- Use of CT to evaluate and compare intranasal features in brachycephalic
and normocephalic dogs
- Authors: M. Auger; K. Alexander, G. Beauchamp, M. Dunn
To evaluate and compare nasal mucosal contact, septal deviation and caudal aberrant nasal turbinates in brachycephalic and normocephalic dogs using computed tomography.
Dogs without nasal disease and having undergone computed tomography scan of the head (plica alaris to the cribiform plate) were retrospectively selected and divided into brachycephalic and normocephalic groups. Eighteen brachycephalic and 32 normocephalic dogs were included. Anatomic criteria were used to locate predetermined pairs of intranasal structures and nasal mucosal contact was described as present or absent for each site. Septal deviations were identified and measured using angle of septal deviation. Caudal aberrant nasal turbinates were identified and categorised when present.
Prevalence of nasal mucosal contact was significantly higher in brachycephalic dogs. No significant difference was seen in prevalence or in angle of septal deviation between groups. Prevalence of caudal aberrant nasal turbinates was significantly higher in brachycephalic dogs.
Nasal mucosal contact and caudal aberrant nasal turbinates were significantly more prevalent in brachycephalic dogs than in normocephalic dogs in our study. Computed tomography can be a valuable aid in obtaining data on nasal mucosal contact, caudal aberrant nasal turbinates and septal deviations. Combination of computed tomography with endoscopy and functional airway testing would be useful to further evaluate the correlation between intranasal features and symptoms of brachycephalic airway syndrome.
- Reference intervals for transthoracic echocardiography in the English
springer spaniel: a prospective, longitudinal study
- Authors: D. Dickson; R. Shave, M. Rishniw, J. Harris, M. Patteson
To establish transthoracic echocardiographic reference intervals in adult English springer spaniel dogs.
Forty‐two healthy adult English springer spaniels were prospectively recruited from a general practice population in the UK. Animals were examined twice, at least 12 months apart, to exclude dogs with progressive cardiac disease. Reference intervals were calculated using Box–Cox transformations and specific variables were depicted within an expert consensus range. Relationships of body mass, age and heart rate with cardiac structure and function were examined and functional assessments were compared with previous reports. Reference intervals were compared against published ratiometric indices and allometric scaling models.
Thirty‐nine dogs contributed to create the reference intervals. Significant relationships with bodyweight, age and heart rate were detected, although low coefficients of determination were found. Fractional shortening values were lower than has been reported in many breeds but Simpson‐derived ejection fractions were similar to previously published breed‐specific values.
Breed‐specific reference intervals are reported allowing for more appropriate interpretation of echocardiographic assessments in the English springer spaniel.
- Prediction of whelping date in large and giant canine breeds by
ultrasonography foetal biometry
- Authors: S. Alonge; M. Beccaglia, M. Melandri, G. C. Luvoni
To derive the growth curves of the inner chorionic cavity and the biparietal diameter in large and giant dog breeds by ultrasonographic foetal biometry. To evaluate their accuracy in the prediction of whelping date and the effect of litter size and foetal sex ratio.
Foetal biometry parameters were obtained using serial ultrasonographic examinations in eight large (26 to 40 kg) and nine giant (>40 kg) pregnant bitches with known breeding dates and concentrations of serum progesterone during oestrus. The relationship between inner chorionic cavity or biparietal diameter growth and days to parturition were analysed by linear regression and the equations derived from the growth curves were applied to predict the whelping day. The accuracy of the prediction (whelping day ±1 day and ±2 days) and the litter size and sex ratio were recorded.
The results showed a significant relationship between days before parturition and inner chorionic cavity or biparietal diameter. The overall accuracy at ±2 days was greater, than that at ±1 day. In giant breed bitches, the accuracy of the prediction by biparietal diameter was significantly lower in small, than normal litter size. No effect of foetal sex ratio was observed.
Foetal biometry parameters obtained by ultrasonography can be used to predict whelping dates in large and giant dog breeds.
- Retrospective characterisation of solitary cutaneous histiocytoma with
lymph node metastasis in eight dogs
- Authors: M. Faller; C. Lamm, V. K. Affolter, K. Valerius, S. Schwartz, P. F. Moore
To describe a small subset of canine solitary cutaneous histiocytoma in which lymph node metastasis has been documented.
Cases of dogs with solitary cutaneous histiocytoma lesions and regional lymph node metastasis diagnosed via histopathology were found through a retrospective search of the databases of IDEXX Laboratories and the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital Clinical Diagnostic Laboratories. Information on signalment, history and clinical follow‐up was obtained from the submittal form and/or via a questionnaire to the submitting veterinarian. Slides were available for review in seven cases and when possible immunohistochemistry was reviewed or performed by a single pathologist.
Eight cases met the inclusion criteria. The neoplasms had the typical appearance of histiocytomas. All tested samples were immunoreactive for CD18 and lacked immunoreactivity for other lymphocyte markers and CD11d. Immunoreactivity for E‐cadherin varied among the neoplasms tested. Outcome was known for five dogs and at the time of manuscript preparation three of those dogs were alive 1682 days, 570 days and 318 days post‐diagnosis. Of the other two dogs with known outcome, one was euthanased shortly after diagnosis and another was hit by a car. Of the dogs that were eventually lost to follow‐up, one was reported to be disease‐free 1003 days after diagnosis.
Metastatic histiocytoma is rarely reported and distinction from aggressive disease processes such as histiocytic sarcoma may be difficult. Based upon a small number of cases with known outcomes, some dogs with solitary metastatic histiocytoma may experience favourable outcomes.
- Polyglandular endocrinopathy type II (Schmidt's syndrome) in a Dobermann
- Authors: J. A. Cartwright; J. Stone, M. Rick, M. D. Dunning
Abstract: A three‐year‐old, female neutered, Dobermann pinscher was presented for investigation of lethargy, episodic collapse, ataxia and myxoedema. Primary hypothyroidism and primary cortisol‐deficient hypoadrenocorticism were diagnosed based on history, physical examination and compatible hormonal analysis. Increased serum concentrations of thyroglobulin autoantibodies and 21‐hydroxylase autoantibodies indicated an immune‐mediated aetiology. The case was complicated by lymphadenopathy with hand‐mirror lymphocytes, classically identified in lymphoma. A polymerase chain reaction test for antigen receptor rearrangement indicated polyclonality and therefore reactive lymphadenopathy. The dog's clinical signs resolved following introduction of levothyroxine and prednisolone. Prioritising the problem‐based approach in this case facilitated the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in addition to hypothyroidism due to the persistence of clinical signs despite thyroxine replacement. Importantly, atypical adrenal gland dysfunction was not misinterpreted as inadequate therapeutic response to thyroxine supplementation. The observation that polyglandular endocrinopathy type II can occur in dogs suggests that in dogs with a suboptimal response to treatment for hypothyroidism or hypoadrenocorticism comorbid endocrinopathies should be investigated.
- Migration of a shotgun pellet into the L7‐S1 intervertebral foramen
of a hunting dog
- Authors: K. Kuroda; T. Osaki, M. Yamashita, Y. Murahata, K. Azuma, T. Tsuka, N. Ito, T. Imagawa, Y. Okamoto
- Pilot study measuring the effects of bandaging and cold compression
therapy following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy
- Authors: N. R. Kieves; M. S. Bergh, E. Zellner, C. Wang
To compare cold compression therapy, modified Robert‐Jones bandage or the combination of cold compression therapy plus modified Robert‐Jones bandage on operated limbs following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in dogs.
Twenty‐one client‐owned dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease were prospectively enrolled. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of three postoperative treatment groups: cold compression therapy, modified Robert‐Jones bandage or a combination of both. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 36 hours following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy. Measurements included weight‐bearing on the operated limb, stifle flexion and extension angles and circumference of the operated limb at four levels.
There was no significant difference in weight‐bearing, range of motion or limb swelling between groups. There was a trend for dogs in the cold compression therapy and cold compression therapy with a bandage groups to have a greater increase in weight‐bearing after surgery compared with the bandage‐only group.
Cold compression therapy is a safe modality following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy surgery. The trend towards improved use of the operated limb in the groups receiving cold compression therapy compared with those treated with only a bandage may be an indication that these patients are more comfortable in the postoperative period. The small sample size limits interpretation of the data but this pilot study provides data to guide future investigation.
- Plate failure by bending following tibial fracture stabilisation in 10
- Abstract: OBJECTIVE
To describe the clinical findings and management of tibial fractures in cats in which osteosynthesis failed due to plate bending.
Case records and radiographs of cat tibial fracture repairs from five referral centres were reviewed for signalment and to assess incidence of plate failure by bending. Cats that sustained plate bending following plate or plate‐rod fixation were reviewed for fracture configuration, repair method, initial postoperative and postfailure tibial alignment, revision treatment and outcome.
The incidence of plate bending in cat fractures managed with plate and plate‐rod fixation in the four referral centres where the overall number could be established was 13% (8/60). In the 10 cats in which plates bent, initial fractures were generally oblique or spiral with mild comminution and located in the middle or distal third of the tibia. Mean time to implant failure was 24 days (range 2 to 56 days). Mean tibial valgus angle increased from 12·9° to 30·9° following bending of the plate. Short‐term outcome following revision surgery using orthogonal plating or stacked medial plates was favourable with improvement in tibial valgus in all five fractures with follow‐up data.
Plate bending following tibial fracture stabilisation in these 10 cats resulted in tibial valgus deformation. Consideration of plate and/or intramedullary rod selection and application should be given to avoid a plate strain environment that exceeds the yield point of the plate.
- Associations between respiratory signs and abnormalities reported in
thoracic CT scans of cats
- Authors: C. R. Lamb; I. D. Jones
To estimate the prevalence of subclinical abnormalities reported in thoracic (CT) scans of cats and to investigate associations between respiratory signs and CT signs.
Retrospective review of signalment, indications, respiratory signs and reported CT findings in a series of cats. Associations between patient variables, respiratory signs and CT signs were analysed using multi‐variable regression methods.
Records of 352 consecutive cats were reviewed. Abnormalities affecting thoracic structures were reported in CT scans of 138/179 (77%) cats that did not have respiratory signs; the most prevalent CT findings were pulmonary collapse (41%), evidence of bronchial disease (24%) and space‐occupying lesions (21%). Dyspnoea, cough and tachypnoea were associated with space‐occupying lesions. Dyspnoea was also associated with pulmonary consolidation and atelectasis. Increasing body weight was associated with pulmonary atelectasis and increasing age was associated with evidence of bronchial disease.
Abnormalities were commonly detected in thoracic CT scans of cats that did not show respiratory signs. The most prevalent abnormality – pulmonary atelectasis – is probably a temporary effect of sedation or anaesthesia. A high prevalence of subclinical abnormalities and limited correlations between clinical signs and CT findings will complicate diagnosis.
- Long‐term follow‐up in dogs with idiopathic eosinophilic
bronchopneumopathy treated with inhaled steroid therapy
- Authors: A.M. Canonne; G. Bolen, D. Peeters, F. Billen, C. Clercx
Treatment of canine idiopathic eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy mainly consists of long‐term oral corticosteroid therapy. To avoid side effects, inhaled steroid therapy has been increasingly used but long‐term clinical response and potential side effects are sparsely described.
Description of clinical response and side effects with long‐term fluticasone in dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy.
Case series of dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy and treated with fluticasone monotherapy for at least 6 months. Clinical response and side effects assessed by physical examination, standardised questionnaire and ACTH (corticotropin) stimulation test.
Eight dogs were treated for between 6 months and 5 years. Cough initially improved in all dogs; two dogs remained free of clinical signs, three were well controlled, but three showed severe relapse. Pituitary–adrenal axis inhibition occurred in two dogs treated with fluticasone monotherapy for more than 2 years; only one dog had clinical signs of iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism.
Fluticasone monotherapy allows initial improvement or remission in the majority of dogs but long‐term treatment fails to resolve the cough in some individuals. In addition, such therapy may induce pituitary‐adrenal axis inhibition. Prospective larger and randomised studies including both fluticasone and orally‐treated dogs are needed to define the optimal treatment.
- Focal intestinal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis in 10 dogs
- Abstract: OBJECTIVES
To describe the clinical and pathological features of canine focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis, to evaluate its underlying infectious cause and to compare it with human Crohn's disease.
Retrospective review of case records with a histopathological diagnosis of focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis. Bacterial and fungal colonisation was evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridisation and histochemical staining, respectively. A comparison with Crohn's disease was performed by a human pathologist.
Ten dogs were evaluated. The historical complaints were predominantly chronic diarrhoea (10/10) and vomiting (5/10). The biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminaemia (6/10) and hypocobalaminaemia (4/6). Abdominal sonography revealed a thickened distal ileum±ileocolic junction. Colonoscopy showed a swollen caecal ostium and oedematous caecum in 7/10 dogs. A stenotic ileo‐colic opening prevented endoscopic intubation in all dogs. Histology from the resected lesions revealed granulomatous inflammation involving the muscularis and serosa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated invasive bacteria in 2/10 dogs. Post‐resection, all dogs received metronidazole and tapering immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone. Remission (median 17 months) was achieved in 8/10 dogs.
Focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis is a rare and severe form of canine inflammatory bowel disease with preferential localisation to the ileum and the ileocolic junction. An underlying infectious aetiology was not identified.
- Owners’ attitudes and practices regarding nutrition of dogs diagnosed
with cancer presenting at a referral oncology service in Ontario, Canada
- Authors: S. Rajagopaul; J. M. Parr, J. P. Woods, D. L. Pearl, J. B. Coe, A. Verbrugghe
To investigate owner attitudes and dietary practices following cancer diagnosis in a dog.
A retrospective cross‐sectional survey of 75 dog owners presenting with their dogs to a tertiary referral oncology service through a demographic questionnaire and in‐person or telephone interviews regarding the dog's nutrition.
Conventional diets (71%) were most commonly fed as a single diet to canine cancer patients followed by homemade cooked (7%) and homemade raw (4%). Several owners (18%) provided combinations of these diets. Owners reported some distrust towards conventional diets (51%). Appetite loss occurred in 35% of dogs and diet changes reported for 25% of dogs in the study involved exclusion of a conventional (63%) and/or inclusion of a homemade (54%) component. 90% of owners noted the diet change was associated with the cancer diagnosis. Supplements were given by 39% of owners. 85% of owners highly valued veterinary nutritional advice.
Following a cancer diagnosis, dog owners appear to change their approach to managing their dog's nutrition. Given the value owners place on veterinary nutritional advice, veterinarians have a key role in guiding nutritional management of the canine cancer patient.
- Serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with
- Abstract: Objectives
To describe serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with hepatic disease and to determine whether there is a relationship between the concentration of either and the severity of hepatic necroinflammation.
Serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were measured in 46 dogs undergoing hepatic biopsy. Dogs were divided into three groups: congenital portosystemic shunts, chronic hepatitis and hepatic neoplasia. The histological severity of hepatic necroinflammation was scored.
C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were greater than the upper limit of the reference intervals in 39 and 26% of dogs, respectively. There was no association of disease group with C‐reactive protein (P=0·1733) or S100A12 (P=0·1513) concentrations. There was a positive correlation between serum C‐reactive protein concentration and hepatic necroinflammatory activity (rs=0·428, P=0·006).
Increased serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were observed in a subpopulation of dogs with various types of hepatic diseases, suggesting acute‐phase inflammation and activation of phagocytic cells, respectively. Dogs with higher hepatic necroinflammatory activity scores tended to have higher serum C‐reactive protein concentrations. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in a larger group of dogs.
- Clinical leishmaniasis in dogs living in the UK
- Authors: P. Silvestrini; D. Batchelor, K. Allenspach, C. Maunder, M. Seth, A. Mas, T. Hill, G. Serrano, X. Roura, M. Planellas, A. J. German, J. Pastor
To investigate the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs in the UK and to describe clinical presentation, clinicopathological abnormalities, therapeutic protocols and outcome in this non‐endemic country.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Medical records of dogs diagnosed with leishmaniasis at seven referral centres in the UK were retrospectively reviewed.
The prevalence was between 0·007 and 0·04% with a higher number of cases in southern England. All dogs had a history of travel to or from an endemic country. Lethargy, dermatological disease, decreased appetite and lameness were the most common reasons for presentation. Allopurinol was used alone for treatment in the majority of cases.
Although rare, leishmaniasis should be considered in dogs in the UK if they have compatible clinical signs and history of travel to or from endemic areas.
- Issue Information
- Pages: 1 - 3
- Foreword and Acknowledgements
- Authors: Thilo Pfau
Pages: 4 - 4
- Pages: 5 - 12