- Retrobulbar lymphoma associated with a ballistic foreign body in a cat
- Authors: C. Robat; I. Bemelmans, L. Marescaux
Abstract: A seven‐year‐old domestic shorthair cat, adopted 5 years previously with a corneal perforation of the left eye, was presented for investigation of a left orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a metallic foreign body within a contrast‐enhancing, heterogeneous orbital mass. Large cell lymphoma was diagnosed from a fine needle aspirate. The cat staged negatively and was treated with l‐asparaginase, prednisolone and three fractions of radiation therapy. A rapid clinical remission was obtained and the cat remained in remission for 3 years after therapy. This is the first report of large cell lymphoma likely occurring secondary to a foreign body.
- Removal of oesophageal foreign bodies: comparison between oesophagoscopy
and oesophagotomy in 39 dogs
- Authors: C. Deroy; J. Benoit Corcuff, F. Billen, A. Hamaide
To compare complication rates and outcomes after removal of oesophageal foreign bodies by endoscopy or by oesophagotomy.
Retrospective evaluation of medical records of dogs with oesophageal foreign bodies treated by endoscopy and/or oesophagotomy. Postoperative clinical signs, management, length of hospitalisation, type and rate of complications, and time interval to return to eating conventional diet were compared.
Thirty‐nine dogs diagnosed with oesophageal foreign bodies between 1999 and 2011 were included in the study. Most common breeds included West Highland white terrier, Jack Russell terrier and shih‐tzu. Successful endoscopic removal was possible in 24 out of 32 cases (Group 1), while surgical removal was successful in 15 out of 15 cases (7 of which had unsuccessful attempts at endoscopic removal) (Group 2). Length of hospitalisation, time to removal of gastrostomy tube and time to eat conventional diet did not differ between the groups. After foreign body removal, the incidence of oesophagitis, oesophageal stricture and perforation observed during repeated endoscopy were similar between the groups.
In this retrospective study, removal of oesophageal foreign bodies either by oesophagoscopy or oesophagotomy had a similar outcome.
- Surgical management of canine refractory retrobulbar abscesses: six cases
- Authors: G. Tremolada; M. Milovancev, W. T. N. Culp, J. A. Bleedorn
To report the clinical presentation, surgical treatment and outcomes of dogs with retrobulbar abscesses refractory to intra‐oral lancing and antibiotics.
Medical records from January 2006 through September 2014 were reviewed and dogs with retrobulbar abscesses failing treatment with antibiotics and intra‐oral lancing were included. Clinicopathologic, imaging and surgical details were extracted from the medical records. Referring veterinarians and owners were interviewed via telephone for follow‐up data.
A total of six dogs were included in the study. The most common clinical signs were pain upon opening of the mouth, exophthalmos and prolapsed nictitans. Computed tomography was performed in five dogs, ultrasound in four and magnetic resonance imaging in one. Imaging identified an abscess in all dogs, with a suspected foreign body in four dogs. Surgical approach was a modified lateral orbitotomy in five dogs. No foreign body was identified during surgery in all dog. All dogs surviving to discharge did not have recurrence of clinical signs (follow‐up time range: 27 to 95 months).
Dogs with retrobulbar abscesses refractory to standard therapy can experience long‐term resolution of clinical signs with surgical treatment, most commonly via a modified lateral orbitotomy.
- Portal vein anatomy in the dog: comparison between computed tomographic
angiography (CTA) and intraoperative mesenteric portovenography (IOMP)
- Authors: A. T. Parry; R. N. White
To compare and contrast the findings of intra‐operative mesenteric portovenography (IOMP) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) for the visualisation and identification of the extrahepatic and intrahepatic portal venous system in the normal dog.
Retrospective study of dogs with raised post‐prandial bile acids concentrations, normal portal venous pressures and grossly normal portal vasculature that had undergone both CTA and IOMP was performed. Images and video were compared with the published anatomic literature.
Ten dogs met the inclusion criteria. CTA documented the portal vein and its tributaries in all 10 dogs. IOMP documented the portal vein and the cranial mesenteric vein in all 10 dogs and the splenic vein in 1 dog but failed to show the caudal mesenteric and gastroduodenal veins in any dog. CTA documented more extrahepatic portal venous tributaries than IOMP. Both techniques documented the intrahepatic portal vasculature completely with equal clarity.
There was a large difference between the ability of the two techniques to delineate the normal portal vasculature; CTA consistently visualised the extrahepatic portal vasculature more completely than the IOMP and, as such, might be considered the modality of choice for imaging the normal portal vasculature in the dog.
- Urethrotomy of the glans penis in three male dogs with urolithiasis
- Authors: F. Cinti; G. Pisani, U. Carusi, P. Buracco
Abstract: Three intact male dogs with stranguria and haematuria caused by uroliths in the penile urethra underwent urethrotomy using a novel surgical approach directly over the caudal part of the os penis because conservative procedures to resolve the obstructions had failed. Haemorrhage was minimal, and the incisions healed rapidly by second intention. Complications did not occur during the 6‐month follow‐up period. Urethrotomy directly over the os penis is straightforward, associated with few complications and holds promise for the removal of urinary calculi in the penile urethra.
- Ureteral implantation using a three‐stitch ureteroneocystostomy:
description of technique and outcome in nine dogs
- Authors: K. M. Pratschke
To report the procedure, postoperative outcome and complications of a new technique for ureteral implantation by means of a three‐stitch ureteroneocystostomy in dogs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Clinical records of dogs requiring ureteral implantation between April 2007 and June 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Data retrieved included signalment, preoperative biochemistry results, details of the surgical procedure, perioperative and postoperative complications, postoperative biochemistry results and outcome.
Nine dogs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Follow‐up times ranged from 10 to 79 months (median 30 months), with 8 of 9 dogs having an excellent long‐term outcome and no major postoperative complications. One dog with follicular cystitis as a comorbidity developed obstruction from inflammatory granuloma and required revision surgery.
The three‐stitch technique for ureteral implantation compares favourably to previously documented techniques in terms of outcome and complication rates. Reduced tissue handling and a decreased volume of suture material may be beneficial for healing. The technique is also faster than previously described options, which may be of benefit in unstable patients requiring ureteral implantation due to traumatic injury or rupture.
- Comparison of two passive warming devices for prevention of perioperative
hypothermia in dogs
- Authors: J. Potter; J. Murrell, P. MacFarlane
To compare effects of two passive warming methods combined with a resistive heating mat on perioperative hypothermia in dogs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fifty‐two dogs were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive a reflective blanket (Blizzard Blanket) or a fabric blanket (VetBed). In addition, in the operating room all dogs were placed onto a table with a resistive heating mat covered with a fabric blanket. Rectal temperature measurements were taken at defined points. Statistical analysis was performed comparing all Blizzard Blanket‐treated to all VetBed‐treated dogs, and VetBed versus Blizzard Blanket dogs within spay and castrate groups, spay versus castrate groups and within groups less than 10 kg or more than 10 kg bodyweight.
Data from 39 dogs were used for analysis. All dogs showed a reduction in perioperative rectal temperature. There were no detected statistical differences between treatments or between the different groups.
This study supports previous data on prevalence of hypothermia during surgery. The combination of active and passive warming methods used in this study prevented the development of severe hypothermia, but there were no differences between treatment groups.
- Prevalence of canine infectious respiratory pathogens in asymptomatic dogs
presented at US animal shelters
- Authors: R. Lavan; O. Knesl
To determine the prevalence of nine canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) pathogens in asymptomatic dogs presented at animal shelters across the United States.
Ocular and oronasal swabs from asymptomatic dogs (n = 503) were tested using qPCR assay for Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV‐2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus type 1 (CHV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Mycoplasma cynos and Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus.
A total of 240 (47 · 7%) asymptomatic dogs were PCR‐positive for at least one CIRD pathogen. Prevalence of two‐, three‐, four‐, and five‐pathogen cases was 12 · 7, 3 · 8, 1 · 8, and 0 · 4%, respectively. Mycoplasma cynos (29 · 2%), B. bronchiseptica (19 · 5%), CAV‐2 (12 · 5%), CDV (7 · 4%) and CPIV (3 · 2%) were the most commonly detected pathogens.
The prevalence of traditional and newly emerging pathogens associated with CIRD is poorly defined in clinically healthy dogs. This study determined that a high percentage of asymptomatic shelter dogs harbor CIRD pathogens, including the newly emerging pathogen M. cynos and the historically prevalent pathogen B. bronchiseptica.
- Serum cardiac troponin I concentrations decrease following treatment of
primary immune‐mediated haemolytic anaemia
- Authors: J. A. Cartwright; D. J. Gow, A. G. Gow, I. Handel, N. Reed, A. J. Brown, R. Cash, A. Foote, D. Mackenzie, R. Bell, R. J. Mellanby
The measurement of serum cardiac troponin I concentrations in dogs with a range of non‐primary cardiac illnesses suggests that cardiac myocyte damage is commonplace. Dogs with primary immune‐mediated haemolytic anaemia have increased serum cardiac troponin I concentrations at the time of diagnosis. However, it is unclear whether biochemical evidence of cardiac myocyte damage improves following successful treatment of anaemia.
A haematology profile was performed and serum cardiac troponin I concentrations were measured in 19 dogs with primary immune‐mediated haemolytic anaemia before and after treatment.
The haematocrit increased significantly (P = 0 · 0001) following treatment of primary IMHA (median pre: 0 · 13 L/L, median post: 0 · 33 L/L). The serum cardiac troponin I concentrations decreased significantly (P < 0 · 05) after treatment (median pre: 0 · 26 ng/mL, median post: 0 · 16 ng/mL).
Serum cardiac troponin I concentration decreases following successful treatment of primary immune‐mediated haemolytic anaemia. The clinical and prognostic significance of serum cardiac troponin I concentrations before and after treatment in dogs with primary immune‐mediated haemolytic anaemia merits further investigation.
- A preliminary study on the use and effect of hand antiseptics in
- Authors: K. P. Sparksman; T. G. Knowles, G. Werrett, P. E. Holt
To assess use and effect of hand antiseptics in veterinary clinical practice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Veterinary practice nurses were questioned concerning their use of hand antiseptics, in particular waterless hand rubs. Subsequent clinical trials assessed the effect of single applications of alcohol‐based and quaternary ammonium compound‐based hand rubs at reducing bacterial counts on the hands of theatre nurses in a neutering clinic.
The majority of responding practices used waterless hand rubs (alcohol‐based, 67 · 5% and quaternary ammonium compound‐based, 9 · 5%) as their primary hand hygiene agent and believed them to be effective. 23% of practices favoured an antiseptic hand‐wash. In clinical trials, alcohol‐based rubs were potentially more effective at reducing bacterial counts than quaternary ammonium compound‐based rubs especially in the period immediately after application. However, over 3 hours there was no significant change between these and a control group. There were more adverse skin effects in the group using alcohol‐based than in the quaternary ammonium compound‐based and control groups. The bacterial counts after application were unaffected by variables such as the number of animals contacted.
The studies provide useful baseline data for evaluation of efficacy of more frequent applications of the most common antiseptic hand rubs used in veterinary practice.
- Straelensiosis in two cats and ten dogs from Israel
- Authors: R. Kaufmann; P. Bourdeau, L. Waldman, S. Amiel, G. Zur
Abstract: Straelensiosis is uncommonly described outside Europe. This report describes straelensiosis in two cats and in ten dogs diagnosed with the disease outside Europe. Both cats displayed erythematous macules or nodules on the abdominal skin. One cat was extremely pruritic, while in the other the lesions were incidental findings when the cat was presented for neutering. The mites were noted in skin scrapings in both cats and histopathologically in one cat. All dogs showed a general distribution of papules, and intense pruritus was noted in six dogs. The diagnosis in all dogs was based on histopathology. Treatment of the animals in this study varied, and among the various administrated treatments, amitraz showed promising results.
- Mechanical comparison of monofilament nylon leader and orthopaedic wire
for median sternotomy closure
- Authors: D. J. McCready; J. C. Bell, M. G. Ness, J. F. Tarlton
To compare the mechanical properties of monofilament nylon leader and orthopaedic wire for median sternotomy closure in the dog.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Median sternotomy was performed in 14 canine cadaver sternums with the manubrium intact. The sternotomy was closed with either 80 lb monofilament nylon leader or 20G orthopaedic stainless steel wire in a peristernal figure of 8 pattern. Constructs were loaded in a servohydraulic material testing machine. Load at yield, maximum load, stiffness, displacement and mode of failure were compared between constructs subjected to a single cycle load to failure.
No significant differences were found in load at yield, maximum load, stiffness or displacement between the monofilament nylon leader and the stainless steel wire constructs. No implant failure was evident in the stainless steel wire constructs. Four of the monofilament nylon leader constructs failed by pulling of the nylon through the crimp.
Monofilament nylon leader is mechanically comparable to stainless steel wire and potentially a suitable alternative for closure of median sternotomy in the dog.
- Cerebral pyogranuloma associated with systemic coronavirus infection in a
- Authors: K. Gnirs; J. F. Quinton, C. Dally, A. Nicolier, Y. Ruel
Abstract: A 2‐year‐old male ferret was presented with central nervous system signs. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed a well‐defined contrast‐enhancing lesion on the rostral forebrain that appeared extraparenchymal. Surgical excision of the mass was performed and the ferret was euthanised during the procedure. Histopathology of the excised mass showed multiple meningeal nodular lesions with infiltrates of epithelioid macrophages, occasionally centred on degenerated neutrophils and surrounded by a broad rim of plasma cells, features consistent with pyogranulomatous meningitis. The histopathological features in this ferret were similar to those in cats with feline infectious peritonitis. Definitive diagnosis was assessed by immunohistochemistry, confirming a ferret systemic coronavirus (FSCV) associated disease. This is the first case of coronavirus granuloma described on CT‐scan in the central nervous system of a ferret.
- Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography of kidneys in healthy
adult cats: preliminary results
- Authors: P. H. S. Garcia; M. A. R. Feliciano, C. F. Carvalho, L. Z. Crivellenti, M. C. Maronezi, V. T. Almeida, R. R. Uscategui, W. R. R. Vicente
To describe acoustic radiation impulse force elastography in evaluation of kidneys of adult cats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Ten healthy adult short‐haired cats were included. Echogenicity and texture, cortico‐medullary relationship, size and edges of kidney were assessed by B‐mode and by qualitative elastography to detect the presence of deformities and shear velocities of different portions (cranial, middle and caudal of cortex and medulla).
Findings of ultrasonography were normal in all cats. Qualitative elastography demonstrated that the renal cortex was not deformable and had homogeneous dark gray areas; the renal pelvis had lower stiffness (white); and the medulla showed a mosaic pattern. The results of shear wave velocity were different in cranial, middle and caudal regions of cortex and medulla: 2·46 ±0·45, 2·46 ±0·48 and 2·37 ±0·42 (P=0·795) in cortex and 1·61 ±0·69, 1·75 ±0·66 and 2·00 ±0·55 m/s (P=0·156) in medulla, respectively.
Quantitative and qualitative acoustic radiation impulse force elastography of the kidney in adult cats was easily performed and this study provides base line data to allow the use of acoustic radiation impulse force in diseased animals.
- Coagulation status in dogs with naturally occurring Angiostrongylus
- Authors: S. Adamantos; S. Waters, A. Boag
Angiostrongylus vasorum infection is associated with bleeding tendencies in approximately one‐third of clinical cases. The cause of the coagulopathy is poorly understood but may be related to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromboelastography is a global evaluation of coagulation and has not been described in a cohort of dogs with this disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Thromboelastography in association with other measures of coagulation including prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times, antithrombin percentage activity and D‐dimer and von Willebrand factor concentrations was evaluated in a group of 30 dogs with A. varosum infection.
A total of 18 dogs had signs of bleeding on physical examination. Thromboelastography was consistent with hypocoagulation in 17 of these dogs. There was no association between any of the other measures and hypocoagulation on thromboelastography. Abnormal coagulation times were not significantly associated with bleeding. Only fibrinogen concentration was significantly lower in dogs that were bleeding compared with those that were not (P = 0 · 026). D‐dimer concentrations were increased in 22/25 cases in the study; however, other coagulation parameters were more variable.
Although the changes identified in this study were not consistent, there is activation of coagulation within this population, possibly consistent with an intravascular disseminated coagulopathy.
- Successful treatment of intra‐abdominal eumycotic mycetoma caused by
Penicillium duponti in a dog
- Authors: J. Janovec; D. J. Brockman, S. L. Priestnall, N. J. Kulendra
Abstract: A 2‐year‐old female neutered golden retriever was presented for investigation of an intra‐abdominal mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass associated with the caudal pole of the right kidney. Incisional biopsy findings were consistent with eumycotic mycetoma. The mass was subsequently removed in conjunction with right ureteronephrectomy. Two years later, the dog re‐presented with a splenic mass and fungal plaques located throughout the peritoneum. Splenectomy was performed and the mass was diagnosed as eumycotic mycetoma caused by Penicillium duponti. Indefinite systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg itraconazole orally once a day was initiated. Thirty‐two months after the last surgery, there were no clinical signs apart from mild polydipsia. Haematology and biochemistry results were unremarkable. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of intra‐abdominal eumycotic mycetoma with a combination of surgery and systemic antifungal therapy in the dog. Penicillium duponti has not apparently been reported to cause disease in animals or humans.
- Massive haemorrhage associated with inadvertent incision of a suspected
carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a cat
- Authors: A. W. Pfaff; E. A. Rozanski, A. M. Lynch
Abstract: A 12‐year‐old, castrated male, domestic long‐haired cat experienced massive haemorrhage associated with an incision of a swelling on the neck 2 weeks after right‐sided ventral bulla osteotomy. Emergent control of haemorrhage was gained through unilateral carotid artery ligation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was provided in conjunction with massive blood transfusion. The cat made an unremarkable recovery. Carotid artery pseudoaneurysm due to surgical disruption of the carotid artery during ventral bulla osteotomy, specifically through the use of self‐retaining retractors, was suspected. This case highlights the development of pseudoaneurysm as a potential complication of head and neck surgery, and additionally describes a case of massive transfusion in a cat.
- Evaluation of the ventro 20° rostral‐dorsocaudal oblique
radiographic projection for the investigation of canine nasal disease
- Authors: M. Finck; A. Durand, G. Hammond, M. Sullivan, A. King
To assess the ventro 20° rostral‐dorsocaudal oblique projection for canine nasal disease as an alternative to the dorsoventral intra‐oral view.
Materials and Methods
Thirty‐one dogs with nasal disease underwent radiography and computed tomography with a final diagnosis of underlying cause achieved through rhinoscopy, biopsy or cytology. Three independent observers, blinded to diagnosis, reviewed the nasal radiographs on two separate occasions. Intra‐ and inter‐observer agreement and level of confidence on radiographic diagnosis were evaluated and radiographic diagnosis was compared with computed tomography and definitive diagnosis.
The ventro 20° rostral‐dorsocaudal oblique projection of canine nasal cavities was feasible in anaesthetised dogs and gave diagnostic quality images in most dogs. Assessment of this view showed moderate to substantial agreement with computed tomography diagnosis but gave lower confidence in diagnosis. Interpretation of this radiographic projection had substantial to almost perfect repeatability but moderate reproducibility.
The ventro 20° rostral‐dorsocaudal oblique projection may be used as a valuable initial screening tool for canine nasal pathology in practices without access to advanced imaging, although computed tomography is still likely to provide greater diagnostic information.
- Effects of two calculolytic diets on parameters of feline mineral
- Abstract: Objectives
To evaluate the influence of two feline calculolytic diets on selected parameters of mineral metabolism.
Materials and Methods
Two dry commercial diets designed for struvite urolith dissolution were evaluated in 14 cats. The study was designed as a two‐sequence, four‐period crossover protocol with a baseline period, two 60‐day “run‐in” periods in which calculolytic diets (Diet 1 and Diet 2) were fed and one 30‐day “wash‐out” period. Data are expressed as median (range).
Feeding the calculolytic diets for two months did not alter plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and parathyroid hormone. A significant (P < 0.05 in each case) decline in calcitriol was observed after administering both diets from 236.4 (122.4–429.6) to 170.4 (108.0–394.3) pmol/L (Diet 1) and from 278.4 (153.6–492.0) to 177.1 (87.6–392.4) pmol/L (Diet 2). Cats fed Diet 1 showed a significant increase in urine calcium concentration (from 0.3 (0.2–0.5) to 0.4 (0.3–0.7) mmol/L). Magnesium concentration in urine was significantly increased with both diets, from 1.4 (0.1–1.7) to 1.5 (1.3–2.4) mmol/L (Diet 1) and from 1.1 (0.4–1.9) to 2.0 (0.1–3.1) mmol/L (Diet 2).
Both diets resulted in an increased urinary concentration of magnesium, through different mechanisms: urine acidification (Diet 1) and increased sodium load (Diet 2).
- Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis of the spine in a
- Authors: K. Bossens; S. Bhatti, I. Van Soens, I. Gielen, L. Van Ham
Abstract: A nine‐year‐old intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for paraparesis, ataxia and severe spinal hyperaesthesia. Neurological examination indicated a T3‐L3 spinal cord segment lesion. Computed tomography of the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral vertebral column was performed. This showed contiguous smooth new bone formation ventral and lateral to the vertebrae extending from the cranial thoracic area to the lumbosacral junction and appearing similar to canine diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. There was also marked dorsolateral stenosis of the vertebral canal at the level of T4‐T5 because of degenerative changes of the facet joints. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first published report of feline diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.
- Opportunistic fungal infections in dogs treated with ciclosporin and
glucocorticoids: eight cases
- Authors: S. R. Dowling; J. Webb, J. D. Foster, J. Ginn, D. S. Foy, L. A. Trepanier
Abstract: Glucocorticoids are the standard of care for the treatment of immune‐mediated disorders, and ciclosporin is increasingly being used off‐label as an adjunct immunosuppressive drug in dogs. However, opportunistic infections can develop during combination immunosuppressive regimens. This case series describes atypical fungal infections in eight dogs treated with immunosuppressive dosages of glucocorticoids and ciclosporin. The median duration of combined treatment prior to the identification of fungal infection was 31 (range, 13 to 201) days, although two dogs received glucocorticoids for prolonged periods prior to the addition of ciclosporin. The estimated prevalence of serious fungal infections with this drug combination appears to be low (approximately 1 · 67%), but these infections led directly or indirectly to death or euthanasia in five of eight (63%) dogs. These cases highlight the need for frequent clinical monitoring of dogs receiving immunosuppressive dosages of glucocorticoids and ciclosporin.
- Pneumopericardium, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and
pneumoretroperitoneum complicating pulmonary metastatic carcinoma in a cat
- Authors: V. Greci; A. Baio, L. Bibbiani, E. Caggiano, S. Borgonovo, D. Olivero, P. M. Rocchi, V. Raiano
Abstract: This report describes a case of severe spontaneous tension pneumopericardium with concurrent pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and retropneumoperitoneum in a cat presenting with dyspnoea and signs of cardiac tamponade secondary to metastatic pulmonary carcinoma. Spontaneous pneumopericardium is an extremely uncommon condition consisting of pericardial gas in the absence of iatrogenic/traumatic causes. In humans, it has been described secondary to pneumonia or lung abscess and very rarely secondary to pulmonary neoplasia.
- Bilateral hydronephrosis with urinary tract infection in a Campbell's
hamster (Phodopus campbelli)
- Authors: A. Eleftheriou; N. R. Wyre
- Surgical correction of gastro‐oesophageal intussusception with
bilateral incisional gastropexy in three dogs
- Authors: L. A. Murphy; R. K. Nakamura, J. M. Miller
Abstract: Three dogs presented for evaluation of acute onset tachypnoea and dyspnoea following episodes of vomiting and/or regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs were suggestive of a gastro‐oesophageal intussusception in all three dogs; one dog also showed evidence of aspiration pneumonia. All three dogs underwent surgical correction with a bilateral incisional gastropexy. All dogs recovered from anaesthesia uneventfully and were discharged from the hospital 3 days after presentation. Persistent megaoesophagus was evident in all three dogs, and they are being chronically managed with a strict feeding regime and pro‐motility agents.
- Breakage of two silicone endotracheal tubes during extubation
- Authors: M. C. Niimura del Barrio; I. Espadas, J. M. L. Hughes
Abstract: Silicone endotracheal tubes broke during tracheal extubation of two dogs after uneventful anaesthesia. The remaining pieces were removed via endoscopy, and both dogs recovered with no further problems. A third silicone endotracheal tube broke while checking for cracks prior to its use. Biofilm formation on the surface of the endotracheal tube is thought to be the main cause of the breakage. Destruction of the biofilm is difficult, therefore exhaustive cleaning with detergents followed by vigorous brushing is recommended to break the interaction between the silicone surface and the biofilm. It is suggested that careful attention is paid to how tubes are cleaned and dried (in a hanging position), and that they are checked carefully for cracks prior to each use.
- Presumptive congenital radial head sub‐luxation in a shih tzu:
successful management by radial head ostectomy
- Authors: D. C. Heidenreich; Y. Fourie, P. Barreau
Abstract: Congenital radial head sub‐luxation was diagnosed in a 7‐month‐old, neutered male shih tzu that presented with a limb deformity and severe lameness of the right fore limb. Radiography revealed a craniolateral sub‐luxation of the right radial head, which was treated by radial head ostectomy, fixation of the radius to the ulna with a screw and joint stabilisation with suture‐anchors and cerclage wire. Surgical treatment followed by physiotherapy resulted in a fully functional, well‐aligned and non‐painful elbow. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first case report of a congenital radial head sub‐luxation in a craniolateral direction in a dog and also one successfully managed with radial head ostectomy and radioulnar synostosis.
- Intraoral diode laser epiglottectomy for treatment of epiglottis
chondrosarcoma in a dog
- Authors: D. De Lorenzi; D. Bertoncello, A. Dentini
Abstract: Laryngeal tumours are rare in dogs. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but it is usually palliative in malignant conditions, due to advanced stage of the tumour at the time of diagnosis. In veterinary medicine, little information is available about the use of diode laser in laryngeal oncological surgery. In the case reported here, a dog with an epiglottic chondrosarcoma was successfully treated with diode laser epiglottectomy. The surgical technique and follow up are described.
- Plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy in a cat with non‐restrictive
ventricular septal defect and chronic pulmonary hypertension
- Authors: D. S. Russell; B. A. Scansen, L. Himmel
Abstract: A 10‐week‐old, male, domestic long‐hair cat was medically managed for congenital heart disease over a period of 8 years. Regular clinical examinations, including sequential echocardiography, documented a non‐restrictive paramembranous ventricular septal defect, secundum‐type atrial septal defect and aortic dextroposition. Pulmonary arterial hypertension was diagnosed by the presence of high‐velocity tricuspid regurgitation, bidirectional low velocity flow across the ventricular septal defect, pulmonary arterial dilation and severe right ventricular hypertrophy without evidence of pulmonary outflow tract obstruction. The cat remained clinically stable until it died suddenly at 8 years of age. Histopathology of the lungs found evidence of plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy. Despite severe pulmonary vascular lesions, other post‐mortem evidence of right heart failure was lacking and death was attributed to a fatal cardiac arrhythmia. In this case report of a cat with chronic pulmonary hypertension over 8 years, plexogenic lesions were found on histopathology. The microscopic findings resemble those previously reported in dogs.
- Spontaneaous linear gastric tears in a cat
- Authors: M. Gualtieri; D. Olivero, C. Costa Devoti
Abstract: An 11‐year‐old female cat presented for chronic vomiting. Endoscopy revealed an altered gastric mucosa and spontaneous formation of linear gastric tears during normal organ insufflations. The histopathological diagnosis was atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection. Medical treatment permitted a complete resolution of clinical signs. The linear tears observed resembled gastric lesions rarely reported in humans, called “Mallory‐Weiss syndrome”. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first report of spontaneous linear gastric tears in animals.
- Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful
treatment of bacterial cyst infection
- Authors: R. Nivy; L. A. Lyons, I. Aroch, G. Segev
Abstract: Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin‐1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian‐related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian‐related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors’ knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease.
- Adenosquamous carcinoma of the oesophagus in a dog
- Authors: H. Okanishi; H. Shibuya, T. Miyasaka, K. Asano, T. Sato, T. Watari
Abstract: A six‐year‐old mixed‐breed male dog weighing 7.0 kg was presented with chronic vomiting and regurgitation. Endoscopic examination revealed prominent oesophageal dilation in the thoracic region, multiple small greyish‐white nodules over the oesophageal lumen and cauliflower‐like masses in the caudal oesophagus. Histopathological studies revealed a characteristic pattern of coexisting elements of infiltrating adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with anti‐cytokeratin AE1 + AE3 was positive in both types of neoplastic cells. Neoplastic glandular cells stained positively for cytokeratin 8 while neoplastic squamous cells stained positively for cytokeratin 5/6. On the basis of these findings, the dog was diagnosed with oesophageal adenosquamous carcinoma. The case history and findings suggest that the malignancy might have developed from Barrett's oesophagus following irritation of the oesophageal mucosa due to chronic vomiting and regurgitation.
- Dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy in two lurcher siblings
- Authors: C. Giannasi; S.W. Tappin, L.T. Guo, G.D. Shelton, V. Palus
Abstract: Two cases of dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy in 16‐week‐old male lurcher siblings are reported. The myopathies were characterised by regurgitation, progressive weakness and muscle wastage. The dogs had generalised weakness in all four limbs, with more pronounced weakness in the pelvic limbs. Reduced withdrawal in all limbs, muscle contracture and lingual hypertrophy were noted. Serum creatine kinase activities were markedly elevated. Electromyographic abnormalities included fibrillation potentials. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining were consistent with dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy. Clinical improvement was noted in one of the cases with l‐carnitine supplementation and supportive therapy. Genetic transmission of the disease was postulated as the dogs were siblings.
- Spinal cord injury secondary to electrocution in a dog
- Abstract: A 13‐year‐old, female spayed, crossbreed dog of 32 kg was presented for evaluation of peracute onset of non‐ambulatory tetraparesis after chewing an electrical wire. Neurological examination was consistent with a C1‐C5 myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a focal intramedullary lesion over the C2‐C3 vertebral bodies, which was confirmed to be an acute focal necrotising poliomyelopathy with subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhages on postmortem examination. This report describes the clinical, imaging and histopathological findings of this unusual type of spinal cord injury, and the effects of electrocution in the central nervous system of dogs.
- Liberating the (data) population from subjugation to the 5%
- Authors: Nick Jeffery
Pages: 483 - 484