- Epidemiology of hyperadrenocorticism among 210,824 dogs attending
primary‐care veterinary practices in the UK from 2009 to 2014
- Authors: D. G. O'Neill; C. Scudder, J. M. Faire, D. B. Church, P. D. McGreevy, P. C. Thomson, D. C. Brodbelt
To estimate prevalence and risk factors for diagnosis with hyperadrenocorticism in dogs attending primary‐care veterinary practices in the UK from 2009 to 2014.
Cases were identified by searching the de‐identified electronic patient records from UK primary‐care veterinary practices participating in the VetCompass Programme.
The estimated prevalence for hyperadrenocorticism diagnosis in dogs was 0·28% (95% confidence interval: 0·25 to 0·31). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed four associated risk factors: breed, breed‐relative bodyweight, age and insurance status. The bichon frise had 6·5 times the odds (95% CI: 3·5 to 12·1, P
- Multi‐centre retrospective study of long‐term outcomes
following traumatic elbow luxation in 37 dogs
- Authors: D. Sajik; R. L. Meeson, N. Kulendra, C. Jordan, D. James, I. Calvo, M. Farrell, E. Kulendra
Limited guidelines exist regarding the optimal treatment of traumatic canine elbow luxation, and there is a lack of information on long‐term functional outcome. Here we report reduction and stabilisation techniques for a series of traumatic elbow luxations and describe clinical outcome plus long‐term questionnaire‐based follow‐up.
Retrospective review of canine traumatic elbow luxations (2006 to 2013) treated at five referral centres. Data recorded included signalment, luxation aetiology, time to reduction, reduction technique, surgical procedure, post‐reduction care and complications. Questionnaire follow‐up was attempted for all cases with owners completing the Canine Brief Pain Inventory.
Thirty‐seven dogs were included. The most frequent cause of luxation was road traffic accident (n=22). Twenty cases were treated surgically. Seven dogs suffered major postoperative complications: reluxation (n=6), infection requiring implant removal (n=1). Four of the six reluxations occurred in dogs that had other orthopaedic injuries. Twenty‐two owners completed the Canine Brief Pain Inventory questionnaire: there were 13 excellent, 6 very good, 1 good and 2 fair outcomes. Outcome was not associated with the reduction technique.
Initial closed reduction, followed by surgical stabilisation if unsuccessful, results in good‐to‐excellent outcomes in the majority of traumatic canine elbow luxations. Reluxation was the most common major complication and there was a higher incidence of reluxation in patients with multiple orthopaedic injuries.
- Serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with
- Abstract: Objectives
To describe serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with hepatic disease and to determine whether there is a relationship between the concentration of either and the severity of hepatic necroinflammation.
Serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were measured in 46 dogs undergoing hepatic biopsy. Dogs were divided into three groups: congenital portosystemic shunts, chronic hepatitis and hepatic neoplasia. The histological severity of hepatic necroinflammation was scored.
C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were greater than the upper limit of the reference intervals in 39 and 26% of dogs, respectively. There was no association of disease group with C‐reactive protein (P=0·1733) or S100A12 (P=0·1513) concentrations. There was a positive correlation between serum C‐reactive protein concentration and hepatic necroinflammatory activity (rs=0·428, P=0·006).
Increased serum C‐reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were observed in a subpopulation of dogs with various types of hepatic diseases, suggesting acute‐phase inflammation and activation of phagocytic cells, respectively. Dogs with higher hepatic necroinflammatory activity scores tended to have higher serum C‐reactive protein concentrations. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in a larger group of dogs.
- Surgical extraction of canine oesophageal foreign bodies through a
gastrotomy approach: 12 cases
- Authors: A. Aertsens; J. Hernandez, G. R. Ragetly, C. M. Poncet
To describe a gastrotomy approach to remove foreign bodies located in the caudal oesophagus.
Materials and Methods
Retrospective examination of case records of dogs with surgical management of foreign body located in the caudal oesophagus.
Twelve dogs with caudal oesophageal foreign body were managed surgically after unsuccessful endoscopic approaches. The foreign body was successfully extracted via gastrotomy in all 12 cases. Ten dogs recovered well without any postoperative complications but one dog died during the immediate postoperative period and one during hospitalisation.
Caudal oesophageal foreign body extraction by gastrotomy is a possible alternative to transthoracic oesophagotomy. Based on the small population presented here this approach performed through a laparotomy appears easy, with a low rate of perioperative and postoperative complications.
- Practice patterns in the management of acute intervertebral disc
herniation in dogs
- Authors: S. A. Moore; P. J. Early, B. F. Hettlich
Acute intervertebral disc herniation is commonly managed by veterinary neurologists and surgeons. Anecdote suggests that patterns of management vary considerably and there is controversy surrounding many aspects of treatment. The goal of this study was to document patterns in management of acute spinal cord injury caused by acute intervertebral disc herniation among these two groups to aid in future discussions on best practices.
A survey querying diagnostic, medical and surgical practices for dogs with acute intervertebral disc herniation was distributed to diplomates on the databases of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (Neurology).
Responses were received from 314 board‐certified veterinary surgeons and neurologists. Both groups handled timing of decompression, surgical approach, and most postoperative recommendations in a similar fashion. Case volume differed between groups, with 77% of neurologists and 18% of surgeons managing ê50 cases of acute intervertebral disc herniation per year. MRI was used most frequently as a diagnostic tool by neurologists (75%), while CT was used most commonly by surgeons (58%). Corticosteroids were routinely administered as a neuroprotective strategy by 34% of surgeons and 11% of neurologists. Disc fenestration was performed “always” or “most of the time” by 69% of neurologists and 36% of surgeons.
Understanding the common practices in the management of canine acute intervertebral disc herniation can provide a springboard for future discussions regarding the best practices in diagnosing and treating this disease.
- Prevalence and progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia in the Welsh
- Authors: J. A. C. Oliver; A. Ekiri, C. S. Mellersh
To determine the prevalence of pectinate ligament dysplasia in a large group of Welsh springer spaniels; to investigate associations between pectinate ligament dysplasia and age, sex and intraocular pressure and between intraocular pressure and age and sex; and to investigate progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia in individual dogs.
In a prospective study, gonioscopy was performed in both eyes of 227 Welsh springer spaniels and intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry. Eyes were classified as “unaffected” if 0% of the iridocorneal angle was affected with pectinate ligament dysplasia (grade 0), “mildly affected” if 90% was affected (grade 3). In a retrospective study, progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia over time was investigated for 65 dogs.
One hundred and thirty‐nine of 227 dogs (61·2%) were affected by pectinate ligament dysplasia (grades 1 to 3) and 82/227 (36·2%) were moderately or severely affected. There was a significant association between pectinate ligament dysplasia and age. There were no associations between pectinate ligament dysplasia and intraocular pressure or pectinate ligament dysplasia and sex. Thirty‐five of 65 dogs (53·8%) demonstrated progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia.
Prevalence of pectinate ligament dysplasia was high despite widespread screening and selection against the condition. Our data indicate that gonioscopic features of pectinate ligament dysplasia can progress in the Welsh springer spaniel. Dogs deemed unaffected at an early age may subsequently be diagnosed with pectinate ligament dysplasia.
- Clinical leishmaniasis in dogs living in the UK
- Authors: P. Silvestrini; D. Batchelor, K. Allenspach, C. Maunder, M. Seth, A. Mas, T. Hill, G. Serrano, X. Roura, M. Planellas, A. J. German, J. Pastor
To investigate the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs in the UK and to describe clinical presentation, clinicopathological abnormalities, therapeutic protocols and outcome in this non‐endemic country.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Medical records of dogs diagnosed with leishmaniasis at seven referral centres in the UK were retrospectively reviewed.
The prevalence was between 0·007 and 0·04% with a higher number of cases in southern England. All dogs had a history of travel to or from an endemic country. Lethargy, dermatological disease, decreased appetite and lameness were the most common reasons for presentation. Allopurinol was used alone for treatment in the majority of cases.
Although rare, leishmaniasis should be considered in dogs in the UK if they have compatible clinical signs and history of travel to or from endemic areas.
- Vinblastine as a second rescue for the treatment of canine multicentric
lymphoma in 39 cases (2005 to 2014)
- Authors: J. A. Lenz; C. S. Robat, T. J. Stein
The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate response and outcome of dogs with multicentric lymphoma treated with single‐agent vinblastine as a second rescue.
Medical records from 39 client‐owned dogs receiving vinblastine rescue treatment (having relapsed on or following completion of UW‐Madison and CCNU/L‐asparaginase protocols), between 2005 and 2014, were reviewed for information regarding clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, drug dosage, number of treatments, side effects, response and outcome.
The median starting dose of vinblastine was 2·6 mg/m2 (1·7 to 2·8 mg/m2), administered weekly until disease progression. Of the 39 dogs treated, 3 dogs (7·7%) achieved a complete remission, 7 dogs (17·9%) achieved a partial response, 18 dogs (46·2%) maintained stable disease and 11 (28·2%) had progressive disease. Ten dogs (25·6%) developed a grade III or IV neutropenia, and 4 dogs (10·3%) developed grade III or IV thrombocytopenia (one dog in both categories). After starting vinblastine, the median progression‐free survival was 29·5 days (0 to 77 days) and overall median survival time was 46 days (4 to 250 days). Duration of first remission was identified as a positive predictor of outcome.
Single‐agent vinblastine is well tolerated in dogs with relapsed or refractory lymphoma. Responses were incomplete and short‐lasting.
- The effects of intravenous lidocaine before propofol induction in
- Authors: I. Cerasoli; S. Nannarone, S. Schauvliege, L. Duchateau, A. Bufalari
The effects of lidocaine, administered before induction of anaesthesia with propofol, on arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, cough reflex, ease of intubation, extrapyramidal signs and required dose of propofol in healthy premedicated dogs were evaluated.
Twenty‐four client‐owned dogs were premedicated intramuscularly with 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0·2 mg/kg methadone, and randomly allocated to receive 2 mg/kg lidocaine (group L) or saline (group P) 120 seconds before induction of anaesthesia with propofol. Heart rate, non‐invasive arterial blood pressure and respiratory rate were assessed at pre‐established intervals. Quality of intubation, cough reflex and the occurrence of adverse effects were scored according to predefined scales. The total amount of propofol administered was also recorded.
Cardiovascular and respiratory variables changed over time but were not significantly different between treatments. No significant differences between groups were found for the incidence of coughing, quality of intubation, adverse effects and propofol intubation dose.
Intravenous administration of lidocaine 2 mg/kg before propofol induction was not associated with significant cardiovascular and respiratory benefits compared to standard induction and did not result in a propofol dose‐sparing effect or improvement of the quality of intubation in dogs premedicated with dexmedetomidine and methadone.
- Differentiating feline inflammatory bowel disease from alimentary lymphoma
in duodenal endoscopic biopsies
- Authors: S. Sabattini; E. Bottero, M. E. Turba, F. Vicchi, S. Bo, G. Bettini
This study aimed to evaluate the agreement between microscopic and molecular testing for differentiating feline intestinal bowel disease and small cell alimentary lymphoma in duodenal endoscopic biopsies.
Four different diagnostic methods (cytology, histology, immunohistochemistry and clonality) were sequentially applied to 77 cases of feline chronic enteropathies. The agreement between the different diagnostic methods was calculated and survival data were obtained to assess the most reliable method for predicting outcome.
Seventy‐seven cases were included in the study. On multivariate survival analysis, only the clonality‐based diagnosis of lymphoma was significantly associated with poor survival, with a risk of enteropathy‐related death 2·8 times higher. By comparing the other tests with clonality, specificity was high (87 to 97%), whereas sensitivity was 36·8% for cytology, 39·5% for histology, 63·2% for immunohistochemistry, resulting in an overall accuracy of 62·3, 68·8 and 80·5%, respectively.
Clonality analysis can consistently increase the possibility of correctly and early diagnosing small cell lymphoma on endoscopic biopsies. Histological suspicion of alimentary lymphoma, even if not confirmed by clonality, should never be ignored, as it may represent a debutant form of lymphoma or it may later progress to lymphoma.
- Short‐term outcome and complications of TPLO using anatomically
contoured locking compression plates in small/medium‐breed dogs with
“excessive” tibial plateau angle
- Authors: D. C. Barnes; T. Trinterud, M. R. Owen, M. A. Bush
To report short‐term radiographic and clinical outcome and complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in dogs less than 18·1 kg with tibial plateau angle greater than 35° using anatomically contoured six‐hole locking compression plates.
Retrospective data were collected on: preoperative, postoperative and follow‐up tibial plateau angles, plateau segment rotation, tibial tuberosity width and length of the cranial aspect of tibial tuberosity segment from the patellar tendon insertion and rotation of the tibial plateau below the level of the insertion of the patellar ligament.
In 26 small dogs (29 stifles in total), mean preoperative, postoperative and follow‐up tibial plateau angles were 38·2°, 4·8°, and 4·4°, respectively. Documented postoperative complications were limited to patellar tendinopathy in a single case (3·4%) and tibial tuberosity or fibula fracture were not observed.
Short‐term radiographic and clinical outcome of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy stabilised with anatomically contoured six‐hole locking compression plates for the treatment of small dogs with large tibial plateau angle suggests a very low risk of complications. Rotation beyond the “safe point” is necessary to perform full rotation in some cases, but does not appear to incur an increased risk of tibial tuberosity fracture.
- Clinical response of masitinib mesylate in the treatment of canine
macroscopic mast cell tumours
- Authors: J. Grant; S. North, D. Lanore
To retrospectively evaluate the clinical response and toxicity associated with masitinib mesylate (Masivet®) treatment of macroscopic mast cell tumours in the dog.
Retrospective review of medical records of 39 dogs that had undergone treatment with masitinib for macroscopic mast cell tumours. Patient signalment, tumour location, tumour grade, tumour stage, previous treatments, concurrent medications, dose of masitinib, side effects, response, time to tumour progression, survival time and cause of death were documented. Response was assessed according to RECIST criteria.
Clinical response was observed in 32 (82·1%) dogs receiving masitinib, with 15 dogs (38·5%) exhibiting a complete response and 17 dogs (43·6%) achieving a partial response. The median time to progression was 79 days (range: 14 to 667 days). Adverse effects were seen in 25 dogs (64·1%) with serum alanine aminotransferase elevation (n=9; 23·1%) and vomiting (n=6; 15·4%) being most common. Median survival time following initiation of masitinib was 159 days (range: 14 to 1339).
Masitinib appears to be a well‐tolerated and effective drug against macroscopic mast cell tumours.
- Diode laser ablation of a tracheal osteochondroma in a dog
- Authors: E. Bottero; A. Cagnasso, P. Gianella
Abstract: A mass almost completely obstructing the tracheal lumen was detected during endoscopic investigation of dyspnoea in a four‐month‐old golden retriever. Histopathology was consistent with osteochondroma. The lesion was ablated using endoscopic diode laser ablation.
- Neutrophil gelatinase‐associated lipocalin in dogs with chronic
kidney disease, carcinoma, lymphoma and endotoxaemia
- Abstract: OBJECTIVES
To measure serum and urine neutrophil gelatinase‐associated lipocalin (NGAL) concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic kidney disease, neoplasia and endotoxaemia.
Serum and urine NGAL concentrations were measured in 42 healthy dogs, 11 dogs with chronic kidney disease, 12 dogs with carcinoma, 20 dogs with lymphoma and 15 dogs with lipopolysaccharide‐induced endotoxaemia. In dogs with chronic kidney disease, NGAL was measured 3 and 6 months later.
Compared with healthy controls, dogs with chronic kidney disease (PÄ0·0008), carcinoma (PÄ0·0072) and lymphoma (PÄ0·0008) had elevated serum and urine NGAL and urine NGAL‐to‐creatinine ratio. Serum and urine NGAL was not significantly different between dogs with chronic kidney disease, carcinoma or lymphoma (Pê0·12). In dogs with non‐progressive chronic kidney disease, NGAL concentrations did not change significantly over the 6‐month study period.
NGAL can be elevated by chronic kidney disease and neoplasia, compared with healthy controls. Further research is needed to determine if uNGAL or uNGAL‐to‐creatinine ratio is more specific than serum levels to detect chronic kidney disease.
- Autochthonous babesiosis in the United Kingdom
- Authors: S. Cook; K. English, K. Humm
- Adverse urinary effects of allopurinol in dogs with leishmaniasis
- Authors: M. Torres; J. Pastor, X. Roura, M. D. Tabar, Y. Espada, A. Font, J. Balasch, M. Planellas
The objective of this study was to describe the adverse effects of allopurinol on the urinary system during treatment of canine leishmaniasis.
Retrospective case series of 42 dogs that developed xanthinuria while receiving allopurinol treatment for leishmaniasis.
Of 320 dogs diagnosed with leishmaniasis, 42 (13%) developed adverse urinary effects. Thirteen (of 42) dogs (31%) developed xanthinuria, renal mineralisation and urolithiasis; 11 (26·2%) showed xanthinuria with renal mineralisation; 9 (21·4%) had xanthinuria with urolithiasis and 9 (21·4%) developed xanthinuria alone. Urinary clinical signs developed in 19 dogs (45·2%).
This study demonstrates that urolithiasis and renal mineralisation can occur in dogs receiving allopurinol therapy. Dogs receiving therapy should be monitored for the development of urinary adverse effects from the beginning of treatment.
- Keratoconjunctivitis sicca exacerbation in a dog treated with systemic
- Authors: G. Barsotti; T. Vezzosi
Abstract: A 6‐year‐old, intact, male English cocker spaniel was referred for treatment of chronic conjunctivitis and unilateral keratitis. The dog was diagnosed with bilateral immune‐mediated keratoconjunctivitis sicca, treated with topical cyclosporine 0·2% ointment and sodium hyaluronate eye drops and improved considerably. After 2 months, pulmonic stenosis was diagnosed, and the dog commenced treatment with oral atenolol; the ophthalmological disease worsened dramatically within a few days. The ophthalmic signs rapidly improved after discontinuation of atenolol, and there was bilateral complete remission after 3 weeks. No oral β‐blocker therapy was reintroduced, and thereafter, keratoconjunctivitis sicca was well‐controlled with topical therapy.
- The prevalence of intestinal nematodes in cats and dogs from Lancashire,
- Authors: I. Wright; K. Stafford, G. Coles
To estimate prevalence of clinically‐relevant intestinal nematodes in UK cats and dogs using the sensitive faecal analysis technique FLOTAC.
Faecal samples were collected from 171 domestic dogs and 131 domestic cats living in urban areas of Lancashire and examined for the ova of intestinal parasites using the FLOTAC technique. All tested individuals were at least 6 months old, had not been treated with anthelmintics since 6 months of age nor in the 3 weeks prior to testing.
In total, 5·3% of dogs (9/171) were positive for Toxocara canis; of these, 5/9 had
- Invasive Microsporum canis causing rhinitis and stomatitis in a cat
- Authors: V. Ziglioli; D. L. Panciera, T. LeRoith, N. Wiederhold, D. Sutton
Abstract: Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that typically causes dermatophytosis in cats. This report describes a cat with a Microsporum canis infection causing invasive fungal rhinitis that extended through the hard palate, resulting in adjacent stomatitis. Treatment with itraconazole and terbinafine resolved the infection.
- Effects of concurrent perioperative use of marbofloxacin and cimicoxib or
carprofen in dogs
- Abstract: Objectives
To investigate possible interactions visible on electroencephalogram recordings caused by concomitant administration of marbofloxacin and carprofen or cimicoxib in dogs without central nervous system disease.
Totally 21 client‐owned dogs undergoing different surgeries were included in a randomised, blinded, clinical study. Each dog was assigned to one of two groups treated with either carprofen or cimicoxib pre‐ and postoperatively. After anaesthetic induction both groups received marbofloxacin intravenously while recording an electroencephalogram. Offline electroencephalogram analysis included qualitative evaluation and Fast Fourier Transformation. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated for 24 hours and after 10 days with the short‐form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann–Whitney U test and Student's t‐test with α set at 5%.
Marbofloxacin injection caused no effects on quantitative and qualitative electroencephalogram parameters in both groups. No differences in postoperative pain scoring were found between treatment groups.
Concurrent use of marbofloxacin with either cimicoxib or carprofen did not induce neuroexcitatory activities in dogs without CNS disease directly after administration.
- Letter to the Editor
- Authors: Warrick Bruce; Geoff Robins
- Hypercalcaemia secondary to elevated 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol in a
dog with immune‐mediated polyarthritis
- Authors: J.L. Adamany; M.P. Dhumeaux
Abstract: A seven‐year‐old male entire Bearded Collie was referred following a three‐week history of pyrexia, lethargy and stiffness, which was poorly responsive to antibiotic therapy. The most significant laboratory abnormalities included marked neutrophilia and ionised hypercalcaemia. The dog was diagnosed with primary immune‐mediated polyarthritis, which responded to prednisolone and azathioprine, and resulted in resolution of the elevated 1,25 hydroxycholecalciferol, hypercalcaemia and neutrophilia. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first case report of hypercalcaemia secondary to immune‐mediated polyarthritis.
- Table of Contents
- Pages: 281 - 281
- Officers Page
- Pages: 282 - 282
- Diagnostic accuracy of two point‐of‐care kits for the
diagnosis of Giardia species infection in dogs
- Authors: M. Costa; C. Clarke, S. Mitchell, K. Papasouliotis
Pages: 318 - 322
The objective of this study was to compare results obtained by ZnSO4 Flotation and SNAP ®Giardia to those generated by the new point‐of‐care tests Single and Triple Rapid.
Prospective study evaluating 51 canine faecal samples submitted at a reference laboratory for the presence of Giardia spp. Kappa statistics, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated by comparing the new tests to the combined results of ZnSO4 and SNAP tests.
There was fair (Single Rapid, j=0·434) to good (Triple Rapid, j =0·797) agreement with the reference tests. At this study's prevalence (59 to 61%), specificities and PPV were high (1·00) with both Rapid tests, but sensitivities and NPV were lower for the Single than for the Triple (0·48 vs 0·83 and 0·55 vs 0·80) tests. At lower prevalence rates, both tests exhibited a high PPV (1·00), but the NPV were higher with the Triple (0·96 to 0·99) than the Single (0·88 to 0·96) Rapid test.
Both tests exhibited excellent PPV values at all prevalence rates but an excellent NPV only at low prevalence. As the prevalence is likely to be low (
- Response to the letter
- Authors: Daniella McCready; Malcolm Ness
Pages: 334 - 334
- Officers Page
- Pages: 335 - 335