for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (Total: 169 journals)
    - MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (5 journals)
    - PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (149 journals)
    - SECURITY (15 journals)

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (149 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Academy of Management Annals, The     Full-text available via subscription   (15 followers)
Accounting and the Public Interest     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Administratio     Open Access  
Administração Pública e Gestão Social     Open Access   (1 follower)
Administration in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (19 followers)
Administrative Sciences     Open Access   (2 followers)
Administrative Theory & Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
African Journal of Governance and Development     Full-text available via subscription  
American Review of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
ATA Journal of Legal Tax Research     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Australian Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review     Open Access  
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (1 follower)
Canadian Public Administration/Administration Publique Du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Cities     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Citizenship Studies     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Clinical Social Work Journal     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance     Open Access   (3 followers)
Congress & the Presidency: A Journal of Capital Studies     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Criterio Libre     Open Access  
Critical Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Cuadernos de Administración     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Relaciones Laborales     Open Access  
Der Staat     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Die Verwaltung     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Documentos y Aportes en Administración Pública y Gestión Estatal     Open Access  
Économie publique/Public economics     Open Access   (1 follower)
eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government     Open Access   (5 followers)
eJournal of Public Affairs     Open Access  
Electronic Government, an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Electronic Journal of e-Government     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Éthique publique     Open Access  
Études rurales     Open Access   (2 followers)
EURE (Santiago) - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Urbano Regionales     Open Access  
European Journal of Government and Economics     Open Access  
European Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Federal Governance     Open Access   (1 follower)
Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research     Open Access   (1 follower)
Future Studies Research Journal : Trends and Strategies     Open Access   (1 follower)
Gaceta Sanitaria     Open Access   (1 follower)
Georgia Journal of Public Policy     Open Access  
Gestión y Política Pública     Open Access  
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Governance     Hybrid Journal   (140 followers)
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (12 followers)
Government Information Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (14 followers)
Government News     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Growth and Change     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
HR Highway     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Human Resource Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Ids Working Papers     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
IMIESA     Full-text available via subscription  
International Affairs and Global Strategy     Open Access   (3 followers)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
International Journal of Leadership in Public Services, The     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
International Journal of Public Sector Performance Management     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International NGO Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Asian Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Community Practice     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis : Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Developing Areas     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Journal of E-Governance     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of European Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (21 followers)
Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement     Open Access   (11 followers)
Journal of Management & Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Journal of Nursing Management     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Journal of Park and Recreation Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of Public Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (17 followers)
Journal of Public Administration and Governance     Open Access   (8 followers)
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (16 followers)
Journal of Science and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
Law, Democracy & Development     Open Access   (5 followers)
Law, Innovation and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Liinc em Revista     Open Access  
Local Government Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Local Government Studies     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Macramè. Trame e ritagli dell’urbanistica     Open Access   (1 follower)
Middle East Law and Governance     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
National Civic Review     Hybrid Journal  
National Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy     Open Access   (2 followers)
Organisational Transformation and Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Orientación y Sociedad : Revista Internacional e Interdisciplinaria de Orientación Vocacional Ocupacional     Open Access  
P3T : Journal of Public Policies and Territory     Open Access   (1 follower)
Parliaments, Estates and Representation     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
People Management     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Politeia     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Politiques et Management Public     Open Access   (1 follower)
Poverty & Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Prison Journal     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (21 followers)

        1 2 | Last

Public Policy    [13 followers]  Follow    
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 1833-2110
     Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [423 journals]
  • Volume 7 Issue 2 - Information as control: Three performance management
           scenarios
    • Abstract: Stewart, Jenny Performance measurement and management (PMM) uses outputs and outcomes-related information as a mechanism for shaping and directing the implementation of public policy. While the relevant literature suggests that the practical reality of PMM often falls short of its theoretical promise, there are few studies that trace the actual processes involved. The present article presents three such cases drawn from recent Australian experience, and suggests that each represents a distinctive pattern of failure. In order to dramatise the relationships and trajectories involved, each case-study type is styled as a scenario. Three scenarios are presented: the dead letter; the illusion of progress; and the unintended consequence. It is suggested that the successful use of PMM requires extensive (and continuous) stakeholder involvement in order to reduce the risk of disappointing or dysfunctional outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Feb 2013 09:25:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 2 - Better public services': Public management and the
           New Zealand model
    • Abstract: Duncan, Grant; Chapman, Jeff Debate has continued about the trajectory of the New Public Management (NPM) and its effects on public services; and this now occurs alongside alternative models, especially public value and governance. Such conceptual debate relies upon, and must stand the test of, the observation of events and developments in real-world public sectors. New Zealand is regarded as having, in the past, applied NPM in a comprehensive or even radical manner, and hence is followed with some interest as a case-study. This country has, however, refined and revised - and sometimes reversed - different aspects of the NPM reforms since 1996. In order to restore organizational cohesion and a strategic focus on complex policy goals, recent developments there have addressed strengths and shortcomings of the NPM, as well as introducing alternative models of public management, such as public value and governance. The present article addresses these issues, supported by a narrative of public management evolution in New Zealand after the radical reforms of the period 1986-96, and focusing especially on the Better Public Services reforms of 2012.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Feb 2013 09:25:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 2 - Community-based policing as an alternative to 'stop and
           search'': The example of Northbridge, Western Australia
    • Abstract: Drum, Martin; Baldino, Daniel The Western Australian government's proposed 'stop and search' legislation has drawn considerable opposition from many groups both within the state parliament and the broader community. After the release of a parliamentary committee report which was critical of the proposal, the government's junior partners, the Nationals, announced that they would not support it, effectively ending the possibility that it would become law. Rather than revisiting arguments for and against this legislation, this paper will focus on four alternative strategies - active citizenship, community policing, problem-orientated policing and visible policing - that could be considered in order to resolve the problems cited as justifying expanded law and order legislation, using examples from Northbridge, the principal entertainment precinct in Perth. While 'stop and search' might continue to be a political focal point in preventing and detecting crime, policing frameworks that erode trust will also make co-operation harder. This is particularly evident between police forces and the groups who are often singled out, as well as among the wider public.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Feb 2013 09:25:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 2 - Failing forward: Public schools and new public
           management
    • Abstract: Fitzgerald, Scott; Rainnie, Al This article analyses ongoing processes of neoliberalisation within the Australian public education system. Specifically it looks at how the recent incarnation of "self-managing schools" policy within Western Australia extends already entrenched elements of New Public Management, namely market competition, managerialism, and performance management. The new dominant rationalities will have an uneven, yet overall harmful effect on the working conditions of teachers and principals, the largest segment of the state's public sector workforce, and will not prove to be beneficial for the majority of students. Indeed, while these policies may be based on the assumption that, with regards to school outcomes "demography is not destiny", the present policy has strong implications of growing social and spatial inequalities in Australian society. Rather than limiting the roll out process, the clear inadequacies and subsequent "failures" of the existing policy are likely to propel further processes of neoliberalisation in the education system.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Feb 2013 09:25:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 2 - Puritans and pragmatists: How climate change sceptics
           engage the climate policy debate
    • Abstract: van Rensburg, Willem Climate change sceptics often argue from a principled position that climate policies are unnecessary because human emissions of greenhouse gases are not the primary driver of climate change. Scholars claim that this stance is in fact motivated by a deep-seated individualistic worldview and represents an attempt to preserve 'business-as-usual'. This article investigates the policy preferences of a range of climate change sceptics in Australia and finds that the 'business-as-usual' characterisation obscures differences amongst climate change sceptics about the utility of climate policies as well as how to respond to existing climate policies. A significant 'pragmatist' tendency that both accepts the reality of climate policies and seeks to guide climate policy in preferred directions is found amongst sceptics. The article concludes that there are areas of potential conceptual convergence between the pragmatic sceptic and mainstream climate discourses that could be communicatively exploited to build support for current climate policies.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Feb 2013 09:25:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 2 - Politics and policy: Measuring the effect of the child
           care tax rebate on childcare affordability
    • Abstract: Baker, David Childcare affordability is a perennial issue. Using data collected in the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey this paper analyses the trend in reported difficulties between 2001 and 2010 with the cost of childcare. In response to popular concern about the rising cost of childcare the incumbent Howard Government announced the Child Care Tax Rebate during the 2004 election campaign. The policy provided a capped 30 per cent tax rebate to all families using formal childcare. At the 2007 election the Opposition campaigned on raising the rebate to 50 per cent and was elected to form government. This article measures the proportion of household disposable income spent on childcare costs and compares this cost:income ratio with reported difficulties to assess the effectiveness of this policy in making childcare more affordable. The potential influence of increased debate about childcare affordability and policy responses during election campaigns is also considered. It is concluded that this policy has at best provided only short-term benefits to families and that reported cost difficulties appear to be affected in some part by policy announcements.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Feb 2013 09:25:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 2 - The Queensland commission of audit interim report -
           June 2012: A critical review
    • Abstract: Quiggin, John The interim report of the Queensland Commission of Audit (2012) has been presented as an independent assessment of the finances of the Queensland State Government. In reality, the appointment of an Audit Commission is a routine political manoeuvre undertaken by incoming governments seeking to abandon electoral commitments. The Commission has not discovered any 'black holes' or substantial mis-statements in the budget estimates of the outgoing Labor government. The Commission's focus on gross public sector debt is misplaced. The most relevant measure of the balance sheet as a whole, public sector net worth, remains strong. Queensland faces the problem of meeting growing demands for services such as health and education, while having access to only a limited range of revenue sources. As noted by the Commission Queensland has public expenditure levels similar to those of other states, but has lower tax effort, primarily because of generous concessions on land and payroll tax. The shortfall in tax revenue caused by these unjustified concessions is the primary reason for Queensland's budget difficulties. The Commission recognises the distortions and inefficiency associated with these concessions but proposes no concrete measures to address them.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Feb 2013 09:25:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Misconceiving regional/local tensions: Two case studies
           from Tasmania
    • Abstract: Dollery, Brian; Kortt, Michael; Wijeweera, Albert While tensions between the imperatives of regional, state and national development and local autonomy are common, there is no necessary trade-off between the two since regional development can co-exist with a vibrant system of local government. However, this is often not readily appreciated in Australian policy debates, which frequently juxtapose regional and local governance structures. This paper examines two cases studies of this approach in Tasmania, which have generated bitter controversy, in the form of the Southern Tasmania Council Association (STCA) sponsored Independent Panel into Local Government in the Southern Tasmania regional area which produced a Final Report (the 'Munro Report') entitled Independent Review of Structures for Local Governance and Service Delivery in Southern Tasmania and the Tasmanian Division of the Property Council of Australia sponsored Deloitte Access Economics (2011) Report entitled Local Government Structural Reform in Tasmania. It is argued that both documents err poorly in both conceptual and empirical terms and this renders their recommendations for radical local government amalgamation fatally flawed.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 10:18:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Regional and local tensions: The role of shared
           services
    • Abstract: Kortt, Michael; Dollery, Brian; Grant, Bligh Regional development and local government often exist in a state of tension, especially where efforts to foster regional development are channelled through proposals to consolidate existing local councils into larger 'regional councils', and where this follows from the view that larger government authorities are more efficient than smaller ones. With respect to amalgamation, critics point to the controversy generated by local government consolidation, the absence of authoritative empirical evidence of scale economies, the equivocal outcomes reported in case studies, and the reduction of local democracy. Moreover, structural change through consolidation is often met with an auxiliary argument for the implementation of shared services arrangements between local government entities. Proponents of shared services commonly argue that since only some local government services exhibit economies of scale, structural change should focus on the joint provision of these services. Thus, shared services arrangements can play an important role in easing the tension between regional development and local development by fostering and supporting collaboration in an effort to improve local government service delivery, while at the same time maintaining 'local voice' and 'local choice'. Given the potential policy interest in shared services arrangements, this paper (i) reviews the current body of empirical evidence on the economic outcomes of shared services arrangements and (ii) considers the associated policy implications. We conclude that cooperation between councils in the form of shared services arrangements should be pursued because it may not only result in cost-savings but could also lead to 'bottom-up' revival of regional development. In our view, this collaborative approach is a far better policy option than the 'top-down' policy approach that has been historically imposed on local communities in the form of forced council consolidation.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 10:18:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Locally constructed regionalism: The city of greater
           Geraldton, Western Australia
    • Abstract: Grant, Bligh; Dollery, Brian; van der Westhuizen, Gert Since 2007, the Rudd and Gillard Labor governments have demonstrated a heightened interest in both local government and regional governance arrangements. However, previous attempts at reinforcing the legitimacy of Australian local government and engendering regionalism across the Australian polity have faltered, (see, for example, Megarrity, 2012). Further, combined with forced or encouraged amalgamation programs across all state and territory jurisdictions, local government still resembles the 'poor cousin' in Australia's federal structure (Aulich, 2005). Yet local governments in the majority of Australian jurisdictions have recently been given extensive planning powers, particularly in the form of legislatively mandated Community Strategic Plans (CSPs) which are to be arrived at through processes of community engagement. This paper examines the recently initiated and on-going community engagement process in the City of Greater Geraldton in Western Australia. It is argued that viewed alongside the process of consolidation and federally-initiated regional institutions, an aggressive community engagement strategy is contributing to the reshaping of the region, in both economic and ideational terms.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 10:18:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Water-sensitive urban design and water economics:
           Getting the local questions right
    • Abstract: Crase, Lin; O'Keefe, Sue A core part of the early Australian water reform processes was the commitment to ensure that all water-related projects passed economic muster before receiving support. This meant that projects were subjected to greater scrutiny, at least during the early phases of reform. From the perspective of localism, enhanced economic analysis has much to offer, especially for its ability to bring to the fore the costs of centralised decisions that are excessively coercive or at odds with local realities. In the water reform agenda, the emphasis on economic analysis has been supplanted by enthusiasm for projects on other grounds. For example, the sponsorship of infrastructure projects on the basis that they give rise to 'water-use efficiency' has become a common rationale, regardless of the economic and environmental consequences or local repercussions. This paper is used to critically evaluate the conditions under which 'water sensitive urban design' is consistent with the economic criteria espoused in early episodes of Australian water policy and to reflect on the consequences of overlooking important local nuances in this domain.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 10:18:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Local government and regional development Australia
           committees in New South Wales: Why tensions exist and how they might be
           resolved - an insider's perspective
    • Abstract: Tiley, Ian In June 2009 and August 2009 respectively, the Commonwealth, in partnership with the NSW Government, commenced the operation of Regional Development Australia (RDA) Committees with the appointment of Chairpersons and members. Minister Crean confirmed broad roles for the Committees, including preparation of Regional Plans and significant involvement in the RDA Fund (RDAF) process. Commonwealth funding of vital hard infrastructure under RDAF has been well received by the local government sector. However, councils have been required to propose projects which, in Round One, were to align with RDA Regional Plans and demonstrate regional significance. Round Two funding required local government proponents to lodge Expressions of Interest (EOI's) for assessment by RDA Committees, which were required by the Commonwealth to select a maximum of three EOIs to go forward for more detailed consideration. These and other matters relating to RDAF have caused tensions between RDAs and local government. The paper discusses those tensions and suggests options to overcome the concerns of local government.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 10:18:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Local and regional government in remote and
           unincorporated Australia: Sui Generis'
    • Abstract: Blackwell, Boyd D Most of Australia's geographical area is remote or very remote. Many parts of remote Australia are not incorporated into the area of a local government. For people in these areas, democratically elected and accountable local representation does not exist. How then are the local views of these people heard without bias and acted upon' This paper reviews the various institutional arrangements governing remote and unincorporated areas to reveal that while weak forms of representation exist they are far from being democratic, accountable and representative at the local level. As a second best solution to local and democratically elected government, this paper reviews available approaches for assessing the social, economic and environmental values held by people with a view to identifying those methods that may best work in remote and unincorporated Australia. The paper concludes that new methods are required based on a combination of remote sensing, participatory and integrated assessment approaches. The development of these new methods is area for future research.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 10:18:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Regional dreams: Local government and its relationship
           with the commonwealth, 1943-75
    • Abstract: Megarrity, Lyndon This paper traces the evolution of the Commonwealth-local government relationship from 1943 to 1975 with an emphasis on federal attempts to incorporate local government within broader regional frameworks. Between 1943 and 1975, local government was seen by the Commonwealth as an important feature of the federal system, but Labor in particular reacted to local issues by wanting to transform local governments into regional authorities, or, at times, by bypassing the local government sector altogether. The ambivalent nature of Labor's relationship with local government reflected the uncertain status of the local government sector in the federal system, as well as the Commonwealth's preference for generic, 'big picture' regionalism over addressing more specific local concerns such as autonomy and identity.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 10:18:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Local government and regional governance in Australia:
           History, theory and policy
    • Abstract: Grant, Bligh; Dollery, Brian; Kortt, Michael The idea of recasting the Australian political landscape to incorporate an increased recognition of regions is both longstanding and intriguing. For example, in his introduction to New Australian States, U. R. Ellis (1933: 9) observed that while 'no complete history of the fight for local self-government in Australia has ever been written the Riverina and New England movements date back more than seventy years and the desire for domestic independence in Central and North Queensland has existed for almost as long'. Couched in these terms, arguments for increasing the number of states, based upon regional self-identification, were embedded in federalism as political theory. This theory recognised both the validity of the concept of local autonomy, or what Ellis (1933: 9) then referred to as 'home rule' (see, for example, Grant and Dollery, 2012), as well as the dangers of an 'unbalanced federalism', whereby regional and rural areas within states became subservient to the electorally-dominant industrialised cities.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 10:18:37 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - A commentary on the mechanics of referring matters
           under s 51(xxxvii) of the constitution
    • Abstract: Calcutt, Greg The provision enjoyed something of a heyday in the 1940s when a range of matters falling within the legislative powers of the States were referred to the Commonwealth Parliament in recognition of the need for a more centralised approach to peace, order and good government in times of war and post-war reconstruction. This method of extending the Commonwealth's legislative powers then went out of fashion for about four decades. However, since the mid-1980s, a number of significant matters (for example: family law, industrial relations, corporations, water management and terrorism) have been the subject of referrals under s 51(xxxvii).
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Intergovernmental agreements
    • Abstract: Williams, Daryl R Intergovernmental agreements are made by a variety of parties and in differing ways, take a wide range of forms, deal with many different subject-matters, and are entered into for differing purposes. While the essential feature of an intergovernmental agreement is cooperative action by different jurisdictions, the purposes sought to be achieved by the different parties may be quite different. Most intergovernmental agreements are not justiciable, since the political nature of the agreement and, sometimes, the lack of precision in its terms, negate an intention to create legal relations. The most direct source of power to make intergovernmental agreements is section 61 of the Commonwealth Constitution. Two recent cases in the High Court of Australia have regenerated interest in intergovernmental agreements.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Commentary on a paper delivered by the Hon Daryl
           Williams qc on intergovernmental agreements
    • Abstract: Mitchell, RM I don't know whether it is entirely appropriate to refer to the Attorney General of the Commonwealth as working at the "coal face". To the extent that it is, his tales from the coal face of intergovernmental agreements are very insightful. In particular, his anecdotes illustrate the informality with which intergovernmental agreements may be reached even at the highest levels of government on issues of national significance.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - The state of state immunity - Clarke and the 'Austin'
           reformulation
    • Abstract: Hill, Graeme This paper discusses the reformulation of the Melbourne Corporation doctrine in Austin (2003), which has been confirmed in Clarke (2009). The previous "two-limb" approach has been replaced with a single test of validity. This paper considers first the continuing role for discrimination in the Melbourne Corporation doctrine (which previously was the subject of the "first limb"). The fact that a Commonwealth law discriminates against a State is still a highly significant factor, and indeed it is suggested that discriminatory laws raise special issues that might warrant separate treatment. The paper then considers the concept of a "significant" curtailment or interference with State constitutional power. Clarke confirms that significance is a matter of qualitative judgment, rather than empirical fact.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Constitutional musings on 'Clarke' and 'Austin'
    • Abstract: Murray, Sarah Constitutional law is rarely a field for prophecy. However, in Austin, Hayne J referred to Counsel as "slipping through with the speed of summer lightning". His Honour was no doubt oblivious to the fact that a poem titled "Summer Lightning" was crafted by a celebrated poet whose name, Austin Clarke, reflected the decision before the High Court and that which was set to follow it (Clarke 1974:190). It is the combined impact of these two State immunity cases, teased out by Graeme Hill, which this piece considers.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Future directions in federalism - where will the high
           court go'
    • Abstract: Twomey, Anne The High Court's appreciation and application of principles of federalism in constitutional interpretation has been erratic. It reached one of its lowest points in the Work Choices Case in 2006, but since then there has been a small, but perhaps significant, revival of consideration of federalism in the High Court's jurisprudence. This paper analyses the High Court's jurisprudence over the period from 2009 to mid-2011 to ascertain how it has approached federalism issues. It breaks this analysis down into four categories: the distribution of executive power; the exercise of judicial and non-judicial power by State courts; the Commonwealth's power to tax, spend and grant; and implied limitations on State legislative power. It concludes that while principles of federalism have been used to impose some further constraints upon Commonwealth power, federalism is almost always trumped by the High Court's interest in protecting the integrity of the courts and the rights of individuals.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Referral of powers
    • Abstract: McGinty, Jim Rigidity and the unlikely prospect of constitutional amendment, coupled with dominance of federal laws and financial power, requires that alternative ways of enabling the Commonwealth to work in areas of State responsibility be found if the Commonwealth Constitution is to work. Formal referral of powers under s 51(xxxvii) of the Commonwealth Constitution is one mechanism. Far more prevalent are intergovernmental agreements, tied funding arrangements, and direct federal funding of state responsibilities, such as school and hospital capital works, all of which see the Commonwealth increasingly exercising state powers and functions.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Fiscal equalisation and natural resources in federal
           systems
    • Abstract: Fenna, Alan Redistribution from wealthier to less-wealthy jurisdictions is a common if not virtually universal practice in federal systems and accords with some of the key principles of federalism. However, it easily becomes controversial or contested - particularly when resource revenues are at stake. This paper looks at the particular challenge posed by regionally-concentrated resource wealth in boom times and considers equity and efficiency arguments for a dilution or abolition of Australia's comprehensive system of horizontal fiscal equalisation put forward by 'donor' States and others.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - The grants commission and the future of the
           federation
    • Abstract: Porter, CChristian This paper considers the present and historical operation of the Commonwealth Grants Commission (CGC) in order to illustrate that outcomes now being produced are suboptimal for all Australians and that the CGC's role in the Australian Federation can no longer be considered a net positive one. In making this point about the CGC's role, the paper is concerned with questions of political organisation or what is sometimes referred to as the mechanics of Australian government. In asserting that a reformed organisational structure which dispenses with some of the present features of the CGC's functioning would produce better outcomes for the Australian nation, the paper necessarily strays at times from a political science based consideration of the mechanics of Australian government to make some comments regarding the economic effects of the present operation of the CGC. Finally, based on an organisational and economic consideration of the CGC, the paper makes a short constitutional observation.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Fiscal federalism: A commentary on Andrew Lynch's
           paper
    • Abstract: Johnston, Peter In his paper, Andrew Lynch diagnoses the present health of the governmental finance system in Australia as it operates within the context of the Federal Constitution. He reinforces the many studies by other constitutionalists, political scientists and macro-economists who almost universally affirm that the Australian states, while important integers in the Federal system, operate under significant constraints because they have seriously deficient access to available sources of revenue (Wiltshire 2006:185; Twomey 2008).
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Commonwealth financial powers - taxation, direct
           spending and grants - scope and limitations
    • Abstract: Lynch, Andrew Discussions about Australian fiscal federalism are traditionally underpinned by contrasting the limited capacity of State governments to independently raise sufficient revenue to acquit their extensive responsibilities in major service areas with the financial strength of the Commonwealth. Accordingly, the latter's policy domination over the States is driven by their acceptance of 'financial assistance' on such terms and conditions as the Commonwealth thinks fit. The effects of this for accountability and responsible government on one hand and the vitality of the federal division of power on the other have been corrosive. However, in recent years two important developments in fiscal federalism have occurred which require a reappraisal of this picture. Both the 2009 decision of the High Court in Pape v Federal Commissioner of Taxation and the 2008 Intergovernmental Agreement on Federal Financial Relations hold the potential for significant changes in the way in which Commonwealth money is put to use in the federation, and what this might mean for the position of the States and intergovernmental relations. This paper discusses both of these, offering a cautious assessment of the significance of each for reshaping the dynamics of our federal system early into its second century.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Commentary on John Williams' paper
    • Abstract: Taylor, Greg Australian constitutional scholarship owes a huge debt to Professor John Williams, and providing a commentary on his paper is largely a task of mentioning things he has run out of time for.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - The drafting of the commonwealth constitution
    • Abstract: Williams, John M The drafting of the Australian Constitution was a process that involved the distillation of political compromises into the language of a parliamentary enactment. This article reflects upon the process of drafting the Australian Constitution and highlights a number of significant influences on the final text. The article concludes by noting some of the universal themes and functions that constitutions and constitution-making plays in society.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - What is the future for Australian federalism'
    • Abstract: Gallop, Geoff This paper provides a outline of the politics involved in the origins and development of the COAG Reform Agenda. It argues that the implementation of the agenda has not been complemented with cultural change and institutional reform will be needed if we are to complete the picture. The problem is - who will take the lead for that to happen'
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 6 Issue 1/2 - Foreword
    • Abstract: Murray, Sarah
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2012 09:50:47 GMT
       
  • Volume 5 Issue 2 - A Comparative Assessment of Australian Student Visa
           Policy
    • Abstract: Phillimore, John; Koshy, Paul Following recent falls in international student commencements in Australia, there has been a renewed call for a revision to student visa policy. In response to this discussion the Commonwealth Government established the Knight Review of the Student Visa Program in December 2010. This paper discusses several policy options following a comparative analysis of student visa systems in Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. The underlying finding is that Australia's student visa system is more complex, more costly and imposes greater financial obligations on international students and their families than comparable countries. Australia could benefit from an overall simplification of its student visa system, including a streamlining of the number of visas available to students and a reduction in the stringency of the tests applied in regard to financial capacity and proof of funding. In addition, attention should be paid to post-study employment options under the student visa system and the nexus between higher education attainment and immediate work options.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2011 10:49:08 GMT
       
  • Volume 5 Issue 2 - Constitutional Amendment and Policy-Making through the
           Citizen-initiated Referendum
    • Abstract: Fenna, Alan With control over the Constitutional amendment procedure held tightly in the hands of the prime minister and a record of very few successful referendums in Australia, the idea of opening up the process by introduction of the citizen-initiated referendum presents itself. This paper considers two implications of CIR in particular - its tendency to conflate constitutional law and ordinary law; and its encouragement of a 'tyranny of the majority'. The paper concludes that any experiment with such a questionably democratic device should occur at the State rather than national level, and that important procedural safeguards be applied.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2011 10:49:08 GMT
       
  • Volume 5 Issue 2 - The Evolution of Labor's Health Reform Agenda: A
           Preliminary Assessment
    • Abstract: Kay, Adrian; Eccleston, Richard One of the most prominent and popular commitments made during the 2007 federal election was the Labor Party's pledge to 'end the blame game' afflicting Australian federalism and to reform Australia's health system to meet demands of the 21st century. By early 2010 Labor's campaign commitment gave rise to the proposed National Health and Hospital Network which has now been superseded by an alternative national health reform package which won the preliminary support of State and Territory Premiers and Chief Ministers at a February 2011 Council of Australian Government (COAG) meeting. Given these developments this paper analyses the original NHHN proposal with a particular emphasis on evaluating its financial viability and whether it was likely to improve the efficiency of Australia's health system. The paper concludes with a preliminary assessment of the 'Gillard Model' and the likely implications of its alternative funding model.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2011 10:49:08 GMT
       
  • Volume 5 Issue 2 - The Home Insulation Program Policy Debacle: Haste Makes
           Waste
    • Abstract: Lewis, Chris The Rudd government's Home Insulation Program (HIP) is widely recognised as a significant policy failure. By reference to standard texts on Australian public policy, this article argues that the HIP debacle owed much to the government's determination to implement a program speedily without adequate planning or consultation. Although the HIP was part of an economic stimulus package to address declining private sector activity resulting from the global financial crisis, the program's effectiveness was significantly diminished owing to insufficient attention to good public policy recommendations that would have enhanced the HIP's potential success.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2011 10:49:08 GMT
       
  • Volume 5 Issue 2 - Has There Been a Revolution in Women's Work'
    • Abstract: Tapper, Alan This paper questions the common view that in the past half-century Australian women have radically changed their focus from unpaid domestic work to employed work. The common view is largely based on labour force participation rates. These rates give a deceptive picture. Actual work activity has to be tracked using figures on hours worked. This paper presents two sets of hourly figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), one set dating back to 1966, the other back to 1987. Neither suggests a dramatic change in women's actual work activity.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2011 10:49:08 GMT
       
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Constitutionalism, Federalism and Reform': Pape V
           Commissioner of Taxation and Anor - a Conversation with Bryan Pape
    • Abstract: Grant, Bligh; Dollery, Brian On 18 February 2009 the Tax Bonus for Working Australians Act (No 2) came into force, providing that the Commissioner of Taxation pay a tax bonus to eligible Australian citizens - amounting to $7.7 billion for 8.7 million taxpayers - as part of the Rudd Government's three-pronged $42 billion Nation Building and Jobs Plan designed to ameliorate the impact of the 2008-09 global economic retraction. The validity of the Act was challenged by Bryan Pape, Senior Lecturer in Law in the University of New England. On 3 April 2009 a majority ruled that the Act was valid but in doing so said the Court's reasons would be published at a later date. The majority was revealed to be a 4: 3 decision when the reasons were published on 7 July 2009. In this conversation with Bryan Pape, this paper explores the reasons of the judges and their implications. While the case can be read as demonstrative of the political division between conservative federalists and progressive centralists, we suggest that the case invokes revisiting of the nature of Australian federalism.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - 'Dust and Sweat' in Australian Workers' Compensation
           Systems: Policy Challenges for the Gillard Labor Government
    • Abstract: Guthrie, Robert; Meredith, Frances; Purse, Kevin During the period of the Howard Coalition Federal Government the way was opened for multi-state employers who were self-insured for workers' compensation purposes, to exit state and territory workers' compensation systems and obtain a license to selfinsure under the Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1988 (Cth). A number of large employers immediately sought and received licenses to operate under the commonwealth laws. This shift into the commonwealth system, coupled with significant High Court decisions in relation to industrial relations and workers' compensation precipitated a seismic shift in the focus of workers' compensation to the national level when previously it had been almost exclusively a sub-national phenomenon. With the election of the Rudd Labor Government and the revision of industrial relations laws it is appropriate to review the debate around the related area of workers' compensation. This paper discusses a range of issues affecting workers' compensation schemes in Australia. It briefly maps the history of the debate around national workers' compensation and sickness accident schemes and it attempts to provide a catalogue of issues for consideration for a future Labor Government.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Understanding Single Mothers' Choices around Paid Work
           and Education: Preference Theory Versus a Practices of Mothering Framework
           
    • Abstract: Brady, Michelle Within Australian social policy debates Catherine Hakim's preference theory and closely rated theories about maternal identities have become prominent frameworks for understanding mothers' decisions around paid work. These theories suggest that women have relatively static preferences regarding their labour force participation that are manifestations of their pre-existing identities as 'mothers' or 'workers' and that these will affect their labour force decisions much more profoundly than cultural, social or economic conditions. Drawing on ethnographic research with single mothers, this article argues that preference theory is an inadequate framework for understanding how they make choices around paid work. It suggests that a mothering practices framework has much more explanatory power. The mothering practices framework, which emphasizes that mothering is something that is practiced rather than something that one is, fits closely with single mothers' narratives about their labour force decisions and plans. In contrast to identity theories, it illuminates the day to day material trade-offs involved in participation in education and paid work, as well as the reality that single mothers have differential access to family support and quality childcare.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Whither the Federation': Federalism under Rudd
    • Abstract: Anderson, Geoff Federalism played a crucial role in the election campaign in November 2007 as Kevin Rudd argued that only a Federal Labor government could guarantee the cooperation necessary to eliminate the 'blame game' between Canberra and the states. As Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd exceeded his pre-election commitment to engage with the states, institutionalising cooperation through his acceptance that COAG provided the means by which national policies and programs that require the exercise of powers across jurisdictions could be developed and implemented. A new financial agreement with the states fundamentally redrew the architecture of federal-state relations and could rightly be described as the most significant change in a generation that had the effect of slowing the centralisation of power inherent in the use of Specific Purpose Payments (SPPs) under section 96 of the Constitution. But, in the months leading up to the dramatic events of late June 2010 the federalist promise of the Rudd government had begun to fade in the face of political pressure that sought to cast it as a government of great intentions but little action. The politics of 2010 once again brought federalism to the fore as an election approached, but not this time as an opportunity for reform and repair of relationships between Canberra and the states. Decisions taken by the Rudd government in the third year of its term which impinged so dramatically on areas traditionally the domain of the states may yet see the significance of the reforms of the first two years diminished and the overall assessment of federalism under Rudd more problematic.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 2 - Copenhagen, Climate Change 'Refugees' and the Need for
           a Global Agreement
    • Abstract: Hodgkinson, David; Burton, Tess; Young, Lucy; Anderson, Heather The effects of climate change will cause large-scale human displacement. However, neither the UNFCCC process nor the December, 2009 Copenhagen Accord contemplates or addresses the issue of displacement, notwithstanding their focus on adaptation; the UNFCCC is not designed for and cannot appropriately address the problem of climate change displacement, and cannot easily be altered in order to accommodate climate change displaced persons (CCDPs). This article outlines the nature and the scope of the climate change displacement problem and establishes why a governance framework for CCDPs is required. The article then sets the detail of an international convention for CCDPs.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 2 - Employee Attraction and Retention: The Case of Nursing
           in Western Australia
    • Abstract: Naude, Marita; Jefferson, Therese Western Australia's population is both growing and ageing rapidly. This has significant implications for the State's health sector, including its capacity to plan for and manage an appropriately skilled workforce. This study reports on employee attraction and retention in three hospitals that have been relatively successful in managing labour attraction and turnover. The study focuses on employees' perspectives about the key factors which encouraged them to seek and remain in employment with their current hospital. The key conclusion is that the factors which first attracted employees to their current employer provide some contrasts with the factors that facilitate their retention. This has important implications for successfully integrating human resource practice into public health policies in a context of increasing demand for health services. Although this study was conducted in the health services, some of the insights and understandings are useful to other sectors and organisations.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 2 - Equity Considerations in Urban Water Pricing
    • Abstract: O'Keefe, Sue; Crase, Lin; Paul, Warren Amidst an environment of increased attention to water scarcity and attendant investigation of supply augmentation possibilities, substantial price increases have been mooted for urban residential customers. Concurrently, some economists have bemoaned the tendency to increasingly treat urban residential water bills as a type of 'backdoor' tax. The matter is further confounded by the concern from some agencies of the adverse distributional impacts of increased water prices. This paper is used to review the inevitable discomfort that economists confront when equity concerns are dealt with by meddling with relative prices. The authors consider the non-trivial transaction costs of this approach and advocate a return to the less-costly and lessintrusive use of taxation transfers to meet equity objectives.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 2 - Procedural Justice and the Australian Environment: The
           Case of the Wonthaggi Water Desalination Plant
    • Abstract: King, Tanya J; Murphy, Kristina Drier conditions in Australia have compelled governments to implement various projects to address current or impending water shortages. Such projects have not always been popular with the local community who are directly affected by this infrastructure, with 'procedural justice' emerging as a critical issue. This paper analyses issues of public perceptions of 'procedural justice' in implementing environmental projects in regional areas, in the context of the recently approved desalination plant in the regional Victorian town of Wonthaggi. Drawing on both qualitative and quantitative data from a survey of 316 Wonthaggi residents, we show that one of the major predictors of residents' resistance toward accepting the building of the desalination plant was explained by perceptions of procedural injustice. We further argue that inadequate attention to the particular political history of the region has compounded the sense that the plant implementation has been unfair. Attention to such political histories is vital to avoiding conflict with local stakeholders and to the successful and ethical implementation of development projects in regional areas.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 2 - Australian Alternatives to Local Government
           Consolidation
    • Abstract: Dollery, Brian; Grant, Bligh In its 'The Journey: Sustainability into the Future', the Western Australian Local Government Association (WALGA) proposed a program of self-initiated reform for local government, with its centrepiece comprising a Regional Model of local governance based on constellations of local councils in the existing Zone groupings. The Regional Model has been designed to preserve local autonomy and local identity by retaining existing council democratic structures, but at the same time facilitate cooperation and joint service provision through the Regional Model in those service areas where scale economies and other benefits from shared provision can be reaped. This paper places the Regional Model in the context of the Australian literature on alternative models of local governance and then critically evaluates its main characteristics.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Accounting for Hydrology in Water Trade: A Cautionary
           Note
    • Abstract: Crase, Lin; O'Keefe, Sue Following the expanded role of water markets in the agricultural sector, attention has increasingly turned to the potential for markets to reform water allocation policies in urban and industrial contexts. However, the establishment of water markets of the form conceptualised in traditional economics is complex and fraught with difficulty. This complexity is in part due to the particular nature of water as a resource, and importantly, from the perspective of this paper, to the complicated and at times unpredicted relationships between users. In this paper we reflect on some of the important hydrological considerations that attend water use and how this impacts on water rights. We specifically argue that unfettered trade without due consideration of these hydrological interrelationships may result in unintended outcomes that disadvantage downstream and in-stream beneficiaries. We further argue that some of the existing policy approaches reflect only a limited understanding of these nuances and do not bode particularly well for future policy formulation.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Crisis': Which Crisis': The State of Education
           in Western Australia
    • Abstract: Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan In recent years Western Australia has experienced fierce controversy over education, focused almost entirely on the introduction of an 'outcomes-based' approach to curriculum and teaching in upper secondary schools. It was a controversy that generated far more heat than light, with very little in the way of evidence being presented. Good evidence exists on the academic performance of Western Australian students. We summarise this evidence, and argue that it gives no indication that outcomes-based education is either detrimental or beneficial to student performance. In general, WA students perform well in three kinds of internationally benchmarked testing. The 'educational crisis' fever that was created by the news media and some commentators has no justification. If there is serious cause for concern, it is about falling entry standards amongst recruits to the teaching profession. We present the evidence for this fall and argue that, since good teaching is the best guarantee of continuing current academic standards, there is a need to raise the standard of teaching recruitment. This is especially so for the lowest-performing schools, where the best teachers are most needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Thinking Big: Public Opinion and Options for Reform of
           Australia's Federal System
    • Abstract: Brown, AJ After decades of debate, options have sharpened for the scope and process for meaningful reform of Australia's federal system. Signs can be found in public support for the Rudd government's short-term drive to reform intergovernmental relations, and the prominence of further reform proposals in the Australia 2020 'Ideas Summit' of April 2008. Following the summit theme of 'thinking big', this paper examines Australian citizens' attitudes towards the extent of reform needed or possible for 'fixing' the problems of Australian federalism, revealed by an Australian Research Council-funded constitutional values survey conducted by the author and colleagues in May 2008. The extent and depth of public sympathy for reform demonstrates the importance of an approach which embraces the medium and long-term development of Australia's system of governance, in addition to short-term improvements. Large sections of Australia's citizenry have the capacity to 'think big' about reform of the federal system by 2020. In conclusion an argument is made for reform processes that heed this evidence and maximise this opportunity.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Gendering Regional Governance: A Framework for Analyses
    • Abstract: Pini, Barbara; Sheridan, Alison; Conway, Mary-Louise In the international rural social science literature, feminist scholars have highlighted the neglect of gender in studies of regional governance, and argued for greater attention to be afforded to the subject. This paper takes up this debate by offering a framework for undertaking a gender analysis of regional governance. We delineate six key dimensions for interrogating regional governance - context and place; membership; equity policies; management; operations; and legitimacy, ethics, and accountability - and explore the ways in which each may be examined through a gender lens.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - All Those Who Stand and Wait: Putting Citizens at the
           Centre
    • Abstract: Briggs, Lynelle This article discusses the new role that citizens can play in public administration to obtain more effective and efficient service. Over the period of time the government and the citizens have realized that the government requires the active participation and input from the same citizens to make the services work better.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 2 - Tourism in the Northern Territory Caught in an
           Intergovernmental Quagmire
    • Abstract: Pforr, Christof Since the 1980s the tourism industry in the Northern Territory of Australia has experienced strong growth and developed into an important nature and indigenous culture based tourist destination. In this paper it is argued that the specific constitutional-political context of the Northern Territory is not only an important parameter to better comprehend tourism in the Northern Territory, but one that considerably impacts on how the sector is governed and developed. In addition to the broader constitutional context in which the Northern Territory tourism system operates, specific intergovernmental disputes, namely indigenous affairs, national parks and uranium mining, and their implications for the Northern Territory tourism system are discussed. Effective collaboration and coordination between the different tiers of government are important to overcome the intergovernmental quagmire and to create more certainty, continuity and predictability for the Northern Territory tourism industry.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 2 - Financing Sustainability in Local Government: An
           Analysis of the Roads to Recovery Program in New South Wales Local
           Government
    • Abstract: Lopez, Margaret; Dollery, Brian; Byrnes, Joel A crisis has developed in the maintenance and renewal of vital Australian local infrastructure that has attracted the attention of several recent public inquiries and some academic scholarship. However, an unfortunate feature of the subsequent debate on the local infrastructure crisis has been its almost total neglect of the role of the Commonwealth Roads to Recovery Program which has helped to alleviate this crisis. Using the institutional context of Roads to Recovery funding to New South Wales local government, this paper seeks to remedy this neglect by presenting an initial exploratory analysis of the operation of the Roads to Recovery Program.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 2 - The Labour Force Involvement of Women: Lessons from a
           Comparison of Canada and Australia
    • Abstract: Austen, Siobhan The focus of this paper is the large difference in the labour market involvement of Canadian and Australian women. In the context of ageing populations and associated skill shortages, this employment gap has particular policy significance. Understanding the contributing factors could guide the development of new approaches to maximising potential labour supply. This paper explores the role of differences in educational attainment, marginal tax rates, parental leave, child care costs and attitudes regarding the legitimacy of mothers' involvement in paid work.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 2 - Royalties for Regions: Accountability and
           Sustainability
    • Abstract: McLure, Michael To determine whether the Western Australian (WA) Government's 'royalties for regions' policy will enhance economic welfare it is necessary to (i) know the net fiscal transfer that the community wants the State Government to provide between Perth and regional WA and (ii) determine whether the royalties for regions policy brings the Government closer to, or further away from, that goal. In view of this, it is recommended that the State's public accounts be complemented by a new budget paper that (i) reports on public finances for 'Perth' and the 'Regions' separately, which will improve government accountability, and (ii) classifies mineral royalties as 'capital' revenues, which will enhance sustainability provided these capital revenues are hypothecated for expenditure on capital projects.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 2 - Wicked Problems in Public Policy
    • Abstract: Head, Brian W Some of the most difficult policy problems of the modern era have been described as complex, intractable, open-ended and 'wicked'. What are the key features of such problems' And are they really very different in nature from more routine problems' Are we developing better ways to address these wicked problems' This paper sketches some key aspects of wicked problems, and illustrates the discussion with two contemporary Australian examples - recent attempts to address the causes and possible solutions to Indigenous disadvantage; and policy responses to climate change.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Equality and Difference Arguments in Australian
           Indigenous Affairs: Examples from Income Support and Housing
    • Abstract: Sanders, Will This paper examines the way in which arguments about equality and difference are used in Australian Indigenous affairs. It examines two policy areas, income support and housing, over a forty or fifty year timeframe. The final section of the paper also reports on some original field research in a small roadside town in the Northern Territory to illustrate the deployment of equality and difference arguments in relation to Aboriginal housing and town camping.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Planning for Water Security in the Murray-Darling Basin
    • Abstract: Connell, Daniel; Grafton, RQuentin The 'Big Dry' that has afflicted large parts of the Murray-Darling Basin for at least the past five years has generated major changes in water policy and government funding. Using a 'bottom-up' approach six governance criteria are used to evaluate how key policy developments (the 2004 National Water Initiative, the 2007 National Plan for Water Security and its reformulation in 2008 as the Water for the Future Package, the Water Act 2007, and the Council of Australian Governments (COAG)' March 2008 Memorandum of Understanding on Murray-Darling Basin Reform and July 2008 Intergovernmental Agreement on Murray-Darling Basin Reform) could be modified to promote water security.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - The Mirage of Municipal Self-sufficiency: A Taxonomic
           Approach to Local Government Sustainability in Australia
    • Abstract: Dollery, Brian; Byrnes, Joel; Crase, Lin The long-run sustainability of Australian local councils has come under intense scrutiny over the past few years. Two reports from the Commonwealth, several state-based local government inquiries, a national commissioned report, an embryonic but growing academic literature and numerous conferences by peak local government bodies all attest to deep misgivings over the current condition of Australian local government. Various approaches to the analysis of local government sustainability have been developed, most of which focus heavily on the financial dimensions of the problem. This has led to a plethora of putative policy solutions to the problem. This paper provides a synoptic review of previous work in the area and advances a typology of local government sustainability as a potentially useful analytical tool for conceptualizing the problem of local government sustainability.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Capturing the Academy: Australian Higher Learning and
           the Exceptional Powers of the Regulatory State
    • Abstract: Quiddington, Peter The state derives its power from a claim to a monopoly on sanctioned violence, while the academy derives symbolic power by virtue of its grasp of universal human values and accepted truths, made potent by the fact that it can then speak to the legitimate claims of the state. This relationship has been fundamental to the rise and success of the secular state; however, it also generates endless border conflict, and much ambiguity, especially within pluralist democratic systems where the lines of institutional demarcation are unclear. This leads to the proposition that when the state becomes oligarchic, or inward looking, it will invariably seek to contain and capture the academy, seeking to exploit its instrumental value, rather than drawing upon its symbolic value. This results in the need for an organisational 'buffer', or intermediary, to stand between the state and institutions of higher learning. This paper tests this hypothesis by examining the changing relations between the state and higher education in Australia since major reforms began, and particularly during the Howard years. It argues that the nation's experiment, in abolishing the intermediary, has yielded predictable results.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Community, Sustainability and Participation:
           Form-function Dilemmas in Tasmanian State-local Partnerships
    • Abstract: Crowley, Kate The Tasmanian state-local partnership agreements program, instituted in 1998 by the late Premier Jim Bacon, is proving an innovation in the reorientation of inter-governmental affairs. The partnerships established thus far have totally transformed state-local relations. Indeed the program has been so successfully implemented that it is now impossible to imagine local governance in the state functioning without it. However this paper is concerned with partnerships in broader than functional terms. It is concerned with formative concepts, such as strengthened community, local sustainability and enhanced democracy, and whether these are being advanced by the partnership experience. It is not hard to judge the partnership program an innovation in the administrative and functional sense, for embedding the systematic networking of institutional relations for example. However this paper argues for evaluation against more complex criteria. The failed emphasis upon participatory governance in particular shows that the Tasmanian program cannot be judged a success against the partnership notion when it is more broadly defined. The paper identifies and interrogates a form - function dilemma in the partnership experience and provides a discursive account of, and refection upon, the Tasmanian context. It finds that thus far the emphasis has been upon improved process design rather than upon exploiting the partnership program as a means of promoting more 'formative' aspirations.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Changing Relationships between the Public Sector and
           Community Service Organisations: Insights from the South Australian Case
    • Abstract: Baulderstone, Jo Because of their increased role in service delivery on behalf of government, the relationship between government funders and nonprofit organisations warrants attention. Government funding continues to play a critical role in many organisations' survival and this is particularly the case in community service organisations. This means that changes in the way the departments are structured, accountability managed and performance measured in the public sector will impact funded organisations. This paper examines the influence of changing public sector paradigms from the perspective of managers in nonprofit community service organisations (NCSOs) and their funding departments. It draws on a study of the management of accountability of twelve nonprofit community service organisations in South Australia. This paper shows that the introduction of funder-purchaser-provider models damaged relationships between the public sector and NCSOs. It concludes that the more recent emergence of a language of partnership will remain rhetoric without a change in the management of accountability of funded organisations.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 3 - Economic Governance of Railways in a Federation
    • Abstract: Wills-Johnson, Nick Until recently, Australia's railways were owned by the State Governments and operated almost entirely within their State boundaries. This has begun to change, in response to the new dynamics unleashed by economic and structural reforms which began in the 1990s. The economic regulatory system that governs third party access to track infrastructure is still a mix of State and Commonwealth regulation, which has led to calls for greater consistency. However, it is not clear how much centralisation is optimal. This paper examines railway governance from an historical and a functional perspective, and argues that the best approach is not technocratic, but institutional.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 3 - The Costs and Benefits of Alternative Approaches to the
           Provision of Essential Infrastructure and the Regulation of Economic
           Activity in a Federal System
    • Abstract: Walsh, Cliff The National Competition Policy (NCP) initiative of the mid-1990s-negotiated through the Council of Australian Governments (COAG)-resulted in significant reforms to the ways in which essential infrastructure is provided and to which economic activities are regulated, by who and how. The more recent COAG agreement to pursue a new National Reform Agenda (NRA) will eventually result in further State-based economic and business regulations becoming nationally uniform, or at least more nationally consistent. It is almost as if national uniformity has become the default presumption. Adopting a federalist perspective, I explore the question of what factors should, and likely will, influence whether States concede their regulationmaking autonomy over economic and business activities, or insist on retaining them. I conclude that there are many circumstances in which differences in regulatory schemes or objectives are not a politically salient obstacle to national economic progress; that there are numerous cases in which differences in "regional" needs or preferences can be accommodated through mixed schemes, where high-level national principles are adopted but variations in their application permitted; and that the desirable scope, design and means of implementation of national regulatory regimes is not always self-evident.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 3 - Federalism and the Use of Cooperative Mechanisms to
           Improve Infrastructure Provision in Australia
    • Abstract: Twomey, Anne Federal systems of government operate best when there is a balance between competition and cooperation. Some matters need to be dealt with in a uniform manner, but this does not necessarily require an expansion of central power. Using infrastructure provision as its focus, this article discusses alternative means of achieving uniform outcomes such as State references of matters to the Commonwealth, cooperative legislative schemes, mutual recognition and framework laws. It then addresses what constitutional changes are needed to facilitate cooperative federalism.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 3 - Commonwealth Power over Infrastructure: Constitutional
           Tools for National Economic Regulation
    • Abstract: Wheeler, Fiona This paper considers the extent of the Commonwealth's power under the Australian Constitution to make laws regulating economic infrastructure such as transport, communications and energy. In this context, the external affairs power in s 51(xxix) of the Constitution, the communications power in s 51(v), the corporations power in s 51(xx) and the interstate and overseas trade and commerce power in s 51(i) are all addressed. The High Court's strongly nationalist approach to constitutional construction, most recently affirmed in 2006 in its expansive reading of the corporations power in the Work Choices case, means that the Commonwealth has very substantial, though not unlimited, authority to deal with infrastructure regulation. While the prospect of a wider reading of the interstate and overseas trade and commerce power may further augment Commonwealth authority in this area, gaps in Commonwealth regulatory power are still likely to remain.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 3 - The Division of Powers in Australian Federalism:
           Subsidiarity and the Single Market
    • Abstract: Fenna, Alan Australian federalism has been found wanting in a number of respects. For some, it is the problem of too much centralisation; for others, it is the problem of too little centralisation; for many, it is simply too much overlap and entanglement. Federal theory, including the very current notion of subsidiarity, establishes a presumption in favour of decentralisation, arguing that divided jurisdiction carries, inter alia, certain policy benefits. Application of federal theory in this case suggests that there is both too much and too little centralisation in Australian federalism today. On the one hand, significant harmonisation is required to move beyond the increasingly anachronistic 'common market' form of economic union typical of such classical federal constitutions as Australia's and establish a 'single market' degree of economic integration. Federalism has always been about a compromise between unity and diversity and such measures are the price of union. At the same time, federal theory cautions against unnecessary harmonisation and favours maximal scope for the States and Territories to make their own policy choices.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 3 - Foreword
    • Abstract: French, Robert
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 2 - The Whole-of-government Experiment in Indigenous
           Affairs: A Question of Governance Capacity
    • Abstract: Hunt, Janet This paper considers the implementation of new whole-of-government arrangements in Indigenous Affairs. It outlines key aspects designed to address Indigenous disadvantage, including the COAG trials, bilateral agreements, Indigenous Coordination Centres, and Shared Responsibility and Regional Partnership Agreements with Indigenous communities. It situates these within broader experience of 'new governance' approaches in Australia, and then considers some of the governance capacity issues that are highlighted as governments attempt these arrangements in Indigenous Australia. It considers some key findings from evaluations of the COAG trials and from research on Indigenous community governance, which each provide lessons for governments and Indigenous communities if new governance arrangements are to lead to better outcomes for Indigenous people.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 2 - Social Marketing of Water Conservation: The Impact of
           Privatisation and Government Regulation on Australian Water Utilities
    • Abstract: Wallace, Margaret; Barrett, Greg This paper uses social marketing theory to argue for retrofitting homes with water efficient shower heads as an effective water conservation marketing technique. The authors use web page analysis to rank Australian urban water utilities by the effectiveness of their promotion of this technique. Differences in these rankings are explained using institutional economic analysis to identify the contradictory incentives received from the different institutions governing the various water utilities. The paper concludes that markets and private ownership will not be sufficient to provide effective water conservation marketing. Instead, greater government involvement through ownership and regulatory control of water prices and operating licences is required.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 2 - The Political Economy of Urban-rural Water Trade
    • Abstract: Crase, Lin; Byrnes, Joel; Dollery, Brian The policy response to Australia's urban water shortage provides some interesting lessons in political economy. On the one hand, the merits of water markets are frequently extolled by policy makers and yet, on the other, there is a reluctance to promote genuine unfettered inter-sectoral trade. This is particularly the case if water stands to be traded away from agricultural regions to satisfy demand in metropolitan contexts. Accompanied by the proclivity to summarily dismiss the option of investing in new dams, the outlook for urban water users appears to be continued water restrictions, mandated targets for expensive urban water recycling and reliance on desalination. In this paper we consider the underlying motivations that have led policy makers to overlook the potential for inter-sectoral water trade as a mechanism for alleviating urban water shortages. We endeavour to address two main questions: Why is inter-sectoral trade of water so difficult in Australia' And what are the consequences of putting trade in the 'too hard basket''
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 2 - Australian Wage Determination and Gender Equity: A View
           from the West
    • Abstract: Jefferson, Therese; Preston, Alison Australia's new industrial relations legislation, Work Choices, initiated an historic change in the method of establishing minimum employment conditions in Australia, principally through the introduction of Australian Workplace Agreements (AWAs). In this article we argue that Western Australia's relatively longer period of experience with individual agreements may be instructive for assessing some of the potential effects of Work Choices on Australia's gender wage ratio. Using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, we suggest that it is possible to conclude that institutional arrangements at both the state and federal levels have affected the relative pay position of women within WA. In addition, the new regulations restrict the capacity for state governments and tribunals to respond to the gender wage gap in WA.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 2 - Following the Money Trail: Government Advertising, the
           Missing Millions and the Unknown Effects
    • Abstract: Young, Sally At present, the question 'how much does the Australian Commonwealth Government spend on advertising',' is difficult to answer because a lack of disclosure, accountability and transparency mask government advertising expenditure. Estimates vary widely: millions go missing from reports or are allegedly hidden in other categories of expenditure. Ultimately, information on spending has to be prised out of the government in piecemeal fashion through processes such as Senate Estimates hearings and Senate inquiries. Aside from spending, the other area we know very little about is whether the ad campaigns are effective or what results (if any) they achieve. This article argues that these issues of transparency and accountability need to be addressed urgently and concludes with a proposal that Australia should adopt the Canadian system of reporting and disclosure.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 2 - Behavioural Economics and Public Policy
    • Abstract: Gittins, Ross This article explains the relationship between behavioural economics and public policy. Behavioural economics is the scientific study of intuition. It involves accepting the power of intuition, understanding that people are much more intuitive than rational and exploring the reason why this is so. Behavioural economics is used to encompass the closely related field of research into happiness or subjective well-being.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 2 - Challenges Confronting Economic Policy Advisers
    • Abstract: Henry, Ken The policy advising function is not well understood by academics, commentators or the public. Largely, it is suspected, this is because of the complexity of the relationship between public service advisers and government decision-makers. This article highlights the challenges faced by the economic policy advisers.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Objections to Pacific Seasonal Work Programs in Rural
           Australia
    • Abstract: Mares, Peter Australia is debating whether Pacific Islanders should be granted temporary visas to undertake seasonal work in agriculture. The proposal has support from Australian farmers' organisations, international development agencies and politicians on both sides of Parliament. Pacific Island governments are enthusiastic about the idea and have repeatedly raised it at regional meetings. However, Commonwealth government ministers have ruled out changes to current migration arrangements to allow the entry of unskilled workers on short term visas. The grounds given for opposing such schemes are numerous. This article identifies ten primary objections to a seasonal labour program for Pacific Islanders. It addresses each objection on its merits, in an attempt to disentangle legitimate questions of policy from unfounded perceptions and fears that often have deep historical roots.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Workers' Compensation Policy and Reforms in Western
           Australia
    • Abstract: Guthrie, Rob In Western Australia for at least the last decade workers compensation legislation has been a focus of Government and stakeholder attention. Those stakeholders include workers, employers, government and insurers as well as a range of associated service providers. Following the election of the Labor Government in 2001 considerable attention was placed on the revision of laws passed by the previous Coalition Government. The latter had been heavily influenced by the apparent need to reduce compensation system costs for employers and insurers and many of the legislative changes instituted by the Coalition were made at the expense of common law rights for workers. Whilst this trend has been entirely reversed by the Gallop/Carpenter Labor Governments there is evidence that all stakeholders in the system have been considered more fully in Labor policy development and subsequent legislative reforms which have eventuated in a more balance approach to the compensation system.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Deregulating Australia's Wheat Trade: From the
           Australian Wheat Board to AWB Limited
    • Abstract: Cockfield, Geoff; Botterill, Linda Courtenay In 2006 in Australia there was an inquiry into allegations of kickbacks being paid to the former Iraqi regime by the grain trading company AWB Limited. The inquiry and its aftermath provided an opportunity for proponents of unregulated trade in wheat to press for the removal of the AWB's control of export sales. This article is a review of the history of the development and dismantling of wheat marketing regulation in Australia, treated as a case study to illustrate two things: the shift in the prevailing values in Australian agricultural policy over the last 35 years; and the way in which legislative cycles, reviews, institutional change and particular events provide opportunities for policy advocates to press for change, in this case over at least 40 years. It is argued here that the dominant paradigm for trading agricultural commodities shifted from one based on agrarian collectivism and sectoral stabilisation to a less regulated system with the focus on the values of efficiency and competitiveness.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Kennett and Court Compared: Leadership Styles and
           Industrial Relations Reform in Victoria and Western Australia in the 1990s
           
    • Abstract: Barton, Stephen; van Onselen, Peter This article argues that political leadership in liberal democracies is measured by the achievement of goals. In order to achieve their goals leaders must overcome constraints and exploit opportunities in the social and economic environment. This is done through the deployment of the institutional capacity at their disposal which carries with it a set of constraints and opportunities. We argue that it is the way in which leaders deploy their institutional capacity which illustrates their own particular leadership style. We do so, with reference to industrial relations reforms of the 1990s, first in Victoria under Jeff Kennett and then in Western Australia under Richard Court. We argue that in this case, leadership style determined the success of achieving policy goals, and thus defined successful political leadership.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Looking Local on Broadband
    • Abstract: Gans, Joshua S This paper argues that broadband needs many local solutions, not a single national solution. It documents how the technologies, the user requirements and the broad investment costs of providing broadband vary considerably across localities. In contrast, current proposed solutions call for national strategies far removed from local circumstance. Several conclusions are drawn. First, calls for universal service obligations to be imposed on national companies are false and likely to be costly in terms of reduced competition. Instead, local service obligations need to be established and the responsibility vested with local bodies to adopt solutions for improved broadband. Second, calls for protection of investors from competition are also false and likely to lead to higher user costs. Local groups such as councils could use the power of competitive tender to drive those costs down or to encourage multiple local providers. In areas with sufficient demand, that competition could be sustained. Finally, where there are areas of Australia not receiving minimally acceptable Internet access, the Federal government could continue or expand the use of targeted subsidies.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Academics and the Public Policy Game: Commentators,
           Coaches or Players'
    • Abstract: Stewart, Jenny What roles should political scientists in the broad fields of public policy analysis and policy studies adopt in relation to the subject matter they study, research and teach' Based on an extended analogy with public policy as a 'game', I argue for a more engaged orientation and set of practices, aimed at clearer and more purposeful communication with government, students and the wider community, and a much closer integration between the worlds of academia and those of practice.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 2 - Managing Editor's Report
    • Abstract: Kenyon, Peter
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 2 - The Public Sector: An Environment Prone to
           Bullying'
    • Abstract: Omari, Maryam In the rapidly changing world of work employees are the most flexible and adaptable resources within organisations; they can hold the key to success. The quality of the work life of the employees therefore takes on an important role in ensuring employees and organisations reach their true potential. A newly recognised but long held safety issue within the workplace is that of workplace bullying. This paper aims to explore the issue within the Australian Public Service (APS) environment and assess whether there are any contextual or environmental factors that may be of significance in promoting or perpetuating this undesirable behaviour.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 2 - Catholic Voices in Australian Politics
    • Abstract: Warhurst, John This paper addresses the ways the Catholic Church intervenes in questions of public policy. It raises questions relevant not only to students of church and state but also to anyone concerned with the perennial questions about how any organised interest goes about political lobbying to best effect. This applies especially to the question of speaking with one voice. In particular the paper discusses two social and organisational problems the church faces.One is the dispersal of the Catholic constituency across the political spectrum where once it was disproportionately Labor. As a consequence of that, church criticism of the Howard government comes face to face with the presence of many Catholics in the Howard Cabinet. The second is the often cumbersome nature of the church institutions and the limited capacity it has for coordinating its voice.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 2 - Profit Contingent Loans for Social and Community
           Investments in Economically Disadvantaged Regions
    • Abstract: Chapman, Bruce; Simes, Ric It is argued in this paper that an externality might exist for economically disadvantaged areas, and this might take various forms. If this is the case, it is argued in the paper that public sector intervention of various types could be required. The important contribution of the paper lies in the outlining of a different approach for the public sector, involving as its key feature, the provision of income (profit) contingent loans, similar in concept to the operation of the Higher Education Contribution Scheme. It is explained that such an approach to the financing of investments needs to involve three parties: the financial institutions, the public sector and the specific social or private enterprise. We analyse a particular form of this partnership, the way in which the scheme might be instituted and potential areas of failure.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 2 - Is Social Exclusion a Useful Concept for Policy-Makers
           in Australia'
    • Abstract: Nevile, Ann In Australia the concept of social exclusion has permeated government thinking about welfare reform with policy solutions centred on the idea that social exclusion can be prevented by integration into paid employment. However, the term continues to attract criticism in particular for the lack of emphasis on redistribution and on the ways in which social exclusion is generated through mainstream processes such as market competition. Any assessment of the usefulness of contested concepts such as social exclusion needs to focus on whether or not the concept assists policy-makers to tease out the complex, interconnected, factors pertinent to particular experiences of poverty and deprivation. I argue that Amartya Sen's way of thinking about poverty and social exclusion and the analytical distinction he draws between constitutive and instrumental forms of exclusion and active and passive forms of exclusion assists policy-makers to do just that.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 2 - Employment Policy and the Clash of Values
    • Abstract: Argy, Fred Despite a historically low unemployment rate, there is still a strong push for action to increase labour participation rates in Australia. One policy response - the one chosen by the Howard Government - is further labour market deregulation and harsher welfare access. This neo-liberal prescription can deliver good employment gains but the losers will almost certainly be the poorer section of the working population. Fiscal compensation offers only limited scope for tempering the distribution effects. Is there an alternative' Drawing on the experience of smaller European countries, the paper outlines a strategy that mixes social intervention with many neo-liberal ideas. It argues that such a strategy can achieve equally good employment outcomes with little sacrifice of productivity and it can do so with a more neutral distribution outcome. But 'equity' is not just about income distribution; it is a multi-dimensional concept. The choice between the two employment strategies depends on which dimension of equity one values most.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 1 - Political Economy of Tax Reform in Australia
    • Abstract: Leigh, Andrew This paper seeks to shed light on a puzzle in Australian public finance. Despite the fact that Australian public opinion is more strongly in favour of social spending than tax cuts, the last two Australian budgets have seen substantial reductions in top marginal tax rates. One possible reason that the tax cutting debate is so out of step with popular opinion may be that many commentators do not realise how low the income of the median Australian really is. I outline evidence from opinion polls on attitudes towards tax cuts. I then analyse the distribution of the 2005 and 2006 tax cuts across individuals and households and discuss how the income of the typical Australian is sometimes misrepresented in policy debates. I conclude with some suggestions about tax reform that may bring about a greater boost to social welfare than the reductions in top marginal tax rates.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 1 - Accounting for Policy in Australia
    • Abstract: Colebatch, HK There is a growing interest in how to give a good account of the policy process, focused on the tension between the dominant linear instrumental account ('the policy cycle') and the experience of policy practice. The article explores why different accounts are given and the use made of these accounts. It discusses the practicality of accounts, and the place of academic analysis in relation to practice, and argues that the academic task, for both writing and teaching about policy, is to show how accounts are used in the policy process.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 1 - Soap Operas, Cenotaphs and Sacred Cows:
           Countrymindedness and Rural Policy Debate
    • Abstract: Botterill, Linda Courtenay In spite of the fact that Australia is one of the most urbanised countries in the world, our national identity is closely tied to the bush. This paper discusses the pervasiveness of the agrarian myth in Australian culture and the impact this has on rural policy debate. It discusses how countrymindedness manifests itself in twentyfirst century Australian culture and what this particular aspect of the national selfimage means for discussion about rural policy. The paper argues that there is a reticence to criticise farmers which can insulate farm programs from the levels of scrutiny which apply to other areas of government policy.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 1 - Urban Water Supply in Australia: The Option of
           Diverting Water from Irrigation
    • Abstract: Quiggin, John Most urban areas in Australia are facing the prospect of increasing scarcity of water. Further pressure arises from evidence that existing levels of water use in many catchments are environmentally unsustainable. One option, feasible for some but not all Australian cities, is the diversion to urban areas of water currently used for irrigated agriculture. Such diversions are currently constrained by a range of government policies. However, plans for the creation of a national water market raise the possibility that water rights may be purchased from irrigators and used to increase the supply of water for residential use. A number of policy concerns, notably relating to stranded assets and environmental externalities must be addressed in the consideration of such purchases.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
  • Volume 1 Issue 1 - Commonwealth Power Over Higher Education: Implications
           and Realities
    • Abstract: Craven, Greg This paper explores the Commonwealth's power over universities. First it considers the extent of Commonwealth constitutional power as a matter of strict law and second it considers that constitutional power within a wider legal, administrative and practical context. The paper reaches four general conclusions: (i) the Commonwealth enjoys significant direct constitutional power over higher education; (ii) the Commonwealth has significant power to influence and form higher education policy indirectly through conditional funding of universities; (iii) notwithstanding its direct legislative power and its capacity for indirect financial influence, critically the Commonwealth presently lacks the cohesive constitutional power necessary to regulate the universities directly and comprehensively, although this may change in light of an impending decision of the High Court; (iv) in light of this analysis, any genuine attempt at national higher education legislation or regulation by the Commonwealth would, at present, have to be based upon significant cooperation with the States.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2011 15:07:11 GMT
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2014