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  Subjects -> ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (Total: 111 journals)
Showing 1 - 15 of 15 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acupuncture in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alternative & Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Alternative and Complementary Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Alternative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Alternative Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arabian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arteterapia. Papeles de arteterapia y educación artística para la inclusión social     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Plant Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanics : Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cadernos de Naturologia e Terapias Complementares     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cognitive Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Complementary Therapies in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Current Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Deutsche Heilpraktiker-Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Erfahrungsheilkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access  
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Global Journal of Integrated Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Traditional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Herba Polonica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Integrative Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of High Dilution Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ipnosi     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Applied Arts and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of AYUSH :- Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Dance Medicine & Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Fasting and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Herbal Drugs (An International Journal on Medicinal Herbs)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Integrative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Medicine & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinally Active Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Remedies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of the Australian Traditional-Medicine Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Lekovite Sirovine     Open Access  
Médecine Palliative : Soins de Support - Accompagnement - Éthique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Medical Acupuncture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi     Open Access  
Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Natural solutions     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Acupuntura     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Traditional & Kampo Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Traditional Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Orthomolekulare Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

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Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine
Number of Followers: 0  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1118-6267
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia
    • Authors: O.A. Salami, M.A. Fafunso
      Abstract: There is the need for weed management and control through allelopathy since the use of synthetic herbicides affects and is hindered by various factors which include herbicide-resistant weed populations, deleterious effects on non-target as well as soil and water pollution. Paullinia pinnata leaves are employed traditionally for the treatment of various ailments and as fish poison, and may also have herbicidal effects. To investigate this, possible phytotoxic property of the leaves of P. pinnata was explored and this is the aim of this study. The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited significant phytotoxic activity.Keywords: Paullinia pinnata, Lemna minor, phytotoxicity
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Biochemical and histological changes in female wistar rats following oral
           administration of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. leaves
    • Authors: M.T. Yakubu, S.S. Salimon
      Abstract: This study was aimed at investigating the effect of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves on some biochemical parameters and histology of liver, kidney and small intestine of rats. Twenty female rats (142.30 ± 7.56 g) were randomly assigned into four groups A, B, C and D. The rats were administered orally 1 mL of distilled water, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract once daily for 10 days. The biochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. All the doses of the extract significantly increased the activities of liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and chloride ion (Cl-) content whereas the liver ALT, serum urea, uric acid, potassium ion (K+) and small intestine body weight ratio decreased significantly in a dose dependent manner. The serum concentrations of sodium ion (Na+) and creatinine increased only at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract while the levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, conjugated and total bilirubin significantly decreased in the serum. The liver and kidney body weight ratio significantly increased at 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract while the extract at all the doses did not significantly alter the activity of serum AST. Furthermore, the extract significantly decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the small intestine of the animals with corresponding increase in the serum. The extract at varying doses produced mild and moderate hepatocellular and submucosa layer degeneration in the liver and small intestine respectively while there was glomeruli shrinkage in the kidney. The extract caused structural and functional toxicity hence, should be consumed with caution.Keywords: Mangifera indica, Anacardiaceae, Structural toxicity, Functional toxicity, Histoarchitectural changes
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Comparative total phenolic content, anti-lipase and antioxidant activities
           of two Nigerian Aframomum species
    • Authors: T.O. Ajayi, J.O. Moody, I.M. Abiose, N.J. Ezeoku
      Abstract: The anti-obesity drug development is presently not a bright story. So far, drugs reported to be effective have stimulated controversies due to side effects they elicit. Obesity and its co-morbidities continue however to constitute major problems in both developed and developing countries. This has resulted in a continuous search for novel, cost-effective, safe and potent alternatives. This study investigated the ethanolic extracts of two Nigerian Aframomum species for their anti-lipase and anti-oxidant activities as well as estimates of their polyphenol contents. Lipase activity was determined using glyceryltrioleate emulsion as a substrate and measuring the release rate of oleic acid from it. Percentage inhibition of lipase by the methanolic extracts of plants was determined spectrophotometrically at T0 and T30 (30 minutes after incubation at 37oC). DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity of the extracts and that of gallic acid as control was measured using the stable radical DPPH method and absorbance at 515 nm using a spectrophotometer. The IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value was calculated by linear regression analysis and the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method at 765 nm. The standard curve was prepared by solutions of Gallic acid in methanol: water (50:50, v/v). Total phenol values are expressed in terms of Gallic acid equivalent (w/w of dry mass). Aframomum melegueta exhibited the highest phenolic content of 60.4 ± 2.36 mgGAE/g, a percentage antioxidant activity of 86.6 % at 200μg/ml and percentage lipase inhibition of 89% at 1mg/ml while Aframomum danielli revealed a total phenolic content of33.3 ± 2.71mgGAE/g, a percentage antioxidant activity of 77.3% at 200μg/ml and percentage lipase inhibition of 73% at 1 mg/ml. The result provides some justifications for the use of these plants in ethno-medicine for the management of obesity. The species exhibited properties that are beneficial to health and therefore could find use as an alternative and/or complementary strategy in managing associated co-morbidities of obesity, and also as possible template for future anti-obesity drug development.Keywords: Pancreatic lipase, Aframomum, Orlistat®, Obesity
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Effect of dietary black pepper (Piper nigrum) on gut ecosystem and blood
           profile of broiler chickens under production conditions
    • Authors: E.K. Ndelekwute, E.D. Assam, P.C. Ekere
      Abstract: Effect of dietary black pepper (BP) on the digseta pH, viscosity, bacteria population, and blood profile of broilers was investigated. 150 Abor-acre day old chicks were used. Five diets (BP1-BP5) containing respectively 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0% BP were formulated. BP1 was the control containing no BP. Each treatment was replicated thrice each having 10 birds arranged in completely randomized design. Feed and water were given ad libitum for 7 weeks. Results indicated that BP increased (P<.0.05) white and red blood cells, haemoglobin and packed cell volume at 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0%. Glucose was increased (P<0.05) at all levels. Total protein, albumin and globulins were reduced by 1.0%. Alkalinephosphatase, alanineaminotransferase and aspartateaminotransferase were reduced by 0.75 and 1.0% (P<0.05). There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in urea and creatinine. BP reduced pH in crop and gizzard, while all the levels reduced viscosity. Bacteria population was not reduced in the crop (P>0.05). In gizzard, staphylococcus was reduced by 0.75 and 1.0%. In duodenum, ileum, and caecum, above 0.25%, number of bacteria was reduced. No significant difference was observed in large intestine. In conclusion, BP could be used to improve the well being of broilers but should not be used above 0.50%.Keywords: bacteria population, black pepper, blood profile, broilers, digesta viscosity
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Antimicrobial activity of eleagnine isolated from the seed cotyledons of
           Chrysophyllum albidum
    • Authors: E.O. Medu, T.O. Idowu, A.O. Oyedele, S.A. Adesanya, A.O. Ogundaini, G.O. Onawunmi
      Abstract: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of eleagnine, a β-carboline alkaloid isolated from seed cotyledons of Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don Holl (Sapotaceae), and determined factors affecting it. Antimicrobial activities of eleagnine were determined using the agar diffusion and microdilution methods against selected typed organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida spp.), clinical isolates (S. aureus, E. coli) and Trichophyton. The effects of inoculum size and pH on the bacteriostatic activity were studied using agar and broth dilution methods. Bactericidal/fungicidal activities were also evaluated using viable count technique. Cytotoxicity was determined using brine shrimp lethality test. Eleagnine showed higher bacteriostatic activity against Gram-positive organisms and Candida spp. than Gram-negative bacteria but showed no activity against Trichophyton. The MIC of eleagnine obtained by microdilution tests ranged from 9.77 μg/mL against S. aureus, 156.25 μg/mL for C. albicans to 312.5 μg/mL for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Inoculum size (105-107 orgs/mL) did not appreciably affect activity but pH from 5.85 to 8.09 increased the activity against S. aureus and E. coli, suggesting the unionized form as the active compound. Eleagnine (100-400 μg/mL) produced a 4-5 log survivor reduction of S. aureus and E. coli in 30 min. LC50 of eleagnine was 18.8 mg/mL indicating minimal cytotoxicity. This study showed that eleagnine is bactericidal with low cytotoxicity. Factors affecting its activity (pH, solvent) could be optimized in developing effective antimicrobial products alone or in combination with other agents.Keywords: Eleagnine, Chrysophyllum albidum, antimicrobial, inoculum size, pH
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Influence of the areas of specialization of Traditional Medicine
           Practitioners (TMPS) on the types of formulation prescribed in the
           management of memory loss
    • Authors: J.O. Oiseoghaede, G.A. Ajayi, O.A. Odukoya, A.A. Sowemimo, N.F. Mustapha
      Abstract: Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMPs) make use of plants in alleviation of many illnesses including memory loss. Their specialization categories could include traditional healers, herbalists, herb sellers, etc. Most of them learnt the trade as apprentices from their trainers or their parents. This study was designed to investigate if there was an association between the areas of specialization of the TMP and the choice of formulation (mono- or multicomponent herbal) in the management of memory loss. A hundred TMPs consisting of 18 traditional healers and 82 herb sellers in Lagos State were randomly interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Various data on age, sex, areas of specialization of the TMPs, plants used, mode of administration, life forms of plants used and the types of herbal formulation prescribed for memory loss were obtained. The two variables involved (areas of specialization of the TMPs and formulation type) were compared using Chi square statistical tool to measure their association and inferences were drawn from the results. About 88% of all respondents have used multi-component herbal formulations while only 12% have used mono-component herbal formulations. About 82% of all the respondents were herb sellers and 18% of them were traditional healers. About 89% of literate respondents have used multi-component herbal formulations while 11% of them have used mono-component herbal formulations. Similarly, about 89% of herb sellers have used multi-component herbal formulations while about 11% of them have used mono-component herbal formulations. About 83% of traditional healers have used multi-component herbal formulations while about 17% of them have used mono-component herbal formulations. There was no significant association between the types of occupation of the TMPs interviewed and the types of formulation used (p< 0.05). This study shows that the occupations (trades) of TMPs did not influence their choice of type of formulations.Keywords: Mono-component herbal, multi-component herbal, traditional medicine practitioners, occupation
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of some plants from asteraceae family
           against zika virus, dengue and chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti Linn.
           (diptera: culicidae)
    • Authors: D.A. Adediji, J.M. Agbedahunsi, F.B. Adewoyin
      Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal and ovicidal activities of leaves extract from Aspilia africana (Pers.) C. D. Adams, Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray, Vernonia amygdalina Del., Tridax procumbens Linn.,Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less, Struchium sparganophora (Linn.) Kuntze, Ageratum conyzoides Linn., Melanthera scandens (Schum et Thonn.) Roberty, Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) Hassk, Emilia coccinea (Sims) G.Don, Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn, Launaea taraxacifolia (Willd.) Amin ex C, Jeffrey, Senecio biafrae Oliv. & Hiern, Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.Moore, Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk, Spilanthes filicaulis (Schumach. & Thonn.) C.D.Adams, Acanthospermum hispidum D.C. and Bidens pilosa Linn. all inAsteraceae family. The extracts were all tested against Aedes aegypti Linn. eggs and larvae. Twenty each were counted into each of the various concentrations of the eighteen aqueous plant extracts: 62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/L.They were each put in a labeled transparent bowl (300ml). The hatch rates were assessed at 48 hours post-treatment while the percentage mortality of 2nd instar larvae was determined 24 hours post treatment. Spilanthes filicaulis exerted 100% mortality at 1000, 500 and 250 mg/L while Bidens pilosa and Acanthospermum hispidum exerted 100% mortality at 1000 and 500mg/L. Zero percent hatchability was recorded for Spilanthes filicaulis, Bidens pilosa and Acanthospermum hispidum at 1000 and 500 mg/L.The order of increasing larvicidal activity (percent mortality) is Spilanthes filicaulis (100.00 ± 0.0) >Bidens pilosa (71.25 ± 1.3) >Acanthospermum hispidum (58.75 ± 2.4) at 1000mg/L. Other plant extracts showed little or no mortality. Our findings suggest that the aqueous leaf extracts of Spilanthes filicaulis, Bidens pilosa and Acanthospermum hispidum were very effective against eggs and larvae of this important vector specie. The leaf extract of these plants therefore could be a potential source of herbal larvicide for vector control and could be used in integrated vector management which is being encouraged by WHO.Keywords: Leaf; Aqueous Extracts; Nigerian Asteraceae Plants; Larvicidal Activities; Ovicidal Activities; Aedes aegypti; Plant Larvicides
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Exploitation of petiole, nodal segment, bulbil and tuber anatomy for
           species identification in Dioscorea Linn. species from Oyo and Ekiti
           states- southwestern Nigeria
    • Authors: A.A. Adeniran, M.A. Sonibare
      Abstract: Herb sellers and Traditional Medical Practitioners often substitute D. hirtiflora, cultivars of D. bulbifera and D. dumetorum with closely related cultivars within species during herbal preparations. This practice, which may be as a result of mis-identification, may be very injurious to users of herbal products. The present study investigated anatomical characters of three wild and edible species of Dioscorea used in ethnomedicine in Southwestern Nigeria with a view to aiding species identification. Thin sections of the median petiole and nodal segments were prepared using free hand sectioning. Bulbils and tubers stored in 50% ethanol were sectioned at 5 μm with the aid of a sledge microtome. Sections were stained in Safranin O solution for 2-10 min while sections from bulbils of D. hirtiflora were counter stained with toluidine for 1 min and mounted with glycerol. All slides were examined under the light microscope at x100 and x400 magnifications and photos were taken using digital camera mounted on Zenith Ultra-500 A light microscope. Petiole and nodal segments anatomy showed six and nine vascular bundles, respectively in D. hirtiflora, whereas eight and eleven bundles were observed in D. dumetorum and D. bulbifera. Petioles of D. hirtiflora and D. dumetorum were profusely surrounded with stellate and simple unicellular trichomes. Parenchyma cells in wild D. dumetorum were beaded, while they were not in the edible cultivar. Generally, scattered vascular bundles, layers of collenchymas cells, and dilated parenchyma cells filled with tannins were observed in the bulbils/tubers of all species. Anatomical characters in the selected Dioscorea species are taxonomically significant for species identification and could serve as diagnostic taxonomic tools for their standardization.Keywords: Anatomy, Dioscorea spp., Identification, Medicinal application
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Phytochemical assessment and utilization of African porridge (Tetrapluera
           tetraptera) fruits by broiler chickens
    • Authors: E.K. Ndelekwute, U.L. Unah, E.D. Assam, E.S. Silas, A.C. Okonkwo
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the proximate and photochemical composition of dry milled African porridge (Tetrapluera tetraptera) fruit pod and its effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. One hundred and twenty-day old mixed sex chicks of Ross strain were used. There were 4 dietary treatments. Treatment 1 (control) contained no T. tetraptera; treatments 2 to 4 contained 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5g/kg T. tetraptera respectively. Each treatment was replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate in a complete randomized design (CRD). Feed and water were given ad libitum for 8 weeks. The pod contained 6.70% crude protein, 1.44% ether extract, 4.62% crude fibre, 74.17% nitrogen free extract, and 5.96mg/100g hydrogen cyanide and 4.06mg/ 100g tannins. At the starter phase, final live weight was significantly (P<0.05) reduced by T. tetraptera at all the levels. Addition of 7.5g/kg T. tetratptera significantly reduced daily feed intake compared to control. Feed intake was not significantly (P>0.05) affected. Feed: gain ratio was also negatively affected by all the levels of T. tetraptera, with the control having significantly (P<0.05) superior feed: gain ratio. At the finisher level, final live weight and daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by 7.5g/kg compared to the control and other levels. Control had the best final live weight. Daily weight gain was similar (P>0.05) in control, 2.5 and 5.0g/kg. Feed intake was reduced by addition of T. tetraptera with 7.5g/kg giving the least intake. Feed: gain ratio was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by T. tetraptera. In conclusion, 2.5% of T. tetraptera could be used in broiler diets and is recommended.Keywords: African porridge, broiler chickens, phytochemical, Tetrapluera tetraptera
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves and stem-bark of Commiphora
           africana (A. Rich) Engl. (Burseraceae)
    • Authors: A Nuhu, U.H. Danmalam, N Ilyas, A.M. Zakariya, Z Abdulhamid, A.Z. Abubakar
      Abstract: The study establishes some important pharmacognostic profile of Commiphora africana leaf and stem-bark with the hope of assisting in its proper identification as well as standardization for quality and sample purity. Evaluation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves and stem bark were carried out to determine the macromorphological, micromorphological, chemomicroscopic and some physicochemical parameters. Macroscopical studies indicated presence of leaf with trifoliate arrangement, crenate margin with ovate shape, acute apex, cuneate base, petiolate with pinnate venation. The microscopy revealed the dorsiventral nature of the leaf and was observed to be hypostomatic with anomocytic type of stomata, with numerous unicellular covering and glandular trichomes on the abaxial surface. Chemomicroscopic characters present include; lignin, starch, cellulose, tannin, suberin and calcium oxalate crystals. The physicochemical parameters evaluated include moisture contents (8.1%), total ash value (9.3%), water soluble ash (5.5%), acid insoluble ash (3.2%), ethanol extractive values (22.3%) and water extractive values (19.0%). For quantitative leaf microscopy, on the average, stomatal number (38.0) and index (25.0), palisade ratio (11.7), vein termination numbers (5.7) and vein islets (1.3). The microscopy of stem bark revealed some prominent features like the cork, prism types and microcrystal of calcium oxalate crystals, fibres, phloem parenchyma cells, secretion canal and medullary ray. The physicochemical parameters evaluated include moisture contents (8.6%), total ash value (11.3%), water soluble ash (7.0%), acid insoluble ash (2.7%), ethanol extractive values (12.3%) and water extractive values (9.3%). Keywords: Commiphora africana, Macroscopic, Microscopic, Physicochemical parameters
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Preliminary antifertility activity of Bambusa vulgaris leaf extract in
           male wistar rats
    • Authors: G.O. Alade, T.O. Alade, O.R. Awotona, J.O. Moody
      Abstract: The aqueous extract of the leaf of Bambusa vulgaris is used in ethnomedicine as an antifertility agent in man. This study aimed at validating or disproving this folkloric use by evaluating the effect of 50 % methanolic extract on sperm concentration and some male reproductive hormones in rats after 14 and 28- day administration. Male wistar rats were administered with 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract for 14 and 28 days and were sacrificed at the end of these days separately. They were evaluated for sperm concentration, motility, testosterone (T), leutinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), and histology of the testes was also carried out. Two groups of six rats each administered with 250 mg/kg for 28 days were left for the next 14 and 28 days, respectively and sperm concentration and motility were evaluated for probable reversal of activity. The same was repeated for those two groups administered with 500 mg/kg extract. There were 42 and 31 % reduction in sperm count at 14 and 28 days respectively, in rats administered with 250 mg/kg while at 500 mg/kg dose, the percentage reduction in sperm count was 60 % at both 14 and 28 days. There was almost a complete reversal of activity 14 days after cessation of treatment. The result justified the ethnomedicinal claim of the use of B. vulgaris leaf as an antifertility agent.Keywords: Bamboo, sperm, contraception, fertility, hormone
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Anticholinesterase activities of methanol extract and partitioned
           fractions of Acanthospermum hispidum DC
    • Authors: T.O. Elufioye, S.C. Machie
      Abstract: Age related memory loss is a common occurrence in traditional medical practice and several medicinal plants have been used over the years for managing it. Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant that has been included in traditional preparations used in the management of memory loss. In clinical practice however, anticholinesterases have remained relevant in managing memory and cognition dysfunction associated both with old age and certain neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro anticholinesterase activity of extracts and fractions of A. hispidum was done using Ellman’s colorimetric and TLC bioautography assay with eserine as control. The ethyl acetate fraction of A. hispidum showed highest inhibition to acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (91.11% and 64.31%, respectively) in a concentration-dependent manner. A. hispidum presents a good prospect in the development of cholinesterase inhibitors for the management of memory-related disorders.Keywords: Acanthospermum hispidum, Anticholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Salubrious effect of Parinari curatellifolia seed extract in doxorubicin
           intoxicated rats
    • Authors: O.O. Crown, M.T. Olaleye, A.C. Akinmoladun, A.A. Akindahunsi
      Abstract: The seed of Parinari curatellifolia Ex Benth (Chrysobalanaceae) is widely used in Southwestern Nigeria for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension, important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Parinari curatellifolia seed extract (PCE) on the antioxidant status, lipid profile and cardiac health in doxorubicin (DOX) induced cardiotoxicity. Phenolic profile of the extract was determined by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups that were pretreated with ramipril (10 mg/kg) or PCE (50-, 100-, 150- and 200 mg/kg) orally for two weeks. On the 13th day, single dose of (15 mg/kg i.p) DOX was administered to all the groups except control. Antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase {SOD}, glutathione peroxidase {GPx}, glutathione transferase {GT}, reduced glutathione {GSH}, thiobarbituric reacting substance {TBARS}), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) were evaluated in cardiac tissue homogenate or plasma. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, rutin, kaempferol and quercitrin were confirmed present in PCE. DOX intoxication in experimental rats resulted in significant increase (P<0.05) in plasma activities of LDH and CK-MB, concentrations of all lipid types, except HDL which was significantly (P<0.05) reduced, as well as the tissue level of TBARS as compared with control. In addition, activities of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GT and GPx) were reduced (P<0.05) in the DOX intoxicated group. However, pretreatment with PCE significantly ameliorated the alterations caused by doxorubicin. PCE protected against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats possibly through positive modulation of the cardiac antioxidant defense system and amelioration of dyslipidemia by the constituent flavonols.Keywords: Parinari curatellifolia, cardiotoxicity, Doxorubicin, antioxidant, phenolic compounds, dyslipidemia
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Perception of the knowledge of traditional and herbal medicine among
           students in the College of Medicine, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
    • Authors: B.A. Lawal, A Agunu
      Abstract: The practice of traditional medicine in Nigeria is widely acceptable and contributes significantly to healthcare delivery, yet, integration and/or corecognition with orthodox medicine is still faced with a lot of challenges. One of the most recommended ways of addressing these challenges include enlightenment on the practice of traditional medicine and opportunities available for the general populace. This study presents a survey of the perception of the knowledge of traditional and herbal medicine among medical and nursing students in the College of Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. A total of 159 students were selected for the survey from 200 to 500 level of medical students and nursing students of the College of medicine of the University using a semi structured questionnaire and informal conversation on the respondents. A total of 98 medical students and 61 nursing students consisting of 39% male and 61% female. Ninety-two percent of the respondents have had contact with traditional and herbal medicine although level of interest is 39% low, 49% medium and just 12% high. Majority of the respondents (87%) prefer modern medicine and only 8% prefer herbal medicine. 60% of the respondents will like to take a course in traditional/herbal medicine, but only 9% will actually like to practice traditional medicine. Although majority of the respondents have no knowledge of traditional/herbal medicine, but they are willing to understand the practice. There is therefore need for the incorporation of traditional and herbal medicine into college of medicine curriculum.Keywords: Traditional and herbal medicine, College of medicine, University of Ilorin, Curriculum
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Chemical detection of cysteine-rich circular petides in selected tropical
           Violaceae and Moringaceae families using modified G-250 and mass
    • Authors: A.F. Attah, M.A. Sonibare, J.O. Moody
      Abstract: Cysteine-rich circular peptides (CRCs) comprise a large family of gene encoded and low molecular weight polypeptides that has recently engaged the attention of scientists. This class of peptides exhibit a continuous circular configuration and a cystine knot backbone, which defines their resilient nature-directed structural design. Many CRCs have been reported in medicinal plants the first of which is kalata B1 cyclotide from the traditional African plant Oldenlandia affinis. Their detection and isolation can be very challenging and evasive. Only about 1% of plant species have so far been reportedly screened. A modified preliminary chemo-microscopic/macroscopic method involving the use of G-250 stain was applied followed by thin layer chromatographic protosite reaction for plant selection. This was followed by the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass spectrometry guided experiment for cyclotide discovery. The blue colouration produced upon sample reaction with modified G-250 led to the selection of potential circular peptide containing plant samples. A further MALDI-TOF MS-guided screening resulted in the detection of circular peptides and cyclotides in Moringa oleifera, Rinorea dentata, R. oblongifolia and R. brachypatela. Viola odorata and Viola tricolor (positive controls) indicated the presence of cyclotides. Results from this study can serve as proof-of-concept for plant selection based on preliminary cysteine-rich circular peptide detection in plants especially with the use of G-250 stain.Keywords: Cysteine-rich Cyclotides, Violaceae, Moringaceae, TLC, Microscopy, MALDI-TOF MS
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Ethnobotanical survey of tree species used for wound healing in Ibadan,
           southwest Nigeria
    • Authors: B Rafiu, M.A. Sonibare
      Abstract: The disruption of cells and tissues at the sites of injury leads to varying degrees of wounds, which can be as a result of the physical, chemical, microbiological or immunological process. The present study reports the findings from an ethnobotanical survey of three Local Government areas (LGAs) in Ibadan, Oyo State in Southwest Nigeria, carried out to document tree species and plant parts used in the treatment of wound and related skin disorders. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to interview the herb sellers, traditional medical practitioners, and some elders in the study area comprising of Ibadan North, Ibadan Southeast and Ibadan Northwest LGAs. Eighty-five respondents were questioned on their knowledge of skin diseases and wound care management. Seventy-one plants out of which sixty-five were tree species belonging to thirty angiosperm families were identified as plant species used for the treatment of wound and related skin disorders. Some of the most frequently used tree species mentioned by the respondents are: Khaya grandifoliola C. D. C., Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn., Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth., Bombax buonopozense P. Beauv., Terminalia glauscescens Planch. ex Benth. and Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn. The most frequently mentioned family is Fabaceae, followed by Meliaceae and Annonaceae. Stem barks were predominant in the prescription. Preparations including two or more plant species were common. However, in some cases, prescriptions were in powder form. The mode of preparation and dosages are presented in this paper. The results of this study revealed many tree species used to treat wounds and skin disorders in the three Local Government Areas surveyed in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.Keywords: Wound healing, ethnobotanical survey, tree species, medicinal uses, conservation
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • The larvicidal activities of three Jatropha species against Aedes aegypti
    • Authors: F.G. Famuyiwa, A.A. Ajiboye, O.J. Ayoola
      Abstract: Jatropha curcas L., Jatropha gossipifolia L. and Jatropha multifida L. belong to the family Euphorbiaceae. There had been contradictory reports of the larvicidal potential of the Jatrophas and there was no report of the isolation of the larvicidal compound(s). The present study therefore reports the larvicidal activities of the petroleum ether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of the leaves and stem barks of the three plants and the column chromatographic fractions of the petroleum ether extract of J. gossipifolia stem bark against the larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector of dengue and yellow fevers. The methanol extract of J. curcas (LC50, LC90 1.70 ± 0.03, 3.23 ± 0.07 mg/mL), the petroleum ether extracts of J. multifida (LC50, LC90 1.96 ± 0.01, 3.50 ± 0.02 mg/mL) and J. gossipifolia (LC50, LC90 1.58 ± 0.02, 3.02 ± 0.03 mg/mL) stem barks demonstrated high activities against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti at 48 hours. Efforts are on-going to isolate the active compounds from the two active column fractions of J. gossipifolia stem bark.Keywords: Jatropha species, Aedes aegypti, purification, Yellow fever, Dengue fever
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Toxicity study on the methanol fruit extract of Solanum anomalum in albino
           wistar rats
    • Authors: B Abubakar, A.U. Zezi, M Bisalla
      Abstract: The study investigated the acute and sub-acute effects of methanolic fruit extract of Solanum anomalum in Wistar rats. Extraction of the powdered fruit was accomplished using 80% v/v methanol. The oral and intraperitoneal acute toxicity studies (LD50) were evaluated using Lorke’s method. Sub-acute toxicity test was conducted by administering graded doses of the extract and distilled water for 15 days. Thereafter the animals were sacrificed and their blood samples were examined for changes in haematological parameters and serum biochemical parameters. The livers, kidneys, hearts and spleens were weighed to determine the relative organ body ratios. The organs were then fixed in 10% formalin and prepared for histopathological examination. The oral LD50 was found to be above 5,000 mg/kg while the intraperitoneal LD50 was calculated to be approximately 1,150 mg/kg showing that the extract is relatively safe orally in rats. The relative organ body weight of the animals that were administered graded doses of the extract showed no statistical significant difference when compared to the group that received distilled water as control. Also, the haematological and serum biochemical parameters showed no statistical significant difference among all the groups but the histopathological analysis of the liver and spleen revealed slight haemosiderosis on the spleen at the dose of 2,000 mg/kg. Also, the liver revealed slight congestion of the central vein at the dose of 2,000 mg/kg. The histology of the heart and kidney was normal at all doses. In conclusion, methanol extract of S. anomalum fruit is not toxic up to 1,000 mg/kg in rats.Keywords: LD50, Solanum anomalum, haemosiderosis, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Acuminatoside: a new anticancer compound from the maiden breast plant
    • Authors: A.O. Oriola, A.J. Aladesanmi, T.O. Idowu, G Arthur
      Abstract: Cancer is currently a leading cause of death worldwide. In Nigeria, one out of every one hundred people lives with cancer. Among various cancer types is prostate cancer, the number one reported cancer cases and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in men worldwide. The maiden breast plant, Massularia acuminata used in the African and Chinese ethno-medicines as fish poison and for the management of cancer. The root, stem, and leaf of M. acuminata were extracted separately with 80% ethanol by maceration. The three extracts were tested against Prostate cancer cell line DU 145 at concentrations 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL in five replicates, using methanethiosulphonate assay (MTS, Promega®). All extracts and isolated compound were compared with standard drug (chlorambucil, 150 μg/mL). The leaf extract (ML) was the most anticancer active. ML demonstrated significant (P <0.05) percentage reduction in viable prostate cancer cell with a CC50 = 225.05±2.25 μg/mL. However, it was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in activity when compared to chlorambucil (CC50 ≥ 135.05 μg/mL). An activity-guided column chromatographic fractionation of the leaf extract (ML) monitored with TLC bioautography afforded a brown semi-solid compound characterized as 4-(3'', 3''-dihydroxy-1-mercaptopropyl) phenyl glucosylpyranoside. This compound was identified as a new phenolic glycoside, and named “acuminatoside”. At 250 μg/mL, acuminatoside demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) reduction (75.28±4.76 %) in viable prostate cancer cells. This is the first validation of M. acuminata as an anticancer agent against Prostate cancer.Keywords: Acuminatoside, anticancer compound, maiden breast plant, MTS assay, DU-145
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Radical scavenging and cytotoxicity evaluation of eight extracts of Citrus
           limon and Citrus aurantifolia
    • Authors: E.O. Ajaiyeoba, K.M. Salawu, O.O. Ogbole, J.A. Adeniji
      Abstract: Cancer is a global cause of death characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and spread of abnormal cells. Eight extracts composed of the leaf, stem bark, seeds and juice of each of Citrus limon and C. aurantifolia were subjected to in vitro antioxidant assay using DPPH, brine shrimp lethality bioassay (BSL) and cytotoxicity MTT colorimetric assay using human cancer cell lines. Extracts of C. aurantifolia stem bark and leaf had IC50 of 28.2±0.11 and 47.2±0.39μg/mL, respectively and displayed better radical scavenging activity compared to the other extracts, Ascorbic acid, the reference drug, had an IC50 of 9.2±0.14 μg/mL. Citrus limon stem bark (LC50=10.0±0.33) and C. limon leaf (LC50= 5.0±0.74 μg/mL) extracts were observed to be strongly cytotoxic compared to cyclophosphamide (LC50=98.76±0.15 μg/mL), while the other extracts were either non, weakly, or moderately toxic in BSL assay. Citrus aurantifolia leaf extract (CC50=4.02±2.85 μg/mL, CC50=5.45±2.8 μg/mL) retained a comparable cytotoxicity to cyclophosphamide (CC50=2.23±0.14 μg/ mL, CC50=2.66±0.8 μg/mL) on Rd and Hep-2c human cancer cell lines, respectively. The other extracts exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity. This study demonstrated that the extracts of both Citrus species had weak DPPH radical scavenging activity. Citrus aurantifolia leaf extract displayed potent toxicity in BSL assay and on the two human cancer cell lines; Rd and Hep-2c used in the study and were selective to cancer cells than the normal cell, Vero.Keywords: Citrus limon, Citrus aurantifolia, DPPH Antioxidant, Brine Shrimp Lethality, Human cancer cell lines
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Review of the use ethnobotanicals in the treatment of skin infections
    • Authors: I.T. Gbadamosi, M.M. Faniyan
      Abstract: Skin problems are common in most of the tribal inhabitants and are caused by infections, over-exposure to sunlight, toxicity, parasites, unclean water and even stress. Infectious skin diseases are primarily categorized as bacterial, fungal, viral or parasitic diseases. Skin diseases occur all over the world, but are more prevalent in tropical regions and it is commonly observed in children, young adults and aged people. Globally, the prevalence studies in children documented the occurrence of skin diseases to be ranging from 21% to 87%. Socio-economic impacts of skin infections include poverty, joblessness, severe disability for work and limited life quality. High cost of orthodox antibiotics, resistance of microorganisms to the drugs and undesirable side effects of some antibiotics have led to the search for medicinal plants with plausible therapeutic effect in the management of skin infections. Plants have also been found to be less toxic, potent, readily available and affordable. Several medicinal plants have been used to manage skin infections in the traditional medicinal systems of many cultures worldwide. The present review gives information on the prevalence of skin infections, ethnobotanical survey reports of plants used in the management of skin infections and the pharmacological activities of the plants. The pharmacological activities of these plants include antibacterial, antifungal, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. The present review constitutes a resource material which can engender further scientific investigation in the potential discovery of new natural bioactive compounds with antimicrobial effects on skin diseases.Keywords: Skin infections, Prevalence, Anti-infective plants, Pharmacological activity, Indigenous Knowledge
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Fuzzy-based dosage model of aqueous decoction of Adansonia digitata for
           the management of sickle cell anaemia patients in African Traditional
    • Authors: C Agbonkhese, H.A. Soriyan, O Oyelami
      Abstract: In recent time, fuzzy logic-based systems have been deployed in the area of orthodox medicine; especially in situations where precision is most valuable such as kidney transplant, diagnosis of ailments, drug prescription, etc. However, in the area of traditional medicine, no much attention has been given to its enhancement with the use of information technology especially in the area of herbal prescription. In this study, a fuzzy logic-based system is presented, which is used to simulate a prescription model for determining the precise herbal dose suitable for the management of patients suffering from Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Data on the management of SCD patients were collected from forty Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMPs) at four different local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The mass of herb and volume of solvent were used as input parameters to design the dosage model, and simulated using MATLAB. The Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) results obtained for some patients were compared to the prescription given by the TMPs. The results show that the model will eliminate the ordeals of imprecision associated with the management of SCD patients in Nigeria using herbs.Keywords: African Traditional Medicine, Traditional Medicine, Traditional Medical Practitioners, Sickle Cell Disease, Fuzzy logic, Measurement
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • In vitro antisickling and antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanol
           extracts of fifty selected plants used in the management of sickle cell
           disorder in southern Nigeria
    • Authors: O.O. Amujoyegbe, M Idu, J.M. Agbedahunsi, E.M. Obuotor, G.N. Bazuaye
      Abstract: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is an ailment with enormous social and economic burden for patients and care givers. The study evaluated the in vitro antisickling and antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of fifty selected plants used in the management of sickle cell disease (SCD) with the aim of justifying their use in the management of the disease in southwestern Nigeria. Aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts of fifty (50) surveyed plants were subjected to in vitro antisickling activities and forty plants with above 50% activity levels in both inhibitory and reversal models were later tested for their antioxidant assay involving four tests namely DPPH, FRAP, Fe-chelating and total antioxidant content using standard methods. Significant mean values were separated using the Least Significant Difference at 0.05 % level of probability. Among all the plants with above 50% activity levels in both inhibitory and reversal models, three plants which are Gongronema latifolium, Cymbopogon citratus and Piper guineense had the highest value of 89.81, 89.72 and 84.48 % respectively in ethanol extracts. The least activity for both aqueous and ethanol extracts was found in Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis. It can be inferred from the result of the study that 80 % the plants evaluated possessed high antisickling and antioxidant activities and may thus justified their use for the management of SCD in the South – West, Nigeria.Keywords: Sickle cell disease, antisickling, inhibition, reversal, antioxidant
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Anti-sickling activities of the stem bark of three Khaya species found in
           Nigeria: K. senegalensis A. Juss., K. grandifoliola, (Welw) CDC., and K.
           ivorensis A. Chev.
    • Authors: O.A. Oyedapo, J.M. Agbedahunsi, C.M. Cyril-Olutayo
      Abstract: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at least 100,000 babies die from sickle cell disorder (SCD) in Nigeria every year, making it the highest sickle-cell endemic country in Africa. WHO also stated that over 500,000 babies with severe forms of sickle cell disorder are born worldwide, with majority in low and middle income countries. There has been no cure for this disease, even after over a century of research into this disorder. Sickle cell disease is managed by the traditional medical practitioner using medicinal plants or herbs especially in the developing countries among the lower economic strata of the population and one of such herbs used is Khaya species which are generally called Mahogany in English and Oganwo by the Yoruba speaking people of Nigeria. Three species are found along the Western African region and they are Khaya senegalensis (KS), Khaya grandifoliola (KG) and Khaya ivorensis (KI). Therefore, in this study the in vitro activities of the cold and hot extracts of the stem barks of the three Khaya species used in the management of SCD were evaluated using standard anti-sickling methods of inhibitory and reversal of sickled red blood cells. Sodium metabisulphite (2%) was used to induce sickling while vanillic acid and p-hydroxyl benzoic acid were used as positive controls. The three species of Khaya (KS, KG and KI) stem barks showed antisickling activities for inhibition against sickling of red blood cell (RBC) 51.77% ± 1.47, 65.55% ± 1.65, 80.71% ± 2.93 and reversal of sickled red blood cell 44.95% ± 2.00, 43.28% ± 2.80, 41.61% ± 1.22 respectively and could be recommended for further development into herbal remedy in the management of sickle cell disease.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Combination with Tadalafil reduces the aphrodisiac activity of Cola
           acuminata and Garcinia cola in rats
    • Authors: O.I. Adeyemi, O.O. Ige, A.A. Olowu, C.A. Adebajo
      Abstract: Statistically, male infertility is increasing in almost every part of the world. Modern medicine provides nutritional, physiological and psychopharmacological treatment, however, many of them produce negative side effects. LD50 of Cola acuminata was estimated to be 1095.44mg/kg, while that of Garcinia kola was above 5000mg/kg. Fifty male rats were randomized into 10 groups (A-J). Groups A and B served as controls with A receiving distilled water and Tadalafil (5 mg/kg). Groups C-E were administered 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg Cola acuminata aqueous extract, respectively and groups F-H received 100mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of Garcinia kola aqueous extract respectively. On the other hand, Groups I and J received a combination of Tardalafil, with aqueous extract of Cola acuminata, and Garcinia kola respectively. Tadalafil and the extract were administered via the oral route. Sexual behavioural parameters of mount latency, mount frequency, genital grooming, anogenital sniffing, and chasing of female animals were recorded in male rats (one hour after administration of extract) by their interaction with a receptive female (1:1) for an observatory period of 1 hour. Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola showed a dose dependent effect on the sexual behaviours studied. The aphrodisiac properties of the extracts of Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola at appropriate doses can be described as comparable to that of Tadalafil. However, the combination their combinations with Tadalafil showed an attenuation of the aphrodisiac activities of the plants extract.Keywords: Acute toxicity, Aphrodisiac, Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola, LD50, Tadalafil
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
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