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  Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1265 journals)
    - HISTORY (798 journals)
    - History (General) (51 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (47 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (54 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA AREAS (7 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (162 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (122 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (24 journals)

HISTORY (798 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 452 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Acadiensis : Journal of the History of the Atlantic Region / Acadiensis : revue d'histoire de la region Atlantique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Accounting History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Historiae Artium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Orientalia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Actes d'Història de la Ciència i de la Tècnica     Open Access  
Advances in Historical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Africa Confidential     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Africa Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
African Diaspora     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
African Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Almagest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Archivist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Jewish History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
American Nineteenth Century History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Periodicals : A Journal of History, Criticism, and Bibliography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Amérique Latine Histoire et Mémoire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur alteren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Amsterdamer Beitrage zur neueren Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anais do Museu Paulista : História e Cultura Material     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analecta Bollandiana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anales de Historia del Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anglican Historical Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annales historiques de la Révolution française     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annales UMCS, Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza di Firenze     Hybrid Journal  
Annuaire de l'Ecole pratique des hautes etudes. Section des sciences historiques et philologiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Antike und Abendland     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Antiteses     Open Access  
Anuario de Estudios Atlánticos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ARAM Periodical     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Araucaria. Revista Iberoamericana de Filosofía, Política y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Architectural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Area     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Arenal. Revista de historia de las mujeres     Open Access  
Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Art History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Arthuriana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arys: Antigüedad, Religiones y Sociedades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aschkenas     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Asia-Pacific Journal : Japan Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aspasia     Full-text available via subscription  
Astérion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ateliê de História UEPG     Open Access  
Aurora Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Australasian Journal of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 4)
Australian Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australian Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australian Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Politics & History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Balkanologie : Revue d'Études Pluridisciplinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Baltic-Pontic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BIBLOS - Revista do Departamento de Biblioteconomia e História     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch für Antike und Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Body & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Book History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 112)
Boom : A Journal of California     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Britain and the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
British Journal of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
British Mycological Society Symposia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin d'histoire politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin de la Sabix     Open Access  
Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin d’études Orientales     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Hispanic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of Latin American Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Spanish Studies: Hispanic Studies and Researches on Spain, Portugal and Latin America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Byzantinische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Byzantion Nea Hellás     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
C@hiers du CRHIDI     Open Access  
Cabo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cadernos de História     Open Access  
CADUS - Revista de Estudos de Política, História e Cultura     Open Access  
Cahiers d'histoire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers d'histoire. Revue d'histoire critique     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers des études anciennes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cahiers du Centre de recherches historiques     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cahiers du Monde Russe     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cahiers d’études africaines     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cahiers « Mondes anciens »     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
California Italian Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La revue canadienne de linguistique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Review of American Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian-American Slavic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Catholic Historical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cemoti, Cahiers d'études sur la méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central Asian Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chaucer Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Childhood in the Past : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Studies in History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chronica Nova. Revista de Historia Moderna de la Universidad de Granada     Open Access  
Chronique d'Egypte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Church History and Religious Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Civil War History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cleveland Studies in the History of Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CLIO : Revista de Pesquisa Histórica     Open Access  
Clio y Asociados     Open Access  
Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cliodynamics     Open Access  
Collections électroniques de l'INHA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Collingwood and British Idealism Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Colonial Latin American Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Comitatus : A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Comparative Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Comptabilités     Open Access  
Concorso. Arti e lettere     Open Access  
Conservative Judaism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Conserveries mémorielles     Open Access  
Contemporaneity : Historical Presence in Visual Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Arab Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary British History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Contemporary French and Francophone Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Convivium     Full-text available via subscription  
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Historical Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cromohs : Cyber Review of Modern Historiography     Open Access  
Crossing Borders : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Historia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de Historia Moderna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Ilustración y Romanticismo     Open Access  
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cuicuilco     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultura Histórica & Patrimônio     Open Access  
Cultural and Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cultures & conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cultures et conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Czech-Polish Historical and Pedagogical Journal     Open Access  
Dapim : Studies on the Holocaust     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Das Mittelalter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
De Arte     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover ARAM Periodical
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0959-4213
   Published by Peeters Publishers Homepage  [37 journals]
  • Foreword
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: From its beginning, the ARAM Society has always attempted to maintain close relations with scholars and cultural institutes from the Syro-Mesopotamian area, and their collaboration is crucial to the success of ARAM’s cultural mission. It is well known that Syria has played a key role in the world’s cultural history: its major civilisations have greatly contributed to the cultural heritage of humanity. Thus, the ARAM conference on Palmyra is by no means just a conference about a glorious Syrian city of the past. It is a conference about a city which played an important role in ancient times and which has, in consequence, contributed greatly to our universal cultural heritage. Our meeting today of people of different nationalities and from diverse countries shows clearly that the Syrian cultural heritage does not belong only to Syrians, but that it is also at the service of humanity for the enhancement of knowledge and science...(preface)
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:36:50 GMT
       
  • Address
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Palmyra, what a glorious realm; what a glorious queen! What a dazzling, extraordinary story it was. We are gathered today to review with academic detachment our memories of this city... (introduction)
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:36:03 GMT
       
  • News from Palmyra
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: I do not intend to presume, in spite of the title of this paper, to relate here the work done in Palmyra by others, in particular the impressive restoration and conservation program ably implemented by Khaled Asaad, the spectacular results of the Japanese excavations by Dr. Kiyohide Saito, and the research done by Andreas Schmidt-Colinet in the name of the DAI. They are all here to speak for themselves, and I am looking forward as much as everybody else to listening to their contributions.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:35:15 GMT
       
  • Restoration Work at Palmyra
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The Palmyrenes used mainly limestone for the buildings of their city. This rock is plentiful on the site and can be quarried in the neighbouring hills. Ancient quarries are to be seen to the North of Palmyra, and one finds there unfinished columns and other blocks, sawed off the rock and roughly shaped before transport to places where they were finished to become architectural members or sculptures. However, some column bases and some sarcophagi were used without ever being completed.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:34:49 GMT
       
  • Excavation at Southeast Necropolis in Palmyra from 1990 to 1995
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: This paper introduces the work that we have been doing at the Southeast Necropolis in Palmyra since 1990. This work has been carried out by Dr. T. Higuchi who is the head of the Research Center for Silk Roadology which was established at Nara. The work has been carried out with the permission of the General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums of Syria and with the cooperation of the Palmyra Museum. These excavations were financially supported by the Nara Prefectual Government of Japan.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:34:26 GMT
       
  • Architecture locale et architecture impériale à Palmyre
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Le temple de Bêl à Palmyre, consacré en 32 apr. J.C., était un monument exceptionnel érigé dans une ville sans passé, entrant dans l'histoire à la date où elle est intégrée dans l'Empire romain. Cette situation pose des problèmes d'histoire politique et économique, mais aussi d'histoire de l'art.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:33:59 GMT
       
  • The Great Colonade of Palmyra Reconsidered
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The Great Colonnade of Palmyra, the most spectacular architectural monument of the desert city, has been admired by travellers and scholars ever since the 18th century, while the extraordinary feature of column brackets bearing inscriptions interested historians and epigraphists. The Great Colonnade and the Monumental Arch became a landmark not only of Palmyra but also of Syria. As it happens, however, some best known monuments do not always get all the attention they deserve. This is the case here, in spite of many descriptions, engravings and photographs provided over the years by travellers and archaeologists active in Palmyra.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:33:35 GMT
       
  • The Textiles from Palmyra
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The more than 2.000 textile fragments found at Palmyra are among the largest groups of antique textiles of proven origin. They all were found either as parts of mummies or as isolated fragments in tower tombs dated by inscriptions from the 1st century BC to the 2nd century AD.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:33:08 GMT
       
  • The Quarries from Palmyra
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Most of the sculptures and buildings of ancient Palmyra were made of, or built in, hard limestone. The quarries of this hard limestone are situated about 15 km northeast of the city. They stretch over several square kilometres, and some of them were rediscovered only in the course of the past few years.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:31:57 GMT
       
  • Some Problems of Palmyrene Plastic Art
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Artistic creation at Palmyra fits within a chronological framework of almost precisely three centuries. The few examples from the very latest part of the Hellenistic period are still of a decidedly provincial character. A great many dated sculptures are extant from the first three centuries of the Roman imperial period. These are for the most part relief busts, along with some votive reliefs. These all supply valuable data for an improved understanding of stylistic development. The chronological links to the contemporary sculptures of Rome and the rest of the Imperium Romanumare more difficult to establishby reason of the fact that numerous artistic features are peculiar to the art of this oasis, with its pronounced local character.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:31:24 GMT
       
  • Notes on Palmyrene Aramaic Texts
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: A work entitled Palmyrene Aramaic Texts, by Eleonora Cussini and the present writer, is in press, scheduled to appear in fall, 1995. This contains an extensive bibliography, an edition of all the texts known to us, and a glossary. One of our purposes was to keep the work handy and affordable in price, so instead of giving translations of the texts, or providing each with extensive philological notes, we resorted to making the glossary fairly long, with citations to illustrate the contexts in which a word is used, translations of those bits of text, and references to scholarly discussions of lexical items.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:30:56 GMT
       
  • The Arabic Words in Palmyrene Inscriptions
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: More than two thousand Palmyrene inscriptions have been discovered in both Palmyra and adjacent regions. Palmyrene inscriptions were also found in several scattered areas from South Arabia to England. These inscriptions are attributed to Palmyrene merchants and soldiers. The Palmyrene inscriptions have a unique position among Semitic epigraphy for two important reasons. Firstly, the first deciphered and published Semitic inscription was Palmyrene, and secondly the longest North West Semitic inscription which has been discovered until now is also a Palmyrene inscription. In fact the publishment of Palmyrene inscriptions in the early 17th century was the first step for studying the Semitic epigraphy. The earliest dated Palmyrene inscription is from the year 44 BC and the latest discovery has been dated to the year 274 AD.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:30:27 GMT
       
  • Inscriptions from Allât's Sanctuary
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The excavation of the sanctuary of the Arab goddess Allât in the western quarter of Palmyra has yielded a substantial number of inscriptions. In number and content they are comparable to the inscriptions from the temple of Baalshamîn'. Since the temple of Allât was competely destroyed at the end of the 4th century during the reign of the Emperor Theodosius I (AD 379-395), and unlike the cellaof Baalshamîn was not transformed into a Christian church, none of the inscriptions that originally belonged to the sanctuary of Allât was found in situ. They were all discovered in later walls, where they were used as spoliatogether with a number of funerary sculptures from near-by tombs. The inscriptions permit a reasonably detailed knowledge of the building history of the sanctuary, which was originally located extra muros, but which was incorporated into Diocletian's Campin around AD 300.4 The cult of the goddess was continued inside the Camp until the end of the 4th century. It is from that period that the only Latin inscription that was found originates, a dedication by a Roman soldier to the goddess.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:29:33 GMT
       
  • Das Ak&#299tu-Fest in Palmyra
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Im 357. Jahr der Seleukidenära stellten die Söhne des Lišamaš (oder Lišams) eine Statue ihres Vaters im Tempel des Gottes Bēl auf. Von der Statue ist nur der Sockel erhalten, auf dem sie einst stand. Der Sockel trägt eine 7-zeilige palmyrenische Inschrift, die auf die Verdienste des Geehrten aufmerksam macht. Hervorgehoben wird ein wichtiges Ereignis der Stadtgeschichte, das vermutlich ein Höhepunkt in Lišamaš’ Leben war. Am 6. Nisan des 343. Jahres der Seleukidenära fand ein großer Festakt in der Stadt statt: Lišamaš weihte den Neubau des Bel-Tempels ein.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:28:39 GMT
       
  • Bel at Palmyra and Elsewhere in the Parthina Period
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Palmyra has been studied mainly by scholars whose background is either in Graeco-roman studies, or else in West Semitic languages. Its architecture includes such eminently Greek features as an agora, a colonnaded street and a theatre. Yet its main temple is dedicated to the god Bel, a Babylonian epithet from the sphere of East Semitic language.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:25:45 GMT
       
  • Un cratère palmyrien inscrit
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Située au carrefour de routes et d'influences diverses, Palmyre a développé, dans le cadre d'une cité de l'empire romain, une culture originale puisant à de multiples sources. La religion de Palmyre, que ce soit dans la composition de son panthéon ou dans les formes de son culte, est un des éléments les plus frappants de cette culture «plurielle». Aussi tout nouveau document permettant de mieux appréhender la vie religieuse des habitants de Palmyre et de sa région est-il particulièrement précieux. C'est le cas de l'objet présenté ici.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:25:06 GMT
       
  • Banquets rituels en Palmyrène et en Nabatène
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Parmi les nombreux vestiges identifiés dans la region du Djebel Sha'ar, au nord-ouest de Palmyre, plusieurs salles entourées de banquettes ont été relevées aproximité de sanctuaires et c'est dans celui d'Abgal, à Khirbet Semrine, que les fouilleurs ont identifiés pour la première fois les pièces entourant la cella comme des locaux destinés à abriter des repas rituels. À la suite de cette découverte de nombreux amenagements similaires ont également été reconnus dans le même site ainsi que dans la cella de plusieurs temples de la même région, notamment à Khirbet Leqtein, Khirbet Ramdane et à Marzouga.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:24:42 GMT
       
  • Nabataeans and Palmyreans
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: In 1956 J. Starcky, discussing some archaic Palmyrene inscriptions from the first century B.C., catalogued and compared their script with the script of some Nabatean inscriptions from the same period to check whether it was likely that there was any genetic connection between the two kinds of script. As a matter of fact, in the Nabatean inscription from Tell el-Shuqafiyye which we are going to discuss, some typical Palmyrene traits are easily recognisable. The conclusion Starcky drew at the end of his article was that although they are very similar – since both stemming from the imperial Aramaic script – there could be no way of considering the Palmyrene script a derivation from the Nabatean. We cannot but agree with Starcky. What we would like to show, however, is the relevance and the peculiarity of the afore-mentioned Nabatean inscription among the ones which Starcky studied.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:22:26 GMT
       
  • Abila and Palmyra
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Of the three or four major routes for ancient east-west and north-south ancient trade in the Middle East, we maintain that the northeast-southwest and south land route of Palmyra, Damascus, Gerasa, Philadelphia, Petra, one of the most important. These ancient major trade routes, including sea and land routes, were used to bring luxury and other goods from the Far East, India and the Middle East to the markets of Greece, Europe and Africa, and vice versa. By the longer sea route, goods were brought from the Far East and India around the Arabian Peninsula and the up either on land along the west coast of the Arabian Penisula or up the Red Sea to the Mediterranean; on the other hand, goods from the Far East and India were also transported either northwest up the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean Sea, or in a more westerly direction up the Persian Gulf and the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers to the frontier fort – caravan town of Dura Europos on the Euphrates, and from there transported west-southwest to Palmyra and Damascus and south to Petra and Arabia. It is our contention that this latter route from Dura Europos to Palmyra, Damascus, and south to Petra, following major towns along this Syrian and Transjordan route, including Abila of the Decapolis in southern Syria, was from very ancient times one of the most important trade routes in the Middle East.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:21:43 GMT
       
  • The Palmyrene Luxury Trade and Revelation 18:12-13
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: With reference to the theme of this conference, I would like to show how the Palmyrene luxury trade offers us a unique glimpse into the abusive political-economic system of Rome alluded to in the Satyricon and rebuked so vehemently in Revelation 18. It is my contention that the architectural remains and other artifacts from Palmyra, along with a number of Palmyrene texts, provide a remarkable – and neglected – illustration of the circumstances that provoked the language of condemnation found in the Book of Revelation.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:21:09 GMT
       
  • Transfer of Property at Palmyra
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The present study, a summary of what we know of the transfer of real property at Palmyra, is meant to contribute to current discourse about Palmyra by placing emphasis on the background of Palmyrene legal practice in ancient Aramaic legal tradition, and by investigation of relations, in practice and terminology, to Mesopotamian legal tradition both of remoter antiquity and of the latest period. This study also addresses the interesting hypothesis, recently advanced by H.J.W. Drijvers, that in Palmyrene Aramaic-Greek bilinguals the Aramaic is secondary.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:20:18 GMT
       
  • Compiling a Palmyrene Prosography
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: A prosopography of Palmyra has been a desideratum for a long time, because of the large quantity of epigraphic material available and the abundance of onomastic data in the inscriptions. The Palmyrene epigraphic material has been the source of an endless number of publications, but none of them have been specifically dedicated to a systematic reading of genealogies, kinships and connections between the single and the tribe, the single and the family, the temples and the professions. Therefore prosopography becomes an instrument of analysis of the social and religious fabric of the city of Palmyra.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:19:47 GMT
       
  • What is Aramaic'
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: A comparison of the various forms of pre-modern Aramaic shows, not surprisingly, a large number of common features. To be sure, there are a great many details that distinguish, for example, classical Syriac from Galilean Jewish Aramaic, but they also clearly share a basic structure and many details of phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. Familiar features exhibited by all pre-modern Aramaic dialects include, inter alia, the following: (1) a common, relatively small, set of consonantal phonemes (usually 22 in number), which usually includes a subset of stops that become spirantized after vowels; (2) a relatively simple vowel system, but a marked propensity for reducing or syncopating unstressed vowels in open syllables; (3) a system of triconsonantal roots into which and around which vocalic and other morphemes are affixed to produce verbal and nominal forms; (4) two or three basic verbal inflexions, one with suffixed personal markers for the past, one with both prefixed and suffixed personal markers for the future or for modal expressions, and a participial inflexion; (5) a set of compound tenses involving the verb ‘to be’; (6) a noun paradigm consisting of three states, one formally unmarked, one marked as bound to a following noun (the construct), and one marked with a final long -ā (7) a set, or sets, of pronominal suffixes that are attached to nouns and prepositions to indicate possession and to verbs to indicate objects; (8) a large common vocabulary. Of course, this list could easily be expanded.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:18:58 GMT
       
  • Aramaic in Iran
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: This article has a dual purpose. First, I wish to remind Aramaists of a relatively important corpus of Aramaic texts on Iranian ground which has so far received but little and scattered attention. A comprehensive study of this corpus is a desideratum for both Aramaic and for Iranian studies. Second, I need to respond to a recent article by an Aramaist (Toll, “Die aramäischen Ideogramme”, 1990), in which a theory of the origin of the so-called Aramaic heterograms or ideograms (see below) in Iranian is proposed which departs from all previous theories. In my opinion the theory has a deficient material basis and therefore leads to erroneous conclusions. It is, however, the only such study by an Aramaist, and one of prominent academic lineage at that, and miscellaneous doubtful (if not wrong) forms deduced from the heterograms have now found their way into Hoftijzer-Jongeling. I was encouraged by the author some time ago (letter of 9 September 1990) to (re)publish my arguments in favor of a modified “standard” theory. This is the first and best opportunity I have had to do so.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:18:05 GMT
       
  • Aramaic-Speaking Communities of Sasanid Mesopotamia
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: During the Sasanid era (AD 241-651), Mesopotamia was host to a mélange of Aramaic-speaking communities: Jews, Mandaeans, Manichaeans and Christians as well as pagans. Some of these groups, notably the Mandaeans and the Manichaeans that emerged during the first centuries of the Christian era, wrote in distinctive fonts, these acting in effect as badges of their cultural-religious identities. In other communities, where there was a long history of settlement in Mesopotamia, the rôle assumed by script was more ambiguous. Thus both Jews and the adherents of the traditional Mesopotamian religions used Babylonian Jewish Aramaic, otherwise known as Judæo-Aramaic, whilst Syriac, later to become the hallmark of Christian writings, also appears to have circulated amongst pagans.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:15:13 GMT
       
  • RM KLH
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The question posed by the title to the following considerations is not an unreasonable one despite the prevailing historiographical prejudice that insists that the ethno-geographic collectivity known as nationality is exclusively a modern phenomenon; for there appears in line five of Face A of Sefire Stele I the apparent self-designation “all Aram” – a self-designation that seemingly refers to a relatively extensive, yet bounded territorial collectivity. It would appear from the inscriptions of the Sefire Stele that “all Aram” was understood by “all Aram”, or at least by Matî'el of Arpad (IA, line 1), to encompass “Upper and Lower Aram” (IA, line 6). It is not exactly clear what was meant by the evidently geographical designation “Upper and Lower Aram”. It is possible that “Upper Aram” referred to Syrian Aram, while “Lower Aram” referred to an area in the vicinity of Babylonia. However, it is more likely that “Upper Aram” and “Lower Aram” referred to some kind of a division of a Syrian “all Aram”; that is, a bounded area (and its population) stretching from the Beqa' Valley/Damascus in the south to Bet-Gush/Arpad and perhaps Ya'di/Sam'al in the north (IB, lines 9-10).
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:14:35 GMT
       
  • Mandaeans in the USA Today
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The estimated numbers of Mandaeans in the world today vary considerably, as no official statistics are available. This ancient, still surviving group of Gnostics live in Iraq and Iran, their traditional homelands, where their combined numbers may be close to 100.000. However, especially in the last part of the present century, many Mandaeans have moved to other parts of the world. The first Mandaeans to come to North America were five goldsmiths who came from Iraq to the 1939 World Exposition in New York to show their art there. At least one of them stayed through the ensuing war, designing air plane parts in Detroit. Since the recent wars in the Gulf region, Mandaeans have gone to other parts of the Near East, to Europe, to the North American continent, and to parts of the former Soviet Union. A sizeable community, at the moment of writing the only emigrant group that has priests, lives outside of Sydney, Australia. Smaller groups, families or individuals live in various cities in the USA and in Canada. A great number of Mandaean men are goldsmiths, the traditional Mandaean occupation, and there are many engineers and other professionals. In what follows, I will present, mainly through anecdotes, some of the Mandaeans I have met in the San Diego, California, community and in the New York community. About forty Mandaeans live in San Diego, while perhaps ca. two hundred or so dwell in the larger New York area.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:13:02 GMT
       
  • A Roman Cuirassed Basalt Torso from Khirbet-Beida
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The torso was found in 1968 at Khirbet Beida, an abandoned Syrian village on the western slopes of the Golan Heights (R.P. 75005/67300)1. The archaeological finds indicate that the site was continuously occupied from the first to the seventh centuries CE. However, most of the remains – water reservoirs, an arch, agricultural installations (an oilpress and two winepresses), and a burial caves – can be dated to the period between the second and the fourth centuries CE.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:12:14 GMT
       
  • ARAM newsletter
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Newsletter
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:11:48 GMT
       
  • The Yemeni Highland Pilgrim Route between San'a and Mecca
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: To date, extensive research has been carried out concerning three of the principal northern pilgrim routes of the Arabian Peninsula, namely Kufa – Mecca, Egypt – Mecca, and Syria – Mecca, whereas fieldwork aimed specifically at examining the southern routes in their entirety has hitherto been lacking. The most significant of the southern routes is the Yemeni Highland Pilgrim Route, and this has been the subject of a piece of research recently completed by the present writer.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:10:17 GMT
       
  • Spanisou Charax and Its Commercial Relations
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Spasinou Charax was also known as Maysan, a name which has survived to the present time in Iraq. Spasinou Charax, both as a city and as a state had several names: (1) Charax is a Greek distortion of an Aramaic original, karkā, ‘surround’ or ‘fortified city’.(2) Characene is the political name of the kingdom of Charax.(3) Spasinou Charax (Σπασινου Χάρακ) is the Greek form of the Aramaic name. It means ‘the fortress (or city) of Hyspaosines’, who refounded the city and was its first independent ruler.(4) Karkā de Maysān (the fortress of Maysān). (5) Mesene (Μεσήνην) is the Greek form of Maysān, and Maysān is the Arabic form of the name.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:09:04 GMT
       
  • The Darb Zubayda as a Settlement System in Arabia
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The Darb Zubaydah, the route which linked the Haramayn with Baghdad, may be seen as a special type of linear settlement system. This system was developed under Abbasid governmental patronage during the late 8th century, when the hajj was in high summer. This was probably the normal pre-Islamic caravan route from al-Hijaz to al-Hira in Iraq. Early Islamic usage is confirmed with inscriptions dated to 661 and 717.1 The intensive recording of stations along the Darb Zubayda by the Comprehensive Survey of Saudi Arabia has produced a record of eighty-six architectural structures over a distance of 870 miles.A preliminary examination of this corpus reveals a pattern of reservoirs (extensively discussed by al-Rashid) and “palaces,” that is, official administrative buildings. These are large buildings with semi-circular buttresses, gate towers and other features which identify them as early Abbasid.2The characteristics of these structures and their contexts may reflect some of the functions assumed for the so-called “desert castles,” generally dated about 70 years earlier. The relationship of the qusurand routes has been explored by King. The problem of settlement in marginal areas, supported by governmental patronage, is a matter of the intention to shift functions from specialized facilities to more developed urban settlements.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:01:54 GMT
       
  • Palmyra and the Arabian Gulf Trade
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Palmyra began its dramatic development as a result of the pax romana in Syria from the mid-1st cent B.C. Appian (the Roman historian from Alexandria at the end of the 1st century A.D.)1refers to its intermediate role between the Romans and Parthians and this is put in almost romantic terms by Pliny.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:01:09 GMT
       
  • The Nature of the Trade between Palmyra and Dura-Europos
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: This paper discusses the economic relation between Palmyra and Dura-Europos, a Seleucid foundation situated on the left bank of the Euphrates river, 220 kilometres to the East of Palmyra.1 The epigraphic and archaeological remains clearly point to the presence of a Palmyrene community from the first century BCE until the conquest of the city by the Sassanids around the middle of the third century CE. The present survey is restricted to the period during which Dura-Europos was under Parthian control, from about 114 BCE up till 165 CE.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 09:00:22 GMT
       
  • Once Again, Petra on the Frankincense Road'
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: In 1994 I wrote a short note, which was published together with a map in 1995. I had argued that the northern branch of the main frankincense-road did not pass through Petra in Persian times for the following reasons: Petra proper did not exist in the fifth, or even in the fourth centuries BC; the ascent to and from the site would have been an arduous and unnecessary detour; and the ascent through the Siq would have been difficult. At the time, I was not aware of Zayadine’s pioneering article of 1992, which stressed that not all caravan routes passed through the Petra basin. Zayadine writes: “Par ces nombreux sanctuaires, son immense métropole, Pétra devait jouer d’abord le rôle d’un centre religieux et d’une ville sacrée des morts”. In the meantime, however, I was told that no-one had ever supposed that caravans were actually led through the Siq at Petra and that they came out on the other side of the city. I duly checked, and discovered that the maps at my disposal draw the route through just the Wadi Musa, the basin and the Siq.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:59:52 GMT
       
  • Oboda
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Oboda, and not Eboda as it has very often mistakenly been named, is the best known, and most fully described Nabatean caravan halt. It contained most elements present in a major caravan halt. As indicated by coins found in the Nabatean potter’s workshop and by pottery found in various loci at Oboda, Nabatean Oboda was in existence from the late fourth to the second century BC. Small quantities of Hellenistic pottery were found all over the site. No solid architecture pertaining to the Early Nabatean period has been observed at Oboda, and the occupants of the site at that time seem to have lived in tents. Remains of an early fireplace of such an encampment were discovered beneath the floors of a first century BC. or AD. house in the vicinity of the Nabatean military camp (see below). Whether Oboda already served as a caravan halt at this early period is yet to be determined by research.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:58:54 GMT
       
  • The King's Highway, the Desert Highway, and Central Jordan's
           Kerak Plateau
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: According to the Book of Numbers, Moses sought permission from the Edomite and Amorite kings for the Hebrews to pass through their territories on the Transjordanian plateau, Num. 20:17 records Moses’ appeal to the king of Edom: “Now let us pass through your land. We will not pass through field or vineyard, neither will we drink water from a well; we will go along the King’s Highway, we will not turn aside to the right hand or to the left, until we have passed through your territory.”1The same appeal was made to Sihon, king of the Amorites, who ruled the region north of Wadi Mujib (the biblical Arnon): “Let me pass through your land; we will not turn aside into field or vineyard; we will not drink the water of a well; we will go by the King’s Highway, until we have passed through your territory” (21:22).
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:57:52 GMT
       
  • Aspects of Trade on the Judaean Coast in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods
           
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The aspects of Judaean trade on which I would like to comment are first, the effects on trade of the nature of the coastline and its ports, secondly the relation between the road system and the ports. The third point concerns the proportion of trade bound for Egypt and the western Mediterranean which was carried by sea in comparison with that which travelled over land. In discussing this we shall have to pay some attention to the seasonal nature of the coasting trade and of the supply of agricultural produce.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:57:24 GMT
       
  • Stepped Roads in Roman Palestine
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The network of roads constructed in Eretz Israel (Palestine) during the Roman occupation represents one of the most impressive testimonies to both the extent and technological level of this civilization.The specific road system under discussion in this article includes highways and acclivities in mountainous regions, along the length of which steps were hewn from the bedrock or constructed. Steep ascents were common along certain roads in the mountainous regions of the Holy Land and Nabataea during the Roman and Byzantine periods. More than twenty such ascents were recently mapped (Roll 1995: 1167, Fig. 1). In some places, sections of these roads remain perfectly preserved. The steps were intended for the passage of beasts of burden – camels, mules, horses, donkeys – and pedestrians. The existence of such steps along the roads indicates that wheeled vehicles were not used at all on these rugged mountain roads. This article summarizes this phenomenon in the stepped sections of the following highways: A. The road from Jerusalem (Aelia Capitolina)to Beth Guvrin (Eleutheropolis)– the section between Mat’a and Netiv Ha-Lamed Hé. B. The Jerusalem (Aelia Capitolina)-Lydda (Diospolis) road along the valley of the Sanhedrin stream. C. The Jerusalem-Hebron-Mampsis-Hatzeva highway – the sections of “Ma’ale Dragot,” and the “Roman ‘Ma’ale ‘Aqrabbim’” (“Ma’ale Tzafir”). D. The Naqb Sleisel section of the road from Petra to Mo’a. These four items will be dealt with in the order in which they appear above, and will bear the same reference letters for the sake of clarity.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:56:56 GMT
       
  • Byzantine Maritime Trade with The East (4th - 7th centuries)
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The following paper will re-examine the evidence for the continuation of Roman trade with the East into the Byzantine period, ie after AD 300. Essentially, it will focus attention on the movement of Byzantine goods eastward from the Empire, and of oriental goods westward into the Empire, irrespective of the identities of their carriers or middlemen – Auxumites, Himyarites, Persians: many being Nestorian Christians. Recent archaeological work or study of material at Alexandria, in the Red Sea area, the Yemen, Sri Lanka, at Merv and Begram, in Russia's Kama Valley and in China provides new evidence to consider.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:55:42 GMT
       
  • Patterns of the Transport Amphorae at Ostrakine During the 6th and 7th
           Centuries A.D.
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: During the Byzantine period the east coast of the Mediterranean was the center of agricultural production, and it was from this area that commercial enterprise originated. During the seventh century, however, the commercial center shifted from the coast to the hinterland. This can be seen most clearly in an analysis of the ceramics from the site of Ostrakine. Ostrakine (el-Felusiyat) is located in the Bardewill Lagoon in the Sinai peninsula, about 30 km west of el-Arish (Oren 1993:1171). During the Byzantine period, Ostrakine was located on the banks of the lagoon on the Mediterranean sea shore at the point where the shore meets the sand bank of the Bardewill lagoon, which was known as Sirbonis in ancient times. Ostrakine was established in the first century BCE as a harbor and as a site that protected the main coastal route from Egypt to the North East. This coastal route ran across the narrow sand bank of the Bardewill lagoon, giving the port of Ostrakine great strategic importance.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:55:20 GMT
       
  • Roads and Stations in Southern Bilâd al-Shâm in the 7th and 8th
           Centuries
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The aim of the present study is to compile a list of locations in southern Bilâd al-Shâm (namely Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) in the seventh and eighth centuries which presumably served as stations along the desert roads in that area. It is based on Arabic sources which describe the history of the emerging Islamic Caliphate. These are descriptions in the standard Arabic sources of the expeditions (maghâzî) of the Prophet Muḫammad and of the initial conquests (al-futûÌat al-‘umariyya) during the reign the Râshidûn (the four Rightly Guided Caliphs).
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:54:36 GMT
       
  • External Trade of Bilad Al-Sham in the Early Abbasid Period
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean are two water bodies which, from time immemorial, experienced exchange of trade along their coasts. Apparently from very early times some trade had trickled from the one sea to the other; these commercial relations grew with time. There is, however, a land bridge which separated them: Bilad al-Sham and a strip of land in Egypt made direct sea – passage between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean impossible. It is obvious that crossing this short distance in Egypt should prove to be the easier of the two land blocks. But the Red Sea is a treacherous water body. In the first place it abounds in coral-rief barriers, especially along the Arabian coasts. Secondly pirates find in it prosperous nests, when the grip of the state in Egypt loosens; this is, to my mind, is one reason why land routes from Yaman to the Hijaz prospered late in the fifth and sixth century A.D., when Byzantine authority in Egypt slackened; pirates infested the Red Sea. Thirdly there are many periods in the year when strong winds blow from both Egypt and the Peninsula southwards and collect strength at Bab al-Mandab bottleneck, which thwarts the vessels of ancient times; they will have to spend lengths of time waiting at Aden or along the Horn of Africa.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:52:10 GMT
       
  • All at Sea
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Just over five years ago, Albert Hourani asked me if I would undertake a revision of his brother George Hourani's famous book, on Arab Seafaring. First published by Princeton University Press in 1952, it was based on his dissertation, “Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean in the Ninth and Tenth centuries”, which he completed in 1938-1939, and which he tells us he expanded into his book during summer vacations, when he worked in the Library of the Palestine Archaeological Museum in Jerusalem. The book was quickly out of print, and apart from a facsimile edition produced by Paul Khayat in Beirut in 1963, and an Arab translation by Saiyid Ya'qub Bakr published in Cairo in 1958, Arab Seafaring has long been unavailable. Albert Hourani's request was somewhat daunting, for such is the respect which we all had for Albert that it was more like a royal command rather than a solicitation. It was, indeed, a great compliment that he should have asked at all, and there was no possibility of refusal. In my innocence, I imagined that I could polish it off in a few months working on it at weekends. In the event, it took three years of extremely hard work, and I began to fear meeting Albert's eye on the occasions when we met, for there was always the unspoken question of how was it getting along. Happily, I was able to tell him at a party one day that I had just sent off the completed manuscript to Princeton. He died two days later.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:51:14 GMT
       
  • Dangerous Trade Routes
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: There is no accurate data about caravans and caravan trade before the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. In general, however, information may be gained primarily from cuneiform sources, and from other groups of Semitic epigraphy such as South Arabian and Palmyrene inscriptions. Classical authors and Arabic sources also provide some data on this subject. The object of this paper is to present some problems which confronted caravans on their journeys, particularly attacks and plundering. After a brief discussion of the organisation of caravans, this paper will provide a few examples of attacks and raids on caravans in the Near East from the 2nd millennium BC, the 1st millennium BC, and also from pre-Islamic Arabia. It is not the purpose of this paper to study the caravan routes in the ancient Near East, which has been the subject of study by several scholars.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:49:24 GMT
       
  • Arabia's Relations with East Africa
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: For a long time before the birth of Islam, the Arabs of the coasts of Arabia were active in the trade of the Erythraean Sea, i.e. the Indian Ocean and its branches the Red Sea and the Gulf, hence their description as the Phoenicians of the Southern Sea. They were familiar with the monsoons and used, therefore, to sail towards the coasts of India in summer when the monsoons blew from the southwest, and would return in winter when the monsoons blew from the northeast. They would set sail towards the east African coast in winter (end of November to February) and would return in summer (end of March to September) according to the seasonal direction of the monsoons, a term which passed to European languages from the Arabic mawsim, i.e. season.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:48:16 GMT
       
  • The Source of Spice
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Since time immemorial spice and aromatics formed the first and foremost item of commerce in the Indian Ocean. However, for the source of spice, one intends those places of production and exchange not only of spices, but of all commercial merchandise in the western Indian Ocean in the 19th century.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:47:45 GMT
       
  • Petra and Hegra
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Mada'in Salih, the Nabataean Hegra, is famous for its rock-cut tomb façades and the large Nabataean inscriptions on these façades. Most of the articles dealing with Hegra in recent years discuss just these monuments, as does the excellent book published by John F. Healey in 1993.1Healey gives a good treatment and summary of the other archaeological evidence of the site and its historical and cultural setting as well. It seems that almost everything that can be said about Hegra has been said. There is only one group of monuments which has not received the same attention as the tombs, the votive niches and other religious installations of the Jabal Ithlib and its surroundings. I shall give some detailed interpretations of these. In addition we may be able to learn something more from a comparison of Hegra and Petra. There is no need to demonstrate the strong relations between the two sites in great detail, but I would like to point especially to some differences.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:47:22 GMT
       
  • Wadi Iram: un lieu du culte et de rassemblement des tribus arabes dans
           l'antiquité
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: En février 1996, une modeste exploration épigraphique a été menée dans la région immédiate de Wadi Iram en Jordanie du sud avec un financement personnel. L’équipe était composée de M. Fawzi ZAYADINE, du Département des Antiquités de Jordanie, de M. Frédéric ALPI, alors pensionnaire scientifique à l’Institut Français d’Archéologie du Proche-Orient/Beyrouth, de M. Houssein ABU AL-HASSAN de l’Université du roi Séoud à Riyad et de moi-même. L’exploration s’est faite sous les auspices de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie du Proche-Orient avec le concours du Département des Antiquités de Jordanie. Durant la période du 17 au 24 février 1996 nous avons enregistré quelque 150 inscriptions inédites. Ces résultats ont encouragé l’Institut Français d’Archéologie du Proche-Orient et le Département des Antiquités de Jordanie à s’engager dans un programme de recherche épigraphique dans cette région. Ce programme associe l’Université du Yarmouk/Département d’épigraphie et l’Université du roi Séoud à Riyad. En juin 1997 nous sommes retournés pour une période de quatre semaines, mais cette fois avec une aide matérielle importante fournie par l’IFAPO. Le nombre des inscriptions enregistrées est de 535 textes du type thamoudéen. L’étude des résultats de la mission est en cours, ici sont présentées uniquement la description du site et quatre inscriptions à titre d’exemple.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:46:48 GMT
       
  • Soqotran Oral Tradition and Cross-Cultural Contacts
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Cultural parallels and similarities in different cultural-historical areas may have at least four possible explanations, namely:
      A common genesis from an attested or reconstructable archetype.
      Cross-cultural loans and influences.
      General regularities of cultural evolution.
      Chance coincidences.Which of these explanations to choose is a typical problem in linguistics, especially within the framework of the genealogical classification of languages. Some of these points do not present serious difficulties for a linguist. Chance coincidences are normally rare and non-systematic, and they are therefore easily identifiable. This is not the case in the context of cross-cultural studies, where coincidences might be exceedingly difficult to identify, as in the case of the striking similarities between Soqotran and Old Norse mythological motifs concerning goats, as described in our paper presented at the Seminar for Arabian studies in 1995.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:45:33 GMT
       
  • Aramaeans in a Late Sabaic Inscription
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: In a recently (partly) published inscription (MAFRAY-Ḥaṣī 1) its author, the head of a Yemeni principality, establishes a Jewish cemeteryon 4 plots of land (lines 4-5) through a gezērah decree, forbidding the burial of any "Aramaean” ('RMYm– lines 5 and 12) there. With respect to this, the first editor of the text reasonably remarks: [Le mot] “qui veut dire ‘païen', 'rmy (aramī), vient de Syrie; on le trouve également en éthiopien classique. Il dérive de l'ethnique ‘araméen': dans la Syrie byzantine, les gens de la campagne, de langue araméenne, tardaient à se convertir au christianisme, à l'opposé des citadins, en majorité hellénisés”. All this sounds very plausible, and there would seem to be a clear parallel with the Latin paganus. However, a few remarks are necessary.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:43:36 GMT
       
  • A Gez&#275rah-Decree from Ancient South Arabia
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The late Sabaic inscription MAFRAY-Ḥaṣī 1 was discovered in the Wadi Ṭawq near Ḥaṣī. Although its text and transcription were presented by W.W. Müller and Chr.J. Robin to the Seminar for Arabian Studies (13th Meeting) on 15th July 1983, this very interesting monotheistic text still remains unpublished. Only its first seven lines were edited with a translation and a short commentary. It seems worth reproducing them to make our analysis of the text more comprehensible.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Oct 2005 08:39:29 GMT
       
  • La paléographie hatréenne et ses rapports avec les écritures
           araméennes du Golfe persique et de l'Iran
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Sous l’empire achémenide (5ième-4ième siècles avant n.è.) l’écriture araméenne a connu une grande diffusion et, en tant que graphie officielle de l’administration, destinée par conséquant à être comprise et employée dans un territoire très vaste, elle répondait à des critères qui en ont fixé les caractères. Les premières véritables distinctions graphiques au sein de l’écriture araméenne en Orient ont eu lieu seulement à partir du Ier siècle avant n.è. En effet, l’hellénisme (et, donc, la langue grecque) introduit par Alexandre le Grand et perpétué ensuite par les Séleucides n’avait pas pénétré partout de manière égale, ce qui a entraîné la naissance de différentes écoles tribales où l’araméen a survécu. Plus exactement, en Orient on trouve quatre écoles principales: l’une dans la zone syrienne (écritures palmyrénienne et syriaque), l’autre dans la Mésopotamie septentrionale et en Arménie (araméen de Hatra et des sites limitrophes), une troisième dans la Mésopotamie méridionale (mandéen, araméen de l’Élymaïde et de la Characène), et une quatrième en Iran (araméen employé par les Parthes).
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:58:00 GMT
       
  • Christianity in the East of the Arabian Peninsula
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: This paper concentrates on Christianity in East Arabia and also deals briefly with the spread of Christianity in the Arabian Peninsula. The main aim is to investigate when and how Christianity was introduced into East Arabia. It also focuses on the relations between the Nestorians in East Arabia and the Nestorian Church in Seleucia-Ctesiphon and deals with the presence of Christians in the time of spread of Islam during the rule of the Prophet and his Caliphs. Finally it examines archaeological evidence of a Christian presence in Kuwait's Failakah island, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the U. A. E.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:57:22 GMT
       
  • Urgut Revisited
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: In this paper I shall attempt to locate a monastery, most probably of the Church of the East, for which there is no archaeological evidence but a brief literary record: ‘Al-Sawadar is a mountain to the south of Samarkand... On al-Sawadar [there is] a monastery of the Christians where they gather and have their cells. I found many Iraqi Christians there who migrated to the place because of its suitability, solitary location and healthiness. It has inalienable properties (wuquf), and many Christians retreat to it; this place towers over the major part of Sogd and is known as Wazkird’.I begin with the assumption that Barthold was right in 1893, locating ‘al-Sāwadār’ in the mountain range of Shawdar straight to the south of Samarkand indeed, and accordingly placing ‘Wazkird’, as Ibn Hawqal, or rather his editor, had called the locality, somewhere near modern Urgut. In modern usage the name of Shawdar is applied to an irrigation canal branching off Dargom in Juma-Bazar; it then runs parallel to and north of Dargom, while to the south of Samarkand it divides into a number of streams which supply the city with water.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:56:53 GMT
       
  • ARAM newsletter
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Newsletter
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:54:13 GMT
       
  • ARAM newsletter
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Newsletter
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:54:04 GMT
       
  • The Mamluks in the Balance
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: As soon as the Arabs had conquered Central Asian regions, trickles of Turkish slaves began appearing in the slave markets of the newly created empire. But it was the arrival of the Abbasids which threw the doors of such slave markets wide open for the Turkish youngsters. The caliphal court, the houses of the courtiers and the domiciles of the rich sheltered hundreds of them.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:51:02 GMT
       
  • The Relevance of Shari'a (Legal Ideal) and Fiqh (Jurisprudence) to
           the Legal Practice in Mamluk Egypt
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: In history, as well as in present times, concepts of law and justice have played a critical part in defining cultural identity. Therefore, in putting the legal ideal of Islam, shari'a, at the heart of their notion of society, today's radical Islamic movements, as well as secular governments pretending to base their legal systems on Islamic essentials, are doing nothing extraordinary. However, with growing awareness of the results of the tendentious presentation of historical events in the descriptive sources, it hardly needs to be emphasized that historical arguments, brought forward as a justification for keeping up particular rules of shari'a in contemporary societies, must not be taken at face value.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:50:35 GMT
       
  • Inter-Religious Attitudes
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to draw the attention of scholars to the existence of an early work of great interest and significance to the historical development of Muslim polemic against Christianity and which also throws light on Muslim-Christian relations in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, a period of intense religious animosity throughout the Middle East. As the title indicates, the main emphasis will be upon a brief preliminary consideration of the Response of the Muslim theologian and jurist, al-Dimashqī, to Christianity as contained in his Letter to the People of Cyprus, its place in Muslim polemical literature as well as the purpose and circumstances which prompted our author to produce it. Thus, the following remarks are intended as a preliminary notice of this extremely interesting work of which my colleague, Dr. David Thomas, of the Centre for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations (University of Birmingham, England) and I are currently working on the production of a full critical edition, with an English translation and annotated notes. They are also intended as a preliminary investigation of this polemical work which forms part of the corpus of theological literature written during the period of the Mamluks in Bilad al-Sham (the theme of this Conference), its value and contribution to a better understanding and an enrichment of our knowledge of how the early Muslims viewed Christian theology and doctrine.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:49:24 GMT
       
  • Le Soufisme et son message culturel durant la période des Mamlukes
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Bilad El Cham est connu depuis longtemps par son soufisme, c'est le terrain de Abi Souleiman Al Darani, de Ahmad Ibn abi El Hawari et de sa pieuse femme Rabïa El Chamia l'ascète célèbre, de l'Imam Abou Zakaria Al-Nawawi l'auteur du livre Riad Al Salihin, du Sheikh Raslan et du Sheikh Abdallah Younin. C'est également le lieu où s'est réfugié El Ghazali lorsqu'il a été bouleversé par une crise de doute et l'endroit où il a accueilli la lumière de la certitude qui lui a permis de ranimer les sciences de la religion . Bilad El Cham est également, tout au long de son ancienne et moyenne histoire, le point de mire des soufis de l'Orient et de l'Occident. Shehab el Din Omar Souhrawardi, l'auteur de Awaref el Maaref, lui a rendu visite et y a introduit l'influence de Abd El Kader Gilani. De même, a également rendu visite à Bilad et Cham Abou Hassan Chachtari le célèbre Poète de Shaziliya, de plus il a été le séjour de mawlana Jalal el Din El Roumi l'auteur de Masnawi, le fondateur de la confrérie mawlawi et l'inventeur de la manifestation de l'audience de l'âme dans la joie du corps et de la danse de Darwich. Jalal El Din El Roumi est également l'ami intime de Sadreddine Konawi, élevé à Bilad El Cham et disciple de Muhyiddine Ibn Arabi .
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:48:29 GMT
       
  • Contes populaires de l'époque mamlouke dans les Mille et Une Nuits
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: En employant l'expression «dans les Mille et une nuits», je me sers d'une tournure courante qui suggère que les contes intégrés dans le cadre des «Mille et une nuits» constituent un corpus bien défini. Il s'agit justement de l'idée préconçue des Nuits, mais elle est erronée: il n'y a pas – et il n'y a jamais eu de canon des contes des Mille et une Nuits, comme il en existe pour les œuvres d'Aristote ou pour les livres de la Sainte Écriture. Au cours des siècles, on s'est efforcé à plusieurs reprises de rédiger un texte «complet» où Schéhérezâde raconterait ses histoires pendant mille et une nuits. Au moins deux de ces rédactions ont eu du succès, en ce sens qu'elles étaient répandues en une quantité assez grande d'exemplaires. La rédaction d'Égypte, qui a été répandue par les éditions imprimées de Boulaq et de Calcutta, avait de bonnes chances de s'établir comme texte «canonique», et jusqu'aux recherches de Zotenberg et de Macdonald, elle était considérée comme la représentation authentique des Nuits. Hors du petit cercle des spécialistes, la notion d'un texte canonique des Nuits n'a pas été encore abandonnée.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:47:53 GMT
       
  • Notes sur un manuscrit du Tarikh d'Ibn Îijji copié en partie par
           Ibn Q'i Shouhba
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Il convient peut-être d'expliquer en quelques mots ce qui m'a amené à m'occuper de ce manuscrit. Depuis 1983, je suis associé à une subdivision d'un groupe de paléoclimatologues qui dépouille des sources écrites, sources de caractère très varié: chroniques, registres de paroisse, registres du fisc, journaux personels, comptabilités de grands domaines etc., tout cela dans l'intention d'assembler des informations fiables concernant le climat des siècles passés. C'est en association à cette subdivision du groupe que nous avons commencé, quelques collaborateurs et moi-même, à dépouiller des chroniques arabes.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:44:58 GMT
       
  • Géographie de la population et relations entre les grouped du Liban à
           l'époque des Mamloukes
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Au Moyen Age, le Liban actuel a connu deux bouleversements capitaux de la géographie des groupes qui constituent sa population: le premier lors de la conquête arabe, le second à la suite des campagnes mameloukes dans les montagnes du Liban, en particulier à la suite des campagnes dans les montagnes du Kisrawān.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:44:29 GMT
       
  • Les expeditions Mamloukes de Kasrawan
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Le Kasraāan dont les deux Matn actuels (Nord et Sud) faisaient partie s’étendait au sud jusqu’au fleuve de Beyrouth et jusqu’aux montagnes de Sannine et d’El-Kunayssa.1 Ce Kasrawan a été le théâtre entre 691-705/1292-1305 de plusieurs expéditions mamloukes, connues comme «les Expéditions Kasrawānaises». Comme le montrent la plupart des sources, ces expéditions étaient au nombre de trois: la première a eu lieu en 691/1292 et a été menée par l’émir Baidara, le vice-Sultan (Nā‘ ib al-Saltanā), accompagné des émirs Sunqur al-Ashqar, Qarasunqur al-Mansuri et plusieurs grands autres émirs. Le but principal de cette expédition était de punir les habitants de la région, qui étaient accusés d’aider les Francs contre les Mamlouks, mais ce fut un échec complet.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:44:01 GMT
       
  • Beirut in Mamluk Times (1291-1516)
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: This study seeks to show how Beirut, which probably still had its Arab population, would regain its strength during the Mamluk period and would become an important trading port in Syria. It profited especially as the harbour of Damascus in the 15th century, when trade with the west increased remarkably. Nevertheless, at the end of the 13th century, Mamluk policy emphasized the defence of the coast. As they had no fleet, Baybars and the Mamluk sultans who followed him had decided to defend the Syro-Palestinian coast from inland. They reasoned that once the Franks occupied a fortress on the coastline, it would be very difficult to reconquer the bridgehead because the Mamluks had no military boats which could stop the Frankish ships from supplying it. They therefore destroyed all major fortresses on the shore. Only a few walls and towers remained. Even the largest ports had only two towers at most. Tripoli, which was destroyed and rebuilt two miles further inland, and Beirut seemed to be the only towns which recovered at least partially. The seaports on the Palestinian coast were totally razed because of their proximity to Jerusalem. The former capital of the kingdom of Jerusalem, Acre, is an example of this. In Ascalon the city was destroyed and the harbour was filled with trees and rubble in 1270.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:42:53 GMT
       
  • Medieval Pottery from Beirut's Downtown Excavations
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Downtown Beirut, an area destroyed and abandoned throughout the war, is cur- rently the object of intense urban reconstruction. Endowed with more than 4000 years of history stretching from the Bronze Age until the present day, the devastated city arouses the interests of developers and archaeologists alike. Investigating the city's ur- ban history and material culture is a process concomitant with and contributing to the current urban reconstruction and development processes of the city centre.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:41:30 GMT
       
  • What Happened to Arabic-Geometric Pottery in Beirut'
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: In 1994 several excavations were conducted in the former suq of Beirut, by a number of different teams. One of these teams was that of Leiden University, headed by Dr. Margaret Steiner. Excavation of the site had to be finished within two months, after which the site would be demolished. In order to get as much information as possible within the time and means available, it was decided to divide the site into three areas, running from north to south. In the northernmost area the Islamic layers were fully excavated. In the middle area, the Islamic layers were removed and the Roman layers were excavated. A narrow street was found here, as well as rows of small rooms adjoining on either side, which were thought to be shops. The findings will be published by Dr. M.L. Steiner.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:40:52 GMT
       
  • Settled Life in Mamluk Jordan
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The Iqlîm Fahl was one of the many districts that constituted the extensive Mamlakat Dimashq in Bilâd al-Shâm during the Mamlûk period (1250/1263–1517 CE). The great size of this Mamlakah (“kingdom”) reflected the enduring importance of Damascus in middle Islamic times, and in Jordan encompassed all of the territory north of the dominant Wâdî Mûjib/Wâdî Wâlâ divide. Under Mamlûk administration north Jordan was subdivided into five principal regions as recorded in the geographical work of Dimashqî (d. c. 1327) and the detailed encyclopaedic reference compiled by al-Qalqashandî (d. 1418).
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:40:05 GMT
       
  • The Excavation at Tell Abu-Sarbut
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Until recently archaeological interest in the Islamic civilizations of the Middle East has focused on their monumental and artistic aspects: on the layout of cities, the architecture of castles and mosques, on texts, and on the fine glazed pottery. The material culture of the villages and the country-side has received hardly any attention. Although it is well known that the Jordan Valley was a thriving agricultural area where many new crops such as indigo and sugar were introduced during the Islamic period, hardly any archaeological information is available on the life of the farmers and their material belongings.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:38:57 GMT
       
  • Une installation d'époque médiévale dans la sanctuaire de Zeus de
           Jérash (Jordanie)
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Les archéologues ont hâtivement qualifié d’ayyoubide-mamelouke une céramique retrouvée dans des niveaux post-abbassides en Palestine et en Transjordanie, à défaut de disposer de plus de précision. Depuis peu, cette céramique a attiré l’attention des chercheurs, et des progrès considérables ont été réalisés. Cette communication n’a d’autre but que de porter à la connaissance du public la découverte de matériel archéologique similaire dans le téménos inférieur du sanctuaire de Zeus de Jérash. Le cadre de notre discussion sera élargi aux diverses traces archéologiques de même période retrouvées sur le site.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:38:29 GMT
       
  • Mamluk Khirbat Faris
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Khirbat Faris is located on the Kerak Plateau in Jordan about 20 km north of Kerak town. The site lies in rich wheat and barley growing land (when there is adequate rainfall) and on the edge of a well-watered wadi which drains westwards into the Dead Sea. There are no natural springs on the plateau and the water is either brought up from springs in the wadi or stored in cisterns. The modern land-use is mixed-farming with grain, legumes and summer-crops being raised on the plateau while tomatos, grapes and fruit are cultivated on the wadi-sides and bottom. Herds of livestock, predominantly sheep, complement this agriculture. The view of settlement in this area during the Middle Islamic period is based on primary Arabic historical and geographical sources and archaeological survey material. The historical sources suggest that during the Mamluk period (1263-1516) until the mid-fifteenth century there was a vibrant rural economy in the Kerak hinterland while Kerak town itself was an important centre for the Bahri Mamluks. Khirbat Faris itself is not mentioned in the historical records; its original name was probably Tadun which is now used to refer to the next-door Classical site.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:37:52 GMT
       
  • The Mosaics of the Qubba al-Zahirayya in Damascus
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Glass mosaic was a luxurious medium of decoration around the Mediterranean in regions that either belonged to or were influenced by Byzantine artistic traditions. It also played a major role in the ornamentation of Umayyad architecture of the seventh and eighth century. It was profusely applied on the walls of commemorative monuments in all major urban centers and many palatial retreats in the countryside. After the fall of the Umayyads in 750, mosaics seem to have been slowly abandoned in favor of other decorative techniques, save for a few consciously historicizing examples, such as those of the Cordoba Mosque in Umayyad Spain (ca. 961), and the routine repairs of the remaining Umayyad monuments in Syria and Palestine. Then, sometime during the thirteenth century, the medium made a forceful reappearance in Mamluk architecture before it totally disappeared for unknown reasons by the middle of the fourteenth century. During that short period, at least seventeen buildings have been recorded that had been adorned with mosaic in Cairo (8), Damascus (3), Jerusalem (3), Hebron (1), and Tripoli (2).
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:36:33 GMT
       
  • The Cup of the S&#257q&#299
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Blazonry is perhaps the most characteristic feature of the art of the Mamluk period. These simple and visually arresting designs can be found adorning the architecture of the towns and cities in the Levant as well as a wide variety of portable objects. The vocabulary of motifs contained within the blazons is small, being composed of abstract symbols and depictions of animals or inanimate objects. One of the most ubiquitous of these emblems is the cup. This paper will look at the origins of this motif.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:35:49 GMT
       
  • Christian Arab Painters under the Mamluks
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: More than one hundred years ago, Renan recorded the fresco painting in some of the caves and churches of the Lebanon, calling it “Syrian”, meaning the art of the Syriac speaking communities. It has taken a long time for scholars to identify and recognize the role these frescoes play in the history of Medieval painting and Renan may have underestimated their importance. These paintings in the churches and cave chapels of Lebanon illustrate a brilliant chapter of medieval art reflecting currents of interchange between the East, the West, and Byzantium. This paper considers the main schools of painting in the Lebanon during the rule of the Mamluks for which I have chosen four monuments: two of the paintings in the church of Mar Phocas at Amioun; one of the panels in the church of Mar Charbel in Ma’ad; some details from the Church of Mar Thadros, Bahdeidat and one of the panels in the Church of Mar Saba, Édde. The reasons for this selection is that all these paintings have some indications of their date or some exterior documentation, and thus build a foundation on which to discuss other paintings from this area in the Crusading period.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:33:43 GMT
       
  • Manuscript Production by Christians in 13th-14th Century Greater Syria and
           Mesopotamia and Related Areas
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: This paper is concerned with the role and preoccupations of Christian artists and scribes in the production of illustrated manuscripts of the 13th-14th centuries. With the emphasis on Greater Syria and Mesopotamia, mention will be made of the contacts maintained by Christian communities under Islam in the period. The secular and the religious will be considered in turn, and interrelations suggested. First, the phenomenon of cultural transmission – from Greek and Syriac into Arabic – introduces discussion of the role of Christians in a common secular Arab culture, with a Dioscorides manuscript as the focus. Next, the production by Christians of religious manuscripts will be discussed through specific, little studied, manuscripts produced by different Christian communities. In addresssing these issues a number of questions arise. What were the affiliations and priorities of the Christian communities' How did manuscript production develop within a social environment in which Arabic was being increasingly adopted as a religious and liturgical, as well as the everyday, language'
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:33:02 GMT
       
  • Ottoman Occupation of Bilad Al-Sham and its Immediate Results
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: In the early years of the 16th century the area stretching from the eastern coasts of the Mediterranean and eastern Iran and from the Balkans to the Hijaz was controlled by three powers: The Mamluks, The Safavids and The Ottomans. The Mamluks (1250-1517) established their authority first in Cairo in 1250 and expanded gradually into Bilad al-Sham and Armenia and later were recognised as rulers of the Hijaz. During the 13th and 14th centuries their authority was fairly well established and as they sat astride the trade routes which connected the Indian Ocean and Europe they benefited from commerce carried from the former to the latter, in particular in the spices and pepper, which were carried through their domain. In the 15th century, however, their rule was troubled by their continuous intestine quarrels.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:31:20 GMT
       
  • The Syrian Provinces in Ottoman Eyes
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The historiography of Ottoman Syria, unlike most historiographies, has focused with few exceptions on history “from the bottom up”, so to speak, rather than from the top down.1 That is, its history has largely been written from local Arabic sources and is concerned with local events and people. The Ottomans are seen, if at all, as alien invaders who occupy a position above and beyond the events of real interest. But how does Syria of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries appear in sources that deal with the Ottoman Empire as a whole' What place does Syria hold within the larger imperial entity of which it was a part' One way to approach these questions is through the view of Syria conveyed in Ottoman historical chronicles, sources that treat the empire in its larger sense.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:30:49 GMT
       
  • Northeastern Syria and Adjoining Parts of Iraq and Turkey under Early
           Ottoman Rule (16th century)
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: This is a report about studies carried out by Nejat Göyünc, Istanbul and the author during the years 1987-1997, on the subject of settlement development in Ottoman times. The research is based on tax registers of the 16th century which exist in Istanbul Bashvekalet Arshivi and in the Ankara Tapu ve Kadastro Arshivi. The existence of these materials has been known for several decades, although scientific work on them has been hindered by the difficulty of reading handwriting materials over 400 years old, by the administrative script of the defterhane of that time, and partly by the present access policy of the government.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:30:15 GMT
       
  • An Unknown Poem on the Siege of Aleppo and the Violent Events of A.H.
           1065-66/A.D. 1654-55
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to draw the attention of scholars and colleagues to the existence of a hitherto unknown and unpublished Arabic poem which deals with the siege of Aleppo, the most important city in Syria after Damascus, and which also describes in detail the terrible events which afflicted its inhabitants in 1654-55. The following remarks are intended as a preliminary notice of this extremely interesting work, of which I hope to produce a critical edition, with an English translation, in due course.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:29:49 GMT
       
  • Les moulins, les pressoirs d'huile et de raisin et les roues à soie
           dans la nawaîi du nord du Liban au XVIème siècle
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Nous soulignons que notre sujet recouvre quelques aspects de la vie matérielle de l’hommes au Nord du Liban dans le XVIe siècle. Nous avons étudié, autant qu’il était possible les moulins, les pressoirs d’huile et de raisin et les roues à soie. Il est évident que l’activité de ces techniques est le fruit d’un long effort de la part de l’homme. Braudel a dit d’ailleurs: «Toutefois, l’homme dit un historien, en tant que travail potentiel, est une des plus grandes valeurs sous le plus faible poids». La richesse naturelle, géologique et climatique a favorisé l’épanoiussement des cultures chez les habitants du Nord du Liban de même qu’elle a permis l’existence de techniques adéquates assurant à l’homme sa nourriture et son vêtement. Les moulins, les pressoirs d’huile et de raisin sont restés, jusqu’à l’apparition de l’éléctricité le fondement même de la production de la farine, de l’huile et de la mélasse. Quant aux roues à soie, elles ont régressé depuis le 1er tiers du XIXe siècle devant l’industrie importée de l’Europe.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:29:19 GMT
       
  • Some Socio-Economic Observations on the Relationships between the Mountain
           and the Coast in Early 17th Centuries
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: This study explores certain socio-economic relationships between the countryside and the urban coast, specifically, between mountainous, rural Mount-Lebanon and its major coastal city, Tripoli, during the early seventeenth century. This relationship between the urban coast and the rural mountain is a complex one. It can be characterized as being, on the one hand, symbiotic, and, on the other, conflictual and parasitic. For earlier scholars, the exploitative and conflictual dimensions had defined and characterized it. Among the most prominent and well-known upholders of this thesis are Weulersse, Gibb and Bowen, and Xavier de Planhol. This thesis has been critiqued and re-evaluated by a new generation of scholars who have questioned its historical accuracy. They have highlighted the symbiotic links between city and countryside without losing sight of the city’s exploitative relationship with it. Among them are: André Raymond’s and Kenneth Cuno’s works on Egypt; Abdul Karim Rafeq’s, Antoine Abdel Nour’s, and Adnan Bakhit’s detailed and synthetic studies on Syria. These scholars and many others not mentioned have focused primarily on the socio-economic history of Syria and Egypt, including the relations that have bound the countryside to the city.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:24:14 GMT
       
  • The Creation of Ottoman Damascus
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Modern-day urban landscapes in the Near East are contemporary witnesses to their history. Thus, four hundred years of Ottoman presence (1516-1918) and cultural concepts left a distinctive imprint on urban centres in Syria. The cityscapes of both Aleppo and Damascus, for example, were largely modified by important trade centres and mosques during the first one hundred years after their incorporation into the Ottoman Empire. The urban skyline of both cities is marked by wide-span domes and variations on the typical Ottoman ‘pencil shaped minarets’, as well as by a series of civil foundations situated in the suq and bearing the names of a number of Ottoman civil servants. The Ottoman presence is evident for the visitor to these cities.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:23:34 GMT
       
  • The Plans of Tripoli Al-Sham and Its Mamluk Architecture
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: During the Crusader’s occupation of Tripoli, which lasted 180 years (AH 502-688, AD 1109-1289), they built the fort known as the Saint Jil fort. It was built where the leader Soufian Ben Moujib Azdi had constructed the first Islamic fort during his blockade of Tripoli in about AH 25 (AD 646), at the time of Khalifa Osman Ben Affan. The Crusaders also erected several structures at the northern and western ends of the fort, and a small Latin street developed. Before the period of the Crusaders, the Fatimids had ordered the constructions of several monuments in the same area. They built a small mosque (Mashad) inside Soufian’s fort, and the Crusaders did not demolish it when they built the Saint Jil fort. The Fatimids also built a Khan (Kisaria) on the eastern side of Tripoli river. The Crusaders converted it into a palace known as the Prince Palace. Apart from this, many other Fatimid milestones were erected, but the details which they bore were obliterated by the passage of time. When the Mamluks started building the new city, they used sculpted stones brought from the demolished coastal buildings of both Crusaders and Fatimids. These stones were originally cut from the solid sand-stone rocks of the seaside. Mamluks also used granite pillars, brought by Egyptians, Romans and Crusaders in the past, to support and strengthen many different buildings, many of which still stand. Some of these pillars can be seen in the Taynal Mosque, the Tahhan Mosque, the Houjayjieh School, the yard of the Mansouri Great Mosque, the High Great Mosque in the city of Mina, the Amir [Prince (Barsbay Nasiri)] Tower, the gates of the Prince (Kartay) School and the Sakrakieh School. Several of these pillars continue to stand in the streets of the city of Mina, in the Haraj Bazaar, and elsewhere.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:23:01 GMT
       
  • Des vestiges Paléo-Ottomans de Tripoli
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Mon premier souci pour cette conférence fut de couvrir tous les vestiges paléo-ottomans de Tripoli, du moins les plus importants. J'avoue que j'ai été étonné de la rareté des archives et des études dans ce domaine. Ce qui justifie d'ailleurs la nécessité de telles conférences. En plus une historiographie des sites entamée par Dr. Omar Tadmuri et par Dr. Hayat Salam nous initie sur le patrimoine hérité strictement des mamelouks. Tadmuri a quand même énuméré des sites ottomans sans plus. D'autre part, il y a une confusion dans le classement de ces sites qu'on attribue à telle ou telle période, et qu'il conviendrait d'éclaircir. C'est ce qui explique d'ailleurs le choix de mon sujet, à savoir le «tekké» ou le «tekkieh» des Derviches MAWLAWIS à Tripoli dont les origines restent encore non-définies, ou même sujet à controverse; chose qui requiert une étude précise et des éclaircissements scientifiques. Toutefois, la liste de sites ottomans à partir du XVIe siècle est longue, elle nécessite impérativement un travail de recherche tant historiographique que stylistique et architectural; ceci est vrai en ce qui concerne toutes les périodes ottomanes. Il ne pouvait donc être question de parler d'une manière générale et superficielle; c'est pour cela que nous avons estimé plus profitable d'opter pour une étude plus élaborée et plus approfondie a partir d'un exemple défini. Enfin, même si notre choix est tombé sur le tekkieh des derviches Mawlawis, il n'en reste pas moins que nous avons décidé d'aller jusqu'au bout dans l'étude détaillée des «vestiges ottomans de Tripoli», pratiquement inexistante jusqu'à cette date.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:20:49 GMT
       
  • Les mosquées de Saidda à l'époque Paléo-Ottomane (XVIe - XVIIe
           siècles)
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Voici un bref aperçu de l’histoire de Saïda de la période phénicienne jusqu’à la période du bas Moyen-Age (fin du VIIe s. av. J. C jusqu’au XVIe s. ap. J. C, moment où la ville de Saïda fut conquise par les ottomans). Dès ce moment là, les villes – les royaumes et les cités – états, c’est-à-dire à l’époque phénicienne, Saïda, (ou le royaume de Saïda) fut la métropole des cités-états. Elles avait leurs propres dieux et leurs propres temples (Eshmoun et Saidoun-Sidouni)
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:19:50 GMT
       
  • The Archaeology of Palestine/Jordan in the Early Ottoman Period
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Rather than bemoan further such lack of interest, this article has the objective of surveying the state of knowledge of the material culture of the early Ottoman period. The situation is not all bleak; indeed there have now been four Ph.D. theses that deal at least in part with the archaeology of Palestine/Jordan in the 16th-17th centuries: Ziadeh's study of the excavated Ottoman period archaeological remains of the village of Ti‘innek; Brown's study of pottery production in the Late Islamic period; Kareem's study of settlement in the Jordan Valley in the Late Islamic period, based on his excavations at the site of Dhra‘ al-Khan; and Baram's theoretical modeling for the study of the material culture of the Ottoman period, in which he examines tobacco pipes as an exceptionally informative class of objects about broader economic and social developments. There are also several MA theses of note, such as Brown's study of Late Islamic settlement of the Karak plateau in Jordan, as well as al-Malkawi's study of Late Mamluk-Early Ottoman period water mills in Wadi Kufranjah in northern Jordan; Abu Armayis' study of the Late Islamic period remains of the village of Artas and Solomon's Pools south of Bethlehem; and ‘Ubaydat's study of the Ottoman hajj forts in southern Jordan, among a larger number dealing with pottery typologies of the Mamluk period that could well be continuing into the early Ottoman period.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:19:08 GMT
       
  • Bishops and Metropolitans of the Antiochian Patriarchate in the 17th
           Century
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: There are two good reasons for limiting this study to the 17th century. On one hand several sources of mainly Arab origin allow a nearly complete reconstruction of the notitiae, the lists of the espicopal sees, for this century; on the other hand these sources provide interesting biographical material about the incumbents which is not available in this abundance for earlier periods. In addition, one should not forget that the 17th century is of special importance for the history of the Melkites. It became the starting point for a process of cultural revival amongst the Arab Christians. Greek Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs like Meletius Za'im, Meletius Karmah and Athanasius ad-Dabbas were the early protagonists of this movement. In the field of Church policy the 17th century has to be recognised as the eve of the splitting of the Antiochian patriarchate into an Orthodox and a Catholic branch, which finally became reality in 1724. In both spheres – that of culture and that of Church policy – the development was influenced by intensified relations with European powers and institutions as well as with the Orthodox East. I shall mention only the similarly increasing numbers of European diplomats and missionaries in the Levant, the probable increase in the number of visits of Oriental clerics to Europe for reasons of study, work, teaching and politics, and not least the journeys of some high ranking representatives of the Antiochian patriarchate to the bilad al-masiÌiyin, the Orthodox principalities and kingdoms in the Balkans, the Caucasus and Russia.Shortness of time obliges me to limit myself to just a few aspects. So after a brief description of the geographical extent of the Antiochian patriarchate in the 17th century, three main issues will be discussed. The first of these is the relations of the bishops with the local Muslim authorities. I will make no distinction between bishops and metropolitans, as the latter's rank was only one of honour and did not imply any real power over suffragans. The second is the contribution of the bishops to the cultural life and production of the Melkite community. The third is the ethnic origin of the different incumbents, which leads to the question of to what degree the patriarchate of Antioch was “Hellenized” or “Graecized” in the 17th century.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:16:45 GMT
       
  • The Situation of Waqf between Timar and Iltizam
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: The waqf lands of the Ottoman Empire originated in the rulings and practices of Islamic shari’a and, in a more ancient period, from the status of church properties in canon law. The structure of shari’a seems to have undergone its final developments in the eleventh century, the time when the legal authorities stopped possibilities of interpretation. The most recent research on this subject, however, has proved that the de facto situation was far different from that established by the law. The fatawas and the firmans decreed by different Ottoman authorities continually upset ancestral traditions and practices. The fact is that the waqf was a socio-religious institution whose function was very similar to that of social security systems in modern society, and whose importance varied according to historical period and to political regime.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:14:46 GMT
       
  • A New Ruler of the Merw&#257nid Emirate in 401/1010,
    • Authors: poj@peeters-leuven.be
      Abstract: Using the basis of a coin document, a new ruler of the Marwānid emirate can be identified and thus added to the list of rulers given by C.E. Bosworth in New Islamic Dynasties. The circumstances of his accession to the throne shed some new light on the application and spread of regicide as a principle for legitimizing the sovereign power of a ruler, as explored in an article by U. Haarmann in 1990.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Oct 2005 14:12:59 GMT
       
 
 
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