A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (Total: 111 journals)
Showing 1 - 15 of 15 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acupuncture in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alternative & Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Alternative and Complementary Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Alternative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Alternative Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arabian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arteterapia. Papeles de arteterapia y educación artística para la inclusión social     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Plant Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanics : Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cadernos de Naturologia e Terapias Complementares     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cognitive Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Complementary Therapies in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Current Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Deutsche Heilpraktiker-Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Erfahrungsheilkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access  
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Global Journal of Integrated Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Traditional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Herba Polonica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Integrative Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of High Dilution Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ipnosi     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Applied Arts and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of AYUSH :- Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Dance Medicine & Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Fasting and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Herbal Drugs (An International Journal on Medicinal Herbs)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Integrative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Medicine & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinally Active Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Remedies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of the Australian Traditional-Medicine Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Lekovite Sirovine     Open Access  
Médecine Palliative : Soins de Support - Accompagnement - Éthique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Medical Acupuncture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi     Open Access  
Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Natural solutions     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Acupuntura     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Traditional & Kampo Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Traditional Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Orthomolekulare Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Chinese Herbal Medicines
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1674-6384
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Discrimination of toxic ingredient between raw and processed Pinellia
           ternata by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS with principal component analysis and T-test
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Xing-ying Zhai, Ling Zhang, Bing-tao Li, Yu-lin Feng, Guo-liang Xu, Hui Ouyang, Shi-lin Yang, Chen JinABSTRACTObjectiveTo investigate the toxicity difference between raw and processed Pinelliae Rhizoma (Banxia in Chinese, BX), the rhizoma of Pinellia ternata, from the view of chemical composition.MethodsSixteen samples of raw and processed BX were prepared and analyzed by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS. The discrimination (chemical markers) between the two group was investigated by principal component analysis (PCA) and T-test analysis. According to the accurate charge-to-mass ratio, MS/MS fragments, and comparision of corresponding data with the reference or database, the chemical markers were identified preliminarily.ResultsLiquiritin, liquiritigenin, and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) were identified as the characteristic markers. The reducing of LPC in processed BX was one of the main reasons for detoxification because LPC could induce the inflammatory response; Liquiritin and liquiritigenin showed the anti-inflammatory effect and reduced liver injury, so the appearance of them in processed BX was an another reason for detoxification.ConclusionAn approach to explain the mechanisms of reducing the toxicity in medicinal plants by processing was proposed. Moreover, the chemical markers of toxicity could be used to differentiate the raw material from processed herbs for the quality control and safety application in clinical practice.
       
  • Metabolic profiling of icaritin in rats using UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Tong Wang, Xin-chi Feng, Li-qin Ding, Kun Wang, Xu-liu Shi, Li-wei Chai, Yang Li, Feng QiuAbstractObjectiveTo identify the in vivo metabolites of icaritin and speculate its metabolic profiling in rats.MethodsThe plasma, bile, urine, and feces of rats were collected after orally administration of icaritin at a dose of 100 mg/kg and detected by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS) in both positive and negative modes. The data of treated and control groups were compared and analyzed with the aid of Metabolynx XS software.ResultsA total of 25 metabolites were identified in the biosamples, and 14 of them were reported for the first time to our knowledge.ConclusionThe main metabolite types of icaritin in rats were glucuronide conjugation, methylation, hydroxylation, reduction, and acetylation.
       
  • Ginsenoside Rd improves behavioral impairment of rats with acute plateau
           status by modulating synaptic plasticity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Yun Li, Hong-bo Luo, Xiang-qun Shi, Chun-sheng Xi, Jian-kui Guo, Li Cao, Zhao LiuAbstractObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect of ginsenoside Rd on the improvement of the behavior and synaptic plasticity in rats with acute plateau status.MethodsA total of 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, and the intervention group, with 20 rats in each group. The model was established in low-pressure oxygen chamber simulating the plateau, and the intervention group was administered with ginsenoside. Electron microscope was used to observe synaptic ultrastructure of hippocampal CA1 area, and analyze the structural parameters on the Gray I synaptic interface. Morris water maze and Y electric maze experiment were used for behavioral detection.ResultsCompared with the control group, the number of electrical stimulation required for rat to avoid was increased in the model group, the latency in the Morris water maze was prolonged, the swimming distance was increased, and the frequency of crossing the platform was decreased. Under the electron microscope, the synaptic cleft was increased, the length of the synaptic active area was shorter, the postsynaptic density (PSD) was thinner, the flat synapse was increased, and the concave and perforated types were significantly reduced. Compared with the model group, the number of electrical stimulation required for rat to avoid was decreased in the intervention group, the latency in the Morris water maze was shortened, the swimming distance was decreased, and the frequency of crossing the platform was increased. Under the electron microscope, the synaptic cleft was decreased, PSD was thicker, the flat synapse was decreased, and the concave and perforated types were increased.ConclusionLow pressure and low oxygen environment of plateau damages the plasticity changes of the synaptic structure and function. And to a certain extent, ginsenoside Rd reverses Gray I synaptic interface structure parameters, so as to improve the behavior performance of model rats at high altitude condition.
       
  • A guinea pig model of Ciwujia Injection-induced anaphylaxis for allergic
           substance screening
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Yu-fei Feng, Zhong-xu Jing, Yan-yan Zhang, Shao-wa Lv, Qing-xia Guan, Zhi-xin Yang, Rui Wang, Yan-hong WangAbstractObjectiveThough especially efficient for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases treatment, many serious anaphylactic diseases could be induced by Ciwujia Injection (CWJI). However, study of the mechanism and detection of allergies have been investigated by the unknown sources of allergenic substances. In this study, a guinea pig model which could mimic the symptoms of anaphylactic reactions induced by Ciwujia Injection (CWJI) was modeled and used to screen the allergenic substance of CWJI.MethodsGuinea pigs were sensitized three times every other day with CWJI and excitated 14 d after the last sensitization administration. Then, the histamine, trypsin, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels, and the Annexin V positive rate of peritoneal mast cells (PMC) were detected, the numbers of B lymphocyte and the pathological changes were also analyzed to verify the guinea pig allergy model, PCA test and IgE antibody levels were determined to study the mechanism.ResultsThe levels of total IgE, histamine, and trypsin were significantly increased after CWJI sensitization, IL-4 level was elevated, Annexin V positive of PMC cell rate, local skin reactions, and declined IFN-γ were observed after excitation. Histological examination showed that mild pathological changes in lungs were found.ConclusionThis guinea pig model may provide a powerful tool to study the mechanism in CWJI induced anaphylaxis and screen the allergic source of CWJI.
       
  • Effects and mechanism of total phenols of Magnolia officinalis combined
           with Maijunan Tablets on blood pressure of spontaneous hypertensive rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Ming-li Zhu, Wei Wang, Feng Qin, Yong ChenAbstractObjectiveMaijunan (MJA) Tablets is a protected variety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) consisted of Pueraria lobata, hydrochlorothiazide (HTCZ), Uncaria rhynchophylla (366:1:980) and excipient. In the present work, MJA was consisted of the total flavones of P. lobata, HCTZ and total alkaloids of U. rhynchophylla (40:11:75). The combination of MJA and the total phenols of Magnolia officinalis (M-MJA) was consisted of the total flavones of P. lobata, the total phenols of M. officinalis, HCTZ and the total alkaloids of U. rhynchophylla (40:40:11:75). The aim of this work was to examine the effect and mechanism of M-MJA on the blood pressure of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs).MethodsAdult male SHRs were randomly divided into control group, MJA group (180 mg/kg•d), and the M-MJA group (218 mg/kg•d) (n = 5). SHRs were orally administered with M-MJA and MJA respectively once a day for 8 weeks, the blood pressure of SHRs was measured every two weeks, and the biochemical indicators related to blood pressures were detected at the last dosing.ResultsAfter oral administration of M-MJA to SHRs once a day for 8 weeks, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures of SHRs were deceased significantly. M-MJA affected renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by decreasing the levels of Ren, Ang II and ALD, affected the endothelial function by decreasing the levels of ET-1 and 20-HETE, and increasing the level of eNOS, affected the oxidative stress by increasing the protein expression of Nrf2 and the activities of HO-1 and GSH-Px, and decreasing the protein expression of CYP2E1 and CYP4A, as well as the content of MDA.ConclusionThese results indicated that M-MJA could regulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, improve endothelial function, and inhibit CYP4A activity to reduce the production of 20-HETE, alleviate the oxidative stress disorder of the visceral organs, and eventually exert antihypertensive effect. Additionally, the anti-oxidant ability, regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and improving endothelial function of M-MJA are more powerful than that of MJA, suggesting that M-MJA may have a better anti-hypertensive effect than MJA.
       
  • Tsc1/Tsc2 complex: A molecular target of capsaicin for protection against
           testicular torsion induced injury in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Nasim Javdan, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Safaa AlHasani, Farzad Kobarfard, Kobra Mokhtarian, Majid Khoshmirsafa, Athar AtaAbstractObjectiveThe detailed knowledge about protective effects of capsaicin (cap) and involved mechanisms against testicular torsion (TT) is still not available completely.MethodsMale Wistar rats were assigned into four major cohorts: (i) sham, (ii) TT, (iii) three subgroups subjected to TT and different doses of cap (100, 500, and 1000 μg/mL), and (iv) three subgroups of healthy animals subjected to various concentrations of cap. The animals were decapitated at 24 h after reperfusion, and the evaluation of protein expression was performed by Western blotting assay. At 72 h after reperfusion, apoptotic cell death and tissue injury were evaluated by TUNEL nuclear and H&E staining, respectively.ResultsThe results showed that cap administration following TT significantly increased the expression of tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2 (Tsc1/Tsc2) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Cap decreased cell apoptosis at highest dose. Likewise, cap contributed to the preservation of tubular morphology and decreased tissue injury at the highest tested concentration (1000 μg/mL).ConclusionCollectively, our findings demonstrate the validity of cap as a therapeutic agent against TT through targeting Tsc1/Tsc2 in a dose-dependent manner.
       
  • Effect of Marsdenia tenacissima extract on G2/M cell cycle arrest by
           upregulating 14-3-3σ and downregulating c-myc in vitro and in vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Debmalya Roy, Qurat UI Ain, Ying-sheng Gao, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Sheng-tao Yuan, Li SunAbstractObjectiveMarsdenia tenacissima extract (MTE) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with anti-cancer activity. In some previous studies, different mechanism actions of the anti-cancer effect of MTE have been revealed. In this study, we first observed that MTE exhibited G2/M cell cycle arrest on two different human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 by mediating 14-3-3σ and c-myc.MethodsThe effect of MTE on G2/M cell cycle arrest was evaluated in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. MTT assay was done for evaluation of cell viability. Flow cytometry was employed for cell cycle analysis. Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the expression of G2/M cell cycle-related key protein in cells and tissue samples. Animal studies have been conducted to elucidate the anti-tumor effect of MTE.ResultsCell cycle is the backbone for developing cancer. Cell cycle proteins play a major role in the progression of cell cycle and cell proliferation. However, some key protein directly or indirectly modulate the action of cell cycle protein that highly affect cell cycle regulation. In order to investigate cellular proliferation of cancer, we observed that MTE induced the upregulation of 14-3-3σ and downregulation of c-myc, and then reduced the expression of G2/M cell cycle associated key protein, leading to the inhibition of cellular entry into mitosis phase. We also confirmed that MTE exerted a significant antitumor effect on the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model in vivo.ConclusionG2/M cell cycle arrest occurred by the action of MTE, mediated by the upregulation of 14-3-3σ as well as downregulation of c-myc in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines.
       
  • Over-expressing root-specific β-amyrin synthase gene increases
           glycyrrhizic acid content in hairy roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Yan-chao Yin, Xiao-dong Zhang, Zhi-qiang Gao, Ting Hu, Lin Yang, Zhi-xin Zhang, Wen-dong Li, Ying LiuAbstractObjsectiveGlycyrrhizia uralensis, one of the most widely-used traditional Chinese medicines, is mainly cropped in China. However, many cultivars are less in glycyrrhizic acid than Chinese Pharmacopoeia requires. In this paper, we improved glycyrrhizic acid by regulating β-amyrin synthase gene (GuBAS).MethodsTobacco root-specific promoter TobRB7 and GuBAS cDNA were obtained and combined with linearized pCAMBIA1305.1 to construct root-specific plant expression vector which was later transformed into Agrobacterium rhizogenes ACCC10060 by electrotransformation. The cotyledons and hypocotyls of G. uralensis were infected by the recombinant A. rhizogenes ACCC10060 to induce hairy roots. The GA content was quantified by HPLC.ResultsThe PCR and sequencing results both showed that three transgenic hairy root lines were obtained. The copy number of GuBAS in these transgenic hairy roots was intended by qRT-PCR to be 3, 7, and 4. GA was detected by HPLC, and the results showed that GA was present in the three transgenic hairy roots, while absent in wild hairy roots.ConclusionOver-expressing GuBAS root-specifically in hairy roots of G. uralensis enhanced GA accumulation.
       
  • Fumigant toxicity and sublethal effects of Teucrium polium essential oil
           on Aphis fabae scopoli A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Sultan Ravan, Abbas Khani, Sedigheh SufiAbstractObjectiveBlack bean aphid (Aphis fabae) is one of the most important greenhouse and crop pests with a wide range of hosts, which causes damages through feeding on vegetable sap and transmitting viral diseases. Currently, chemical methods are mainly used to control this pest. Considering the adverse effects of pesticides, it is essential to apply less chemical pesticide in pest control programs. The lethal and sublethal effects of the essential oil (EO) of Teucrium polium leaves on one-day-old adults of black bean aphid were investigated under laboratory conditions.MethodThe bioassay was evaluated at the concentrations of 0.88−12 µL/L air, for 24 h after treatment. Reproductive life table parameters of new emerged aphid surveyed at sub-lethal concentrations (LC20 and LC40) of EO and the biological reproductive table was calculated by Jackknife method.ResultsThe mortality rate increased significantly with the increasing of EO concentration. The estimated LC50 value was 4.5 µL/L air. Laboratory exposure to sublethal concentrations of EO caused significant decrease in adult female longevity and fertility of surviving aphids and as a result caused significant reduction in the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm value).ConclusionThe results of this study revealed that EO of T. polium could be used as a potential control agent for the aphid.
       
  • Combination therapy of tripterygium glycosides plus valsartan in diabetic
           nephropathy treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Wan-chun Ye, Jian-zhong Ye, Cheng Zheng, Xiao-wei He, Jia-jie Huang, Ren YeAbstractObjectiveTo assess the efficacy and safety of the combination therapy of Chinese herbal medicines, tripterygium glycosides, plus valsartan for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN).MethodsA comprehensive research of 12 electronic databases was performed. Data of the included studies were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors, and were synthesized using Review Manager (version 5.2) and Stata (version 12.0).ResultsA total of 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 829 patients were included. Pooled results showed that the combination therapy significantly increased total efficacy of DN patients [RR = 1.35, 95% CI (1.22, 1.50), P 
       
  • Quantitative and HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics for
           quality evaluation of Codonopsis Radix processed with different methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Shi-man Gao, Jiu-shi Liu, Min Wang, Ting-ting Cao, Yao-dong Qi, Ben-gang Zhang, Hai-tao Liu, Xiao-bo Sun, Pei-gen XiaoAbstractObjectiveTo observe the effect of different processing methods on the quality of Codonopsis Radix and provide data reference for the reasonable processing in the producing areas.MethodsAn analytical strategy that combined quantitative and HPLC fingerprint analysis with chemometrics was developed for the quality evaluation of Codonopsis Radix. Lobetyolin, polysaccharide, sucrose, glucose, and fructose were detected simultaneously in Codonopsis Radix samples treated with different processing methods including dryer-drying, sun-drying, shade-drying, sulfur fumigation, and kneading, etc.ResultsThe results showed that different processing methods had an obvious impact on the quality of Codonopsis Radix. Sun-drying or shade-drying was recommended, and sulfur fumigation should be avoided. And dryer-drying at 40 °C−50 °C was suggested to meet the requirement for large scale processing. In addition, based on the content of polysaccharide, glucose, and fructose, it was advised to knead for three times. As for lobetyolin and sucrose, kneading should be avoided.ConclusionsOur findings demonstrated that processing method had a big impact on the quality of Codonopsis Radix. Based on the results, the appropriate processing methods directed at different requirements were recommended. The study could lay a foundation for the reasonable processing of Codonopsis Radix in producing areas.
       
  • Rol genes enhance content of artemisinin and other secondary metabolites
           in Shennong hybrid of Artemisia annua
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal MedicinesAuthor(s): Sara Zafar, Erum Dilshad, Hammad Ismail, Chahat Batool Rizvi, Bushra MirzaAbstractObjectiveArtemisia annua is the chief source of artemisinin, a potent antimalarial agent, in which other bioactive phytochemicals are also present. Due to low levels of bioactive compounds including artemisinin and flavonoids, it is necessary to increase the level of the secondary metabolites by regulating the expression of rol genes in the plant.MethodsA hybrid variety of A. annua (Hyb1209r, Shennong) developed by the Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, University of York, UK, was selected to produce transgenics of rolB and rolC genes. Genetic transformation was carried out via Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring rolB and rolC genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes cloned separately. HPLC was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids and artemisinin. Furthermore, thin layer chromatography (TLC) was also used to analyze artemisinin content.ResultsComparative analysis via HPLC revealed considerable enhancement in the phytochemical content of transgenic A. annua plants as compared to the wild type plant. Transgenics of rolB gene showed an average increase of 321% in rutin, 97.2% in caffeic acid, and 218.4% in myricetin, respectively. In the case of rolC gene transgenics, an average increase of 197.5% in rutin, 76.3% in caffeic acid, and 209.3% in myricetin was observed. Transgenics of rolB and rolC genes showed a 14.3%–28.6% and 2.8%–12.7% increase in artemisinin content respectively by HPLC analysis. TLC analysis showed that an average 142.2% and 110.2% enhancement in artemisinin for rolB and rolC transgenics respectively, compared with the wild type. An enhanced production of total flavonoids (average 30.2% and 25.5% increase in rolB and rolC transgenics, respectively) and total phenolics (average 34.3% and 25.8% increase in rolB and rolC transgenics, respectively) was observed as a result of transformation. Transformed A. annua plants showed improved free radical scavenging activity (average 46.5% and 29.1% increase in rolB and rolC transgenics, respectively) and total reducing power (average 32.7% and 26.4% increase in rolB and rolC transgenics, respectively) compared with untransformed plant.ConclusionrolB and rolC genes were effective for developing A. annua plants with an enhanced level of phytochemicals.
       
  • Pharmacokinetic and NMR metabolomics approach to evaluate therapeutic
           effect of berberine and Coptidis Rhizoma for sepsis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Pei Li, Shan-ting Liao, Jun-song Wang, Qian Zhang, Yan Lv, Ming-hua Yang, Ling-yi KongAbstractObjectiveSepsis, a systemic response to infection, often leads to end-organ dysfunction. Despite its high rates of mortality and morbidity, its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Coptidis Rhizoma and its main active alkaloid compound, berberine, have been as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs used in clinic. The objective of this study was to gain more insights towards understanding the sepsis associated with drug absorption and disposition and treatments of berberine and Coptidis Rhizoma dynamically.MethodsPharmacokinetic and metabolomic studies of Coptidis Rhizoma and its main active component berberine have been performed.ResultsCecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced sepsis showed marked changes of metabolites concerning energy metabolism and amino acids metabolisms, which could be reversed towards the normal state by Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine.ConclusionBerberine exhibited an equivalent and even better therapeutic effect than Coptidis Rhizoma.
       
  • Simultaneous determination of 15 flavonoids from different parts of
           Scutellaria baicalensis and its chemometrics analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Jie Shen, Pei Li, Chun-nian He, Hai-tao Liu, Yan-ze Liu, Xiao-bo Sun, Rong Xu, Pei-gen XiaoAbstractObjectiveThe aerial parts of Scutellaria baicalensis were used as Huangqin Tea for thousands of years and mainly contain flavonoids which contribute to its bioactivities. However, there is no appropriate quality evaluation method of Huangqin Tea, and three flavanones of isocarthamidin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, carthamidin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, and isoscutellarein-8-O-β-D-glucuronide with high contents in the aerial parts have never been defined quantitatively. Here, an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of 15 flavonoids and systematically compared their contents and distribution in the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of S. baicalensis was established.MethodsUnder the HPLC-DAD chromatographic conditions, 77 batches of samples of S. baicalensis were analyzed. Meanwhile, the chromatographic fingerprint of different parts of S. baicalensis was established. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and clustering heat map were performed based on the contents of 15 flavonoids in different parts of S. baicalensis.ResultsThe results showed significant differences in the contents and distributions of 15 flavonoids among the different parts of S. baicalensis. The chemical composition of stems showed some similarities to leaves, and their contents were all lower than leaves. The contents of isocarthamidin-7-O-β–glucuronide [(106.66 66 ± 22.68) mg/g], carthamidin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide [(19.82 ± 11.17) mg/g], and isoscutellarein-8-O-β-D-glucuronide [(3.10 ± 1.73) mg/g] were the highest in leaves. The content of apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and chrysin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide were the highest in flowers. The contents of baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, wogonin, alpinetin, and oroxylin A were higher in roots than in other parts.ConclusionThe method was fully validated and could be effectively used to characterize the contents and distributions of main flavonoids in the different parts of S. baicalensis. It may lay a foundation to establish the quality evaluation system for Huangqin Tea.
       
  • Therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese herbal prescriptions for
           primary dysmenorrhea
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Dorjbat Sosorburam, Zeng-guang Wu, Si-chao Zhang, Peng Hu, Hai-yan Zhang, Tong Jiang, Joshua Ahiasi-Mensah, Xin HeAbstractPrimary dysmenorrhea is a common disease among females in their reproductive age and adolescents. The main complaint is lower abdominal pain during menstruation. Females, who suffer from dysmenorrhea, widely use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that reduce muscle spasm by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis and vasopressin secretion. However, there are side effects when patients take them for a long time. It is therefore against this backdrop that herbal medicines are suggested as an alternative source of treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. In this paper, a review of studies demonstrating the relieving of uterine contraction and reduction in prostaglandin synthesis by alternative sources such as traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) is spelt out. TCM conceptualizes that, menstrual pain resulting from qi is due to stagnated and retained blood. Blood deficiency and coldness in the whole human body are two additional causes of dysmenorrhea. Therefore, based on these, the main focus of treatment is directed at relieving the above symptoms. Chinese herbal prescriptions exert their effects through these mechanisms: prostaglandin reduction, inhibition of cyclooxygenase, intracellular Ca2+, and nitric oxide, declining malondialdehyde, and reverse increasing superoxide dismutase. Hence, Chinese herbal prescriptions, present perhaps a more beneficial efficacious alternative in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, more especially in the confines of complementary and alternative medicine.
       
  • Traditional Chinese medicines treating macrophage: A particular strategy
           for atherosclerosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Shan Lu, Yun Luo, Gui-bo Sun, Xiao-bo SunAbstractAtherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular disease and one of the most deadly diseases in the world. Macrophages are the main contributors in the development of atherosclerosis, a target that drugs inhibit the inflammation and regulate lipid metabolism. In this review, we summarized the effects and mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicines and their bioactive compounds on atherosclerosis.
       
  • After a decade of persistent endeavor, Chinese Herbal Medicine is
           on the rise
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): De-An Guo, Chang-xiao Liu
       
  • A new coumarin glucoside ester from seeds oil leavings of Xanthoceras
           sorbifolia
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Hong-jin Zhu, Li-li Yu, Jia-chuan Liu, Mei-yu Wang, Tong Zhang, Feng QiuAbstractObjectiveTo study the coumarin from the seeds oil leavings of Xanthoceras sorbifolia.MethodsThe chemical constituents were isolated and purified by combination of silica gel, macroporous resin, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by spectral and chemical methods. The cytotoxicity of the new compound against 10 selected human cancer cell lines was assayed.ResultsFive comarins were isolated and identified as fraxetin-7-O-β-d-[6'-(3''‑hydroxyl‑3''- methylglutaryl)] glucopyranoside (1), fraxoside (2), fraxetin (3), scopoline (4), and esculetin (5), respectively.ConclusionCompound 1 is a new compound. Unfortunately, this compound exhibited no cytotoxicity with tested cell lines.
       
  • Scutellarin protects human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells with
           hypoxia-reoxygenation injury via JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Chen Chen, Zhi-ying Weng, You-lan Wang, Chang-bo Zheng, Yang Li, Jian Yang, Ze-lan Dai, Bai-xi Ji, Chuang Xiao, Wei-min YangAbstractObjectiveTo investigate the antagonistic cell injury effect and molecular mechanism of scutellarin (SCU) in hypoxia reoxygenation (HR) treated human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs).MethodsThe method of 12 h hypoxia following by 12 h reoxygenation was used to culture HCMECs in vitro to built cell injury model. The groups were divided into control group, model (HR) group, and HR + SCU (0.1 µmol/L, 1 µmol/L, and 10 µmol/L) group. The cell viability was determined by MTT, and oxidative stress was detected by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by biochemical assay kit. Protein expression of JAK2/p-JAK2 and STAT3/p-STAT3 were evaluated by Western blot.ResultsThe results of MTT and MDA showed that HR decreased the cell viability (P 
       
  • Typha angustifolia extract reduces diet-induced hyperlipidemia in
           rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Zheng Gong, An-rong Jiang, Xiao-gang Peng, Man YanAbstractObjectiveTo observe the lipid-lowering effect of Typha angustifolia extract (TAE) in Sprague Dawley rats.MethodsThe rats were randomly divided into six groups, including the hypercholesterolemic diet (HYD) group. Ad libitum food was given to the animals for 60 d to establish dyslipidemia models. The rats were received an ig administration of 1 mL medicine daily. After 120 d the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation; Blood was collected to measure total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin (ET) plasma concentration; Livers were collected to measure ApoE mRNA and protein expression; Morphologic changes of aorta ventralis tissue were also observed.ResultsCompared with HYD group, TAE had the ability of reducing TC, TG, LDL-C, NO, and ET (P 
       
  • Monitoring unbound warfarin in drug combination therapy by
           pharmacokinetics and fluorospectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Jia-ding Guo, Ying-yue Zhang, Yan Huo, Yan-xu Chang, Er-wei Liu, Jia HaoAbstractObjectiveMonitoring the unbound drug concentration in blood in combination therapy is necessary, because its concentration determines the efficacy of drug therapy. This study was designed to explore the effect of Dan Hong Injection (DHI) on the unbound warfarin using two approaches including an in vivo pharmacokinetic and in vitro fluorescence studies.MethodsThe effect of DHI on the pharmacokinetic properties of the unbound warfarin was investigated by a microdialysis sampling method coupled with LC–MS/MS. The effect of DHI and salvianolic acid B (SaB) on warfarin binding with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was conducted by fluorescence spectrometry.ResultsThe AUC0-tn of warfarin with DHI group was higher than that of warfarin alone group. The result showed that DHI could increase the concentration of unbound warfarin in rat blood, which may be due to the competition between warfarin and DHI as well as its components binding to serum albumin. The competition process was demonstrated by fluorescence study.ConclusionCombination therapy of DHI with warfarin could enhance the release profile of warfarin from serum protein.
       
  • Neuroprotective effect of Paeoniae Radix Rubra on hippocampal CA1 region
           of mice induced by transient focal cerebral ischemia via anti-gliosis and
           anti-oxidant activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Xiao-lu Zhu, Bing-chun Yan, Cheng Tang, Guo-wei Qiu, Yao Wu, Jie Wang, Ping BoAbstractObjectiveStroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Paeoniae Radix Rubra (PRR) on ischemic stroke of mice.MethodsThe focal ischemic stroke model was produced via middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental mice were divided into four groups: vehicle-sham group, PRR-sham group, vehicle-ischemia group, and PRR-treated ischemia group. The cerebral infarction volume was detected with TTC staining. The number of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 of the ischemic side, and the activation of astrocytes and microglia were observed via immunohistochemical staining. Western blotting was used to determine the expression changes of SOD1, SOD2, and Catalase protein levels in the hippocampus.ResultsPRR significantly reduced the cerebral infarct volume induced by ischemic injury and inhibited the astrocytes and microglia activation in the hippocampal CA1 region. The decreased levels of SOD1, SOD2, and Catalase that was induced by ischemic reperfusion were simultaneously improved after PRR treatment.ConclusionPRR improved neuronal injuries that were induced by transient cerebral ischemia via inhibiting gliosis and elevating anti-oxidants.
       
  • Anti-inflammatory activities of gentiopicroside against iNOS and COX-2
           targets
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Qi-li Zhang, Jian Zhang, Peng-fei Xia, Xue-jing Peng, Hai-long Li, Hua Jin, Yang Li, Jie Yang, Lei ZhaoAbstractObjectiveTo isolate high-purity gentiopicroside from the Chinese herbal Gentiana officinalis and investigate its anti-inflammatory activity against iNOS and COX-2 targets.MethodsThe purity and structures of gentiopicroside were determined by HPLC, IR, NMR, and MS. The anti-inflammatory effects of gentiopicroside were investigated by in vivo, in vitro, and molecular experiments.ResultsIn vitro experiment results showed that gentiopicroside inhibited nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. In vivo experiment found that xylene-induced mouse ear swelling was inhibited by gentiopicroside with an inhibition rate of 34.17%. Molecular docking of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with gentiopicroside showed that hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) were formed between the sugar fragments in gentiopicroside structure with Tyr355, Ser353, Leu352, Ser530, Arg120, and His90 of COX-2, and Glu377, Asp382, Tyr373, Tyr347, Gln263, Asn370, and Gly371 of iNOS. Thus, gentiopicroside had a lower docking score and displayed satisfactory anti-inflammatory activities.ConclusionThese results suggested that the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of gentiopicroside was associated with the downregulation of inflammatory cytokines, such as NO, PGE2, and IL-6, and the suppression of iNOS and COX-2. Therefore, gentiopicroside is a potential and selective iNOS and COX-2 inhibitor.
       
  • Effect of bioadhesive excipients on absorption of total flavonids from
           Puerariae Lobatae Radix transporting across Caco-2 cell monolayer
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Ying Li, Yi-qun Song, Chun-yan ZhuAbstractObjectivePueraria total flavonids (PTF) can treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, but it has poor membrane permeability and oral bioavailability. Some excipients, such as carbomer, chitosan, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, can improve the oral bioavailability. Traditional in vitro evaluation techniques, including the rat intestinal perfusion and cell line models, cannot evaluate PTF absorption and holistic transporters.MethodsThis study evaluated excipients’ adhesiveness and effect on PTF transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer. cDNA microarrays identified gene expression changes in Caco-2 cells exposed to PTF and PTF with excipients, and revealed the mechanism underlying the effect of excipients on PTF absorption.ResultsIn vitro adhesion and transport experiments across Caco-2 showed that excipients had higher adhesiveness to gastric mucosa and transport efficiency across Caco-2 cells than PTF alone. The interaction of PTF with excipients significantly changed the expression of some genes, which might influence the absorption rate of PTF.ConclusionDifferent bioadhesive polymers can improve intestinal absorption of PTF, which was related to some genes affiliated to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier transporter (SLC) to some extent.
       
  • Synergistic interactions of catalpol and stachyose in STZ-HFD induced
           diabetic mice: Synergism in regulation of blood glucose, lipids, and
           hepatic and renal function
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Xiao-fang Chen, Deng-qun Liao, Zhen-xian Qin, Xian-en LiAbstractObjectiveRehmanniae Radix has been traditionally used to treat diabetes. Catalpol (CAT) and stachyose (STA) are two of the main bioactive compounds in Rehmannia Radix and found to have similar therapeutic effects on diabetes and its complications. In this paper, we aimed to investigate whether there were synergistic therapeutic effects of CAT and STA on diabetes.MethodsStreptozotocin (STZ) with the feeding of high-sugar-high-fat diet (HFD) was applied to induce diabetic C57BL/6 mice. STZ-HFD induced diabetic mice were then divided into model and six medical-treated groups: metformin (MET), STA, CAT, and three combinations of CAT:STA (1:1, 1:2, 2:1). Blood, liver, and kidney samples were isolated after six-week oral administration for biochemical assays of serum lipids, the indicators of kidney and liver functions and HE staining for liver tissues.ResultsIt turned out that CAT, STA and their three combinations (1:1, 1:2, 2:1) could effectively control body weight, blood glucose, kidney weight and liver weight index, and well regulate levels of TC, HDL-c, TG, ALT, and TBA. In addition, CAT and its combination with STA at the ratio of 2:1 could significantly improve albumin content, compared to that in model group. STA and CAT and their combinations showed the improvements on kidney function in terms of urinary creatinine (Ucr). However, there were no such consistent observations on serum creatinine (Scr) and creatinine clearance rate (Ccr). The combination of CAT and STA at the ratio of 1:1 exhibited the better adjusting effects on kidney weight and liver weight indexes and the levels of ALT, Ucr, Scr, and Ccr. Our results demonstrated that the combinations of CAT and STA especially 1:1 showed similar or better improvements on diabetes-associated complications, compared to the sole CAT or STA treatment.ConclusionThus, we concluded that there were synergistic therapeutic effects between CAT and STA on STZ/HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. This project provided insights and technical supports for the innovation of discovering bioactive constituents in Rehmannia Radix and studying its integrative mechanism in curing diabetes.
       
  • Screening potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from Anemarrhena
           asphodeloides using response surface methodology coupled with grey
           relational analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Tian-cheng Ma, Yu Sun, Li-na Guo, Lei Liu, Zhen-yan Liu, Yu-mei Wang, Song-jie FanABSTRACTObjectiveTo screen potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from Anemarrhena asphodeloides.MethodsResponse surface methodology employing Box-Behnken design was used to optimize conditions for the extraction of α-glucosidase inhibitory active compounds from A. asphodeloides. The powders (20.0 g) of A. asphodeloides were extracted under the optimized conditions. The extract was applied to a D-101 macroporous resin column. It was eluted with ethanol and water to give six fractions. Compounds from the active fraction were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The structure-activity relationship was discussed based on grey relational analysis.ResultsThe optimum extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 100%; extraction temperature, 51 °C; and solvent to solid ratio, 23 mL/g. It indicated that the active compounds were concentrated into 80% ethanol fraction. Twenty five steroid saponins from 80% ethanol fraction were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Peaks 19 and 23 were tentatively identified as new structures. The predicted α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the compounds were 7 > 2 > 1 > 22 > 23 > 3 > 9 > 21 > 24 > 4 > 13 > 8 > 14 > 16 > 17 > 25 > 6 > 19.ConclusionThe fraction eluted by 80% ethanol showed the best inhibitory activity. After analyzing the data of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, 25 steroid saponins were tentatively identified in this fraction.
       
  • QR code labeling system for Xueteng-related herbs based on DNA barcode
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Hong Zhou, Shuang-jiao Ma, Jing-yuan Song, Yu-lin Lin, Zheng-jun Wu, Zheng-zhou Han, Hui YaoObjectiveXueteng-related herbs include Spatholobi Caulis (Jixueteng in Chinese), Sargentodoxae Caulis (Daxueteng in Chinese), Kadsurae Caulis (Dianjixueteng in Chinese), and other medicinal plant stems that release reddish-brown juices after being cut. However, similarity in phonetic spelling and sound leads to their misuse in clinic or commercial circulation. Accurate labeling is imperative as well as effective for species identification.MethodsIn this study, the ITS2 sequences of 76 samples of Xueteng-related herbs were obtained and analyzed to identify them. And then they were converted into QR codes using the open source PHP QR code. Also, a DNA barcode reference library was established according to these sequences and was used to authenticate the 25 samples of Xueteng-related herbs collected from the market.ResultsThe lengths of the ITS2 sequences of different Xueteng-related herbs ranged from 207 to 235 bp and the GC contents were 57.5%−71.0%. Jixueteng, Daxueteng, and Dianjixueteng were clustered into three clades respectively in the neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree, and the efficiency of the BLAST method was 100%. The ITS2 sequences of different Xueteng-related herbs were presented vividly and specifically in QR code. Twenty-two of all 25 commercial samples were consistent with the original labels, whereas three samples marked “Dianjixueteng” were authenticated as “Jixueteng”.ConclusionQR code labeling system based on DNA barcode is an effective labeling system of Xueteng-related herbs for their circulation regulation.
       
  • Neuroprotective effect of Sanqi Tongshuan Tablets on sequelae post-stroke
           in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Wei-ting Wang, Chun-hua Hao, Shao-xiang Zhang, Xiang-hua Zhang, Feng Guo, Shuang-yong Sun, Rui Zhang, Zhuan-you Zhao, Li-da TangAbstractObjectiveTo identify the therapeutic effect and possible mechanisms of Chinese medicine Sanqi Tongshuan Tablets (SQTS) on sequelae post-stroke in rats.MethodsThe rat cerebral ischemia sequelae post-stroke models were successfully induced by blocking the middle cerebral artery with electric coagulator after the seventh week and balance beam test ≤ 4. The rats were then received with SQTS (0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg) and Naodesheng (NDS, 1.24 g/kg), Vinpocetine (VP, 1.55 mg/kg) for 30 d. The beam-walking test and shuttle test were performed before and after 10, 20, and 30 d of administration. In addition, histopathology changes and GAP-43, GFAP were measured by H&E staining and immunohistochemisty.ResultsThe model displayed signs of brain damage on motor function, learning and memory function and histopathology. After 30 d of treatment, SQTS at different doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg) restored the beam-walking scores by 21.7% (P > 0.05), 30.4% (P > 0.05), and 39.1% (P  0.05), 50.0% (P > 0.05), and 75.0% (P 
       
  • Positive effects of low dose IMPX977 on Rett syndrome related MeCP2
           targeted-genes
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Ying Zhao, Liang Le, Yue-qiang Song, Li-xin Qi, Hui Fu, Xue Bai, Si-guang Li, Xin-sheng Nan, Ke-ping HuABSTRACTObjectiveTo investigate the effect of IMPX977 on MeCP2 targeted-genes and the feasibility of IMPX977 acting as a therapeutic candidate drug for Rett syndrome by genomewide transcription profiling.MethodsRats' cortex of control group, IMPX977-treated low-dose group (10 mg/kg), and IMPX977-treated high-dose group (30 mg/kg) were collected and RNA was extracted from the tissues. Then, RNA was subjected to RNA-sequencing. Gene ontology (GO) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) were used in functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes.ResultsSix MeCP2 targeted-genes were identified in the low/control categories, but not in the high/control categories.ConclusionLow-dose treatment of IMPX977 (10 mg/kg) showed a positive effect on MeCP2 targeted-genes and it may serve as a drug candidate for Rett syndrome therapy with proper dosage.
       
  • Multivariate modeling to evaluate effect of fabricating process on product
           profile of high shear granulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Zheng Yan, Ying-ying Gong, Liang-shan Ming, Yi-hui XieAbstractObjectiveTo investigate the feasibility of high shear granulation (HSG) for agglomeration of Crataegi Folium extract (Chinese edible herbal), and explore the effect of process variables on granule critical quality attributes (CQAs) by three different models, i.e., response surface methodology (RSM), multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLP), and partial least squares method (PLS).MethodsRSM, MLP, and PLS complementary to design of experiment (DoE) were utilized to investigate the influence of granulation time, impeller speed, and binder amount on the products. Crataegi Folium extract was employed as granulation powder. RSM was further carried out to develop design space of HSG.ResultsThe results indicated that RSM, MLP, and PLS modeling techniques enhanced the understanding and controlling of granules produced via HSG. The granule CQAs were mainly influenced by granulation time, impeller speed, and binder amount. Overlay plots of the RSM indicated that design space for the operating ranges of impeller speed and binder amount at high levels of granulation time was the smallest.ConclusionThe study showed that these models were useful to characterize the granulation process, and was particularly important to understand the process.
       
  • Taraxacum: Phytochemistry and health benefits
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Chun HuAbstractTaraxaci Herba (Taraxacum mongolicum and other species) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and dietary application for a long history in China, and Taraxacum officinale has been applied in medicinal and food use in other regions and cultures around the globe. In this review, the phytochemical constituents of dandelion (particularly from T. mongolicum and T. officinale) were summarized. Recent published health benefits of dandelion, such as anti-oxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, blood sugar and lipids regulation and hepatoprotective activity, as well as its safety data were highlighted. The limited human clinical study and pharmacokinetics information lead to the thought that well-designed human clinical study should be the focus and opportunity for the future research area to truly understand efficacy function and health benefit of dandelion for its application in medicine and health food area.
       
  • Understanding ``medicine and food homology'', developing utilization in
           medicine functions
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Changxiao Liu
       
  • Research and application progress of Gardenia jasminoides
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Fei Yin, Jian-hui LiuAbstractFruits of Gardenia jasminoides (Zhizi in Chinese) have been used as dietary supplement and traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Recent studies on Gardenia jasminoides reveal that the extracts or the active components play an essential role in oxidative stress, inflammation, hepatoprotection, neuroprotection, anti-diabetes, antitumor and so on. Here, we reviewed G. jasminoides in the aspects of botanical identity, chemical ingredients, pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, safety and toxicity evaluation, clinical application, etc.
       
  • Values, properties and utility of different parts of Moringa
           oleifera
    : An overview
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Yang Liu, Xiao-yue Wang, Xue-min Wei, Zi-tong Gao, Jian-ping HanAbstractMoringa oleifera is one of the most widespread species belonging to family Moringaceae. Almost each part of this tree has enormous properties in nutrition, medicine, or other industrial purposes. This review mainly introduces nutritional ingredients, bioactive compounds, applications, and potentials of this tree, including leaves, seeds, pods, flowers, root barks, and gum, in order to bring convenience to industries and researchers all over the world focusing on each part of this amazing plant. Moreover, the review also analyzes the current application situation of M. oleifera in China. After summarizing the recent researches of M. oleifera, we conclude that most current researches focus on the leaves and seeds of this plant, and the most concerned property of M. oleifera is the antioxidant ability. However, the molecular mechanisms under its multiple properties need further studies.
       
  • Pharmacognostical study of Cynanchum stauntonii and Cynanchum glaucescens,
           botanical sources of TCM Baiqian
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Chayanis Sutcharitchan, Li-na Wang, Hang Zhang, Xiao-die Li, Ya-jun Cui, Shen JiAbstractObjective: Cynanchum stauntonii and Cynanchum glaucescens are botanical species of Baiqian (Cynanchi Stauntonii Rhizoma et Radix) in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, in which, however, there are no microscopic identification. Therefore, we provided the morphological and microscopic identification of the crude drug for updating Chinese Pharmacopoeia.Methods: Twelve batches of C. stauntonii and three batches of C. glaucescens and their crude drugs were taxonomically, morphologically, and microscopically examined.Results: Taxonomically, C. stauntonii had narrowly lanceolate leaves with acuminate apex and 5mm long petiole; Whereas C. glaucescens was oblong-lanceolate or oblong with rounded or acute apex in leaves, and had very short or no petiole. Morphologically, rhizomes of C. stauntonii and C. glaucescens both had hollow pith, but the hollow pith occupied about a half of the rhizome's diameter in C. stauntonii, whereas only a very small proportion of the overall diameter in C. glaucescens. Moreover, microscopic observation showed the difference in the proportion of xylem and in rhizome transverse-sections of the two species along with the difference in the size of the pith. Finally, laticifers and rhizome epidermal secretory cells were present in the powders of C. stauntonii, but absent from C. glaucescens.Conclusion: Based on observation of morphological and microscopic characteristics, the two species can be distinguished by the size of the pith, proportion of xylem of rhizomes, and crude drug powder characters such as laticifers and secretory cells.
       
  • Quality assessment of crude and processed Leonuri Fructus by chemical and
           color analysis combined with chemometric method
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Xin-dan Liu, Dong-hui Yan, Xian-mei Deng, Bin Zhao, Xing-yang Xue, Shu-mei Wang, Ying Zhang, Jiang MengAbstractObjectiveCrude Leonuri Fructus (CLF), the fruits of the Leonurus japonicus Houtt, and processed Leonuri Fructus (PLF) by stir-baking as the important Chinese herbal medicines, have been used in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years. The objective of this research is to reveal the difference between CLF and PLF.MethodsThe sensory technologies of the colorimetry, sensitive and validated HPLC-ELSD and GC combined with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) were employed to discriminate CLF and its processed product PLF. The color parameters of the samples were determined by colorimetric instrument CR-410. Moreover, the content of stachydrine and six fatty acids were determined by HPLC and GC. Subsequently, analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal components analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and Kendall's correlation test were performed for data analysis.ResultsThe CLF and PLF were divided into two categories by PCA and HCA in terms of their component content and color. The results distinctly demonstrated significant changes in color and the content of indicative components between CLF and PLF.ConclusionThe study revealed that HPLC, GC, and colorimetric method in combination with chemometric method could be used as comprehensive quality evaluation for CLF and PLF.
       
  • Research and application of Lycii Fructus in medicinal field
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Jin Yang, Yu-qing Wei, Jian-bao Ding, Yan-long Li, Jian-long Ma, Jian-li LiuAbstractLycii Fructus (Lycium barbarum, Gouqizi in Chinese name) is one of the most popular Chinese material medica and a common ingredient in tonic food. This fruit has been paid rapidly growing attention for its nutrient value and noticeable pharmacological properties. The present paper focuses on the legal resource of Gouqizi and reviews the main research in medicinal field including botanical identification, ethnopharmacological functions, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, clinic usages, and safety issues. In addition, some issues needed address will be also discussed. We strongly believe that further investigation will deepen our knowledge of Gouqizi and promote the industrial development in the world.
       
  • Mechanism of Chinese herbal formula QHF against breast cancer MCF-7 cells
           invasion and migration
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Wei Hu, Dan Liu, Liang-bo Jiao, Wen Zhang, Xiang-yang Hu, Shen-tong Gan, Xin-yi Wang, Tao ChenAbstractObjectiveTo investigate the effects of Chinese herbal formula Qinghuofu (QHF) on the migration and invasion of breast cancer MCF-7 cells and its possible molecular mechanisms, thereby providing a theoretical basis to find effective anti-cancer medicine and therapeutic targets for the treatment of anti-migration and anti-invasion of breast cancer.MethodsBreast cancer MCF-7 cells were treated with different QHF and other different reagents, CCK8 assay was used to detect the influence of the reagents on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells; Scrape migration and Transwell assay were used to quantitatively determine the migration and invasion effects of QHF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the MCF-7 cells. Subsequently, the c-Met inhibitor and its downstream ERK and PI3K inhibitors were used to investigate the relationship between the migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, as well as its downstream MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. The expression levels of HGF, c-Met, ERK, p-Akt, p-c-Met, p-ERK, p-Akt, MMP2, MMP9, and VEGF in breast cancer MCF-7 cells treated with QHF and other reagents were also examined.ResultsThe result indicated that formula QHF not only significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, but also significantly suppressed the effects of HGF (40 ng/mL) on the proliferation and movement of MCF-7 cells, reducing the ability of the cells to invade and migrate. Western blot analysis indicated that QHF and c-Met inhibitor significantly decreased the expression of p-c-Met, p-ERK1, p-ERK2, p-Akt, MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF, while HGF significantly increased the expression of p-c-Met in MCF-7 cells; c-Met downstream ERK and PI3K inhibitors also significantly decreased the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF in MCF-7 cells; But the difference among c-Met, PI3K, ERK, and QHF group were not statistically significant.ConclusionQHF can prevent the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MCF-7 cells by inhibiting the HGF/c-Met and its downstream PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways; Thereby down-regulating the expression of HGF, p-Met, p-ERK1, p-ERK2, p-Akt, MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF.
       
  • Optimization of enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from
           pomegranate peel by response surface methodology and their anti-oxidant
           potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Yun Li, Cai-ping Zhu, Xi-chuan Zhai, Yang Zhang, Zhen Duan, Jing-ru SunAbstractObjectiveTo optimize the enzymatic extraction conditions of polysaccharides from pomegranate peel using response surface methodology (RSM), and invest the anti-oxidant activity of pomegranate peel polysaccharide in vitro for seeking novel biological components used as pharmaceutical products and functional foods.MethodsEffects of enzymolysis time, ratio of water to raw material, and the dosage of cellulase on the extraction yield of pomegranate peel polysaccharide were fully examined by Box-Behnken design of RSM. DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay were measured by microplate reader.ResultsThe optimal extraction conditions were as follows: enzymolysis temperature 55 °C, pH 5.0, enzymolysis time 88 min, ratio of water to raw material 22:1 mL/g, and dosage of cellulose 0.93%. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the yield of pomegranate peel polysaccharide was (22.31 ± 0.07)%, which was well matched with the predicted value 22.35% of the Box-Behnken design model. Also, pomegranate peel polysaccharide demonstrated appreciable anti-oxidant potential on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power in vitro.ConclusionsAn optimized enzymolysis assisted method was proposed for the extraction of pomegranate peel polysaccharide, which can be used as a good anti-oxidant.
       
  • Intervention effects of Compound Houttuyniae Herba to diabetic renal
           damage based on SOCS-JAK/STAT negative feedback regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Yun Fang, Sai-cong Shao, Hai-ying WangAbstractObjectiveTo research the protective effects of different extracts from Compound Houttuyniae Herba (CHH) and its mechanism through JAK/STAT-SOCS-1 signaling pathway.MethodsThe normal group comprised db/m mice (n = 8). db/db mice were randomly divided into seven groups with eight mice in each group according to the applied treatment method: model group, metformin hydrochloride (MH) group, AG490 group, water extract (WE) group, ethanol extract (EE) group, volatile oil (VO) group, and mixture (MG) group (mixture of above three extract) of CHH. After 8 weeks, the general status, biochemical indicators, and renal histological changes in the mice were evaluated, the total RNA and protein were collected and RT-PCR method was used to examine the effect on mRNA expression of JAK2, STAT3, SOCS1, and Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression of JAK2, P-JAK2, STAT3, P-STAT3, SOCS1, c-fos, and c-jun. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the protein expression of c-fos and c-jun in kidney tissue.ResultsCompared with normal group, the serum level of TGF-β1, FN of EE, VO, and MG groups were decreased (P 
       
  • Potential mechanism of cholagogic effect about Gardenia Jasminoides Ellis
           (Zhizi)-mediated increase of bile acids urinary excretion in normal rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Fan Zhang, Yu-hui Wei, Ying-ting Duan, Yan-shu Zhao, Li-li Xi, Zhi Rao, Jian-ping Zhang, Guo-qiang Zhang, Xin-an WuAbstractObjectivesGardenia Jasminoides Ellis (Zhizi), belonging to Rubiaceae family, has been traditionally used for treatment cholestasis and jaundice for centuries in Asian countries. In the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Zhizi could dispel dampness and heat via the urine to execute its choleretic effects. However, the potential molecular mechanism has been still poorly clarified. Here, we investigated the effect of different dose of Zhizi aqueous extract powder (0.3 g/kg/d and 0.9 g/kg/d) on urinary excretion of bile acids (BAs), and defined the potential mechanism via renal BAs efflux transporters Mrp2 and Mrp4 in normal rats.MethodsMale Wistar rats were orally administrated with 0.3 or 0.9 g/kg/d dose of Zhizi aqueous extract powder for 2 weeks, then body weight, serum aminotransferase, total BAs concentrations in liver, bile, serum, kidney and urine, 1 h bile flow, 12-h urinary volume, biliary and urinary excretion amount of total BAs as well as protein expression of major renal BAs efflux transporter Mrp2 and Mrp4, were all evaluated.ResultsZhizi especially the high dose of Zhizi aqueous extract powder could reduce hepatic total BAs concentration. Additionally, bile flow and biliary excretion had no significant difference, but the remarkable increasing urinary excretion of BAs and 2 to 3 folds up-regulated renal Mrp2 expression were observed after administrated with Zhizi as compared with the control group.ConclusionThe findings indicate that Zhizi reduces hepatic total BAs level by increasing urinary excretion rather than the biliary excretion of BAs, which, in turn ascribed to elevated protein expression of Mrp2 at apical membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells.
       
  • Xanthotoxin induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells through death receptor
           pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Xiu-juan Zhang, Cang Wei, Li-juan He, Jian AnAbstractObjectiveTo investigate the effects of xanthotoxin from Apiaceae medicinal plants on cell proliferation and apoptosis, and explore its mechanism of action against human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells in vitro.MethodsSGC-7901, HepG-2, MCF-7, and A549 cells were treated with different concentrations of xanthotoxin (10, 20, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 µg/mL) for 48 h, and the cell viability (IC50) was determined by MTT assay; Xanthotoxin-induced apoptosis in cells was observed by using Hoechst 33258 Staining Kit and Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit; Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis related proteins of Fas/FasL, Bid, and DR5/TRAIL proteins in human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells after being treated by xanthotoxin; The influence of xanthotoxin on Caspase-8 protein expression in the cells was determined by Flouormetric Assay Kit.ResultsXanthotoxin obviously inhibited SGC-7901, HepG-2, MCF-7, and A549 cells proliferation, and its inhibition was in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometry results showed that in a certain concentration range, xanthotoxin can increase the expression levels of Fas/FasL and DR5/TRAIL proteins in a concentration-dependence manner. The content of Bid protein in cells was increased, and it showed concentration-dependence.ConclusionXanthotoxin may induce SGC-7901 cells apoptosis in a certain concentration range through the Fas/FasL protein mediated death receptor pathway, or by DR5/TRAIL mediated death receptor pathway, and increase the expression level of death receptor protein, activation Caspase-8, activating downstream effect factor, inducing cell apoptosis, or activate Caspase-8 cutting activate protein Bid, and then enter the mitochondrial pathway, induction of apoptosis.
       
  • Effect of cinnamaldehyde on 1, 3-β-D-glucans in cell wall of Candida
           albicans in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Jie-hua Deng, Gang-sheng Wang, Ji-hong Li, Xiao-lu WangAbstractObjectiveInvasive pulmonary candidiasis is a disease with high incidence, difficult treatment, poor prognosis, and high mortality. The present study analyzed the influence of cinnamaldehyde on 1,3-β-D-glucans in the cell wall of Candida albicans in order to provide a theoretical basis for the research of antifungal drugs.MethodsAn immunosuppressed BALB/c mouse model with invasive pulmonary candidiasis was established by nasal perfusion of 50 µL of C. albicans suspension (107 cfu/mL). 1,3-β-D-glucans examination and electron microscopy were carried out. Fluconazole was used as the control.ResultsCinnamaldehyde was administered at a dose of 240 mg/kg/d for 14 consecutive days, and the measured value of 1,3-β-D-glucans was (1160.62 ± 89.65) pg/mL, whereas that of fluconazole was (4285.87 ± 215.62) pg/mL. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P 
       
  • Antifibrosis effects of Shenge Yangfei Capsules on bleomycin-induced
           pulmonary fibrosis in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 10, Issue 4Author(s): Hui Jia, Zuo-jun Wang, Qiong Wu, Zi-ru Xu, Jing-yi Zhang, Hong-da Ma, Qing-chun ZhaoAbstractObjectiveThe present study, for the first time, was designed to examine the antifibrosis effects of Shenge Yangfei Capsules (SGYF) on bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury and fibrosis in rats.MethodsAnimals were divided into six groups randomly: saline control group, model group (bleomycin 5 mg/kg), and positive control group (Dexamethasone 5 mg/kg), and SGYF (70, 420, and 850 mg/kg/d, ig) group. Effects of SGYF on body weight and lung index were evaluated. For histological evaluation of lungs injury and fibrosis, lung specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson trichrome. Body weight and lung index from various groups were measured, and the concentrations of monoamine (MAO) and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) were also detected in lung homogenates.ResultsSGYF attenuated the bleomycin-induced weight loss and the lung index. Histologica levidence showed the ability of SGYF to decrease bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and consolidation. SGYF reduced MAO and TGF-β1 activity in lung tissues.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that SGYF may be a promising candidate to prevent bleomycin-induced lung damage or other interstitial lesions.
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 184.72.102.217
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-