- Adverse reaction to apomorphine in a Collie homozygous for the
ABCB1-1∆ (MDR1) mutation
- Authors: Olivier Campbell; Louis-Philippe de Lorimier, Katrina L. Mealey
- Inter- and intra-operator variability in the analysis of packed cell
- Authors: C. R. Breheny; A. Brown, I. Handel, A. G. Gow
Abstract: ObjectivesTo identify whether inter- and intra-operator variability occurs in the measurement of canine packed cell volume and, if so, at which stage these errors occur.Materials and MethodsUndergraduate veterinary students and veterinary surgeons were recruited to measure the packed cell volumes of three samples in duplicate. Measurements from each sample were confirmed by one author, and it was then ascertained whether the error was made in the capillary preparation or reading.ResultsData were obtained from 44 students and 11 vets. A total of 25% of students made errors associated with inadequate mixing; 23% students and 9% of vets made errors consistent with incorrect reading. There was also less intra-operator variation in values within the vet group (0·027 from the mean) in comparison to the student group (−0·21 from the mean). A total of 68·2% of students and 91% of vets filled the capillary tubes outwith World Health Organisation standards of two-thirds to three-quarters full.Clinical SignificancePacked cell volume measurement is extremely useful when measuring erythroid mass, but it is crucial that the results upon which decisions are made are accurate and precise in order to manage these cases appropriately. Operator variation is a significant factor and must be addressed by proper training and following standard operating procedures.
- First report of canine systemic cryptococcosis owing to Cryptococcus
gattii in Europe
- Authors: Spyridoula Gerontiti; Ioannis L. Oikonomidis, Lambrini Kalogianni, Nektarios Soubasis, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Aristea Velegraki, Anastasia Komnenou, Eleptherios Triantafyllou
- Factors affecting the diagnostic utility of canine and feline cytological
- Authors: R. Sapierzynński; M. Czopowicz, M. Ostrzeszewicz
Abstract: ObjectivesCytology is a quick, inexpensive, minimally invasive and widely available diagnostic method, but rigorous cooperation between clinical cytopathologist and physician is necessary to obtain clinically useful results. The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect clinical usefulness of a cytological result when the cellular material was collected by a general veterinary practitioner and examined by a clinical cytopathologist.Materials and MethodsAnalysis of 100 fine-needle aspirates performed by private veterinarians and examined by the clinical cytopathologist. Factors dependent on a general veterinary practitioner who performed the biopsy such as comprehensiveness of a cover letter, number of smears sent and macroscopic appearance of smears, were included in the analysis. Patient species and location of the lesion were also included.ResultsOnly two factors turned out to favour a cytological diagnosis: good macroscopic appearance of smears and superficial location of the lesion. Nevertheless, inclusion of the medical history of a patient in a cover letter proved to help a clinical cytopathologist make clinically useful suggestions.Clinical SignificancePreparation of good quality smears and provision of a comprehensive cover letter will increase the likelihood of obtaining clinically useful cytological reports.
- Effects of dexmedetomidine administered at acupuncture point GV20 compared
to intramuscular route in dogs
- Authors: A. Pons; S. Canfrán, J. Benito, R. Cediel-Algovia, I. A. Gómez de Segura
Abstract: ObjectiveTo compare the sedative effects produced by dexmedetomidine in dogs, administered either intramuscularly or into the Governing Vessel 20 acupuncture point.Materials and MethodsSix dogs were sedated with 125 µg/m2 dexmedetomidine injected either intramuscularly in the gluteal muscles or subcutaneously into the acupuncture point and in random order. Sedation and analgesia were assessed blindly before and after treatments at regular intervals for 90 minutes or until the dogs fully recovered. Duration and quality of sedation were assessed with a numerical sedation rating scale and a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale. Analgesia was also assessed with a numerical rating scale. Heart and respiratory rates and rectal temperatures were recorded.ResultsSedative and analgesic scores were significantly increased when dexmedetomidine was administered at the Governing Vessel 20 acupuncture point compared with the routine intramuscular route. Duration of sedation was longer in the acupuncture site injection group compared to the intramuscular group (93 ±38 and 41 ±16 minutes). Bradycardia was significantly more pronounced in the acupuncture site group than the intramuscular group, whereas respiratory rates and rectal temperatures did not differ between administration routes.Clinical SignificanceAdministration at the Governing Vessel 20 acupuncture point increased the duration and degree of sedation and analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine compared with the intramuscular route.
- Comparison of computed tomographic angiography and intraoperative
mesenteric portovenography for extrahepatic portosystemic shunts
- Authors: A. T. Parry; R. N. White
Abstract: ObjectivesComparison of intra-operative mesenteric portovenography and computed tomographic angiography for the documentation of the portal vasculature in patients with single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.MethodsRetrospective study of patients with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts that underwent preoperative computed tomographic angiography and intra-operative mesenteric portography. Studies were compared for identification of the intra- and extrahepatic portal vasculature.ResultsComputed tomographic angiography demonstrated all four portal vein tributaries and sub-tributaries. Intra-operative mesenteric portography inconsistently demonstrated the cranial mesenteric vein, the gastroduodenal vein (12 of 49 dogs and 0 of 10 cats), splenic vein (46 of 49 dogs and 8 of 10 cats) and caudal mesenteric vein (3 of 49 dogs and 2 of 10 cats). Computed tomographic angiography showed the intrahepatic portal vein with shunts emanating from the left gastric vein, splenocaval shunts or shunts involving the left colic vein. It showed intrahepatic portal branching in 5 of 12 patients with shunts involving the right gastric vein. Intra-operative mesenteric portography showed the intrahepatic portal vein in 29 of 59 patients but was outperformed by computed tomographic angiography in all cases except those patients with a shunt involving the right gastric vein.Clinical SignificanceIn cases that have undergone diagnostic preoperative computed tomographic angiography there is no indication for diagnostic intra-operative mesenteric portovenography before ligation. In contrast, portovenography performed “after” temporary full ligation of the shunt provides clinical useful information and might be considered an integral investigation during shunt attenuation surgery.
- Design of an intraocular pressure curve protocol for use in dogs
- Authors: R. F. Sanchez; M. J. Vieira da Silva, C. Dawson
Abstract: ObjectivesTo establish an intraocular pressure curve protocol that is safe for corneal health and detects harmful elevations of intraocular pressure outside normal clinic hours. To determine inter-user variability and if repeated measurements affect intraocular pressures.Materials and MethodsIntraocular pressures were measured in dogs with glaucoma using three protocols: Protocol 1 used applanation tonometry every 2 hours over a 24-hour period; Protocols 2 and 3 used applanation or rebound tonometry, respectively, and measured intraocular pressures every 3 hours over a 30-hour period. A total of 60 additional intraocular pressure curves from dogs with glaucoma and 20 from healthy dogs were then analysed for inter-user variability.ResultsA total of 128 intraocular pressure curves were determined in 30 dogs. Protocol 1 resulted in one ulcer in five pressure curves, Protocol 2 in one ulcer in 62 pressure curves and Protocol 3 in no ulcers in 61 pressure curves. Elevated intraocular pressures were detected on 61 occasions, of which 26 developed outside normal clinic hours. A total of 61 additional intraocular pressure curves revealed that repeated measurements had no effect on intraocular pressure.Clinical SignificanceProtocol 3, using rebound tonometry every 3 hours for 30 hours is safe corneal health and identified elevated intraocular pressures outside normal clinic hours in 12 of 30 (40%) patients that single intraocular pressure measurement during consultation hours would not have identified. Intraocular pressure curves may be recommended for clinical practice and glaucoma studies.
- Diagnostic contribution of cytological specimens obtained from biopsies
during gastrointestinal endoscopy in dogs and cats
- Authors: G. Ruiz; L. Verrot, E. Laloy, G. Benchekroun
Abstract: ObjectivesThe aims of this study were to compare cytological samples obtained from endoscopic biopsies using “imprint” and “squash” techniques, and to evaluate the potential value of cytology compared to histology in reaching the diagnosis.Materials and MethodsEighteen dogs and five cats undergoing endoscopy for chronic gastrointestinal signs were prospectively included. Imprint and squash samples were obtained from one biopsy and then analysed. Comparison between cytology and histology was performed using Cohen's j coefficient.ResultsAppropriate samples for cytological evaluation were more often obtained with the squash technique (96% of the cases versus 68% with the imprint technique). The diagnoses obtained with cytological samples and by histology, considered as the gold standard, were compared. The same diagnosis was obtained with the squash technique in 65% of the cases. Furthermore, cytology was considered complementary to histology for gastric spiral organisms and mast cells identification.Clinical SignificanceThese results suggest that squash cytology obtained from endoscopic biopsies of the gastrointestinal tract can provide relevant and additional information to histology in dogs and cats.
- Gastric histiocytic sarcoma in a dog
- Authors: J. Elliott
- Prevalence of spinous process impingement in thoracic vertebrae on
radiographs of clinically-unaffected dogs
- Authors: F. Thierry; K. Bradley, C. Warren-Smith
Abstract: ObjectivesTo assess the prevalence of impinged spinous processes in asymptomatic dogs.MethodsOne hundred and ninety lateral thoracic radiographs of asymptomatic dogs radiographed for reasons other than spinal pain, were retrospectively reviewed by two board-certified radiologists. Images were assessed for impinged spinous processes and graded for narrowing, sclerosis or remodelling of the spinous processes.ResultsThe prevalence of impinged spinous processes in unaffected dogs was 33·2%. Seventy-five of 79 (95%) lesions were located between T8 and T11. Impingement of the spinous processes was more common in older dogs and larger dogs displayed more frequent and more severe impingement of the spinous processes compared with smaller breeds.Clinical SignificanceSpinous process impingement is common in animals with no history of spinal pain, indicating that this radiographic finding should be interpreted with caution.
- Volumetric-modulated arc stereotactic radiotherapy for canine
adrenocortical tumours with vascular invasion
- Authors: M. Dolera; L. Malfassi, S. Pavesi, S. Finesso, M. Sala, N. Carrara, S. Marcarini, G. Mazza, C. Bianchi, G. Urso
Abstract: ObjectivesTo evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of hypofractionated stereotactic volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy in treating canine adrenal tumours with vascular invasion.MethodsA single-arm clinical study was performed. The dogs underwent total body computed tomography, brain and abdomen magnetic resonance imaging and endocrine assay. Adrenal masses were classified as cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour or non-secreting adrenal tumour. Radiotherapy treatments were delivered by hypofractionated stereotactic volumetricamodulated arc radiotherapy via a linear accelerator. The overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. The overall response and radio-toxicity effects were determined.ResultsNine dogs were enrolled. Three dogs were affected by cortisol-secreting adrenal tumours and the remaining dogs had non-secreting adrenal tumours. The prescribed doses ranged from 30 to 45 Gy in three or five consecutive daily fractions. The median overall survival time was 1030 days, and the overall mean reduction of the diameter and volume were ~32 and 30% respectively. The endocrine profile normalised in two dogs with cortisol-secreting adrenal tumours. Radio-toxicities were mild and self-limiting. Seven deaths were recorded during the follow-up period and two dogs were censored.Clinical SignificanceHypofractionated stereotactic volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy should be considered as a feasible and effective therapeutic option for adrenal tumours with vascular invasion.
- Topical ear treatment – options, indications and limitations of
- Authors: S. Paterson
Abstract: Topical otic products form an integral part of the overall management of otitis externa. With an ever increasing array of ear drops and cleaners to choose from, appropriate selection of therapy can be difficult. The investigation of all cases of otitis externa should consider primary and secondary causes and predisposing and perpetuating factors. This article considers topical therapy under these same broad headings and discusses, through literature review, the various properties of the components of the ear cleaning solutions and drops.
- Hepatic concentrations of copper and other metals in dogs with and without
- Authors: Y. Cedeño; M. López-Alonso, M. Miranda
Abstract: ObjectivesDefects in copper metabolism have been described in several dog breeds, and recently, it has been suggested that changes in other essential trace elements could be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic disease. This study measured hepatic copper accumulation and its interactions with other essential trace and toxic metals in dogs diagnosed with chronic hepatitis.MethodsLiver samples of 20 chronic hepatitis and 20 healthy dogs were collected. Samples were acid digested, and essential metals (cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molibdenum, selenium and zinc) and toxic metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead) were analysed by inductively–coupled plasma mass spectrometry.ResultsCopper concentrations were significantly higher in dogs affected by hepatic disease than in controls. Dogs having chronic hepatitis with liver copper concentration greater than 100 mg/kg wet weight showed statistically higher cobalt, manganese and zinc concentrations than dogs having chronic hepatitis with liver copper concentrations less than 100 mg/kg wet weight and controls. Toxic metal concentrations were low – in all cases below the threshold associated with toxicity in dogs.Clinical SignificanceDogs with chronic hepatitis not only have increased concentrations of copper in the liver but also increased concentrations of cobalt, manganese and zinc; measurement of these elements may perhaps aid in diagnosis of liver disease in dogs.
- Retrospective characterisation and outcome of canine idiopathic mesenteric
purulent lymphadenitis and lymph node abscesses at a teaching hospital
from 2005 to 2015
- Authors: S. Salavati Schmitz
Abstract: BackgroundIdiopathic purulent mesenteric lymphadenitis or lymph node abscessation, even though rare in dogs, are important diseases in which rapid diagnosis and treatment is critical. This study aimed to characterise the typical features of these conditions in dogs.Material and MethodsArchived records from 2005 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated for the occurrence of idiopathic purulent mesenteric lymphadenitis or lymph node abscesses in dogs. History, physical and clinicopathological abnormalities, diagnostic tests performed, treatment and outcome were reviewed.ResultsA total of 14 cases with histopathologic and/or cytologic confirmation were identified. Typically, there were gastrointestinal signs including abdominal pain and elevated body temperature. Blood analysis revealed non-specific inflammatory changes including elevated C-reactive protein. Half of the bacterial cultures from lymph nodes showed growth of various bacteria. A primary cause was not identified in any case. Out of 14 cases, 10 cases underwent surgery and all dogs were discharged from the hospital. Three suffered from a relapse between 1 and 5 months after discharge but were successfully managed with antibiotics.Conclusion and Clinical RelevanceIdiopathic purulent mesenteric lymphadenitis or lymph node abscessation are infrequent but clinically important diseases. Surgical, symptomatic and antibiotic treatment led to resolution of clinical signs in the evaluated cases. Thorough and standardised diagnostic workup and treatment of future cases are necessary to investigate possible pathogeneses and optimal therapeutic options. Outcome was favourable overall.
- Use of dual‐phase contrast computed tomography for evaluation of the
normal canine male genital tract
- Authors: H. Dirrig; R. Drees, R. Lam
Abstract: ObjectivesTo evaluate the use of dual‐phase contrast‐enhanced computed tomography for the depiction of the features of the male genital tract, highlighting differences between entire and neutered dogs.MethodsComputed tomography exams of 23 entire and 23 neutered male dogs with no history of urogenital disease were included in this retrospective study, with exams acquired pre‐, 30 and 98·9 ±27·4 seconds after intravenous contrast administration. The genital structures were subjectively evaluated for visibility, contrast enhancement and enhancement pattern and differences between entire and neutered dogs were described. Objective measurements of attenuation and size of the prostatic tissue were acquired.ResultsThe root, body and glans of the penis could be evaluated in all dogs and appeared larger in entire dogs, though objective measurements could not be reliably made because these structures are small and curved. There was contrast enhancement of the cavernous structures, most reliably in the bulb and corpus spongiosum and most frequently in entire dogs in the delayed post‐contrast phase. In entire dogs, the small testicular vessels most commonly had a vermiform shape in the early post‐contrast phase, and a homogeneous appearance in the delayed phase. Sternal recumbency with the coxofemoral joints extended improved visibility of the genital structures.Clinical SignificanceDual‐phase contrast‐enhanced computed tomography is useful for depiction of the structures of the male genital tract, with the early phase especially highlighting the vascular and the delayed phase the cavernous structures.
- Officers Page
- Pages: 658 - 658
- Clinical and pathological features of hair coat abnormalities in curly
coated retrievers from UK and Sweden
- Authors: R. Bond; K. Varjonen, A. Hendricks, Y. M. Chang, H. Brooks Brownlie
Pages: 659 - 667
Abstract: ObjectivesTo gain information on hair loss amongst curly coated retrievers by questionnaire and to define the clinical and pathological features of hair coat abnormalities in affected dogs in the United Kingdom and Sweden.Materials and MethodsQuestionnaires were completed by members of the Curly Coated Retriever Clubs. Fourteen dogs (six in the United Kingdom, eight in Sweden) were clinically examined and skin/hair samples collected for microscopy and histopathology. Blood was collected for haematological, biochemical and endocrine assays.ResultsOf 90 dogs surveyed, 39 had current or previous episodes of symmetrical, non-pruritic alopecia and or frizzy coat changes, usually affecting caudal thighs, axillae, dorsum and neck before 18 months of age; 23 dogs had a waxing/waning course. Examined dogs generally matched the pattern described in questionnaires. Hair shaft anomalies comprised occasional distorted anagen bulbs (10 dogs) and transverse fractures (8 dogs). Vertical histopathological sections showed infundibular hyperkeratosis (28 of 30 sections) and low-grade pigment clumping (17 of 30). Subtle telogenisation of hair follicles was unequivocally confirmed by transverse histomorphometric analyses.Clinical SignificanceThe follicular dysplasia of curly coated retriever reported here is similar to that of Irish water spaniels and Chesapeake Bay retrievers but distinct from that of Portuguese water dogs. The genetic basis requires further assessment.
- Intestinal plasmacytoma causing colocolic double intussusception in an
- Authors: E. Bellezza; E. Bianchini, S. Pettinelli, G. Angeli, L. Leonardi
Pages: 718 - 718
- British Small Animal Veterinary Association Annual General Meeting
- Pages: 720 - 731
- Officers Page
- Pages: 732 - 732