- Focal intestinal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis in 10 dogs
- Abstract: OBJECTIVES
To describe the clinical and pathological features of canine focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis, to evaluate its underlying infectious cause and to compare it with human Crohn's disease.
Retrospective review of case records with a histopathological diagnosis of focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis. Bacterial and fungal colonisation was evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridisation and histochemical staining, respectively. A comparison with Crohn's disease was performed by a human pathologist.
Ten dogs were evaluated. The historical complaints were predominantly chronic diarrhoea (10/10) and vomiting (5/10). The biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminaemia (6/10) and hypocobalaminaemia (4/6). Abdominal sonography revealed a thickened distal ileum±ileocolic junction. Colonoscopy showed a swollen caecal ostium and oedematous caecum in 7/10 dogs. A stenotic ileo‐colic opening prevented endoscopic intubation in all dogs. Histology from the resected lesions revealed granulomatous inflammation involving the muscularis and serosa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated invasive bacteria in 2/10 dogs. Post‐resection, all dogs received metronidazole and tapering immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone. Remission (median 17 months) was achieved in 8/10 dogs.
Focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis is a rare and severe form of canine inflammatory bowel disease with preferential localisation to the ileum and the ileocolic junction. An underlying infectious aetiology was not identified.
- Evidence of cardiac injury and arrhythmias in dogs with acute kidney
- Authors: S. P. Keller; A. Kovacevic, J. Howard, A. Schweighauser, T. Francey
Cardiac involvement in the course of acute kidney injury is described in humans as cardiorenal syndrome type 3 but has received only limited attention in dogs. This study was designed to evaluate cardiac injury and dysfunction in acute kidney injury in dogs and its association with outcome.
This prospective cohort study enrolled 24 client‐owned dogs with acute kidney injury. Cardiac disorders were evaluated with thoracic radiographs, echocardiography, 24‐hour Holter monitoring and cardiac troponin I concentrations within 2 days of admission and 7 to 10 days later.
Most dogs were diagnosed with leptospirosis (n=18, 75%) and presented with moderate‐to‐severe acute kidney injury, International Renal Interest Society grades III to V. Dogs with ê100 ventricular premature complexes per 24 hour in the first examination (n=8) had significantly higher initial cTnI concentrations (P=0·007) compared to dogs with fewer than 100. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the number of ventricular premature complexes was predictive of outcome (AUC 0·83, P
- Owners’ attitudes and practices regarding nutrition of dogs
diagnosed with cancer presenting at a referral oncology service in
- Authors: S. Rajagopaul; J. M. Parr, J. P. Woods, D. L. Pearl, J. B. Coe, A. Verbrugghe
To investigate owner attitudes and dietary practices following cancer diagnosis in a dog.
A retrospective cross‐sectional survey of 75 dog owners presenting with their dogs to a tertiary referral oncology service through a demographic questionnaire and in‐person or telephone interviews regarding the dog's nutrition.
Conventional diets (71%) were most commonly fed as a single diet to canine cancer patients followed by homemade cooked (7%) and homemade raw (4%). Several owners (18%) provided combinations of these diets. Owners reported some distrust towards conventional diets (51%). Appetite loss occurred in 35% of dogs and diet changes reported for 25% of dogs in the study involved exclusion of a conventional (63%) and/or inclusion of a homemade (54%) component. 90% of owners noted the diet change was associated with the cancer diagnosis. Supplements were given by 39% of owners. 85% of owners highly valued veterinary nutritional advice.
Following a cancer diagnosis, dog owners appear to change their approach to managing their dog's nutrition. Given the value owners place on veterinary nutritional advice, veterinarians have a key role in guiding nutritional management of the canine cancer patient.
- Epidemiology of hyperadrenocorticism among 210,824 dogs attending
primary‐care veterinary practices in the UK from 2009 to 2014
- Authors: D. G. O'Neill; C. Scudder, J. M. Faire, D. B. Church, P. D. McGreevy, P. C. Thomson, D. C. Brodbelt
To estimate prevalence and risk factors for diagnosis with hyperadrenocorticism in dogs attending primary‐care veterinary practices in the UK from 2009 to 2014.
Cases were identified by searching the de‐identified electronic patient records from UK primary‐care veterinary practices participating in the VetCompass Programme.
The estimated prevalence for hyperadrenocorticism diagnosis in dogs was 0·28% (95% confidence interval: 0·25 to 0·31). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed four associated risk factors: breed, breed‐relative bodyweight, age and insurance status. The bichon frise had 6·5 times the odds (95% CI: 3·5 to 12·1, P
- Multi‐centre retrospective study of long‐term outcomes
following traumatic elbow luxation in 37 dogs
- Authors: D. Sajik; R. L. Meeson, N. Kulendra, C. Jordan, D. James, I. Calvo, M. Farrell, E. Kulendra
Limited guidelines exist regarding the optimal treatment of traumatic canine elbow luxation, and there is a lack of information on long‐term functional outcome. Here we report reduction and stabilisation techniques for a series of traumatic elbow luxations and describe clinical outcome plus long‐term questionnaire‐based follow‐up.
Retrospective review of canine traumatic elbow luxations (2006 to 2013) treated at five referral centres. Data recorded included signalment, luxation aetiology, time to reduction, reduction technique, surgical procedure, post‐reduction care and complications. Questionnaire follow‐up was attempted for all cases with owners completing the Canine Brief Pain Inventory.
Thirty‐seven dogs were included. The most frequent cause of luxation was road traffic accident (n=22). Twenty cases were treated surgically. Seven dogs suffered major postoperative complications: reluxation (n=6), infection requiring implant removal (n=1). Four of the six reluxations occurred in dogs that had other orthopaedic injuries. Twenty‐two owners completed the Canine Brief Pain Inventory questionnaire: there were 13 excellent, 6 very good, 1 good and 2 fair outcomes. Outcome was not associated with the reduction technique.
Initial closed reduction, followed by surgical stabilisation if unsuccessful, results in good‐to‐excellent outcomes in the majority of traumatic canine elbow luxations. Reluxation was the most common major complication and there was a higher incidence of reluxation in patients with multiple orthopaedic injuries.
- Serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with
- Abstract: Objectives
To describe serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with hepatic disease and to determine whether there is a relationship between the concentration of either and the severity of hepatic necroinflammation.
Serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were measured in 46 dogs undergoing hepatic biopsy. Dogs were divided into three groups: congenital portosystemic shunts, chronic hepatitis and hepatic neoplasia. The histological severity of hepatic necroinflammation was scored.
C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were greater than the upper limit of the reference intervals in 39 and 26% of dogs, respectively. There was no association of disease group with C‐reactive protein (P=0·1733) or S100A12 (P=0·1513) concentrations. There was a positive correlation between serum C‐reactive protein concentration and hepatic necroinflammatory activity (rs=0·428, P=0·006).
Increased serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were observed in a subpopulation of dogs with various types of hepatic diseases, suggesting acute‐phase inflammation and activation of phagocytic cells, respectively. Dogs with higher hepatic necroinflammatory activity scores tended to have higher serum C‐reactive protein concentrations. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in a larger group of dogs.
- Surgical extraction of canine oesophageal foreign bodies through a
gastrotomy approach: 12 cases
- Authors: A. Aertsens; J. Hernandez, G. R. Ragetly, C. M. Poncet
To describe a gastrotomy approach to remove foreign bodies located in the caudal oesophagus.
Materials and Methods
Retrospective examination of case records of dogs with surgical management of foreign body located in the caudal oesophagus.
Twelve dogs with caudal oesophageal foreign body were managed surgically after unsuccessful endoscopic approaches. The foreign body was successfully extracted via gastrotomy in all 12 cases. Ten dogs recovered well without any postoperative complications but one dog died during the immediate postoperative period and one during hospitalisation.
Caudal oesophageal foreign body extraction by gastrotomy is a possible alternative to transthoracic oesophagotomy. Based on the small population presented here this approach performed through a laparotomy appears easy, with a low rate of perioperative and postoperative complications.
- Practice patterns in the management of acute intervertebral disc
herniation in dogs
- Authors: S. A. Moore; P. J. Early, B. F. Hettlich
Acute intervertebral disc herniation is commonly managed by veterinary neurologists and surgeons. Anecdote suggests that patterns of management vary considerably and there is controversy surrounding many aspects of treatment. The goal of this study was to document patterns in management of acute spinal cord injury caused by acute intervertebral disc herniation among these two groups to aid in future discussions on best practices.
A survey querying diagnostic, medical and surgical practices for dogs with acute intervertebral disc herniation was distributed to diplomates on the databases of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (Neurology).
Responses were received from 314 board‐certified veterinary surgeons and neurologists. Both groups handled timing of decompression, surgical approach, and most postoperative recommendations in a similar fashion. Case volume differed between groups, with 77% of neurologists and 18% of surgeons managing ê50 cases of acute intervertebral disc herniation per year. MRI was used most frequently as a diagnostic tool by neurologists (75%), while CT was used most commonly by surgeons (58%). Corticosteroids were routinely administered as a neuroprotective strategy by 34% of surgeons and 11% of neurologists. Disc fenestration was performed “always” or “most of the time” by 69% of neurologists and 36% of surgeons.
Understanding the common practices in the management of canine acute intervertebral disc herniation can provide a springboard for future discussions regarding the best practices in diagnosing and treating this disease.
- Clinical leishmaniasis in dogs living in the UK
- Authors: P. Silvestrini; D. Batchelor, K. Allenspach, C. Maunder, M. Seth, A. Mas, T. Hill, G. Serrano, X. Roura, M. Planellas, A. J. German, J. Pastor
To investigate the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs in the UK and to describe clinical presentation, clinicopathological abnormalities, therapeutic protocols and outcome in this non‐endemic country.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Medical records of dogs diagnosed with leishmaniasis at seven referral centres in the UK were retrospectively reviewed.
The prevalence was between 0·007 and 0·04% with a higher number of cases in southern England. All dogs had a history of travel to or from an endemic country. Lethargy, dermatological disease, decreased appetite and lameness were the most common reasons for presentation. Allopurinol was used alone for treatment in the majority of cases.
Although rare, leishmaniasis should be considered in dogs in the UK if they have compatible clinical signs and history of travel to or from endemic areas.
- Vinblastine as a second rescue for the treatment of canine multicentric
lymphoma in 39 cases (2005 to 2014)
- Authors: J. A. Lenz; C. S. Robat, T. J. Stein
The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate response and outcome of dogs with multicentric lymphoma treated with single‐agent vinblastine as a second rescue.
Medical records from 39 client‐owned dogs receiving vinblastine rescue treatment (having relapsed on or following completion of UW‐Madison and CCNU/L‐asparaginase protocols), between 2005 and 2014, were reviewed for information regarding clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, drug dosage, number of treatments, side effects, response and outcome.
The median starting dose of vinblastine was 2·6 mg/m2 (1·7 to 2·8 mg/m2), administered weekly until disease progression. Of the 39 dogs treated, 3 dogs (7·7%) achieved a complete remission, 7 dogs (17·9%) achieved a partial response, 18 dogs (46·2%) maintained stable disease and 11 (28·2%) had progressive disease. Ten dogs (25·6%) developed a grade III or IV neutropenia, and 4 dogs (10·3%) developed grade III or IV thrombocytopenia (one dog in both categories). After starting vinblastine, the median progression‐free survival was 29·5 days (0 to 77 days) and overall median survival time was 46 days (4 to 250 days). Duration of first remission was identified as a positive predictor of outcome.
Single‐agent vinblastine is well tolerated in dogs with relapsed or refractory lymphoma. Responses were incomplete and short‐lasting.
- The effects of intravenous lidocaine before propofol induction in
- Authors: I. Cerasoli; S. Nannarone, S. Schauvliege, L. Duchateau, A. Bufalari
The effects of lidocaine, administered before induction of anaesthesia with propofol, on arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, cough reflex, ease of intubation, extrapyramidal signs and required dose of propofol in healthy premedicated dogs were evaluated.
Twenty‐four client‐owned dogs were premedicated intramuscularly with 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0·2 mg/kg methadone, and randomly allocated to receive 2 mg/kg lidocaine (group L) or saline (group P) 120 seconds before induction of anaesthesia with propofol. Heart rate, non‐invasive arterial blood pressure and respiratory rate were assessed at pre‐established intervals. Quality of intubation, cough reflex and the occurrence of adverse effects were scored according to predefined scales. The total amount of propofol administered was also recorded.
Cardiovascular and respiratory variables changed over time but were not significantly different between treatments. No significant differences between groups were found for the incidence of coughing, quality of intubation, adverse effects and propofol intubation dose.
Intravenous administration of lidocaine 2 mg/kg before propofol induction was not associated with significant cardiovascular and respiratory benefits compared to standard induction and did not result in a propofol dose‐sparing effect or improvement of the quality of intubation in dogs premedicated with dexmedetomidine and methadone.
- Differentiating feline inflammatory bowel disease from alimentary lymphoma
in duodenal endoscopic biopsies
- Authors: S. Sabattini; E. Bottero, M. E. Turba, F. Vicchi, S. Bo, G. Bettini
This study aimed to evaluate the agreement between microscopic and molecular testing for differentiating feline intestinal bowel disease and small cell alimentary lymphoma in duodenal endoscopic biopsies.
Four different diagnostic methods (cytology, histology, immunohistochemistry and clonality) were sequentially applied to 77 cases of feline chronic enteropathies. The agreement between the different diagnostic methods was calculated and survival data were obtained to assess the most reliable method for predicting outcome.
Seventy‐seven cases were included in the study. On multivariate survival analysis, only the clonality‐based diagnosis of lymphoma was significantly associated with poor survival, with a risk of enteropathy‐related death 2·8 times higher. By comparing the other tests with clonality, specificity was high (87 to 97%), whereas sensitivity was 36·8% for cytology, 39·5% for histology, 63·2% for immunohistochemistry, resulting in an overall accuracy of 62·3, 68·8 and 80·5%, respectively.
Clonality analysis can consistently increase the possibility of correctly and early diagnosing small cell lymphoma on endoscopic biopsies. Histological suspicion of alimentary lymphoma, even if not confirmed by clonality, should never be ignored, as it may represent a debutant form of lymphoma or it may later progress to lymphoma.
- Diode laser ablation of a tracheal osteochondroma in a dog
- Authors: E. Bottero; A. Cagnasso, P. Gianella
Abstract: A mass almost completely obstructing the tracheal lumen was detected during endoscopic investigation of dyspnoea in a four‐month‐old golden retriever. Histopathology was consistent with osteochondroma. The lesion was ablated using endoscopic diode laser ablation.
- Keratoconjunctivitis sicca exacerbation in a dog treated with systemic
- Authors: G. Barsotti; T. Vezzosi
Abstract: A 6‐year‐old, intact, male English cocker spaniel was referred for treatment of chronic conjunctivitis and unilateral keratitis. The dog was diagnosed with bilateral immune‐mediated keratoconjunctivitis sicca, treated with topical cyclosporine 0·2% ointment and sodium hyaluronate eye drops and improved considerably. After 2 months, pulmonic stenosis was diagnosed, and the dog commenced treatment with oral atenolol; the ophthalmological disease worsened dramatically within a few days. The ophthalmic signs rapidly improved after discontinuation of atenolol, and there was bilateral complete remission after 3 weeks. No oral β‐blocker therapy was reintroduced, and thereafter, keratoconjunctivitis sicca was well‐controlled with topical therapy.
- The prevalence of intestinal nematodes in cats and dogs from Lancashire,
- Authors: I. Wright; K. Stafford, G. Coles
To estimate prevalence of clinically‐relevant intestinal nematodes in UK cats and dogs using the sensitive faecal analysis technique FLOTAC.
Faecal samples were collected from 171 domestic dogs and 131 domestic cats living in urban areas of Lancashire and examined for the ova of intestinal parasites using the FLOTAC technique. All tested individuals were at least 6 months old, had not been treated with anthelmintics since 6 months of age nor in the 3 weeks prior to testing.
In total, 5·3% of dogs (9/171) were positive for Toxocara canis; of these, 5/9 had
- Table of Contents
- Pages: 337 - 337
- Officers Page
- Pages: 338 - 338
- Antimicrobial‐resistant Escherichia coli in hospitalised companion
animals and their hospital environment
- Authors: I. Tuerena; N. J. Williams, T. Nuttall, G. Pinchbeck
Pages: 339 - 347
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing concern with implications for animal health. This study investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among commensal and environmental Escherichia coli isolated from animals sampled in referral hospitals in the UK.
Materials and Methods
Resistant Escherichia coli isolated from animal faeces and practice environments were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. PCR and sequencing techniques were used to identify extended spectrum beta‐lactamase and AmpC‐producer genotypes.
In total, 333 faecal and 257 environmental samples were collected. Multi‐drug resistant Escherichia coli were found in 13·1% of faecal and 8·9% of environmental samples. Extended spectrum beta‐lactamase and AmpC genes were identified 14% and 7·7% of faecal samples and 8·6% and 8·6% of environmental samples, respectively. The most common extended spectrum beta‐lactamase gene type detected was blaCTX‐M −15, although blaTEM‐158 was detected in faecal and environmental samples from one practice.
Escherichia coli resistant to key antimicrobials were isolated from hospitalised animals and the practice environment. We identified the emergence of the inhibitor resistant and extended spectrum beta‐lactamase blaTEM‐158 in companion animals. Further investigation to determine risk factors for colonisation with antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria is needed to provide evidence for antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programmes.
- A review of anaemia of inflammatory disease in dogs and cats
- Authors: S. Chikazawa; M. D. Dunning
Pages: 348 - 353
Abstract: Anaemia of inflammatory disease is a common cause of anaemia in routine veterinary practice. It is most often mild to moderate, normocytic, normochromic and non‐regenerative. Shortened red cell life span, inhibition of iron metabolism and impaired bone marrow response to erythropoietin all contribute to its development. Although anaemia of inflammatory disease is a well‐known cause of anaemia in dogs and cats, there is a lack of epidemiological information because specific diagnostic criteria have not been established in veterinary species. Anaemia of inflammatory disease is associated with a poor outcome in various disease states in human medicine; however, its clinical significance and treatment in veterinary medicine are not well understood. This review article describes anaemia of inflammatory disease in dogs and cats and considers its potential significance.
- Treatment of canine aural haematoma by UK veterinarians
- Authors: J. Hall; S. Weir, J. Ladlow
Pages: 360 - 364
To survey the current treatment techniques of aural haematomas in dogs and investigate veterinary opinion regarding treatment success.
Totally 2386 emails were sent to veterinary surgeons and practices inviting them to complete an online survey. Questions investigated treatment selection for initial and repeat presentations of aural haematoma in dogs and their opinion of treatment success to prevent recurrence and for good cosmesis.
Totally 312 email addresses were invalid, 259 questionnaires were completed (12·5% response rate) and 251 were included in analysis. On initial presentation, treatments included needle drainage with local deposition of corticosteroids (43%), surgery (29%) and needle drainage without corticosteroids (16%). Surgical procedures included linear incision with sutures alone (35%) or sutures plus stents (24%) and an S‐shaped incision with sutures (23%). The most common reason to select a particular treatment was previous success (76%). Recurrent haematoma was treated more commonly with surgery (67%) than that of the initial presentation. Cosmetic results with medical management were excellent and with surgical treatment were good.
This study describes the relative popularity and perceived success of treatments used for aural haematoma in the dog. Surgery is considered more likely to definitively treat the condition with good cosmetic results.
- No evidence that medicinal honey reduces bacterial skin colonisation at a
peripheral catheter insertion site in dogs
- Authors: E. Royaux; I. Polis, F. Boyen, L. Van Ham, H. Rooster
Pages: 374 - 378
To determine whether topical exit‐site application of medicinal honey at the catheter insertion place reduces bacterial skin colonisation.
Measurements and Results
Dogs were selected at random and divided into the honey or the control group. When the catheter was removed, an area of approximately 3×3 cm of the skin at the insertion site was sampled with a sterile cotton swab. The catheter stayed in place for a median of 84 hours. Out of 46 patients, 6 patients in the honey group and 5 out of 54 patients in the control group had a positive skin culture at the time of catheter removal (P=0·547). Infection was clinically suspected in 1 of those 11 dogs; catheter‐associated complications were observed in 8 additional dogs that did not have a positive skin culture.
Few catheter‐associated complications were observed. Extra attention to hygiene by working with a standardised catheter placement and handling protocol might have resulted in this low incidence. In this study topical application of a medicinal honey did not reduce bacterial skin colonisation at the insertion site of peripheral catheters in dogs.
- Conservative management of an atlantoaxial subluxation using thermoplastic
- Pages: 386 - 386
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- Pages: 387 - 387