluated if rates of parasitism per leaf (by the whole parasitic complex and by dominant species) of the specialist leaf miner Liriomyza commelinae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) respond to variations in host density at the leaf, plant patch and site levels in an urban setting. We used multi-level Bayesian models that incorporate the spatial hierarchy occurring in this system, as well as habitat factors previously found to have an effect on the L. commelinae parasitoid community in an urban context (patch size, patch isolation and urbanization level). According to the fitted model, overall parasitism rates decreased with increasing number of mines per leaf, being independent of host-density variations at patch and site level. Patch structure was found to have a strong effect on parasitism rates per leaf. The analysis of parasitism by parasitoid species separately showed consistent results with the response at community level. These results suggest that parasitism of the parasitoid community here studied would be sensitive to hierarchical cues related to the host at the leaf level and to the host habitat at the patch level.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T00:55:55.173512-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12491
       
  • Variable rainfall has a greater effect than fire on the demography of the
           dominant tree in a semi-arid Eucalyptus savanna
    • Authors: Roderick J. Fensham; Michelle E. Freeman, Boris Laffineur, Harry Macdermott, Lynda D. Prior, Patricia A. Werner
      Abstract: Rainfall, fire and competition are emphasized as determinants of the density and basal area of woody vegetation in savanna. The semi-arid savannas of Australia have substantial multi-year rainfall deficits and insufficient grass fuel to carry annual fire in contrast to the mesic savannas in more northern regions. This study investigates the influence of rainfall deficit and excess, fire and woody competition on the population dynamics of a dominant tree in a semi-arid savanna. All individuals of Eucalyptus melanophloia were mapped and monitored in three, 1-ha plots over an 8.5 year period encompassing wet and dry periods. The plots were unburnt, burnt once and burnt twice. A competition index incorporating the size and distance of neighbours to target individuals was determined. Supplementary studies examined seedling recruitment and the transition of juvenile trees into the sapling layer. Mortality of burnt seedlings was related to lignotuber area but the majority of seedlings are fire resistant within 12 months of germination. Most of the juveniles (≤1 cm dbh) of E. melanophloia either died in the dry period or persisted as juveniles throughout 8.5 years of monitoring. Mortality of juveniles was positively related to woody competition and was higher in the dry period than the wet period. The transition of juveniles to a larger size class occurred at extremely low rates, and a subsidiary study along a clearing boundary suggests release from woody competition allows transition into the sapling layer. From three fires the highest proportion of saplings (1–10 cm dbh) reduced to juveniles was only 5.6% suggesting rates of ‘top-kill’ of E. melanophloia as a result of fire are relatively low. Girth growth was enhanced in wet years, particularly for larger trees (>10 cm dbh), but all trees regardless of size or woody competition levels are vulnerable to drought-induced mortality. Overall the results suggest that variations in rainfall, especially drought-induced mortality, have a much stronger influence on the tree demographics of E. melanophloia in a semi-arid savanna of north-eastern Australia than fire.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T04:40:26.000832-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12495
       
  • Effect of species-counting protocols and the spatial distribution of
           effort on rarefaction curves in relation to decision making in
           environmental-impact assessments
    • Authors: Rodrigo Vasconcelos Koblitz; Albertina Pimentel Lima, Marcelo Menin, Diana Pimentel Rojas, Luiz Henrique Condrati, William Ernest Magnusson
      Abstract: Rarefaction Curves are frequently used in Environmental Impact Assessments to evaluate sampling sufficiency, but without clear guidelines of how to ensure that the assumptions of the methods are met. Infrastructure projects in the Brazilian Amazon and elsewhere often occupy extensive areas in remote locations with difficult access, and random sampling under such conditions is impractical. We tested the influence of sampling unit (sample or individual), and geographic distance between samples on rarefaction curve s, and evaluated the magnitude of errors resulting from the misuse of rarefaction curve in decision making, using frogs from four Amazonian sampling sites. Individual-based rarefaction curve were steeper than those generated by sample-based rarefaction curve. Geographic distance influenced the number of exclusive species in a predictable fashion only in one area, and not in the Environmental Impact Assessment site. Misuse of rarefaction curve generated large errors in the identification of vulnerable taxa. Because the rarefaction curve model is sensitive to the assumption of randomness and geographic distance can influence it unpredictably, we suggest that rarefaction curve should generally not be used to estimate sample completeness when making management decisions for environmental licensing purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17T03:21:07.678147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12490
       
  • Veligers of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei in the diet of
           indigenous fish larvae in a eutrophic subtropical reservoir
    • Authors: Esteban M. Paolucci; Valentín Leites, Daniel H. Cataldo, Demetrio Boltovskoy
      Abstract: Larval fish development depends largely on their ability to capture and ingest food items, and on food availability. In this context, invasive species, eutrophication and river impoundments have complex impacts on fish larvae. Using samples collected in 2005–2009 in the Salto Grande reservoir (Argentina–Uruguay), periodically affected by cyanobacterial blooms, we studied the impact of the larvae of the exotic bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Bivalvia) on larval fish diets. Compared with other nearby waterbodies, the abundance of fish larvae was scarcer in the reservoir, especially during algal bloom periods. Only 20% of the larval fish with gut contents fed on L. fortunei veligers. Seven fish taxa (of a total of 12) consumed veligers of L. fortunei, but only two showed a preference for this prey. Taxonomic changes in the larval fish assemblages due to the river's impoundment, and temporal uncoupling between veliger densities (affected by the toxigenic effects of Microcystis spp.) and ichthyoplankton could account for the comparatively low trophic importance of the invasive bivalve's veligers. These results reflect the complexity of interactions brought about when the same invasive species invades different environments, underscoring that the impacts involved depend as much on the invader, as on the regional and ecological settings of the area invaded.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:05:49.21086-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12493
       
  • Ecological consequences of an unusual simultaneous masting of Araucaria
           araucana and Chusquea culeou in North-West Patagonia, Argentina
    • Authors: Fernando A. Milesi; María Laura Guichón, Martín J. Monteverde, Luciana Piudo, Javier Sanguinetti
      Abstract: A simultaneous masting of two abundant species in the temperate forests of North-West Argentinean Patagonia occurred in 2013 for the first time ever recorded: the semelparous bamboo grass Chusquea culeou (colihue), dominating the understory, flowered and set seed across 1100 km2 while pehuén (Araucaria araucana), an endemic conifer co-dominating the tree layer had the highest regionally synchronized mast event in the last 30 years. Strong trophic effects were expected as a consequence of this extraordinary amount of seed, such as rodent outbreaks (ratadas) that followed previous Chusquea spp. mast events and included Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the main reservoir of the Andes virus causing the Hantavirus Pulmonar Syndrome. From March 2013 to May 2014, we sampled relative abundance and activity of seed-eaters and carnivores at four study sites with different proportions of both masting species. Surprisingly, total rodent capture rates never exceeded 14% in wild habitats and 8% in peridomestic areas showing low overall density in spite of some heavy O. longicaudatus males extending their reproductive activity into winter. Total abundance and relative proportion of granivorous birds peaked at the four sites in winter or spring, when they are usually scarce. Other surveyed organisms (native and exotic seed-eaters, ungulates and carnivores) showed moderate responses at most, probably through aggregation from surrounding areas rather than reproduction. Seed removal from experimental seed stations varied in time and space though never peaked. The clearest pattern of community responses, though much subtler than expected, occurred at the site where colihue was abundant and pehuén scarce. This is the first systematic study that reports such a simultaneous double masting and our surveys revealed no widespread community consequences. We propose that either contingent events, such as an unprecedented drought, or permanent environmental features or contextual characteristics may explain the lack of a rodent outbreak in this area.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:30:33.763573-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12489
       
  • How do predators and scavengers locate resource hotspots within a tropical
           forest?
    • Authors: Daniel J. D. Natusch; Jessica A. Lyons, Richard Shine
      Abstract: In many parts of the world, wildlife species congregate at ‘hotspot’ locations that offer feeding opportunities unmatched in the wider landscape. But to exploit those resource-rich sites, animals must first locate them. In tropical Australia, predators and scavengers (especially dingos, scrub turkeys, snakes, and invasive toads) gather beneath large canopy-emergent trees that house breeding colonies of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica). Some wildlife species feed on fallen nestlings whereas others consume the rich insect fauna supported by bird detritus, or the other species attracted to those resources. Those congregations largely cease as soon as colony trees fall, suggesting that wildlife aggregations are responses to bird-associated cues rather than to specific locations. To identify the proximate cues that elicit congregation of wildlife under such trees, we deployed sound cues (starling-chatter) and two types of scent cues (soil from beneath a starling tree, and complete nests on broken branches). We recorded visitations by animals with camera-traps. Starling-chatter did not attract significant numbers of animals, but soil from beneath colony trees attracted many animals (mostly scrub turkeys). Complete nests attracted nest-predators (dingos, snakes). Our experiments suggest that faunal aggregations beneath colony trees are driven by proximate responses to distinctive scent cues in the soil, especially for species that obtain their food from that bird-fertilized substrate; but predators that feed directly on fallen nestlings key in specifically on that resource.
      PubDate: 2017-04-09T22:45:26.120266-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12492
       
  • Recent invasion of European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on to Fraser Island
           (K'gari) and South Stradbroke Island
    • Authors: Benjamin L. Allen; Linda Behrendorff, Lyn Willsher, Janina Kaluza, Jane Oakey
      Abstract: Invasive predators are globally significant drivers of threatened fauna population decline and extinction, and the early detection of new incursions is critical to the chances of successful predator eradication and fauna conservation. Here, we provide evidence of the recent invasion of European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on to two large and internationally significant islands off the southeast coast of Queensland, Australia – Fraser Island (K'gari) and South Stradbroke Island. From camera trap footage collected on Fraser Island since 2009, foxes have now been observed on seven different occasions between 2012 and 2016. Two scats collected on South Stradbroke Island in 2013 and 2014 tested positive for fox DNA (and negative for Canis spp. DNA), with fox presence confirmed by subsequent camera trap footage in 2016. These data confirm the recent incursion of foxes on to these islands and suggest that small populations now exist there. Fraser Island and South Stradbroke Island represent key RAMSAR wetland areas of refuge for populations of multiple threatened fauna that have never been previously been exposed to foxes. Fox impacts on these fauna can only be expected to increase without management intervention to eradicate them before they become widespread.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:40:50.171905-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12494
       
  • How well documented is Australia's flora? Understanding spatial bias in
           vouchered plant specimens
    • Authors: Md. Mohasinul Haque; David A. Nipperess, Rachael V. Gallagher, Linda J. Beaumont
      Abstract: Massive digitization of natural history collections (NHC) has opened the door for researchers to conduct inferential studies on the collection of biological diversity across space and time. The widespread use of NHCs in scientific research makes it essential to characterize potential sources of spatial bias. In this study, we assessed spatial patterns in records from the Australian Virtual Herbarium (AVH), based on >3 000 000 vouchered specimens of around 21 000 native plant species. The AVH is the main database for describing Australia's flora, and identifying its limitations is of paramount interest for the validity of conservation and environmental studies. We characterized how sampling effort is distributed across each Interim Bioregion of Australia (IBRA), then asked: (i) How complete are species inventories for each bioregion? We define completeness (C) as the ratio of observed to estimated species richness, using the Chao 1 estimator, (ii) How is sampling effort related to a commonly used Human Influence Index (HII)? and (iii) What is the probability that additional collections would result in the identification of previously unrecorded species in each bioregion? Sampling effort across bioregions is unequal, which partially reflects the collecting behaviour of naturalists in relation to species richness patterns. The density of records in bioregions ranges from 0.02–8.37 km−2. At the bioregional scale, completeness is generally high with 79% of bioregions estimated to have records for at least 80% of their species. Completeness is partly explained by sampling effort (r = 0.43, p = 0.01), although some bioregions (e.g. Northern Kimberley and Burt Plain) have high completeness yet relatively low sampling effort. The inventory of Hampton, however, is substantially less complete than other bioregions (C = 0.66). Bioregions with high HII consistently have high completeness, while regions with low HII span the full range of completeness values. We calculated that an additional specimen collected from a bioregion has a 0.33% (Wet Tropics) to 11.7% (Arnhem Coast) probability of representing a new species for that region. Our assessment can assist with directing future systematic survey efforts by identifying bioregions where additional surveying may result in the greatest return, in terms of increasing knowledge of species richness and diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T23:35:30.71717-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12487
       
  • Population size structure of trees in a semi-arid African savanna: Species
           differ in vulnerability to a changing environment and reintroduction of
           elephants
    • Authors: Timothy Gordon O'Connor; Victoria Lucy Goodall
      Abstract: The size structure of a plant population provides a snapshot of potential population trend and weak inference on past history. Size structure of 24 tree species was sampled in a savanna reserve in order to assess their potential vulnerability to local extirpation following the reintroduction of elephants. Regression of number per size class based on an expected reverse-J structure for a healthy population was undertaken in order to classify trend of each species. On account of the weak realism of this expected structure in semi-arid environments, log-normal mixture models were also fitted to individual observations in order to identify states, whose distribution, size and shape can indicate potential population persistence. Population structure of 12 species approximated a reverse-J, indicating potential future growth. Although regressions of seven species were not significant, suggesting vulnerable populations, mixture models of all except one showed multiple states, indicating variable regeneration and recruitment over time. A single state of adult plants indicates that Sclerocarya birrea was vulnerable to local extirpation if adult mortality escalates. Some apparently declining populations displayed multiple states of established individuals suggesting temporally varying regeneration and recruitment, attributed mainly to rainfall variation, but which were judged as likely to persist. Poor recent regeneration of most species was attributed to well below-average rainfall for the preceding decade. Different savanna tree species apparently ensure persistence based on individualistic responses to population perturbations, but persistence of some following the reintroduction of elephants may be threatened if certain size classes experience escalated mortality. Subsequent monitoring has supported this concern.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T23:45:37.902625-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12485
       
  • Environmental and spatial drivers of spider diversity at contrasting
           microhabitats
    • Authors: Philip S. Barton; Maldwyn J. Evans, Claire N. Foster, Saul A. Cunningham, Adrian D. Manning
      Abstract: The relative importance of environmental and spatial drivers of animal diversity varies across scales, but identifying these scales can be difficult if a sampling design does not match the scale of the target organisms' interaction with their habitat. In this study, we quantify and compare the effects of environmental variation and spatial proximity on ground-dwelling spider assemblages sampled from three distinct microhabitat types (open grassland, logs, trees) that recur across structurally heterogeneous grassy woodlands. We used model selection and multivariate procedures to compare the effects of different environmental attributes and spatial proximity on spider assemblages at each microhabitat type. We found that species richness and assemblage composition differed among microhabitat types. Bare ground cover had a negative effect on spider richness under trees, but a positive effect on spider richness in open grassland. Turnover in spider assemblages from open grassland was correlated with environmental distance, but not geographic distance. By contrast, turnover in spiders at logs and trees was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance. Our study suggests that spider assemblages from widespread and connected open grassland habitat were more affected by environmental than spatial gradients, whereas spiders at log and tree habitats were more affected by spatial distance among these discrete but recurring microhabitats. Deliberate selection and sampling of small-scale habitat features can provide robust information about the drivers of arthropod diversity and turnover in landscapes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-05T21:55:33.744213-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12488
       
  • Extreme specialization to rocky habitats in Tropidurus lizards from
           Brazil: Trade-offs between a fitted ecomorph and autoecology in a harsh
           environment
    • Authors: Nicolás Pelegrin; Daniel Oliveira Mesquita, Pâmela Albinati, Francis Luiz Santos Caldas, Lucas Barbosa de Queiroga Cavalcanti, Tais Borges Costa, Diego Alejandro Falico, Jéssica Yara A. Galdino, Derek B. Tucker, Adrian Antonio Garda
      Abstract: Ecomorphological theory indicates that different ecological requirements lead to different organismal designs. Given that species with equal requirements could not coexist, traits leading to more efficient use of resources may be selected to avoid competition among closely related syntopic species, generating specialized ecomorphs. We compared habitat use, diet, thermal biology and morphology among the syntopic Tropidurus semitaeniatus, T. helenae and T. hispidus in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil. Tropidurus semitaeniatus and T. helenae are flattened lizards specialized to rocks and rock crevices, whereas T. hispidus has a robust body and generalist habits. We aimed to test the hypothesis that morphological modifications observed in the flattened ecomorphs are related to modifications in diet and habitat use. Also, we hypothesized that specialization to habitat induces morphological modifications, which in turn may constrain lizard performance. Flattened species differed in habitat use, morphology and prey size when compared with the generalist ecomorph. Morphological modifications were related to specializations to rocky habitats and constrained the variety of prey items consumed. This phenotype also reduced their reproductive output when compared with a robust, generalist ecomorph.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T22:35:45.146783-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12486
       
  • Establishment of native grasses and their impact on exotic annuals in
           degraded box gum woodlands
    • Authors: Ian Cole; Suzanne Prober, Ian Lunt, Terry Koen
      Abstract: Restoration goals often involve the addition of new species to resident, degraded communities but in box gum woodlands such restoration is often constrained by competition from persistent exotic annuals that control critical ecological processes. Nutrient reduction (via carbon addition) and seed bank depletion are two approaches to reduce competition from exotic annuals but to be effective these treatments must allow establishment of species such as native grasses. This experiment was conducted in two degraded Austrostipa understoreys in the box gum woodlands of south-east Australia. It compares the effects of carbon addition (sugar), seed depletion (spring burning or spring grazing) and combinations of carbon addition and seed depletion treatments on the establishment of C3 and C4 native grasses, and measured the effects of their establishment on soil nitrate concentration and exotic annuals. Treatments that reduced exotic annual abundance did not increase initial germination of the C4 native grasses, Bothriochloa or Themeda. However, sugar increased seedling survival of Themeda and Bothriochloa and grazing increased seedling survival of Bothriochloa, presumably by reducing effects of exotic annuals. Poa and Rytidosperma (C3 native grasses) failed to establish. Although we were unable to detect any reduction in soil nitrate concentration, swards with successful recruitment of C4 grasses suppressed exotic annuals more than the Austrostipa-only swards at one site (the other was affected by wildfire). Further, Austrostipa-Themeda swards were more effective than Austrostipa-Bothriochloa for suppressing exotics, pointing to a role for both functional and species identity in the degree of resistance conferred.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T01:20:29.583849-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12482
       
  • Changes in the realized niche of the invasive succulent CAM plant Furcraea
           foetida
    • Authors: Cristiana Barbosa; Juan Manuel Otalora, Eduardo L. H. Giehl, Fabricio Villalobos, Rafael Loyola, Geiziane Tessarolo, Nathália Machado, Tânia Tarabini Castellani
      Abstract: Furcraea foetida (Asparagaceae) is a native plant of Central America and northern South America but there is no information about its country of origin. The species was introduced into Brazil and is now considered invasive, particularly in coastal ecosystems. To date, nothing is known about the environmental factors that constrain its distribution and there is only inconclusive information about its location of origin. We used reciprocal distribution models (RDM) to assess invasion risk of F. foetida across Brazil and to identify source regions in its native range. We also tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using Principal Components Analyses and statistical tests of niche equivalency and similarity between its native and invaded ranges. For RDM analysis, we built two models using maximum entropy, one using records in the native range to predict the invaded distribution (forward-Ecological Niche Model or forward-ENM) and one using records in the invaded range to predict the native distribution (reverse-ENM). Forward-ENM indicated invasion risk in the Cerrado region and the innermost region of the Atlantic Forest, however, failed to predict the current occurrence in southern Brazil. Reverse-ENM supported an existing hypothesis that F. foetida originated in the Orinoco river basin, Amazon basin and Caribbean islands. Prediction errors in the RDM and multivariate analysis indicated that the species expanded its realized niche in Brazil. The niche similarity test further suggested that the niche differences are because of differences in habitat availability between the two ranges, not because of evolutionary changes. We hypothesize that physiological pre-adaptation (especially, the crassulacean acid metabolism), human-driven propagule pressure and high competitive ability are the main factors determining the current spatial distribution of the species in Brazil. Our study highlights the need to include F. foetida in plant invasion monitoring programs, especially in priority conservation areas where the species has still not been introduced.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T21:15:32.410072-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12483
       
  • Sampling grain influences trends in vegetation composition and diversity
           with time since fire in Australian heathland
    • Authors: Timothy J. Wills; Jennifer Read
      Abstract: Scale-dependency of pattern and process is well-understood for many ecological communities; however, the influence of spatial scale (sampling grain) in detecting temporal change in communities is less well-understood. The temperate lowland heathlands of south-east Australia are one of the most fire-prone ecosystems on earth. Despite the extensive literature documenting the effect of time since fire on heathlands, we know little about how sampling grain influences trends in vegetation variables over time, and whether these trends are scale-dependent. Using 3500 ha of heathland in the Gippsland Lakes Coastal Park, south-east Australia, we investigated how above-ground species composition and diversity, and trends in these variables with increasing time since fire, were influenced by sampling grain (1 m2, 10 m2, 100 m2, 900 m2, 1 ha, 4 ha). Sampling grain influenced patterns detected in vegetation variables and in some instances, significantly affected their relationship with time since fire. Richness decreased with time since fire, with mean richness decreasing at three of the four grains, while total richness decreased at half of the sampled grains. Evenness (J) decreased with increasing time since fire for all grains except 1 m2. The decline in diversity (H) with time since fire appeared to be independent of scale, as all grains decreased significantly with increasing time since fire. Community heterogeneity demonstrated a weak response to time since fire across most grains. Changes in composition among young (0–6 years since fire), intermediate (9–19 years) and old (23–27 years) sites were dependent on sampling grain, with all grains exhibiting significant differences in composition, apart from the 1 m2 grain and the 100 m2 grain (presence/absence data). Overall, species composition, richness, evenness, diversity and community heterogeneity were dependent on the scale at which the vegetation was sampled. In addition, trends in many of these vegetation variables with increasing time since fire were scale-dependent. This work provides strong evidence that sampling at multiple grains contributes substantially to understanding pattern and process in heathlands.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T02:52:48.979565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12484
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 631 - 631
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T21:59:55.290585-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aec.12443
       
 
 
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