- Presentation, clinical pathological and post‐mortem findings in
three related Scottish terriers with ligneous membranitis
- Authors: S. L. Mason; C. Fisher, L. Ressel, N. X. Bommer, L. M. Buckley, T. Nuttall
Abstract: Ligneous conjunctivitis and gingivitis were diagnosed in three related Scottish terrier dogs presented for investigation of severe conjunctivitis and respiratory signs. Hypoplasminogenaemia was confirmed in one of the three affected dogs. Supportive treatment was not effective, and the dogs died or were euthanased because of the disease. Post‐mortem analysis of two of the dogs revealed multiple abnormalities including severe proliferative fibrinous lesions affecting the conjunctiva, gingiva, trachea, larynx and epicardium and multiple fibrous adhesions throughout the thoracic and abdominal cavities. One dog had internal hydrocephalus and lacked a cerebellar vermis. Ligneous membranitis was confirmed on histopathology. This is a rare condition in dogs but an important differential diagnosis for severe conjunctivitis and gingivitis.
- Clinical data, clinicopathologic findings and outcome in dogs with
amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and primary immune‐mediated
- Abstract: OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to identify distinguishing characteristics between dogs diagnosed with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and those diagnosed with presumed primary peripheral immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia. Presenting clinical and clinicopathologic data and outcomes were compared between the two groups.
Retrospective study performed on seven client‐owned dogs diagnosed with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and 34 client‐owned dogs with primary peripheral immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia.
All dogs in the amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia group were anaemic on presentation with a median haematocrit of 23% (range 9·4 to 36), while the primary peripheral immune‐mediated thrombocytopoenia group had a median presenting haematocrit of 35% (range 10 to 53). Dogs with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia had a median of five (range 4 to 7) clinical signs of bleeding compared to a median of three (range 0 to 6) in the primary peripheral immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia group with 86% (6 of 7) of amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia dogs requiring a blood transfusion compared to 41% (14 of 34) of primary peripheral immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia dogs. Six of the seven amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia dogs did not survive to discharge, while only five of the 34 primary peripheral immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia dogs did not survive to discharge.
The clinical presentation of dogs with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and primary peripheral immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia is similar, but dogs with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia had a more severe clinical course compared to primary peripheral immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia dogs. The prognosis for dogs with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia is poor.
- Facial and vestibular neuropathy of unknown origin in 16 dogs
- Authors: A. Jeandel; J. L. Thibaud, S. Blot
The aim of this study was to describe the signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long‐term follow‐up in dogs with concomitant facial and vestibular neuropathy of unknown origin.
Appropriate cases were located through medical record searches. Inclusion criteria comprised dogs that had: clinical signs of facial paralysis with concomitant peripheral vestibular syndrome, thyroid function tests, no abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and tympanic bullae, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis.
Sixteen dogs met the inclusion criteria. Facial paralysis had acute onset (
- Hypercalcaemia secondary to elevated 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol in a
dog with immune‐mediated polyarthritis
- Authors: J.L. Adamany; M.P. Dhumeaux
Abstract: A seven‐year‐old male entire Bearded Collie was referred following a three‐week history of pyrexia, lethargy and stiffness, which was poorly responsive to antibiotic therapy. The most significant laboratory abnormalities included marked neutrophilia and ionised hypercalcaemia. The dog was diagnosed with primary immune‐mediated polyarthritis, which responded to prednisolone and azathioprine, and resulted in resolution of the elevated 1,25 hydroxycholecalciferol, hypercalcaemia and neutrophilia. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first case report of hypercalcaemia secondary to immune‐mediated polyarthritis.
- Table of Contents
- Pages: 57 - 57
- Officers Page
- Pages: 58 - 58
- Diagnosis and management of meniscal injury in dogs with cranial cruciate
ligament rupture: a systematic literature review
- Authors: D. J. McCready; M. G. Ness
Pages: 59 - 66
To systematically evaluate the evidence reporting the frequency and risk factors of meniscal injury in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament failure.
Systematic literature review.
Materials and Methods
Research questions were defined. An electronic database search of PubMed and CAB Abstracts was performed during November 2013. Data were extracted for study participants, design, intervention, outcome measures and results. Studies were evaluated using a validated instrument for assessing methodological quality and assigned a quality index score. A level of evidence was then assigned to each study.
Sixty‐two studies were identified. The median quality index score was 14 out of a possible 26. Twenty‐four studies were prospective case series, 37 retrospective case series and 1 animal research study. There were no class I or class II studies, 24 class III studies and 38 class IV studies.
Despite a large number of publications the quality of evidence was generally low. No one study or combination of studies provided high quality evidence to establish the true frequency or risk factors for meniscal injury in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament failure.
- Officers Page
- Pages: 111 - 111
- Diagnostic value of neutrophil–lymphocyte and albumin–globulin
ratios in canine soft tissue sarcoma
- Authors: L. Macfarlane; J. Morris, K. Pratschke, D. Mellor, T. Scase, M. Macfarlane, G. Mclauchlan
To investigate the ability of neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio and albumin‐to‐globulin ratio to differentiate soft tissue sarcoma from benign soft tissue tumours.
A retrospective study of pretreatment haematology and biochemistry in dogs diagnosed with soft tissue sarcoma or benign soft tissue tumours. The neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio and albumin‐to‐globulin ratio were compared between the two groups. In dogs diagnosed with soft tissue sarcoma, the relationship of neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio and albumin‐to‐globulin ratio to histological tumour grade (I to III) was assessed.
In the dogs with soft tissue sarcoma (n=22), the neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio was significantly increased and the albumin‐to‐globulin ratio decreased compared to those with benign soft tissue tumours (n=14). The neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio and albumin‐to globulin ratio were not useful as predictors of tumour grade in dogs diagnosed with soft tissue sarcoma.
Pretreatment neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio and albumin‐to globulin ratio may aid with diagnosis and optimal treatment planning. Further investigation into their prognostic implications is warranted.
- Treatment of canine nasopharyngeal stenosis using balloon‐expandable
metallic stents: long‐term follow‐up of four cases
- Authors: L. Bird; P. Nelissen, R. A. S. White, S. W. Tappin
Abstract: Four dogs were diagnosed with nasopharyngeal stenosis using endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment using balloon‐expandable metallic stent, placed under fluoroscopic and endoscopic guidance, resulted in immediate resolution of clinical signs. All dogs were clinically normal 40 to 62 months following stent placement.
- Evaluation of urinary biomarkers for azotaemic chronic kidney disease in
- Authors: T. L. Williams; J. Archer
Evaluation of urine albumin:creatinine ratio, urine cystatin C:creatinine ratio, urine protein:creatinine ratio and urine specific gravity as screening tests for azotaemic chronic kidney disease in cats.
A group of cats over eight years old were defined as either (i) healthy non‐azotaemic (n=40) if they had serum creatinine concentration 153 µmol/L with urine specific gravity 1·050); P
- Radiographic evaluation of elbow incongruity in Skye terriers
- Abstract: OBJECTIVES
Aims of this study were to radiographically evaluate elbow congruity and to explore associations between elbow incongruity and lameness in Skye terriers.
Mediolateral, 90°‐flexed, elbow joint radiographs were obtained for 45 Skye terriers. Elbow joint incongruity was graded mild, moderate or severe by measuring the width of the humeroulnar joint space. A questionnaire provided information on lameness history for each dog.
In total, 49% (22/45) of the dogs had moderate or severe elbow joint incongruity which associated with lameness. Owner‐reported lameness was common: 15/45 (33%) dogs had been lame when less than one year old, and 6 (14%) had been lame at an older age. All dogs presenting with lameness when older than one year had also been lame in adolescence.
Lameness and moderate‐to‐severe elbow joint incongruity were common in Skye terriers and the two were associated. A novel protocol for radiographic screening of elbow joint incongruity of chondrodystrophic breeds is suggested.
- Parotidectomy for the treatment of parotid sialocoele in 14 dogs
- Authors: J. L. J. Proot; P. Nelissen, J. F. Ladlow, K. Bowlt Blacklock, N. Kulendra, B. de la Puerta, D. E. Sheahan
To describe the presentation, diagnosis, cause, complications and outcome in 14 dogs that presented with a parotid sialocoele and that were treated by complete parotidectomy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Multi‐institutional retrospective study.
Each dog presented with a non‐painful, fluctuant, soft tissue mass over the lateral aspect of the face in the region of the parotid salivary gland. Diagnosis was made by sialoradiography (3/14), CT (3/14), ultrasound (11/14) and MRI (2/14). The cause of the sialocoele could be determined in 8 of 14 patients and included: foreign body (2/14), sialolithiasis (1/14), neoplasia (3/14), salivary gland lipomatosis (1/14) and trauma (1/14). Treatment incurred one anaesthetic complication (regurgitation) and seven postoperative surgical complications [self‐limiting seroma formation (2/14), haemorrhage (1/14), wound dehiscence (1/14), abscessation 7 months postoperatively (1/14) and facial nerve paralysis (2/14)]. Sialocoele did not recur in any dog during a median follow‐up time of 14 months.
Parotidectomy has been considered a technically challenging procedure but can have a good success rate with long‐term resolution of the clinical symptoms. Intra‐ and postoperative complications are reasonably common.
- Ovarian remnant removal using minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques
in four dogs
- Authors: W. E. Phipps; A. R. Goodman, M. Sullivan
Abstract: Four partially intact, female dogs with a median age of 6 · 5 years were presented to Angell Animal Medical Center for laparoscopic treatment of ovarian remnant syndrome. Dogs were positioned in dorsal recumbency and a three‐port laparoscopic technique was used to identify and remove en bloc any abnormal tissue in the area of the ovarian pedicles. None of the dogs required conversion to open coeliotomy and there were no major complications. Abnormal tissue, including granulosa thecal cell tumour (n = 1), was identified bilaterally in three dogs and unilaterally in one dog. Clinical signs associated with ovarian remnant syndrome resolved in all dogs following surgery.
- Detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum by quantitative PCR in
bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in Belgian dogs
- Abstract: OBJECTIVES
To describe Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a series of clinical cases over a 12‐month period, report the use of quantitative PCR on broncho‐alveolar lavage fluid and investigate the ‐possibility of previously undiagnosed angiostrongylosis in a retrospective cohort of coughing and healthy dogs.
Pulmonary angiostrongylosis was diagnosed based on compatible clinical signs and positive quantitative PCR on broncho‐alveolar lavage fluid and/or positive Baermann examination. Quantitative PCR was also performed retrospectively on broncho‐alveolar lavage fluid from 65 dogs (55 coughing and 10 healthy dogs), examined between 2008 and 2014; results of Baermann examination were also available in 33 dogs.
Seven young adult dogs from Southeastern Belgium with respiratory clinical signs were diagnosed with angiostrongylosis between March 2013 and April 2014. Positive broncho‐alveolar lavage fluid quantitative PCR results and positive Baermann examination were obtained in 5/5 and 2/5 dogs, respectively. In the remaining two dogs, only Baermann analysis was performed. Among the retrospective cohorts, only one broncho‐alveolar lavage fluid from a coughing dog was quantitative PCR‐positive whereas all faecal samples were negative.
Until recently, canine angiostrongylosis was not reported in Belgium. It should now be included in the differential diagnosis of coughing Belgian dogs. Identification of affected dogs may be aided by quantitative PCR on broncho‐alveolar lavage fluid.
- An alternative way to perform gastroscopy in large frogs and toads
- Authors: Marco Di Giuseppe; Laura Faraci, Marco Luparello
- Relapses in dogs with steroid‐responsive meningitis‐arteritis
- Authors: E. Biedermann; A. Tipold, T. Flegel
To describe relapse rates in steroid‐responsive meningitis‐arteritis and to describe clinical and laboratory parameters in dogs with and without relapses.
Seventy‐four dogs with steroid‐responsive meningitis‐arteritis were retrospectively identified and assigned to one of three groups: (1) without relapse; (2) at least one relapse and (3) unknown relapse status. The following parameters are reported for the first two groups: sex, age, breed, body weight, nucleated cell count, total protein concentration and percentage of neutrophils on initial cerebrospinal fluid analysis, immunoglobulin A in serum and initial cerebrospinal fluid analysis, nucleated cell count on cerebrospinal fluid analysis at 3‐month re‐evaluation, C‐reactive protein in serum and initial cerebrospinal fluid analysis and at 3‐month re‐evaluation.
Relapses occurred in 32 · 4% of dogs (one relapse: 62 · 5%; two relapses: 25 · 0%; three relapses: 8 · 3%; four relapses: 4 · 2%), 55 · 4% were relapse‐free and in 12 · 2% the relapse status was unknown. C‐reactive protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid on 3‐month re‐evaluation was normal in 80% and 75% of dogs with relapses, respectively. In dogs without relapse, C‐reactive protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid on 3‐month re‐evaluation was normal in 100% and 90% of dogs, respectively.
Relapses are frequent but no reliable predictive indicator has emerged in this study. Nevertheless, elevated C‐reactive protein in serum warrants continuing therapy; normal C‐reactive protein in serum does not exclude future relapse.
- A retrospective evaluation of polyurethane, long‐stay, peripheral
venous cannulae in dogs undergoing radiotherapy
- Authors: M. J. Macfarlane; J. Morris, S. Burnside, A. Bell
The aim of this retrospective study was to review placement duration and associated complications of long‐stay, peripheral venous cannulae in dogs undergoing a radiotherapy protocol. Factors affecting duration of stay of the cannulae were evaluated.
The records of patients which had a single‐lumen, 16‐gauge, 16‐cm polyurethane cannulae inserted into a peripheral vein between 2010 and 2014 were reviewed.
Forty‐one cannulae were placed in 41 patients. Median duration of cannula stay was 14 days (range 2 to 26). In 14 cases (~34%) the cannula was removed at the end of the radiotherapy course. In 13 (~32%) cases, cannula‐related complications resulted in premature removal. Use of steroids and antibiotics appeared to be associated with a longer median duration of stay.
No life‐threatening complications were encountered. Indwelling, polyurethane, saphenous cannulae were an effective and safe way to maintain venous access in this group of patients. Prednisolone and antibiotics were typically commenced for acute radiation side effects ‐midway through the protocol; therefore their association with length of stay may not be a direct result of their administration.
- An end‐to‐end urethral anastomosis after inguinal
tunnelization: a new technique in a dog
- Authors: K. Minier; I. Bemelmans, J. Benoit
Abstract: An 8‐year‐old male dog was presented with a peri‐urethral intrapelvic mass with the characteristics of a sarcoma on computed tomography and cytology evaluation. A two‐step procedure leading to a permanent urinary diversion was performed. During the same procedure, the caudal pelvic urethra and mass were resected and an extrapelvic anastomosis of the pelvic portion of the urethra to its penile portion was performed after passage of the pelvic urethra through the inguinal canal. The procedure successfully produced a tension‐free end‐to‐end urethral anastomosis and no complications were observed during the postoperative period. Histologically, the lesion was reported as a narrowly excised liposarcoma. A 4‐week course of curative intent of radiotherapy was initiated 2 weeks after surgery. Eight months later, the dog was free of clinical signs.
- Ethical principles for novel therapies in veterinary practice
- Authors: J. W. Yeates
To present insights to aid decision‐making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials.
Materials and Methods
EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and “translated” into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons.
A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication.
These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments.
- Inguinal enterocutaneous fistula in a dog
- Authors: A. J. Kortum; E. J. Best
Abstract: A two‐year‐old Jack Russell terrier presented with a chronic history of weight loss and the recent development of a discharging wound in the left inguinal region that was confirmed by ultrasound and contrast radiography to be an enterocutaneous fistula. One day following admission the dog displayed signs of abdominal pain and the general condition deteriorated. At exploratory coeliotomy there was evidence of septic peritonitis and a segment of jejunum was found firmly adhered to the left inguinal canal. The affected jejunal segment was excised and an end‐to‐end anastomosis performed. A penrose drain was placed in the inguinal wound which was subsequently managed with open drainage. The inguinal wound healed successfully by second intention and the dog returned to normal body condition. The left testis became atrophic and castration was performed several weeks later. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first veterinary case report of an inguinal enterocutaneous fistula.
- Retrobulbar lymphoma associated with a ballistic foreign body in a cat
- Authors: C. Robat; I. Bemelmans, L. Marescaux
Abstract: A seven‐year‐old domestic shorthair cat, adopted 5 years previously with a corneal perforation of the left eye, was presented for investigation of a left orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a metallic foreign body within a contrast‐enhancing, heterogeneous orbital mass. Large cell lymphoma was diagnosed from a fine needle aspirate. The cat staged negatively and was treated with l‐asparaginase, prednisolone and three fractions of radiation therapy. A rapid clinical remission was obtained and the cat remained in remission for 3 years after therapy. This is the first report of large cell lymphoma likely occurring secondary to a foreign body.
- Successful treatment of intra‐abdominal eumycotic mycetoma caused by
Penicillium duponti in a dog
- Authors: J. Janovec; D. J. Brockman, S. L. Priestnall, N. J. Kulendra
Abstract: A 2‐year‐old female neutered golden retriever was presented for investigation of an intra‐abdominal mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass associated with the caudal pole of the right kidney. Incisional biopsy findings were consistent with eumycotic mycetoma. The mass was subsequently removed in conjunction with right ureteronephrectomy. Two years later, the dog re‐presented with a splenic mass and fungal plaques located throughout the peritoneum. Splenectomy was performed and the mass was diagnosed as eumycotic mycetoma caused by Penicillium duponti. Indefinite systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg itraconazole orally once a day was initiated. Thirty‐two months after the last surgery, there were no clinical signs apart from mild polydipsia. Haematology and biochemistry results were unremarkable. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of intra‐abdominal eumycotic mycetoma with a combination of surgery and systemic antifungal therapy in the dog. Penicillium duponti has not apparently been reported to cause disease in animals or humans.
- Opportunistic fungal infections in dogs treated with ciclosporin and
glucocorticoids: eight cases
- Authors: S. R. Dowling; J. Webb, J. D. Foster, J. Ginn, D. S. Foy, L. A. Trepanier
Abstract: Glucocorticoids are the standard of care for the treatment of immune‐mediated disorders, and ciclosporin is increasingly being used off‐label as an adjunct immunosuppressive drug in dogs. However, opportunistic infections can develop during combination immunosuppressive regimens. This case series describes atypical fungal infections in eight dogs treated with immunosuppressive dosages of glucocorticoids and ciclosporin. The median duration of combined treatment prior to the identification of fungal infection was 31 (range, 13 to 201) days, although two dogs received glucocorticoids for prolonged periods prior to the addition of ciclosporin. The estimated prevalence of serious fungal infections with this drug combination appears to be low (approximately 1 · 67%), but these infections led directly or indirectly to death or euthanasia in five of eight (63%) dogs. These cases highlight the need for frequent clinical monitoring of dogs receiving immunosuppressive dosages of glucocorticoids and ciclosporin.