- Treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures following plateless tibial
tuberosity advancement to manage cranial cruciate disease
- Authors: R. De Sousa; P. Egan, K. Parsons, S. Butterworth, I. Calvo, S. Roch, A. P. Moores
Abstract: ObjectiveTo report diaphyseal fractures of the proximal tibia following tibial tuberosity advancement without plate stabilisation for the management of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.MethodsMembers of the British Veterinary Orthopaedic Association's online discussion forum were invited to submit revision cases of tibial diaphyseal fracture following tibial tuberosity advancement without plate fixation. Data collected included signalment, surgical revision technique, pre- and postoperative revision radiographic findings, complications and veterinary assessment. Owners were invited to complete the Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs questionnaire.ResultsA total of 17 dogs were included in the study. Eleven dogs had OrthoFoam-wedge modified Maquet procedures and six had the tibial tuberosity advancement rapid procedure. Tibial tuberosity advancement was maintained in 14/17 cases. Postrevision surgery complications occurred in eight cases: minor complications in 3/17 dogs; major in 5/17 and no catastrophic complications. Surgical site infection was the most common complication (4/8). Final clinical outcome found 8/17 of dogs to have excellent, 8/17 satisfactory and 1/17 poor clinical outcome. The median Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs score was 12/52 (range 2 to 28). Final outcome was 6/13 owners that were very satisfied, 2/13 owners indifferent and 5/13 owners very disappointed.Clinical SignificanceThis is the first case series reporting tibial diaphyseal fractures following tibial tuberosity advancement without plate stabilisation. The authors report here a wide spectrum of potential fixation strategies should one of these fractures occur.
- Suspected air embolism through the thoracic ventral internal vertebral
venous plexus during hemilaminectomy in dogs
- Authors: V. Mortera-Balsa; H. van Oostrom, C. Yeamans, R. Gutierrez-Quintana, J. Penderis, N. Granger
Abstract: Venous air embolism entering via the ventral internal vertebral venous plexus was suspected during thoracic spinal surgery in two dogs. In both cases, air was seen bubbling from a pool of blood on the floor of the vertebral canal accompanied by sudden cardiopulmonary disturbances: low end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure, tachycardia and reduction in oxygen in the blood. One dog became dyspnoeic and one died.
- Systemic Scedosporium prolificans infection in an 11-month-old Border
collie with cobalamin deficiency secondary to selective cobalamin
malabsorption (canine Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome)
- Authors: K. Erles; A. Mugford, D. Barfield, T. Leeb, P. H. Kook
Abstract: An 11-month-old Border collie presented collapsed and continued to deteriorate rapidly despite supportive treatment. The dog had a history of failure to thrive and recurring respiratory infection. Laboratory abnormalities included neutrophilic leucocytosis, Heinz body anaemia, hyperammonaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, proteinuria and hypocobalaminaemia. Post-mortem examination revealed multi-focal necrosis within the heart, kidneys, pancreas, liver, meninges and cerebral cortex. Fungal hyphae in lesions were identified as Scedosporium prolificans following culture. Subsequent genotyping confirmed that the dog carried the CUBN:c.8392delC mutation in a homozygous state, verifying hereditary cobalamin deficiency (a.k.a. Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome). Cobalamin deficiency may have been a predisposing factor for the development of systemic fungal infection in this dog.
- Perceptions and opinions of Canadian pet owners about anaesthesia, pain
and surgery in small animals
- Authors: P. V. Steagall; B. P. Monteiro, H. L. M. Ruel, G. Beauchamp, G. Luca, J. Berry, S. Little, E. Stiles, S. Hamilton, D. Pang
Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and opinions of Canadian pet owners about anaesthesia, pain and surgery in dogs and cats.MethodsSix Canadian veterinary hospitals participated. Each practice received 200 copies of a questionnaire that were distributed to pet owners. Questions regarding the use of analgesics, anaesthesia, surgery and onychectomy (cats) were included. Responses were transformed into ordinal scores and analysed with a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test.ResultsA total of 849 out of 1200 questionnaires were returned. Owners believed more frequently that analgesics are needed for surgical procedures than for the medical conditions. Owners rated as very important/important: “knowing what to expect during illness/injury/surgery” (99·3%), “being assured that all necessary analgesic drugs/techniques will be used” (98·6%), “being informed about procedures/risk” (98·5%), and having a board-certified anaesthesiologist (90·5%). Most owners agreed/partly agreed that pain impacts quality of life (94·2%), and affects their pet's behaviour (89·5%). Most respondents (69%) were women; they were significantly more concerned than men about anaesthesia, pain, cost and client-communication. Cat owners believed that analgesics were necessary for some procedures/conditions significantly more often than canine-only owners. Pet owners with previous surgery disagreed more frequently that “pain after surgery can be helpful” and that “pain in animals is easy to recognize” than those without previous surgery. Most owners think onychectomy should be banned in cats (56·4%).Clinical SignificanceThis study identified important areas of client communication regarding pain and its control in pets.
- Use of a novel extracapsular bone anchor system for stabilisation of
cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency
- Authors: N. M. Muro; O. I. Lanz
Abstract: ObjectivesTo evaluate early clinical experiences using the novel extracapsular bone anchor Ruby system for stabilisation of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle in the dog and report short-term outcome and complications for 17 clinical cases.Materials and MethodsSeventeen dogs with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency were treated using the Ruby system. Dogs were eligible if diagnosed via orthopaedic examination with unilateral or bilateral cranial cruciate ligament instability without any comorbidities. Subjective lameness assessments on a 0 to 4 scale were made pre-operatively and at six to eight weeks post-operatively; complications were also recorded. Lameness was also assessed on a visual analogue scale at six to eight months post-operatively.ResultsAll cases had substantial improvement in lameness following surgery. Mean post-operative lameness grade was 1·18 (±0·53) out of 4, compared to a grade of 3·06 (±0·9) before surgery, and owner assessment at six to eight months after surgery was also positive. There were major complications that required surgical intervention in one dog.Clinical SignificanceThe Ruby system is a feasible method of extracapsular stabilisation with comparable outcomes and complication rates to previously reported methods of addressing cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency. Further work is required to acquire more data on objective outcome measurement and mechanisms of failure.
- Surgical removal of a choroid plexus oncocytoma in an adult cat
- Authors: B. Cossic; G. Silver, M. Kent, E. N. Glass, D. Agnew, S. McDonough, A. D. Miller
Abstract: An 11-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented with left central vestibular dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large, extra-parenchymal, strongly contrast-enhancing mass at the level of the left cerebellopontine angle and compressing the cerebellum and brainstem. The mass was surgically excised via left rostral and sub-tentorial craniectomies and histopathology revealed an epithelial neoplasm composed of anastomosing cords of neoplastic cells that contained large amounts of finely granular hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei. The cytoplasmic granules were variably positive with periodic acid-Schiff and modified Gomori trichrome. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 was diffusely positive. Electron microscopy revealed neoplastic cells that were full of electron-dense organelles consistent with mitochondria. This is the first case of a choroid plexus oncocytoma in the central nervous system of any domestic animal species and highlights the role of successful surgical intervention in extra-parenchymal neoplasia in the central nervous system.
- Congenital duodenocolic fistula in a dog
- Authors: A. Lecoindre; D. Saade, P. Barthez, J. L. Cadoré, P. Lecoindre
Abstract: A one-year-old female cocker spaniel presented with a six-month history of persistent diarrhoea. Abdominal ultrasonographic examination revealed mild diffuse thickening of the intestinal wall coupled with mesenteric lymphadenopathy. A connection between the duodenum and the colon was observed during an endoscopic procedure and confirmed by computed tomography. Surgical resection of the communication allowed remission of the diarrhoea. Histology showed a normal duodenal epithelium and muscular layer. A duodenocolic fistula is an abnormal connection within the digestive tract, which in humans is usually considered a complication of a local pathological condition. Due to the absence of a predisposing cause and, in view of the dog's age and histological results, a congenital origin was suspected.
- Radiographic and computed tomographic appearance of tracheal collapse with
axial rotation in four dogs
- Authors: H. G. Heng; C. K. Lim, B. Gutierrez-Crespo, L. F. Guptill
Abstract: Tracheal collapse with axial rotation was diagnosed in four dogs. Radiographs showed increased tracheal dorsoventral height at the caudal cervical and thoracic inlet with and apparent intraluminal soft tissue opacity, mimicking an intraluminal tracheal foreign body. Computed tomography confirmed dorsoventral tracheal collapse with axial rotation in all dogs. Short-term outcome with medical treatment of all dogs was excellent.
- Efficacy of feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in the treatment of canine
- Authors: M. Gerlach; A. L. Proksch, S. Unterer, S. Speck, U. Truyen, K. Hartmann
Abstract: ObjectiveThis prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study aimed to evaluate efficacy of commercially available feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in dogs with canine parvovirus infection.MethodsFirst, cross-protection of feline panleukopenia virus antibodies against canine parvovirus was evaluated in vitro. In the subsequent prospective clinical trial, 31 dogs with clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection and a positive faecal canine parvovirus polymerase chain reaction were randomly assigned to a group receiving feline panleukopenia virus antibodies (n=15) or placebo (n=16). All dogs received additional routine treatment. Clinical signs, blood parameters, time to clinical recovery and mortality were compared between the groups. Serum antibody titres and quantitative faecal polymerase chain reaction were compared on days 0, 3, 7, and 14.ResultsIn vitro, canine parvovirus was fully neutralised by feline panleukopenia virus antibodies. There were no detected significant differences in clinical signs, time to clinical recovery, blood parameters, mortality, faecal virus load, or viral shedding between groups. Dogs in the placebo group showed a significant increase of serum antibody titres and a significant decrease of faecal virus load between day 14 and day 0, which was not detectable in dogs treated with feline panleukopenia virus antibodies.Clinical SignificanceNo significant beneficial effect of passively transferred feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in the used dosage regimen on the treatment of canine parvovirus infection was demonstrated.
- Endoscopic photodynamic therapy using talaporfin sodium for recurrent
intranasal carcinomas after radiotherapy in three dogs
- Authors: K. Ishigaki; K. Nariai, M. Izumi, K. Teshima, M. Seki, K. Edamura, T. Takahashi, K. Asano
Abstract: Radiation is the treatment of choice for canine nasal tumours but, in almost all cases, there is local recurrence associated with poor prognosis. This report describes the effect of endoscopic photodynamic therapy using talaporfin sodium for canine intranasal carcinoma recurring after radiation therapy. Rhinoscopic photodynamic therapy was administered after radiation therapy in three dogs with recurrent intranasal carcinoma. Two to 24 illuminations of a 665-nm diode laser were performed two hours after intravenous bolus injection of 5·0 mg/kg of talaporfin sodium. Photodynamic therapy induced almost complete remission and prolonged survival time in all cases suggesting that it might be a useful treatment for intranasal carcinomas that recur after radiation.
- The natural history of humeral intracondylar fissure: an observational
study of 30 dogs
- Authors: A. P. Moores; A. L. Moores
Abstract: ObjectivesTo determine the risk of condylar fracture, or of needing to have a transcondylar screw placed, and to identify risk factors in a cohort of dogs with humeral intracondylar fissure (also known as incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle) that was initially managed non-surgically.MethodsA retrospective owner survey of dogs diagnosed with humeral intracondylar fissure as an incidental finding and managed non-surgically with a minimum of two years follow-up. Body weight, age, estimated fissure size, gender and contralateral fracture at the time of diagnosis were evaluated as potential risk factors for the development of a humeral condylar fracture or for having a transcondylar screw placed.ResultsData were available for 30 dogs (34 elbows). Six humeral condyles with a mean fissure size of 50% fractured at a mean of 14 months after diagnosis. A transcondylar screw was placed across two humeral condyles with fissure sizes of 60 and 100% at 11 and 17 months. No risk factors were identified for fracture/screw placement. For those cases that did not fracture or have a screw placed mean fissure size was 52% and mean follow-up time was 56 months (range 29 to 79 months).Clinical SignificanceEighteen percent of cases progressed to fracture and 24% in total required surgery. This information allows clinicians and owners to make an informed decision regarding surgery when faced with a dog with humeral intracondylar fissure identified as an incidental finding.
- Congenital lobar emphysema in a kitten
- Authors: M. Blonk; I. Van de Maele, A. Combes, B. Stablay, H. De Cock, I. Polis, G. Rybachuk, H. de Rooster
Abstract: A five-month-old ragdoll cat presented with severe respiratory signs, unresponsive to medical therapy. Hyperinflation of the right middle lung lobe was diagnosed with radiography and computed tomography. Lung lobectomy following a median sternotomy led to full recovery. Histopathological analysis revealed lobar emphysema and, based on the animal's age, congenital lobar emphysema was considered the most likely diagnosis.
- Anti-thymocyte serum as part of an immunosuppressive regimen in treating
haematological immune-mediated diseases in dogs
- Authors: B. Cuq; S. L. Blois, K. A. Mathews
Abstract: ObjectivesTo report the outcomes associated with the use of rabbit anti-dog thymocyte serum in dogs with haematological immune-mediated diseases.MethodsMedical records from 2000 to 2016 of patients diagnosed with immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia and myelofibrosis were reviewed. All dogs had a severe or refractory disease and received rabbit anti-dog thymocyte serum. Lymphocyte counts were used to monitor the immediate anti-thymocyte effect of therapy; long-term patient outcome was recorded.ResultsA total of 10 dogs were included. All dogs except one had a notable decrease in their lymphocyte count after rabbit anti-dog thymocyte serum; four of nine had a decrease to less than 10% of the initial lymphocyte count and one dog reached 10·8%. All dogs were discharged from the hospital following their treatment. The dog with no alteration of lymphocyte count following therapy with rabbit anti-dog thymocyte serum had refractory immune mediated haemolytic anemia and was euthanised within two weeks. All other cases achieved clinical remission with immunosuppressive therapy eventually being tapered (3 of 10) or discontinued (6 of 10).Clinical SignificanceRabbit anti-dog thymocyte serum therapy might be of interest as an adjunctive therapy in refractory immune-mediated diseases and suppressed lymphocyte counts in most dogs.
- Reflections on clinical trials – the distance from results to action
- Authors: A. Boswood
- Incomplete ossification of the atlas in a dog: surgical stabilisation
using a SOP plate
- Authors: V. Rodiño-Tilve; J. Guevar, G. Hammond, J. Penderis
- Canine penile hirudiniasis: an unusual cause of bleeding from the prepuce
- Authors: H. Salari Sedigh; M. Rajabioun
- Investigation of iron status and markers of inflammation in anaemic and
non-anaemic hospitalised cats
- Authors: M. von Roedern; Y. Buriko, J. Prittie, K. Lamb
Abstract: ObjectivesTo measure iron parameters and markers of inflammation in anaemic cats presented for intensive care unit hospitalisation, and to compare these to cohorts of non-anaemic hospitalised cats and cats that develop hospital-acquired anaemia.MethodsBlood samples were collected for measurement of iron panel and serum amyloid A in addition to routine investigation in cats admitted to the intensive care unit. Medical records were reviewed to determine how many of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome criteria were met and to assign Acute Patient Physiologic and Laboratory Evaluation scores as a measure of illness severity.ResultsSeventy-eight cats were enrolled. Anaemia was documented in 34·6% of cats on presentation and another 10·3% developed anaemia during hospitalisation. Compared with non-anaemic cats, animals that were anaemic on presentation had higher neutrophil and white blood cell counts, and longer hospitalisation. Iron status was consistent with anaemia of inflammation in most anaemic patients. Iron status, serum amyloid A concentration, and prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome did not differ between anaemic and non-anaemic cohorts. All cause mortality was higher in anaemic cats.Clinical SignificanceAnaemia is common in cats hospitalised in the intensive care unit. Systemic inflammation is also common in these cats. Iron status in anaemic cats suggests that anaemia of inflammatory disease may be a significant contributor to anaemia in this patient population.
- Tibial tuberosity advancement in small-breed dogs using TTA Rapid
implants: complications and outcome
- Authors: B. Dyall; H. Schmökel
Abstract: ObjectiveTo assess the perioperative complications and the outcome when treating small-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency with tibial tuberosity advancement using the TTA Rapid implant.Materials and Methods40 dogs (48 stifles) with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency and body weight of 15 kg or less. Diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy or arthrotomy, followed by tibial tuberosity advancement surgery. Six weeks after surgery, the dogs were re-evaluated with clinical examination and radiography. Mid- to long-term outcome was assessed using client questionnaire.ResultsIntraoperative complications consisted of four osteotomy-related fissures through the cranial cortex; two complete fissures were stabilised with a screw, the others healed without intervention. After surgery there were two tibial fractures and two incisional complications. Six weeks postoperatively, limb function was good to excellent in 43 dogs (94%). Two late meniscal injuries occurred. The overall major complication rate was 7/48 14·6%). Mid- to long-term follow-up information was available for 43 stifles: 34 stifles (79%) were free of lameness at a median of 72 weeks postoperatively. The outcome was rated excellent by 88% of the clients and good by 7%.Clinical SignificanceThe use of TTA Rapid implants is an alternative for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in small-breed dogs, with complication rates comparable to those recorded in larger breeds and to other techniques, and with a high degree of owner satisfaction.
- Canine pancytopoenia in a Mediterranean region: a retrospective study of
119 cases (2005 to 2013)
- Authors: P. S. Frezoulis; E. Angelidou, D. Karnezi, I. L. Oikonomidis, M. Kritsepi-Konstantinou, D. Kasabalis, M. E. Mylonakis
Abstract: ObjectivesTo further clarify the causes of pancytopoenia and to investigate whether underlying cause or severity were associated with survival in an area endemic for vector-borne pathogens.MethodsRetrospective review of medical records of 119 dogs with and 238 dogs without pancytopoenia.ResultsMixed-breed dogs and dogs younger than one year had higher odds of being pancytopoenic. The most common diagnoses included monocytic ehrlichiosis (n=42), leishmaniasis (n=28) and parvoviral enteritis (n=19). The mean white blood cell counts were lower in dogs with ehrlichiosis and parvoviral enteritis compared to dogs with leishmaniasis, while platelet counts were lower in ehrlichiosis compared to leishmaniasis or parvoviral enteritis. Total protein concentrations were lower in dogs with parvoviral enteritis compared to ehrlichiosis and leishmaniasis. Higher haematocrit, platelet and white cell counts were associated with better odds of survival.Clinical SignificanceInfectious diseases appear to be the leading causes of canine pancytopoenia in endemic areas; severe leukopoenia (ehrlichiosis, parvoviral enteritis), thrombocytopoenia (ehrlichiosis) and hypoproteinaemia (parvoviral enteritis), represented potentially useful disease-specific diagnostic determinants. The severity of pancytopoenia significantly affects the clinical outcome.
- Bilateral sacroiliac luxation fixation using a single transiliosacral pin:
surgical technique and clinical outcomes in eight cats
- Authors: A. Parslow; D. J. Simpson
Abstract: ObjectivesA very limited safe anatomical window for transiliosacral implant placement exists in cats (
- A retrospective study of dogs with atypical hypoadrenocorticism:
a diagnostic cut-off or continuum'
- Authors: J. A. Wakayama; E. Furrow, L. K. Merkel, P. J. Armstrong
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the clinicopathologic findings and outcome in dogs with atypical hypoadrenocorticism (Group 1) and dogs with suspected atypical hypoadrenocorticism whose post-adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation cortisol concentrations were greater than 55 nmol/L but below the laboratory reference interval (Group 2).MethodsMedical records were searched to identify dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism between January 2004 and June 2014. Dogs were excluded if their Na:K ratio was less than 27 or if they had received prior therapy that could interfere with adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing.ResultsForty dogs were included in Group 1 and nine dogs in Group 2. In Group 1, the most common biochemical abnormalities were hypoalbuminaemia (87%) and hypocholesterolaemia (76%). Of 35 dogs in Group 1 with follow-up biochemistry results, five (14%) developed electrolyte abnormalities at 2 to 51 months post diagnosis. Of seven dogs in Group 2 with follow-up, glucocorticoid therapy was discontinued in two dogs without return of clinical signs, four dogs were subsequently diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease and one dog continued to have clinical signs despite glucocorticoid treatment.Clinical SignificanceDogs with gastrointestinal signs and hypoalbuminaemia and, or, hypocholesterolaemia should be evaluated for atypical hypoadrenocorticism. Follow-up electrolyte monitoring is recommended because some will develop electrolyte abnormalities. Although dogs in Group 2 had a clinical presentation compatible with atypical hypoadrenocorticism, the diagnosis appears unlikely based on review of follow-up data. Dogs with equivocal adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation results should be evaluated for other underlying diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. The use of endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone measurements in these dogs warrants investigation.
- Serial measurement of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentration in
dogs with immune-mediated disease treated with prednisolone
- Authors: H. Ohta; T. Morita, N. Yokoyama, T. Osuga, N. Sasaki, K. Morishita, K. Nakamura, M. Takiguchi
Abstract: ObjectivesIn this pilot study, serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was measured repeatedly in dogs with various immune-mediated diseases that were treated with immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone.MethodsTen client-owned dogs with newly diagnosed immune-mediated disease that had normal canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations (≤200 µg/l) were treated with 2 to 2.2 mg/kg prednisolone orally once daily as the initial treatment. Serum samples were obtained from each of the dogs prior to treatment and at 1- to 4-week intervals during immunosuppressive treatment. The highest canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentration detected during immunosuppressive treatment was defined as the peak canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity.ResultsPeak canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were classified as normal in two dogs, questionable (201 to 399 µg/l) in three dogs, and abnormal (≥400 µg/l) in five dogs. Peak canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were significantly higher than baseline canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations but there was no evidence of clinical pancreatitis.Clinical SignificanceIt remains unclear whether the five of 10 dogs with elevated canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity during prednisone treatment had subclinical pancreatitis or whether the abnormal results were a consequence of prednisolone administration.
- Presumed primary immune-mediated neutropoenia in 35 dogs: a retrospective
- Authors: L. Devine; P. J. Armstrong, J. C. Whittemore, L. Sharkey, N. Bailiff, A. Huang, M. Rishniw
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe, in a cohort of dogs with presumed primary immune-mediated neutropoenia, the presenting clinical characteristics, haematology results, bone marrow characteristics, therapies used (drugs and doses), clinical response to treatment, relapse and outcome at six months and one year.MethodsMulti-institutional recruited retrospective descriptive case series with voluntary submissions. Presumed immune-mediated neutropoenia was diagnosed based on a neutrophil concentration
- Treatment of inflammatory rectal strictures by digital bougienage: a
retrospective study of nine cases
- Authors: A. Lamoureux; C. Maurey, V. Freiche
Abstract: ObjectivesInflammatory rectal strictures in dogs and cats have been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to describe nine cases and their treatment by digital bougienage.MethodsMedical records of dogs and cats referred for constipation, dyschezia or tenesmus and diagnosed with an inflammatory rectal stricture were obtained from the database of two referral centres between 2007 and 2014 and reviewed.ResultsFour dogs and five cats met the inclusion criteria. Four of the five cats were purebred kittens. Three cats and two dogs had a history of diarrhoea and two dogs had a history of bone ingestion. Digital rectal examination revealed rectal strictures in all cases. Histopathology revealed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in all four dogs and in two cats. All cases were treated by digital bougienage. A psyllium-enriched diet was prescribed in all cats and in two dogs. A complete resolution of clinical signs was reported in all eight cases for which follow-up information was available.Clinical SignificanceBenign rectal strictures associated with gastrointestinal inflammation should be routinely included in the differential diagnosis of constipation, tenesmus and dyschezia, especially after an episode of acute or chronic diarrhoea. The treatment described here is simple, minimally invasive and effective in the long term.
- Surgical management of primary, metastatic and recurrent anal sac
adenocarcinoma in the dog: 52 cases
- Authors: D. C. Barnes; J. L. Demetriou
Abstract: ObjectivesTo report the outcomes and complications of a cohort of dogs with primary and recurrent anal sac adenocarcinoma managed with surgery as the first-line treatment. To report the use of lymph node cytology for identification of metastatic disease.MethodsRetrospective review of case records of a single referral centre population of dogs diagnosed with anal sac adenocarcinoma.ResultsFifty-two clinical cases were identified. Altered ultrasonographic appearance of lymph nodes was highly consistent with metastatic disease as assessed by cytology and histopathology. Seven of 58 (12%) perineal surgeries had reported minor complications and seven (12%) others required further surgical intervention. Minor controllable intraoperative bleeding was the only complication noted associated with lymph node extirpation in two of 39 (5%) metastectomy procedures. Six dogs (12%) suffered local recurrence and 22 (42%) developed subsequent or recurrent nodal metastatic disease. From the time of detection of disease recurrence, median additional survival associated with a second surgical intervention was 283 days.Clinical SignificanceCoeliotomy for lymph node metastatectomy in dogs with adenocarcinoma of the anal sac has low morbidity and should be considered in patients presenting with evidence of regional metastatic disease both at initial presentation and with recurrent disease.
- Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 20 dogs (2012 to 2014)
- Authors: M. Muenster; A. Hoerauf, M. Vieth
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the clinical features of canine gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.Materials and MethodsA search of our medical records produced 20 dogs with clinical signs attributable to oesophageal disease, hyper-regeneratory oesophagopathy and no other oesophageal disorders. The clinical, endoscopic and histological findings of the dogs were analysed.ResultsThe 3-year incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was 0·9% of our referral dog population. Main clinical signs were regurgitation, discomfort or pain (each, 20/20 dogs) and ptyalism (18/20 dogs). Oesophagoscopy showed no (5/20 dogs) or minimal (13/20 dogs) mucosal lesions. In oesophageal mucosal biopsy specimens, there were hyperplastic changes of the basal cell layer (13/20 dogs), stromal papillae (14/20 dogs) and entire epithelium (9/20 dogs). Eleven dogs received omeprazole or pantoprazole and regurgitation and ptyalism improved in eight and pain diminished in six of these dogs within three to six weeks.Clinical SignificanceOur findings suggest that canine gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a more common clinical problem than hitherto suspected.
- Comparison of the spread of two different volumes of contrast medium when
performing ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane injection in dog
- Authors: A. Zoff; P. Laborda-Vidal, J. Mortier, M. Amengual, E. Rioja
Abstract: ObjectivesTo compare, via CT imaging, the spread of different volumes of diluted iodinated contrast medium in the transversus abdominis muscle plane of dog cadavers.MethodsProspective, randomised study. An electro stimulation or a SonoTAP needle was inserted in plane with the ultrasound beam in the fascia between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles. A test dose of 1 ml of diluted contrast (30 mg/mL iohexol) was injected to confirm positioning, followed by 0·5 mL/kg (n=14) or 1 mL/kg (n=12) and the distribution of the fluid compared.ResultsContrast medium was identified exclusively in the transversus abdominis plane in 19 of 26 dogs. In one dog, the contrast lay between the external and internal oblique muscles and partially in three dogs. Intraperitoneal contrast was detected in 6 of 26 dogs (23%). No significant differences were found in the dorso-ventral or cranio-caudal spread or area of distribution but a significant difference was found in the transverse spread. There was an association between poor ultrasound visualisation of the tip of the needle and intraperitoneal injection.Clinical SignificanceInjection of 1 mL/kg of diluted contrast did not result in wider cranio-caudal spread in the transversus abdominis muscle plane of dog cadavers when compared with 0·5 mL/kg. Intraperitoneal injection is a risk and might be reduced with good needle visualisation.
- Successful treatment of a metastatic, gastrointestinal stromal tumour in a
dog with toceranib phosphate (Palladia)
- Authors: J. W. Elliott; F. Swinbourne, A. Parry, L. Baines
Abstract: A ten-year-old, female-entire English springer spaniel presented with a large intra-abdominal mass but no other clinical signs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the caecum with widespread abdominal metastasis was confirmed. Treatment with toceranib phosphate resulted in complete response, despite the absence of exon-8 or exon-11 c-kit mutation. There was no clinical evidence of tumour recurrence nine months after diagnosis.
- Analysis of serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme in
dogs with hepatobiliary diseases
- Authors: K. Kojima; K. Ohno, H. Kanemoto, Y. Goto-Koshino, K. Fukushima, H. Tsujimoto
Abstract: ObjectiveTo reveal the relationship between canine corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity and hepatobiliary diseases.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis of the relationship between serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and diagnosis, serum cortisol concentration and alanine transferase activity in dogs with hepatobiliary diseases. Dogs with a history of glucocorticoid administration were excluded.ResultsSeventy-two dogs with hepatobiliary diseases were analysed. The serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase concentration was increased in dogs with hepatobiliary diseases. There was no correlation between serum cortisol concentration and serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase percentage or activity.Clinical SignificanceDogs with hepatobiliary disease can exhibit high serum alkaline phosphatase activity even if the dogs have not been administrated glucocorticoids and the serum cortisol concentration is normal.
- Type Ia (spherical) communicating colonic duplication in a dog treated
- Authors: N. Fernandez; L. Morrison, T. Liuti, M. Frame, D. Yool
Abstract: A six-month-old Labrador retriever presented for investigation of a colonic mass identified as an incidental finding during exploratory coeliotomy. Computed tomography identified a lesion in the colon which occupied part of its lumen and shared blood supply with the remainder of the colon. The lesion was suspected to be a colonic duplication and it was excised by segmental colectomy during exploratory coeliotomy. Histopathology from the excised colon confirmed the diagnosis of a colonic duplication. The dog recovered uneventfully and had no complications. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of an asymptomatic, spherical, communicating colonic duplication and the first report to describe segmental colectomy for the management of this condition in veterinary patients.
- Gastrointestinal pseudoparasitism by chestnut weevil (Curculio
sikkimensis) larvae in a dog
- Authors: Y. Sato; Y. Ohari, T. Itagaki
- Officers Page
- Pages: 190 - 190
- Bacterial translocation in critical illness
- Authors: T. Krentz; S. Allen
Pages: 191 - 198
Abstract: Bacterial translocation involves the passage of intestinal bacteria to extraintestinal sites and has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in critical illness. This review outlines the pathophysiology of bacterial translocation, host defence mechanisms, and reviews the evidence for the clinical management of critically ill patients in order to minimise the negative outcomes associated with bacterial translocation.
- Issue Information
- Pages: 193 - 195
- Technology, Innovation, Entrepreneurship and The Small
Business—Technology and Innovation in Small Business
- Authors: Jonathan D. Linton; George T. Solomon
Pages: 196 - 199
- Re-opening the window on fenestration as a treatment for acute
thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in dogs
- Authors: P. Freeman; N. D. Jeffery
Pages: 199 - 204
Abstract: Acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in dogs is a common cause of “back” pain, pelvic limb paresis or paralysis and incontinence. Treatment of this condition has long been a source of controversy, especially since the introduction of surgical interventions in the 1950s. Unfortunately, formal clinical trials to compare efficacy of conservative and surgical interventions have never been carried out and the current lack of clinical equipoise on this subject now precludes such a trial on ethical grounds. In this article we re-examine and discuss earlier published data on recovery associated with the various therapies, focusing on evidence suggesting that decompressive surgery and fenestration may be equally efficacious.
- Technology-Based Competitive Advantages of Young Entrepreneurial Firms:
Conceptual Development and Empirical Exploration
- Authors: Erno T. Tornikoski; Heikki Rannikko, Tomi P. Heimonen
Pages: 200 - 215
Abstract: We explore the factors that contribute to the technological distinctiveness of young entrepreneurial firms. We claim that a young firm's technological distinctiveness is partly the result of entrepreneurs and their orientations toward uncertainty. In certain locations, however, young firms have more means to invest in their technology base. We integrate these two perspectives together, and provide an original explanation and understanding of the technological distinctiveness of young entrepreneurial firms. Our empirical observations among Finnish firms give support to our main hypotheses and therefore highlight the factors that contribute to technology-based competitive advantage of young firms.
- Outcome of bioprosthetic valve replacement in dogs with tricuspid valve
- Authors: P. Bristow; J. Sargent, V. Luis Fuentes, D. Brockman
Pages: 205 - 210
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the short-term and long-term outcome in dogs with tricuspid valve dysplasia undergoing tricuspid valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass.MethodsData were collected from the hospital records of all dogs that had undergone tricuspid valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass between 2006 and 2012. Dogs were considered candidates for tricuspid valve replacement if they had severe tricuspid valve regurgitation associated with clinical signs of cardiac compromise.ResultsNine dogs of six different breeds were presented. Median age was 13 months (range 7 to 61 months), median weight 26·5 kg (range 9·7 to 59 kg). Eight bovine pericardial valves and one porcine aortic valve were used. One non-fatal intraoperative complication occurred. Complications during hospitalisation occurred in six dogs, four of which were fatal. Of the five dogs discharged, one presented dead due to haemothorax after minor trauma seven days later. The four remaining dogs survived a median of 533 days; all of these dogs received a bovine pericardial valve.Clinical SignificanceBased on our results, tricuspid valve replacement with bovine or porcine prosthetic valves is associated with a high incidence of complications.
- Clinical findings and results of diagnostic imaging in 82 dogs with
- Authors: E. Fitzgerald; D. Barfield, K. C. L. Lee, C. R. Lamb
Pages: 211 - 218
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe clinical and imaging findings in dogs with confirmed gastrointestinal ulceration, to compare findings in dogs with perforated and non-perforated ulcers and to estimate the sensitivities of radiography, ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for gastrointestinal ulceration and perforation.MethodsRetrospective review of medical records of 82 dogs that had a macroscopic ulcer in the gastric or intestinal mucosa diagnosed directly at endoscopy, surgery or necropsy and had survey radiography, ultrasonography or a CT scan of the abdomen during the same period of hospitalisation.ResultsThe most frequent clinical signs were vomiting in 88% dogs, haematemesis in 32%, melaena in 31% and weight loss in 7%. The most frequent imaging findings in dogs with non-perforated ulcers were gastrointestinal mural lesion in 56%, mucosal defect compatible with an ulcer in 44% and peritoneal fluid in 21%. In dogs with perforated ulcers the most frequent imaging findings were peritoneal fluid in 83%, gastrointestinal mural lesion in 48%, peritoneal gas in 31% and mucosal defect compatible with an ulcer in 29%. Sensitivities of radiography, ultrasonography and CT were 30, 65 and 67% in dogs with non-perforated ulcers and 79, 86 and 93% in dogs with perforated ulcers, respectively.Clinical SignificanceIn dogs with non-perforated ulcers, survey radiography was usually negative whereas ultrasonography and CT frequently enabled detection of the site of the ulcer; in dogs with perforated ulcers, radiography was frequently positive for peritoneal gas and CT was a sensitive modality for both the ulcer and signs of perforation.
- From Invention Success to Commercialization Success: Technology Ventures
and the Benefits of Upstream and Downstream Supply-Chain Alliances
- Authors: Dev K. Dutta; Manpreet Hora
Pages: 216 - 235
Abstract: An entrepreneurial venture's supply-chain partnerships involve upstream alliances (with research universities) and downstream alliances (with large industry incumbents). Even though such partnerships bring the venture many benefits, they also come with significant challenges, notably the need to seamlessly combine a “technology push” philosophy with a “market pull” one. Utilizing a data set of over both upstream and downstream alliance partnerships spanning 603 technology ventures in the biotech industry, interesting results were found with regard to the impact of these two alliance partnerships on the venture's invention success and commercialization success. Upstream partnerships demonstrate a positive impact on invention success but no significant impact on commercialization success. However, with the moderating role of downstream partnerships, the results change: the joint effect of these two types of alliance partnerships is positive for both invention and commercialization success. The study findings have important implications with regard to the role and impact of alliance partnerships at the intersection of small business, entrepreneurship and technology innovation, and for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers.
- Combined tibial plateau levelling osteotomy and lateral fabellotibial
suture for cranial cruciate ligament rupture with severe rotational
instability in dogs
- Authors: M. Schaible; J. Shani, A. Caceres, M. Payton, Y. Segev, R. Ben-Amotz
Pages: 219 - 226
Abstract: ObjectiveTo report the use of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy and lateral fabellotibial suture in combination for treatment of severe internal tibial rotational stifle instability in cranial cruciate-deficient stifles.MethodsTwenty-three stifles in 19 dogs were diagnosed with cranial cruciate ligament rupture with severe stifle instability, characterised by marked cranial tibial translation and internal tibial rotation that was evident during orthopaedic examination. A combined tibial plateau levelling osteotomy and lateral fabellotibial suture procedure were performed to stabilise the stifle joint. The surgical complications, short-term lameness scores and owner satisfaction were evaluated.ResultsThe postoperative complication rate was 21·7% with one minor (4·3%) and four major (17·4%) complications. At short-term follow-up one dog had an intermittent low-grade lameness and two dogs had mild tibial internal rotational instability present on palpation without lameness. Owner's overall satisfaction with the operation and recovery was good (21·4%) to excellent (78·6%).Clinical SignificanceThe use of lateral fabellotibial suture in combination with tibial plateau levelling osteotomy was an effective technique for managing cranial cruciate ligament rupture with severe internal tibial rotational stifle instability.
- Toxicity of metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in a UK population of
cancer-bearing dogs: a retrospective study
- Authors: A. Harper; L. Blackwood
Pages: 227 - 230
Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to assess the incidence of toxicity in a group of cancer-bearing dogs treated with metronomic chemotherapy.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of dogs treated with metronomic doses of cyclophosphamide: between 5 and 15 mg/m2/day or every other day for treatment of neoplasia.ResultsOf the 65 dogs included, there were signs of, mostly mild, toxicity in 32 (49%). The most common toxicities were sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (n=16) and gastrointestinal disorders (n=12). Median time to development of sterile haemorrhagic cystitis was 110 days (range 7 to 686 days). Four dogs developed suspected bacterial infections during treatment.Clinical SignificanceMetronomic cyclophosphamide is generally well-tolerated in dogs but the incidence of sterile haemorrhagic cystitis in this study is higher than previously reported. Regular urinalysis is recommended for all dogs receiving cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, as early detection of haemorrhagic cystitis may prevent development of more serious disease.
- Malignant anal sac melanoma in dogs: eleven cases (2000 to 2015)
- Authors: A. Vinayak; C. B. Frank, D. W. Gardiner, K. M. Thieman-Mankin, D. R. Worley
Pages: 231 - 237
Abstract: ObjectivesTo report the signalment, clinical presentation, treatments pursued and outcomes of dogs with malignant anal sac melanoma.MethodsMedical records from five institutions from January 2000 through December 2015 were reviewed and dogs with cytologically- or histologically-confirmed malignant anal sac melanoma were identified. Signalment, clinical signs, staging, cytology, histopathologic analysis, surgical and non-surgical treatments were extracted from the medical records. The referring veterinarians and owners were contacted for follow-up data.ResultsEleven dogs were included and survival data was available for all. The most common clinical signs were bloody anal sac discharge and perianal licking. Initial treatments pursued included surgery (n=8), chemotherapy (n=1), and palliative treatment with pain medications and stool softeners (n=2). In an adjuvant setting, melanoma vaccine was pursued following surgery in three dogs and chemotherapy in one dog. Regardless of treatment, progression-free survival (mean 92·5 days) and overall survival times (median 107 days) were short.Clinical SignificanceDogs in this case series had a guarded to poor prognosis regardless of treatment. Ten of 11 dogs were euthanased due to local or distant disease progression. Only 1 of 11 dogs was alive one year after diagnosis. An understanding of tumour behaviour in this location could lead to improved survival times with earlier diagnosis and treatment.
- Epidemiology of bacterial conjunctivitis in chinchillas (Chinchilla
lanigera): 49 cases (2005 to 2015)
- Authors: S. Ozawa; C. Mans, Z. Szabo, N. Di Girolamo
Pages: 238 - 245
Abstract: ObjectivesTo evaluate the anamnesis, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment and outcome of chinchillas diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis.MethodsMedical records of 49 chinchillas diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis were retrospectively reviewed. Association between clinical signs and type of bacteria involved was determined by means of univariate logistic regression.Results61·5% of the isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, and the most common bacterial species was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (50%), followed by Staphylococcus species (26·9%). Chinchillas with acute conjunctivitis (1 to 3 days) were much more commonly affected by Gram-negative organisms. The majority of chinchillas that presented with concurrent respiratory signs were diagnosed with P. aeruginosa. Clinical resolution of conjunctivitis was reported in 87·8% chinchillas with a median time to clinical resolution of 17·5 days. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolates to potentiated sulphonamides, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin and polymyxin B was 8·3, 36, 62·5, 88·5, 100 and 100%, respectively.Clinical SignificanceP. aeruginosa is the predominant bacterial species associated with bacterial conjunctivitis in chinchillas. With the exception of duration of clinical signs, information on the anamnesis or physical examination findings cannot aid in distinguishing conjunctivitis caused by P. aeruginosa or other Gram-negative bacteria from the ones caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Gentamicin- or polymyxin B-containing antibiotic formulations are recommended for empirical topical therapy.
- Pneumopericardium as a complication of laparoscopy for ovariectomy
- Authors: E. J. Best; E. Hellewell
Pages: 246 - 248
Abstract: A one-year-old poodle×cocker spaniel bitch was presented for laparoscopic ovariectomy. Pre-operative examination was unremarkable. The left ovariectomy was performed uneventfully. Following insufflation of the abdomen and repositioning of the patient, signs consistent with cardiac tamponade developed, resulting in death. Post-mortem radiography demonstrated pneumopericardium.
- Jugular vein venipuncture technique in small lizard species
- Authors: M. Di Giuseppe; M. Morici, A. Martinez Silvestre, F. Spadola
Pages: 249 - 249
- Officers Page
- Pages: 250 - 250
- Mobile Broadband: A Key Enabling Technology for Entrepreneurship?
- Authors: María Verónica Alderete
Pages: 254 - 269
Abstract: This article examines whether mobile broadband can be viewed as an enabling technology for entrepreneurship in developing and developed countries. Evidence shows that mobile telephony is becoming more affordable worldwide. Contrary to fixed broadband, mobile broadband ensures better reach and lower costs and has become the most dynamic platform for bringing ICT benefits to entrepreneurship. A six period panel data analysis, 2007–2012, is estimated for 58 countries. Using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor's Total Entrepreneurial Activity as the dependent variable, a positive influence of mobile broadband on the entrepreneurial activity is observed. Linking ICT and entrepreneurship is an area in need of more research.
- Technologies That Support Marketing and Market Development in
SMEs—Evidence from Social Networks
- Authors: Fabian Eggers; Isabella Hatak, Sascha Kraus, Thomas Niemand
Pages: 270 - 302
Abstract: This study builds on previous research on information technology implementation and usage in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and applies a special focus on social networks. Specifically, this research investigates antecedents of social network usage in SMEs and respective performance outcomes. The results show that entrepreneurial orientation is positively related to social network usage in SMEs, whereas responsive market orientation shows no effect. Social network usage is not directly related to SME growth; yet it mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and SME growth. Interestingly, large firms show the opposite effects regarding antecedents and performance-related consequences of social network usage.
- ICSB Information
- Pages: 326 - 326
- ICSB Membership
- Pages: 327 - 327
- Nature of Buyer–Supplier Relationship: Small Businesses in a Small
- Authors: Venkatesh Murthy; Bino Paul
Abstract: If the proposition of Williamson that “highly standardized transactions are not apt to require a specialized governance structure” (1979, p. 248) is to be accepted, then a discrete transaction market between small business owners and their suppliers can be easily organized in the market. This view essentially nullifies the possibility of there being a relational transaction. In this backdrop, this research attempts to explore the small buyer–supplier relationship in the context of a small city. Keeping embeddedness (Granovetter, Am. J. Sociol., 1985; 91: 481–510) as a theoretical foundation, we explore the social content in an apparently pure economic exchange. Although, earlier attempts (Khoja and Kauffman, J. Small Bus. Manag., 2012; 50: 20–40; Uzzi, Am. Socio. Rev., 1996; 61: 674–698) conformed to embeddedness in transactions between a buyer and a supplier among businesses of various sizes, they largely ignored very small-size buyers and suppliers owing to the miniscule size of business transactions and less frequent interactions between buyers and suppliers. Based on the grounded theory approach (Strauss and Corbin, Basics of Qualitative Research-Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques, 1990), in this study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 57 very small business owners to develop detailed narratives. These narratives were organized under four themes: Contractual relationship, Strategic information sharing, Caste as a proxy, and Trust Factor. The findings clearly indicate that small business owners foster continued relationships with their suppliers, owing to social conditioning factors.
- Effectuation, Exploratory Learning and New Venture Performance: Evidence
- Authors: Li Cai; Runping Guo, Yupeng Fei, Zhao Liu
Abstract: This paper examines the effect of effectuation on new venture performance in the context of Chinese transitional economy. To determine how new ventures benefit from effectuation, we examine the role of exploratory learning as a key mediator. Using data from 266 Chinese new ventures, our results show that effectuation has a positive effect on new venture performance. Exploratory learning plays a fully mediating role in the relationship between effectuation and new venture performance. This empirical evidence contributes to the development of the theory of effectuation and also provides managerial guidelines for new ventures facing uncertain business environments like transitional economies.
- Intersectionality of Ethnic and Entrepreneurial Identities: A Study of
Post-War Polish Entrepreneurs in an English City
- Authors: Rowena Barrett; Natalia Vershinina
Abstract: An understanding of ethnic and immigrant entrepreneurship is developed in this paper by exploring how ethnic and entrepreneurial identities intersect. Bourdieu's concept of habitus frames the analysis of narratives of five post-war Polish entrepreneurs in Leicester. The narrative analysis illuminates the multilayered and nuanced nature of identities. The Polish origin of these entrepreneurs’ habitus was interpreted in light of individual and collective experiences gained growing up in the United Kingdom. While Polish identity was pertinent, it did not define the narrative of entrepreneurship. Our contribution is a theoretically informed, rich qualitative study of what ethnic identity means to individuals and how it intersects with entrepreneurial identity.
- Family Involvement in the Firm, Family-to-Business Support, and
Entrepreneurial Outcomes: An Exploration
- Authors: Gary N. Powell; Kimberly A. Eddleston
Abstract: Results of a survey of 211 founders of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) indicated that family involvement in the firm was indirectly related to four entrepreneurial outcomes (business performance, strategic planning, satisfaction with business success, and commitment to remain self-employed) through family-to-business support, suggesting a particular benefit of the intertwining of family and business in family firms. SME founders who owned family firms experienced higher levels of family-to-business support than those who owned nonfamily firms. These results support our proposed alignment of the social support perspective of well-being and resiliency with the family embeddedness perspective of the family-business relationship.
- Regulatory Modes and Entrepreneurship: The Mediational Role of Alertness
in Small Business Success
- Authors: Clara Amato; Robert A. Baron, Barbara Barbieri, Jocelyn J. Bélanger, Antonio Pierro
Abstract: Previous studies suggest that entrepreneurs play a key role in the success of their ventures. But relatively little is currently known about how they produce such effects. The present research provides data suggesting that two modes of entrepeneurs’ self-regulation—locomotion and assessment—enhance a firm's success through their effects on the components of alertness. This mediational model was tested and supported with data from 120 entrepreneurs. Locomotion was positively related to the scanning and search component, while assessment was positively related to the association and evaluation components. These findings are discussed in terms of the role of founders’ self-regulation in the performance of their companies.
- How Small Business Managers’ Age and Focus on Opportunities Affect
Business Growth: A Mediated Moderation Growth Model
- Authors: Michael M. Gielnik; Hannes Zacher, Antje Schmitt
Abstract: Research on business growth has been criticized for methodological weaknesses. We present a mediated moderation growth model as a new methodological approach. We hypothesized that small business managers’ age negatively affects business growth through focus on opportunities. We sampled 201 small business managers and obtained firm performance data over 5 years, resulting in 836 observations. Growth modeling showed systematic differences in firm performance trajectories. These differences could be explained by modeling focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationship between small business managers’ age and business growth. The study illustrates how mediation models can be tested using growth modeling.
- Angel Financing and the Performance of High-Tech Start-Ups
- Authors: Annalisa Croce; Massimiliano Guerini, Elisa Ughetto
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate what drives the performance of high-tech start-ups receiving angel financing, while taking a closer look at the capabilities (i.e., experience) and investment behavior of business angels (BAs). We exploit a new data set (extracted from Crunchbase), which consists of 1,933 high-tech start-ups that received at least one financing round from a BA. The results indicate that the experience of BAs in early stage investments is positively associated with additional receipt of follow-on rounds of financing and sequential capital injections from venture capitalists (VCs). Later-stage experience is positively associated with the start-up's success (i.e., probability to be listed or acquired), but reduces the need for new VCs to invest in the start-up. Furthermore, we find consistent evidence that start-ups that combine BA and VC financing experience higher levels of funding amounts, additional VC financing, and an improved likelihood of success. Finally, we find that the co-localization of BA investors and start-ups in the same area facilitates the attraction of VC financing.
- Information Systems Enacted Capabilities and Their Effects on SMEs'
Information Systems Adoption Behavior
- Authors: Noor Akma Mohd Salleh; Fiona Rohde, Peter Green
Abstract: Studies show that information systems (IS) adoption behavior is dependent on well-defined characteristics. However, firms must also be enabled for use and ultimately utilize IS. This study develops a model of how IS enacted capabilities of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) affect IS enablement through perceived net benefits and attitude. Follow-up interviews with chief executive officers (CEOs)/owners of SMEs indicated that IS enacted capabilities play an integral part in determining the extent to which SMEs become enabled and utilize IS. Top management IS skills and knowledge and trust in trading partners dominate the effect on perceived net benefits at the enablement stage.
- Drivers of External Equity Funding in Small High-Tech Ventures
- Authors: Teresa Hogan; Elaine Hutson, Paul Drnevich
Pages: 236 - 253
Abstract: Financing is one of the major issues affecting the success and survival of entrepreneurial ventures. Theory suggests that due to information asymmetry between owners and investors or lenders, there is a “pecking order” of financing preferences, whereby retained earnings is preferred to debt, and outside equity is seen as a last resort. In high-tech ventures, however, outside equity financing is more commonly used than debt, but the reasons for this are not yet well-understood. We develop hypotheses to examine this theory-practice gap, which we test using a sample of private high-tech firms of various ages. We find that the greater the owner's perception of information asymmetries in debt markets, the larger the proportion of external equity in the firm's capital structure. As our sample firms age, their use of external equity relative to other sources of finance diminishes. We also find a positive relationship between the use of external equity and the firm's initial investment. Last, we show that the greater the perception amongst founders that obtaining external equity sends a positive signal, the greater its use. We discuss the implications of these findings and offer suggestion for future research and practice.
- Analysis of the Determinants of Software-as-a-Service Adoption in Small
- Authors: Sung Hyun Kim; Si Young Jang, Kyung Hoon Yang
Pages: 303 - 325
Abstract: Cloud computing is a cutting-edge information technology (IT) that receives computing resources and services from external providers rather than building their own information systems. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), one of the cloud computing models, has a built-in best business practice and thus can be useful not only in reinforcing the IT capability of small businesses but also in improving business processes at the same time. The study investigated factors that affect the intention of small companies in Korea to adopt SaaS. The results were that (1) they were more concerned with the security risks than the economic or performance risks, (2) they were trying to improve the business process rather than quality improvement or cost, (3) management support was considered to be more important than the resources or IT capacity for the adoption of SaaS, and (4) they also considered the support of the vendor more important than the support of the government. The result of the study will provide practical strategies for not only small companies considering the adoption of SaaS and vendors supplying SaaS, but also government when setting up policies.