- Jugular vein venipuncture technique in small lizard species
- Authors: M. Di Giuseppe; M. Morici, A. Martinez Silvestre, F. Spadola
- Bacterial translocation in critical illness
- Authors: T. Krentz; S. Allen
Abstract: Bacterial translocation involves the passage of intestinal bacteria to extraintestinal sites and has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in critical illness. This review outlines the pathophysiology of bacterial translocation, host defence mechanisms, and reviews the evidence for the clinical management of critically ill patients in order to minimise the negative outcomes associated with bacterial translocation.
- Analysis of serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme in
dogs with hepatobiliary diseases
- Authors: K. Kojima; K. Ohno, H. Kanemoto, Y. Goto-Koshino, K. Fukushima, H. Tsujimoto
Abstract: ObjectiveTo reveal the relationship between canine corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity and hepatobiliary diseases.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis of the relationship between serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and diagnosis, serum cortisol concentration and alanine transferase activity in dogs with hepatobiliary diseases. Dogs with a history of glucocorticoid administration were excluded.ResultsSeventy-two dogs with hepatobiliary diseases were analysed. The serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase concentration was increased in dogs with hepatobiliary diseases. There was no correlation between serum cortisol concentration and serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase percentage or activity.Clinical SignificanceDogs with hepatobiliary disease can exhibit high serum alkaline phosphatase activity even if the dogs have not been administrated glucocorticoids and the serum cortisol concentration is normal.
- Type Ia (spherical) communicating colonic duplication in a dog treated
- Authors: N. Fernandez; L. Morrison, T. Liuti, M. Frame, D. Yool
Abstract: A six-month-old Labrador retriever presented for investigation of a colonic mass identified as an incidental finding during exploratory coeliotomy. Computed tomography identified a lesion in the colon which occupied part of its lumen and shared blood supply with the remainder of the colon. The lesion was suspected to be a colonic duplication and it was excised by segmental colectomy during exploratory coeliotomy. Histopathology from the excised colon confirmed the diagnosis of a colonic duplication. The dog recovered uneventfully and had no complications. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of an asymptomatic, spherical, communicating colonic duplication and the first report to describe segmental colectomy for the management of this condition in veterinary patients.
- Diagnostic value of two commercial chromatographic “patient-side”
tests in the diagnosis of acute canine leptospirosis
- Authors: C. I. Gloor; A. Schweighauser, T. Francey, S. Rodriguez-Campos, B. Vidondo, B. Bigler, S. Schuller
Abstract: ObjectivesTo determine the diagnostic performance of two patient-side tests (RDT-1: Test-it™ and RDT-2 Witness®Lepto) in the early diagnosis of canine leptospirosis.MethodsRetrospective study of 108 dogs with leptospirosis and 53 controls. Leptospirosis was diagnosed based on compatible clinical and clinicopathologic signs and either a single microscopic agglutination test titre_ >800 (n=49), seroconversion (n=53), positive urine real time PCR (RT-PCR) (n=1), evidence of spirochaetes in silver-stained tissues (n=1) or a combination of these (n=4). Leptospirosis was excluded in dogs with a convincing alternative diagnosis and single microscopic agglutination testing titres _
- Gastrointestinal pseudoparasitism by chestnut weevil (Curculio
sikkimensis) larvae in a dog
- Authors: Y. Sato; Y. Ohari, T. Itagaki
- Toxicity of metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in a UK population of
cancer-bearing dogs: a retrospective study
- Authors: A. Harper; L. Blackwood
Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to assess the incidence of toxicity in a group of cancer-bearing dogs treated with metronomic chemotherapy.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of dogs treated with metronomic doses of cyclophosphamide: between 5 and 15 mg/m2/day or every other day for treatment of neoplasia.ResultsOf the 65 dogs included, there were signs of, mostly mild, toxicity in 32 (49%). The most common toxicities were sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (n=16) and gastrointestinal disorders (n=12). Median time to development of sterile haemorrhagic cystitis was 110 days (range 7 to 686 days). Four dogs developed suspected bacterial infections during treatment.Clinical SignificanceMetronomic cyclophosphamide is generally well-tolerated in dogs but the incidence of sterile haemorrhagic cystitis in this study is higher than previously reported. Regular urinalysis is recommended for all dogs receiving cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, as early detection of haemorrhagic cystitis may prevent development of more serious disease.
- Adverse reaction to apomorphine in a Collie homozygous for the
ABCB1-1∆ (MDR1) mutation
- Authors: Olivier Campbell; Louis-Philippe de Lorimier, Katrina L. Mealey
- Officers Page
- Pages: 62 - 62
- Soft tissue sarcoma in the dog – Part 2: surgical margins, controversies
and a comparative review
- Authors: J. P. Bray
Pages: 63 - 72
Abstract: Soft tissue sarcoma constitutes a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumours. Although they are common in the dog, many uncertainties surround the best options for clinical management. Despite recent improvements in outcome, approximately one in five patients may still die as a result of their disease. There is some evidence that wide surgical excision may not be required for every soft tissue sarcoma but, conversely, complacency in treatment may adversely affect outcomes for patients with aggressive disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the issues affecting the management of canine soft tissue sarcoma, and to evaluate the human literature for lessons that may guide future treatment directions for dogs. Comparative lessons from human soft tissue sarcoma that may be important for the canine patient in the future include (1) understanding the oncogenic potential of the pseudocapsule to better predict tumour behaviour and optimal surgical margins, (2) recognising the importance of planned multi-modality therapy for improving tumour control, (3) considering a role for compartmental resection strategies and (4) improving the accuracy of pretreatment analysis of the tumour to better predict behaviour and optimal treatment options.
- Modified tube gastropexy using a mushroom-tipped silicone catheter for
management of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs
- Authors: A. Belch; C. Rubinos, D. C. Barnes, P. Nelissen
Pages: 79 - 88
Abstract: ObjectivesTo report the short- and long-term complications and clinical outcomes of a cohort of dogs managed for gastric dilatation-volvulus using a modified right-sided tube gastropexy technique.Materials and MethodsRetrospective case series.ResultsOf 31 dogs treated, 29 (93·5%) had an excellent short-term outcome, and gastric dilatation-volvulus did not recur in any dog. Twenty-six dogs (84%) were initially fed via the gastrostomy tube postoperatively; three (9·7%) suffered a major complication including septic peritonitis (n=1), and premature tube removal (n=2). Fourteen dogs (45·1%) had minor complications including mild, self-limiting discharge from the stoma site in 13.Clinical SignificanceModified tube gastropexy using a mushroom-tipped silicone catheter is an effective and safe surgical method for the management of gastric dilatation-volvulus. The gastrostomy tube allowed early enteral feeding and easy administration of medications, including gastroprotectants.
- The age, breed and sex pattern of diagnosis for veterinary care in insured
cats in Japan
- Authors: R. Isomura; M. Yamazaki, M. Inoue, N. C. L. Kwan, M. Matsuda, K. Sugiura
Pages: 89 - 95
Abstract: ObjectivesTo estimate the annual prevalence of different diagnostic categories by age, breed and sex in insured cats in Japan for which veterinary care claims had been made, and to identify if there is a pattern in these host factors.Materials and MethodsData from 48,187 cats insured for veterinary care in Japan in the period from April 2012 to March 2013 comprising 26,003 males and 22,184 females were analysed to calculate the annual prevalence of 18 diagnostic categories of disease by age, breed and sex.ResultsThe prevalence was highest for urinary system disorders (12·2% for males and 10·0% for females), followed by digestive disorders (11·6% for males and 10·7% for females) and dermatological diseases (8·7% for males and 9·0% for females). The male cats had a higher prevalence than female cats for most diagnostic categories. The prevalence of cardiovascular, urinary, endocrine and neoplastic disorders increased with age; infectious and parasitic diseases had high prevalence at young ages, and the prevalence of respiratory, musculoskeletal disorders and injuries had bimodal peaks. Dermatological disorders had a high prevalence at all ages. A large variation in prevalence was observed between breeds for otic, dermatological, dental and cardiovascular disorders.Clinical SignificanceThe findings can be used to increase awareness of patterns of health disorders in different categories of cat.
- Treatment of presumptive primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia with
mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclosporine in dogs
- Authors: F. O. Cummings; S. A. Rizzo
Pages: 96 - 102
Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to compare hospitalisation duration, survival times, adverse events and cost of therapy in dogs with presumptive primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia undergoing therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids versus cyclosporine and corticosteroids.MethodsA retrospective study of medical case records of dogs with presumed primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was conducted. Data collected included signalment, presenting complaints, haematologic and biochemical profiles, vector-borne disease testing, thoracic and abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, medications administered, duration of hospitalisation, 30- and 60-day survival, adverse events and cost of therapy. Variables were compared between dogs treated solely with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids or cyclosporine and corticosteroids.ResultsA total of 55 dogs with primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia were identified. Eighteen were excluded because multiple immunosuppressive medications were used during treatment. Hospitalisation times, 30-day survival and 60-day survival times were similar between both groups. Dogs in the mycophenolate mofetil/corticosteroid group experienced fewer adverse events than the cyclosporine/corticosteroid group. Therapy with mycophenolate mofetil was less expensive than that with cyclosporine.Clinical SignificanceThese results suggest that using the combination of mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids appears to be as effective as cyclosporine and corticosteroids in the treatment of presumed primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in dogs. Adverse events were less common and cost of therapy was lower in the mycophenolate mofetil group. Additional larger prospective, controlled, double-masked, outcome-based, multi-institutional studies are required to substantiate these preliminary findings.
- Dietary management of presumptive protein-losing enteropathy in Yorkshire
- Authors: A. J. Rudinsky; J. P. Howard, M. A. Bishop, R. G. Sherding, V. J. Parker, C. Gilor
Pages: 103 - 108
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the clinical outcome of dietary management of Yorkshire terriers with protein-losing enteropathy without immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory medications.MethodsRecords were searched for Yorkshire terriers with hypoalbuminaemia and a clinical diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy that were managed with diet and without immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory medications. Serum albumin changes were compared using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index scores were compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test.ResultsEleven cases were identified. Clinical signs were variable including: diarrhoea, respiratory signs, vomiting, lethargy and weight loss. Diets fed included home cooked (n=5); Royal Canin Gastrointestinal Low Fat (n=4); Hill's Prescription Diet i/d Low Fat (n=1); or Purina HA Hypoallergenic (n=1). Clinical signs resolved completely in eight dogs, partially resolved in two dogs and failed to respond in one dog. In dogs that responded, albumin significantly improved from baseline (mean 14·9 g/L, sd ±3·7), at 2 to 4 weeks (mean 24·2 g/L, sd ±5·5, P=0·01), and at 3 to 4 months (mean 27·0 g/dL, sd ±5·9, P=0·01).Clinical SignificanceThese results indicate that dietary management of protein-losing enteropathy is a potential management strategy in Yorkshire terriers. Randomised clinical trials in Yorkshire terriers with protein-losing enteropathy are necessary to compare success rate, survival and quality of life with dietary management versus combined dietary and immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory therapy.
- A modified tibial compression test for the detection of meniscal injury in
- Authors: S. Valen; C. McCabe, E. Maddock, S. Bright, B. Keeley
Pages: 109 - 114
Abstract: ObjectiveTo assess diagnostic efficacy of a modified tibial compression test in predicting medial meniscal injury in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament failure.MethodsDogs admitted for surgical stabilisation of stifles with cranial cruciate ligament failure were examined by five preoperative physical tests to assess medial meniscal injury. Results of each physical test were compared with findings at arthrotomy and used to calculate sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values.ResultsNone of the physical tests were accurate in reflecting meniscal integrity for dogs with cranial cruciate failure. Out of the five tests, the modified tibial compression test exhibited the highest concordance and sensitivity for the detection of medial meniscal tears. A palpable click during the modified tibial compression test had a sensitivity and specificity up to 63 and 77%, respectively, for the detection of medial meniscal lesions. Concordance values were up to 40% for the modified tibial compression test, followed by the range of motion test (up to 25%), while all other physical tests had concordance values below 10%.Clinical SignificancePhysical tests are highly available, affordable and can be easily performed, but their efficacy in diagnosing medical meniscal injury is low. Meniscal clicks associated with meniscal tears were more frequently elicited during the modified tibial compression test when compared with other traditional tests.
- Invasive histiocytic sarcoma of the lumbar spine in a ferret (Mustela
- Authors: M. Warschau; M. Hoffmann, P. Dziallas, F. Hansmann, W. Baumgärtner, R. Mischke, S. Cichowski, M. Fehr
Pages: 115 - 118
Abstract: This report describes the history, clinical examination and histopathology of a histiocytic sarcoma in a domestic ferret. Clinical signs were acute paraplegia and dysuria. Physical examination revealed a firm, smooth, touch-sensitive mass in and around the lumbar vertebral column. Neurologic examination was consistent with a lesion between spinal cord segments T3 and L3. Magnetic resonance images revealed bone lesions of L2 and L3 combined with compression of the spinal cord due to a homogenous, isointense mass that was diagnosed as a malignant round cell tumour and the ferret was euthanased. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of an infiltrative histiocytic sarcoma.
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- Pages: 120 - 120
- Factors affecting the diagnostic utility of canine and feline cytological
- Authors: R. Sapierzynński; M. Czopowicz, M. Ostrzeszewicz
Abstract: ObjectivesCytology is a quick, inexpensive, minimally invasive and widely available diagnostic method, but rigorous cooperation between clinical cytopathologist and physician is necessary to obtain clinically useful results. The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect clinical usefulness of a cytological result when the cellular material was collected by a general veterinary practitioner and examined by a clinical cytopathologist.Materials and MethodsAnalysis of 100 fine-needle aspirates performed by private veterinarians and examined by the clinical cytopathologist. Factors dependent on a general veterinary practitioner who performed the biopsy such as comprehensiveness of a cover letter, number of smears sent and macroscopic appearance of smears, were included in the analysis. Patient species and location of the lesion were also included.ResultsOnly two factors turned out to favour a cytological diagnosis: good macroscopic appearance of smears and superficial location of the lesion. Nevertheless, inclusion of the medical history of a patient in a cover letter proved to help a clinical cytopathologist make clinically useful suggestions.Clinical SignificancePreparation of good quality smears and provision of a comprehensive cover letter will increase the likelihood of obtaining clinically useful cytological reports.