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  Subjects -> ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (Total: 111 journals)
Showing 1 - 15 of 15 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acupuncture in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alternative & Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Alternative and Complementary Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Alternative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Alternative Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arabian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arteterapia. Papeles de arteterapia y educación artística para la inclusión social     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Plant Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanics : Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cadernos de Naturologia e Terapias Complementares     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cognitive Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Complementary Therapies in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Current Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Deutsche Heilpraktiker-Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Erfahrungsheilkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access  
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Global Journal of Integrated Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Traditional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Herba Polonica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Integrative Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of High Dilution Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ipnosi     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Applied Arts and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of AYUSH :- Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Dance Medicine & Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Fasting and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Herbal Drugs (An International Journal on Medicinal Herbs)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Integrative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Medicine & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinally Active Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Remedies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of the Australian Traditional-Medicine Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Lekovite Sirovine     Open Access  
Médecine Palliative : Soins de Support - Accompagnement - Éthique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Medical Acupuncture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi     Open Access  
Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Natural solutions     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Acupuntura     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Traditional & Kampo Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Traditional Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Orthomolekulare Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

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Journal of Herbal Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.509
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2210-8033 - ISSN (Online) 2210-8041
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Treating depression naturally: How flower essences can help rebalance your
           life. Chris Phillips. Floris Books, Edinburgh, 2017, Pp. £12.99/$19.95.
           ISBN 978-178250-427-6.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Graeme Tobyn
       
  • Bioactive Metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum: Factors, Mechanism and Broad
           Spectrum Therapeutic Potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Chetan Sharma, Neha Bhardwaj, Anupam Sharma, Hardeep Singh Tuli, Priya Katyal, Vikas Beniwal, Girish Kumar Gupta, Anil K. SharmaAbstractBackgroundThe global interest in edible medicinal herbs for healthcare has significantly increased during the last few years.Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom which is known to be a potential source of many therapeutic and pharmaceutical products with significant health importance.MethodologyThe available literature using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar database was thoroughly reviewed using the keywords Natural Products,Ganoderma, secondary metabolites and therapeutics. Thisnarrative review of all the relevant papers with significant citations leads the authors to greater insight into the potential therapeutic significance of Ganoderma lucidum.ResultsThe presence of a wide array of secondary metabolites in this herb contributes to its pharmaceutical uses.G. lucidum is rich in polysaccharides (β-glucan,mannitol), alkaloids, and a group oftriterpenes (ganoderic acid). Many cellular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the mode of action of its active metabolites and their healthcare attributes including anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant and protective effects on liver and other secondary lymphoid organs.ConclusionThis review illustrates the broad spectrum therapeutic potential of secondary metabolites derived fromGanoderma and supports our understanding of the main pharmacologically active compounds present in this fungus. Insight into the actions of its secondary metabolites could further pave a way for establishing G. lucidum, as a pharmacologically important product.
       
  • Anti-inflammatory Action of YHQ by Regulating 5-LOX/COX-2/NF-κB/MAPKs/Akt
           Signaling Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophage cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Bao-Hui Cheng, Tian-Yong Hu, Li Ma, Wen-Hui Hu, Yan-Yan Chen, Xian-Hai Zeng, Hai-Liang Zhao, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Shu-Qi QiuYan-Hou-Qing (YHQ), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula including fifteen herbal medicines has been used for acute pharyngitis and cough treatment in Oriental medicine. However, anti-inflammatory activities of YHQ are poorly understood. The anti-inflammatory activities of YHQ were evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the underlying mechanisms were further determined using western blot in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells in vitro. Anti-inflammation study revealed that YHQ inhibits the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) potently by suppressing the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) by reducing arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Further study demonstrated that YHQ inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by attenuating the phosphorylation p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). The suppressive effects of YHQ on LPS-stimulated inflammatory cytokines and mediators can be attributed to the suppression of YHQ on the phosphorylation of Akt and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 MAPKs. This study suggested that YHQ can be a preventive and potent therapeutic candidate for the management of inflammatory-mediated immune disorders.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of Arctium lappa linne (Burdock) Root tea consumption on lipid
           profile and blood pressure in patients with knee osteoarthritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Leila Maghsoumi-Norouzabad, Farideh Shishehbor, Reza Abed, Ahmad Zare Javid, Bina Eftekhar-Sadat, Beitollah AlipourAbstractBackgroundKnee Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disabling joint disorder worldwide. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of burdock root tea consumption on lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with OA.MethodsIn this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial 36 patients (10 males and 26 females) aged 50-70 years old suffering from bilateral knee Osteoarthritis were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The routine treatment was considered for all patients during the study. The intervention group received 3 cups / day of Burdock root tea (2 g tea bags steeped in 150 ml of boiled water for 10 minutes) and control group received only 3 cups / day of boiled water (150 ml) 30 minutes after meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) for 6 weeks. Blood lipid profile and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks post intervention.ResultsTotal cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased post intervention. A significant increase in HDL-C level was observed in the intervention group. At the end of the study, there was a significant difference in LDL-C, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratios and diastolic blood pressure between two groups.ConclusionsIt is suggested that consumption of burdock root tea may improve lipid profile and blood pressure status in patients with knee OA. Further studies may need to confirm these effects.
       
  • Daily date vinegar consumption improves hyperlipidemia, β- carotenoid and
           inflammatory biomarkers in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Zeshan Ali, Haile Ma, Asif Wali, Ishmael Ayim, Muhammad Nauman SharifAbstractDates are delicious fruits with a sweet taste and a fleshy consistency. Dates also have various bioactive components which have effects on different types of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of date vinegar made from date pulp and pits on the serum lipid profile and inflammatory biomarkers of mildly hypercholesterolemic adults. Seventy-six subjects with mildly raised total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were enrolled. Participants ingested 30 mL of either date vinegar or placebo daily together with their normal diets. Plasma lipids, inflammatory biomarkers, carotenoids, potassium, folic acid, urea and creatinine were measured at baseline after 4 weeks and after treatment. These results suggest that the date vinegar improved several serum lipid profile parameters (mg/dL: Total Cholesterol (TC) 246.40 ± 14.7 to 197.60 ± 14.7, P = 0.001; Low density lipoprotein (LDL) 166.6 ± 11.8 to 109.8 ± 11.8, P = 0.001; Triglycerides (TG) 170.30 ± 16.54 to 161.20 ± 17.8, P = 0.002; High density lipoprotein (HDL) 41.7 ± 8.08 to 44.1 ± 8.05, P = 0.003) and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP) 7.05 ± 1.23 to 4.12 ± 0.04 mg/L, P = 0.001; nitric oxide (NO) 31.06 ± 0.47 to 27.01 ± 0.14 μmol/L, P = 0.002; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) 17.2 ± 2.8 to 13.6 ± 2.4 pg/mL, P = 0.001; fibrinogen 272.54 ± 22.6 to 238.31 ± 11.7 mg/dL, P = 0.014). The findings suggest that date vinegar improved the concentration of lipid and inflammatory biomarkers.
       
  • Spirulina platensis supplementation, macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1
           (MIC-1), oxidative stress markers and anthropometric features in obese
           individuals: a randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Atefeh Shariat, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Reihaneh ZeinalianABSTRACTBackgroundsObesity is associated with numerous chronic diseases. The current study was aimed at investigating the effects of Spirulina platensis on Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1), biomarkers of oxidative stress and anthropometric features in obese patients.MethodsFifty six obese individuals, aged between 20-50 years old, participated in the current trial and were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control receiving either Spirulina platensis or a placebo daily for 12 weeks, respectively. Changes in serum and blood concentrations of MIC-1, markers of oxidative stress and anthropometric features were evaluated at baseline and after the intervention period. Appetite was also measured by visual analogue scale (VAS).ResultsSpirulina platensis treatment for 12 weeks significantly reduced MIC-1 concentrations and appetite in obese individuals (P 
       
  • Wound healing potential of selected Southern African medicinal plants: a
           review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Constance Chingwaru, Tanja Bagar, Alfred Maroyi, Petrina T. Kapewangolo, Walter ChingwaruAbstractBackgroundMedicinal plants have remained an integral part of traditional practice in Southern Africa. Many plants have a history of use in concoctions that promote wound healing and treatment of other ailments. However, the efficacies and mechanisms underlying their wound healing properties have remained undetermined.MethodsElectronic databases including PubMed, Scifinder® and Google Scholar were searched using subject specific key words that were matched by MESH in a bid filter for Southern African medicinal plants with wound healing activity, phytochemical composition and the molecular mechanisms underlying the respective wound healing processes. While the paper touches on the empirical medicinal plants – wound healing dogmas, it highlights the importance of mood modifying plant components including cannabinoids on wound healing.ResultsThis review identified 20 Southern African medicinal plant species from 14 families with a history of use as medicines to promote wound healing. Overall, the selected medicinal plants presented herein are endowed with high content of alkaloids, cannabinoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and/or tannins. These components reportedly promote wound healing through the following mechanisms mopping of reactive oxygen species from wounded tissues, inhibition / cidal effects against infections that delay wound healing, anti-inflammatory activities and modulation of pathways in the endocannabinoid system.ConclusionsEmpirical evidence has shown that these components also facilitate wound healing through increased wound contraction, reepithelialisation and collagen synthesis. To help close the knowledge gap, the authors are actively studying the mechanisms and composition of a selection of plants that are frequently used to promote wound healing in the region.
       
  • Higher consumption of Allium vegetables may modulate insulin homeostasis:
           A longitudinal follow-up study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Bahadoran, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun AziziAbstractObjectivesThis study investigated the association between habitual consumption of allium vegetables (raw garlic and onion) and the incidence of insulin resistance (IR), β-cell dysfunction and hyperinsulinemia.MethodsAdult men and women, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006–2008 to 2009–2011), were recruited. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting serum insulin (FSI) and fasting glucose were measured at baseline and again after 3 years. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA of β-cell function were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of IR, β-cell dysfunction and hyperinsulinemia across tertiles of allium vegetable intakes, with adjustment for potential confounding variables.ResultsMean age of participants was 39.0 ± 11.2 years and 45.5% were men. Baseline mean FSI and HOMA-IR was 8.9 ± 5.0 μU/mL, 1.93 ± 1.22, and 149 ± 86, respectively. Compared to the lowest tertile, the highest category of allium vegetables intake (≥142 vs.
       
  • Differing antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of Polypodium vulgare
           L. Rhizome aqueous extract and one of its purified active
           ingredients–osladin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Michał Gleńsk, Dorota Tichaczek-Goska, Kamila Środa-Pomianek, Maciej Włodarczyk, Carl A. Wesolowski, Dorota WojniczPolypodium vulgare L. (Polypodiaceae), the common polypody, is used in Polish traditional medicine as an expectorant to treat cough, chronic nephritis, and pyelonephritis. This is a first study that tests the antimicrobial properties of the osladin contained in P. vulgare rhizome aqueous extract. The osladin was isolated from the aqueous extract by resin column fractionation, crystallization and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to confirm the identity of osladin. The bacteriostatic and antibiofilm activity of the extract and of purified osladin were investigated using the time-kill kinetic assay and the biofilm assay. These assays were conducted upon the most commonly uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains for humans. P. vulgare rhizome aqueous-phase extract and purified osladin from that extract showed inhibitory effects on the survival and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic bacteria.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Comparison of the effect of topical use of Nigella Sativa oil and
           diclofenac gel on osteoarthritis pain in older people: A randomized,
           double-blind, clinical trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Fatemeh Azizi, Fereshteh Ghorat, Mohammad Hassan Rakhshani, Mostafa RadAbstractOsteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in the elderly. Herbal remedies create pain relief with appropriate clinical effects and less toxicity. We aimed to investigate the effect of Nigella sativa oil compared with diclofenac gel on the reduction of osteoarthritis pain in older people. This was a double-blind clinical trial. Samples were 52 men and women aged 60–80 years. They were selected using a convenience method, that were randomly assigned into Nigella sativa oil and diclofenac gel groups. The topical application of Nigella sativa oil and diclofenac gel was performed twice a day in the morning and night for 21 days. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire was used for data collection about pain before the use of drugs, in the tenth day and the twenty-first day of the intervention. Paired t-test showed that both interventions improved pain in the subjects (P 
       
  • In vitro bioactivity of extracts from seeds of Cassia absus L.
           growing in Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Saeed Ahmad, Ayesha Hassan, Tayyeba Rehman, Abdul Basit, Anbreen Tahir, Muhammad Adeel ArshadAbstractCassia absus seeds are widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of skin infections, wound healing, hypertension, peptic ulcers and anuria. The current study evaluated the antioxidant, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory activity of extracts obtained from the seeds of C. absus L. (Leguminosae) to determine a mechanism for the traditional use of the seeds. Crude ethanolic extract of C.absus seeds was prepared by maceration method and n-butanol, choloroform, n-hexane and water fractions were prepared from crude ethanol extract. The antibacterial activity of samples was determined by agar well diffusion and broth micro dilution assay. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract and fractions was evaluated for free radical scavenging activity by DPPH assay. The enzyme inhibition activity of crude extract and fractions was determined against urease, carbonic anhydrase and xanthine oxidase. The n-hexane and n-butanol fractions showed promising activity against gram-positive bacteria when compared with ceftriaxone as a standard. Moreover, the crude ethanol extract and water fraction displayed the most potent activity in urease inhibition assay. The results showed that crude extract and all the fractions have urease inhibition. In the case of carbonic anhydrase, only the crude ethanolic extract and water fraction exhibited inhibitory activity. Interestingly, none of the extracts or fractions showed significant inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase and DPPH. Data obtained tends to corroborate with the reported traditional usage of the plant, as the traditional use of C. absus seeds in skin infections and wound healing could be explained by its promising antibacterial activity. The traditional diuretic, antihypertensive effect could be due to its carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity. Anti-ulcer effect could be due to urease and carbonic anhydrase inhibition. However, further in vivo and clinical trials are required to confirm these activities of seeds. Moreover, there may also be potential to isolate promising compounds for drug discovery.
       
  • Oregano and/or marjoram: Traditional oil production and ethnomedical
           utilization of Origanum species in southern Turkey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Ilker Cinbilgel, Yusuf KurtOregano synonymous with marjoram is a culinary and medicinal herb. Oregano is generally rich in the phenolic monoterpenoids (mainly carvacrol) while marjoram is generally rich in bicyclic monoterpenoids (mainly cis- and trans-sabinen hydrate). In this study, traditional oil production and ethnomedical utilization of plant products are presented from the Antalya region in southern Turkey. The native people harvest species from wild populations and air-dry them under the sun. They consume and sell mainly air-dried Origanum onites (Turkish oregano) leaves. They obtain essential oil traditionally by steam distillation from Origanum majorana (white marjoram) due to its high oil yield. The native people use dried plant material and essential oil to cure various diseases such as cough, chronic cold, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders and skin problems in humans as well as in domestic animals. Wild-crafting of populations may cause genetic erosion of the species. The sustainability of these species should be maintained by genetic resource conservation programs by in situ and ex situ conservation strategies.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Materia medica chests: Investigating the 19th century use of botanicals by
           different medical professions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Marion Mackonochie, Michael HeinrichAbstractThe use of herbal substances was an element of everyday medicine until the advent of synthetic medicines from the late 19th Century onwards. Medicinal chests were used as teaching and examination tools for apothecaries and pharmacists. The contents of two 19th Century materia medica chests that are owned by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries in London (LSA) were analysed and compared with written texts from the time in order to understand botanical drug knowledge in 19th Century Britain. The samples in the chests and any associated information was documented and analysed.The pharmacists' examination chest contained 84 botanical drug samples, while 94 botanical drugs could be identified in the apothecaries' chest; 45 of these were present in both chests. Minimal changes in herb use over the 19th Century and limited variation of the botanical drugs used by different medical professionals were found. There are some differences in respect to the therapeutic areas which were of importance - the pharmacists' chest contained some potent purgatives and toxic drugs, while botanical drugs unique to the apothecaries' chest were gentle digestives and tonic herbs. Comparison of the chest contents with texts from the 19th Century has indicated that no single historical source provides a complete picture of botanical drug use at the time.This is a pilot study highlighting the potential of such chests in research on the history of European herbal medicine, and a more systematic study including research on the botanical drugs' chemical composition and authenticity is warranted.
       
  • Ethno-survey of traditional use of plants as aphrodisiacs in Kashmir
           Himalaya, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Aijaz Hassan Ganie, Bilal A. Tali, Gowhar A. Shapoo, Irshad A. Nawchoo, Anzar A. KhurooAbstractDocumenting traditional use of biodiversity has assumed priority in conservation and sustainable use of this precious knowledge base. Of the various traditional uses of biodiversity, the utilization of plants to treat sexual disorders has a long history. Thus, the present study was carried out to survey and document the traditional use of plant species as aphrodisiacs in Kashmir Himalaya, India. It was discovered that 78 plant species growing in this Himalayan region have been attributed aphrodisiac properties. For each species, the present study provides the scientific name, voucher number, vernacular name, English name, family, life-form, plant part used, medicinal use, method of preparation and dosage. The paper also highlights the crucial role of baseline information gathered during the present study, which can prove helpful for the development of new aphrodisiac formulations and sustainable use of this plant wealth in this biodiversity-rich Himalayan region.
       
  • Neuroprotective effects of Hibiscus Sabdariffa against hydrogen
           peroxide-induced toxicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Aiman Shalgum, Manoj Govindarajulu, Mohammed Majrashi, Sindhu Ramesh, Willard E. Collier, Gerald Griffin, Rajesh Amin, Chastity Bradford, Timothy Moore, Muralikrishnan DhanasekaranAbstractThe World Health Organization and the National Institute of Mental Health (United States of America) states that neurodegenerative diseases leads to significant loss of regular activity of the patients, their family and the caretakers leading to a huge economic loss. Current treatments provide modest and temporary symptomatic relief, without altering the underlying mechanisms associated with the onset and the progression of the neurodegenerative diseases. Strong scientific evidence points the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the current therapeutic efforts have been directed to find beneficial agents that could reduce the oxidative damage and promote a functional recovery of neurons in degenerative disorders. Hydrogen peroxide is an endogenous neurotoxin which can initiate and propagate (promote) neurodegeneration. Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) exhibits multiple pharmacological activities. Hence in this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects and the possible mechanisms of action of Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) against the hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity. Hibiscus sabdariffa exhibited antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects and significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide. Hibiscus sabdariffa exhibits neuroprotective effects and can be an effective and novel alternative approach to reduce the risk of various neurodegenerative disorders.
       
  • Evaluation of biodegradable gel containing flax seed extract (Linum
           usitatissimum) as a targeted drug delivery for management of chronic
           periodontitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): R Pappu, J Varghese, KB Koteshwara, V Kamath, R Lobo, K. NimmyTreatment of periodontitis has been one of the most challenging aspects of periodontal therapy. The role of host immune inflammatory response in periodontal disease forms the basis of modernistic therapeutic approaches. The present study evaluates the efficacy of an indigenously formulated flax seed extract in the form of biodegradable gel, as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Sixty patients diagnosed with localized periodontal disease having pocket probing depth ≥ 5 mm were selected. All the patients were treated with professional oral prophylaxis and root instrumentation as part of the standard periodontal care protocol. The participants were divided into 3 groups with 20 subjects in each group. One group received the formulated flax seed extract gel and second group received flurbiprofen gel. The third and/or control group did not receive any adjunct therapy. The following measurements were recorded at baseline, first and third month, which included, Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva samples for estimation of drug release followed by record of clinical parameters i.e. plaque index, gingival index, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment levels. The results of the study demonstrated that the flax seed extract gel could be equally associated to the effectiveness of flurbiprofen gel, at the end of 90 days (p = 0.001). Hence, this randomized clinical trial sets a route for incorporating herbal constituents as targeted drug therapeutic agents for the management of chronic periodontitis. Also, the use of these phytotherapeutic agents can be further incited considering its safety, low risk and economical options.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Optimizing a recombinant estrogen receptor binding assay for analysis of
           herbal extracts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Sandra L. Gray, Brett R. LackeyPhytoestrogens may directly or indirectly affect the function of estrogen receptors. A method using human recombinant estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ) was adapted for pure isoflavone compounds: glycitein, glycitin, biochanin A and formononetin; and extracts from chaste tree, Queen-Anne’s lace, Cyperus rhizome, dong quai, flaxseed, black cohosh, Siberian ginseng, saw palmetto, hops, licorice, red clover and alfalfa. Estrogen binding equivalents (EBE) for extracts binding with ERα were: black cohosh 
       
  • Toxicology of medicinal plants and combinations used in rural northern
           KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) for the treatment of hypertension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Mmbulaheni Ramulondi, Helene de Wet, Sandy van VuurenAbstractEthnobotanical surveys showed that medicinal plants play a major role in the health-care of people residing in the rural areas of northern KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Because of the long-term usage, these medicinal plants are often assumed to be safe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of 26 medicinal plants and 19 plant combinations which are routinely used for the treatment of hypertension in this rural area. Five of the medicinal plants (Citrullus lanatus, Cladostemon kirkii, Hyphaene coriacea, Pyrenacantha kaurabassana and Strychnos madagascariensis) investigated in the current study have not been previously evaluated for any toxicity. Two extracts [organic (dichloromethane:methanol) and aqueous] were assessed using the brine shrimp assay (BSLA) and the Ames test. The results showed that for the organic extracts, 17 plant extracts tested were toxic in the BSLA while six plant extracts were toxic in the Ames test. Extracts tested in various concentrations demonstrated that toxicity was dosage dependent i.e. as the concentration increased, mortality percentage increased. Results of both assays (BSLA and Ames test) demonstrated that in general lower toxicity was observed for the aqueous extracts as only Catharanthus roseus (roots), Citrus limon (peel) and Ozoroa engleri (roots) showed toxicity. Synergistic interactions were observed between plant combinations; however, some of the plant combinations resulted in increased toxicity (antagonistic interactions). This study provides some insight into the possible toxicity implications of medicinal plants routinely used in rural northern KwaZulu-Natal.
       
  • The fundamental study of antimicrobial activity of Piper betle extract in
           commercial toothpastes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 14Author(s): Ameena Ali, Xiao Y. Lim, Puteri F. WahidaAbstractPiper betle L., also known as betel leaf, has been shown to possess many medicinal properties and has a long history of traditional use, especially its application in the improvement of oral health. In recent years, extracts of Piper betle have gained attention for their ability to inhibit microbial growth. The effective extraction of the phytochemicals responsible for this antimicrobial activity is essential if their properties are to be utilized in real life applications. In this study, the effects of different solvents (ethanol and water) on the extraction of the bioactive compounds were investigated. 95% ethanol was found to recover the highest phenolic content of 840 mg GAE/g, followed by 50% ethanol with 460 mg GAE/g and water with the lowest at 200 mg GAE/g. With its high phenolic content, the 95% ethanol extract was blended into 3 existing, commercially available, toothpastes to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. The extract combined with conventional toothpastes, each with different active ingredients, were subjected to four oral bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus salivarius, as well as the oral fungal pathogen Candida albicans, via agar well diffusion assay. A statistically significant increase in the zone of inhibition after the addition of the P.betle extract was observed with all 3 toothpastes in all bacterial and fungal pathogens tested. The greatest increase in ZOI was 24.6% for the bacterial pathogens and 20.3% for the fungal pathogen, showcasing the potential use of Piper Betle extract as an effective antimicrobial agent for use in oral products.
       
  • Case report on recovery from Japanese encephalitis virus infection by
           complementary use of phytolacca-mother tincture and in silico analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 14Author(s): Harish Chandra Chaudhury, Akhil Kumar Panda, Sarat Kumar Behera, Manjushree Mohanty, Bharat Bhusan SubudhiAbstractPhytolacca Americana L. or pokeweed has medicinal application against inflammation, arthritis, and viral fever infections in traditional medicines. Its mother tincture in the homeopathic system of medicine is used for many of these disease conditions. This is the first case study reporting the beneficial effects of Phytolacca-mother tincture against Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) infection in an intensive care unit (ICU) patient. A 42-year-old male patient with JEV infection failed to respond to conventional therapy. Following this, he was administered pokeweed tincture orally, two drops three times daily along with conventional therapy. Gradually the patient recovered and after two months of treatment, the patient was discharged with neurological sequelae. The anti-JEV basis of pokeweed was investigated by in silico analysis. The antiviral protein of pokeweed which has earlier been reported to inhibit viral RNA synthesis was shown to have the affinity for nonstructural protein (NS5) of JEV by use of protein-protein docking. Esculentic acid of pokeweed was also predicted to have a strong affinity for NS3 and NS5 of JEV. It was also found to be a potent inhibitor of multiple targets which have the potential to mediate antiviral action. Considering the possibilities of both direct and indirect interferences of pokeweed phytoconstituents with JEV proteins, it can be suggested that pokeweed mother tincture can be a good complementary antiviral therapy against JEV infection.
       
  • Efficacy of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. in the management of premenstrual
           syndrome: A randomized controlled study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 14Author(s): Rabia Malik, Kouser Fathima Firdose, Muzafar Din Ahmad BhatAbstractAimsThe aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy and safety of Nardostachys jatamansi in reducing PMS symptoms in otherwise healthy women.MethodsThis single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 60 women aged between 18 and 45 years. The participants were randomly allocated to receive either a total of 4 g of N. jatamansi (2 capsules 3 times a day) or placebo for the 15 days prior to menstruation, for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Premenstrual tension syndrome observer-rating scale (PMTS-O), premenstrual tension syndrome self-rating scale (PMTS-SR) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were recorded at baseline and then after the first and second cycle of treatment. An additional follow-up with participants was conducted one month after cessation of treatment.ResultsAfter the two months of treatment, there was a statistically significant reduction in average PMTS-O and PMTS-SR scores in the N. jatamansi group (p 
       
  • Validation of medicinal herbs for anti-tyrosinase potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 14Author(s): Pulok K. Mukherjee, Rajarshi Biswas, Akanksha Sharma, Subhodip Banerjee, Sayan Biswas, C.K. KatiyarTyrosinase is a key regulatory multifunctional enzyme containing copper that is responsible for the biosynthesis of melanin that determines the color of the skin. Accumulation of excessive melanin causes various dermatological disorders including melasma and age spots. Tyrosinase is also responsible for enzymatic browning reactions in damaged fruits and vegetables. It deteriorates the color clarity of plant-derived food product which results in loss of nutritional quality. The study of Tyrosinase inhibition is an active field of research in dermatological, biomedical, food and agricultural science and also has potential impact in the domain of insect physiology. Despite several developments on tyrosinase inhibitors, their safety concern still requires investigations due to their undesirable side-effects. Research in this context is being carried out to find potent and safe leads as tyrosinase inhibitors from medicinal plants. This review provides comprehensive overviews of various tyrosinase inhibitors obtained from medicinal plants with their mechanism of action. Several medicinal plants as tyrosinase inhibitors have been extensively studied and successfully marketed. The polyphenol and stilbenes group of phyto-molecules have been established as effective tyrosinase inhibitors. Few of these molecules however have been clinically investigated in the context of potential anti-melanogenic medicinal plants. Tyrosinase inhibitors are commercially available for cosmetic purposes to lighten the complexion. Clinically, they are also used in the treatment of hyper-pigmentary disorders. They are equally applicable for the anti-browning agents in the food-processing industry. This review will be useful for the development and evaluation of tyrosinase inhibitors from medicinal plants.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from Ghana; confirmation of
           ethnobotanical uses, and review of biological and toxicological studies on
           medicinal plants used in Apra Hills Sacred Grove
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 14Author(s): Adeoye Adeniyi, Alex Asase, Patrick K. Ekpe, Bismark K. Asitoakor, Anthony Adu-Gyamfi, Prosper Y. AvekorThe majority of human populations in developing countries rely on traditional medicines but the practice of traditional medicine is not the same across the world. In this study, the authors investigated traditional medicinal uses of plants by the communities living around Apra Hills Sacred Grove, in southern Ghana. A total of 75 households in three communities, namely, Akrampa, Apra and Loye, living in the study area were interviewed about the plants they used for the management of their common human ailments. Data collection was achieved after obtaining prior-informed consent, and using a semi-structured questionnaire. Botanical voucher specimens of the plants reported as being used were collected following standard ethnobotanical practice. A total of 31 species of plants belonging to16 families were reported as being used in the management and treatment of diseases. Approximately 65% of the plants were collected from degraded areas outside the protected area of the grove whereas 35% were obtained from inside the protected area of grove (wild). The majority (81%) of the plants reported were non-cultivated plants while 19% were semi-cultivated plants, and none were cultivated. Leaves formed a major component (57%) of the plant materials being used and most of the herbal remedies were prepared by boiling and the decoctions drunk. The results of the study have also confirmed the ethnobotanical uses of the plants as well as highlighted “new use reports”. The study has confirmed importance of degraded areas as a source of medicinal plants for indigenous communities and that a high proportion of non-cultivated plants is used for such medicines. Plants in need of further investigations based on a survey of the available literature on their ethnobotanical use, biological activity and toxicological studies have been highlighted.Graphical abstractWe investigated traditional medicinal uses of plants by communities living around Apra Hills Sacred Grove, in southern Ghana. Data collection was achieved by interviewing 75 households, and collection of botanical specimens. A total of 31 species of plants belonging to16 families were identified. About 65% of the plants were collected from degraded areas outside the protected area of the grove whereas 35% were obtained from inside the protected area of the grove (wild). Majority (81%) of the plants were non-cultivated plants while 19% were semi-cultivated plants, and none of the plants was cultivated. The results of the study have confirmed the ethnobotanical uses of the plants as well as highlighted “new use reports”. Plants in need of further studies based on survey of available literature on their ethnobotanical use, biological and toxicological activities have been highlighted.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • An evaluation of garlic products available in Australian pharmacies–From
           the label to the laboratory
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 14Author(s): Wai-Jo Jocelin Chan, Andrew J. McLachlan, Nial J. Wheate, Joanna E. HarnettAbstractGarlic is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines worldwide. There is medium quality evidence to support that specific garlic formulations at specific doses have an antihypertensive effect in a cohort of individuals with hypertension. There is lower quality evidence for garlic’s hypolipidaemic effects. While there are many garlic products available in Australian pharmacies, it is unclear if these products are formulated based on the current evidence for use in such populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate garlic product formulations available in Australian pharmacies for quality indicators including: supporting evidence, labelling, product, safety and manufacturing information and the presence of key constituents previously identified as having hypotensive or hypolipidaemic properties. A qualitative evaluation of commercially available garlic products was conducted in accordance with the study aims. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was included in the evaluation to investigate the presence of alliin and s-allyl cysteine in both garlic products and raw garlic. The quality indicators evaluated in this study including evidence for the formulation used, labelling, product, safety and manufacturing information and key constituents varied significantly between the garlic products available in Australian pharmacies. These findings have a number of implications that relate to the formulations and doses chosen by herbalists, pharmacists and consumers who may consider using garlic products in the management of hypertension and/or dyslipidaemia.
       
  • Antioxidant effect, glucose uptake activity in cell lines and cytotoxic
           potential of Melicope lunu-ankenda leaf extract
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 14Author(s): Mizher Hezam AL-Zuaidy, Amin Ismail, Suhaila Mohamed, Ahmad Faizal Abdul Razis, Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz, Azizah Abdul HamidAbstractThe present study describes the antioxidant effect, glucose uptake activity and cytotoxicity of Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) leaf extract using cell lines. Results of the study revealed that 60% ethanolic ML extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity with total phenolics and flavonoid contents of 354 mg GAE/g DW and 313 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g DW, respectively. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was found to be 294.3 mM Fe (II) /g. The study showed that, ML leaf extract stimulated fluorescent d-glucose analog 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG) uptakes by both 3t3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells, showing significant increase in a dose dependent way. Interestingly, cytotoxic activity of the extract conducted against 3t3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 using the 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, showed high activity against HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells with IC50 of 20.33 ± 1.5 μg/mL and 13.7 ± 2.1 μg/mL after exposure of 48 h and 72 h, respectively. However, ML extract was inactive against 3t3-L1 cell line with IC50 values of 93 ± 3 μg/mL and 81 ± 2 μg/mL. The results ascertained the significance of ML as a medicinal plant with prodigious applications as an anti-diabetic as well as anti-cancer agent.
       
  • Anti-biofilm activity of Rosmarinus officinalis, Punica granatum and
           Tetradenia riparia against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
           (MRSA) and synergic interaction with penicillin
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 14Author(s): Eliana Harue Endo, Gustavo Meireles Costa, Regina Yasuko Makimori, Tania Ueda-Nakamura, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Benedito Prado Dias FilhoAbstractThe present study investigated the anti-staphylococcal effect of extracts of three species of plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Punica granatum, Tetradenia riparia) against planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA and MSSA. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with the leaves of R. officinalis and T. riparia, and peels of P. granatum were determined by the microdilution technique. Synergistic interactions between the extracts and penicillin were assessed by checkerboard method. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe anti-biofilm effects. R. officinalis and T. riparia had good activity against S. aureus strains, with MICs in the range of 15.6–125 μg/ml. P. granatum was moderately active, with MICs of 125–250 μg/ml and MBCs of 500–1000 μg/ml. Synergistic effects occurred when the extracts were combined with penicillin. Anti-biofilm effects against pre-formed biofilms were observed at 30–250 μg/ml of R. officinalis and T. riparia extracts. SEM images showed a strong reduction of biofilm cells. The present results clearly show the anti-MRSA potential of R. officinalis, P. granatum and T. riparia when considering the planktonic and biofilm modes of bacterial growth, which may contribute to the development of new strategies against S. aureus and infections caused by this pathogen.
       
  • HPLC/LC-MS guided phytochemical and in vitro screening of Astragalus
           membranaceus (Fabaceae), and prediction of possible interactions with
           CYP2B6
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 14Author(s): Saneesh Kumar, Nontombi Sephuhle, Patrick J. Bouic, Bernd RosenkranzThe dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus (Fabaceae) are used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of methanol, ethanol, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts from the roots of A.membranaceus to alter the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 using human liver microsomes (HLMs). Furthermore, the phytoconstituents possibly involved in this effect were analysed using biochemical tests, HPLC and LC–MS. Reference standards for flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, glycosides and phenols were used. In the HLM screening, the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts reduced CYP2B6 activity to less than 50% (IC50 of 53.37 μg/ml and 29.7 μg/ml); IC50 of the positive control ticlopidine was14.47 μg/ml. The extracts did not show time-dependant inhibition of CYP2B6 (TDI IC50> 100 μg/ml). The biochemical qualitative analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins and phenols. The chromatographic analyses of the extracts using reference standards showed peaks with retention times matching gallic acid (HPLC) and m/z transition peaks of lanatoside C (LC–MS) and were quantified at ± 0.2 mg/ml equivalents of gallic acid/ lanatoside C. MS full scans of the extracts were consistent with the presence of isoflavonoids calycosin (m/z 283) and formononetin (m/z 267) in the negative scans, and astragalosides I, II and IV (m/z 869, 827 and 785) in the positive scans. It is likely that some of these compounds are responsible for the observed CYP2B6 inhibition. The putative gastrointestinal tract (GIT) concentration for both extracts was calculated as 8000 μg/ml and concentrations in the hepatic circulation were estimated as 945.6 μg/ml for the ethanolic extract, and 390.4 μg/ml for the ethyl acetate extract.In conclusion, the root extracts of A.membranaceus have been shown to inhibit CYP2B6, with IC50 values below the estimated hepatic circulation concentrations. This herb therefore may cause adverse drug interactions with CYPs, when co-administered with medications metabolized by CYP2B6.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Ethnopharmacological studies, chemical composition, antibacterial and
           cytotoxic activities of essential oils of eleven Salvia in Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Mojtaba Asadollahi, Omidreza Firuzi, Fatemeh Heidary Jamebozorgi, Marzieh Alizadeh, Amir Reza JassbiThe chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs) of 11 Salvia species collected from different localities in Iran were analyzed by GC-FID and GC–MS. Altogether, 58 compounds were identified. α- and β-Pinene, 1,8-cineol, β-caryophyllene and sclareol were detected as the major constituents. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the EOs were assessed against 3 human cancer cell lines (HT-29, MCF-7 and MOLT-4) using MTT reduction assay. The oils displayed weak to moderate cytotoxic activities. The antibacterial activities of the oils were assayed on three Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by microdilution and agar disc diffusion methods. The antibacterial activities of the oils were compared with those previously reported for some of the sage species. Among the tested bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi were the most susceptible organisms with MICs 0.312 and 2.5 mg/ mL media against all of the tested EOs. The authors reviewed ethnopharmacological information published on Salvia species of the world and compared them with the data of those species which were used in the Iranian folk medicine. Among the Iranian sages, S. mirzayanii and S. hydrangea are used by the inhabitants of the Southwestern towns of Iran as medicinal plants. Aerial parts of S. mirzayanii are used for the treatment of diabetes, stomach ache, infections, inflammatory diseases, spasms, gastrointestinal disorders, and as an astringent, carminative, antiseptic and smoke medicine, while the flowers of S. hydrangea are used for their anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, diuretic, sedative and carminative effects and are also used for treating cough, sore throat and fever.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Efficacy of Darchini in the management of polycystic ovarian syndrome: A
           randomized clinical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Abiha Ahmad Khan, Wajeeha BegumAbstractBackground and objectivesPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome affecting 15% of women of reproductive age. Considering the lack of a standard therapy, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of darchini (cinnamon) in the management of PCOS.MethodsThis study was a randomized, single blind controlled trial. Subjects aged 18–42 years fulfilling the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS were included. The test group received 1.5 g of powdered cinnamon bark in capsule form twice a day, whilst the control group received metformin 500 mg twice a day for 60 days. The primary outcomes were change in fasting blood sugar levels, resumption of normal menstrual cyclicity pattern and ovulation. Changes in body mass index and waist/hip ratio were secondary outcome measures.ResultsMarked improvement in the menstrual cycle pattern was observed in the groups, 51.9% in the test and 61.3% in the control. Insulin resistance did not change for either of the patients taking cinnamon or metformin (p = 0.899). Post-ovulatory progesterone value in both the test and the control group was similar at baseline and outcome (P = 0.880). A remarkable change was observed in the ovarian size, and complete amelioration was reported in 6 patients in the control and 7 patients in the test group.ConclusionThe most important change was improvement in the menstrual pattern during the therapy. Our results support the fact that, despite the small metabolic and hormonal changes, cinnamon therapy is well tolerated by the majority of patients and may be clinically useful, especially in patients with menstrual disturbances in PCOS. Hence, cinnamon can be considered as an alternate therapy for the management of PCOS.
       
  • Quercus brantii Lindl. Vaginal cream versus placebo on Bacterial
           Vaginosis: A randomized clinical trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Atefeh Zare, Zeinab Moshfeghy, Mohammad M. Zarshenas, Bahia Namavar Jahromi, Marzieh Akbarzadeh, Mehrab SayadiAbstractThe current study aimed to compare the effects of Quercus brantii Lindl. vaginal cream in combination with metronidazole tablet on Bacterial Vaginosis (BV). A total of 176 eligible women with BV were enrolled. Diagnosis was based on having 3 or more signs described by Amsel’s criteria and a Nugent score of ≥7. Symptoms were evaluated before and after treatments. Participants were divided into two experimental groups based on permuted-block randomization. Group A (n = 89) received 500 mg of metronidazole tablet every 12 h as well as a vaginal placebo cream. Group B (n = 87) received 500 mg of the same tablet with a vaginal Quercus brantii cream. Seven to 10 days after the treatments, Amsel’s criteria, Nugent scores, and the clinical symptoms were assessed again. The data were analyzed via chi-square, independent, and paired t-tests using SPSS software. After the treatments, significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of malodours discharge and Nugent score. Based on the total cure, 50.0% of the patients in group A and 73.8% of those in group B were found to have been treated when assessed by both Nugent score and Amsel’s criteria. The findings suggested the better results of metronidazole+Quercus brantii vaginal cream compared to those of metronidazole + placebo.
       
  • Inhibition of key enzymes linked to diabetes by Annona senegalensis Pers
           (Annonaceae) leaf in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Auwal Ibrahim, Isma’ila Alhaji Umar, Idowu A. Aimola, Aminu MohammedAbstractAnnona senegalensis Pers (Annonaceae) known as Wild Custard Apple is used locally in the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria. This study was aimed at investigating the inhibitory potential of A. senegalensis leaf extracts and fractions on the activities of some enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) linked to diabetes. Plant samples were extracted with n-hexane (HEX), ethyl cetate (EtOAc) and ethanol (EtOH) and the extracts were subjected to in vitro antidiabetic studies. The most active extract was further fractionated using column chromatography and the fractions obtained were screened for the inhibitory activities whilst the possible bioactive compounds were determined by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS). From the results, ethanolic extract possessed lowest IC50 values (α-amylase: 204.04 ± 6.38 μg/ml, α-glucosidase: 97.91 ± 2.40 μg/ml) compared to other extracts. The most active fraction (F-fraction) from the ethanolic extract showed lower IC50 values for α-amylase (237.14 ± 31.19 μg/ml) and α-glucosidase (88.25 ± 0.59 μg/ml). The data further showed that F-fraction is a competitive inhibitor (Vmax: 27.03 μmol/min, Km: 0.24%, ki value: 8.46 μg/ml) for α-amylase and non-competitive inhibitor for α-glucosidase (Vmax: 1.10 μmol/min, Km: 3.7 mmol/l, ki value: 1.26 μg/ml). Possible compounds revealed by GC–MS from F-fraction were hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 1,3-octadecenal, and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, and bis (2-methylpropyl) ester. Therefore, our present data showed that A. senegalensis showed inhibitory potentials on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, attributed to the possible presence of identified compounds.
       
  • Black salve composition: An evaluation of the potential for normal tissue
           toxicity and treatment failure from black salve products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Andrew Croaker, Graham J. King, John H. Pyne, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Lei LiuAbstractBlack salve, used as an alternative skin cancer therapy, contains both herbal and chemical constituents, including extracts of the rhizomes of Sanguinaria canadensis and zinc chloride. Black salves may be ordered online and have been associated with cases of extensive tissue necrosis and treatment failures that have resulted in patient fatalities. Despite these adverse outcomes and continued use by patients, black salve products have not been quantitatively assessed to determine their constituent concentrations.Thirteen different black salve products from eight manufacturers were analysed using validated HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods to assess S. canadensis alkaloid and zinc chloride concentrations. This analysis revealed a dramatic variation in constituent concentrations between manufacturers of black salve products. The alkaloid sanguinarine was found at concentrations significantly exceeding the cytotoxic IC50 of normal human epidermal keratinocytes in the majority of black salve products, with one black salve examined having a concentration 900 times the IC50 level. The majority of products contained zinc chloride at concentrations known to kill normal human tissue, while one black salve product was found to contain an elevated lead level of 258 ppm, which exceeds the 10 ppm FDA determined lead limit for cosmetic products. Whilst some of the black salve products were found to contain high concentrations of constituents cytotoxic to normal tissue, others were found to contain insufficient cytotoxic constituents to be reasonably expected to exert any anti-cancer activity.In their current formulations, the majority of black salves analysed pose a significant risk of harm to patients and should not be available for unregulated clinical use. Further black salve toxicity testing is urgently required.
       
  • Nigella sativa improves anemia, enhances immunity and relieves iron
           overload-induced oxidative stress as a novel promising treatment in
           children having beta-thalassemia major
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Mohamed El-Shanshory, Nahed Mohammed Hablas, Moutasem Salih Aboonq, Ahmed R. Fakhreldin, Mohammed Attia, Walaa Arafa, Reham A. Mariah, Hussam Baghdadi, Mongi Ayat, Mohammed Zolaly, Manal Mohamed Helmy Nabo, Hamdi H. Almaramhy, Samer Ahmed El-Sawy, Mona Zidan, Momen Elshazley, Rami Alharbi, Sayed Moustafa, Mostafa Abu-el Naga, Salah Mohamed El SayedAbstractIntroductionThalassemias are treated by regular blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy. Iron overload-induced oxidative stress helps the pathogenesis of thalassemia-induced anemia, atherogenesis, immune suppression and tissue damage. Nigella sativa (NS) is a safe medicinal plant that has exhibited immune stimulant, antioxidant and tissue-protective effects that may benefit thalassemic patients. It is widely used in Arabic prophetic medicinePatients and methods25 blood transfusion-dependent children having homozygous β-thalassmia major (11 Males and 14 females ranging from 6 to 18 years) received oral NS powder (2 g/day added to foods or drinks) for 3 consecutive months. Investigations carried out for all children included evaluating: complete blood count, serum ferrtin, T cell subsets determination (CD4 and CD8), malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC).ResultsNS significantly increased blood hemoglobin (from 7.50 ± 0.22–9.48 ± 0.6 g/dl) (p 
       
  • Health-promoting properties of Corchorus leaves: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Neetu Kumari, Shashi Bhushan Choudhary, Hariom Kumar Sharma, Binay Kumar Singh, Arroju Anil KumarAbstractThe genus Corchorus is commercially known for its phloem fibre. Moreover, the tender leaves of Corchorus have also long been recognized by Asian and African folk medicine practitioners to manage pain, fever, dysentery, sexual disorders and degenerative diseases. Given the significant medicinal properties attributed to the genus, the authors performed a thorough literature review to investigate the biological roles and toxicological limits of the active principles of the leaves of Corchorus. The study revealed that the genus Corchorus is rich in bioactive molecules such as glycosides, polysaccharides, triterpenes, ionones, phenolics, sterols, and fatty acids. These biomolecules, which are part of a large and varied group of chemical compounds, impart a range of prophylactic and therapeutic applications to the genus. Growing clinical evidence also supports the traditional uses of Corchorus as folk medicine. Given the immense genetic diversity, geographical adoptability and biological effects on human health, the genus Corchorus can serve as a potential herbal drug-source for enhancing community health standards and livelihood security of the rural population of Asia and Africa.
       
  • The effect of a mixture of Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris extracts in
           children with refractory epilepsies: A randomized trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Ali Akbar Momen, Ali Asghar Hemati, Gholamreza Houshmand, Maryam Heydar Azadzadeh, Reza Azizi MalamiriAbstractMore than 25% of seizures in children are refractory to anti-seizure medications and need other modalities to control. Recently, herbal agents with anticonvulsive effects on seizure models in animals have received significant attention, but studies that show their impact on seizures in children are scarce. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we tried to demonstrate the efficacy of a mixture of Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris extracts (Epistop) on seizures in a group of children with refractory epilepsies. Twenty-two children with refractory epilepsies were randomly assigned into two sequences to receive Epistop or placebo in a cross-over design. Neither Epistop nor placebo had effects on the seizure frequency and duration over the study period. Only four children experienced clinically substantial seizure frequency (more than 50%) reduction after Epistop administration. These results indicate that a mixture of Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris extracts does not affect the seizure frequency and duration in children with refractory seizures. However, a minority of highly selected children with refractory seizures might benefit from the effects of a mixture of these agents’ extracts.
       
  • Mechanisms of action of ginger in nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways
           in diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Ahmad Saedisomeolia, Motahereh Makhdoomi Arzati, Mina Abdolahi, Mohsen Sedighiyan, Alejandra Rangel, Gerald Muench, Meysam Zarezadeh, Arash Jafarieh, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh HonarvarAbstractDiabetes mellitus is considered a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar. Active disease is associated with low grade chronic inflammation resulting from the enhanced release of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, induced nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 enzymes that lead to insulin resistance and disease progression. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) is a key mediator involved in the inflammatory process which plays an important role in the inflammatory pathogenesis of diabetes. Based on recent evidence, ginger—which contains many phytochemicals—is believed to exert anti-inflammatory properties through multiple mechanisms, such as probably inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. It can thus be a target agent in the treatment and control of diabetes. It appears that ginger may be a complementary agent in diabetes treatment by targeting the NF-κB cascade pathway and exerting antioxidant or anti-inflammatory actions. In this context, this review aims to present the recent evidence regarding the mechanisms of action of ginger in NF-κB signaling pathways in diabetes mellitus.
       
  • Evaluation of the anti-stress effects of five Tunisian aromatic and
           medicinal plants in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Mahmoud Ben Othman, Mohamed Neffati, Hiroko IsodaAbstractThe present study was designed to evaluate the anti-stress effects of the ethanol extracts of five medicinal plants from Southern part of Tunisia, traditionally used in folk medicine: Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreng. (CSEE), Crithmum maritimum L. (CMEE), Arthrophytum scoparium (Pomel) ll’jin (ASEE), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (AHEE), and Rhanterium suaveolens Desf. (RSEE). Assays using SH-SY5Y cells and HSP47-transformed CHO cells (HSP47+/− cells) were performed. Heat (at 42 °C, for 90 min) was used to induce stress in pre-treated cells. The tested plants at 1/1000 dilution significantly enhanced the reversal of the heat shock protein expression in heat-stressed HSP47+/- cells as shown by the enhanced expression of heat shock proteins HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90 mRNAs in heat-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, CSEE at 1/1000 and 1/100 (v/v) dilutions showed no cytotoxic effects on both SH-SY5Y and HSP47-/+ cells. In addition, our results demonstrated that CSEE and RSEE promoted the recovery of acetylcholine (Ach) compared to heat-stressed SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that C. schoenanthus, C. maritimum, and R. suaveolens can modulate stress, and follow up study on the bioactivities of these species may offer a new source of drugs for the effective treatment of stress-related diseases.
       
  • Phytochemical characteristics and potential therapeutic properties of blue
           honeysuckle Lonicera caerulea L. (Caprifoliaceae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Rafał Becker, Anna SzakielAbstractLonicera caerulea, known as honeyberry, blue honeysuckle, sweet berry honeysuckle, edible honeysuckle, or haskap, is a perennial fruit-bearing plant belonging to the family Caprifoliaceae. Currently, the cultivation of this plant species is becoming increasingly popular due to the early ripening of the fruits, the plant´s exceptional resistance to frost, pests, and diseases, as well as for its potential health-promoting and therapeutic properties. Phytochemical analysis of blue honeysuckle constituents using methods such as colorimetry, LC–MS/MS and HPLC-ESI-MS have been carried out over the last two decades. According to the reported data, L. caerulea fruits are rich in phenolic compounds, their amount - with the level of flavonoids reaching 2 g per 100 g of dry fruit weight - is comparable to those of some blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), blackberries (Rubus spp.), and currants (Ribes spp.). Among phenolics acting as antioxidants, anthocyanins are particularly important for some health-promoting activities, e.g., heart disease prevention and in supporting the treatment of various eye diseases. In L. cearulea these compounds are represented mostly by derivatives of cyanidin and, in smaller quantities, peonidin and pelargonidin. Other reported properties of L. cearulea fruit involve antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anticarcinogenic activities, demonstrated in in vitro and some in vivo tests. Therefore, due to the high content of bioactive substances and their health-promoting properties, blue honeysuckle berries can be regarded and recommended as a valuable component of a healthy diet.
       
  • A clinical review of the effectiveness of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
           against cardiovascular dysfunction and related metabolic syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Parisha Alam, Marzeea Ahmad Raka, Salma Khan, Juthika Sarker, Nowshin Ahmed, Pulak Dev Nath, Nahid Hasan, Md. Mohabbulla Mohib, Abida Tisha, Md Abu Taher SagorAbstractEvidence suggests that obesity can contribute to the development of certain complications such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, accumulation of visceral fats and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Excess fat also blocks small blood vessels and arteries by accumulating plaque, which increases vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis and risk of stroke and other cardiovascular disease. In 2010, the World Health Organization established several recommendations regarding the benefits of plant and plant-derived phyto-nutrients against several chronic diseases along with the crude molecules. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is protective against several chronic diseases. This review evaluates the roles of tomato-derived phyto-nutrients on cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes management, and prevention of vascular inflammation in human subjects through reviewing human clinical studies. The findings of this review identify a clear connection between tomato supplementation and positive effects on biochemical parameters in humans, such as blood glucose, HbA1c, harmful lipid profile, inflammatory markers and free radicals which are likely to result in a decreased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular events. However, most studies were in young healthy participants and rarely assessed the effects of tomato upon incidence of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction. In conclusion, consuming fresh tomato supplements may contribute to the prevention of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular dysfunctions through positively affecting biochemical pathways associated with these conditions.
       
  • Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used by the Bhil and Bhilala ethnic
           community in dermatological disorders in Western Madhya Pradesh, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Vijay V. Wagh, Ashok K. JainEthnopharmacological relevanceEthnobotanical surveys are a key means of preserving indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants and their application within traditional medical systems. The present survey was undertaken within the Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh, India, to collect information from the Bhil and Bhilala tribes on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of dermatological diseases.Material and methodsThe ethnobotanical data was collected from local traditional healers in 39 villages within the Jhabua district of western Madhya Pradesh, using standard ethnobotanical methods. The Use Value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) were calculated in order to analyse the data collected and results were compared to prior ethnobotanical surveys relating to dermatological conditions conducted within India.ResultsA total of 116 plant species of 103 genera, belonging to 58 families were identified as used in the treatment of a total of 21 different dermatological disorders. UV ranged from Punica granatum, with the highest value of 2.41 to Rumex dentatus, with the lowest UV of 0.11. The highest FL of 100% was found for 17 plant species, and the ICF was found to range from 0.20 (leucoderma) to 1 (mouth ulcers).ConclusionsThe survey was able to identify and record the broad range of medicinal plants and practices used by the Bhil and Bhilala people in their treatment of dermatological conditions. The data collected is valuable, not only as part of the process of documenting and preserving a traditional knowledge and culture in danger of being lost, but also in its provision of a broad selection of medicinal plants that could be subjected to further pharmacological and clinical investigation for their potential role in the treatment of dermatological conditions.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Diabetes mellitus and nature’s pharmacy of putative antidiabetic
           plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Kazhila C. ChinsembuAbstractGlobally, diabetes causes about 1.5 million deaths per year. Data predicts that the current global epidemiological burden of diabetes is increasing alongside its long-term life threatening sequelae and side-effects from synthetic antidiabetic drugs. Challenges in the public healthcare delivery system, inadequate human and financial resources, expensive antidiabetic drugs coupled with their limited availability, efficacy and tolerability, and a higher priority for subventions to the control of communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS than to drugs for non-communicable conditions especially diabetes have opened new vistas for diabetics to seek complementary and alternative medicines. As a corollary, there is a renewed momentum backed by the World Health Organization to discover newer, cheaper and better antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants. As data on putative antidiabetic properties of plants remain scattered, this review provides a new synthesis of antidiabetic plants from Africa, Central America, Mexico, South Asia, and Iran. In the countries mentioned in this review, numerous plant species decrease blood sugar levels by inhibiting the enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Other antidiabetic plants restore pancreatic cells, improve insulin secretion and sensitivity, decrease metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes patients in addition to exerting antioxidant and hepatoprotective functions. Mechanisms of action are mediated by phytochemical agents including saponins, polyphenols, ellagitannins, triterpenes, and elements such as Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V. These plant compounds and elements may be included into new and more efficacious herbal drugs and nutraceuticals to lessen the global burden of diabetes.
       
  • Ethnomedicinal knowledge of the Garo community of two villages in western
           Assam, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Simi Talukdar, Abhik GuptaAbstractThe present study documents the use of medicinal plants by the Garo tribe of Betagaon-Bamunpara (BB) and Nigamghola (NG) villages of western Assam in the northeastern region of India. Comparisons of ethnomedicinal practices in BB and NG between themselves as well as with the other Garo communities of the region and in Bangladesh have also been made. The methodology comprised interviews and focal group discussions with traditional healers and knowledgeable elderly persons. Plants were collected from wild habitats and home gardens with the help of local practitioners and identified. A total of 70 plants belonging to 44 genera and 40 families were used in 38 ethnomedicinal formulations (mono, di and polyherbal) for curing 25 ailments. The medicinal uses of 40 species recorded in the present study appear to be new records for the Garos. Herb was the dominant life form used and leaf the most commonly used plant part for treating different ailments. Sorensen Similarity Index for plant species between BB and NG was found to be 0.25. The highest number of plants was used for the treatment of pneumonia, followed by those used to cure rheumatic pain, epilepsy and jaundice. The use of di- and poly-herbal formulations, and blending with non-herbal materials might have resulted from the interactions between the Garo and the Ayurveda practitioners of this area that once belonged to the Koch kingdom and later the Princely State of Bijni. The study reveals the rich knowledge in traditional medicine that the Garos of these two villages possess.
       
  • Modulation of lithiatic injury to renal epithelial cells by aqueous
           extract of Terminalia arjuna
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 13Author(s): Amisha Mittal, Simran Tandon, Surender Kumar Singla, Chanderdeep TandonPrevious studies have shown that hyperoxaluria is concomitant with the formation of CaOx crystals and the subsequent propensity of these crystals towards renal cells greatly increases the risk for the development of urolithiasis. Despite advances in surgical management, recurrence of stones and side effects of present day treatment persists and in the light of this a cost-effective substitute from natural sources such as phytotherapy is being sought. The present study was designed to investigate the antiurolithiatic efficacy of a single plant preparation comprising of an aqueous extract (AE) of the bark of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) on oxalate injured cells. The authors used an in vitro model system comprising of a normal epithelial cell line (NRK-52E) which was exposed to 2 mM oxalate for 48 h, following which the cytoprotective potential of AE on cell viability, CaOx crystal adherence and apoptotic changes were evaluated. The results revealed that co-treatment with T. arjuna AE to cells exposed to 2 mM oxalate for 48 h, rendered protection from oxalate triggered damage. On treatment with different concentrations of the T. arjuna AE, the cell viability increased in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the extract prevented the interaction of the CaOx crystals to the cell surface and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The current data suggests that T. arjuna bark aqueous extract could be a potential phytotherapeutic treatment against urolithiasis based on its ability to diminish oxalate induced morphological changes, apoptosis and death of renal cells thereby leading to cell survival.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • In-vitro assessment of cytotoxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
           activities of Ficus palmata
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 13Author(s): Vidushi Khajuria, Shilpa Gupta, Asha Bhagat, Zabeer AhmedInflammatory diseases are becoming common in ageing societies throughout the world. Clinically used anti-inflammatory drugs suffer from the disadvantage of side effects and high cost of treatment (in case of biologics). Traditional medicines and natural products offer a viable alternative to these drugs. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of a traditional local medicinal plant Ficus palmata from the family Moraceae. Ficus palmata Ficus palmata is used in the treatment of various diseases, such as gastrointestinal disorders, hypoglycemia, tumor, ulcer, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and fungal infections. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of Ficus palmata extracts, both ethanolic and hydroethanolic on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and the possible underlying mechanisms. In vitro study of the effect of extracts showed potential inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Moreover MTT assay also confirmed the extracts do not affect cell viability up to 100 μg/mL. Other pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are also inhibited by the extracts.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers for
           the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases in the Congo Basin
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 13Author(s): Mauricette Tchicaillat-Landou, Jeremy Petit, Claire Gaiani, Edmond S. Miabangana, André Kimbonguila, Jean-Mathurin Nzikou, Joël Scher, Louis MatosThis paper identifies the medicinal plants used for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases by the Congolese population. The objective of the present survey was to list the major plants used in Congolese traditional folk medicine for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases as well as to review the phytogeographical distribution of these plants, their natural habitats, plant parts used, routes of administration and administered doses. Several methods have been used to fulfil the aim of the study: an ethnobotanical survey, observation of the practices of traditional healers, and bibliographical research focused on the ethnobotany and antioxidant power of sub-Saharan African medicinal plants. From a questionnaire, a guided semi-structured interview was carried out to obtain information from independent traditional healers in the Republic of the Congo.A total of 70 plants distributed among 47 families were identified. These plants were mainly employed to treat hypertension, diabetes, and anaemia, but they also were used to a lesser extent for fighting other pathologies such as infertility, asthma, ulcer, cough, and viral hepatitis. Analgesic, antiseptic, and aphrodisiac activities of the medicinal plants as well as their ability to improve visual acuity were also reported. Most of the plant preparations were taken orally as a decoction or infusion or taken directly as a powder. Treatments generally involved only one plant but mixtures of several plants were also used. Other ingredients, such as lemon, milk and honey were sometimes added to preparations to facilitate their ingestion. Among the total of 70 species of plants that were identified in the study, it is noteworthy that three plants (Syzygium brazzavillense Aubrév. & Pellegr., Parinari congensis Didr., and Croton dybowskii Hutch.) have never been studied for their medicinal properties. According to the traditional healers, these plants showed efficacy in the treatment of oxidative stress-related pathologies. The reported dosage of the plant preparations depends on several factors, particularly plant type, amounts of powder and water used for its reconstitution (i.e. powder to water ratio), and patient age. Treatments were reported to last a maximum of one month. The current ethnobotanical study allowed the identification of some plants which are endemic to the Republic of the Congo (e.g., Syzygium brazzavillense Aubrév. & Pellegr.) and some growing only in a specific zone of the country (e.g., Croton dybowskii Hutch.). The traditional knowledge of these plants will guide future research of the antioxidant power of African plant powders.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Ethnobotany of wild medicinal plants used by the Müün ethnic people: A
           quantitative survey in southern Chin state, Myanmar
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 13Author(s): Homervergel G. Ong, Shein Man Ling, Thet Thet Mar Win, Dae-Hyun Kang, Jung-Hoon Lee, Young-Dong KimAs Myanmar begins to carry out reforms for socio-economic development, the pressure to discover and utilize potential resources which could help improve its peoples' condition also increases. This research, the first quantitative ethnobotanical study conducted in the country, aimed to document the wild medicinal plants and their uses in traditional herbal therapies among the Müün ethnic group in southern Chin State. The survey was carried out by interviewing 90 informants using semi-structured questionnaires where plant use-reports (UR) from each informant were recorded. Relative importance of each plant was computed using quantitative ethnobotanical indices Use Value (UV) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). Reported plants were also collected, identified and prepared as voucher specimens. A total of 58 wild medicinal plant taxa in 35 families across 15 disease/use categories were recorded. Prunus cerasoides, Pinus kesiya and Rhododendron arboreum were shown to be the most useful plants as supported by their relatively high URs and UVs. Notable disease/use categories based on ICF scores included respiratory disorders, malarial symptoms and injuries caused by external factors which have been generally attributed to geographical and sociocultural environments. This study has documented novel ethnobotanical information which can be significantly important for future research work in Myanmar traditional medicine and pharmacology and for the development of the country's herbal medicine industry. It can also serve to show the Müün people as owners of their traditional medicinal knowledge, which is equally valuable to their future generations and for benefits sharing that may arise from their contribution.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Potential antiparkinsonian agents derived from South African medicinal
           plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 13Author(s): Adaze Bijou Enogieru, Sylvester Ifeanyi Omoruyi, Donavon Charles Hiss, Okobi Eko EkpoAbstractMany natural products and medicinal plants have been tested experimentally for validation of their reported folkloric efficacies. South Africa has abundant plant biodiversity and medicinal plants are still widely used in most parts of the country for the treatment of common neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). However, very few studies have reported on the validation of South African medicinal plants (SAMPs) used in traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) for the treatment of NDDs. Extensive testing provides the basis for clinical trials which progressively lead to the development of affordable, indigenous and readily available products for preventing or treating NDD including Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common central nervous system (CNS) disorders among the elderly often characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) or dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. In this study, several databases were searched to identify active compounds in SAMPs known to potentially protect neurons from progressive damage as seen in most NDDs. Our search results showed many commonly used SAMPs and their possible mechanisms of action including prevention of neuronal death by inhibition of Caspase-3 activation, MAO-B enzyme inhibition as well as restoration of glutathione content in cells. Most of the observed effects relate to the protection of DNs from degeneration, indicating the potential use of these compounds as antiparkinsonian agents. This review article therefore identifies and presents research gaps on how indigenous SAMPs could be studied more extensively for their chemical constituents and bioactivity against age-related NDDs such as PD.
       
  • Authorised medicinal product Aspecton® Oral Drops containing thyme
           extract KMTv24497 shows antiviral activity against viruses which cause
           respiratory infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 13Author(s): Eva Lenz, Christin Müller, Ahmed Mostafa, Julia Dzieciolowski, Pumaree Kanrai, Sharmistha Dam, Ute Cwientzek, Lars-Norbert Prenner, Stephan PleschkaAbstractThe common cold is a respiratory disease often caused by viral pathogens, including a major group of human rhinoviruses (HRV). Currently, there is no specific antiviral approach available against these viruses. Another viral pathogen that causes respiratory diseases is the influenza virus (IV). Even though a few approved drugs are available for antiviral treatment against IV, these are prone to lose their effectiveness due to the rapid emergence of resistant virus variants. Therefore, new effective approaches characterised by a broad antiviral activity and wide availability would be very advantageous. In this study the authors aimed to investigate the antiviral potential of an authorised medicinal product (Aspecton® Oral Drops) containing a specific thyme extract (KMTv24497) against human rhinovirus serotype 1a (HRV1a), as well as against an influenza A virus isolate of the 2009 pandemic (H1N1pdm09) at non-toxic concentrations. To the best of the authors knowledge, they were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the in vitro antiviral activity of a thyme extract containing an authorised medicinal product in non-toxic concentrations against an HRV, as well as against an influenza A virus strain in cell culture. This study represents a first approach to prove a causal therapeutic effect in addition to the already described symptomatic effects for a thyme preparation. Patients with common cold infections may profit from the additional causal therapeutic effects of an expectorant.
       
  • Effect of Rosa canina L. (Rose-hip) on cold during winter season in a
           middle-class population: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled
           trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 13Author(s): Kaj Winther, Lina Warholm, Joan Campbell-Tofte, Kristian MarstrandAbstractAimThe common cold has social and economic implications worldwide. This study aimed to test if a liquid standardised preparation, Hyben Vital, based on shells from Rose-hip (Rosa canina L.), reduces the incidence and symptoms of the common cold in Danish middle-class volunteers.MethodsVolunteers (n = 120) were randomly allocated to daily treatments with either 2 g of liquid Rose-hip (RH) or placebo (P) for six months during winter. Primary effect variables: The frequency of colds and symptoms related to cold. Secondary effect variables: Evaluations from diaries of muscle stiffness and general well-being (numerical scales).ResultsA number of 107 volunteers completed the trial and 31 out of 58 patients (53.4%) in the P group reported cold vs 24 out of 55 patients (43.6%) in the RH group; 18.4% reduction (p = 0.348). The numbers of volunteers reporting the different symptoms of cold in P-group vs RH-group were: Coughing: 23 vs 18, p 
       
  • Phytochemicals, polyphenols, prebiotic effect of Ocimum sanctum, Zingiber
           officinale, Piper nigrum extracts
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 13Author(s): K. Narendra Babu, R. Hemalatha, U. Satyanarayana, Md Shujauddin, N. Himaja, K. Bhaskarachary, B. Dinesh KumarAbstractThe present study explored the prebiotic potential of Ocimum, sanctum, Zingiber officinale and Piper nigrum, which are extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine for treating inflammatory immune diseases. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and phenolic compounds in Ocimum sanctum, Zingiber officinale and Piper nigrum extracts. Antioxidant activity was modest when compared with ascorbic acid; but Ocimum sanctum and Zingiber officinale, showed significantly (p 
       
  • Phytochemical study of medicinal smokes from Etlingera
           brevilabrum
    leaves
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine, Volume 13Author(s): B. Mahdavi, W.A. Yaacob, L.B. DinThe fresh and dried leaves of Etlingera brevilabrum were pyrolyzed and burned in a fluidized-bed reactor under atmospheric nitrogen and air, respectively, at different temperatures. The collected smoke from each experiment, which was condensed as a liquid, was analyzed using GC–MS. The chemical compositions of the smoke liquids were rich in phenolic compounds and carboxylic acids. Phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and p-cresol were the most abundant phenolic compounds. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and palmitic acid were the most abundant acidic compounds. The smoke liquids exhibited acceptable antioxidant activity including radical scavenging activity (RSA) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB). In the most cases, the antioxidant activity of the smoke liquids was more than those of the positive controls of BHT and α-tocopherol. The smoke liquids were found to be very active antimicrobial liquids. They prevented the growth of 14 out of 18 tested microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and also fungi. All the smoke liquids exhibited antifungal activities higher than that of the positive control, nystatin.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Fennel oil: A promising antifungal agent against biofilm forming
           fluconazole resistant Candida albicans causing vulvovaginal candidiasis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Rasha H. Bassyouni, Iman E. Wali, Zeinat Kamel, Mai Fareg KassimAbstractAimTo screen the antimicrobial activities of some plant essential oils against clinical isolates of C. albicans causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and to investigate the antifungal effect of the most active one against planktonic and sessile cells compared to fluconazole.MethodsScreening of biofilm production by C. albicans causing VVC was performed by tissue culture plate method. The antifungal susceptibility of fluconazole was performed by disk diffusion method. Antifungal activities of nine essential oils were screened against strong biofilm-producer, fluconazole-resistant or dose-dependently susceptible clinical isolates and Candida albicans ATCC 10,231 by well diffusion method. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fennel essential oil and fluconazole against planktonic and sessile cells were performed by microdilution methods. Determination of the combined antimicrobial activity of fennel oil and fluconazole was evaluated by checkerboard microdilution assay.ResultsFrom 19 C. albicans strains, 10/19 showed strong ability to form biofilms. None of the tested clinical isolates was sensitive to fluconazole. Fennel oil had significantly higher antifungal activities against tested C. albicans compared with other tested oils (P = 0.000). The MICs of fennel oil for planktonic cells ranged from 0.78% to 6.25% with MIC50 of 3.12% and MIC90 of 6.25%, while concentrations ranging between 6.25% and 25% resulted in 50% biofilm reduction. Synergy or addition between fennel oil and fluconazole were detected against 7/11 strains, while no antagonism was detected.ConclusionFennel oil alone or in combination with fluconazole could provide a promising approach to the management of VVC caused by drug-resistant strains.
       
  • Cytotoxicity, antitumor-promoting and antioxidant activities of Annona
           muricata in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Mohd Rohaizad Md Roduan, Roslida Abd Hamid, Yoke Kqueen Cheah, Norhafizah MohtarrudinAbstractAnnona muricata or soursop belongs to the family Annonaceae and is a plant enriched with annonaceous acetogenin. This plant had been traditionally used for the treatment of various infectious and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the cytotoxicity, antitumor-promoting and antioxidant activities of Annona muricata various extracts and its isolated acetogenin, annonacin in vitro. All samples were subjected to the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) on Raji cells. Prior to EBV-EA assay, [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay was performed to determine the samples’ cytotoxicity against Raji cells. Antioxidant activity was performed via 2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. Annonacin exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activity with IC50 of 2.9 ± 1.3 μM. Inhibition against EBV-EA activation occurred in the following order: hexane leaf > annonacin > aqueous fruit> dichloromethane leaf > methanol leaf > aqueous leaf > ethanol leaf. Methanol leaf extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity in all assays and exhibited the most powerful free radical scavenger (87%). Annonacin consistently displayed the lowest antioxidant activity in all assays performed. The findings reported for the first time the antitumor-promoting effects of various extracts of Annona muricata and annonacin in vitro, thus validating their promising anticancer potential.
       
  • Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Bingöl (City center)
           (Turkey)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Rıdvan PolatThis paper illustrates the result of an ethnobotanical study carried out in the Bingöl region of Turkey. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of plants in the district of Bingöl province. The ethnobotanical results contain quantitative information on the diversity of medicinal plants documented in the region. This study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, gathered information on the medicinal plant species traditionally used in Bingöl, Turkey and the local names of these plants. In the scope of the study, medicinal plant species and related information was collected; herbarium materials were prepared; and the specimens were labelled. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and personal observations. Results were analysed using quantitative indices of information consent factor (ICF/FIC), fidelity level (FL) and use value (UV). A total of 93 medical plants belonging to 38 families were identified in the region. Among these, 80 species grew wild and 13 species were cultivated. The most common medicinal plant families were Asteraceae (14), Rosaceae (12), Lamiaceae (10) and Apiaceae (7). The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. A total of 220 medicinal uses (remedies) were recorded. The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the people in Bingöl. However, due to the increasing health service facilities in the area, herbal medicine seemed to be more related to health care and disease prevention than cure. There is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants in the younger generations.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
 
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