Authors:R. Bouabdallah; P. Moissonnier, F. Delisle, P. De Fornel, M. Manassero, M. Maaoui, P. Fayolle, V. Viateau Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: OBJECTIVES
To evaluate a rational decision‐making approach based on preoperative computed tomography for surgical planning in dogs and cats with recurrent draining tracts.
Retrospective evaluation of case records of animals that underwent preoperative computed tomography for surgical treatment of thoracic/abdominal recurrent draining tracts. Cases were classified according to whether a source of inflammation and/or infection, in particular foreign bodies, was identified (group 1), suspected (group 2) or neither identified nor suspected (group 3) at computed tomography. Surgery consisted of removal of the source of inflammation and/or infection (group 1), debridement or abscess drainage (group 2) or en bloc resection of diseased tissues (group 3). Clinical outcome was evaluated at least 12 months after surgery.
A source of inflammation and/or infection was found in 100% (8 of 8), 41% (7 of 17) and 25% (3 of 12) of cases in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Recurrent draining tracts resolved in 100% (8 of 8), 94% (16 of 17) and 92% (11 of 12) of cases in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively.
The proposed strategy provided a 95% (35 of 37) cure rate, after a single procedure in 81% (30 of 37) of cases. Recovery of a foreign body at surgery was not a prerequisite for the resolution of the recurrent draining tracts. PubDate: 2013-12-11T02:03:19.807195-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12163
Authors:S. M. Rajaei; H. Khorram, M. Ansari Mood, S. Mashhadi Rafie, D. L. Williams Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Leeches are bloodsucking hermaphroditic parasites that attach to tissues using two muscular suckers, ingest large amounts of blood and may cause severe anaemia in the host. Two four‐month‐old mixed‐breed dogs (one bitch and one male) were referred with anorexia, retching, hypersalivation and bleeding from the oral cavity. On physical examination, two live leeches were detected on the ventral aspect of the tongue of the bitch and one in a similar position in the male. The leeches were gently detached and removed using Adson tissue forceps after applying vinegar over the area. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was detected in the bitch and mild leukocytosis in the dog. One month after treatment both animals were re‐examined and a complete blood count was normal. Given that infestation with leeches as described here is associated with contaminated water, the use of clean and safe drinking water is recommended to avoid such diseases. PubDate: 2013-12-10T02:14:48.813786-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12166
Authors:C. A. O'Leary; A. Parslow, R. Malik, G. B. Hunt, R. I. Hurford, P. L. C. Tisdall, D. L. Duffy Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: OBJECTIVES
To determine the heritability of extra‐hepatic portosystemic shunts and elevated post‐prandial serum bile acid concentrations in Maltese dogs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Maltese dogs were recruited and investigated by a variable combination of procedures including dynamic bile acid testing, rectal ammonia tolerance testing, ultrasonography, portal venography, surgical inspection or necropsy. In addition, nine test matings were carried out between affected and affected dogs, and affected and unaffected dogs.
In 135 variably related Maltese, shunt status could be confirmed in 113, including 19 with an extra‐hepatic portosystemic shunt (17 confirmed at surgery, 2 at necropsy). Rectal ammonia tolerance testing results and post‐prandial serum bile acid concentrations were retrievable for 50 and 88 dogs, respectively. Pedigree information was available for these 135 and an additional 164 related dogs. Two consecutive test matings were carried out between two affected animals (whose shunts had been attenuated), with 2 of 8 (25%) of offspring having an extra‐hepatic portosystemic shunt. Six test matings were carried out between an affected and an unaffected animal, with 2 of 22 (9%) offspring affected. Heritability of extra‐hepatic portosystemic shunt was 0·61 calculated using variance components analysis [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·14 to 1·0, P=0·001]. The best fitting model from segregation analysis was a common, partially penetrant, recessive model (allele frequency 0·34, penetrance 0·99, CI 0·09 to 1·0). The heritability of elevated post‐prandial serum bile acid (and thus likely portal vein hypoplasia) was 0·81 (CI 0·43 to 1·0, P=0·2) after logarithmic transformation of post‐prandial serum bile acid concentrations.
There is strong support for extra‐hepatic portosystemic shunts and elevated post‐prandial serum bile acid concentrations both being inherited conditions in Maltese. PubDate: 2013-12-02T11:00:19.60717-05:0 DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12156
Authors:P. R. Pavia; J. Kovak‐McClaran, K. Lamb Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
To present outcomes and complications following liver lobectomy using thoracoabdominal staplers in cats, to identify factors associated with survival time and to confirm safety and feasibility.
Retrospective analysis of case records (n=18) of cats that underwent liver lobectomy with a thoracoabdominal stapler.
Fourteen of the 18 cats (78%) survived to discharge. Median survival time was 136·5 days. On log‐rank univariate analysis, preoperative abdominal fluid (P=0·002), preoperative anaemia (P=0·03) and perioperative transfusion (P=0·01) were associated with decreased survival time. Perioperative anaemia was common (89%), and rate of transfusion during hospitalisation was 61%. Clinical signs of illness, azotaemia, elevated liver enzyme activities and malignant neoplasia did not appear to impact survival; however, anaemia, abdominal fluid and transfusion may be associated with decreased survival time.
Liver lobectomy using thoracoabdominal staplers was effective in removal of hepatic lesions and all cats survived surgery. Outcome was negatively associated with preoperative abdominal fluid (haemorrhagic and non‐haemorrhagic), preoperative anaemia or perioperative transfusion. Surgeons should be prepared to employ ancillary methods of haemostasis to augment the staple line, and need for blood transfusion should be anticipated. PubDate: 2013-11-27T06:10:50.945691-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12158
Authors:R. O. Leal; S. Gil, N. Sepúlveda, D. McGahie, A. Duarte, MMRE Niza, L. Tavares Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
Recombinant feline interferon‐ω therapy is an immunomodulator currently used in the treatment of different retroviral diseases including feline immune deficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus. Although its mechanism of action remains unclear, this drug appears to potentiate the innate response. Acute phase proteins are one of the key components of innate immunity and studies describing their use as a monitoring tool for the immune system in animals undergoing interferon‐ω therapy are lacking. This study aimed to determine whether interferon‐ω therapy influences acute phase protein concentrations namely serum amyloid‐A, α‐1‐glycoprotein and C‐reactive protein.
A single‐arm study was performed using 16 cats, living in an animal shelter, naturally infected with retroviruses and subjected to the interferon‐ω therapy licensed protocol. Samples were collected before (D0), during (D10 and D30) and after therapy (D65). Serum amyloid‐A and C‐reactive protein were measured by specific enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay kits and α‐1‐glycoprotein by single radial immunodiffusion.
All the acute phase proteins significantly increased in cats undergoing interferon‐ω therapy (D0/D65: P PubDate: 2013-11-27T06:10:48.88276-05:0 DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12160
Authors:K. Bowlt; I. Cattin, J. Stewart Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Feline hyperthyroidism can be treated medically, surgically or with radioactive iodine. Carbimazole inhibits both triiodothyronine and thyroxine synthesis in the thyroid gland and reported side effects include mild eosinophilia, leucopenia and lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzyme activities, gastrointestinal signs and skin abnormalities. This case report describes a cat with carbimazole‐associated apparent hypersensitivity vasculitis causing digital and tail necrosis, with multiple renal infarcts. Withdrawal of carbimazole resulted in stable disease. PubDate: 2013-11-21T01:40:22.666913-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12154
Authors:K. Humm; M. Hezzell, J. Sargent, D. J. Connolly, A. Boswood Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objective
To assess whether pleural fluid and urine amino terminal proB‐type natriuretic peptide (NT‐proBNP) can distinguish cardiac from non‐cardiac causes of pleural effusion.
Blood, urine and pleural fluid were prospectively collected from cats presenting with pleural effusion categorised as cardiac or non‐cardiac in origin. NT‐ProBNP concentrations were measured using a feline‐specific enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. Groups were statistically compared and receiver operating characteristic curves constructed to determine cut‐offs to distinguish cardiac from non‐cardiac pleural effusion in plasma, pleural fluid and urine.
Forty cats with pleural effusion (22 cardiac and 18 non‐cardiac) were studied. NT‐proBNP concentrations in plasma and pleural fluid were strongly correlated. Plasma (P PubDate: 2013-11-07T01:22:10.203963-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12152
Authors:K. Vanderperren; H. Haers, E. Van der Vekens, E. Stock, D. Paepe, S. Daminet, J. H. Saunders Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Canine pancreatic tumours are rare compared to human medicine and the detection and differentiation of pancreatic neoplasia is challenging with B‐mode ultrasonography, which often leads to late clinical diagnosis and poor prognosis. This case report describes the findings of contrast‐enhanced ultrasonography in four dogs with pancreatic adenocarcinoma or insulinoma. B‐mode ultrasonography of the pancreas revealed a hypoechoic nodule in three dogs and heterogenous tissue in one dog. Contrast‐enhanced ultrasonography was able to differentiate between two tumour types: adenocarcinomas showed hypoechoic and hypovascular lesions, whereas insulinomas showed uniformly hypervascular lesions. Contrast‐enhanced ultrasonography findings were confirmed by cytology and/or histopathology. The results demonstrated that contrast‐enhanced ultrasonography was able to establish different enhancement patterns between exocrine (adenocarcinoma) and endocrine (insulinoma) tumours in dogs. PubDate: 2013-11-01T01:53:23.842384-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12153
Authors:B. E. Patterson; J. W. Barr, G. T. Fosgate, N. Berghoff, J. M. Steiner, J. S. Suchodolski, D. M. Black Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
To compare serum concentrations of homocysteine in healthy dogs and those fitting the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and to compare these values to commonly measured B‐vitamins.
Study dogs were classified into non‐infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis groups and blood was drawn on Day 1 of the patient's hospitalisation for measurement of serum homocysteine, folate and cobalamin concentrations. Homocysteine concentration was measured in 51 clinically healthy dogs to serve as the control group.
A statistically significant difference was found between the homocysteine concentrations of the healthy group when compared to non‐infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis groups. Homocysteine values were not correlated with folate, cobalamin or APPLEfast severity scores. Homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in sick dogs when compared to the control group, which is dissimilar to the human population.
The clinical significance of homocysteine changes in critically ill dogs is currently unknown. PubDate: 2013-11-01T01:53:21.532644-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12144
Authors:G. Reppas; J. Fyfe, S. Foster, B. Smits, P. Martin, J. Jardine, A. Lam, C. O'Brien, R. Malik Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objective
To determine the feasibility of using polymerase chain reaction to amplify DNA from methanol‐fixed, Romanowsky‐stained and Ziehl‐Neelsen‐stained smears to confirm the presence of mycobacteria.
Materials and Methods
Tissue was obtained from 10 archival slides and 27 slides from a prospective series of consecutive cases. Phosphate buffered saline (500 μL) was pipetted onto a stained smear (on a glass slide) using a disposable filtered pipette tip. The material adherent to the slide was scraped from its surface and drawn up into the saline. Routine DNA extraction and purification was carried out before nested polymerase chain reaction testing targeting the 16S‐23S internal transcribed spacer region or a TaqMan real‐time polymerase chain reaction. The real‐time polymerase chain reaction was also used on thick sections cut from formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded tissue blocks from 24 canine leproid granulomas.
Mycobacterial DNA was detected in 34 of 37 slides. Polymerase chain reaction products could not be amplified from three archived smears stained using the Ziehl‐Neelsen acid‐fast method, probably because its harsher fixation damaged the DNA. With the nested polymerase chain reaction, species identification using internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis was achieved in all instances, diagnosing a wide range of mycobacteria. The real‐time polymerase chain reaction detected Mycobacterium sp. CLG DNA within all 24 formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded specimens tested.
This technique should provide a non‐invasive and cost‐effective means of diagnosing mycobacterial infections. PubDate: 2013-10-26T01:27:21.812585-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12149
Authors:A. R. Cobrin; S. L. Blois, S. A. Kruth, A. C. G. Abrams‐Ogg, C. Dewey Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: In both human and veterinary medicine, diagnosing and staging renal disease can be difficult. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate is considered the gold standard for assessing renal function but methods for its assessment can be technically challenging and impractical. The main parameters used to diagnose acute and chronic kidney disease include circulating creatinine and urea concentrations, and urine‐specific gravity. However, these parameters can be insensitive. Therefore, there is a need for better methods to diagnose and monitor patients with renal disease. The use of renal biomarkers is increasing in human and veterinary medicine for the diagnosis and monitoring of acute and chronic kidney diseases. An ideal biomarker would identify site and severity of injury, and correlate with renal function, among other qualities. This article will review the advantages and limitations of renal biomarkers that have been used in dogs and cats, as well as some markers used in humans that may be adapted for veterinary use. In the future, measuring a combination of biomarkers will likely be a useful approach in the diagnosis of kidney disorders. PubDate: 2013-10-24T05:54:43.846708-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12150
Authors:E. vettorato; C. De Gennaro, S. Okushima, F. Corletto Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
To compare the lateral pre‐iliac approach to the lumbar plexus combined with lumbar paravertebral sciatic nerve block, and the dorsal paravertebral approach to the lumbar plexus combined with sciatic nerve block in dogs.
Retrospective examination of case records of dogs that received the blocks and underwent pelvic limb orthopaedic surgery between 2010 and 2012. Success rate (intraoperative fentanyl consumption PubDate: 2013-10-24T05:51:21.595678-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12146
Authors:T. Dayer; J. Howard, D. Spreng Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
To identify potential prognostic factors affecting outcome in septic peritonitis caused by gastrointestinal perforation in dogs and cats.
A retrospective study. Animals operated on for septic peritonitis because of gastrointestinal perforation were evaluated. Risk factors assessed included age, duration of clinical signs, recent prior abdominal surgery, recent prior anti‐inflammatory drug administration, placement of a closed‐suction drain and location of perforation.
Fifty‐five animals (44 dogs and 11 cats) were included. The overall mortality was 63·6%. No association was found between age, duration of clinical signs or prior abdominal surgery and outcome. Animals with a history of prior anti‐inflammatory drugs were significantly (P=0·0011) more likely to have perforation of the pylorus (73·3%). No significant difference in outcome was found between animals treated with closed‐suction drains and those treated with primary closure or between pyloric perforation and perforation at other gastrointestinal sites.
Administration of anti‐inflammatory drugs in dogs and cats is a significant risk factor for pyloric perforation. Pyloric perforation was not associated with a poorer outcome than perforation at other gastrointestinal sites. Placement of a closed suction drain did not improve outcome compared to primary closure. PubDate: 2013-10-24T05:43:25.294102-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12151
Authors:F. Swinbourne; E. Kulendra, K. Smith, C. Leo, G. Ter Haar Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A 4·5‐year‐old, female neutered Leonberger was presented with a 2‐month history of sneezing, nasal discharge and epistaxis. A presumptive diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was made based on a suspected (fungal) granuloma on rhinoscopic examination and fungal hyphae on cytological examination. A poor response to targeted therapy was observed and computed tomography 16 months after initial presentation revealed a progressive, locally invasive mass lesion. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of deep surgical biopsies revealed a spindle cell population and a plasma cell rich inflammatory infiltrate, with diffuse expression of vimentin, supporting a diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour. Complete resolution of the nasal discharge and reduced sneezing frequency was reported 9 months post‐surgical debridement via rhinotomy. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of IMT in the nasal cavity of a dog. IMT should be considered when presented with a nasal mass lesion, particularly if histopathological features and clinical course are inconsistent. PubDate: 2013-10-09T05:50:22.225914-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12140
Authors:V. De monte; F. Staffieri, F. Birettoni, A. Bufalari Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: An 11‐year‐old male German shepherd dog was referred for possible pacemaker implantation. A routine 6‐lead electrocardiogram revealed a third‐degree atrio‐ventricular block with a heart rate of 40 to 45 beats/minute. A transvenous pacemaker implantation procedure was scheduled. The dog was premedicated with 10 µg/kg acepromazine and 5 mg/kg pethidine. A dose of 5 mg/kg ketamine and 0·2 mg/kg diazepam were used for induction and isoflurane in O2 and a constant rate infusion of ketamine (20 to 30 µg/kg/minute) were administered for maintenance of general anaesthesia. Due to a twiddler's syndrome, the pacemaker had to be repositioned. For the second procedure, the same protocol was employed except for a lower dose of ketamine both for induction (3 mg/kg) and constant rate infusion (10 to 15 µg/kg/minute). Ketamine appeared to be useful for both management of anaesthesia and cardiac pacemaker implantation in the absence of a temporary pacemaker. PubDate: 2013-10-09T05:25:33.384746-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12139
Authors:S. L. Mason; R. Jepson, M. Maltman, D. J. Batchelor Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Three UK bred Border collie puppies were presented for investigation of pyrexia and severe lameness with associated joint swelling. Investigations revealed neutropenia, radiographic findings suggesting metaphyseal osteopathy, and polyarthritis and all dogs were subsequently confirmed with trapped neutrophil syndrome. Clinical improvement was seen after treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics and the dogs all survived to adulthood with a good short‐ to medium‐term outcome. Trapped neutrophil syndrome is an important differential diagnosis for young Border collie dogs in the UK presenting with pyrexia, neutropenia and musculoskeletal signs. PubDate: 2013-09-13T07:26:52.24143-05:0 DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12134
Authors:E. Donzel; E. Reyes‐Gomez, S. Chahory Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A three‐year‐old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented for loss of vision associated with hyperthermia, lethargy and anorexia. Ophthalmic examination revealed a bilateral panuveitis. Cytological examination of aqueous and vitreous humours was performed and revealed a suppurative inflammation associated with numerous cocci. Enterococcus faecalis was identified by bacterial culture from aqueous and vitreous humour. No primary infection site was identified. Active uveitis resolved after systemic antibiotic therapy, but the vision loss was permanent. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis secondary to E. faecalis infection in a cat. PubDate: 2013-09-13T05:38:04.849356-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12136
Authors:N. A. Boynosky; L. B. Stokking Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Two cases of panniculitis associated with administration of potassium bromide in dogs are reported. Both dogs were treated with potassium bromide for idiopathic epilepsy for over 1 year. Dose increases in both cases were associated with panniculitis, characterised by painful subcutaneous nodules in a generalised distribution over the trunk. Nodule eruption waxed and waned in one dog and was persistent in the other. In both cases, panniculitis was accompanied by lethargy and pyrexia. Panniculitis, lethargy and pyrexia resolved and failed to recur after discontinuation of potassium bromide. No other cause of panniculitis could be determined for either dog. Panniculitis has been reported after administration of potassium bromide in humans and may be a form of drug‐induced erythema nodosum. To the authors’ knowledge, these are the first reports of potassium bromide‐associated panniculitis in dogs. PubDate: 2013-09-06T04:06:41.817477-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12129
Authors:J. D. Coggeshall; D. J. Reese, S. E. Kim, A. Pozzi Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Four skeletally immature, small breed dogs (five elbows) with elbow incongruency were evaluated for forelimb lameness. Findings on clinical examination included pain, effusion and decreased range of motion of the affected elbow. Radiography, computed tomography and arthroscopy demonstrated elbow incongruency in all dogs. Fragmented medial coronoid process was diagnosed arthroscopically in three dogs (four elbows). Arthroscopic subtotal coronoidectomy was performed in all cases of fragmented medial coronoid process. Incongruency was corrected with acute ulnar lengthening under arthroscopic visualisation. The ulna was stabilised with a plate following correction. In two elbows an ostectomy of the anconeal process was performed to prevent impingement against the olecranon fossa. All dogs demonstrated improvement in lameness scores and client‐scored visual analogue scale scores. Postoperative computed tomography showed significant improvement in elbow incongruency in all dogs. Arthroscopic‐guided ulnar lengthening may be considered as a valid treatment in severe cases of elbow incongruency. PubDate: 2013-08-23T01:49:27.70252-05:0 DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12126
Authors:R. M. Allan Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: This case report describes the management of cranial cruciate ligament avulsion from the femur of a four‐year‐old Norwegian Forest cat that presented with a history of lameness which had not improved with conservative treatment. During medial arthrotomy, avulsion of the cranial cruciate ligament from the caudomedial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle was suspected and the torn portion resected. A modified Maquet technique was performed on the left tibia resulting in a rapid improvement in lameness postoperatively. Histopathology of the resected cranial cruciate ligament confirmed avulsion. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first reported use of this technique in the cat, and the first of stifle instability due to cranial cruciate ligament avulsion from the femur in the cat. PubDate: 2013-08-14T06:02:33.408464-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12125
Authors:I. Thas; F. Harcourt‐Brown Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Six entire male rabbits, between four and eight years old, were presented with a fluctuant scrotal and/or inguinal swelling resulting from inguinal herniation of the urinary bladder. Concurrent problems included urinary sediment (two rabbits), multiple uroliths (one rabbit) and testicular tumour (one rabbit). All rabbits underwent herniorrhaphy surgery. There was a successful outcome in four of the six cases. PubDate: 2013-08-02T07:24:21.269359-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12120
Authors:F. Künzel; B. Hierlmeier, M. Christian, M. Reifinger Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in four guinea pigs by demonstration of an increased serum total thyroxine concentration. The main clinical signs were comparable with those observed in feline hyperthyroidism and included weight loss despite maintenance of appetite and a palpable mass in the ventral cervical region. Three animals were treated successfully with methimazole for between 13 and 28 months. Clinical signs and regular measurement of circulating total thyroxine concentrations appear to be convenient parameters for monitoring response to medical therapy. PubDate: 2013-07-31T05:06:56.921103-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12122
Authors:P. P. Tsompanidou; G. M. Kazakos, T. L. Anagnostou Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Dopamine is a commonly used positive inotropic agent for the treatment of hypotension in small animals. Two dogs that had undergone surgery, under isoflurane anaesthesia, developed a sudden and profound bradycardia when a dopamine infusion was administered. Bradycardia was attributed to the activation of the Bezold‐Jarisch reflex, an inhibitory reflex, characterised by bradycardia and hypotension. PubDate: 2013-07-31T05:05:50.820547-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12121
Authors:J. Aguiar; G. Mogridge, J. Hall Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A four‐month‐old, entire male guinea pig was presented for surgical repair of a closed oblique femoral fracture. Analgesia was provided with 30 µg/kg buprenorphine intramuscularly (im) four times a day and 0 · 3 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously once a day. The following day, anaesthesia was induced and maintained with 100 µg/kg medetomidine im, 20 mg/kg ketamine im, 30 µg/kg buprenorphine im and isoflurane in oxygen. Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks were performed with bupivacaine. The fracture was reduced and aligned using an intramedullary 1 · 4 mm K‐wire and a 3 metric polydioxanone cerclage. Three weeks postoperatively remodelling and callus formation was documented, with no evidence of complications. Complete union was present 14 weeks postoperatively. PubDate: 2013-02-09T07:45:15.818435-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12033