- Short‐term outcome and complications of TPLO using anatomically
contoured locking compression plates in small/medium‐breed dogs with
“excessive” tibial plateau angle
- Authors: D. C. Barnes; T. Trinterud, M. R. Owen, M. A. Bush
To report short‐term radiographic and clinical outcome and complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in dogs less than 18·1 kg with tibial plateau angle greater than 35° using anatomically contoured six‐hole locking compression plates.
Retrospective data were collected on: preoperative, postoperative and follow‐up tibial plateau angles, plateau segment rotation, tibial tuberosity width and length of the cranial aspect of tibial tuberosity segment from the patellar tendon insertion and rotation of the tibial plateau below the level of the insertion of the patellar ligament.
In 26 small dogs (29 stifles in total), mean preoperative, postoperative and follow‐up tibial plateau angles were 38·2°, 4·8°, and 4·4°, respectively. Documented postoperative complications were limited to patellar tendinopathy in a single case (3·4%) and tibial tuberosity or fibula fracture were not observed.
Short‐term radiographic and clinical outcome of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy stabilised with anatomically contoured six‐hole locking compression plates for the treatment of small dogs with large tibial plateau angle suggests a very low risk of complications. Rotation beyond the “safe point” is necessary to perform full rotation in some cases, but does not appear to incur an increased risk of tibial tuberosity fracture.
- Clinical response of masitinib mesylate in the treatment of canine
macroscopic mast cell tumours
- Authors: J. Grant; S. North, D. Lanore
To retrospectively evaluate the clinical response and toxicity associated with masitinib mesylate (Masivet®) treatment of macroscopic mast cell tumours in the dog.
Retrospective review of medical records of 39 dogs that had undergone treatment with masitinib for macroscopic mast cell tumours. Patient signalment, tumour location, tumour grade, tumour stage, previous treatments, concurrent medications, dose of masitinib, side effects, response, time to tumour progression, survival time and cause of death were documented. Response was assessed according to RECIST criteria.
Clinical response was observed in 32 (82·1%) dogs receiving masitinib, with 15 dogs (38·5%) exhibiting a complete response and 17 dogs (43·6%) achieving a partial response. The median time to progression was 79 days (range: 14 to 667 days). Adverse effects were seen in 25 dogs (64·1%) with serum alanine aminotransferase elevation (n=9; 23·1%) and vomiting (n=6; 15·4%) being most common. Median survival time following initiation of masitinib was 159 days (range: 14 to 1339).
Masitinib appears to be a well‐tolerated and effective drug against macroscopic mast cell tumours.
- Diode laser ablation of a tracheal osteochondroma in a dog
- Authors: E. Bottero; A. Cagnasso, P. Gianella
Abstract: A mass almost completely obstructing the tracheal lumen was detected during endoscopic investigation of dyspnoea in a four‐month‐old golden retriever. Histopathology was consistent with osteochondroma. The lesion was ablated using endoscopic diode laser ablation.
- Neutrophil gelatinase‐associated lipocalin in dogs with chronic
kidney disease, carcinoma, lymphoma and endotoxaemia
- Abstract: OBJECTIVES
To measure serum and urine neutrophil gelatinase‐associated lipocalin (NGAL) concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic kidney disease, neoplasia and endotoxaemia.
Serum and urine NGAL concentrations were measured in 42 healthy dogs, 11 dogs with chronic kidney disease, 12 dogs with carcinoma, 20 dogs with lymphoma and 15 dogs with lipopolysaccharide‐induced endotoxaemia. In dogs with chronic kidney disease, NGAL was measured 3 and 6 months later.
Compared with healthy controls, dogs with chronic kidney disease (PÄ0·0008), carcinoma (PÄ0·0072) and lymphoma (PÄ0·0008) had elevated serum and urine NGAL and urine NGAL‐to‐creatinine ratio. Serum and urine NGAL was not significantly different between dogs with chronic kidney disease, carcinoma or lymphoma (Pê0·12). In dogs with non‐progressive chronic kidney disease, NGAL concentrations did not change significantly over the 6‐month study period.
NGAL can be elevated by chronic kidney disease and neoplasia, compared with healthy controls. Further research is needed to determine if uNGAL or uNGAL‐to‐creatinine ratio is more specific than serum levels to detect chronic kidney disease.
- Autochthonous babesiosis in the United Kingdom
- Authors: S. Cook; K. English, K. Humm
- Adverse urinary effects of allopurinol in dogs with leishmaniasis
- Authors: M. Torres; J. Pastor, X. Roura, M. D. Tabar, Y. Espada, A. Font, J. Balasch, M. Planellas
The objective of this study was to describe the adverse effects of allopurinol on the urinary system during treatment of canine leishmaniasis.
Retrospective case series of 42 dogs that developed xanthinuria while receiving allopurinol treatment for leishmaniasis.
Of 320 dogs diagnosed with leishmaniasis, 42 (13%) developed adverse urinary effects. Thirteen (of 42) dogs (31%) developed xanthinuria, renal mineralisation and urolithiasis; 11 (26·2%) showed xanthinuria with renal mineralisation; 9 (21·4%) had xanthinuria with urolithiasis and 9 (21·4%) developed xanthinuria alone. Urinary clinical signs developed in 19 dogs (45·2%).
This study demonstrates that urolithiasis and renal mineralisation can occur in dogs receiving allopurinol therapy. Dogs receiving therapy should be monitored for the development of urinary adverse effects from the beginning of treatment.
- Urolithiasis in chinchillas: 15 cases (2007 to 2011)
- Abstract: Objective
To evaluate the signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment and outcome of chinchillas diagnosed with urolithiasis.
Medical records of 15 chinchillas diagnosed with urolithiasis were retrospectively reviewed.
All animals were male with a median age of 30 months (range: 11 to 132 months). Haematuria, pollakiuria and stranguria were the most common presenting complaints. Of 15 animals, 12 had abnormal physical abdominal examination, including pain and palpable cystic calculi. Uroliths were diagnosed in the urinary bladder, urethra or both. Nine animals had cystic calculi only. Four out of 6 chinchillas with urethral calculi were euthanased within 1 day of diagnosis. There was recurrence of cystic calculi following cystotomy in 5/10 animals and median time to recurrence was 68 days (range: 19 to 440 days). Median survival time in chinchilla with urolith recurrence was 391 days (range: 74 to 1074 days) following initial diagnosis. Disease‐free follow‐up time in 5/10 chinchillas without urolith recurrence following surgical removal was 2204 days (range: 1914 to 2535 days).
Cystic uroliths in male chinchillas carry a better prognosis than urethral uroliths. Recurrence of urolithiasis is common in chinchillas.
- A magnetic resonance imaging‐based classification system for
indication of trans‐sphenoidal hypophysectomy in canine
- Authors: A. Sato; T. Teshima, H. Ishino, Y. Harada, T. Yogo, N. Kanno, D. Hasegawa, Y. Hara
The objectives of this study were to establish a magnetic resonance imaging‐based classification system for canine hyperadrenocorticism according to pituitary gland extension, determine indications for trans‐sphenoidal hypophysectomy, and clarify the prognosis for each disease grade.
A 5‐point classification system (Grades 1 to 5) was developed based on tumour extension in dorsal and cranio–caudal directions. Cases were then classified as Type A: no arterial circle of Willis or cavernous sinus involvement and Type B: cases in which these blood vessels were involved.
Medical records and magnetic resonance imaging data of 37 cases with hyperadrenocorticism were reviewed. Thirty‐three cases underwent surgery; 4 Grade 5 cases did not have appropriate indications for surgery, and other therapies were used. Complete resection was achieved for 3, 3, 22 and 1 Grade 1A, 2A, 3A and 3B cases, respectively. Resection was incomplete in 1, 1 and 2 Grade 3A, 3B and 4B cases, respectively. Remission was achieved in 29 cases. Recurrence occurred in 4 cases, all of which were classified as Grade 3.
Dogs with Type A, Grade 1 to 3 hyperadrenocorticism had a good prognosis following trans‐sphenoidal hypophysectomy. Grade 3B, 4 and 5 cases may not be suitable for this surgery.
- Hydrocortisone in the management of acute hypoadrenocorticism in
dogs: a retrospective series of 30 cases
- Authors: E. Gunn; R. E. Shiel, C. T. Mooney
The objectives of this study were to describe the efficacy, outcome and adverse effects of intravenous hydrocortisone and fluid therapy for the management of acute hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.
A retrospective review of dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism receiving intravenous hydrocortisone and fluid therapy was performed.
Thirty newly‐diagnosed dogs were included. There was an excellent clinical response, with all dogs surviving to discharge within a median of 2 days. In 23 cases with complete data, the mean rate of change of sodium over 24 hours was 0·48 (±0·28) mmol/L/hour, while the mean rate of change of potassium was −0·12 (±0·06) mmol/L/hour. Circulating potassium concentration normalised in 68·4% and 100% of cases of by 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Additional treatment for hyperkalaemia was not found necessary. Plasma sodium concentration increased by >12 mmol/L/24 hours on 7 of 23 (30·4%) occasions. One dog exhibited associated temporary neurological signs.
Intravenous hydrocortisone infusion and fluid therapy for the management of acute hypoadrenocorticism is associated with a rapid resolution of hyperkalaemia and is well tolerated with few adverse effects. Regular electrolyte monitoring is required to ensure that rapid increases in sodium concentration are avoided.
- Assessment of wound bio‐burden and prevalence of multi‐drug
resistant bacteria during open wound management
- Abstract: Objective
To describe the bacterial bio‐burden of open‐treated wounds and make comparisons with bite wounds.
Retrospective multicentre study.
Microbial culture between 2011 and 2013 from open‐treated wounds in dogs and cats (initiation of therapy n=88, follow‐up n=52) were compared to those from bite wounds (n=184).
Bacteria were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by two accredited laboratories.
In total, 77/88 (88%) of open‐treated wounds yielded positive bacterial cultures at the beginning of treatment, decreasing to 27/52 (52%) during treatment. Upon initial evaluation, 42/88 (48 %) of open‐treated wounds were considered infected with multi‐drug‐resistant bacteria, with a drop to 22/52 (41%) during therapy. Bite wounds yielded fewer positive cultures 88/184 (48%) with only 11/182 (6%) being affected by multi‐drug‐resistant bacteria. Bacteria found most commonly in open‐treated wounds were Enterococcus subspecies, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The bacterial populations of open‐treated wounds differed markedly from the bite wounds. The high incidence of multi‐drug‐resistant strains in open wounds highlights the need for alternatives to antibiotics.
- Keratoconjunctivitis sicca exacerbation in a dog treated with systemic
- Authors: G. Barsotti; T. Vezzosi
Abstract: A 6‐year‐old, intact, male English cocker spaniel was referred for treatment of chronic conjunctivitis and unilateral keratitis. The dog was diagnosed with bilateral immune‐mediated keratoconjunctivitis sicca, treated with topical cyclosporine 0·2% ointment and sodium hyaluronate eye drops and improved considerably. After 2 months, pulmonic stenosis was diagnosed, and the dog commenced treatment with oral atenolol; the ophthalmological disease worsened dramatically within a few days. The ophthalmic signs rapidly improved after discontinuation of atenolol, and there was bilateral complete remission after 3 weeks. No oral β‐blocker therapy was reintroduced, and thereafter, keratoconjunctivitis sicca was well‐controlled with topical therapy.
- The prevalence of intestinal nematodes in cats and dogs from Lancashire,
- Authors: I. Wright; K. Stafford, G. Coles
To estimate prevalence of clinically‐relevant intestinal nematodes in UK cats and dogs using the sensitive faecal analysis technique FLOTAC.
Faecal samples were collected from 171 domestic dogs and 131 domestic cats living in urban areas of Lancashire and examined for the ova of intestinal parasites using the FLOTAC technique. All tested individuals were at least 6 months old, had not been treated with anthelmintics since 6 months of age nor in the 3 weeks prior to testing.
In total, 5·3% of dogs (9/171) were positive for Toxocara canis; of these, 5/9 had
- Invasive Microsporum canis causing rhinitis and stomatitis in a cat
- Authors: V. Ziglioli; D. L. Panciera, T. LeRoith, N. Wiederhold, D. Sutton
Abstract: Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that typically causes dermatophytosis in cats. This report describes a cat with a Microsporum canis infection causing invasive fungal rhinitis that extended through the hard palate, resulting in adjacent stomatitis. Treatment with itraconazole and terbinafine resolved the infection.
- Does medical therapy influence the size of the syrinx in dogs with
Chiari‐like malformation/syringohydromyelia complex?
- Authors: L. Motta
- Effects of concurrent perioperative use of marbofloxacin and cimicoxib or
carprofen in dogs
- Abstract: Objectives
To investigate possible interactions visible on electroencephalogram recordings caused by concomitant administration of marbofloxacin and carprofen or cimicoxib in dogs without central nervous system disease.
Totally 21 client‐owned dogs undergoing different surgeries were included in a randomised, blinded, clinical study. Each dog was assigned to one of two groups treated with either carprofen or cimicoxib pre‐ and postoperatively. After anaesthetic induction both groups received marbofloxacin intravenously while recording an electroencephalogram. Offline electroencephalogram analysis included qualitative evaluation and Fast Fourier Transformation. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated for 24 hours and after 10 days with the short‐form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann–Whitney U test and Student's t‐test with α set at 5%.
Marbofloxacin injection caused no effects on quantitative and qualitative electroencephalogram parameters in both groups. No differences in postoperative pain scoring were found between treatment groups.
Concurrent use of marbofloxacin with either cimicoxib or carprofen did not induce neuroexcitatory activities in dogs without CNS disease directly after administration.
- Letter to the Editor
- Authors: Warrick Bruce; Geoff Robins
- Assessing torsion of the medial cortex of the canine tibia using computed
tomography multiplanar reconstruction
- Authors: Khadije Hette; A. A. Anderson, D. M. Barnes
To describe a protocol for the measurement of tibial rotational alignment using CT multiplanar reconstructions. To establish the feasibility of producing general guidelines for the amount of torsional contouring to apply to a bone plate applied to the medial aspect of the tibia during repair of a non‐reducible tibial fracture.
CT scans of the pelvic limbs of 15 chondrodystrophic and 34 non‐chondrodystrophic dogs were studied. Medial tibial cortex torsion angle and distal medial tibial cortex angle were determined from CT multiplanar reconstructions. Medial plate application was simulated using a plate contoured to the group mean medial tibial cortex torsion angle and post‐simulation tibial rotational alignment was assessed.
Mean medial tibial cortex torsion angles were 23° (chondrodystrophic) and 26° (non‐chondrodystrophic). Following simulated plate application the change in medial tibial cortex torsion was less than 10° in 73% of chondrodystrophic and 93% of non‐chondrodystrophic tibias. In total, 93% of chondrodystrophic and 97% of non‐chondrodystrophic tibias had post‐simulation distal medial tibial cortex angle less than 10° from the group mean pre‐simulation distal medial tibial cortex angle.
Medial tibial cortex torsion and tibial rotational alignment can be measured using the protocol described in this study. 26° of internal torsional tibial plate pre‐contouring may be appropriate for non‐chondrodystrophic dogs, but further clinical validation is required.
- Stabilisation of a cranial cervical vertebral fracture using a
3D‐printed patient‐specific drill guide
- Authors: B. Oxley; S. Behr
- Morphology of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the left colic
vein in dogs and cats
- Authors: R. N. White; A. T. Parry
To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the left colic vein in dogs and cats.
Retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs and cats managed for congenital portosystemic shunts. For inclusion a shunt involving the left colic vein with recorded intraoperative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography along with direct gross surgical observations at the time of surgery was required.
Six dogs and three cats met the inclusion criteria. All cases had a shunt which involved a distended left colic vein. The final communication with a systemic vein was variable; in seven cases (five dogs, two cats) it was via the caudal vena cava, in one cat it was via the common iliac vein and in the remaining dog it was via the internal iliac vein. In addition, two cats showed caudal vena cava duplication.
The morphology of this shunt type appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between either the left colic vein or the cranial rectal vein and a pelvic systemic vein (caudal vena cava, common iliac vein or internal iliac vein). This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery.
- Presentation, clinical pathological and post‐mortem findings in
three related Scottish terriers with ligneous membranitis
- Authors: S. L. Mason; C. Fisher, L. Ressel, N. X. Bommer, L. M. Buckley, T. Nuttall
Abstract: Ligneous conjunctivitis and gingivitis were diagnosed in three related Scottish terrier dogs presented for investigation of severe conjunctivitis and respiratory signs. Hypoplasminogenaemia was confirmed in one of the three affected dogs. Supportive treatment was not effective, and the dogs died or were euthanased because of the disease. Post‐mortem analysis of two of the dogs revealed multiple abnormalities including severe proliferative fibrinous lesions affecting the conjunctiva, gingiva, trachea, larynx and epicardium and multiple fibrous adhesions throughout the thoracic and abdominal cavities. One dog had internal hydrocephalus and lacked a cerebellar vermis. Ligneous membranitis was confirmed on histopathology. This is a rare condition in dogs but an important differential diagnosis for severe conjunctivitis and gingivitis.
- Hypercalcaemia secondary to elevated 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol in a
dog with immune‐mediated polyarthritis
- Authors: J.L. Adamany; M.P. Dhumeaux
Abstract: A seven‐year‐old male entire Bearded Collie was referred following a three‐week history of pyrexia, lethargy and stiffness, which was poorly responsive to antibiotic therapy. The most significant laboratory abnormalities included marked neutrophilia and ionised hypercalcaemia. The dog was diagnosed with primary immune‐mediated polyarthritis, which responded to prednisolone and azathioprine, and resulted in resolution of the elevated 1,25 hydroxycholecalciferol, hypercalcaemia and neutrophilia. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first case report of hypercalcaemia secondary to immune‐mediated polyarthritis.
- Table of Contents
- Pages: 225 - 225
- Officers Page
- Pages: 226 - 226
- Officers Page
- Pages: 280 - 280
- Treatment of canine nasopharyngeal stenosis using balloon‐expandable
metallic stents: long‐term follow‐up of four cases
- Authors: L. Bird; P. Nelissen, R. A. S. White, S. W. Tappin
Abstract: Four dogs were diagnosed with nasopharyngeal stenosis using endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment using balloon‐expandable metallic stent, placed under fluoroscopic and endoscopic guidance, resulted in immediate resolution of clinical signs. All dogs were clinically normal 40 to 62 months following stent placement.