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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 187 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Small Animal Practice     [SJR: 0.737]   [H-I: 39]
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0022-4510 - ISSN (Online) 1748-5827
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • Spinal cord injury secondary to electrocution in a dog
    • Authors: C. Ros; C. de la Fuente, M. Pumarola, S. Añor
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 13‐year‐old, female spayed, crossbreed dog of 32 kg was presented for evaluation of peracute onset of non‐ambulatory tetraparesis after chewing an electrical wire. Neurological examination was consistent with a C1‐C5 myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a focal intramedullary lesion over the C2‐C3 vertebral bodies, which was confirmed to be an acute focal necrotising poliomyelopathy with subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhages on postmortem examination. This report describes the clinical, imaging and histopathological findings of this unusual type of spinal cord injury, and the effects of electrocution in the central nervous system of dogs.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T05:40:16.252936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12325
  • Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of prostate and testes
           of healthy dogs: preliminary results
    • Authors: M. A. R. Feliciano; M. C. Maronezi, A. P. R. Simões, R. R. Uscategui, G. S. Maciel, C. F. Carvalho, J. C. Canola, W. R. R. Vicente
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To describe the use of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography to evaluate the prostate and testes in healthy dogs and establish reference values for these organs. METHODS Thirty dogs were divided into three groups according to their age: juvenile, adult and senior. Echotexture, size, contours and margins of prostate and testes were assessed via ultrasound. The presence of deformities and tissue stiffness (greyscale and homogeneous or heterogeneous) were evaluated by qualitative acoustic radiation force impulse. The shear velocity was evaluated quantitatively. RESULTS The B mode findings were normal. The qualitative elastography demonstrated that the testes and prostate tissues were hard, homogeneous and not pliable. The shear velocity values were: left testes – juveniles: 1·28 m/s, adults: 1·23 m/s and seniors: 1·23 m/s; right testes – juveniles: 1·28 m/s, adults: 1·28 m/s and seniors: 1·28 m/s; left prostatic lobe – juveniles: 1·74 m/s, adults: 2·03 m/s and seniors: 1·82 m/s; right prostatic lobe – juvenile: 1·62 m/s, adults: 1·87 m/s and seniors: 1·90 m/s with no significant differences between groups. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the testes and prostate in dogs was easily implemented. This study provides baseline data for these organs.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T05:39:56.57359-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12323
  • Removal of a urethrolith via ovariohysterovaginectomy after
           endoscopic retropulsion in a rabbit with uterine
    • Authors: N. Di Girolamo; P. Selleri
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2015-01-23T01:52:32.487583-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12322
  • Clinical characteristics of Scottie Cramp in 31 cases
    • Authors: G. Urkasemsin; N. J. Olby
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE To report the clinical features, with response to therapy and long‐term outcome of Scottie Cramp as described by owners. METHODS Owners of affected dogs provided a description of clinical signs, age of onset and disease progression. Medical records, pedigrees and videotapes of cramp episodes were evaluated. RESULTS Thirty‐one dogs were recruited; 19 showed generalised spasticity and 12 exhibited only hind limb spasticity and skipping. Episodes were noted in the first year of life in 76% of dogs and were triggered by excitement, stress and exercise. Episode frequency and severity decreased over time with behaviour modification and decreased exposure to triggers playing a role in their development. One dog was euthanased because of severe refractory signs. Fluoxetine reduced the frequency and duration of episodes in seven dogs, but not in one severely affected dog. Female dogs were over‐represented with only eight affected males in the study cohort, and the presence of dogs with cerebellar degeneration in the same pedigrees may suggest a more complex mode of inheritance than previously reported. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The disorder recognised as Scottie Cramp by dog owners includes dogs with hind limb spasticity in addition to generalised cramping. Signs usually improve over time without specific treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T01:35:59.353368-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12317
  • Fentanyl‐induced asystole in two dogs
    • Authors: M. Jang; W.‐G. Son, I. Lee
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fentanyl is used in small animals for perioperative analgesia during anaesthesia. Severe bradycardia and asystole were observed on bolus administration of a 3 µg/kg loading dose of fentanyl in two dogs under isoflurane anaesthesia. Premedication with 10 µg/kg glycopyrrolate did not prevent asystole in the first case; and although bradycardia was treated with 5 µg/kg glycopyrrolate administered intravenously in the second case, the heart rate continuously decreased and asystole subsequently developed. Asystole in both cases was quickly corrected by intravenous administration of 0 · 04 mg/kg atropine and closed chest compressions. This case report describes asystole induced by fentanyl administration in isoflurane anaesthetised dogs. Atropine was more effective than glycopyrrolate in the treatment of fentanyl‐induced asystole.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T01:34:53.400701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12312
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of suspected idiopathic bilateral C2
           hypertrophic ganglioneuritis in dogs
    • Authors: S. Joslyn; C. Driver, F. McConnell, J. Penderis, A. Wessmann
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To report the magnetic resonance imaging and clinical features of suspected idiopathic bilaterally symmetric hypertrophic ganglioneuritis affecting the C2 nerve roots. METHODS Retrospective analysis of case records of dogs with imaging findings suggestive of idiopathic bilateral C2 neuritis. Data analysed included signalment, history, clinical signs, clinical pathology results and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Nerve root enlargement and spinal cord changes were classified as clinically significant or incidental, and further graded as mild, moderate or severe based on the degree of spinal cord distortion/compression. Imaging features were also correlated with severity of neurological deficits. RESULTS Twelve dogs, including nine Staffordshire bull terriers showed magnetic resonance imaging features suggestive of idiopathic hypertrophic neuritis of C2 nerve roots. Findings were considered incidental (4/12) or clinically significant (8/12) based on prior neurological examination. Changes were best visualised on transverse images at the level of the C1‐2 intervertebral foramina. The degree of associated spinal cord compression subjectively correlated with the severity of the neurological deficits. All cases with clinically significant lesions that were treated with corticosteroids responded favourably. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Bilaterally symmetric C2 neuritis likely represents idiopathic hypertrophic ganglioneuritis. Staffordshire bull terriers appear over represented. Immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids should be considered for clinically significant lesions.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T01:28:08.086712-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12305
  • Ease of intravenous catheterisation in dogs and cats: a comparative study
           of two peripheral catheters
    • Authors: A. Chebroux; E. A. Leece, J. C. Brearley
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To evaluate animal comfort and ease of placement of a veterinary‐specific intravenous catheter compared with a catheter manufactured for human use. METHODS Fifty‐nine veterinary undergraduates were recruited to perform intravenous catheterisations with two brands of over‐the‐needle catheter [Smiths Medical Jelco® (human use) and Abbott Animal Health catheter® (veterinary use)] in 69 healthy cats (n = 28) and dogs (n = 41) requiring general anaesthesia. After a standardised pre‐anaesthetic medication, each animal was randomly allocated to have one of the two brands of catheter placed. Each student was allowed a maximum of three attempts to achieve cephalic vein catheterisation. The student and a single experienced observer evaluated each attempt. Observations related to ease of placement and to the animal's reaction were recorded. RESULTS Human use catheters were placed in 34 and veterinary use in 35 animals. There was no difference in weight, sex or sedation score between the two groups. The number of failed attempts was similar between the two groups. There was no difference between groups for the number of animals reacting to catheter insertion. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The two types of catheters evaluated are equally suitable for intravenous catheterisation of sedated animals by veterinary undergraduate students.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:22:33.804886-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12318
  • Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs
    • Authors: H. E. Kortegaard; T. Anthony Knudsen, S. Dahl, J. F. G. Agger, T. Eriksen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not‐crown shortened dogs. A significant (P 
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:19:45.783585-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12314
  • Successful closed suction drain management of a canine elbow hygroma
    • Authors: M. M. Pavletic; D. E. Brum
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 1‐year‐old castrated male St. Bernard dog presented to Angell Animal Medical Center with bilateral elbow hygromas which had been present for several weeks. The largest hygroma involving the left elbow was managed with a closed suction (active) drain system to continuously collapse the hygroma pocket over a 3‐week period. Soft bedding was used to protect the elbows from further impact trauma to the olecranon areas. Following drain removal, there was no evidence of hygroma recurrence based on periodic examinations over an 18‐month period. The smaller non‐operated right elbow hygroma had slightly enlarged during this period. Closed suction drain management of the hygroma proved to be a simple and economical method of collapsing the left elbow hygroma. This closed drainage system eliminated the need for the postoperative bandage care required with the use of the Penrose (passive) drain method of managing elbow hygromas. The external drain tube should be adequately secured in order to minimise the risk of its inadvertent displacement.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:19:27.283649-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12315
  • Nebulised adrenaline to manage a life‐threatening complication in a
           pug with trismus
    • Authors: E. Leece; G. Cherubini
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 13‐month‐old pug with severe trismus because of suspected masticatory muscle myositis underwent anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging. When regurgitation occurred, the tongue was pulled from the mouth to enable suctioning but could not be repositioned into the oral cavity as it was not possible to open the mouth. Swelling due to venous congestion and a bite wound were treated using nebulised adrenaline and resolved within 2 hours allowing retraction of the tongue. The use of nebulised adrenaline offers a non‐invasive method of managing this potentially life‐threatening complication.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13T01:12:01.036863-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12308
  • Canine and feline pancreatitis: a challenging and enigmatic disease
    • Authors: Penny Watson
      Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T01:00:03.141492-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12316
  • Pancreatitis in dogs and cats: definitions and pathophysiology
    • Authors: P. Watson
      Pages: 3 - 12
      Abstract: Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, is commonly seen in dogs and cats and presents a spectrum of disease severities from acute to chronic and mild to severe. It is usually sterile, but the causes and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. The acute end of the disease spectrum is associated with a high mortality but the potential for complete recovery of organ structure and function if the animal survives. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic pancreatitis in either species can cause refractory pain and reduce quality of life. It may also result in progressive exocrine and endocrine functional impairment. There is confusion in the veterinary literature about definitions of acute and chronic pancreatitis and there are very few studies on the pathophysiology of naturally occurring pancreatitis in dogs and cats. This article reviews histological and clinical definitions and current understanding of the pathophysiology and causes in small animals by comparison with the much more extensive literature in humans, and suggests many areas that need further study in dogs and cats.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T01:00:02.015994-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12293
  • Diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats
    • Authors: P. G. Xenoulis
      Pages: 13 - 26
      Abstract: Pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the exocrine pancreas in both dogs and cats. Ante‐mortem diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis can be challenging. The clinical picture of dogs and cats with pancreatitis varies greatly (from very mild to severe or even fatal) and is characterised by non‐specific findings. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile and urinalysis should always be performed in dogs and cats suspected of having pancreatitis, although findings are not‐specific for pancreatitis. Serum amylase and lipase activities and trypsin‐like immunoreactivity (TLI) concentrations have no or only limited clinical value for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in either dogs or cats. Conversely, serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) concentration is currently considered to be the clinicopathological test of choice for the diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis. Abdominal radiography is a useful diagnostic tool for the exclusion of other diseases that may cause similar clinical signs to those of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography can be very useful for the diagnosis of pancreatitis, but this depends largely on the clinician's experience. Histopathological examination of the pancreas is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of pancreatitis, but it is not without limitations. In clinical practice, a combination of careful evaluation of the animal's history, serum PLI concentration and abdominal ultrasonography, together with pancreatic cytology or histopathology when indicated or possible, is considered to be the most practical and reliable means for an accurate diagnosis or exclusion of pancreatitis compared with other diagnostic modalities.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T01:00:00.658842-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12274
  • Management of acute pancreatitis in dogs: a critical appraisal with focus
           on feeding and analgesia
    • Authors: C. Mansfield; T. Beths
      Pages: 27 - 39
      Abstract: Knowledge about acute pancreatitis has increased recently in both the medical and veterinary fields. Despite this expansion of knowledge, there are very few studies on treatment interventions in naturally occurring disease in dogs. As a result, treatment recommendations are largely extrapolated from experimental rodent models or general critical care principles. General treatment principles involve replacing fluid losses, maintaining hydrostatic pressure, controlling nausea and providing pain relief. Specific interventions recently advocated in human medicine include the use of neurokinin‐1 antagonists for analgesia and early interventional feeding. The premise for early feeding is to improve the health of the intestinal tract, as unhealthy enterocytes are thought to perpetuate systemic inflammation. The evidence for early interventional feeding is not supported by robust clinical trials to date, but in humans there is evidence that it reduces hospitalisation time and in dogs it is well tolerated. This article summarises the major areas of management of acute pancreatitis in dogs and examines the level of evidence for each recommendation.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T01:00:03.450023-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12296
  • Pancreatitis and triaditis in cats: causes and treatment
    • Authors: K. W. Simpson
      Pages: 40 - 49
      Abstract: Pancreatitis in cats is frequently accompanied by concurrent disease in other organ systems. Co‐morbidities include hepatic lipidosis, inflammatory liver disease, bile duct obstruction, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, vitamin deficiency (B12/cobalamin, folate or K), intestinal lymphoma, nephritis, pulmonary thromboembolism and pleural and peritoneal effusions. “Triaditis” is the term used to describe concurrent inflammation of the pancreas, liver and small intestines. Triaditis has been reported in 50 to 56% of cats diagnosed with pancreatitis and 32 to 50% of those with cholangitis/inflammatory liver disease. A definitive diagnosis of triaditis is based on the histopathological evaluation of each organ. However, the specific conditions of each organ that constitute a diagnosis of triaditis remains to be defined. While the aetiopathogenesis of pancreatitis and its relationship to inflammation in other organ systems is unclear, preliminary studies point to a heterogeneous group of conditions with differential involvement of host inflammatory and immune responses and enteric bacteria. Comprehensive, prospective studies that simultaneously evaluate the presence of predefined clinical, clinicopathological and histopathological abnormalities, coupled with high‐resolution evaluation of pancreaticobiliary morphology, immunological profiling and screening for bacterial colonisation are required to advance diagnosis and therapy.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T01:00:02.547363-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12313
  • Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis – cause or effect?
    • Authors: L. J. Davison
      Pages: 50 - 59
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis are two distinct diseases encountered commonly in small animal practice. Whilst the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are usually unmistakeable, a firm diagnosis of pancreatitis can prove more elusive, as clinical signs are often variable. Over the past 10 to 15 years, despite the fact that the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are remarkably consistent, it has become more apparent that the underlying pathology of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats is heterogeneous, with exocrine pancreatic inflammation accompanying diabetes mellitus in a number of cases. However, the question remains as to whether the diabetes mellitus causes the pancreatitis or whether, conversely, the pancreatitis leads to diabetes mellitus – as there is evidence to support both scenarios. The concurrence of diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis has clinical implications for case management as such cases may follow a more difficult clinical course, with their glycaemic control being “brittle” as a result of variation in the degree of pancreatic inflammation. Problems may also arise if abdominal pain or vomiting lead to anorexia. In addition, diabetic cases with pancreatitis are at risk of developing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the following months to years, which can complicate their management further.
      PubDate: 2015-01-14T00:59:59.637024-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12295
  • Bodyweight and body condition score in rabbits on four different feeding
    • Authors: J. L. Prebble; D. J. Shaw, A. L. Meredith
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess the effects of four diet regimes (extruded diet with ad lib hay, muesli with ad lib hay, ad lib hay only, ad lib muesli only) on bodyweight and body condition score in rabbits. METHODS Thirty‐two Dutch rabbits were studied over 9 months. Bodyweight and body condition score were recorded weekly. RESULTS All groups gained weight with age, but relative to the ad lib hay only group (mean, 1 · 77 ± 0 · 13 kg), after 9 months rabbits in the ad lib muesli only group were 146% heavier (2 · 59 ± 0 · 32 kg); extruded diet with ad lib hay group 125% heavier (2 · 21 ± 0 · 10 kg); and muesli with ad lib hay group 123% heavier (2 · 18 ± 0 · 13 kg). Median body condition score of the ad lib muesli only group was obese (4 · 5) and was higher than that in both the extruded diet with ad lib hay and muesli with ad lib hay (median = 3 · 5) groups (P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-21T23:22:33.050782-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12301
  • Vaginal prolapse in a pregnant Maine coon cat: a case report
    • Authors: K. A. McKelvey; T. M. Beachler, K. K. Ferris, M. Diaw, J. M. Vasgaard, C. S. Bailey
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Vaginal prolapse is a condition characterised by excessive accumulation of mucosal oedema and protrusion of hyperplastic tissue through the vulva. It has been reported in ruminants and canines, but has not been characterised in felines. This report describes the history, clinical signs and treatment of a pregnant Maine coon cat with a Type III vaginal prolapse diagnosed approximately 54 days after the first day of mating. Prior to queening, the prolapse was reduced and retained using a vulvar cruciate suture. Due to the risk of dystocia and recurrence, a caesarean section with ovariohysterectomy was performed. Postoperatively, a stay suture was maintained in the vulva for 2 weeks, resulting in permanent reduction of the vaginal prolapse. To the authors’ knowledge, this case represents the first report of the successful management of vaginal prolapse in a pregnant cat.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T06:54:19.395882-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12310
  • Retrospective evaluation of moderate‐to‐severe pulmonary
           hypertension in dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum
    • Authors: K. Borgeat; S. Sudunagunta, B. Kaye, J. Stern, V. Luis Fuentes, D. J. Connolly
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES The outcome in dogs with pulmonary hypertension associated with natural Angiostrongylus vasorum infection is unclear. This study aimed to report long‐term outcome of dogs with A. vasorum and pulmonary hypertension, and to evaluate factors associated with pulmonary hypertension development. It was hypothesised that dogs with pulmonary hypertension had a shorter survival time than dogs without pulmonary hypertension. METHODS Retrospective review of clinical records of dogs diagnosed with A. vasorum. Dogs were classified as having or not having pulmonary hypertension based on clinical signs and imaging findings. Signalment, signs and outcome were recorded. DNA obtained from banked samples was genotyped for the PDE5a:E90K polymorphism, a possible factor in development of pulmonary hypertension. RESULTS The proportion of dogs with moderate‐to‐severe pulmonary hypertension and A. vasorum infection in the study population was 14 · 6%. No difference in the population characteristics or PDE5a genotype was detected between dogs with and without pulmonary hypertension. Dogs with pulmonary hypertension had a significantly shorter survival time (P = 0 · 006) and a greater risk of death within 6 months of diagnosis (odds ratio 12 · 5, 95% confidence interval 2 · 1 to 74 · 9; P = 0 · 0053). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE A. vasorum‐associated pulmonary hypertension is an important problem in naturally infected dogs and has a negative effect upon survival.
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T00:59:16.46313-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12309
  • Faecal shedding of antimicrobial‐resistant Clostridium difficile
           strains by dogs
    • Authors: S. Álvarez‐Pérez; J. L. Blanco, T. Peláez, M. P. Lanzarot, C. Harmanus, E. Kuijper, M. E. García
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To longitudinally assess the shedding of antimicrobial resistant Clostridium difficile strains by clinically healthy dogs raised at breeding facilities. METHODS 18 puppies from three different litters (#1, 2 and 3) were sampled weekly from parturition to day 20–55 postpartum. Faecal samples from the mothers of litters #2 and 3 were also available for analysis. Bacterial isolates were ribotyped, tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and further characterised. RESULTS C. difficile was recovered from all sampled animals of litters #1 and 2, and a third of puppies from litter #3, but marked differences in C. difficile recovery were detected in different age groups (0–100%). Recovered PCR ribotypes included 056 (22 isolates), 010 (6 isolates), 078 and 213 (2 isolates each), and 009 and 020 (1 isolate each). Different ribotypes were shed by four individual animals. Regardless of their origin and ribotype, all isolates demonstrated full resistance to levofloxacin. Additionally, all but one isolate (belonging to ribotype 078) were resistant to ertapenem, and all ribotype 010 isolates displayed high‐level resistance to clindamycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin. A single ribotype 078 isolate showed metronidazole heteroresistance. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Healthy dogs can shed antimicrobial‐resistant C. difficile strains.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T08:07:46.882996-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12311
  • Muscular dystrophy due to a sarcoglycan deficiency in a female Dobermann
    • Authors: J. S. Munday; G. D. Shelton, S. Willox, D. D. Kingsbury
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A four‐month‐old female Dobermann presented with myalgia, dysphagia, progressive weakness and loss of body condition. Diagnostic evaluation at nine months of age revealed markedly elevated serum creatine kinase activity, electromyographic abnormalities and histological evidence of chronic‐active muscle necrosis. Imaging confirmed dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia. Muscular dystrophy was suspected and immunohistochemical staining of muscle cryosections demonstrated reduced sarcoglycans. Treatment consisted of gastrostomy, and over the next 5 months the dog gained weight, despite continued loss of muscle mass. The dog died at 14 months of age after developing clinical signs of aspiration pneumonia. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of muscular dystrophy in a Dobermann and only the second detailed report of a canine sarcoglycanopathy. Supportive care resulted in an acceptable quality of life for 10 months after clinical signs were first observed.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T08:06:55.562289-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12306
  • Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography of the spleen in
           healthy adult cats – a preliminary study
    • Authors: M. A. R. Feliciano; M. C. Maronezi, L. Z. Crivellenti, S. B. Crivellenti, A. P. R. Simões, M. B. S. Brito, P. H. S. Garcia, W. R. R. Vicente
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To evaluate the splenic stiffness of healthy adult cats using acoustic radiation force impulse elastography to determine the quality (greyscale images and tissue deformity) and quantity (shear velocity) standards. METHODS Fifteen healthy, adult shorthair cats were selected. The echotexture, echogenicity, size and edges of the spleen were assessed via mode‐B ultrasound. Using qualitative elastography, specific portions of the spleen were evaluated according to homogeneity, presence of deformities and white and dark regions. The shear velocities in different portions of the spleen were quantitatively evaluated. RESULTS The echotexture, echogenicity, size and edges of the spleen were normal on B‐mode ultrasound in all cats. On qualitative elastography, the evaluated splenic portions were not deformable, and the images presented as homogeneous dark areas. On quantitative elastography, the mean shear velocity values were 1 · 98 m/s for the head portion, 1 · 77 m/s for the body portion and 2 · 03 m/s for the tail portion. These were not significantly different. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Quantitative and qualitative acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the spleen in healthy adult cats was easily implemented and this study may provide baseline data for this organ to allow the future use of this technique in evaluating cats with splenic disease.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T08:06:30.590783-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12307
  • Characteristics of the bacterial flora in the conjunctival sac of cats
           from Poland
    • Authors: Z. Kiełbowicz; K. Płoneczka‐Janeczko, J. Bania, K. Bierowiec, M. Kiełbowicz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To assess the bacterial flora of the conjunctival sac in clinically healthy cats and cats with signs of conjunctivitis. METHODS A total of 324 conjunctival swabs were examined between 2011 and 2012 taken from 60 animals, 30 of which were clinically healthy and 30 with signs of chronic conjunctivitis. The samples were taken three times at 4‐week intervals from the clinically healthy cats. The samples from the cats with conjunctivitis were taken before and 4 weeks after cessation of successful therapy. Swabs from both the right and left eye of each cat were subjected to microbiological examination and polymerase chain reaction for the presence of DNA of Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma felis. RESULTS There was no qualitative difference in the eye microflora between the clinically healthy animals and those with signs of conjunctivitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis (21 · 9%) was the most common microorganism isolated and it was more commonly detected in swabs from cats with conjunctivitis (P 
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T08:05:12.302567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12304
  • The diagnostic utility of lymph node cytology samples in dogs and cats
    • Authors: I. Amores‐Fuster; P. Cripps, P. Graham, A. M. Marrington, L. Blackwood
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine common reasons for lymph node fine needle aspirates, cytological diagnoses reported and the frequency and reasons for non‐diagnostic samples from dogs and cats. METHODS Retrospective study of computerised records of fine needle aspirate samples submitted to NationWide Laboratories (UK) between April 2009 and May 2011 to identify lymph node samples. Reason for sampling, sample quality, diagnosis achieved and reason for non‐diagnostic samples were assessed. RESULTS A total of 1473 records were available for review. Of 1274 canine samples, 928 (72 · 8%) were diagnostic and 346 (27 · 2%) were non‐diagnostic. Of 199 feline samples, 171 (85 · 9%) samples were diagnostic and 28 (14 · 1%) were non‐diagnostic. The most common reasons for sample submission in both species were investigation of lymphadenopathy (alone or in combination with other clinical signs) or tumour staging. In dogs, the most common diagnosis was lymphoma (351, 27 · 5%), and in cats, reactive hyperplasia (63, 31 · 6%). Absence of cells, cell disruption and low yield were the most common causes of non‐diagnostic samples. Submission of the history did not affect the probability of reaching a cytological diagnosis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Lymph node cytology is a useful diagnostic procedure but educating veterinarians to improve sampling and smearing may increase diagnostic yield.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T08:04:39.524913-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12303
  • Pro‐coagulant thromboelastographic features in the bulldog
    • Authors: G. Hoareau; M. Mellema
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To determine if bulldogs develop a hypercoagulable state comparable to that observed in human patients with sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thromboelastography was performed in 15 clinically healthy bulldogs and 24 healthy control dogs of other breeds or mixed breed lineage. RESULTS Bulldogs had significantly shorter R and K times relative to control dogs. The alpha angle, maximum amplitude and overall clot strength was significantly greater in bulldogs than in controls. The largest differences between the groups were found in the maximal amplitude and overall clot strength parameters. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE These findings support the concept that brachycephalic syndrome promotes a hypercoagulable phenotype similar to that observed with sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome in humans. The large increases in maximal amplitude observed suggest platelet hyperreactivity may play an important role.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T08:04:15.716201-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12299
  • Acquired cervical spinal arachnoid diverticulum in a cat
    • Authors: R. J. Adams; L. Garosi, K. Matiasek, M. Lowrie
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A one‐year‐old, female entire, domestic, shorthair cat presented with acute onset non‐ambulatory tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a C3‐C4 acute non‐compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion and the cat was treated conservatively. The cat was able to walk after 10 days and was normal 2 months after presentation. The cat was referred five and a half years later for investigation of an insidious onset 3‐month history of ataxia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine was repeated, demonstrating a spinal arachnoid diverticulum at C3 causing marked focal compression of the spinal cord. This was treated surgically with hemilaminectomy and durectomy. The cat improved uneventfully and was discharged 12 days later.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T08:02:10.256045-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12288
  • Prevalence of physiological heart murmurs in a population of 95 healthy
           young adult dogs
    • Authors: A. Drut; T. Ribas, F. Floch, S. Franchequin, L. Freyburger, B. Rannou, J. L. Cadoré, I. Bublot
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of physiological heart murmurs in healthy young adult dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Healthy dogs aged between 1 and 5 years were enrolled prospectively. All participating dogs underwent physical examination, urinalysis, blood testing and blood pressure measurement. Cardiac auscultations were performed by three independent examiners. Dogs with heart murmurs underwent echocardiography, to exclude cardiovascular abnormalities. RESULTS Of 109 dogs evaluated, 95 completed the study. Heart murmurs were detected in 22 dogs. Interobserver agreement for murmur detection was moderate to fair (weighted kappa 0 · 29–0 · 56). On the basis of two different sets of echocardiographic criteria, physiological heart murmurs were diagnosed in 6 and 11 dogs, respectively, giving a prevalence of 6–12%. All physiological heart murmurs were systolic and low‐grade (I–III/VI). Most were louder towards the left heart base and some radiated up to the thoracic inlet. The epidemiological features of dogs with physiological heart murmurs did not differ significantly from those of dogs without murmurs (P > 0 · 10). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE This study shows that physiological heart murmurs may not be limited to growing dogs or specific breeds, as they were commonly encountered in this population of healthy young adult dogs.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T04:56:59.972847-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12300
  • Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity in acute pancreatitis of dogs
    • Authors: A. Tvarijonaviciute; J. D. García‐Martínez, M. Caldin, S. Martínez‐Subiela, F. Tecles, J. Pastor, J. J. Ceron
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES Serum paraoxonase 1 is considered a marker of inflammation and oxidative damage. The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs with acute pancreatitis, to correlate serum paraoxonase 1 activity and other analytes known to be altered in dogs with pancreatitis and to assess the relationship between serum paraoxonase 1 activity and disease severity in dogs with acute pancreatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Retrospective analysis of dogs with acute pancreatitis and healthy dogs in which serum paraoxonase 1 activity was measured were compared. RESULTS Median serum paraoxonase 1 activity was significantly lower in dogs with pancreatitis (n = 19) compared to healthy ones (n = 19). Serum paraoxonase 1 activity was negatively correlated with serum lipase and amylase activities, and C‐reactive protein and haptoglobin concentrations and was positively correlated with total cholesterol and glucose concentration. Disease severity was negatively correlated with serum paraoxonase 1 activity and positively correlated with triglyceride and C‐reactive protein concentration. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is lower in dogs with acute pancreatitis and together with triglyceride and C‐reactive protein concentrations is a potential marker of disease severity.
      PubDate: 2014-11-14T05:58:57.956671-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12297
  • Vertical forces assessment according to radiographic hip grade in German
           shepherd dogs
    • Authors: A. N. A. Souza; A. C. B. C. F. Pinto, V. Marvulle, J. M. Matera
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlation between radiographic hip grade and kinetic parameters in German shepherd dogs. METHODS Dogs were distributed into five groups of eight dogs each according to hip grade (A, B, C, D or E). Dogs were submitted to clinical evaluation and kinetic analysis. Five valid passages were analysed using data collected from a pressure walkway. Peak vertical force, vertical impulse and stance phase duration were evaluated at velocity (1 · 2 to 1 · 4 m/s) ±0 · 1 m/s2 acceleration. Kinetic data between groups were compared. RESULTS In pelvic limbs, mean peak vertical force decreased progressively from grade C (mild) to grade E (severe) hip dysplasia. The vertical impulse was decreased in groups C and E compared to groups A, B and D; stance phase duration did not differ significantly between groups. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Mean peak vertical force was lower in dogs with severe hip dysplasia compared with mildly dysplastic dogs. These results suggest that hip dysplasia degree can affect lameness severity.
      PubDate: 2014-11-14T05:58:40.832207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12294
  • Surgical management of a traumatic dislocation of the sternum in an
           English bulldog
    • Authors: C. I. Serra; C. Soler, V. Moratalla, V. Sifre, J. I. Redondo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A nine‐year‐old English bulldog presented with an acute history of dyspnoea, tachycardia and discomfort localising to the ventral thorax following a fall down the stairs that morning. After the dog was stabilised, thoracic radiographs revealed a luxation of the third and fourth sternebrae with dorsal displacement of the caudal segment. The sternum was reduced and stabilised with a contoured 12‐hole 3 · 5‐mm dynamic compression plate applied to the ventral surface of the sternum. The dog's initial recovery was rapid, cardiorespiratory parameters returning to normal in the first 24 hours. For 2 weeks postoperatively the dog exhibited difficulty in rising from a prone position. After this time there was a full recovery. Clinical examination at 8 months postoperatively did not reveal any abnormalities. Telephone follow‐up was performed at 18 months and no complications or cardiorespiratory compromise were reported. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a traumatic dislocation of the sternum and its management in the dog.
      PubDate: 2014-11-06T02:35:29.643593-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12289
  • A retrospective survey of ocular abnormalities in pugs: 130 cases
    • Authors: M. Krecny; A. Tichy, J. Rushton, B. Nell
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To determine the types and frequency of ophthalmic findings in pugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Retrospective analysis of case records of pugs presented to an ophthalmology unit between 2001 and 2012. Ophthalmological findings were correlated with age, gender, presenting signs and time of onset of disease. RESULTS In total, 130 pugs (258 eyes) with a mean (±sd) age of 2 · 8 (±2 · 87) years were examined. Ocular abnormalities identified included keratoconjunctivitis sicca (n = 39 eyes), macroblepharon (n = 258 eyes), entropion (n = 258 eyes), distichiasis (n = 56 eyes), ectopic cilia (n = 8 eyes), conjunctivitis (n = 88 eyes), corneal pigmentation (n = 101 eyes), opacity (n = 63 eyes), ulceration (n = 46 eyes), vascularisation (n = 35 eyes), iris‐to‐iris persistent pupillary membranes (n = 21 eyes) and cataract (n = 18). Keratoconjunctivitis sicca was significantly associated with the presence of corneal pigmentation (P = 0 · 007 for left eyes; P = 0 · 043 for right eyes). However corneal pigmentation was also identified in pugs (n = 61) without keratoconjunctivitis sicca. There was a significant influence of ectopic cilia on corneal ulceration (P < 0 · 001). Younger dogs (mean age, 1 · 28 (±0 · 45) years) were significantly more affected by distichiasis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The high number of cases of corneal pigmentation without keratoconjunctivitis sicca suggests that there may be additional yet undetermined factors involved in the development of corneal pigmentation in pugs.
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T02:18:23.317719-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12291
  • Primary penile adenocarcinoma with concurrent hypercalcaemia of malignancy
           in a dog
    • Authors: A. R. R. Furtado; L. Parrinello, M. Merlo, A. Di Bella
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 13‐year‐old male neutered Siberian husky crossbreed dog was presented with a 3‐week history of haematuria and penile swelling. Clinical examination and computed tomography demonstrated a soft‐tissue mass located at the base of the penis without signs of other primary tumours or metastasis. Clinicopathological findings revealed paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia. Fine‐needle aspiration cytology of the mass suggested an epithelial tumour with several criteria of malignancy present. Following surgical excision of the mass, the hypercalcaemia resolved. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed features consistent with an adenocarcinoma. Despite thorough examination, no perineal or anal sac tumour was found. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a penile adenocarcinoma with hypercalcaemia of malignancy.
      PubDate: 2014-11-05T02:12:09.499498-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12285
  • A case of type B botulism in a pregnant bitch
    • Authors: A. Lamoureux; C. Pouzot‐Nevoret, C. Escriou
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A two‐year‐old pregnant Gordon setter presented with acute onset of flaccid tetraparesis and respiratory distress. Neurological examination revealed diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin B was isolated from the dog's serum. The dog was hospitalised and received supportive care; respiratory function was monitored but positive‐pressure ventilation was not required. Recovery was complete within 1 month and parturition occurred without complication 49 days after admission. The puppies delivered lacked any obvious congenital defects and development during the first few months of life was normal. The source of contamination was suspected to be poorly conserved dry food. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of C. botulinum neurotoxin B isolation in a dog and the first report of botulism in a pregnant bitch.
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T06:05:30.820616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12290
  • Lethal septic shock after dental scaling in a healthy dog due to
           Ochrobactrum anthropi‐contaminated propofol
    • Authors: P. Franci; G. Dotto, A. Cattai, D. Pasotto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T04:12:29.817052-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12284
  • Dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy in a Norfolk terrier
    • Authors: E. Beltran; G. D. Shelton, L. T. Guo, R. Dennis, D. Sanchez‐Masian, D. Robinson, L. De Risio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A six‐month‐old male entire Norfolk terrier was presented with a 3‐month history of poor development, reluctance to exercise and progressive and diffuse muscle atrophy. Serum creatine kinase concentration was markedly elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the epaxial muscles revealed asymmetrical streaky signal changes aligned within the muscle fibres (hyperintense on T2‐weighted images and short‐tau inversion recovery with moderate contrast enhancement on T1‐weighted images). Electromyography revealed pseudomyotonic discharges and fibrillation potentials localised at the level of the supraspinatus, epaxial muscles and tibial cranialis muscles. Muscle biopsy results were consistent with dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy. The dog remained stable 7 months after diagnosis with coenzyme Q10 and l‐carnitine; however after that time, there was a marked deterioration and the owners elected euthanasia. This case report describes the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging, electrodiagnostic and histopathological findings with immunohistochemical analysis in a Norfolk terrier with confirmed dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy, which has not been previously described in this breed.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T07:58:28.656369-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12292
  • Necrotising fasciitis in a domestic shorthair cat – negative
           pressure wound therapy assisted debridement and reconstruction
    • Authors: M. C. Nolff; A. Meyer‐Lindenberg
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 10‐year‐old, domestic shorthair cat was presented for acute lameness of the left forelimb accompanied by severe pain, swelling, skin necrosis, malodorous discharge and pyrexia. Following a presumptive diagnosis of necrotising fasciitis aggressive surgical debridement of the affected soft tissues of the antebrachium and negative pressure wound treatment of the open defect were performed. Surgical findings supported the tentative diagnosis of necrotising fasciitis and Streptococcus canis was isolated from the wound. A free skin graft was performed 29 days after admission, and augmented by 3 days of negative pressure wound therapy to facilitate graft incorporation. Healing was achieved without complications and no functional or aesthetic abnormalities remained.
      PubDate: 2014-10-16T09:28:16.528924-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12275
  • Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a
           report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group
    • Authors: M. J. Day; U. Karkare, R. D. Schultz, R. Squires, H. Tsujimoto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact‐finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi‐component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (
      DOI ) of only 1 year, or no description of
      DOI . Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non‐core vaccines to adult animals, with little understanding that “herd immunity” is more important than frequent revaccination of individual animals within the population. In this paper, the VGG presents the findings of this project and makes key recommendations for the Asian countries. The VGG recommends that (1) Asian veterinary schools review and increase as needed the amount of instruction in small animal vaccinology within their undergraduate curriculum and increase the availability of pertinent postgraduate education for practitioners; (2) national small animal veterinary associations, industry veterinarians and academic experts work together to improve the scientific evidence base concerning small animal infectious diseases and vaccination in their countries; (3) national small animal veterinary associations take leadership in providing advice to practitioners based on improved local knowledge and global vaccination guidelines; (4) licensing authorities use this enhanced evidence base to inform and support the registration of improved vaccine product ranges for use in their countries, ideally with
      DOI for core vaccines similar or equal to those of equivalent products available in western countries (i.e. 3 or 4 years). The VGG also endorses the efforts made by Asian governments, non‐governmental organisations and veterinary practitioners in working towards the goal of global elimination of canine rabies virus infection. In this paper, the VGG offers both a current pragmatic and future aspirational approach to small animal vaccination in Asia. As part of this project, the VGG delivered continuing education to over 800 Asian practitioners at seven events in four countries. Accompanying this document is a list of 80 frequently asked questions (with answers) that arose during these discussions. The VGG believes that this information will be of particular value to Asian veterinarians as they move towards implementing global trends in small companion animal vaccinology.
      PubDate: 2014-10-07T07:10:57.628995-05:
  • Chest wall reconstruction with latissimus dorsi and an autologous
           thoracolumbar fascia graft in a dog
    • Authors: A. de Battisti; G. Polton, M. de Vries, E. Friend
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A new technique for autogenous chest wall reconstruction using a latissimus dorsi muscle flap and a free graft of thoracolumbar fascia was utilised in a two‐year‐old Dobermann after resection of a high‐grade osteosarcoma from the left thoracic wall. En bloc excision of the chest wall mass, including six ribs, was performed. The resulting chest wall defect was too large to be reconstructed with only a pedicled muscle flap and was reconstructed with a latissimus dorsi muscle flap cranially and a free graft of thoracolumbar fascia caudally. The graft was harvested easily, and there was no donor site morbidity or postoperative complications. A free graft of thoracolumbar fascia can be considered as an option to supplement autogenous reconstruction of the chest wall.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T01:29:14.208807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12270
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs
    • Authors: S. Mellett; S. Verganti, S. Murphy, K. Bowlt
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11T05:55:06.986043-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12264
  • A skeletal disorder in a dog resembling the Klippel–Feil Syndrome
           with Sprengel's Deformity in humans
    • Authors: G. Bertolini; M. Trotta, M. Caldin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A five‐year‐old intact male golden retriever dog was evaluated for cervical pain and right hemiparesis. Clinical and computed tomography features suggested a caudal cervical instability and myelopathy due to a cervicoscapular malformation resembling the human Klippel–Feil Syndrome with Sprengel Deformity, a rare complex congenital disorder. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of MEOX1, PAX1 and FGFR3 genes were performed in this dog to investigate a possible underlying genetic predisposition, but no mutations were detected in the coding regions of the three target genes evaluated. Other genes can be involved in this condition in dogs and require further investigation. This report describes a cervical vertebral fusion and complex scapular anomaly in a dog. The presence of an omovertebral bone should be considered in the setting of signs characteristic of myelopathy in dogs with or without obvious skeletal deformity.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05T01:18:04.723892-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12268
  • Hepatic fungal infection in a young beagle with unrecognised hereditary
           cobalamin deficiency (Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome)
    • Authors: P. H. Kook; M. Drögemüller, T. Leeb, S. Hinden, M. Ruetten, J. Howard
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 12‐month‐old beagle presented for anorexia, pyrexia and vomiting. The dog had been treated intermittently with antibiotics and corticosteroids for inappetence and lethargy since five months of age. Previous laboratory abnormalities included macrocytosis and neutropenia. At presentation, the dog was lethargic, febrile and thin. Laboratory examination findings included anaemia, a left shift, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Multiple, small, hypoechoic, round hepatic lesions were observed on abdominal ultrasound. Cytological examination of hepatic fine needle aspirates revealed a fungal infection and associated pyogranulomatous inflammation. The dog's general condition deteriorated despite supportive measures and treatment with fluconazole, and owners opted for euthanasia before hypocobalaminaemia was identified. Subsequent genomic analysis revealed a CUBN:c.786delC mutation in a homozygous state, confirming hereditary cobalamin malabsorption (Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome). Similar to human infants, dogs with Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome may rarely be presented for infectious diseases, distracting focus from the underlying primary disorder.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T04:37:26.536647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12251
  • Mesenteric‐reno‐caval shunt in an aged dog
    • Authors: Swan Specchi; Pascaline Pey, Romain Javard, Isabelle Caron, Giovanna Bertolini
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-08-07T01:22:39.63107-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12255
  • Pancreatic surgical biopsy in 24 dogs and 19 cats: postoperative
           complications and clinical relevance of histological findings
    • Authors: K. M. Pratschke; J. Ryan, A. McAlinden, G. McLauchlan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE To assess the immediate postoperative complications associated with pancreatic biopsy in dogs and cats and review the clinical relevance of biopsy findings. METHODS Retrospective review of clinical records from two referral institutions for cases undergoing pancreatic biopsy between 2000 and 2013. RESULTS Twenty‐four dogs and 19 cats that had surgical pancreatic biopsy had sufficient detail in their clinical records and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Postoperative complications were seen in 10 cases of which 5 were suggestive of post‐surgical pancreatitis. Two patients were euthanased within 10 days of surgery because of the underlying disease; neither suffered postoperative complications. Pancreatic pathology was found in 19 cases, 7 cases showed no change other than benign pancreatic nodular hyperplasia, and no abnormalities were seen in 18 cases. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Complications may be encountered following surgical pancreatic biopsy, although the risk should be minimal with good surgical technique. Pancreatic biopsy may provide a useful contribution to case management but it is not clear whether a negative pancreatic biopsy should be used to rule out pancreatic disease. Dogs were more likely to have no significant pathology found on pancreatic biopsy than cats, where chronic pancreatitis was the most common finding.
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T07:37:13.659883-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12262
  • Extended proximal trochleoplasty for the correction of bidirectional
           patellar luxation in seven Pomeranian dogs
    • Authors: C. Wangdee; H. A. W. Hazewinkel, J. Temwichitr, L. F. H. Theyse
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Seven Pomeranians with bidirectional patellar luxation (BPL) were prospectively studied regarding aetiology and results of a new surgical technique. Radiographic evaluation of the ratio between patellar ligament length and patellar bone length revealed no differences between Pomeranians with bidirectional patellar luxation and healthy stifle joints. Functional rather than anatomic patella alta might be associated with bidirectional patellar luxation in Pomeranians. The surgical outcome of extended proximal trochleoplasty was good‐to‐excellent in 87·5% of the stifles and all dogs achieved functional recovery. There was only minimal radiographic progression of osteophyte formation at 48 weeks after surgery. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on bidirectional patellar luxation in small breed dogs and its successful surgical treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T00:36:24.751178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12248
  • Inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers of disease severity in dogs with
           parvoviral enteritis
    • Authors: M. Kocaturk; A. Tvarijonaviciute, S. Martinez‐Subiela, F. Tecles, O. Eralp, Z. Yilmaz, J. J. Ceron
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To study changes in serum C‐reactive protein, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin and albumin concentration, total anti‐oxidant capacity and paraoxonase‐1 and butyrylcholinesterase activity in dogs with parvoviral enteritis of different degrees of clinical severity. METHODS Prospective study of 9 healthy and 43 dogs with parvoviral enteritis that were classified into mildly, moderately and affected groups. RESULTS Dogs with parvoviral enteritis had a significant increase in C‐reactive protein compared with healthy dogs, with an increase of higher magnitude in animals with more severe clinical signs. All dogs with parvoviral enteritis had a significant increase in haptoglobin concentration compared with healthy dogs, but with no difference according to disease severity. There was a decrease in paraoxonase‐1 activity in parvoviral enteritis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Major increases of C‐reactive protein concentrations in dogs with parvoviral enteritis are a marker of disease severity. In addition, higher values for anti‐oxidants in severe cases compared with mild and moderate cases suggest a possible compensatory anti‐oxidant mechanism.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T00:35:20.627735-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12250
  • Advanced diagnostic imaging and surgical treatment of an odontogenic
           retromasseteric abscess in a guinea pig
    • Authors: V. Capello; A. Lennox
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A two‐year‐old guinea pig presented for difficulty chewing. Examination and diagnostic imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance, revealed an odontogenic retromasseteric abscess associated with a mandibular cheek tooth. Treatment included removal of the abscess and marsupialisation of the surgical site for repeated debridement and healing by second intention. Unique features of this case included the use of advanced diagnostic imaging and utilisation of marsupialisation for surgical correction.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T00:35:03.853415-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12249
  • Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of canine uropathogens in
           Northern Belgium: a retrospective study (2010 to 2012)
    • Authors: Delphine Criel; Joachim Steenbergen, Michel Stalpaert
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-04-07T02:26:05.089305-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12221
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