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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 176 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access  
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Journal of Small Animal Practice
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0022-4510 - ISSN (Online) 1748-5827
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]   [SJR: 0.737]   [H-I: 39]
  • Chest wall reconstruction with latissimus dorsi and an autologous
           thoracolumbar fascia graft in a dog
    • Authors: A. de Battisti; G. Polton, M. de Vries, E. Friend
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A new technique for autogenous chest wall reconstruction using a latissimus dorsi muscle flap and a free graft of thoracolumbar fascia was utilised in a two‐year‐old Dobermann after resection of a high‐grade osteosarcoma from the left thoracic wall. En bloc excision of the chest wall mass, including six ribs, was performed. The resulting chest wall defect was too large to be reconstructed with only a pedicled muscle flap and was reconstructed with a latissimus dorsi muscle flap cranially and a free graft of thoracolumbar fascia caudally. The graft was harvested easily, and there was no donor site morbidity or postoperative complications. A free graft of thoracolumbar fascia can be considered as an option to supplement autogenous reconstruction of the chest wall.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T01:29:14.208807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12270
  • Aspiration pneumonia in the Irish wolfhound: a possible breed
    • Authors: C. M. Greenwell; P. H. Brain
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Anecdotal reports suggest a recent high prevalence of aspiration pneumonia in Irish wolfhounds, prompting further investigation into the incidence of the disease in this breed. Objectives To investigate the possibility that Irish wolfhounds have an increased incidence of aspiration pneumonia, and to consider possible predisposing causes in this breed. Methods Retrospective review of medical records from the Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Sydney, from January 2008 to December 2012 inclusive to determine the total hospital incidence and individual breed incidences of aspiration pneumonia. Results The total hospital incidence of aspiration pneumonia was 0 · 5%. The Irish wolfhound had the highest breed incidence, with 9 of 25 dogs (36%) diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia. Four of the Irish wolfhounds had a predisposing cause identified; one having a choking episode, one having gastric bloat, while two were diagnosed with laryngeal paralysis after it was specifically investigated because of clinical suspicion. Five had no underlying cause of their aspiration pneumonia determined. Clinical Significance On the basis of the hospital population studied, the Irish wolfhound has a high incidence of aspiration pneumonia. Further investigation into the possible predisposing cause(s) in this breed is warranted.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T01:00:01.617788-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12269
  • Murmur intensity in small‐breed dogs with myxomatous mitral valve
           disease reflects disease severity
    • Authors: I. Ljungvall; M. Rishniw, F. Porciello, L. Ferasin, D. G. Ohad
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To determine whether murmur intensity in small‐breed dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease reflects clinical and echocardiographic disease severity. METHODS Retrospective multi‐investigator study. Records of adult dogs Ä20 kg with myxomatous mitral valve disease were examined. Murmur intensity and location were recorded and compared with echocardiographic variables and functional disease status. Murmur intensities in consecutive categories were compared for prevalences of congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac remodelling. RESULTS 578 dogs [107 with “soft” (30 Grade I/VI and 77 II/VI), 161 with “moderate” (Grade III/VI), 160 with “loud” (Grade IV/VI) and 150 with “thrilling” (Grade V/VI or VI/VI) murmurs] were studied. No dogs with soft murmurs had congestive heart failure, and 90% had no remodelling. However, 56% of dogs with “moderate”, 29% of dogs with “loud” and 8% of dogs with “thrilling” murmurs and subclinical myxomatous mitral valve disease also had no remodelling. Probability of a dog having congestive heart failure or pulmonary hypertension increased with increasing murmur intensity. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE A 4‐level murmur grading scheme separated clinically meaningful outcomes in small‐breed dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Soft murmurs in small‐breed dogs are strongly indicative of subclinical heart disease. Thrilling murmurs are associated with more severe disease. Other murmurs are less informative on an individual basis.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T00:59:24.57635-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12265
  • Comparison of postoperative complications in healthy dogs undergoing open
           and closed orchidectomy
    • Authors: K. H. Hamilton; E. R. Henderson, M. Toscano, G. P. Chanoit
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE To compare closed and open orchidectomy in dogs and the associated complications. METHODS A randomised controlled blinded prospective clinical study of 73 cases was undertaken involving the recording of all complications during and in the 10 days following orchidectomy of dogs fulfilling the standardised inclusion criteria. The active variable was the surgical technique of either open or closed orchidectomy. RESULTS Dogs undergoing open orchidectomy experienced significantly more complication events than the dogs undergoing closed orchidectomy [24 of 34 (70%) versus 18 of 39 (46%), P = 0 · 04]. Dogs undergoing open orchidectomy were statistically more likely to develop scrotal complications (21 of 34, 61%) compared with dogs undergoing closed orchidectomy (13 of 39, 33%; P = 0 · 02). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Open orchidectomy is associated with a higher overall complication rate in the first 10 days after surgery than closed orchidectomy. Open orchidectomy is also associated with increased scrotal complications including swelling, bruising and pain compared with closed orchidectomy.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T00:59:00.102088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12266
  • Use of silicone tracheal stoma stents for temporary tracheostomy in dogs
           with upper airway obstruction
    • Authors: T. Trinterud; P. Nelissen, R. A. S. White
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To report the use of silicone tracheal stoma stents for temporary tracheostomy in dogs with upper airway obstruction. METHODS Retrospective review of medical records for dogs in which silicone tracheal stoma stents were placed. RESULTS Eighteen dogs had a silicone tracheal stoma stent placed for maintenance of a tracheostomy stoma for periods ranging from three hours to eight months. No intra‐operative or immediate postoperative complications were recorded. In 11 dogs the stent was removed by simple traction after a period ranging from 36 hours to 6 weeks, and the tracheal stoma was left to heal by second intention. Five of the 18 dogs were determined as being tracheostomy dependent and underwent conversion to permanent tracheostomy after a period ranging from five days to eight months following stent placement. One dog was euthanased after three months, with the stent still in place, because of poor respiratory function, and one dog died of unrelated reasons. In 6 of 10 dogs (60%) where the stent was in place for five days or more, granulation tissue formation caused dislodgement of the stent. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Silicone tracheal stoma stents may be used as an alternative to conventional tracheostomy tubes in selected dogs with upper airway obstruction. Long‐term use of the stent beyond five days is not recommended because of granulation tissue formation. The long‐term consequences of partial tracheal ring resection are unknown.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11T05:59:07.804001-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12267
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs
    • Authors: S. Mellett; S. Verganti, S. Murphy, K. Bowlt
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11T05:55:06.986043-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12264
  • A skeletal disorder in a dog resembling the Klippel–Feil Syndrome
           with Sprengel's Deformity in humans
    • Authors: G. Bertolini; M. Trotta, M. Caldin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A five‐year‐old intact male golden retriever dog was evaluated for cervical pain and right hemiparesis. Clinical and computed tomography features suggested a caudal cervical instability and myelopathy due to a cervicoscapular malformation resembling the human Klippel–Feil Syndrome with Sprengel Deformity, a rare complex congenital disorder. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of MEOX1, PAX1 and FGFR3 genes were performed in this dog to investigate a possible underlying genetic predisposition, but no mutations were detected in the coding regions of the three target genes evaluated. Other genes can be involved in this condition in dogs and require further investigation. This report describes a cervical vertebral fusion and complex scapular anomaly in a dog. The presence of an omovertebral bone should be considered in the setting of signs characteristic of myelopathy in dogs with or without obvious skeletal deformity.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05T01:18:04.723892-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12268
  • Post‐operative complications and owner satisfaction following
           partial caudectomies: 22 cases (2008 to 2013)
    • Authors: M. C. Simons; R. Ben‐Amotz, C. Popovitch
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To report complications and owner satisfaction for dogs and cats following partial caudectomy. METHODS Medical records of dogs and cats (n = 22) that underwent partial caudectomy between 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Signalment, reason for amputation, level of amputation, and complications were recorded. Owners were contacted via telephone to obtain follow‐up data. RESULTS The most common reason for partial caudectomy was tail wounds (16 of 22; 72 · 7%). Complications were typically minor incisional crusting (4 of 20; 20%). Major complications (3 of 20; 15%) included prolonged healing after partial incisional dehiscence, continued self‐trauma requiring revision surgery, and severe inflammation with ulceration requiring revision surgery. The majority of owners surveyed (10 of 12; 83 · 3%) were satisfied with the post‐operative outcome and would recommend this procedure if warranted. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Partial caudectomy is well tolerated in both dogs and cats with no loss of function. Pet owners did not perceive any behavioural changes following partial caudectomy. However, in cases of continued self‐mutilation and/or incisional dehiscence, revision procedures may be required.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05T01:17:44.289004-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12257
  • Statistics: general linear models (a flexible approach)
    • Authors: M. Scott; D. Flaherty, J. Currall
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This article moves on to discuss a type of statistical testing different from those we have discussed previously, namely a General Linear Model. This system incorporates a number of other statistical models and is a powerful tool used widely in modern statistics.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T00:10:53.071845-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12260
  • Management of an infected cementless cup with prosthetic retention and
           antibiotic therapy in a dog
    • Authors: B. J. Dan; S. E. Kim, A. Pozzi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A two‐year‐old Rottweiler presented for acute onset of a right hindlimb lameness 20 weeks after a cementless total hip replacement (THR) and 16 weeks after open reduction to address luxation of the THR. Radiographs revealed periosteal proliferation of the medial acetabulum and a stable implant. Synovial fluid cytology was consistent with inflammatory joint fluid. Treatment consisted of surgical debridement and intravenous and oral antibiotics. THR implants were not removed. Culture of tissue removed from the THR site yielded growth of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus species. Lameness resolved 2 months after surgery. Twenty months after surgery, the dog was exercising normally with no clinical lameness and pelvic radiographs revealed no evidence of implant loosening and markedly decreased periosteal reaction. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of an infected THR site successfully treated without prosthesis explantation in the dog.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T06:33:24.855463-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12261
  • Backyard poultry: legislation, zoonoses and disease prevention
    • Authors: M. L. Whitehead; V. Roberts
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In law, backyard poultry are “food‐producing animals” and “farmed animals” and are subject to regulations regarding welfare, prescribing, banned procedures, disposal of carcases, feeding bans, notifiable diseases and disease surveillance in addition to those applying to most other pets. Many owners and some veterinary surgeons are unclear about the requirements of these regulations. Backyard poultry are also associated with some different zoonotic disease risks to mammalian pets. Because a high proportion of poultry morbidity and mortality relates to infectious diseases, the health of backyard poultry is amenable to improvement through basic husbandry, biosecurity, hygiene and preventive medicine measures that can be incorporated into a simple “flock‐health plan”. This article reviews these topics.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T06:32:51.481699-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12254
  • Hepatic fungal infection in a young beagle with unrecognised hereditary
           cobalamin deficiency (Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome)
    • Authors: P. H. Kook; M. Drögemüller, T. Leeb, S. Hinden, M. Ruetten, J. Howard
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 12‐month‐old beagle presented for anorexia, pyrexia and vomiting. The dog had been treated intermittently with antibiotics and corticosteroids for inappetence and lethargy since five months of age. Previous laboratory abnormalities included macrocytosis and neutropenia. At presentation, the dog was lethargic, febrile and thin. Laboratory examination findings included anaemia, a left shift, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Multiple, small, hypoechoic, round hepatic lesions were observed on abdominal ultrasound. Cytological examination of hepatic fine needle aspirates revealed a fungal infection and associated pyogranulomatous inflammation. The dog's general condition deteriorated despite supportive measures and treatment with fluconazole, and owners opted for euthanasia before hypocobalaminaemia was identified. Subsequent genomic analysis revealed a CUBN:c.786delC mutation in a homozygous state, confirming hereditary cobalamin malabsorption (Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome). Similar to human infants, dogs with Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome may rarely be presented for infectious diseases, distracting focus from the underlying primary disorder.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T04:37:26.536647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12251
  • Retrospective clinical evaluation of hypobaric spinal anaesthesia in dogs
           undergoing pelvic limb orthopaedic surgery
    • Authors: C. De Gennaro; E. Vettorato, F. Corletto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE To evaluate intraoperative effects, complications, postoperative rescue analgesia requirement and presence of postoperative unilateral blockade after hypobaric spinal anaesthesia in dogs. METHODS Retrospective review of case records of dogs that underwent pelvic limb orthopaedic surgery and received hypobaric spinal anaesthesia. Cases that contained complete information on perioperative analgesia, end tidal anaesthetic agent, arterial blood pressure, postoperative urination, motor function and assessment at the sixth week re‐examination were selected. RESULTS Twenty‐four of forty‐eight records were sufficiently complete to meet the selection criteria. Local anaesthetic dose and volume of the solution administered were 0 · 22 (±0 · 06) mg/kg and 0 · 16 (±0 · 05) mL/kg, respectively. Fentanyl was administered intraoperatively in seven dogs (29%); mean ± sd end‐expired isoflurane was 1 · 09 ± 0 · 17%; hypotension was observed in nine dogs (37 · 5%). Unilateral blockade was documented in 18 dogs (75%); 6 dogs (25%) required methadone postoperatively; urinary retention was not observed. One dog developed steroid responsive meningitis arteritis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Hypobaric spinal anaesthesia achieved unilateral postoperative pelvic limb motor blockade in dogs, although bilateral block occurred in a proportion of animals; intraoperative hypotension was not infrequent. Fentanyl and postoperative methadone might be required to control nociception and pain, despite technical success in performing spinal anaesthesia.
      PubDate: 2014-08-08T04:37:17.964215-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12259
  • ARFI elastography as a complementary diagnostic method of mammary neoplas
           in female dogs – preliminary results
    • Authors: M. A. R. Feliciano; M. C. Maronezi, L. Pavan, T. L. Castanheira, A. P. R. Simões, C. F. Carvalho, J. C. Canola, W. R. R. Vicente
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To evaluate the applicability of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography as a complementary method in diagnosing mammary neoplasia in dogs. METHODS Mammary tumours from 50 female dogs were evaluated and divided into two groups: G1 (benign tissue) and G2 (malignant tumours). The nodules were assessed by B‐Mode ultrasonography, qualitative and quantitative acoustic radiation force impulse elastography and histopathology. RESULTS B‐Mode ultrasound examination was ineffective at separating the tumours into the two groups. Likewise, there was no correlation between the grayscale images of the mammary tissue by qualitative elastography. A difference was found in the deformity of the mammary masses between the malignant and benign groups (P = 0 · 002). Using quantitative elastography, the mean values of shear velocity were 3 · 33 m/s for malignant tumours and 1 · 28 m/s for benign tissue (P 
      PubDate: 2014-08-07T01:22:44.572447-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12256
  • Final year veterinary students’ attitudes towards small animal
           dentistry: a questionnaire‐based survey
    • Authors: R. Perry
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To investigate the attitudes of final year veterinary students towards small animal dentistry and to examine the teaching received in this subject, both at university and during extra‐mural studies. METHODS A cross‐sectional study of all UK final year veterinary students in 2012 was designed and used by a self‐administered Internet‐based questionnaire. RESULTS Six of seven universities participated with 188 student responses. All students felt that it was important or very important for a small animal practitioner to have a broad understanding of dentistry, and that orodental problems were common or very common in small animals. Almost all (99 · 5%) students perceived small animal dentistry as an important or very important subject. Less than 40% of students felt that the teaching had prepared them for entering practice. Over 50% reported that they neither felt confident in discussing orodental problems with clients nor in performing a detailed examination of the oral cavity. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Dental problems are perceived by students as frequently encountered in small animal practice. The veterinary surgeon should be adequately trained to detect, diagnose and treat dental disease in small animals and many students feel that their current teaching is inadequate.
      PubDate: 2014-08-07T01:22:41.855438-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12258
  • Mesenteric‐reno‐caval shunt in an aged dog
    • Authors: Swan Specchi; Pascaline Pey, Romain Javard, Isabelle Caron, Giovanna Bertolini
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-08-07T01:22:39.63107-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12255
  • Are the fabellae bisected by the femoral cortices in a true craniocaudal
           pelvic limb radiograph?
    • Authors: M. Aiken; D. Barnes
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To assess whether the bisection of the fabellae by their respective femoral cortices is a useful criterion for assessing positioning of craniocaudal pelvic limb radiographs, and whether this is consistent in limbs affected or unaffected by medial patella luxation. METHODS Computed tomography multi‐planar reconstructions were used to determine the relative positions of the fabellae with respect to the femoral cortices. RESULTS Only 36% of fabellae overall were bisected by the femoral cortex. There was no significant difference between limbs affected or unaffected by medial patella luxation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The accurate measurement of femoral varus angle is important in pre‐surgical planning of distal femoral ostectomy. Radiography is normally used to obtain the femoral varus angle, and femoral rotational malpositioning will induce errors in the femoral varus angle measured. Bisection of the fabellae by the femoral cortices is commonly cited as a criterion by which to assess whether a radiographic projection is truly craniocaudal, yet this study has shown this not to be valid.
      PubDate: 2014-08-07T01:22:37.701043-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12253
  • Pancreatic surgical biopsy in 24 dogs and 19 cats: postoperative
           complications and clinical relevance of histological findings
    • Authors: K. M. Pratschke; J. Ryan, A. McAlinden, G. McLauchlan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE To assess the immediate postoperative complications associated with pancreatic biopsy in dogs and cats and review the clinical relevance of biopsy findings. METHODS Retrospective review of clinical records from two referral institutions for cases undergoing pancreatic biopsy between 2000 and 2013. RESULTS Twenty‐four dogs and 19 cats that had surgical pancreatic biopsy had sufficient detail in their clinical records and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Postoperative complications were seen in 10 cases of which 5 were suggestive of post‐surgical pancreatitis. Two patients were euthanased within 10 days of surgery because of the underlying disease; neither suffered postoperative complications. Pancreatic pathology was found in 19 cases, 7 cases showed no change other than benign pancreatic nodular hyperplasia, and no abnormalities were seen in 18 cases. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Complications may be encountered following surgical pancreatic biopsy, although the risk should be minimal with good surgical technique. Pancreatic biopsy may provide a useful contribution to case management but it is not clear whether a negative pancreatic biopsy should be used to rule out pancreatic disease. Dogs were more likely to have no significant pathology found on pancreatic biopsy than cats, where chronic pancreatitis was the most common finding.
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T07:37:13.659883-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12262
  • Extended proximal trochleoplasty for the correction of bidirectional
           patellar luxation in seven Pomeranian dogs
    • Authors: C. Wangdee; H. A. W. Hazewinkel, J. Temwichitr, L. F. H. Theyse
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Seven Pomeranians with bidirectional patellar luxation (BPL) were prospectively studied regarding aetiology and results of a new surgical technique. Radiographic evaluation of the ratio between patellar ligament length and patellar bone length revealed no differences between Pomeranians with bidirectional patellar luxation and healthy stifle joints. Functional rather than anatomic patella alta might be associated with bidirectional patellar luxation in Pomeranians. The surgical outcome of extended proximal trochleoplasty was good‐to‐excellent in 87·5% of the stifles and all dogs achieved functional recovery. There was only minimal radiographic progression of osteophyte formation at 48 weeks after surgery. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on bidirectional patellar luxation in small breed dogs and its successful surgical treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T00:36:24.751178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12248
  • Inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers of disease severity in dogs with
           parvoviral enteritis
    • Authors: M. Kocaturk; A. Tvarijonaviciute, S. Martinez‐Subiela, F. Tecles, O. Eralp, Z. Yilmaz, J. J. Ceron
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To study changes in serum C‐reactive protein, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin and albumin concentration, total anti‐oxidant capacity and paraoxonase‐1 and butyrylcholinesterase activity in dogs with parvoviral enteritis of different degrees of clinical severity. METHODS Prospective study of 9 healthy and 43 dogs with parvoviral enteritis that were classified into mildly, moderately and affected groups. RESULTS Dogs with parvoviral enteritis had a significant increase in C‐reactive protein compared with healthy dogs, with an increase of higher magnitude in animals with more severe clinical signs. All dogs with parvoviral enteritis had a significant increase in haptoglobin concentration compared with healthy dogs, but with no difference according to disease severity. There was a decrease in paraoxonase‐1 activity in parvoviral enteritis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Major increases of C‐reactive protein concentrations in dogs with parvoviral enteritis are a marker of disease severity. In addition, higher values for anti‐oxidants in severe cases compared with mild and moderate cases suggest a possible compensatory anti‐oxidant mechanism.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T00:35:20.627735-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12250
  • Advanced diagnostic imaging and surgical treatment of an odontogenic
           retromasseteric abscess in a guinea pig
    • Authors: V. Capello; A. Lennox
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A two‐year‐old guinea pig presented for difficulty chewing. Examination and diagnostic imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance, revealed an odontogenic retromasseteric abscess associated with a mandibular cheek tooth. Treatment included removal of the abscess and marsupialisation of the surgical site for repeated debridement and healing by second intention. Unique features of this case included the use of advanced diagnostic imaging and utilisation of marsupialisation for surgical correction.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T00:35:03.853415-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12249
  • Measurement of the S‐adenosyl methionine (SAMe) content in a range
           of commercial veterinary SAMe supplements
    • Authors: C. P. Sturgess
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To measure the percentage of the stated amount of S‐adenosyl methionine present in a range of commercially available S‐adenosyl methionine supplements for veterinary use. METHOD Sixty‐four samples of products containing S‐adenosyl methionine marketed to support liver function were obtained from five manufacturers via three commercial wholesalers. The amount of S‐adenosyl methionine in each product was measured using high‐pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS There were greater than threefold variation in the percentage of measured S‐adenosyl methionine compared to the stated amount on the packaging which was significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2014-07-09T00:25:43.830895-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12244
  • Blood concentrations of d‐ and l‐lactate in healthy rabbits
    • Authors: I. Langlois; A. Planché, S. R. Boysen1, S. Abeysekara, G. A. Zello
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES To determine whole blood and serum concentrations of l‐lactate and serum concentrations of d‐lactate in healthy rabbits and compare three methods of analysis for l‐lactate measurement. METHODS Prospective study using 25 rabbits. Concentrations of whole blood l‐lactate were measured using a portable analyser and a blood gas analyser. The remainder of the sample was allowed to clot for centrifugation. Serum was stored at −20°C for determination of l‐ and d‐ lactate by high‐performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS d‐lactate values by high‐performance liquid chromatography were 0 · 17 ± 0 · 08 mmol/L. l‐lactate values were 5 · 1 (±2 · 1) mmol/L by high‐performance liquid chromatography, 6 · 9 (±2 · 7) mmol/L with the portable analyser and 7 · 1 (±1 · 6) mmol/L with the blood gas analyser. No significant difference (P > 0 · 05) was found between the two analysers. Significant difference existed between serum l‐lactate values obtained by high‐performance liquid chromatography and the whole blood values obtained with the blood gas analyser (P 
      PubDate: 2014-07-09T00:25:36.331977-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12247
  • Prepuce and partial penile amputation for treatment of preputial gland
           neoplasia in two ferrets
    • Authors: Y. R. A. van Zeeland; A. Lennox, J. F. Quinton, N. J. Schoemaker
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Preputial tumours in ferrets are frequently malignant and therefore warrant prompt investigation. As many cases do not respond favourably to surgery, even in combination with radiation therapy, wide surgical resection has been recommended. Such a procedure may necessitate partial or total penile resection but outcomes have thus far not been well described. The current case series describes two ferrets in which surgical resection, including penile amputation, was performed using 10 and 5 mm margins, respectively. In the first case, no recurrence of preputial gland adenocarcinoma was noted for 32 months postsurgery, whereas multiple attempts at surgery and radiation therapy were unsuccessful in the second. These cases suggest that margins of at least 1 cm may help achieve a better outcome. Penile amputation for the treatment of preputial tumours appears to be well tolerated by ferrets, as demonstrated by these cases.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T10:18:56.512299-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12243
  • Effects of probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on
           the faecal microflora of pet rabbits
    • Authors: L. Benato; P. Hastie, P. O'Shaughnessy, J.-A. Murray, A. Meredith
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: OBJECTIVES Probiotics are frequently used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in pet rabbits based largely on anecdotal evidence of a beneficial effect. However, there has been little work performed to assess any such benefit in health or disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotics on faecal levels of four important candidate gastrointestinal bacteria (Bacteroides species, Enterococcus faecium, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Clostridium spiroforme) in pet rabbits. Additional aims were to evaluate the effect of probiotics on bodyweight and faecal weight and diameter. MATERIALS AND METHODS Double-blind triple cross-over study in six healthy rabbits orally administered two probiotic strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC Sc47 and E. faecium NCIMB 30183. Levels of bacteria in faecal pellets were subsequently determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Oral administration of probiotic E. faecium NCIMB 30183 was associated with a significant (P = 0 · 042) increase in faecal levels of E. faecium. However, probiotic treatment did not affect faecal levels of Bacteroides species, F. succinogenes or C. spiroforme, bodyweight, or faecal weight and diameter. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE The inclusion of dietary probiotic supplementation using E. faecium NCIMB 30183 can increase faecal levels of certain bacterial flora of healthy adult rabbits. Further work is required to investigate the effects of probiotics in animals affected with gastrointestinal disease.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T10:18:48.548729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12242
  • Total vertebrectomy for stabilisation of chronic spinal lumbar luxation in
           a paraplegic dog without nociception
    • Authors: P. V. Tertuliano Marinho; C. C. Zani, F. De Biasi, M. V. Bahr Arias
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An adult male crossbred dog was referred with a history of a road traffic accident that took place 1 month earlier. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia with absent nociception in the pelvic limbs. On epaxial palpation, significant curvature of the anatomical axis of the spine between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae was observed, with the presence of a bone end almost piercing the dog's skin. Survey radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed severe dislocation between L3 and L4 vertebrae. During surgery, the spinal cord was not visible between the dislocated segments. Because of difficulties in reducing the lumbar luxation during surgery, vertebrectomy and vertebral shortening were performed. After alignment between vertebrae L3 and L5, eight cortical orthopaedic screws and bone cement were used for fixation. After 30 days, the dog started to use a wheelchair and was considered by its owner to have a good quality of life with no evidence of pain. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of severe luxation treated by total vertebrectomy and spine shortening in a dog. This surgery can be considered as an option in the management of severe spine luxation when the spinal cord is physically transected.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T10:18:41.480847-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12246
  • Reverse TPLO for asymmetrical -premature closure of the proximal tibial
           physis in a dog
    • Authors: R. M. Demianiuk; L. P. Guiot
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 4 · 5-month-old, 13 · 8 kg, female neutered mixed breed dog was presented for evaluation of acute non-weight bearing right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographs revealed a tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture for which open reduction/internal fixation was performed. Asymmetrical premature closure of the cranial aspect of the proximal tibial physis ensued with a tibial plateau angle of −12°. Abnormal stifle biomechanics resulted in lameness and caudal cruciate ligament fraying. Tibial plateau -levelling osteotomy was performed in standard fashion with the exception that the proximal tibial -fragment was rotated cranioproximally to increase the tibial plateau angle from −12° to +5° (reverse tibial -plateau levelling osteotomy). Normal healing and resolution of lameness followed and the dog remained -clinically healthy 2 years postoperatively. This case report demonstrates that any change in proximal tibial anatomy, whether traumatic, iatrogenic or with therapeutic intent, can cause altered stifle biomechanics and should not be underestimated. Surgical management through corrective -osteotomy can be used to restore adequate function.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24T08:34:53.146154-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12245
  • Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia
    • Authors: M. E. Aslanian; C. R. Sharp, M. S. Garneau
      Abstract: A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency.
      PubDate: 2014-05-28T05:59:49.856198-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12235
  • Lateral orbitotomy for treatment of an orbital abscess in a dog
    • Authors: R. Vallefuoco; C. Molas, P. Moissonnier, S. Chahory
      Abstract: A two-year-old Jack Russell terrier was diagnosed with a retrobulbar abscess and orbital cellulitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging examination and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Transoral ventral drainage was attempted but was unsuccessful. The abscess was successfully treated by open drainage through a lateral orbitotomy. Despite the exposure of the orbital structures, the orbital soft tissues healed by second intention without further complications. The open drainage was well tolerated and resulted in immediate reduction of inflammation and pain, allowing a quick recovery. This report describes the diagnosis and, surgical management and the long-term (3 years) follow-up of an unusual case of orbital abscess associated with diffuse periorbital cellulitis successfully treated by open drainage through a lateral orbitotomy.
      PubDate: 2014-05-07T06:21:03.276527-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12231
  • Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of canine uropathogens in
           Northern Belgium: a retrospective study (2010 to 2012)
    • Authors: Delphine Criel; Joachim Steenbergen, Michel Stalpaert
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-04-07T02:26:05.089305-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12221
  • Probiotics – not all created equally
    • Authors: Marge Chandler
      Pages: 439 - 441
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T02:08:34.596309-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12263
  • Lymphocytic ganglioneuritis secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion in
           a dog
    • Authors: A. E. Mouradian‐Darby; B. D. Young, J. F. Griffin, J. Mansell, J. M. Levine
      Pages: 471 - 474
      Abstract: This study presents a case of lymphocytic ganglioneuritis in a dog secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion that mimicked a peripheral nerve sheath tumour on magnetic resonance imaging. A four‐year‐old spayed female dachshund with lumbar pain was imaged via magnetic resonance. A tubular, space‐occupying, contrast‐enhancing lesion was noted in the right intervertebral foramen at L6 to L7. This was presumed to represent focal enlargement of the right sixth lumbar spinal nerve. A right‐sided haemilaminectomy was performed at L6 to L7 and material that grossly resembled extruded nucleus pulposus was removed. The right L6 dorsal root ganglion, dorsal nerve root and proximal spinal nerve were severely enlarged and a partial thickness biopsy was collected from the dorsal root ganglion. Results of histopathological examination of the submitted tissue samples were consistent with extruded disc material and lymphocytic ganglioneuritis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first published report of lymphocytic ganglioneuritis secondary to intervertebral disc disease in a dog.
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T05:51:52.718241-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12226
  • Surgical treatment of a duplicated and ectopic ureter in a dog
    • Authors: M. Newman; B. Landon
      Pages: 475 - 478
      Abstract: An eight‐month old female bull mastiff was referred for evaluation of urinary incontinence. Contrast‐enhanced computed tomography identified complete duplication of the left ureter with ectopic insertion of the duplicate ureter into the proximal urethra. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed, which improved but did not resolve urinary continence. To the authors’ knowledge, this report details only the second reported case of duplicated ectopic ureter in the dog and the first documenting surgical reimplantation; thus, double‐system ureteral ectopia should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis for urinary incontinence.
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T05:13:32.644829-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12227
  • Gall bladder rupture associated with cholecystitis in a domestic ferret
           (Mustela putorius)
    • Authors: M. Huynh; P. Guillaumot, J. Hernandez, G. Ragetly
      Pages: 479 - 482
      Abstract: A six‐year‐old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1 year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret.
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T05:13:28.657168-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12230
  • Oral infestation with leech Limnatis nilotica in two mixed‐breed
    • Authors: S. M. Rajaei; H. Khorram, M. Ansari Mood, S. Mashhadi Rafie, D. L. Williams
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Leeches are bloodsucking hermaphroditic parasites that attach to tissues using two muscular suckers, ingest large amounts of blood and may cause severe anaemia in the host. Two four‐month‐old mixed‐breed dogs (one bitch and one male) were referred with anorexia, retching, hypersalivation and bleeding from the oral cavity. On physical examination, two live leeches were detected on the ventral aspect of the tongue of the bitch and one in a similar position in the male. The leeches were gently detached and removed using Adson tissue forceps after applying vinegar over the area. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was detected in the bitch and mild leukocytosis in the dog. One month after treatment both animals were re‐examined and a complete blood count was normal. Given that infestation with leeches as described here is associated with contaminated water, the use of clean and safe drinking water is recommended to avoid such diseases.
      PubDate: 2013-12-10T02:14:48.813786-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12166
  • Carbimazole‐associated hypersensitivity vasculitis in a cat
    • Authors: K. Bowlt; I. Cattin, J. Stewart
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Feline hyperthyroidism can be treated medically, surgically or with radioactive iodine. Carbimazole inhibits both triiodothyronine and thyroxine synthesis in the thyroid gland and reported side effects include mild eosinophilia, leucopenia and lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzyme activities, gastrointestinal signs and skin abnormalities. This case report describes a cat with carbimazole‐associated apparent hypersensitivity vasculitis causing digital and tail necrosis, with multiple renal infarcts. Withdrawal of carbimazole resulted in stable disease.
      PubDate: 2013-11-21T01:40:22.666913-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12154
  • Potassium bromide‐associated panniculitis
    • Authors: N. A. Boynosky; L. B. Stokking
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Two cases of panniculitis associated with administration of potassium bromide in dogs are reported. Both dogs were treated with potassium bromide for idiopathic epilepsy for over 1 year. Dose increases in both cases were associated with panniculitis, characterised by painful subcutaneous nodules in a generalised distribution over the trunk. Nodule eruption waxed and waned in one dog and was persistent in the other. In both cases, panniculitis was accompanied by lethargy and pyrexia. Panniculitis, lethargy and pyrexia resolved and failed to recur after discontinuation of potassium bromide. No other cause of panniculitis could be determined for either dog. Panniculitis has been reported after administration of potassium bromide in humans and may be a form of drug‐induced erythema nodosum. To the authors’ knowledge, these are the first reports of potassium bromide‐associated panniculitis in dogs.
      PubDate: 2013-09-06T04:06:41.817477-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12129
  • Femoral fracture repair and sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in a guinea
    • Authors: J. Aguiar; G. Mogridge, J. Hall
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A four‐month‐old, entire male guinea pig was presented for surgical repair of a closed oblique femoral fracture. Analgesia was provided with 30 µg/kg buprenorphine intramuscularly (im) four times a day and 0 · 3 mg/kg meloxicam subcutaneously once a day. The following day, anaesthesia was induced and maintained with 100 µg/kg medetomidine im, 20 mg/kg ketamine im, 30 µg/kg buprenorphine im and isoflurane in oxygen. Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks were performed with bupivacaine. The fracture was reduced and aligned using an intramedullary 1 · 4 mm K‐wire and a 3 metric polydioxanone cerclage. Three weeks postoperatively remodelling and callus formation was documented, with no evidence of complications. Complete union was present 14 weeks postoperatively.
      PubDate: 2013-02-09T07:45:15.818435-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12033
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