Authors:M. J. Hezzell; K. Humm, S. G. Dennis, L. Agee, A. Boswood Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
To evaluate relationships between heart rate and clinical variables in healthy dogs and dogs examined at a referral hospital.
Clinical data were extracted from the electronic patient records of a first opinion group (5000 healthy dogs) and a referral hospital (5849 dogs). Univariable and multi‐variable general linear models were used to assess associations between heart rate and clinical characteristics. Separate multi‐variable models were constructed for first opinion and referral populations.
In healthy dogs, heart rate was negatively associated with bodyweight (P PubDate: 2013-05-10T23:16:36.47065-05:0 DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12079
Authors:K. L. Bowlt; E. J. Friend, P. Delisser, S. Murphy, G. Polton Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Anal sac gland carcinoma arising from the apocrine secretory epithelium in the anal sac wall, is locally invasive and highly metastatic. The majority of anal sac gland carcinomas are unilateral on presentation, but bilateral tumours have been identified. This case series presents the outcome of four unique cases of unilateral anal sac gland carcinoma which subsequently developed contralateral anal sac gland carcinoma 50 to 390 days after removal of the initial tumour. Median survival was 1035 days after initial diagnosis and 807 days after diagnosis of the second anal sac gland carcinoma. PubDate: 2013-05-10T00:25:16.499975-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12077
Authors:L. Benato; M. Chesnel, K. Eatwell, A. Meredith Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
Blood gas analysis is a well‐recognized method to monitor pulmonary function, blood oxygenation, ventilation and acid–base status during general anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to report blood gas analysis results in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) obtained during general anaesthesia using a portable clinical analyser.
Thirty‐two rabbits were premedicated with 0·2 mL/kg fentanyl and fluanisone. Anaesthesia was induced with 0·2 mg/kg midazolam and maintained with 2% isoflurane in oxygen via endotracheal tube. Arterial blood samples were taken from the central ear artery 10 minutes after induction of anaesthesia.
Respiratory acidaemia was observed during anaesthesia. Mean ±sd (range) arterial blood pH was 7·33 ±0·08 (7·15 to 7·48). PaCO2 and PaO2 were, respectively, 55·02 ±10·5 (37·7 to 92·1) mmHg and 370·0 ±120·5 (67 to 561) mmHg. Base excess was 2·8 ±3·6 (−3 to 11) mmol/L, HCO3 was 28·73 ±3·07 (23·7 to 35·4) mmol/L and TCO2 was 30·4 ±3·2 (25 to 37) mmol/L. None of the rabbits developed haematoma during arterial blood collection or ischaemia of the pinna during the hospitalization period.
Arterial blood gas analysis is a safe and easy to perform diagnostic technique that can contribute to improved safety of rabbit anaesthesia, by providing information on the respiratory and metabolic status of the patient. PubDate: 2013-05-10T00:22:01.587613-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12081
Authors:N. G. Orellana‐james; M. M. Ginja, M. Regueiro, P. Oliveira, A. Gama, J. A. Rodriguez‐Altonaga, J. M. gonzalo‐orden Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A six‐year‐old, 30‐kg female German pointer dog was presented for examination with a history of pre‐existing right‐forelimb lameness and more recent (3 months) persistent lameness in the left‐forelimb. Physical examination revealed mild left‐forelimb lameness and a mild circumduction movement. There were no signs of pain or crepitation detected during manipulation of the shoulders, but the animal was unable to fully flex both glenohumeral joints. Magnetic resonance imaging, using fast recovery fast spin echo T2‐weighted and fat saturated proton density sequences, revealed abnormal heterogeneous hypointensity in the right infraspinatus muscle and a heterogeneous hyperintense area in the left infraspinatus muscle. Surgical treatment consisting of a bilateral infraspinatus tenectomy resulted in improved limb function. Histopathological examination demonstrated tissue changes in the right infraspinatus, characterised by myofibre degeneration and fibrosis, compatible with a chronic degenerative process, while changes in the left infraspinatus muscle were characterised by variable degrees of fibre degeneration, haemorrhage and interstitial oedema. PubDate: 2013-05-09T01:31:40.997446-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12080
Authors:M. Scott; D. Flaherty, J. Currall Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: In a previous article, we asked the simple question “Are we related?” and used scatterplots and correlation coefficients to provide an answer. In this article, we will take this question and reword it to “How are we related?” and will demonstrate the statistical techniques required to reach a conclusion. PubDate: 2013-05-09T01:31:37.914599-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12068
Authors:E. Yas; G. Kelmer, A. Shipov, J. Ben‐Oz, G. Segev Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: This report describes two cases of oesophageal tumours managed by transendoscopic neodymium:yttrium‐aluminum‐garnet laser ablation and polypectomy snare electrocautery. In each dog oesophagoscopy revealed caudal oesophageal masses, suspected to be Spirocerca lupi‐induced oesophageal neoplasia. To resect the masses, transendoscopic neodymium:yttrium‐aluminum‐garnet laser ablation was used in the first case and polypectomy snare electrocautery in the second. Recovery was uneventful. Histopathology was consistent with oesophageal fibrosarcoma and osteosarcoma in each case, respectively. Follow‐up oesophagoscopy revealed apparently healthy oesophageal tissue except for focal scar tissue in the first case. Transendoscopic laser ablation and polypectomy snare electrocautery is a potential non‐invasive, cost effective alternative for surgical oesophageal mass resection. PubDate: 2013-05-06T00:27:24.088182-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12076
Authors:M. J. Aiken; J. E. Stewart, A. A. Anderson Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: An eight‐year‐old male neutered Staffordshire bull terrier was presented for investigation of right forelimb lameness of 14 months’ duration. Radiography showed mottled osteolysis of the right radial carpal bone. Histopathology of the bone demonstrated replacement of healthy bone with granulation tissue suggestive of ischaemic necrosis. Lameness resolved following pancarpal arthrodesis. In humans, Preiser's disease is a condition in which idiopathic ischaemic necrosis of the scaphoid bone, the equivalent of the canine radial carpal bone, occurs. This disease may be analogous to the presentation seen in this case. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of such a condition in a dog. PubDate: 2013-04-26T03:20:54.297482-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12072
Authors:D. M. Barnes Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A three‐year‐old male greyhound was presented with acute onset right forelimb lameness because of medial displacement of the biceps tendon of origin. Ultrasonographic examination confirmed the diagnosis, and a concomitant partial tear of the medial glenohumeral ligament was detected during arthroscopy. To stabilise the biceps tendon, polypropylene mesh was fixed across the intertubercular groove to replace the torn transverse humeral retinaculum. Recovery was uneventful and lameness resolved. Fifteen months later, the dog was presented with medial displacement of the biceps tendon of origin of the left shoulder, and was treated successfully using the same technique. PubDate: 2013-04-24T23:53:12.018516-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12071
Authors:Y. Amagai; A. Tanaka, A. Matsuda, K. Jung, K. Oida, S. Nishikawa, H. Jang, H. Matsuda Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Mast cell tumours are one of the most common neoplasms in dogs. Mutations in the proto‐oncogene c‐kit, especially internal tandem duplications of exon 11, are considered to play a crucial role in mast cell tumourigenesis. In this report, two cases that suffered from multiple mast cell tumours containing an internal tandem duplication in the primary lesion but not in the secondary lesions are described. This finding indicates the existence of heterogenous c‐kit gene mutations in each site of multiple mast cell tumours. Additionally, these results raise the possibility that the contribution of internal tandem duplications in the malignant transformation of mast cells is quite limited. It is proposed that, for clinicians, genetic analysis of several regions of multiple mast cell tumours is necessary for predicting prognosis and tumour response to KIT inhibitors. PubDate: 2013-04-24T23:53:05.520603-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12069
Authors:R. Bond; H. Brooks Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
To evaluate transverse sectioning for histological assessment of canine sebaceous glands in health and disease.
Skin specimens were obtained from the cadavers of six healthy beagle dogs and from an archive of tissue sections of 24 dogs with a histological diagnosis of sebaceous adenitis.
In healthy beagle dogs, both the mean numbers of compound hair follicles and sebaceous lobes observed in transverse sections were approximately threefold higher (P PubDate: 2013-04-21T22:51:17.408503-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12067
Authors:L. B. Meakin; L. K. Salonen, S. J. Baines, D. J. Brockman, S. P. Gregory, Z. J. Halfacree, V. J. Lipscomb, K. C. Lee Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objective
To determine the prevalence, outcome and risk factors for postoperative pyothorax in dogs undergoing thoracic surgery.
Case records were reviewed retrospectively to identify dogs with post thoracic surgery pyothorax, defined as septic neutrophilic inflammation within the pleural space based on cytology and/or a positive bacterial culture of pleural fluid. Those identified were reviewed for potential risk factors for postoperative pyothorax based on biological plausibility and previously published data. These potential risk factors were explored by multivariable logistic regression.
Of 232 dogs undergoing thoracic surgery, 15 (6·5%) dogs developed pyothorax. Bacteria cultured included methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi‐resistant Escherichia coli. Of these dogs, six died, four were euthanased and five were treated successfully. A diagnosis of idiopathic chylothorax [Odds Ratio (OR)=12·5, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=2·7‐58·5, P=0·001], preoperative intrathoracic biopsy (OR=14·3, 95% CI=1·7‐118·7, P=0·014) and preoperative thoracocentesis (OR=11·2, 95% CI=1·6‐78·2, P=0·015) were identified as independent risk factors for development of postoperative pyothorax.
Idiopathic chylothorax, intrathoracic biopsy and prior thoracocentesis are independent risk factors for postoperative pyothorax, which was associated with a 67% mortality rate. PubDate: 2013-04-15T00:10:52.789388-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12064
Authors:N. J. Burton; J. R. Ellis, K. J. Burton, A. R. Wallace, G. R. Colborne Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objective
To devise a kinematic technique to objectively ascertain the location and orientation of the centre of rotation of the canine elbow and to compare this axis following arthroplasty with the first generation TATE™ prosthesis in an ex vivo model.
Five pairs of cadaveric forelimbs were obtained and proximal limb soft tissues removed. Pin‐mounted reflective markers were applied to the humerus and ulna. Limbs were mounted on a frame and six trials of the elbow manually cycled through its sagittal range of motion captured using 4 Qualisys cameras at 120 Hz. Radiography was performed to identify marker position. TATE™ cartridges were implanted and kinematic analysis repeated. Kinematic data were imported into custom software and the three‐dimensional joint centre of rotation defined using a closed‐form solution for absolute orientation. Paired t tests were performed to determine if the centre of rotation of the elbow differed significantly (P PubDate: 2013-04-08T03:46:45.860394-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12060
Authors:T. Könning; R. J. Maarschalkerweerd, N. Endenburg, L. F. H. Theyse Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
To compare the outcome of three different fixation methods and to determine prognostic factors in cats with diaphyseal femoral fractures.
Retrospective analysis of case records of cats with diaphyseal femoral fractures surgically corrected using external fixators, bone plate or plate‐rod construct. Outcome was evaluated by estimating the time to bone healing and by calculating the complication rate.
In total, an external fixator was used in 30 cases, a bone plate in 20 cases and a plate‐rod construct in 56 cases. All methods were successful in achieving bone healing without significant differences. There was a significant difference between the categorized complication rates between the treatment groups. The external fixation group had the most complications overall. When only the major and catastrophic complications were taken into account, it had the fewest complications. The plate‐rod construct had the fewest complications overall, with most being major complications. The bone plate group had a complication rate between that of the external fixation and plate‐rod construct groups. It had the most catastrophic complications in relative terms.
There was no statistically significant difference in the time to achieve bone healing but there was a significant difference in categorized complication rates between the groups. PubDate: 2013-04-08T03:46:38.500159-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12061
Authors:R. Suzuki; H. Matsumoto, T. Teshima, Y. Mochizuki, H. Koyama Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
To evaluate left ventricular geometry in dogs with various stages of myxomatous mitral valve disease.
Ninety‐seven dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease classified by the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council system and 20 weight‐ and age‐matched healthy dogs. Left ventricular long‐axis to short‐axis ratio, sphericity index in end‐diastole and end‐systole, left ventricular wall thickness to internal dimension ratio and relative wall thickness were assessed.
The diastolic sphericity index was lower in classes Ib, II and III than in healthy dogs (P=0·003, P PubDate: 2013-04-08T03:46:34.703075-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12058
Authors:A. Marcinowska; J. Warland, M. Brearley, J. Dobson Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A five‐year‐old female boxer presented with a swelling in the area of the caudal mammary gland. The mass was surgically excised and histopathological examination revealed a poorly demarcated lesion, extending into mammary tissue and infiltrating the sinuses of adjacent lymph nodes. The diagnosis was lymphangiosarcoma. Full blood work, thoracic radiographs, abdominal and scar ultrasound were unremarkable, apart from possible inflammatory reactions in the latter and reactive/metastatic changes in inguinal lymph nodes. Doxorubicin treatment resulted in a 6‐month recurrence free interval. At relapse, the dog was treated with metronomic chemotherapy using chlorambucil and meloxicam, which failed to adequately control the disease. Toceranib phosphate was introduced and resulted in almost complete regression of the mass, leaving just a skin plaque. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first report describing the use of two novel therapeutic approaches to treat canine lymphangiosarcoma that resulted in a higher than previously described survival time. PubDate: 2013-04-08T03:42:39.22875-05:0 DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12054
Authors:J. Bertran; M. Farrell, N. Fitzpatrick Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: An eight‐month‐old Labrador retriever was presented with a grade IIIb open shearing injury of the left tarsus. Acute severe surgical site infection developed 2 days after pan‐tarsal arthrodesis, resulting in wound dehiscence. Vacuum‐assisted wound therapy was carried out for 12 days to treat an extensive full‐thickness soft tissue defect with exposure of metal implants. New granulation tissue formation covering most of the defect was achieved by day 10 of this therapy. Epithelialization was achieved by second intention healing with open wound management. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first veterinary clinical case report documenting complete healing over exposed metal implants without any requirement for surgical revision. PubDate: 2013-04-08T02:49:35.073567-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12055
Authors:J. Reid; M. L. Wiseman‐Orr, E. M. Scott, A. M. Nolan Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Objectives
To describe the development, preliminary validation and reliability testing of a shortened web‐based form of GUVQuest, a structured questionnaire to measure health‐related quality of life in dogs.
The original 109 items were reduced using expert judgement and factor analysis. Validity was established by factor analysis and in a subsequent field trial using a “known groups” approach and classical test theory. Test–retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients.
The instrument comprises 46 items each of which is rated by dog owners using a 7‐point Likert scale. Factor analysis revealed a sensible structure containing four health‐related quality of life domains (vitality, pain, distress and anxiety) accounting for 64·1% of the variability in the data. The field test involving 125 dogs demonstrated very good discriminative properties and intraclass correlation coefficient values of greater than 0·6.
This is the first report of a valid and reliable companion animal health‐related quality of life instrument, the contemporary approach to animal welfare measurement, which is presented in a web‐based format, with automated production of a health‐related quality of life profile. It offers major advantages to dog owners, practitioners and researchers. PubDate: 2013-04-05T01:42:18.185573-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12059
Authors:P. Ypsilantis; M. Lambropoulou, G. Alexiadis, N. Papadopoulos, C. Simopoulos Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: This report details a rare case of diffuse bilateral scrotal neurofibroma complicated by hindlimb paralysis in a rabbit. The animal was evaluated for unusual bilateral scrotal enlargement. After physical examination, ultrasound scan, radiography, computed tomography and laparoscopy, surgical exploration of the scrotum was undertaken. A homogeneous rubbery firm mass was revealed in contact with the subcutaneous tissue expanding to the entire scrotum without involving the testicles. The mass was excised and diagnosed as diffuse scrotal neurofibroma based on histological and immunohistochemical findings (S‐100 antibody positive). Over the following month, progressive neurological signs (faecal incontinence, flaccid bladder and hindlimb paralysis) were observed. After excluding central nervous system infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi, expansion of the neurofibroma to the vertebral canal causing compression of the spinal cord was suspected, although not histopathologically verified. PubDate: 2013-04-04T02:24:15.283177-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12053
Authors:R. Novellas; J. Stone, K. Pratschke, G. Hammond Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A nine‐year‐old male neutered Labrador retriever presented with a history of chronic urinary tract infections and occasional dribbling of urine. Abdominal ultrasound showed changes suggestive of a left ectopic ureter. A pneumocystogram revealed an air‐filled distended tubular and tortuous structure extending from the region of the prostatic urethra to the left kidney, consistent with an ectopic ureter. Intravenous urography depicted the presence of an additional left ureter with only slightly larger diameter than the right and with normal insertion in the bladder neck. A duplicated ectopic left ureter was suspected and confirmed during surgery. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first description of a duplicated ectopic ureter in the canine species. The combination of ultrasound and contrast radiography was important to reach the diagnosis. PubDate: 2013-04-04T02:24:06.336741-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12056
Authors:M. Farrell; N. Fitzpatrick Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A 3 · 5‐year‐old whippet was presented 4 weeks after sustaining a traumatic injury to the right stifle joint. A penetrating injury had resulted in patellar ligament (PL) rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a normal appearing proximal half of the PL and absence of normal fibres within the distal half of the ligament. Surgical repair involved reconstruction of the defect using an autogenous graft harvested from the medial third of the ipsilateral PL. This repair was augmented with a pedicle hamstring graft. A transarticular external skeletal fixator was used to protect the repair for 4 weeks. Seven months after surgery, the dog was able to exercise normally without lameness. To the author's knowledge, this is the first veterinary report of PL grafting of a PL defect, and the first report of surgical augmentation using a hamstring graft. PubDate: 2013-03-06T11:17:40.256077-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12043
Authors:V. Tsioli; L.G. Papazoglou, E. Basdani, P. Kosmas, G. Brellou, T. Poutahidis, S. Bagias Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Recurrent cervical sialoceles were diagnosed in four dogs associated with inadequate excision of the sublingual gland. Three dogs were managed by resection of the remnants of the sublingual gland via an oral approach. One dog was managed through a ventral approach as identification of the sublingual gland was not possible with the oral approach. The outcome was favourable in all cases and no relapses were detected after a median follow‐up time of 10 months. PubDate: 2013-03-04T07:12:18.420158-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12044
Authors:K. Eatwell; E. Mancinelli, J. Hedley, E. Keeble, M. Kovalik, D. A. Yool Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Six lop rabbits were presented with clinical signs of otitis media or externa. The presence of disease was confirmed by computerized tomography examination, with two rabbits suffering from bilateral disease. The rabbits were anaesthetized and underwent surgery of the affected bulla. Rabbits with bilateral disease had a minimum of 2 weeks between procedures. A single vertical incision was made over the base of the vertical canal, which was bluntly dissected free from surrounding tissue. The ventral portion of the vertical canal was removed and a lateral bulla osteotomy was performed. The mucosa at the base of the dorsal vertical canal was apposed and the aural cartilage sutured to form a blind‐ending pouch open at the pretragic incisure. Histopathological samples taken from the dorsal margin of the vertical canal yielded subtle and non‐specific changes in the six samples submitted. All rabbits were discharged within 48 hours of surgery. The cosmetic outcome was excellent with animals retaining visually normal aural anatomy. The partial ear canal ablation/lateral bulla osteotomy procedure is quick and has a good cosmetic result when performed in rabbits. PubDate: 2013-02-28T07:31:46.812801-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12042
Authors:T. Teshima; H. Matsumoto, M. Michishita, K. Takahashi, H. Koyama Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: An 11‐year‐old spayed female miniature dachshund was evaluated for a 2‐month history of chronic vomiting. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneous mass in the pyloric region. Contrast upper gastrointestinal radiography demonstrated impairment of gastric outflow. Endoscopic examination revealed multiple polyps at the gastric pylorus. The pyloric polyps were variable in size, sessile‐shaped and pedunculated. Initially, endoscopic polypectomy was attempted, but all the polyps could not be completely resected. Thus, endoscopic polypectomy with argon plasma coagulation was performed to cauterise the lesions. The histopathological diagnosis of the lesions was inflammatory polyps, and a moderate number of Helicobacter spp. was revealed. After the argon plasma coagulation treatment, the dog did not vomit, and improvement of clinical signs was maintained for 13 months. Endoscopic polypectomy with argon plasma coagulation may be useful for mixtures of sessile and pedunculated polyps. The present report may provide a basis for further studies of argon plasma coagulation treatment for canine gastrointestinal polyps. PubDate: 2013-02-09T07:57:21.570817-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12032
Authors:J. Hall; L. Barton Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: Mushroom toxicosis is rarely diagnosed in dogs and is poorly reported in the veterinary literature. This report suggests that mushroom toxicosis is a potentially under‐diagnosed condition in first opinion practice in the UK. Nine dogs with clinical signs consistent with mushroom toxicosis were identified from the records of an out‐of‐hours emergency service between August 2010 and January 2011. Four dogs were later excluded because of clinical inconsistencies. Clinical signs included acute profuse ptyalism (5/5), diarrhoea (5/5), vomiting (4/5), hypovolaemia (4/5), stuporous (3/5) or obtunded mentation (1/5), miosis (2/5) and hypothermia (2/5). Serum lipase activity was elevated in 4/4 dogs; canine‐specific pancreatic lipase was elevated in the remaining dog. Four dogs recovered with aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, analgesia and supportive care; the remaining dog was euthanased due to severe clinical signs and financial constraints.
Mushroom toxicosis is an important differential diagnosis for acute gastroenteritis and one possible cause of some cases of “Seasonal Canine Illness”. Affected dogs may demonstrate elevated pancreatic enzymes and mushroom toxicosis should be considered in cases of elevated lipase or abnormal semi‐quantitative canine‐specific pancreatic lipase activities. PubDate: 2013-02-09T07:46:50.667305-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12036
Authors:J. Aguiar; G. Mogridge, J. Hall Pages: n/a - n/a Abstract: A four‐month‐old, entire male guinea pig was presented for surgical repair of a closed oblique femoral fracture. Analgesia was provided with 30 µg/kg buprenorphine intramuscularly (im) four times a day and 0 · 3 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously once a day. The following day, anaesthesia was induced and maintained with 100 µg/kg medetomidine im, 20 mg/kg ketamine im, 30 µg/kg buprenorphine im and isoflurane in oxygen. Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks were performed with bupivacaine. The fracture was reduced and aligned using an intramedullary 1 · 4 mm K‐wire and a 3 metric polydioxanone cerclage. Three weeks postoperatively remodelling and callus formation was documented, with no evidence of complications. Complete union was present 14 weeks postoperatively. PubDate: 2013-02-09T07:45:15.818435-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12033
Authors:F. J. W. Allerton; J. Leemans, C. Tual, F. Bernaerts, N. Kirschvink, C. Clercx Pages: 258 - 264 Abstract: Objectives
To retrospectively assess the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis and lung function parameters as assessed by means of barometric whole body plethysmography and airway responsiveness testing in cats with chronic bronchial disease and to evaluate the potential application of barometric whole body plethysmography and airway responsiveness testing to distinguish between eosinophilic and non‐eosinophilic bronchitis.
Twelve cats presented for chronic bronchial disease with complete bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and barometric whole body plethysmography data were identified. Cats were retrospectively assigned to eosinophilic bronchitis or non‐eosinophilic bronchitis groups on the basis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophil percentage (threshold 17%). Airway responsiveness was quantified by calculating the concentration of carbachol‐inducing bronchoconstriction (C‐Penh‐300), defined as a 300% increase of basal enhanced pause (Penh).
Log Penh was significantly higher and C‐Penh‐300 significantly lower in eosinophilic bronchitis cats compared to non‐eosinophilic bronchitis cats (P=0·031 and P=0·032, respectively). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophil percentage was moderately correlated with log Penh (P=0·012, r=0·70) and showed a weak inverse correlation with C‐Penh‐300 (P=0·047, r=−0·58).
This study provides supportive evidence of a correlation between airway eosinophilic inflammation and plethysmographic measures of bronchoconstriction and airway responsiveness. Further investigation of the use of barometric whole body plethysmography to differentiate between forms of chronic bronchial disease in cats is indicated. PubDate: 2013-04-25T21:16:00.737291-05: DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12070
Vacuum phenomenon is suspected to be indicative of disc degeneration and subsequent herniation. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of vacuum phenomenon for identification of herniated discs causing neurological signs. Prevalence of vacuum phenomenon and influencing factors in dogs with disc herniation were determined.
Retrospective review of computed tomography scans from dogs with suspected disc herniation for the presence of gas within intervertebral disc space with subsequent comparison of vacuum phenomenon and herniated disc as confirmed by surgery. Subgroups were created (chondrodystrophic, non‐chondrodystrophic and unknown classification) to analyse prevalence and influencing factors (age, breed and gender) for vacuum phenomenon and agreement with herniated disc.
Prevalence of vacuum phenomenon in all dogs, chondrodystrophic, non‐chondrodystrophic dogs and those with unknown classification was 19·8, 14·9, 35·7 and 24·5%, respectively. Corresponding correlation rate between vacuum phenomenon and herniated disc was 64, 67, 40 and 82%. Prevalence of vacuum phenomenon was significantly higher in nonchondrodystrophic dogs (P=0·04). Age was the only factor influencing prevalence of vacuum phenomenon (P=0·04).
In dogs with intervertebral disc disease, vacuum phenomenon is a frequent but inconsistent finding. Although helpful to identify degenerated discs, it is not suitable to identify currently herniated disc with sufficient accuracy.
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