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  Subjects -> ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (Total: 111 journals)
Showing 1 - 15 of 15 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acupuncture in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Alternative & Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Alternative and Complementary Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Alternative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Alternative Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arabian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arteterapia. Papeles de arteterapia y educación artística para la inclusión social     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Plant Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanics : Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cadernos de Naturologia e Terapias Complementares     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cognitive Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Complementary Therapies in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Current Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Deutsche Heilpraktiker-Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Erfahrungsheilkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access  
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Global Journal of Integrated Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Traditional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Herba Polonica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Integrative Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of High Dilution Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ipnosi     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Applied Arts and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of AYUSH :- Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Dance Medicine & Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Fasting and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Herbal Drugs (An International Journal on Medicinal Herbs)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Integrative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Integrative Medicine & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinally Active Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Remedies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of the Australian Traditional-Medicine Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Lekovite Sirovine     Open Access  
Médecine Palliative : Soins de Support - Accompagnement - Éthique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Medical Acupuncture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi     Open Access  
Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Natural solutions     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Acupuntura     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Traditional & Kampo Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Traditional Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Orthomolekulare Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

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Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.903
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2225-4110
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Suppression of inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinase
           (MMP)-13 by Morus alba stem extract and oxyresveratrol in RAW 264.7 cells
           and C28/I2 human chondrocytes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Thidarat Wongwat, Kanyarat Srihaphon, Chetsadaporn Pitaksutheepong, Worawan Boonyo, Tasana PitaksuteepongThis study aimed to investigate the effects of Morus alba stem extract (MSE) and oxyresveratrol on the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and IL-1β-stimulated C28/I2 human chondrocyte cell line. The chondroprotective effect was also investigated using the chondrocyte cell line. First, MSE was prepared and analyzed for the amount of oxyresveratrol. The anti-inflammatory effects of MSE at various concentrations were evaluated through the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG)-E2 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 production. Oxyresveratrol at the equivalent amount found in the extract was investigated in the same manner. The chondroprotective effect was investigated through the suppression of MMP-13 production. The results showed that oxyresveratrol content in MSE was 15%. In RAW 264.7 cells, MSE (5-50 µg/mL) couldinhibit the NO (24-30%) and PGE2 (11-82%) production. Oxyresveratrol at 0.75 and 7.5 µg/mL could suppress NO and also inhibited PGE2 but at only at high concentration. In the chondrocyte cell line, MSE at 5-100 µg/mL significantly decreased the PGE2 and COX-2 production by 44 - 93% and 17 - 65%, respectively. Again, oxyresveratrol at both concentrations could significantly inhibited PGE2 production by 50 - 92% but it inhibited COX-2 only at high concentration. In addition, MSE and oxyresveratrol was shown to significantly inhibit MMP-13 production by 14 - 57% and 16 - 56%, depending on their concentrations. The MSE demonstrates the potential to be used as an alternative treatment for reducing inflammation and preventing cartilage degradation. Its component, oxyresveratrol, may exert these effects to some extent.Graphical abstractImage 1054
  • A ketogenic diet exerts beneficial effects on body composition of cancer
           patients during radiotherapy: An interim analysis of the KETOCOMP study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Rainer J. Klement, Gabriele Schäfer, Reinhart A. SweeneyBackground and aimKetogenic diets (KDs) have gained interest as a complementary treatment for cancer patients. Here we present first results of our ongoing KETOCOMP study (NCT02516501) concerning body composition changes among rectal, breast and head & neck cancer (HNC) patients who consumed a KD during curative radiotherapy (RT).Experimental procedureSixty-one patients eating a non-ketogenic diet were compared to 20 patients on a KD supplemented with 10 g essential amino acids on RT days. Body composition was measured prior to and weekly during RT using 8-electrode bioimpedance analysis. Longitudinal body composition data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models.Results and conclusionPatients on the KD exhibited nutritional ketosis, defined as serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels ≥0.5 mmol/l, in a median of 69.0% of blood measurements (range 0–100%) performed in our clinic. In rectal and breast cancer patients, KD was significantly associated with a loss of 0.5 and 0.4 kg fat mass per week (p = 0.00089 and 8.49 × 10−5, respectively), with no significant changes in fat free and skeletal muscle mass. In HNC patients, concurrent chemotherapy was the strongest predictor of body weight, fat free and skeletal muscle mass loss during RT, while consuming a KD was significantly associated with a gain in these measures. These preliminary results confirm prior reports indicating that KDs are safe to consume during standard-of-care therapy. They also provide an important first indication that KDs with ample amino acid intake could improve body composition during RT in curative cancer patients.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of Chlorophytum alismifolium
           tubers in murine model of pain: Possible involvement of α2-adrenergic
           receptor and KATP channels

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Abdulhakim Abubakar, Abdullahi Balarabe Nazifi, Saidi Odoma, Salisu Shehu, Nuhu Mohammed DanjumaThe tubers of Chlorophytum alismifolium are used in Nigerian Herbal Medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus, painful and inflammatory conditions. The antinociceptive activity has been validated but the mechanism of this activity is yet to be explored. This study therefore, aimed to investigate the probable mechanism(s) of the antinociceptive activity of C. alismifolium tubers using experimental animal model of pain. HPLC and GC-MS analyses were carried out on the extract. Antinociceptive activity was investigated using acetic acid-induced writhing response test in mice. Three groups of mice were orally administered distilled water (10 ml/kg), C. alismifolium (400 mg/kg) and morphine (10 mg/kg) 60 min before administration of acetic acid and the resulting writhing were counted for 10 min. To establish the probable mechanism(s) of action of C. alismifolium, separate groups of animals were pretreated intraperitoneally with naloxone (2 mg/kg), prazosin (1 mg/kg), yohimbine (1 mg/kg), propranolol (20 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) 15 min before C. alismifolium administration. HPLC chromatogram of the extract revealed seventeen characteristic peaks with retention times ranging between 2.1 and 7.4 min. Administration of C. alismifolium significantly (p 
  • A comparative study between rubber band ligation and local application of
           herbal caustic compound (pratisaraneeya kshara) in management of internal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Ashish Sharma, M. Sahu, S.J. GuptaGraphical abstractImage 1071765
  • In vitro and in vivo evidence of hypouricemic and anti-inflammatory
           activities of Maclura cochinchinensis (Lour.) Corner heartwood extract

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Vilasinee H. Sato, Savita Chewchinda, Warisara Parichatikanond, Boonyadist VongsakMaclura cochinchinensis (Lour.) Corner (MC) heartwood extracts have been used for the treatment of gout, hyperuricemia, and inflammation in Thai traditional medicine. Despite their traditional use, their mechanisms of action remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of MC heartwood extract activity using both in vitro and in vivo models. The extraction methods were optimized to yield the highest contents of biochemical compounds and antioxidant activities. The effects of MC heartwood extract on xanthine oxidase and its enzyme kinetics were determined in vitro and the antihyperuricemic effect was evaluated in potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of MC heartwood extract was also tested against lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory mRNA upregulation in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Soxhlet extraction of MC heartwood with 70% ethanol produced stronger antioxidant activity, and higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than conventional methods did (maceration or decoction). By using HPLC, we found that MC contains morin as a major constituent, which may account for its pharmacological activities. Moreover, administration of MC heartwood extract (500 mg/kg) markedly decreased uric acid levels in PO-induced hyperuricemic mice (p 
  • Antimalarial potentials of Stemonocoleus micranthus Harms (leguminoseae)
           stem bark in Plasmodium berghei infected mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Celestina I. Orabueze, Duncan A. Ota, Herbert A. CokerBackgroundMalaria is a leading cause of death in Nigeria.AimAntimalarial activity of Stemonocoleus micranthus stem bark was evaluated in mice with an objective to finding scientific evidence for its use as antimalarial remedy in South-east Nigeria.MethodsAntiplasmodial activities of hydro-methanolic extract and solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous) of S. micranthus stem bark against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei infected mice were determined using suppressive and curative procedures. Chloroquine was used as positive control. In vitro models, DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and TPC (total phenolic content) were used to assay antioxidant activity of the test samples. Phytoconstituents of the active fractions were analysed by GC-MS.ResultsChemosuppressive effect exerted by extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg kg−1) and fractions (20, 40, 80 mg kg−1) ranged between 54.14 – 67.73% and 59.41–94.51% respectively. Curative effects was also dose dependent. In both models, ethyl acetate was the active fraction. At low doses the animals lived longer but not protected (D0 – D29). At high doses, extract (400 mg kg−1), active fractions (80 mg kg−1) and chloroquine (5 mg kg−1) the animals were fully protected.The extract and fractions exhibited antioxidant potentials which could have contributed individually or synergistically to antimalarial activities reported in this study. Oral LD50 was estimated to be greater than 4000 mg kg−1, in mice.ConclusionThe results of this study may have provided support on traditional therapeutic use of the plant in treatment of malaria.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Antidiabetic activity of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. and Raphanus sativus
           Linn. leaf extracts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Deepti Kaushalkumar Jani, Sunita GoswamiGraphical abstractImage 103
  • A combination of Eschscholtzia californica Cham. and Valeriana officinalis
           L. extracts for adjustment insomnia: A prospective observational study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Samira Ait Abdellah, Aurélie Berlin, Claude Blondeau, Isabelle Guinobert, Angèle Guilbot, Marc Beck, François DuforezEschscholtzia californica Cham. and Valeriana officinalis L. have long been used for the management of sleep disorders and anxiety. Use of a fixed combination of these two plant extracts (Phytostandard® d’Eschscholtzia et de Valériane, PiLeJe Laboratoire, France) was investigated in an observational study. Adults with adjustment insomnia according to the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders and with an insomnia severity index (ISI) score>7 enrolled by GPs took a maximum of four tablets of the eschscholtzia and valerian combination every night for four weeks. Within one month, ISI score decreased by approximately 30% (from 16.09 ± 3.67 at inclusion (V1) to 11.32 ± 4.78 at 4 weeks (V2); p 
  • Protective effects of luteolin on injury induced inflammation through
           reduction of tissue uric acid and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Santram Lodhi, Gautam P. Vadnere, Kiran D. Patil, Tushar P. PatilBackground and aimLuteolin belongs to flavone group of flavonoids, present in many plants with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. The objective of present study was to investigate protective effect of luteolin on injury induced inflammation via Monosodium urate (MSU) crystals induced and Acetaminophen (AMP) induced liver injury in rats.Experimental procedureProtective effect of luteolin was observed by measurement of rat paw edema, lysosomal enzymes, antioxidants status and cytokine level. Measurement of uric acid level and neutrophil infiltration were done in AMP induced liver injury in rats. Luteolin was tested at 30 and 50 mg/kg doses and compare with colchicine.Results and conclusionLuteolin significantly decreases paw edema in dose dependent manner compare to control group in MSU crystal-induced rats. Luteolin (50 mg/kg) was showed significant decrease in serum level of oxidative and lysosomal enzymes, proinflammatory cytokines i.e. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (39.28 ± 3.17), interleukin (IL)-1β (12.07 ± 1.24), and IL-6 (24.72 ± 2.52) in MSU crystal-induced rats. In AMP induced liver injury, tissue uric acid level and myeloperoxidase were decreased significantly after treatment with luteolin as well as N-acetylcysteine. Serum level of liver enzymes was significantly reduced after treatment with luteolin. Histological observation of ankle joints and liver was support to protective effect of luteolin at both doses. In conclusion, luteolin showed anti-inflammatory effect through restoration of cytokine level, lysosomal enzymes level and antioxidants status. The reduction of liver tissue uric acid content may be one of the mechanisms for protective effect of luteolin. It can contribute to reduce injury induced inflammation.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Metabolite profiling and wound-healing activity of Boerhavia diffusa leaf
           extracts using in vitro and in vivo models

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Kriti Juneja, Rutusmita Mishra, Samrat Chauhan, Sumeet Gupta, Partha Roy, Debabrata SircarBoerhavia diffusa is a perennial herb belonging to the Nyctaginaceae family. This plant has been widely used in Indian traditional medicinal system to cure several human ailments. However, traditional use of this plant in the treatment and management of wounds has not been validated by any comprehensive scientific study. The present study was aimed to explore the in vitro and in vivo wound healing potential of methanol extract (ME) and chloroform extract (CE) from B. diffusa leaf and subsequent identification of the bioactive metabolites, which might be responsible for enhancement of wound healing property of the extracts.The study included in vitro cell viability and wound scratch assays as well as in vivo excision wound assays in rat models. Both ME and CE were analysed for their antioxidant properties and phenolics content. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were performed for identification of bioactive metabolites present in the ME and CE. ME of B. diffusa leaf significantly enhanced viability and migration of human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) as compared to the untreated and CE-treated groups. The topical application of ME of B. diffusa leaf in excision wound model significantly decreased the wound area by the 14th day (91%) as compared to control (22%) (p 
  • Curative effect of xanthohumol supplementation during liver
           fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis: Potential involvement
           of autophagy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Suyanee Thongchot, Malinee Thanee, Watcharin Loilome, Anchalee Techasen, Thidarat Boonmars, Prakasit Sa-Ngiamwibool, Attapol Titapun, Puangrat Yongvanit, Ciro Isidoro, Nisana NamwatXanthohumol (XH), a plant flavonoid, was shown to attenuate cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) development induced by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) and N-dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA) in the hamster model. We investigated the possible involvement of autophagy, a self-degrading process dysregulated in cancer, in XH chemotherapeutic effect. During cholangiocarcinogenesis, the expression of LC3 (an autophagic marker) was increased in the precancerous stage and decreased in the cancerous stage. The XH-treated ON (Ov plus NDMA) group showed retarded progression of CCA along with increased expression of LC3. The possible relation between autophagy and cell death was investigated in cultured human CCA cells. XH induced apoptosis associated with reduced expression of BCL-2 and increased expression of BAX. In parallel, XH induced the autophagy flux, as testified by increased LC3-II and decreased p62, along with induction of BECLIN1 and Vps34. Inhibition of BECLIN1-dependent autophagy greatly limited XH toxicity in CCA cells. These data suggest that XH attenuates the development of CCA through overstimulation of autophagy which then precipitates apoptosis.Graphical abstractImage 107283
  • Acute effect of an infusion of Montanoa tomentosa on despair-like behavior
           and activation of oxytocin hypothalamic cells in Wistar rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Omar Lagunes-Merino, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa, Mario Caba, Miguel Carro-Juárez, Francisco García-Orduña, Margarita Saavedra-Vélez, Abraham Puga-Olguín, Maria de Jesús Rovirosa-HernándezBackground and aimIn Mexican traditional medicine, Montanoa tomentosa (Mt) has been used as a remedy for reproductive impairments and mood swings. In pre-clinical research, both the extract and some of its active metabolites have produced oxytocinergic-like effects on female reproductive organs; however, there are no detailed studies of its effects on mood swing and brain structures. The aim of this study, was to analyze the behavioral effects of acute administration of a Mt infusion on male rats, during the Open Field (OFT) and Forced Swim (FST) Tests, and their association with the activation of oxytocin (OXT) cells, indicated by Fos protein (Fos/OXT) in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON).Experimental procedure52 adult male Wistar rats were assigned to two conditions; with FST (n = 8), or without (n = 5). Each integrated condition included four groups [Control, Vehicle, Fluoxetine (Flx; 10 mg/kg), and Mt (50 mg/kg), p.o.].Results and conclusionMt and Flx treatment produced an anti-despair-like effect on the FST, but no significant changes in locomotor activity. Also, the Mt infusion -but not Flx-significantly increased the number of Fos/OXT cells in the PVN and SON, regardless of the condition, compared to the control and vehicle groups. These results show that Mt, but not Flx, produces an anti-despair-like effect that could be associated with the activation of OXT cells in PVN and SON. This study thus contributes to our knowledge of the pharmacological activity of Mt infusions, which could be a natural antidepressant agent with future clinical relevance.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • The antidepressant-like effects of Origanum majorana essential oil on mice
           through monoaminergic modulation using the forced swimming test

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Saeid Abbasi-Maleki, Zohre Kadkhoda, Rahim Taghizad-FaridOriganum majorana (L.) is an herb used in the treatment of diseases related to the nervous system in traditional medicine (e.g. as an anticonvulsant and sedative). The present study was conducted to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of Origanum majorana essential oil (OMEO) on mice in the forced swimming test (FST). The animals were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with OMEO (10–80 mg/kg) 1 h before the FST. To assess the involvement of the monoaminergic system in the antidepressant activity of OMEO, different pharmacological antagonists were administered 15 min before OMEO administration (80 mg/kg). The administration of OMEO (40 and 80 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased immobility time and increased swimming and climbing times significantly. OMEO did not cause any changes in spontaneous locomotor function in the open-field test (OFT). The pre-treatment of the animals with SCH23390, sulpiride, haloperidol, WAY100135, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), ketanserin, prazosin, yohimbine, reserpine, but not propranolol, inhibited the anti-immobility effect of OMEO in the FST. A combination of sub-effective doses of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or imipramine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) with OMEO (10 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the antidepressant-like effects. OMEO showed antidepressant-like effects through involvement with the dopaminergic (D1 and D2), serotonergic (5HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors) and noradrenergic (α1 and α2 adrenoceptors) systems.Graphical abstractImage 1040
  • Naringenin mitigates antituberculosis drugs induced hepatic and renal
           injury in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Nisha Sahu, Gita Mishra, Hemeshwer Kumar Chandra, Satendra Kumar Nirala, Monika BhadauriaTuberculosis is one of the deadly diseases, which can be well treated by antituberculosis drugs (ATDs) i.e. isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. These drugs also lead to severe hepatic and renal injury. The present study was designed to investigate efficacy of naringenin against ATDs induced hepato-renal injury. Rats were administered with ATDs for 8 weeks (3 day/week) followed by naringenin at three different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) conjointly for 8 weeks (3 days/week) orally. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was used as positive control in the study. Hepatic and renal injury was measured by increased level of serological parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, urea, uric acid and creatinine. The toxic effect of ATDs was also indicated by significant increase in lipid peroxidation along with decline in GSH, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in liver and kidney tissues. Treatment with naringenin encountered ATDs induced injury as evident by significant reversal of biochemical indices towards their respective control in a dose dependent manner. Histopathological observations also supported biochemical findings. Assessment of TNF-α indicated therapeutic efficacy of naringenin at molecular level. Thus, results of this study clearly showed that naringenin possess protective role against ATDs induced hepato-renal injury and to take naringenin supplementation as food may be worthwhile to reduce ATDs induced hepato-renal injury.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Lycium shawii Roem. & Schult.: A new bioactive antimicrobial and
           antioxidant agent to combat multi-drug/pan-drug resistant pathogens of
           wound burn infections

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Sameh S. Ali, Nessma A. El-Zawawy, Rania Al-Tohamy, Shimaa El-Sapagh, Ahmed M. Mustafa, Jianzhong SunThe Multidrug Drug Resistance (MDR) and Pan-Drug Resistance (PDR) remain an intractable challenge issue in public health, worldwide. Plant extracts-based biological macromolecules containing a diverse array of secondary metabolites could be potentially used as alternative approaches to control or limit MDR/PDR infections. Plants of the Solanaceae family exhibit a wide variety of secondary metabolites with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, which render them a significant role in food and pharmaceutical applications. To our knowledge, this is the first report on phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and in vivo toxicological safety of Lycium shawii leaf extracts. Results revealed that phenolics and flavonoids were found to be the most abundant compounds in all extracts. Antioxidant activity of extracts was measured using DPPH• and ABTS•+ assays and the methanol extract displayed superior scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.06 and 0.007 mg/mL for DPPH• and ABTS•+, respectively). Results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the identity of 10 compounds. Moreover, in vivo toxicological assessment can confirm the safety of L. shawii for use. Overall, L. shawii leaves are a promising natural source for the development of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that could potentially combat clinical MDR/PDR pathogens.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Comparative anti-osteoporotic properties of the leaves and roots of
           Marantodes pumilum var. alata in postmenopausal rat model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Tijjani Rabiu Giaze, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Norliza Muhammad, Jamia Azdina Jamal, Mh Busra Fauzi, Norazlina MohamedBackgroundMarantodes pumilum var. alata (MPva), popularly known as Kacip Fatimah, is widely used to maintain female reproductive health, facilitate post-partum recovery and manage symptoms of menopause and osteoporosis in South-East Asia. This study aims to further evaluate the osteoprotective potential of MPva in view of reports of its bone-protective properties in postmenopausal condition.MethodsThirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were sorted into 5 groups (n = 6) namely: MPv (leaf treatment); MPr (root treatment); ERT (estrogen treatment); OVXC (untreated ovariectomized control) and Sham (untreated sham-operated control). All rats (except the Sham) were ovariectomized to induce a state of estrogen deficiency that simulates menopause. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the rats were treated for 8 weeks with oral gavages of estrogen and plant extracts. The ERT group received 64.5 μg/kg/day dose of estrogen while MPv and MPr groups received 20 mg/kg/day dose of leaf and root extracts, respectively. At the end of treatment, left femora were excised from euthanized rats and investigated for changes in bone micro-architecture, mineral density, and biomechanical properties.ResultsBone volume fraction, degree of anisotropy and structure-model-index of bone were significantly improved (p 
  • In vitro anti-inflammatory and skin protective properties of
           Virgin coconut oil

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Sandeep R. Varma, Thiyagarajan O. Sivaprakasam, Ilavarasu Arumugam, N. Dilip, M. Raghuraman, K.B. Pavan, Mohammed Rafiq, Rangesh ParameshVirgin coconut oil (VCO) has been traditionally used as moisturizer since centuries by people in the tropical region. Clinical studies have revealed that VCO improves the symptoms of skin disorders by moisturizing and soothing the skin. However, the mechanistic action of VCO and its benefits on skin has not been elucidated in vitro. The cytotoxicity (CTC50) of VCO was 706.53 ± 2.1 and 787.15 ± 1.1 μg/mL in THP-1 (Human monocytes) and HaCaT (Human keratinocytes) cells respectively. VCO inhibited TNF-α (62.34 ± 3.2 %), IFN-γ (42.66 ± 2.9 %), IL-6 (52.07 ± 2.0 %), IL-8 (53.98 ± 1.8 %) and IL-5 (51.57 ± 2.6 %) respectively in THP-1 cells. Involucrin (INV) and filaggrin (FLG) content increased by 47.53 ± 2.1 % and 40.45 ± 1.2 % respectively in HaCaT cells. VCO increased the expression of Aquaporin-3 (AQP3), involucrin (INV) and filaggrin (FLG) and showed moderate UV protection in HaCaT cells. In vitro skin irritation studies in Reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) and NIH3T3 cells showed that VCO is a non skin irritant (IC50 > 1000 μg/mL) and non phototoxic (PIF 
  • Anti melanogenic effect of Croton roxburghii and Croton sublyratus leaves
           in α-MSH stimulated B16F10 cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Moragot Chatatikun, Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Setsuya Aiba, Anchalee ChiabchalardCroton roxburghii and Croton sublyratus have been used as skin treatments in traditional medicine. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antimelanogenic effect of ethanol extracts of Croton roxburghii (CRE) and Croton sublyratus (CSE) leaves on cellular melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity as mediated by the action of microthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and melanogenic enzymes. Croton roxburghii and Croton sublyratus leaves were extracted by petroleum ether, dichloromethane and absolute ethanol, sequentially. The ethanolic crude extracts were examined for antimelanogenic activity by their ability to decrease melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells. In addition, the extracts were evaluated to determine a plausible mechanism of melanogenesis suppression through determining the activation of MITF transcription factor and melanogenic proteins (tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 or TRP-1 and tyrosinase-related protein 2 or TRP-2) at the transcriptional and translation levels in α-MSH-induced B16F10 cells. Upon treatment with CRE and CSE, the cells showed significant decreases in melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity. CRE and CSE also suppressed MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 at the transcription and translation levels in α-MSH-stimulated melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 cells. Our finding shows that CRE and CSE inhibit melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity through suppressing MITF and melanogenic enzymes. CRE and CSE may be useful to combine with skin whitening agents for cosmetic uses.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • FM1 - Title Page

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s):
  • FM2- Aims & Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s):
  • Antidiabetic potential of Asparagus racemosus Willd leaf extracts through
           inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): R. Vadivelan, R. Gopala Krishnan, R. KannanAbstractThe aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different extracts of Asparagus racemosus Willd on α - amylase and α - glucosidase at varying concentrations. Diabetes mellitus is a clinical condition characterized by hyperglycaemia in which an elevated amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. α - amylase and α - glucosidase inhibitors are used to achieve greater control over hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study is to treat the diabetes using natural resources. We aimed to evaluate of Asparagus racemosus Willd by digestive enzymes inhibitory activity. n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous was used to extract the root of the Asparagus racemosus Willd. The different extracts were then used to study its digestives enzymes activity α-amylase and α - glucosidase inhibitory activity. The significant inhibitory effect of α-amylase and α - glucosidase enzyme and exhibited lower inhibitory activity than acarbose was extracted by the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of the plant. Flavonoids, Tannins and phenolic, Saponins, Amino acids, Protein are the major phytochemical constituents present. The total flavonoid content plant extracts of ethyl acetate and aqueous showed dose dependent 23.45 ± 1.33 mg rutin equivalent/g and 25.81 ± 0.82 mg rutin equivalent/g respectively. The total triterpenoids content plant extracts of ethyl acetate, aqueous showed dose dependent 109.8 ± 5.6 mg ursolic acid/g and 95.6 ± 7.5 mg ursolic acid/g respectively. The antidiabetic potential and to develop medicinal preparations and nutraceuticals and function foods for diabetes has revealed.
  • Anti-anaphylactic and antiasthmatic activity of Euphorbia thymifolia L. on
           experimental animals

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Ghanshyam Parmar, Kilambi Pundarikakshudu, R. BalaramanIn Ayurveda, Euphorbia thymifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) prescribed in the treatment of various ailments like bronchial asthma, cough, diarrhea and bleeding piles. The present study was investigated to evaluate antianaphylactic, mast cell stabilizing and antiasthmatic activity of methanol and aqueous extract of E. thymifolia (ET) on experimental animals. Anaphylaxis was induced by administration of horse serum and triple antigen vaccine intraperitoneal (i.p.) in albino Wistar rats. Extracts of ET were administered to the rats in dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg orally for 14 days. At the end of treatment, asthma score was measured and various blood parameters like differential count (DC), total WBC count and IgE were estimated. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and TNF-α were measured by ELISA commercial kit from BALF. Histopathological changes of lungs were observed. Antiasthmatic activity of extracts of ET was also studied on histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. In vitro mast cell stabilizing activity of extracts was evaluated on compound 48/80 challenged rat intestinal mesenteric mast cells. The treatment with extracts of ET produced significant decrease in asthma score and they also brought to normalcy the increased total WBC, DC counts, serum IgE, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF. The histopathological study further supported the protective effect of ET extracts. The pretreatment with extracts of ET displayed significant reduction in degranulation of mesenteric mast cell numbers. The treatment with extracts of ET significantly increased in time of PCD. Thus, these findings concluded that E. thymifolia could be effectively used in the treatment of anaphylaxis and asthma.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Ginkgo biloba flavonoid glycosides in antimicrobial perspective with
           reference to extraction method

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Priyanka Sati, Praveen Dhyani, Indra Dutt Bhatt, Anita PandeyThe present study aims to investigate the effect of extraction method on the recovery of flavonoid glycosides, antimicrobials and antioxidants from Ginkgo leaves collected from six different locations in Uttarakhand, Indian Himalaya. Four extraction methods, namely maceration, reflux, shaker and soxhlet were considered, where reflux extracts showed higher antimicrobial antioxidant activity and higher content of flavonoid glycosides. The reference standards of Ginkgo flavonoid glycosides (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin) and crude extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi following disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All the test microorganisms were observed to be inhibited significantly by Ginkgo flavonoids in plate based assays. Correlation coefficients exhibited the extent of contribution of flavonoid glycosides in antimicrobial activity and confirmed the reflux method as a potential method for extraction. Moreover, antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH assay was also found to be higher in reflux method. Significant variation (p 
  • Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic potential of ethyl acetate extract of
           Pedalium murex L. on struvite crystal (kidney stone)

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): B. Kaleeswaran, S. Ramadevi, R. Murugesan, S. Srigopalram, T. Suman, T. BalasubramanianPedalium murex (L.) is a traditional herb, commonly used for the treatment of kidney stone related problems. Struvite stone can swiftly grow and become ‘staghorn calculi’ in kidney and its associated areas, which is the most aching urological disorder. The present study investigated the anti-urolithiasis activities of ethyl acetate extract of P. murex L. (EAEP) against struvite crystal. The antibacterial activity of EAEP examined against several urease producing bacteria. It showed the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (>125). On the other hand, total mass, volume, number, growth rate and dissolution rate of synthesised struvite crystals were observed at different concentrations 0.5%, 0.75%, 1% of EAEP and without EAEP. In which, EAEP addition showed appreciably reduced struvite crystal. Alternatively, MgO (300 mg of EAEP/kg/body weight) induced urolithiasis of Wistar albino rat at the rate of 1 ml for 28 days. Various biochemical parameters in serum, urine and histological analysis of kidney were taken for evaluation. Significant results (p 
  • Differential response of antioxidant defense in HepG2 cells on exposure of
           Livotrit®, in a concentration dependent manner

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): S.A. Malik, S. Khole, S.P.K. Mittal, T. Urmode, R. Kusurkar, S.S. GhaskadbiLivotrit®, a polyherbal formulation (Zandu, India) is commonly prescribed for liver health. The present study was undertaken to elucidate possible mechanism of antioxidant potential of Livotrit®. Livotrit® exhibited concentration dependent radical scavenging activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation as well as activation and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, lower concentration of Livotrit® (0.05%) significantly increased activities and gene expression of catalase, Glutathione reductase (GR) and Gluthathione peroxidase (GPx), while higher concentration of Livotrit® (0.5%) significantly increased antioxidant enzyme Heme-oxygenase 1(HO-1) and not catalase (CAT), GR and GPx. Transcription factor, Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) required for expression of catalase, GR, GPx and HO-1 was efficiently translocated into the nucleus at both concentrations. Inspite of this, concentration dependent activation of these enzymes was found to be mediated through miRNAs involved in regulation of their gene expression.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Antifibrotic effects of gallic acid on hepatic stellate cells: In vitro
           and in vivo mechanistic study

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Naglaa M. El-Lakkany, Walaa H. El-Maadawy, Sayed H. Seif el-Din, Samira Saleh, Marwa M. Safar, Shahira M. Ezzat, Salwa H. Mohamed, Sanaa S. Botros, Zeinab Demerdash, Olfat A. HammamFew studies reported the antifibrotic effects of gallic acid (GA) despite its known hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. Accordingly, this study investigated the antifibrotic effects of GA through clarifying its mechanisms on hepatic stellate cells' (HSCs) activation, proliferation and/or apoptosis. In vitro effects of GA on HSC-T6 activation/proliferation, morphology and safety on hepatocytes were assessed. In vivo, hepatic fibrosis was induced via chronic thioacetamide (TAA)-intoxication. TAA-intoxicated rats were treated with silyamrin or GA. At end of experiment, liver functions, hepatic MDA, GSH, PDGF-BB, TGF-β1, TIMP-1 and hydroxyproline were determined. Histological analysis and Sirius red staining of hepatic sections, expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and caspase-3 were examined. In vitro, GA resulted in a concentration and time-dependent inhibition in HSCs activation, proliferation (IC50= 45 and 19 μg/mL at 24 and 48 h respectively); restored the quiescent morphology of some activated HSCs plus its safety on hepatocytes. In vivo, GA reduced ALT, AST, MDA, PDGF-BB levels, collagen deposition and fibrosis score (S1 vs S4); increased caspase-3 expression and restored GSH stores, TGF-β1 level, α-SMA and PCNA expressions. In conclusion, GA counteracted the progression of hepatic fibrosis through reduction of HSCs proliferation/activation mutually with their apoptosis induction.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Efficacy of topical application of standardized extract of Tragopogon
           graminifolius in the healing process of experimental burn wounds

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Mohammad Heidari, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Amir Hossein Abdolghaffari, Roja Rahimi, Mohammadamin Esfandyari, Maryam Baeeri, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mohammad Hosein FarzaeiTragopogon graminifolius DC. is a perennial plant from the family Asteraceae which grows in West parts of Iran. Several biological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are reported for the plant. The aim of this study was to assess the wound healing activity of standardized extract from T. graminifolius (TG) aerial parts. Topical standardized TG extract with 5% and 10% concentrations in eucerine base was assessed for its healing properties on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period. Biomarkers of oxidative damage including total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol molecules of the skin tissue samples were also evaluated. Results showed that 10%TG had the best efficacy with 80 ± 3% wound closure and tissue repair in comparison to negative control (p 
  • Mechanism & inhibition kinetics of bioassay-guided fractions of Indian
           medicinal plants and foods as ACE inhibitors

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Mohammad Yaseen Khan, Vimal KumarHypertension is a becoming a major threat to the world. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a key part in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) which control blood pressure. Over expression of RAAS is related with vascular hypertension, ACE inhibition has turned into a noteworthy target for controlling hypertension. In the search of lead molecules from plant origin as a substitute for toxic synthetic drugs, 25 Indian medicinal plants and foods were screened for their ACE inhibitory activity. IC50 (50% inhibition of ACE) values of hydroalcoholic crude extracts and fraction were determined by a colorimetric method. Active fractions were further screened to determine the enzyme kinetics, mode, specificity and mechanism of inhibition. Standardization was done by determining total phenolics and flavonoids as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents/mg of extract respectively. Among 25 crude extracts, Cynara scolymus extract showed the best activity, IC50 value 356.62 μg/mL. ACE inhibition resulting from protein precipitation was highest in Coscinium fenestratum. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed a competitive mode of inhibition for Punica granatum ethyl acetate fraction. Fractions of Cassia occidentalis, Cynara scolymus and Embelia ribes were found to be non-specific inhibitors of ACE. Embelia ribes, Cassia occidentalis and Coscinium fenestratum fractions inhibited the ACE by Zn2+ ion chelation. Research revealed the potential of tested plants fractions as ACE inhibitors along with their inhibition kinetics and mechanism of inhibition. These active plant fractions might find importance in the development of potential antihypertensive agents after further investigations using preclinical and clinical trials.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Orengedokuto and san'oshashinto improve memory deficits by inhibiting
           aging-dependent activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Hironori Fujiwara, Jun Yoshida, Dya Fita Dibwe, Suresh Awale, Haruka Hoshino, Hiroshi Kohama, Hiroyuki Arai, Yukitsuka Kudo, Kinzo MatsumotoBackground and aimThe aging-dependent activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has been suggested to be important in the onset of dementia. To discover novel therapeutic Kampo medicines for dementia, we examined the effects of orengedokuto (OGT; 黃連解毒湯 huáng lián jiědú tāng) and san'oshashinto (SST; 三黃瀉心湯 sān huáng xiè xīn tāng) on memory deficits and GSK-3β activity in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8).Experimental procedureThe object recognition test (ORT) and conditioned fear memory test (CFT) were employed to elucidate short-term working memory and long-term fear memory. The activity of GSK-3β and the phosphorylation of related molecules were measured using a kinase assay and Western blotting.Results and conclusionOGT and SST attenuated memory deficits in SAMP8 in ORT, but not in CFT. In ex vivo experiments, cortical GSK-3β activity was significantly stronger in SAMP8 than in SAMR1. The enhanced cortical GSK-3β activity in SAMP8 was accompanied by a significant increase in the level of phosphorylated collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2), an important factor that is involved in the regulation of microtubule stability. OGT and SST attenuated not only increases in cortical GSK-3β activity, but also the levels of phosphorylated CRMP2 in SAMP8. In vitro experiments, flavonoids contained in these kampo medicines, inhibited GSK-3β activity in concentration-dependent manners. These results suggest that OGT and SST prevent aging-induced short-term working memory deficits by inhibiting aging-dependent elevations in the cortical GSK-3β activity and subsequent CRMP2 phosphorylation.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Effects of MaquiBright® on improving eye dryness and fatigue in humans: A
           randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Shin-ichiro Yamashita, Naoko Suzuki, Kazuo Yamamoto, Shin-ichiro Iio, Takahiro YamadaThis study aims to investigate the effects of MaquiBright®, also known as BrightSight®, a standardized maqui berry extract, on improving eye dryness and fatigue in Japanese subjects (aged 30–60 years) experiencing eye dryness, eye fatigue, and ≥4 h of visual display terminal (VDT) work daily. Seventy-four participants were equally but randomly assigned to either a MaquiBright® (MB) or a placebo (P) group, wherein each participant consumed one capsule daily for 4 weeks of the appropriate treatment (MaquiBright® 60 or 0 mg). Eye dryness and fatigue were measured using the Schirmer's test, tear break-up time (BUT) test, pupillary response, and flicker test before intake and 4 weeks after intake. Furthermore, subjective symptoms were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) method and the Dry Eye–related Quality of Life Score (DEQS) questionnaire. The MB group demonstrated a significantly higher lacrimal fluid production in both eyes (increased 6.4 ± 8.1 mm, P = 0.005) in Schirmer's test compared to the P group before VDT load (playing a video game) at 4 weeks after intake. In the VAS method after VDT load, the reduction of subjective symptoms in eye fatigue (P = 0.047) and stiff shoulders (P = 0.035) were significantly higher in the MB group than in the P group as well as bothersome ocular symptoms (P = 0.037) by the DEQS. No adverse events were reported. Thus, the consumption of 60 mg of MaquiBright® per day for 4 weeks reduced eye dryness and seemed to alleviate eye fatigue.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Effect of Vitex negundo L. seeds in letrozole induced polycystic
           ovarian syndrome

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Nimisha Kakadia, Payal Patel, Shrikalp Deshpande, Gaurang ShahThe clinical management of PCOS is multifaceted but often unsatisfactory. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of Vitex negundo L. in the letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups, each containing 6 animals. Group I (Control) daily received 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) suspension as a vehicle control. Letrozole (1 mg/kg) was administered per orally (p.o) for a period of 21 days for the induction of PCOS in Group II to VI. PCOS induced animals were treated with aqueous (Group III - 200 mg/kg and IV- 400 mg/kg) and hydroalcoholic extract (Group V- 200 mg/kg and VI- 400 mg/kg) of Vitex negundo up to 66 days using 0.5% w/v CMC as the vehicle. Body weight and estrous cycle phase were measured every day. Blood samples were collected on 0, 21 and 66 days for the measurement of fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, LH, FSH and hormonal level. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed to study insulin resistance effect. Toxicity markers; SGOT, SGPT, and creatinine also measured at the end of the study. The administration of Letrozole led to an abnormality in serum sex steroid profile, lipid profile, glucose and estrous cycle. It was able to successfully exert its protective effect by restoring parameters to the normal level and disappearance of cysts in ovaries. This can be attributed to phyto-components present in the extract. The aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of seeds of Vitex negundo showed significant amelioration of Letrozole induced PCOS.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • A novel bioavailable hydrogenated curcuminoids formulation (CuroWhite™)
           improves symptoms and diagnostic indicators in rheumatoid arthritis
           patients - A randomized, double blind and placebo controlled study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Joby Jacob, Augustine Amalraj, K.K. Jithin Raj, Chandradhara Divya, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Sreeraj GopiRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease that cause chronic pain, disability and joint destruction. The present placebo controlled randomized study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel hydrogenated curcuminoid formulation-CuroWhite™, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Twenty four RA patients were randomized in 1:1:1 ratio to receive 250 mg, 500 mg CuroWhite or placebo as one capsule a day, over a period of three months. Improvement in the ACR response, changes in disease activity assessed using the DAS 28 score, change in physical function assessed on change in ESR, CRP, RF values were evaluated before and after the study. Results suggested that patients who received CuroWhite both low and high doses reported statistically significant changes in their clinical symptoms towards end of the study when compared with placebo. There were significant changes in DAS28 (50–64%) VAS (63–72%) ESR (88–89%), CRP (31–45%) RF (80–84%) values and ACR response for CuroWhite groups in comparison with placebo. Thus, CuroWhite acts as the analgesic and anti-inflammatory product for management of RA by the reduction of the inflammatory action which was confirmed by improvement in ESR, CRP, VAS, RF, DAS-28 and ACR responses. CuroWhite was significantly effective against RA with highly safe without serious side effects and well tolerated.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Antibacterial and antioxidant effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract
           and its fractions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Guilherme Pires Amaral, Caren Rigon Mizdal, Silvio Terra Stefanello, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro Mendez, Robson Luiz Puntel, Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares, Roselei FachinettoThe production of reactive species over physiological levels associated to pathogenic bacteria could represent a high risk for many diseases. The Rosmarinus officinalis L. is used around the world due its pharmacological proprieties. So, in this study our aim is to test for the first time if R. officinalis L. extract (eeRo) and its fractions (DCM, EA, ButOH) could have better or similar antioxidant action to standars and among themselves in vitro or ex vivo, in brain, stomach and liver of rats. Moreover, we intend to clarify their possible effects on pathogenic bacteria. The eeRo was obtained from the dried leaves subjected to an alcoholic extraction and fractioned. The quantification of the constituents of eeRo and fractions were done by HPLC. The antioxidant proprieties of R. officinalis was analyzed by DPPH•- radical scavenging, total antioxidant, dichlorofluorescein, lipid peroxidation and sodium nitroprusside -induced lipid peroxidation assays. The Minimum inhibitory concentrations of R. officinalis L. were tested with standard strains of danger bacteria. The eeRo, DCM, EA had significant total antioxidant and DPPH•- radical scavenging activities. The DCM and eeRo got significant effects against basal levels of reactive species in liver, stomach and brain. The eeRo and DCM protected the liver and brain against lipid peroxidation. The eeRo, DCM, EA and ButOH had inhibitory effect in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In general way, the DCM and eeRo had the best antioxidant and antibacterial effects among all tested fractions.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Insights on the molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of formula
           from Islamic traditional medicine: An in-silico study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Abdullah A. Elgazar, Hamada Ramadan Knany, Mohammed Soliman AliBackground and aimTraditional medicine is an important source for drug discovery. However, many challenges face the scientific community to develop novel drugs from it. To investigate the rationale behind the medical legacy of centuries of precious knowledge from traditional medicine, we aimed at performing virtual screening to identify potential leads from the middle-age textbook, The Canon of Medicine.Experimental procedureA database of chemical constituents of plants mentioned within the book was built and docked against different molecular targets associated with inflammation such as phospholipase A2, p38 alpha mitogen activated protein kinase, cyclooxygenase-2 and leukotriene B4 dehydrogenase, after that literature survey was done to determine the consistency of traditional uses and molecular docking results with the current knowledge obtained from previous studies and reports.Results and conclusionThe in-silico study revealed the ability of several chemical constituents, in the plants under investigation, to bind effectively to different targets associated with inflammation, which was consistent with previous reports, indicating that Islamic traditional medicine can be considered as a reliable promising source for developing new anti-inflammatory agents with low toxicity and minimal side effects.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Eugenia jambolana extract reduces the systemic exposure of Sitagliptin and
           improves conditions associated with diabetes: A pharmacokinetic and a
           pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): A. Vora, A. Varghese, Y. Kachwala, M. Bhaskar, A. Laddha, A. Jamal, P. YadavEugenia jambolana (EJ) is an Indian traditional herb widely used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This herb is globally marketed as single or multi herb formulations. Many diabetes patients consume EJ extract oral hypoglycemic drugs together. This calls for a need to assess risks versus benefit of this co-administration.In present investigation, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions of aqueous extract of EJ seeds at the dose of 400 mg/kg are studied with 10 mg/kg of oral hypoglycaemic drug sitagliptin (SITA) by co-administrating them for 28 days in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of SITA were determined using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and it was found that the combination treatment reduces the systemic exposure of SITA by showing 38.70% reduction in concentration maximum (Cmax) and 22.40% reduction in area under curve (AUC). Despite low levels of SITA, the combination demonstrated a significant reduction in blood glucose level when compared with individual drug and individual extract administered groups during pharmacodynamic study. In addition, the liver function, the kidney function and the lipid parameters were found to be significantly improved and beneficial effects were found with respect to food intake and water intake and urine output in case of combination treatment groups when compared with individual treatment groups. Histopathological examination of pancreatic tissue suggests its significant recovery of having normal acinus with better cell protection in combination treatment. In conclusion, the combination treatment demonstrated reduced systemic exposure of SITA without compromising on its antihyperglycemic activity and improvement in conditions associated with diabetes.Graphical abstractImage
  • Relaxant effects of Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton
           flower extract on isolated rat ileum contractions and the mechanisms of

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): Acharaporn Duangjai, Bey-Hing Goh, Learn-Han Lee, Surasak SaokaewAzadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton or commonly known as Siamese neem is one of the most well-known plant in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relaxant effects of A. indica on isolated rat ileum contractions and its potential underlying mechanisms involved. The isometric contractions of ileum segments were investigated in organ baths for spontaneous activity and response to aqueous extract of Siamese neem flower (SNF). The spasmolytic action of the extract was also assessed on contraction induced by acetylcholine and high potassium. Our findings indicate that cumulative concentrations of SNF aqueous extract induced relaxant effect on spontaneous rat ileum contractions. The extract has also suppressed the cumulative concentration response curve for acetylcholine and pottasium ions-induced contraction. The presence and absence of propranol (antagonist of β-adrenergic receptor) and l-Name (antagonist of nitric oxide synthase) in SNF aqeous extract co-treatment demonstrated no significant different in term of contraction activity when compared to SNF extract treatment alone. The treatment of SNF extract caused a significant inhibition in tissue contraction stimulated by accumulation of calcium ions. Our results showed the relaxant effect of SNF aqueous extract on the isolated rat ileum. In short, the SNF aqueous extract exhibited an inhibitory effect on the spontaneous ileum contactions particularly on the contraction stimulated by acetylcholine and high potassium. The observed effect might acted through the modulation of calcium channels. This findings provide a pharmacological basis for the traditional use of SNF for the treatment of gastrointestinal spasms.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Chemical composition, antioxidant potential, macromolecule damage and
           neuroprotective activity of Convolvulus pluricaulis

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): P. Rachitha, K. Krupashree, G.V. Jayashree, Hemanth Kumar Kandikattu, Narayanappa Amruta, Natarajan Gopalan, M.K. Rao, Farhath KhanumHerbal medicines are known to mitigate radical induced cell damage. Hence identification and scientific validation of herbal medicines contribute to better use in Ayurvedic/Unani research. In the present study, we investigated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of Convolvulus pluricaulis (C. pluricaulis). C. pluricaulis exhibited antioxidant potential evident by free radical scavenging activities. C. pluricaulis pretreatment inhibited H2O2 induced macromolecule damage such as plasmid DNA damage and AAPH induced oxidation of bovine serum albumin and lipid peroxidation of rat hepatic tissues. Further to identify the neuroprotective properties of C. pluricaulis, SHSY5Y cells were treated with H2O2 with or without pretreatment of C. pluricaulis. The C. pluricaulis pretreatment at 50 μg/ml dose exhibited 50% cell survival against 100 μM H2O2 challenge for 24 h and it also decreased the lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Further C. pluricaulis pretreatment restored and regulated the antioxidant and apoptosis markers such as SOD, CAT, p53, and caspase-3 and inhibited, reactive oxygen species generation and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. C. pluricaulis possess a high content of flavonoids and polyphenols and GC-MS and FTIR analysis showed a wide variety of compounds which may contribute to the observed effects.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Anti-inflammatory and preventive activity of white mulberry root bark
           extract in an experimental model of pancreatitis

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): Yuvaraj Kavitha, Arumugam GeethaPancreatitis is characterized by highly morbid inflammation in the pancreas. Currently, there is no specific drug available for pancreatitis except supportive medicines. The present study assessed the pancreato-protective effect of Morus alba root bark extract by using alcohol and cerulein-induced model of pancreatitis. The study also investigated the phytochemical profile through GC-MS and HPLC. Methanolic extract of Morus alba root bark extract (MEMARB) was subjected to GC-MS and HPLC studies. Male albino Wistar rats were administered ethanol (0%–36%) and cerulein (20 μg/kg b.wt. i.p.) with or without MEMARB. Serum lipase, amylase, caspase-1, lipid peroxidation products, glutathione and enzymatic antioxidants were determined. Histological changes in the pancreas were assessed. Cudraflavone B in MEMARB was quantified by HPLC. Significant amount of Cudraflavone B was detected by quantitative HPLC. Marked increase in the levels of serum amylase, lipase, caspase-1, IL-18 and IL-1β were observed in ethanol and cerulein administered rats than in MEMARB co-administered rats. In MEMARB co-administered rats, the antioxidant status was restored to near normal levels. Histological examinations showed that MEMARB significantly reduced the inflammatory and fibrotic changes. The results reveal the potent pancreato-protective effects of Morus alba root bark. The anti-inflammatory effect of Morus alba root bark extract might be due to the presence of various phytonutrients including Cudraflavone B.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Preliminary clinical assessment and non- toxicity evaluation of an
           ayurvedic formulation BGR-34 in NIDDM

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): B.P. Gupta, I. Sharma, N. Kohli, S. Sharma, A. Rathi, A.K. SharmaIn view of the overall health impact of NIDDM, inventers understand the necessity of improving glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. BGR-34 provides an effective treatment option for adults with type 2 diabetes who have been inadequately controlled on lifestyle with or without other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHGAs) such as metformin, sulfonylurea, or a glitazones. BGR-34 is an appropriate option to consider for addition to a managed care drug formulary. Treatment with BGR-34 produced clinically relevant and statistically significant reductions in all three key measures of glucose control studied —FPG, PPBG and HbA1c— when compared with placebo. BGR-34, showed the promising result with respect to glycemic parameters in NIDDM patient with a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar by 34.3%, postprandial blood sugar 35.5% & glycosylated haemoglobin by 20.31% as compared to placebo group showing a reduction by 13.2%, 10.9% & 10.87% respectively. The trial has also been registered to CTRI, India. This study has been registered in the clinical trial registry-India.Graphical abstractBGR 34, has been investigated to contain a number of active biomolecule molecules including the compound ‘berberine’ (source; Berberis aristata), a natural dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitor, that act by increasing endogenous GLP-1 and GIP concentrations.Image 1
  • Various stem cells in acupuncture meridians and points and their putative

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): Jeanne Adiwinata PawitanTraditional Chinese and Korean medicine uses various manipulations on acupuncture points/acupoints that are located along imaginary lines on the surface of a human body, which are called ‘meridians’. Acupuncture has been used from the ancient time till now to cure various diseases, including for the purpose of regenerative medicine. In various studies, meridians are alternatively called as Bong-Han ducts, primo vessels, or hyaluronic-acid rich ducts, while acupoints are called Bong-Han corpuscles, primo nodes, or hyaluronic-acid rich nodes. Meridians and acupuncture points form a system that is now called primo vascular system (PVS), which is claimed to contain various kinds of stem cells. The stem cell size is between 1-5 microns. The smallest is the primo microcells that have a putative role in regeneration. Other stem cells are adult pluripotent and hematopoietic stem cells that play a role in extra bone marrow hematopoiesis. The presence of PVS has been reproduced by many studies. However, the various stem cells need further studies to prove their existence and function, and harvesting PVS to isolate the stem cells might harm the health of the donor.Graphical abstractSchematic representation of a primo vessel. A = primo vessel, B = primo node, duct = ductule, Ep = epithelial cell, En = endothelial cell, Eos = eosinophil, Chr = chromaffin cell, His = histiocyte, Lym = lymphocyte, PM = primo microcells and other types of stem cells.Image 1
  • FM1 - Title Page

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s):
  • A review of antioxidant and pharmacological properties of phenolic
           compounds in Acacia confusa

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): Huan-You Lin, Tzu-Cheng Chang, Shang-Tzen ChangIn the present review article, the phytochemical, antioxidant and pharmacological studies are congregated and summarized concerning the current knowledge of the phenolic compounds of a traditional medical plant Acacia confusa in Taiwan. This plant is native to Taiwan and South-East Asia. It possesses major pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, hepatoprotective effect, xanthine oxidase inhibition, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition, angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition, antihyperuricemic effect and anti-inflammatory activity. Phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, flavonol glycoside and phenolic acid derivatives, are the main phytochemical compounds isolated from different plant parts of A. confusa. Recent interest in this species has focused on pharmacological investigations of the phytochemicals which exhibit potent antioxidant activity based on the multiple phenolic functionalities. The consequence of this review will further extend the potential applications of this plant and offer persuasive support to its future use in the fields of clinical medicine and health functional food.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Herbal beverages: Bioactive compounds and their role in disease risk
           reduction - A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): Anoma Chandrasekara, Fereidoon ShahidiThere is a renewed interest in non-nutritive bioactive compounds of foods and beverages as ‘lifespan nutrients’ in the risk reduction of non-communicable diseases. Herbal beverages, consumed as part of a balanced diet, may improve the antioxidant status and enhance the overall health status. Herbal teas/beverages are rich sources of natural bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, polyacetylenes, saponins and terpenoids, among others. A wealth of available scientific evidence demonstrates that natural bioactive compounds render a number of diversified biological effects, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antithrombotic and vasodilatory actions, as well as antimutagenicity, anticarcinogenicity and antiaging effects. A number of herbal beverages are consumed globally and some beverages have gained more popularity than others depending on their geographical origin. However, in the era of globalization, ethnic barriers have gradually been removed and such commodities although from different areas, are now universally available as international health-pro products.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • In vitro studies of the anticancer action of Tectaria cicutaria in human
           cancer cell lines: G0/G1 p53-associated cell cycle arrest-Part I

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): Preeti Gajendra Karade, Namdeo Ramhari JadhavObjectiveThe rhizome of Tectaria cicutaria has been used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders. The objective of present investigation is to screen various extracts of the rhizomes of Tectaria cicutaria for anti-cancer activity and to investigate the mechanism involved.Materials and methodsThe rhizomes of Tectaria cicutaria were extracted with different solvents. In vitro anti-cancer activity of different rhizome extracts were studied in Human cancer Cell Lines using Sulphorodamine B (SRB) colorimetric cytotoxicity assay. The effect of ethanolic extract (TCe) on cell growth inhibition, modulation in gene expression, and induction of apoptosis using the K562 human leukemia cell line were studied. The extract was analyzed by GC-MS to identify their major chemical compounds.ResultsTCe shows antioxidant potential in both DPPH scavenging assay and reducing capacity. Flow cytometric analysis showed that 11 μg/ml of TCe arrested cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase. In the TCe treated K562 cells, the mRNA and protein expression level of p53 was strongly up-regulated in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, its downstream target p21 level was also increased. The GC-MS study has depicted results with the presence of twelve different compounds which will require significant further efforts for structure and putative identification.ConclusionThe present work has for the first time, tried to elucidate the anti leukemic potential of Tectaria cicutaria. TCe was more potent in K562 cells, altering the cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Rosemary leaves extract: Anti-snake action against Egyptian Cerastes

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): Walaa H. Salama, Azza M. Abdel-Aty, Afaf S. FahmyThe morbidity caused by viper bites is very dangerous and the anti-venom therapy couldn't treat the local injures such as hemorrhage, edema, necrosis and inflammation of bitten tissues. Searching for safe and effective anti-venom compounds from natural sources is very important. This study was designed to explore the neutralizing ability of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves aqueous extract (RMAE) against Egyptian Cerastes cerastes (Cc) viper venom toxicity. The RMAE contained a considerable amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents with 3,300 and 800 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. The RMAE showed a considerable variation of phenolic acids by using HPLC technique. Rosmarinic acid is the major component of the RMAE which recorded 400 mg/100 g dry weight and 64% of all the identified compounds. In vitro, the RMAE neutralized the enzymatic activities of proteases, l-amino acid oxidases, and phospholipases A2 of the Cc venom dose-dependently. In addition, the RMAE effectively neutralized the gelatinolytic, fibrinogenolytic, hemolytic and procoagulant activities of Cc venom. In vivo, the RMAE markedly reduced lethality, hemorrhage, edema, muscle and liver toxicities induced by Cc venom. In conclusion, the venom neutralizing property of the RMAE gives a new prospect for efficient treatment of the lethal viper bites.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoid from Chenopodium
    aerial parts

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s): Sumit Arora, Prakash ItankarChenopodium album L., (C. album) (family: Chenopodiaceae) is an annual shrub widely grown in Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. It is commonly known as Bathua (in Hindi), pigweed, fat hen or lamb-quarters. The leaves of C. album are applied as a poultice to bug bites, sunstroke, rheumatic joints and as mild laxative. The flavonoids contained in C. album aerial parts were extracted, identified and characterized. Sequential soxhlet extraction was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and flavonoid quantification. The results showed that maximum yield of the flavonoid (7.335 mg/g) were obtained from acetone extract. This acetone extract was subjected to flash chromatography for isolation of flavonoid. Characterization of isolated flavonoid was done by UV, IR, 1H & 13C NMR and MS. On the basis of chemical and spectral analysis structure was elucidated as 2-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one, a flavonoid.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • FM2- Aims & Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4Author(s):
  • Evaluation of selected traditional Chinese medical extracts for bone
           mineral density maintenance: A mechanistic study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): John F. Rebhun, Qin Du, Molly Hood, Hailing Guo, Kelly M. Glynn, Hao Cen, Jeffrey D. Scholten, Feng Tian, Min Gui, Minjie Li, Yongfang ZhaoObjectiveTo investigate the development of a minimal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula using selected TCM ingredients and evaluating their biological activity with bone-specific in vitro tests. Finally, determining if the minimal formula can maintain bone mineral density (BMD) in a low bone mass (LBM)/osteoporosis (OP) model system.Methods and resultsSixteen different TCM plant extracts were tested for estrogenic, osteogenic and osteoclastic activities. Despite robust activation of the full-length estrogen receptors α and β by Psoralea corylifolia and Epimedium brevicornu, these extracts do not activate the isolated estrogen ligand binding domains (LBD) of either ERα or ERβ; estrogen (17-β estradiol) fully activates the LBD of ERα and ERβ. E. brevicornu and Drynaria fortunei extracts activated cyclic AMP response elements (CRE) individually and when combined these ingredients stimulated the production of osteoblastic markers Runx2 and Bmp4 in MC3T3-E1 cells. E. brevicornu, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Astragalus onobrychis extracts inhibited the Il-1β mediated activation of NF-κβ and an E. brevicornu/D. fortunei combination inhibited the development of osteoclasts from precursor cells. Further, a minimal formula containing the E. brevicornu/D. fortunei combination with or without a third ingredient (S. miltiorrhiza, Angelica sinensis, or Lycium barbarum) maintained bone mineral density (BMD) similar to an estradiol-treated control group in the ovariectomized rat; a model LBM/OP system.ConclusionA minimal formula consisting of TCM plant extracts that activate CRE and inhibit of NF-κβ activation, but do not behave like estrogen, maintain BMD in a LBM/OP model system.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • A panoramic view of medicinal plants traditionally applied for impotence
           and erectile dysfunction in Persian medicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Majid Nimrouzi, Amir-Mohammad Jaladat, Mohammad M. ZarshenasErectile dysfunction (ED) and impotence are common male sexual problems, and they are highly prevalent in male adults with a history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus. This review aims to bring together the standpoints of the early Persian physicians on these disorders and to identify the respective medication in comparison with conventional contemporary medicine. The main medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) are from 9th–18th century AD. Besides the medieval findings, the current knowledge on ED and impotence, and the related effects of the cited medicinal herbs were studied. In the medieval and traditional literature, male potency is called bāh. According to the TPM approaches, the first step in the mitigation of impotence focuses on the treatment of the main body organs including the heart, brain, and liver. The TPM approaches for diagnosis and treatment include the evaluation of the quality of semen, sexual habit, and quality of urine. The treatment strategies in TPM involve lifestyle modification and prescription of natural medicaments. Many medicinal herbs have been traditionally used for the mitigation of impotency. There could be numerous possibilities for bringing out new natural medicaments with aphrodisiac effects supported by the early medical literature.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Dihydromyricetin-rich herbal mixture extracts as a potential prescription
           for treatment of metabolic syndrome in rats fed a high-fat diet and
           subacute toxicity assessment in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Mei-Yin Chien, Chih-Min Yang, Yi-Ting Lin, Chao-Hsiang ChenDihydromyricetin (DHM)-rich herbal mixture extracts, also called APF complex, comprised of Ampelopsis grossedentata, Pericarpium citri reticulatae, and Fructus crataegi. The content of DHM in APF complex was 362.7 ± 12.5 mg/g. The aims of this study were to investigate the therapeutic effects of APF complex on metabolic syndrome in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and evaluate the subacute toxicity of APF complex in rats. HFD significantly increased body weight gain, fat tissue (epididymal fat, mesenteric fat, and perirenal fat) deposition, body fat index, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) accumulation as well as caused abnormal blood biochemical parameters, including TC, TG, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), and glucose. APF complex has a tendency but not significance to limit HFD-induced body weight gain. APF complex also significantly improved HFD-induced body fat accumulation, as evidenced by decreasing fat tissue deposition and body fat index. In addition, APF complex significantly ameliorated HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, as evidenced by reducing levels of blood TG and TC as well as blood glucose and FFA, respectively. Furthermore, APF complex significantly decreased HFD-induced hepatic TG and TC accumulation. In subacute toxicity assessment, APF complex exhibited no toxicological signs, as evidenced by without affecting mortality, food and water consumption, body weight changes, absolute organ weights, hematological system, blood lipids and nutritional status, and electrolyte balance as well as non-toxic to liver and renal function. Overall, APF complex was considered as a non-toxic herbal prescription and could act as adjuvant therapy for metabolic syndrome.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Tualang honey ameliorates viral load, CD4 counts and improves quality of
           life in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infected patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Wan Nazirah Wan Yusuf, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad, Siew Hua Gan, Mahiran Mustafa, Che Badariah Abd Aziz, Siti Amrah SulaimanThis is the first study to report on the effects of honey in asymptomatic HIV positive subjects in ameliorating CD4 count, viral load (VL) and quality of life (QOL). It is a randomized, controlled, open labelled study, comparing the effects of Tualang honey (TH) administration for six months at three different doses: 20 g (THL), 40 g (THI) or 60 g (THH) daily compared with control (no administered treatment, THC). Only asymptomatic HIV positive subjects (n=95) having CD4 count 250-600 cell/ml, not on antiretrovirals were enrolled. Blood, (together with QOL questionnaires administration) were investigated at baseline, three and six months (CD4 cell count) while VL was determined only at baseline and six months. Significant reductions in CD4 counts in THL and THC groups (p= 0.003 for both) were seen with no significant reductions in the CD4 counts in THI and THH groups (p=0.447 and 0.053 respectively). There was improvement in VL in THC and THI (130% and 32% respectively) and reductions in THL and THH (26% and 8% respectively). Within and between group analyses for VL indicated significant differences between THL and THH compared to THC. In addition, significant improvement in QOL of groups which received TH was noted. TH has the potential to improve the QOL (physical and psychological) and CD4 counts. There was a trend of lower VL in asymptomatic HIV subjects following TH administration thus supporting the possible role of TH in boosting the immune system by improving CD4 counts, causing VL reductions in HIV positive subjects.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Knowledge and attitudes towards utilizing complementary and alternative
           medical (CAM) treatments by mental health practitioner from various

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Sharon Freeman ClevengerNeuropsychiatric and mental health symptoms affect an estimated 37% of the U.S. population and are often refractory to standard, conventional medical treatment. Adults with more than one neuropsychiatric symptom, such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, attention deficits, headaches, excessive sleepiness, and memory loss are disproportionally more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) options for their symptoms. Despite the growing popularity of CAM usage, (estimated at more than 30 percent of all adults by the National Centers on Complementary and Integrative Healthcare (NCCIH), there is very little known about mental health practitioner (MHP) attitudes, knowledge and understanding about CAM practices. A survey of 295 MHP's from multiple disciplines was conducted in order to investigate knowledge of, and attitudes towards, utilizing CAM treatments. Results suggest that many MHP's are unaware that they are using CAM approaches and are lacking knowledge regarding evidence for the use of CAM for mental health symptoms.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Mentha spicata L. essential oil, phytochemistry and its
           effectiveness in flatulence

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Mohaddese MahboubiFlatulence as the continuous feeling of abdominal distension is equal to “Nafkh” in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Nafkh is believed to derive from the amount of stomach temperature, humidity of food or abnormal humidity in digestive tract and their interactions. Mentha spicata as cool and spicy plant with astringent and digestive property is recommended for treatment of flatulence. The information was extracted from accessible international databases, traditional books, electronic resources, and unpublished data. M. spicata essential oil with main component of carvone has potency for treatment of flatulence related to indigestion, cesarean section and dysmenorrhea. Also, it can reduce the pain severity during the colonoscopy or dysmenorrheal conditions. No hazardous effects were reported for M. spicata essential oil, if it is used in proper dosages. M. spicata essential oil can be applied for other intestinal complaints with pain and flatulence such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) that needs more deep clinical trials for demonstrating its potential.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Anti-ulcer effect of Gallarhois extract with anti-oxidant activity in an
           ICR model of ethanol/hydrochloride acid-induced gastric injury

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Sung Hwa Song, Ji Eun Kim, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Woo Bin Yun, Young Hee Lee, HyunKeun Song, DaeYoun HwangGallarhois (GR) is a traditional oriental herbal medicine with various pharmacological effects; however, its effect on gastric ulcer has not been previously explored. We firstly investigated the component and antioxidant activity of GR extract (EtGR) by HPLC analysis and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results showed that EtGR consisted of gallotannin (68.7%), gallic acid (27.2%) and methyl gallate (4.1%) and that it had a high antioxidant value (IC50 value; 1.93 μg/mL). To evaluate the possible anti-gastric ulcer potential of EtGR, we investigated the effects of EtGR in the model of ethanol/hydrochloric acid (EtOH/HCl)-induced gastric ulcer. Gross and histological gastric lesions, biochemical and gene expression parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that EtOH/HCl treatment produced mucosal injuries with morphological and histological damage, whereas EtGR co-treatment reduced the gastric injuries. EtGR treatment also decreased the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) activity relative to the vehicle group. Moreover, EtGR decreased the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Finally, EtGR did not induce any specific toxicity in the livers or kidneys of the EtOH/HCl-induced gastric ulcer model. These results suggest that EtGR had stronger antioxidant activity and could be a new useful natural drug for gastroprotection against gastric ulcer. Moreover, these findings provide a scientific basis for the development of drugs from traditional oriental herbal medicines.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Cardiorespiratory and autonomic-nervous-system functioning of drug abusers
           treated by Zen meditation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Pei-Chen Lo, Ping-Hsien Tsai, Hui-Jane Kang, Wu Jue Miao TianAddicted drugs like nicotine affect autonomic nervous system that results in arrhythmia and other cardiovascular diseases. Notable effects of Zen meditation on autonomic nervous system have been reported during the past decade. Holistic Detox Association (HDA) in Taiwan offered Zen-meditation program to drug addicts as the core scheme among a variety of drug addiction treatments. This paper reports the results of quantifying the cardiorespiratory interactions and autonomic nervous system function to evaluate the on-site effect of Zen meditation on drug rehab. Methods and schemes for quantifying time-domain heart rate variability were employed to electrocardiograph and respiratory signals. Peak-valley method was developed to quantify the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) behavior. Poincaré Plot Analysis was adopted to evaluate the cardiorespiratory functioning. Among 18 voluntary drug addicts during the 10-minute Zen meditation session, about two-third subjects have significant improvement in autonomic nervous system function characterized by heart rate variability (SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50). Group average of RSA increases from 33.43 ms(Rest) to 69.14 ms(AR Zen meditation). Poincaré-plot analysis reveals the improvement of SD1, SD2 and SD2/SD1 by respectively 14.7%, 19.8% and 8.8%. The group averages of all the parameters exhibit significantly positive changes in the 10-minute session of abdominal-respiration Zen meditation. Even the subject with heart transplant showed the improvement of all the quantitative indicators during the AR Zen meditation.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Base on concept of traditional Chinese medicine: Experimental studies on
           efficacy of BIOCERAMIC Resonance to alleviate drug withdrawal symptoms

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Ting Kai Leung, Chi Ming Lee, Mimmo Gasbarri, Yung Che ChenThose who are challenged by dependency on prescription drugs or suffer drug addictions have few options available to them for recovery, such as psychotherapy and physiotherapy. Here we present a new approach with clinical examples involving stimulant addiction or overdose of hypnotic drugs that were received BIOCERAMIC Resonance, which was developed based on concept of 12 meridian channels of traditional Chinese medicine, and has successful withdrawal or dose reduction benefits. We describe the whole process and the clinical outcome. And by help of our previous publication on functional MRI, we discuss the possible brain locations response to BIOCERAMIC Resonance that may be corresponding to the beneficial effects of relief of depression, sleep deprivation and other mental symptoms that associate with substance abuse and withdrawal effects. We suggest this could be potentially widely application on substances abuse.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Phytochemical analysis of Ficus carica L. active compounds possessing
           anticonvulsant activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): K. Raafat, M. WurglicsThe anticonvulsant potential of Ficus carica methanol-extract (Fc) has been studied. It was found that Fc most active fraction is rich in oligosaccharides (OFG). 1H, 13C NMR and Nano-ESI, MALDI MS, and LC-MS techniques proved that OFG contains alpha-glucopyranoside oligomer in high amounts. Both Fc and OFG reduced strychnine (STR) convulsion-action. Fc and OFG fully protected the experimental-animals from STR-lethality. The intracerebroventricular-administration (ICV) of Fc or OFG in combination with glycine in ethanol-treated mice caused a dose-dependent returning to a 2nd-loss of righting-reflex (LORR), and was antagonized by STR. FC and OFG ICV injection counteracted STR-inhibition, confirming that Fc/OFG anticonvulsant mechanism of action was mediated by potentiation of glycine receptor. These results support Fc and OFG potential anticonvulsant-activity with good safety-profile.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Effects of ethanolic extracts of leaf, seed and fruit of Datura metel L.
           on kidney function of male albino rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Chinedu Imo, Kayode A. Arowora, Chukwuma S. Ezeonu, Ojochenemi E. Yakubu, Chukwumaobim D. Nwokwu, Nkiruka C. Azubuike, Yumanang G. SallahEffects of ethanolic extracts of leaf, seed and fruit of Datura metel on kidney function of male albino rats was investigated in this study. The result showed a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase of urea concentration in groups 2 and 3 administered low (300 mg/kg bw) and high (600 mg/kg bw) dose of leaf extract respectively and a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in all groups administered the seed and fruit extracts compared with normal control (group 1). Creatinine increased significantly (p  0.05) in all groups administered the various extracts, except in group 4 in which sodium reduced non-significantly (p > 0.05) compared with normal control. Chloride increased significantly (p  0.05) in groups 3, 6 and 7, but reduced non-significantly (p > 0.05) in group 4 compared with normal control. The administration of some of the extracts in comparison with the normal control in histology of the animals show glomerular extrusion and glomerular collapse with resultant increased urinary space, dilated tubules, vacuolations in some epithelial lining of most of the tubules in the medulla and inflammatory cellular infiltration at some peritubular regions. The results showed that some parts of Datura metel posed mild negative effects, while some parts could possess nephroprotective potential by regulating the kidney function of male albino rats.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Antioxidant properties and membrane stabilization effects of methanol
           extract of Mucuna pruriens leaves on normal and sickle erythrocytes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Chioma Assumpta Anosike, Odinaka Ngozi Igboegwu, Okwesilieze Fred Chiletugo NwodoThis study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant properties and membrane stabilization effects of Mucuna pruriens leaves on sickle erythrocyte as a possible means of sickle cell disease management.Pulverized plant material was extracted with methanol, filtered and concentrated at reduced pressure with a rotary evaporator. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant studies of the extract were carried out using standard methods. Blood samples of volunteer sickle cell patients and healthy individuals used in the study were collected from the University of Nigeria Medical Centre and University campus community, Nsukka respectively. The genotypes of the individuals were confirmed by cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. Water induced haemolysis of human red blood cell was used to assess membrane stabilization of the erythrocytes. Phytochemical result of the extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. Antioxidant vitamins C and E were present in concentrations of 495.36 mg/100 g and 101.03 mg/100 g respectively. The percentage (%) scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical by the extract was significant. The extract exhibited membrane stabilization on both normal and sickle erythrocytes. The percentage (%) inhibition of haemolysis by the extract in both normal and sickle erythrocytes at different concentrations of 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 μg/ml were significant and concentration dependent. We conclude that M. pruriens leaves have antioxidant properties and erythrocyte membrane stabilizing potentials and could be recommended for use in the management of patients with sickle cell anaemia.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Preliminary studies on therapeutic effect of ethanolic extract of
           Tylophora villosa leaves against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Aceng Ruyani, Barbara Desbi Sinta, Emilia, Zulfikar, Fiqih Anansyah, Sylvia Rianissa Putri, Agus SundaryonoThis study intended to investigate the therapeutic effect of ethanolic extract of Tylophora villosa leaves (E2TL) against paracetamol (PC)-induced hepatotoxicity (PCIH) in mice (Mus musculus). PCIH were generated using daily 250 mg/kg body weight (bw) PC administration by gavage for seven days, and then daily 27.5; 55.0; 82.5; 110.0; or 220.0 mg/kg bw E2TL were treated by gavage for seven or fourteen days. Meanwhile, the controls were given solvent only in the same manner. Mortality, blood glucose, and condition (color, weight, volume) of the livers were observed on day 15 (D15). Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SG0T) were examined on D15, D22, and D30, and then malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined on D15. Results of this study revealed that on D15, the dosage of 110.0 mg/kg bw E2TL most effectively decreased MDA due to PCIH, from 6.78 ± 1.70 μmol/L to 3.45 ± 0.43 μmol/L, approaching the control condition (2.45 ± 0.05 μmol/L). PC administration was really toxic dosage and caused 13.3 % mortality. Blood glucose, weight, and volume of the liver decreased as the effect of PC administration, and then 220.0 mg/kg bw E2TL treatment could recover the condition as well as the controls. Color of the liver indicated a similar recovery by E2TL treatment. SGPT and SG0T increased significantly by PC administration, and this PCIH facts could be recovered gradually near the controls according to the dosages (55.0; 110.0; or 220.0 mg/kg bw) and duration (seven or fourteen days) of E2TL treatment. It could be concluded that E2TL showed therapeutic effect against PCIH in M. musculus.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Endothelium-independent and calcium channel-dependent relaxation of the
           porcine cerebral artery by different species and strains of turmeric

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Jesmin Akter, Md Zahorul Islam, Md Amzad Hossain, Shinsuke Kawabata, Kensaku Takara, Ha Thi Thanh Nguyen, De-Xing Hou, Atsushi MiyamotoObjectiveTo clarify the underlying mechanism of turmeric, which is traditionally used as a medicinal plant for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension, and palpitations.MethodsMethanol extracts of different turmeric were used. A tissue-organ-bath system was used to investigate the vasoactive effects of methanol extracts from 5 kinds of turmeric on isolated porcine basilar arteries. The arterial rings were suspended in physiological solution that was maintained at 37 °C temperature with a continuous supply of 95% O2 and 5% CO2.ResultsAll turmeric extracts (20–800 μg/mL) induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the isolated porcine basilar artery pre-contracted with U46619 (1-5 × 10−9 M) in arterial rings with or without endothelium. There were no significant differences in the relaxation induced by different turmeric or between the endothelium-intact and denuded arteries. In depolarized, Ca2+-free medium, the turmeric extracts inhibited CaCl2-induced contractions and caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the response curves. In addition, propranolol (a non-specific β-adrenoceptor antagonist) slightly inhibited the relaxation induced by turmeric. In contrast, Nω-nitro-l-arginine, indomethacin, tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide and 4-aminopyridine did not affect turmeric-induced relaxation.ConclusionThese results demonstrated that turmeric induced endothelium-independent relaxation of the porcine basilar artery, which may be due to the inhibition of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ receptors and the partial inhibition of β-adrenergic receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Method establishment for upgrading chemical markers in pharmacopoeia to
           bioactive markers for biological standardization of traditional Chinese

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Clara Bik-San Lau, Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Kit-Man Lau, Yuk-Yu Chan, Pang-Chui Shaw, Hin-Fai Kwok, Lok-Sze WongQuality surveillance on authentication, safety and efficacy of proprietary Chinese medicines (pCm) are certainly the top priorities for the industries. Nowadays, the quality control system adopted is mainly chemical marker-oriented, concerning basically the correct use of raw material and safety issues, while the biological activities of the chemical marker(s) are seldom considered. Hence, there is an undefined relationship between the amount of chemical markers and the claimed pharmacological activities. In view of the need in identifying appropriate markers for biological standardization of pCm products, the present study aimed to establish a systematic methodology for verifying whether the chemical marker of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia could be upgraded to a bioactive marker with certain efficacy in treating a particular disease. Our proposed methodology included a series of work on extraction, quantification, literature search and in vivo pharmacological experiments, in which the water extractability, biological effects at theoretical dose and oral bioavailability of the candidate chemical markers were all taken into consideration. The feasibility and implication of this bioactive markers verification methodology were further elaborated. Our findings will serve as the foundation for further research and development of biological standardization of TCM.Graphical abstractA workflow for verifying whether a chemical marker in pharmacopoeia could be upgraded to a bioactive marker for a particular TCM.Image 1
  • Extract of Aquilaria crassna leaves and mangiferin are vasodilators while
           showing no cytotoxicity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Sutthinee Wisutthathum, Natakorn Kamkaew, Anjaree Inchan, Usana Chatturong, Tamkeen Urooj Paracha, Kornkanok Ingkaninan, Eakkaluk Wongwad, Krongkarn ChootipThe leaves of Aquilaria spp. promote “physiological balance”, and are “cardiotonic and provide blood nourishment”. In Asia, these leaves are increasingly consumed as tea and claimed to provide benefits to cardiovascular function, albeit without any scientific proof. Therefore, this study sought to evaluate the action of Aquilaria crassna leaf aqueous extract (AE) on vascular function and vascular smooth muscle cytotoxicity. AE and a main constituent, mangiferin were investigated for their vasorelaxation of rat mesenteric arteries and aortae in vitro. Acute cytotoxicity of AE (0.1–1000 μg/ml) and mangiferin (0.1–100 μM) on rat enzymatically isolated vascular smooth muscle cells was assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. AE dilated rat mesenteric arteries (EC50∼107 μg/ml, Emax∼95%) more than aorta (EC50∼265 μg/ml, Emax∼76%, p 
  • Athyrium plants - Review on phytopharmacy properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Bahare Salehi, Shahira M. Ezzat, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Sevil Albayrak, Sanja Vlaisavljevic, Majid Sharifi-Rad, Indra D. Bhatt, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Tarun Belwal, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Farzad Kobarfard, Athar Ata, Navid Baghalpour, Miquel Martorell, William N. Setzer, Javad Sharifi-RadAthyrium plants consist of more than 230 species that are largely distributed in the Sino-Himalayan region and the Western Pacific islands. Athyrium species are being used in traditional medicine worldwide to treat various ailments such as cough, rheumatic pain, scorpion stings, sores, burns and scalds, intestinal fever, pain, specifically breast pain during child birth, to increase milk flow, as an antiparasitic, anthelmintic, and carminative. A deep look in the literature has revealed that Athyrium species have been poorly investigated for their food preservative applications and in vivo and in vitro biological and phytochemical studies. However, some Athyrium species have demonstrated antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-HIV potential. Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching is the most investigated species and the biological activities of their extracts, such as they antioxidant properties, seem to be related to the sulfate contents of their polysaccharides. This review provides an update on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological properties of Athyrium plants that might be useful for further research. Of course, well-designed clinical trials will be required for some species to be used as therapy.Graphical abstractImage
  • Efficacy of Ozoroa pulcherrima Schweinf methanolic extract against
           Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver injury in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Hermine Boukeng Jatsa, Nestor Gipwe Feussom, Emilienne Tienga Nkondo, Mérimé Christian Kenfack, Nadège Distele Simo, Joseph Bertin Kadji Fassi, Ulrich Membe Femoe, Cyriaque Moaboulou, Christelle Dongmo Tsague, Etienne Dongo, Pierre Kamtchouing, Louis-Albert Tchuem TchuenteThe roots of Ozoroa pulcherrima Schweinf are used in traditional medicine to treat intestinal helminthiasis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Ozoroa pulcherrima roots methanolic extract (OPME) on liver injury induced by Schistosoma mansoni in mice. A preliminary phytochemical study of OPME was conducted. OPME was given daily and orally to S. mansoni-infected mice at 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg for 28 days, starting from the 36th day post-infection. Praziquantel was used as reference drug. Non-infected and infected-untreated mice served as controls. Worm burden and egg output, transaminases, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and total protein; as well as malondialdehyde, catalase and reduced glutathione were evaluated. In OPME, total phenolic was 79.61 ± 0.25 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, while total flavonoid was 7.98 ± 0.04 mg rutin equivalent/g. Treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with OPME produced significant reduction of worm burden and ova count in the faeces, liver and intestine. Significant reduction of alanine aminotransferase activity (p 
  • Wilhelm Brünings' forgotten contribution to the metabolic treatment of
           cancer utilizing hypoglycemia and a very low carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Rainer Johannes KlementThe growing interest in the alterations of tumor cell metabolism and their possible therapeutic exploitation also spurred new complementary and integrative approaches such as treating patients with a ketogenic diet (KD). KDs aim at inhibiting glycolytic tumor metabolism and growth, and have therefore been proposed as adjuncts not only to standard-of-care, but also to other therapies targeting tumor metabolism. Here I describe the life and forgotten work of one of the earliest researchers who realized the importance of altered tumor cell metabolism and its possible exploitation through metabolic modifications: Wilhelm Brünings. Brünings was a German natural scientist and physician famous for his innovative contributions to the fields of physiology and otorhinolaryngology. Based on the findings of Otto Warburg and his physiological reasoning he started to experiment with insulin administration and KDs in his patients with head and neck cancers, aiming to maximally lower blood glucose concentrations. He obtained encouraging short-term results, although most tumors became refractory to treatment after several weeks. His pioneering work is worth revisiting, especially for an international readership that may be unaware of his efforts, as hypoglycemic treatments, including the use of insulin injections and KDs, are currently being re-investigated as complementary and integrative cancer treatments.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Water and ethanol extracts of Plantago major leaves show anti-inflammatory
           activity on oral epithelial cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Muhammad Zubair, Cecilia Widén, Stefan Renvert, Kimmo RumpunenContextThe leaves of Plantago major have been used for the treatment of wounds and inflammation in folk medicine from prehistoric times. However there is no report on the use of P. major to treat inflammation in oral epithelial cell lines.ObjectiveThe present study was undertaken to reveal possible anti-inflammatory effects of Plantago major leaf extracts on oral epithelial cells in-vitro.Materials and methodsWater- and ethanol-based extracts of P. major leaves were prepared from freeze-dried plant material, and tested in-vitro using the oral epithelial cell line H400. The anti-inflammatory activity of P. major was tested against E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) assay.ResultsBoth the water- and the ethanol-based extracts, as well as a combination of the two extracts, showed anti-inflammatory activity. A concentration of 0.1 mg/mL (on dry weight basis) yielded the best results for all extracts.Discussion and conclusionThe results show that synergistic effects of both polyphenols and water-soluble compounds (possibly polysaccharides) are responsible for anti-inflammatory activities of P. major.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Correlative metabolomic fingerprinting and molecular docking studies of
           dermatological phytotherapeutics of South-Eastern Himalaya

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Priyankar Dey, Indrani Sarkar, Somit Dutta, Manas Ranjan Saha, Tapas Kumar ChaudhuriViburnum erubescens Wall., Rhododendron arboretum Sm., Eurya japonica Thumb., Symplocos lucida (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc, and Symplocos pyrifolia Wall. ex G. Don are extensively used by the native and ethnic populations of the South-Eastern Himalayan region for several dermatological conditions, yet their phytochemical composition remained largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore the therapeutically relevant volatile phytochemical compositions and study the molecular interactions against intracellular cytoregulatory transcription factors. Leaves of the five plants were subjected to Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GCMS) post silylation derivation. The results were further analyzed using multivariate statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). A total of 115 compounds were identified in the five plants. Multivariate analysis revealed optimum metabolomic correlation between S. pyrifolia and S. lucida (0.876), whereas lowest correlation was found between E. japonica and V. erubescens (−0.242). Arbutin, β-amyrin, betulin, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol demonstrated highest interaction with the molecular targets. Collectively, the present study revealed the bioactive volatile phytochemicals responsible the therapeutic uses against diverse skin conditions.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Evaluation of α-amylase, lipase inhibition and in-vivo pharmacological
           activities of Eucalyptus camaladulensis Dehnh leaf extract

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Anil Upreti, Bibek Byanju, Muna Fuyal, Apekshya Chhetri, Paras Pandey, Rajeswar Ranjitkar, Jyoti Joshi Bhatta, Bishnu Prasad PandeyIn this present study, phytochemical screening, anti-ulcer assay, anti-diarrhea assay, anti-inflammatory assay, analgesic assay, lipase activity assay, amylase activity assay and the anti-bacterial activity of Eucalyptus camaladulensis Dehnh leaf extracted with methanol and 50% ethanol was analyzed for biological significance. Physical characterization of the non-volatile component revealed the higher yield of 16.92% in 50% ethanol expediting the use of 50% ethanol as a better alternative. Further use of crude extract revealed 33.89% (IC50 = 1.44 mg/ml) of α-amylase inhibition by methanol extract and 33.87% (IC50 = 3.21 mg/ml) lipase inhibition by 50% ethanol extract. Furthermore, 44.44% protective ratio towards ulcer was observed with the methanol extract, whereas 54.58% anti-inflammatory activity was shown by the 50% ethanol extract. The effectiveness of the extract was further enhanced by the presence of 62.54% motility and best analgesic property at 180 min of the exposure of the extract orally. The antioxidant activity of crude methanol extract revealed an IC50 value 601.8 μg/ml whereas, ethanol extract showed 1279.58 μg/ml in DPPH assay. Result revealed several health benefits of E. camaldulensis Dehnh leaf.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Protective activity of geraniol against acetic acid and Helicobacter
           pylori- induced gastric ulcers in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Vivian Lee Yean Yan, Chin Koh Lee, Chew Hui Kuean, Mayuren Candasamy, Yun Khoon Liew, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan SahuGeraniol, an active constituent of rose and palmarosa essential oils, possesses several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, antibacterial and antiulcer activity. Geraniol was therefore investigated for its antiulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in rats. Ulcers were induced by injecting acetic acid into the sub-serosal layer of the stomach followed by orogastric inoculation of H. pylori for 7 days. Geraniol (15 and 30 mg/kg), vehicle and a standard drug combination (amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg; clarithromycin, 25 mg/kg and omeprazole, 20 mg/kg) were administered twice daily for 14 days. All the parameters were measured at the end of treatment. The ulcer index was significantly (P 
  • Studies on the effect of a nutritious vegetable, Telfairia
    on HbSS blood

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Mojisola C. Cyril-Olutayo, Joseph M. Agbedahunsi, Norah O. AkinolaMedicinal plants have been used traditionally in Africa, especially Nigeria, in the management of sickle cell disorder (SCD) whose treatment has been mainly palliative. The antisickling properties of ethanol extract of Telfairia occidentalis Hook, F. (TO) (Family Cucurbitaceae) leaf was tested in vitro at concentrations 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/mL using inhibitory and reversal models. Nitrogen gas was used to induce hypoxia for 1 h. The effect of TO on red cell density and cell membrane were also determined. The methanol sub fraction of TO extract was subjected to GC/MS to identify some of the active compounds. The TO gave antisickling activities of 78.84 ± 1.34% inhibition and 95.4 ± 0.81% reversal, which are significantly (p 
  • Magnesium taurate attenuates progression of hypertension and
           cardiotoxicity against cadmium chloride-induced hypertensive albino rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Parikshit Shrivastava, Rajesh Choudhary, Umashankar Nirmalkar, Amrita Singh, Jaya Shree, Prabhat Kumar Vishwakarma, Surendra H. BodakheThe present study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive activity and cardioprotective effects of magnesium taurate against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-intoxicated albino rats. Sprague Dawley male albino rats (120–150 g) were divided into five groups having six animals in each group. Hypertension and cardiotoxicity were induced in animals by administration of CdCl2 (0.5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for four weeks. Magnesium taurate (2 and 4 mg/kg/day) was administered orally after induction of hypertension (after two weeks) in their respective groups concurrently with CdCl2 for next two weeks. Amlodipine (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was used as a standard and administered after induction of hypertension. Blood pressure was monitored biweekly by using non-invasive blood pressure system and biochemical parameters and histopathology of the heart were evaluated after four weeks of the experimental protocol. During the four weeks of the experimental protocol, the toxic control group showed significant elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure concomitant with augmentation of cardiotoxicity as indicated by reduction in myocardial antioxidants including glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and increased malondialdehyde level in heart as compared to the normal group. The oral administrations of magnesium taurate significantly restored the blood pressure, myocardial antioxidants and malondialdehyde level as compared to toxic control group. In addition, histopathological examination showed that magnesium taurate treatments substantially reduced the myocardial damages against CdCl2 treatment. The results suggest that magnesium taurate has prominent antihypertensive and cardioprotective activity via its potent antioxidant activity and can be used as a nutrition supplement to improve the cardiovascular health.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Effectiveness of hot herbal compress versus topical diclofenac in treating
           patients with myofascial pain syndrome

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Jurairat Boonruab, Watchara Damjuti, Sunyarn Niempoog, Junya PattaraarchachaiMyofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a chronic pain disorder which causes musculoskeletal pain and inflammation in the body's soft tissues. Thai Traditional Medicine uses hot herbal compresses as analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment. There are no scientifically validated follow-up studies after treatment using hot herbal compresses. Effects of hot herbal compresses as an alternative treatment for MPS in the upper trapezius muscle compared with the standard treatment (diclofenac) were examined. Sixty patients with myofascial pain syndrome in the upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into two groups and assigned to receive either hot herbal compress or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac) treatment for 2 weeks. Clinical assessments included visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain score, cervical range of motion (CROM) for the neck and pressure pain threshold (PPT) tolerability before and after treatment. Within the groups, all treatments caused significant improvement in VAS and marginally increased effectiveness in PPT; however, only hot herbal compress treatment improved CROM. Hot herbal compress was more effective than diclofenac in all tests. Results provided comparable clinical efficacy between hot herbal compress and diclofenac after 2 weeks of treatment. Hot herbal compress proved to be an effective complementary or alternative treatment for MPS in the upper trapezius muscle.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • In silico validation of the indigenous knowledge of the herbal medicines
           among tribal communities in Sathyamangalam wildlife sanctuary, India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Pavithra Chinnasamy, Rajendran Arumugam, Sarvalingam AriyanThe ethno-botanical documentation among ethnic people in Sathyamangalam wildlife sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India has been investigated for the first time. A total of 61 medicinal plants having new combination uses were reported with adjuvant in the treatment of dermatological, Genitourinary and gastrointestinal ailments. This study could help in the recovery and conservation of traditional medicine system among educated generation. The present study was aimed to: (1) documentation of the traditional knowledge (2) quantitative analysis using Use value (UV), Informant consensus factor (ICF), Index of agreement on remedies (IAR), Relative frequency citation (RFC) and Cultural Importance index (CII) (3) validation of ethno-botanical data using in silico biological activity and toxicity prediction studies. Semi-structured direct interviews were conducted to acquire information from the study area tribes. Total of 89 tribes including both gender among various communities were interviewed and their ethno-botanical knowledge was documented. The data were assessed using ethno-botanical indices methods to estimate the consistency of usage herbal knowledge in various ailments. A total of 61 species were recorded for treatment of categorized ailments. The collected medicinal information from ethnic groups shows remarkable new usage of medicinal plants to particular ailments. Our comparative in silico studies also supported the traditional medicine results with correspondence to their bioactive. Traditional knowledge of ethnic people also linked to their culture and history. This study also infers the usage of traditional plant based medicine. Further research related to the bioactivities of reported plants should be encouraged to explore the importance in pharmaceutical industry.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Phytochemical evaluation and anti-hemorrhoidal activity of bark of
           Acacia ferruginea DC

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Samriti Faujdar, Bhawana Sati, Swapnil Sharma, A.K. Pathak, Sarvesh Kumar PaliwalThe present study has been carried out to evaluate antihemorrhoidal activity of bark of Acacia ferruginea DC. The total phenolic, total flavonoid and saponins were determined. Anti-hemorrhoidal potential of bark extract was determined by levels of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2 and recto-anal coefficient (RAC). The histopathological examination was done to evaluate the severity score in the treated and untreated groups. The results of phytochemical screening of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. ferruginea revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoid, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 438.8mg/g GAE, 66.6mg/gRE and 34%w/w respectively. Hydroalcoholic extract of bark of A. ferruginea significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokines {TNF-α(8.40±0.188), IL-6(3.95±0.181), PGE2(53.27±2.956) and RAC(0.998±0.094)}as compared to positive control group{TNF-α(13.36±0.141), IL-6(7.25±0.161), PGE2(82.34±3.395) and RAC(1.131 ± 0.008)}. Noticeably the results were comparable to that of standard pilex granules {TNF-α (7.12±0.166), IL-6(3.01±0.156), PGE2(42.51±2.157) and RAC (0.968±0.084)}. Molecular docking and structure based pharmacophore mapping further confirmed the anti-inflammatory mediated antihemorrhoidal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract. The antihemorrhoidal activity of hydroalcoholic extract of A. ferruginea may attribute to the flavonoids.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Clinical study of effectiveness and safety of CELcomplex® containing
           Cucurbita Pepo Seed extract and Flax and Casuarina on stress urinary
           incontinence in women

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Andrea Gažová, Simona Valášková, Viera Žufková, Ana M. Castejon, Ján KyselovičAimThe safety and effectiveness of a preparation containing a mix of Cucurbita Pepo Seed extract, Equisetum arvense and Linum usitatissimum - Flax A (CELcomplex®) on stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was evaluated in female patients recruited from 20 urological and gynaecological outpatient clinics in Slovakia.MethodsA total of 86 women aged from 32 to 88 with SUI (grade 1 = 44, grade 2 = 42) were enrolled in the study and followed-up for six weeks (point 1) and twelve weeks (point 2). The primary outcome of the study was evaluated by changes in day-time and nocturnal urinary frequency (bathroom visits) and urinary incontinence episodes (leaks). Also, adverse events were quantified as well as the self-perceived effectiveness of the treatment. Research Ethics Board approval was obtained for this study.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treatment there was a 30% (grade 1 SUI, p 
  • Identification of glucosyl transferase inhibitors from Psidium guajava
           against Streptococcus mutans in dental caries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): S. Bhagavathy, C. Mahendiran, R. KanchanaDental caries is a multi factorial disease that starts with microbiological shifts affected by salivary flow, composition, exposure to fluoride, consumption of dietary sugars, and preventive behaviours. The Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is an initiator of caries because there is a variety of a virulence factor unique to the bacterium that has been isolated and plays an important role in caries formation. The aim of the present study is to identify the beneficial effect of bioactive compounds in Psidium guajava (P. guajava) and its inhibitory role against S. mutans in dental caries. The methanolic extract was used for analysis of GC-MS for the identification of bioactive compounds. The results confirm the existence of 7 different compounds. The identified bioactive compounds were corynan-17-ol, 18,19-didehydro-10-methyoxy-acetate, Copaene, 3Bicyclo(5.2.0)nonane, 2-methylene-4,8,8-trimethyl-4-vinyl,Azulene,1,2,3a,4,5,6,7-octahydro-1,4-dimethyl-7-methylethenyl) [1R- (1a,3aa′,4a′,7a′)], α-Caryophyllene, Alloaromadendrene oxide-(1) and Androstan-17-one, 3-ethyl-3-hydroxy-, (5a). The saliva of dental caries during and after treatment of aqueous leaf extract was used for the analysis of bacterial load and determining the activity of Glucosyl transferase (GTF). The result obtained at different time intervals, showed significant decrease (P 
  • Neuroprotective potency of some spice herbs, a literature review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Mohammad Reza Khazdair, Akbar Anaeigoudari, Milad Hashemzehi, Reza MohebbatiIn recent years, growing attention has been given to traditional medicine. In traditional medicine a large number of plants have been used to cure neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other memory related disorders. Crocus sativus (C. sativus), Nigella sativa (N. sativa), Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), Ferula assafoetida (F. assafoetida), Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris), Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) were used traditionally for dietary, food additive, spice and various medicinal purposes. The Major components of these herbs are carotenoids, monoterpenes and poly phenol compounds which enhanced the neural functions.These medicinal plants increased anti-oxidant, decreased oxidant levels and inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in the neural system. Furthermore, neuroprotective of plants occur via reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and total nitrite generation.Therefore, the effects of the above mentioned medicinal and their active constituents improved neurodegenerative diseases which indicate their therapeutic potential in disorders associated with neuro-inflammation and neurotransmitter deficiency such as AD and depression.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Profiling and determination of phenolic compounds in poly herbal
           formulations and their comparative evaluation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Sathis Kumar Dinakaran, Shalaka Chelle, Harani AvasaralaNowadays, plants have been considered as powerful agents for treatment of disorders regarding to their traditional use. Plants have a special role in the treatment of various diseases in Ayurveda (Indian Traditional Medicine). Diabetes with their devastating outcomes has been discussed in Ayurveda as well. In the present study, a marketed polyherbal products (DBC & DMV), retrieved from Ayurveda, was purchased from market and its pharmacognostic standardization were performed. Quality control test for the Ayurveda tablets were performed as per Indian Pharmacopoeia. In addition to the dissolution studies for the poly herbal Ayurveda marketed formulations were assessed based on the phenolic content. Fingerprinting of phytochemical constituents of DBC & DMV was performed using spectroscopical (like IR and UV) and chromatographic techniques like HPTLC and TLC. The results showed that DBC & DMV was successfully passed quality control tests. Moreover, DBC & DMV exhibited different pharmacognostic behavior of all herbs present in the product. In addition, TLC, IR and HPTLC fingerprinting of DBC & DMV demonstrated the presence of several phenolic constituents corresponding to the poly herbs. Regarding to the role of phenolic compounds in diabetic process, DBC & DMV could be an appropriate candidate for diabetic with respect to its traditional use in Ayurveda formulation. Moreover, HPTLC fingerprinting could be utilized as an applicable method for quality control of the prepared formulation.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • The medical perspective of cupping therapy: Effects and mechanisms of

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Abdullah M.N. Al-Bedah, Ibrahim S. Elsubai, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, Tamer Shaban Aboushanab, Gazzaffi I.M. Ali, Ahmed Tawfik El-Olemy, Asim A.H. Khalil, Mohamed K.M. Khalil, Meshari Saleh AlqaedCupping Therapy (CT) is an ancient method and currently used in the treatment of a broad range of medical conditions. Nonetheless the mechanism of action of (CT) is not fully understood. This review aimed to identify possible mechanisms of action of (CT) from modern medicine perspective and offer possible explanations of its effects. English literature in PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar was searched using key words. Only 223 articles identified, 149 records screened, and 74 articles excluded for irrelevancy. Only 75 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, included studies in this review were 64. Six theories have been suggested to explain the effects produced by cupping therapy. Pain reduction and changes in biomechanical properties of the skin could be explained by “Pain-Gate Theory”, “Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Controls” and “Reflex zone theory”. Muscle relaxation, changes in local tissue structures and increase in blood circulation might be explained by “Nitric Oxide theory”. Immunological effects and hormonal adjustments might be attributed to “Activation of immune system theory”. Releasing of toxins and removal of wastes and heavy metals might be explained by “Blood Detoxification Theory”. These theories may overlap or work interchangeably to produce various therapeutic effects in specific ailments and diseases. Apparently, no single theory exists to explain the whole effects of cupping. Further researches are needed to support or refute the aforesaid theories, and also develop innovative conceptualizations of (CT) in future.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • In search of suitable extraction technique for large scale commercial
           production of bioactive fraction for the treatment of diabetes: The case
           Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Journal of Traditional and Complementary MedicineAuthor(s): Md. Harun Al Rashid, Sayani Majumder, Vivekananda Mandal, Subhash C. Mandal, Rajarajan Amirthalingam ThandavarayanDiospyros melanoxylon Roxb. (D. melanoxylon) belongs to the family Ebenaceae and its leaves are very well known for making beedi throughout the World. The current study estimated the comparative extraction technique and its in-vitro antidiabetic prospective of the leaves of D. melanoxylon. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis of the samples from D. melanoxylon was carried out for the detection of secondary metabolites. Total phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids and tannins content of D. melanoxylon were estimated using colorimetric assay. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique with a low carbon output was observed for the speedy extraction of bioactive compounds obtained from Diospyros melanoxylon leaf extract. MAE produced a maximum yield of bioactive compounds which was found to be more efficient than ultrasound, soxhlet and maceration extraction. Qualitative HPLC analysis was performed for bioactive compounds. The in-vitro antidiabetic assay was performed using α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In conclusion, the fractions exhibited the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect with significant (P 
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