- Opportunistic fungal infections in dogs treated with ciclosporin and
glucocorticoids: eight cases
- Authors: S. R. Dowling; J. Webb, J. D. Foster, J. Ginn, D. S. Foy, L. A. Trepanier
Abstract: Glucocorticoids are the standard of care for the treatment of immune‐mediated disorders, and ciclosporin is increasingly being used off‐label as an adjunct immunosuppressive drug in dogs. However, opportunistic infections can develop during combination immunosuppressive regimens. This case series describes atypical fungal infections in eight dogs treated with immunosuppressive dosages of glucocorticoids and ciclosporin. The median duration of combined treatment prior to the identification of fungal infection was 31 (range, 13 to 201) days, although two dogs received glucocorticoids for prolonged periods prior to the addition of ciclosporin. The estimated prevalence of serious fungal infections with this drug combination appears to be low (approximately 1 · 67%), but these infections led directly or indirectly to death or euthanasia in five of eight (63%) dogs. These cases highlight the need for frequent clinical monitoring of dogs receiving immunosuppressive dosages of glucocorticoids and ciclosporin.
- Health screening to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine
in cats and dogs
- Authors: M. Diez; P. Picavet, R. Ricci, M. Dequenne, M. Renard, A. Bongartz, F. Farnir
To describe the results of a prevention campaign in terms of participation and pet health status and to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs.
An awareness campaign was designed to highlight the role of veterinarians and emphasise the benefits of a veterinary visit. Owners were invited to make an appointment for a free pet health check in a voluntarily participating veterinary clinic. Observations recorded by the veterinarians were entered in a database and subsequently analysed using simple descriptive statistics.
A total of 5305 completed health check forms were analysed. The percentages of overweight and obese dogs and cats were 34 and 36%, respectively; this was the most common finding, followed by dental calculus (31% in dogs, 21% in cats). In total 67% of cats did not undergo flea control and 59% were not vaccinated.
Opportunities for increased quality of care are numerous given the high percentage of intact, unvaccinated or non‐permanently identified pets and the low level of worm and flea control. Animal health should benefit from preventive measures, and improved management can be undertaken after early detection of diseases.
- Pneumopericardium, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and
pneumoretroperitoneum complicating pulmonary metastatic carcinoma in a cat
- Authors: V. Greci; A. Baio, L. Bibbiani, E. Caggiano, S. Borgonovo, D. Olivero, P. M. Rocchi, V. Raiano
Abstract: This report describes a case of severe spontaneous tension pneumopericardium with concurrent pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and retropneumoperitoneum in a cat presenting with dyspnoea and signs of cardiac tamponade secondary to metastatic pulmonary carcinoma. Spontaneous pneumopericardium is an extremely uncommon condition consisting of pericardial gas in the absence of iatrogenic/traumatic causes. In humans, it has been described secondary to pneumonia or lung abscess and very rarely secondary to pulmonary neoplasia.
- Bilateral calcaneal stress fractures in two cats
- Authors: M. Cantatore; D. N. Clements
Abstract: Two cats that developed bilateral calcaneal stress fractures are reported. One cat developed lameness associated with incomplete fractures at the base of both calcanei, both of which progressed to acute, complete fractures 2 months later. The second cat presented with acute complete calcaneal fracture, with evidence of remodelling of the contralateral calcaneus, which subsequently fractured two years later. The calcaneal fractures were successfully stabilised with lateral bone plates in each case. Stress fractures were suspected because of the bilateral nature, the simple and similar configuration, the consistent location of the fractures, the absence of other signs of trauma in both cases and the suspected insidious onset of the lameness. The feline calcaneus is susceptible to stress fracture, and cats presenting with calcaneal fractures without evidence of trauma should be evaluated for concurrent skeletal pathology.
- Evaluation of an oesophageal Doppler device for monitoring cardiac output
in anaesthetised healthy normotensive dogs
- Authors: S. Canfrán; R. Cediel, I. Sández, A. Caro‐Vadillo, I. A. Gómez de Segura
To compare cardiac output measured by oesophageal Doppler and by thermodilution monitoring and to correlate the Doppler cardiac output‐generated minute distance with thermodilution cardiac output in healthy anaesthetised beagle dogs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Prospective experimental study. Six healthy adult beagle dogs were pre‐medicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0 · 05 mg/kg) and methadone (0 · 3 mg/kg). Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous propofol (dose‐effect) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Simultaneously, a constant rate infusion of dopamine (3 µg/kg/minute) was administered to the dogs to prevent hypotension. The minute distance, Doppler and thermodilution cardiac outputs were assessed at three different end‐tidal concentrations of isoflurane (1 · 0, 1 · 3 and 2 · 0%).
Correlation between Doppler and thermodilution cardiac output (r2 = 0 · 582) and between minute distance and thermodilution cardiac output (r2 = 0 · 658) were moderately good, but the limits of agreement between Doppler and thermodilution cardiac outputs were above the recommended values (±39%, for a recommended value up to 30%).
Doppler and minute distance cannot be considered as an alternative method to thermodilution to monitor cardiac output in the healthy anaesthetised dog.
- Evaluation of in‐hospital electrocardiography versus 24‐hour
Holter for rate control in dogs with atrial fibrillation
- Authors: A. R. Gelzer; M. S. Kraus, M. Rishniw
To determine if the in‐clinic ECG‐derived heart rate could predict the at‐home Holter‐derived 24‐hour average heart rate (Holter24h), and whether it is useful to identify slow versus fast atrial fibrillation in dogs.
Materials and Methods
82 pairs of 1‐minute ECGs and 24‐hour Holter recordings were acquired in 34 dogs with atrial fibrillation. The initial 24‐hour Holter was used to test if the ECG heart rate can identify dogs with “slow” versus “fast” atrial fibrillation based on a Holter24h threshold value of 140 bpm.
ECG heart rate overestimated Holter24h by 26 bpm (95% CI: 3 bpm, 48 bpm; P
- Bilateral hydronephrosis with urinary tract infection in a Campbell's
hamster (Phodopus campbelli)
- Authors: A. Eleftheriou; N. R. Wyre
- Surgical correction of gastro‐oesophageal intussusception with
bilateral incisional gastropexy in three dogs
- Authors: L. A. Murphy; R. K. Nakamura, J. M. Miller
Abstract: Three dogs presented for evaluation of acute onset tachypnoea and dyspnoea following episodes of vomiting and/or regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs were suggestive of a gastro‐oesophageal intussusception in all three dogs; one dog also showed evidence of aspiration pneumonia. All three dogs underwent surgical correction with a bilateral incisional gastropexy. All dogs recovered from anaesthesia uneventfully and were discharged from the hospital 3 days after presentation. Persistent megaoesophagus was evident in all three dogs, and they are being chronically managed with a strict feeding regime and pro‐motility agents.
- Use of bandage contact lenses for treatment of spontaneous chronic corneal
epithelial defects in dogs
- Authors: P. Grinninger; A. M. J. Verbruggen, I. M. G. Kraijer‐Huver, S. C. Djajadiningrat‐Laanen, E. Teske, M. H. Boevé
To determine whether polyxylon bandage contact lenses influence healing time and ocular comfort in the management of spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects in dogs.
Twenty dogs with spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects were included. All dogs were treated by debridement under topical anaesthesia at the first presentation. Ten dogs were assigned to the study group (application of a polyxylon bandage contact lens), and the remaining ten served as a control group. The healing time and ocular (dis)comfort were evaluated by assessment of the clinical findings and an owner‐based questionnaire. All dogs received the same topical and systemic medication.
Healing time for dogs in the study population was significantly shorter (mean 14±0 days) than for dogs in the control group (mean 36±17 days; P=0·005). The spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects had completely healed at the first recheck in all dogs with a polyxylon bandage contact lens. The duration of blepharospasm following debridement was significantly shorter in the study population (mean 4±4 days) than in the control group (mean 30±20 days; P=0·001).
The use of polyxylon bandage contact lenses is beneficial in the management of spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects.
- Morphology of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the right gastric
vein in dogs
- Authors: R. N. White; A. T. Parry
To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the right gastric vein in dogs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs managed for congenital portosystemic shunt.
Twenty‐two dogs met the inclusion criteria of a congenital portosystemic shunt involving the right gastric vein with recorded intraoperative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography and gross observations at the time of surgery. Of these, 20 (91%) had a shunt that entered the pre‐hepatic caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen and two (9%) had a shunt that entered the post‐hepatic caudal vena cava at the level of the diaphragm. Shunts entering the pre‐hepatic caudal vena cava could be further classified into three consistent subdivisions.
The morphology of each shunt type described appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between the left gastric vein and the caudal vena cava, the presence or absence of an abnormal communication between the splenic, left gastric and portal veins and the subsequent development of preferential blood flow through essentially normal portal vessels within the portal venous system. The abnormal communication (shunt) was through the left gastric vein and not the right gastric vein, as might have been expected. This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery.
- Breakage of two silicone endotracheal tubes during extubation
- Authors: M. C. Niimura del Barrio; I. Espadas, J. M. L. Hughes
Abstract: Silicone endotracheal tubes broke during tracheal extubation of two dogs after uneventful anaesthesia. The remaining pieces were removed via endoscopy, and both dogs recovered with no further problems. A third silicone endotracheal tube broke while checking for cracks prior to its use. Biofilm formation on the surface of the endotracheal tube is thought to be the main cause of the breakage. Destruction of the biofilm is difficult, therefore exhaustive cleaning with detergents followed by vigorous brushing is recommended to break the interaction between the silicone surface and the biofilm. It is suggested that careful attention is paid to how tubes are cleaned and dried (in a hanging position), and that they are checked carefully for cracks prior to each use.
- Presumptive congenital radial head sub‐luxation in a shih tzu:
successful management by radial head ostectomy
- Authors: D. C. Heidenreich; Y. Fourie, P. Barreau
Abstract: Congenital radial head sub‐luxation was diagnosed in a 7‐month‐old, neutered male shih tzu that presented with a limb deformity and severe lameness of the right fore limb. Radiography revealed a craniolateral sub‐luxation of the right radial head, which was treated by radial head ostectomy, fixation of the radius to the ulna with a screw and joint stabilisation with suture‐anchors and cerclage wire. Surgical treatment followed by physiotherapy resulted in a fully functional, well‐aligned and non‐painful elbow. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first case report of a congenital radial head sub‐luxation in a craniolateral direction in a dog and also one successfully managed with radial head ostectomy and radioulnar synostosis.
- Evaluation of a combination chemotherapy protocol including lomustine and
doxorubicin in canine histiocytic sarcoma
- Authors: C. Cannon; A. Borgatti, M. Henson, B. Husbands
To describe a chemotherapy protocol combining lomustine and doxorubicin in canine histiocytic sarcoma, including outcomes and toxicity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Retrospective review of case records for dogs with histiocytic sarcoma treated with lomustine and doxorubicin (± cyclophosphamide) alternating every 2 weeks. Data collected included signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities, extent of disease, response, toxicity, time to tumour progression and survival time.
Of 17 dogs, 15 had disseminated or metastatic disease. The median number of chemotherapy cycles (one dose of each drug) received was three; most dogs discontinued therapy due to progressive disease. Dose reductions or delays occurred in 18% of cycles. The overall response rate was 58%, with a median time to tumour progression of 185 (range, 59 to 268) days for responders. The overall median survival time was 185 (18 to 402) days. No significant prognostic factors were identified.
The protocol appeared well‐tolerated, had some efficacy against canine histiocytic sarcoma in the study population and could be considered as an alternative to single‐agent protocols; prospective comparison may be warranted.
- Hypersensitivity reaction during epirubicin infusion in a cat
- Authors: J. Elliott
- Systolic cardiac function assessment by feature tracking echocardiography
in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease
- Authors: M. M. Mantovani; R. A. L. Muzzi, G. G. Pereira, R. J. Yamato, A. C. Silva, G. F. Reis, L. A. L. Muzzi, E. C. Guimarães
To evaluate endomyocardial and epimyocardial left ventricular circumferential and longitudinal peak systolic strain and strain rate in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease using two‐dimensional feature tracking imaging echocardiography.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Epimyocardial and endomyocardial global and regional myocardial peak systolic strain and strain rate using two‐dimensional feature tracking imaging were evaluated in healthy dogs and those in stages B1, B2 and C of myxomatous mitral valve disease. Strain and strain rate in circumferential and longitudinal aspect were evaluated in 48 small‐ and medium‐sized dogs.
Global endomyocardial circumferential strain and global epimyocardial circumferential strain systolic peak were lower in stage C than in stage B2 (P = 0 · 04 and P = 0 · 02) and similar to healthy dogs. Endomyocardial circumferential strain rate in septal and inferior segments were lower in stage C compared to B2 (P = 0 · 0007 and P = 0 · 0056), but not different from healthy dogs. There were no statistical differences in the epimyocardial circumferential strain rate, longitudinal strain and strain rate between healthy and affected dogs.
Two‐dimensional feature tracking imaging determination of myocardial deformation in epimyocardial and endomyocardial layers allows detection of increased compensatory circumferential left ventricular myocardial systolic performance due to volume overload and absence of this response as disease advances to congestive heart failure.
- Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the spleen in healthy
dogs of different ages
- Authors: M. C. Maronezi; M. A. R. Feliciano, L. Z. Crivellenti, A. P. R. Simões, P. M. Bartlewski, I. Gill, J. C. C. Canola, W. R. R. Vicente
To determine the elastographic characteristics of splenic parenchyma in clinically healthy dogs of various ages in order to establish preliminary qualitative and quantitative standards/reference intervals for this technique.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Thirty three healthy dogs categorized as young, adult and elderly were used. Splenic echotexture, echogenicity, size and ages were assessed with B‐mode ultrasonography. Using qualitative elastography, the spleen (head, body and tail) was examined for homogeneity and presence of deformities. Shear velocities in different splenic segments were then quantitatively evaluated.
All splenic segments visualised with the B‐mode ultrasonography appeared normal. Different splenic segments examined with qualitative elastography were free of any detectable malformations and the images appeared as homogeneous dark areas. The mean shear velocity values were 2 · 32 m/s for head, 2 · 16 m/s for body and 2 · 25 m/s for tail of the spleen (P = 0 · 40), and they did not vary between the different age groups (P > 0 · 05).
Quantitative and qualitative ARFI elastography of the spleen in clinically healthy dogs differing in age could be easily performed, and it may aid in the diagnosis and evaluation of splenic abnormalities routinely assessed in veterinary practice with B‐mode ultrasonography.
- Intraoral diode laser epiglottectomy for treatment of epiglottis
chondrosarcoma in a dog
- Authors: D. De Lorenzi; D. Bertoncello, A. Dentini
Abstract: Laryngeal tumours are rare in dogs. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but it is usually palliative in malignant conditions, due to advanced stage of the tumour at the time of diagnosis. In veterinary medicine, little information is available about the use of diode laser in laryngeal oncological surgery. In the case reported here, a dog with an epiglottic chondrosarcoma was successfully treated with diode laser epiglottectomy. The surgical technique and follow up are described.
- Three‐dimensional conformal radiation therapy for inoperable massive
hepatocellular carcinoma in six dogs
- Authors: T. Mori; Y. Ito, M. Kawabe, R. Iwasaki, H. Sakai, M. Murakami, K. Maruo
To evaluate the activity and tolerability of three‐dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D‐CRT) in dogs with massive hepatocellular carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Six dogs with massive hepatocellular carcinoma that were ineligible for surgical resection or with owners who declined surgical resection, and underwent 3D‐CRT were retrospectively reviewed. 6 to 10 Gy per fraction was prescribed at isocentre of planning target volume to a total dose of 18 to 42 Gy with 1 to 2 fractions per week for a total of 3 to 7 fractions. Follow‐up examinations included physical examination, contrast‐enhanced CT scan and blood analysis (complete blood count, electrolytes and serum biochemical panel).
The median follow‐up time after 3D‐CRT was 534 (range, 281 to 1057) days. An objective response was observed in five of six cases. Radiation‐induced liver disease developed in one dog but was asymptomatic and reversible. Toxicity was not noted in any other dog.
3D‐CRT appears to be a viable treatment option for dogs with inoperable massive hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Retrocaval ureter in a ferret
- Authors: N. Di Girolamo; A. Carnimeo, A. Nicoletti, P. Selleri
- Two different approaches for novel extracapsular cranial cruciate ligament
reconstruction: an in vitro kinematics study
- Authors: F. Cinti; C. Signorelli, N. Lopomo, M. Baracchi, S. Del Magno, A. Foglia, S. Zaffagnini, L. Pisoni
To analyse the best combination of isometric points with the best kinematic results between two different approaches of TightRope® cranial cruciate ligament reconstruction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Cranial drawer, cranial tibial thrust, internal/external, range of motion and varus/valgus tests were passively performed in different stifle conditions: cranial cruciate ligament‐intact/deficient, after F2‐T2/F2‐T3 TR reconstruction at 22‐44‐99 N of tension. Data were acquired by a custom‐made navigation system.
The cranial drawer test showed recovery of laxity only at 99 N in both approaches. Significant laxity reduction (cranial tibial thrust) was present at only the F2‐T2 point. Differences were noted in internal/external and varus/valgus rotation between the cranial cruciate ligament‐intact and TightRope® stifles at all of the implant tensions. The range of motion underlined significantly lower laxity values following the F2‐T2/F2‐T3 reconstruction at all of the evaluated implant tensions.
The best isometric site was at the F2‐T2 point, however significant differences in the amount of laxity between the two techniques were limited to the cranial tibial thrust and internal/external test. The F2‐T2 technique was the best consideration for clinical application because it is relatively easy to perform, repeatable and results in good stifle stability with low morbidity and complications.
- Impact of diet on incisor growth and attrition and the development of
dental disease in pet rabbits
- Authors: A. L. Meredith; J. L. Prebble, D. J. Shaw
To assess the impact of four rabbit diets (hay only; extruded diet with hay; muesli with hay; muesli only) on length and curvature of cheek teeth and eruption and attrition rates of incisors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Thirty‐two Dutch rabbits, randomly divided into four diet groups, had length and saggital plane curvature of the first cheek teeth measured radiographically at 1, 9 and 17 months. Eruption/attrition of the left upper incisor was directly measured at weeks 30, 32 and 35.
Eruption rates matched attrition rates in all groups, but were higher in the hay only group than in both groups fed muesli. By month 9, a greater degree of tooth curvature was present in rabbits fed muesli only than in those fed hay only and extruded diet with hay. After 17 months, rabbits fed muesli only and muesli with hay had longer lower first cheek teeth and larger interdental spaces between the first two molars than rabbits fed extruded diet and hay and hay only. Three rabbits fed muesli only developed evidence of dental disease.
Presence of increased tooth length, curvature and interdental spaces indicated early dental pathology in rabbits fed muesli. Muesli diets cannot be recommended for pet rabbits.
- A retrospective study of the use of active suction wound drains in dogs
- Authors: P. C. Bristow; Z. J. Halfacree, S. J. Baines
To report indications for use and complications associated with commonly used closed active suction wound drains in a large number of clinical cases.
Retrospective review of medical case records (from 2004 to 2010) for dogs and cats that had a closed active suction drain placed into a wound. Only the four most common drain types were included: Mini Redovac®, Redovac®, Jackson Pratt® and Wound Evac®.
Two hundred and fifty‐three drains were placed in 33 cats and 195 dogs. Mini Redovac drains were used most frequently in cats (76 · 5%) and Redovac drains in dogs (54 · 3%). The infection rate for clean surgeries in dogs was 15 · 6% (unattainable in cats). Major complications occurred in four dogs; minor complications occurred in 12 drains in cats (35 · 3%), and in 74 drains in dogs (33 · 8%). There was no statistically significant association between the type of drain and complication rate for either species.
Although closed active suction drains can be used with low risk of major complications, they lead to a high rate of infection in clean surgeries in dogs. It is recommended that such drains are kept in place for the shortest time possible and that strict asepsis is adhered to both during placement and management.
- Modified semitendinosus muscle transposition to repair ventral perineal
hernia in 14 dogs
- Authors: E. Morello; M. Martano, S. Zabarino, L. A. Piras, S. Nicoli, R. Bussadori, P. Buracco
To describe a modified technique of semitendinosus muscle transposition for the repair of ventral perineal hernia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Retrospective review of case records of dogs with ventral perineal hernia that were treated by transposing the medial half of the longitudinally split semitendinosus muscle of one limb. The transposition of the internal obturator muscle was used when uni‐ or bilateral rectal sacculation was also present in addition to ventral perineal hernia; colopexy and vas deferens pexy were also performed.
Fourteen dogs were included. In addition to ventral perineal hernia, unilateral and bilateral perineal hernia was also present in five and six of the dogs, respectively. The mean follow‐up time was 890 days. Ventral perineal hernia was successfully managed by the modified semitendinosus muscle transposition with minor complications in all the dogs included in the study.
Despite the small number of dogs included, the unilateral transposition of the medial half of the longitudinally split semitendinosus muscle consistently supported the ventral rectal enlargement in perineal hernia without obvious adverse effects.
- Plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy in a cat with non‐restrictive
ventricular septal defect and chronic pulmonary hypertension
- Authors: D. S. Russell; B. A. Scansen, L. Himmel
Abstract: A 10‐week‐old, male, domestic long‐hair cat was medically managed for congenital heart disease over a period of 8 years. Regular clinical examinations, including sequential echocardiography, documented a non‐restrictive paramembranous ventricular septal defect, secundum‐type atrial septal defect and aortic dextroposition. Pulmonary arterial hypertension was diagnosed by the presence of high‐velocity tricuspid regurgitation, bidirectional low velocity flow across the ventricular septal defect, pulmonary arterial dilation and severe right ventricular hypertrophy without evidence of pulmonary outflow tract obstruction. The cat remained clinically stable until it died suddenly at 8 years of age. Histopathology of the lungs found evidence of plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy. Despite severe pulmonary vascular lesions, other post‐mortem evidence of right heart failure was lacking and death was attributed to a fatal cardiac arrhythmia. In this case report of a cat with chronic pulmonary hypertension over 8 years, plexogenic lesions were found on histopathology. The microscopic findings resemble those previously reported in dogs.
- Comparison between Ki‐67 index and mitotic index for predicting
outcome in canine mast cell tumours
- Authors: S. van Lelyveld; J. Warland, R. Miller, H. Maw, R. Foale, M. Goodfellow, J. Dobson
To assess correlation between Ki67 index and mitotic index and determine which more accurately predicts survival in canine mast cell tumours.
Retrospective analysis of cases from three UK referral hospitals. Correlation between Ki67 index and mitotic index was assessed and survival analysis performed.
A total of 162 dogs were included: 57 dogs died with 37 due to mast cell tumour. Correlation between Ki67 index and mitotic index was moderate, while the agreement was poor. A high Ki67 index was considered sensitive (86 · 5%) at predicting mast cell tumour‐related death, but poorly specific (57 · 9%). Mitotic index(>5) was poorly sensitive (32 · 4%), but highly specific (96%). A mitotic index of ê2 had a 75 · 7% sensitivity and an 80 · 0% specificity. Ki67 index showed a statistically significant survival difference within the mitotic index
- Common questions in veterinary toxicology
- Authors: N. Bates; P. Rawson‐Harris, N. Edwards
Abstract: Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed.
- Neurological signs and pre‐ and post‐traction low‐field
MRI findings in Dobermanns with disc‐associated cervical
- Authors: F. Stabile; M. Bernardini, G. Bevilacqua, A. B. Ekiri, A. de Stefani, L. De Risio
To investigate whether the presence of neurological signs and magnetic resonance imaging findings could predict the presence of a traction‐responsive lesion in Dobermanns affected by disc‐associated cervical spondylomyelopathy.
Retrospective review of neurological signs and low‐field pre‐ and post‐traction magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities of the cervical spine (abnormal vertebral body shape and vertebral tipping, intervertebral disc degeneration, protrusion and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy) in Dobermanns with disc‐associated cervical spondylomyelopathy. The main outcome of interest was response to linear traction (dynamic versus static) at C6‐C7 intervertebral disc space. The association between investigated variables and response to linear traction was assessed.
The study included 25 dogs. No association was identified between neurological status grading and the presence of a static or traction‐responsive lesion. Of the investigated magnetic resonance findings, C7‐T1 intervertebral disc degeneration was significantly (P = 0 · 03) associated with the presence of a traction‐responsive lesion at C6‐C7 intervertebral disc space.
The presence of C7‐T1 intervertebral disc degeneration might help in predicting the presence of traction‐responsive C6‐C7 intervertebral disc lesions.
- Spontaneaous linear gastric tears in a cat
- Authors: M. Gualtieri; D. Olivero, C. Costa Devoti
Abstract: An 11‐year‐old female cat presented for chronic vomiting. Endoscopy revealed an altered gastric mucosa and spontaneous formation of linear gastric tears during normal organ insufflations. The histopathological diagnosis was atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection. Medical treatment permitted a complete resolution of clinical signs. The linear tears observed resembled gastric lesions rarely reported in humans, called “Mallory‐Weiss syndrome”. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first report of spontaneous linear gastric tears in animals.
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the lentiform nuclei in dogs with
- Authors: V. Mortera‐Balsa; J. Penderis, A. Wessmann, R. Gonçalves, M. Lowrie, R. Gutierrez‐Quintana
To develop and evaluate a method to quantify the T1‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of the lentiform nuclei in dogs, and to determine if there is any significant difference in this signal intensity between dogs with portosystemic shunts and a control group.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A retrospective blinded study was performed to investigate the reliability and use of a quantitative method for assessing the T1‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of the lentiform nuclei in dogs with and without portosystemic shunts. The lentiform nuclei index (mean lentiform nucleus signal intensity/mean white matter signal intensity) was calculated for nine dogs with portosystemic shunts and a control group of 14 dogs.
The intra‐ and inter‐observer intraclass correlation coefficients were considered excellent (>0 · 75), suggesting that the lentiform nuclei index is a reliable method. The dogs with portosystemic shunts had a higher lentiform nuclei index than the control group (P = 0 · 0127).
This method of quantifying the T1‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of the lentiform nuclei was reliable and showed that dogs with portosystemic shunts tend to have increased signal intensity. Further prospective studies are necessary to investigate the clinical significance and applications of these findings.
- Feeding obese dogs during weight loss is on average cost‐neutral
- Authors: A. J. German; J. Luxmore, S. L. Holden, P. J. Morris, V. Biourge
The cost of feeding a purpose‐formulated weight loss diet may deter owners of obese dogs from proceeding with a weight loss programme. The current study aimed to compare average food costs during weight loss with those before weight loss.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Average daily food costs, for before and during weight loss, were calculated in 22 obese dogs that had successfully completed weight management.
The median food cost before weight loss was £0 · 52/day (£0 · 24–3 · 31/day), for main meal only, and £0 · 64/day (£0 · 26–3 · 31/day) for main meal and additional food (table scraps and treats). The median food cost during weight loss was £0 · 90/day (£0 · 26–1 · 36/day), and no additional food was given. The average daily feeding costs during weight loss did not differ from pre‐weight‐loss costs, either with (P = 0 · 425) or without (P = 0 · 222) the additional food included.
Knowledge that average diet costs do not significantly differ from food costs prior to weight loss may help veterinarians to persuade owners to enrol obese dogs in a weight management programme.
- Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful
treatment of bacterial cyst infection
- Authors: R. Nivy; L. A. Lyons, I. Aroch, G. Segev
Abstract: Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin‐1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian‐related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian‐related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors’ knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease.
- Adenosquamous carcinoma of the oesophagus in a dog
- Authors: H. Okanishi; H. Shibuya, T. Miyasaka, K. Asano, T. Sato, T. Watari
Abstract: A six‐year‐old mixed‐breed male dog weighing 7.0 kg was presented with chronic vomiting and regurgitation. Endoscopic examination revealed prominent oesophageal dilation in the thoracic region, multiple small greyish‐white nodules over the oesophageal lumen and cauliflower‐like masses in the caudal oesophagus. Histopathological studies revealed a characteristic pattern of coexisting elements of infiltrating adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with anti‐cytokeratin AE1 + AE3 was positive in both types of neoplastic cells. Neoplastic glandular cells stained positively for cytokeratin 8 while neoplastic squamous cells stained positively for cytokeratin 5/6. On the basis of these findings, the dog was diagnosed with oesophageal adenosquamous carcinoma. The case history and findings suggest that the malignancy might have developed from Barrett's oesophagus following irritation of the oesophageal mucosa due to chronic vomiting and regurgitation.
- Circulating concentrations of a marker of type I collagen metabolism are
associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation status in ragdoll
- Authors: K. Borgeat; J. Dudhia, V. Luis Fuentes, D. J. Connolly
Human carriers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated sarcomeric mutations have abnormal collagen metabolism before overt left ventricular hypertrophy is detectable. This study investigated whether differences in collagen biomarkers were present in blood samples of ragdoll cats positive for the MYBPC3:R820W mutation compared with negative controls.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Cats were recruited for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy screening using echocardiography and genotyping. Circulating markers of collagen turnover (C‐terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [CITP; type I collagen degradation] and N‐terminal propeptide of type III procollagen [type III collagen synthesis]) and cardiac biomarkers (N‐terminal B‐type natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin I) were measured. Correlation between concentrations of collagen biomarkers and echocardiographic variables was analysed, and collagen biomarker concentrations were compared between MYBPC3 mutation positive and negative cats, without left ventricular hypertrophy.
Linear regression analyses showed that genotype was independently associated with CITP concentration. CITP was higher in mutation carriers (25 · 4 µg/L, interquartile range 16 · 0–29 · 2 µg/L) than non‐carriers (14 · 6 µg/L, interquartile range 9 · 38–19 · 2 µg/L; P = 0 · 024).
Circulating CITP was higher in MYBPC3‐positive ragdoll cats than negative controls and may indicate altered collagen metabolism. Further studies are necessary to determine whether alterations in circulating collagen biomarker concentration relate to an early stage of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
- Dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy in two lurcher siblings
- Authors: C. Giannasi; S.W. Tappin, L.T. Guo, G.D. Shelton, V. Palus
Abstract: Two cases of dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy in 16‐week‐old male lurcher siblings are reported. The myopathies were characterised by regurgitation, progressive weakness and muscle wastage. The dogs had generalised weakness in all four limbs, with more pronounced weakness in the pelvic limbs. Reduced withdrawal in all limbs, muscle contracture and lingual hypertrophy were noted. Serum creatine kinase activities were markedly elevated. Electromyographic abnormalities included fibrillation potentials. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining were consistent with dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy. Clinical improvement was noted in one of the cases with l‐carnitine supplementation and supportive therapy. Genetic transmission of the disease was postulated as the dogs were siblings.
- Comparison of endoscopy and sonography findings in dogs and cats with
histologically confirmed gastric neoplasia
- Authors: A. J. Marolf; A. M. Bachand, J. Sharber, D. C. Twedt
To compare sonographic and endoscopic findings in a group of dogs and cats with histologically confirmed gastric neoplasia.
Retrospective analysis of cases with concurrent abdominal ultrasound and endoscopy to evaluate the presence of gastric wall abnormalities, location and tumour appearance between the two examinations. Sonographic findings of the small intestines, liver, spleen and lymph nodes were recorded. Comparison of the findings from each test and assessment of predictive characteristics for neoplasia was evaluated.
In total 17 dogs and 5 cats were included, Sonography identified 50% and endoscopy identified 95% of all gastric neoplasms. Lymphoma was the most commonly missed tumour by sonography. There was sonographic and endoscopic tumour location agreement in 36% of cases (Cohen's kappa = 0 · 25). Animals with sonographically normal small intestines had a statistically greater probability of gastric neoplasia (P = 0 · 035). All cats had lymphoma (P
- Spinal cord injury secondary to electrocution in a dog
- Authors: C. Ros; C. de la Fuente, M. Pumarola, S. Añor
Abstract: A 13‐year‐old, female spayed, crossbreed dog of 32 kg was presented for evaluation of peracute onset of non‐ambulatory tetraparesis after chewing an electrical wire. Neurological examination was consistent with a C1‐C5 myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a focal intramedullary lesion over the C2‐C3 vertebral bodies, which was confirmed to be an acute focal necrotising poliomyelopathy with subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhages on postmortem examination. This report describes the clinical, imaging and histopathological findings of this unusual type of spinal cord injury, and the effects of electrocution in the central nervous system of dogs.
- Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of prostate and testes
of healthy dogs: preliminary results
- Authors: M. A. R. Feliciano; M. C. Maronezi, A. P. R. Simões, R. R. Uscategui, G. S. Maciel, C. F. Carvalho, J. C. Canola, W. R. R. Vicente
To describe the use of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography to evaluate the prostate and testes in healthy dogs and establish reference values for these organs.
Thirty dogs were divided into three groups according to their age: juvenile, adult and senior. Echotexture, size, contours and margins of prostate and testes were assessed via ultrasound. The presence of deformities and tissue stiffness (greyscale and homogeneous or heterogeneous) were evaluated by qualitative acoustic radiation force impulse. The shear velocity was evaluated quantitatively.
The B mode findings were normal. The qualitative elastography demonstrated that the testes and prostate tissues were hard, homogeneous and not pliable. The shear velocity values were: left testes – juveniles: 1·28 m/s, adults: 1·23 m/s and seniors: 1·23 m/s; right testes – juveniles: 1·28 m/s, adults: 1·28 m/s and seniors: 1·28 m/s; left prostatic lobe – juveniles: 1·74 m/s, adults: 2·03 m/s and seniors: 1·82 m/s; right prostatic lobe – juvenile: 1·62 m/s, adults: 1·87 m/s and seniors: 1·90 m/s with no significant differences between groups.
Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the testes and prostate in dogs was easily implemented. This study provides baseline data for these organs.
- Fentanyl‐induced asystole in two dogs
- Authors: M. Jang; W.‐G. Son, I. Lee
Abstract: Fentanyl is used in small animals for perioperative analgesia during anaesthesia. Severe bradycardia and asystole were observed on bolus administration of a 3 µg/kg loading dose of fentanyl in two dogs under isoflurane anaesthesia. Premedication with 10 µg/kg glycopyrrolate did not prevent asystole in the first case; and although bradycardia was treated with 5 µg/kg glycopyrrolate administered intravenously in the second case, the heart rate continuously decreased and asystole subsequently developed. Asystole in both cases was quickly corrected by intravenous administration of 0 · 04 mg/kg atropine and closed chest compressions. This case report describes asystole induced by fentanyl administration in isoflurane anaesthetised dogs. Atropine was more effective than glycopyrrolate in the treatment of fentanyl‐induced asystole.
- Successful closed suction drain management of a canine elbow hygroma
- Authors: M. M. Pavletic; D. E. Brum
Abstract: A 1‐year‐old castrated male St. Bernard dog presented to Angell Animal Medical Center with bilateral elbow hygromas which had been present for several weeks. The largest hygroma involving the left elbow was managed with a closed suction (active) drain system to continuously collapse the hygroma pocket over a 3‐week period. Soft bedding was used to protect the elbows from further impact trauma to the olecranon areas. Following drain removal, there was no evidence of hygroma recurrence based on periodic examinations over an 18‐month period. The smaller non‐operated right elbow hygroma had slightly enlarged during this period. Closed suction drain management of the hygroma proved to be a simple and economical method of collapsing the left elbow hygroma. This closed drainage system eliminated the need for the postoperative bandage care required with the use of the Penrose (passive) drain method of managing elbow hygromas. The external drain tube should be adequately secured in order to minimise the risk of its inadvertent displacement.
- Nebulised adrenaline to manage a life‐threatening complication in a
pug with trismus
- Authors: E. Leece; G. Cherubini
Abstract: A 13‐month‐old pug with severe trismus because of suspected masticatory muscle myositis underwent anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging. When regurgitation occurred, the tongue was pulled from the mouth to enable suctioning but could not be repositioned into the oral cavity as it was not possible to open the mouth. Swelling due to venous congestion and a bite wound were treated using nebulised adrenaline and resolved within 2 hours allowing retraction of the tongue. The use of nebulised adrenaline offers a non‐invasive method of managing this potentially life‐threatening complication.
- The Association, the Journal and the Publisher: a symbiotic relationship
- Authors: Ian Mellor
Pages: 297 - 297
- Vaginal prolapse in a pregnant Maine coon cat: a case report
- Authors: K. A. McKelvey; T. M. Beachler, K. K. Ferris, M. Diaw, J. M. Vasgaard, C. S. Bailey
Abstract: Vaginal prolapse is a condition characterised by excessive accumulation of mucosal oedema and protrusion of hyperplastic tissue through the vulva. It has been reported in ruminants and canines, but has not been characterised in felines. This report describes the history, clinical signs and treatment of a pregnant Maine coon cat with a Type III vaginal prolapse diagnosed approximately 54 days after the first day of mating. Prior to queening, the prolapse was reduced and retained using a vulvar cruciate suture. Due to the risk of dystocia and recurrence, a caesarean section with ovariohysterectomy was performed. Postoperatively, a stay suture was maintained in the vulva for 2 weeks, resulting in permanent reduction of the vaginal prolapse. To the authors’ knowledge, this case represents the first report of the successful management of vaginal prolapse in a pregnant cat.
- Muscular dystrophy due to a sarcoglycan deficiency in a female Dobermann
- Authors: J. S. Munday; G. D. Shelton, S. Willox, D. D. Kingsbury
Abstract: A four‐month‐old female Dobermann presented with myalgia, dysphagia, progressive weakness and loss of body condition. Diagnostic evaluation at nine months of age revealed markedly elevated serum creatine kinase activity, electromyographic abnormalities and histological evidence of chronic‐active muscle necrosis. Imaging confirmed dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia. Muscular dystrophy was suspected and immunohistochemical staining of muscle cryosections demonstrated reduced sarcoglycans. Treatment consisted of gastrostomy, and over the next 5 months the dog gained weight, despite continued loss of muscle mass. The dog died at 14 months of age after developing clinical signs of aspiration pneumonia. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of muscular dystrophy in a Dobermann and only the second detailed report of a canine sarcoglycanopathy. Supportive care resulted in an acceptable quality of life for 10 months after clinical signs were first observed.
- Surgical management of a traumatic dislocation of the sternum in an
- Authors: C. I. Serra; C. Soler, V. Moratalla, V. Sifre, J. I. Redondo
Abstract: A nine‐year‐old English bulldog presented with an acute history of dyspnoea, tachycardia and discomfort localising to the ventral thorax following a fall down the stairs that morning. After the dog was stabilised, thoracic radiographs revealed a luxation of the third and fourth sternebrae with dorsal displacement of the caudal segment. The sternum was reduced and stabilised with a contoured 12‐hole 3 · 5‐mm dynamic compression plate applied to the ventral surface of the sternum.
The dog's initial recovery was rapid, cardiorespiratory parameters returning to normal in the first 24 hours. For 2 weeks postoperatively the dog exhibited difficulty in rising from a prone position. After this time there was a full recovery. Clinical examination at 8 months postoperatively did not reveal any abnormalities. Telephone follow‐up was performed at 18 months and no complications or cardiorespiratory compromise were reported. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a traumatic dislocation of the sternum and its management in the dog.
- A case of type B botulism in a pregnant bitch
- Authors: A. Lamoureux; C. Pouzot‐Nevoret, C. Escriou
Abstract: A two‐year‐old pregnant Gordon setter presented with acute onset of flaccid tetraparesis and respiratory distress. Neurological examination revealed diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin B was isolated from the dog's serum. The dog was hospitalised and received supportive care; respiratory function was monitored but positive‐pressure ventilation was not required. Recovery was complete within 1 month and parturition occurred without complication 49 days after admission. The puppies delivered lacked any obvious congenital defects and development during the first few months of life was normal. The source of contamination was suspected to be poorly conserved dry food.
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of C. botulinum neurotoxin B isolation in a dog and the first report of botulism in a pregnant bitch.
- Lethal septic shock after dental scaling in a healthy dog due to
Ochrobactrum anthropi‐contaminated propofol
- Authors: P. Franci; G. Dotto, A. Cattai, D. Pasotto
- Dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy in a Norfolk terrier
- Authors: E. Beltran; G. D. Shelton, L. T. Guo, R. Dennis, D. Sanchez‐Masian, D. Robinson, L. De Risio
Abstract: A six‐month‐old male entire Norfolk terrier was presented with a 3‐month history of poor development, reluctance to exercise and progressive and diffuse muscle atrophy. Serum creatine kinase concentration was markedly elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the epaxial muscles revealed asymmetrical streaky signal changes aligned within the muscle fibres (hyperintense on T2‐weighted images and short‐tau inversion recovery with moderate contrast enhancement on T1‐weighted images). Electromyography revealed pseudomyotonic discharges and fibrillation potentials localised at the level of the supraspinatus, epaxial muscles and tibial cranialis muscles. Muscle biopsy results were consistent with dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy. The dog remained stable 7 months after diagnosis with coenzyme Q10 and l‐carnitine; however after that time, there was a marked deterioration and the owners elected euthanasia. This case report describes the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging, electrodiagnostic and histopathological findings with immunohistochemical analysis in a Norfolk terrier with confirmed dystrophin‐deficient muscular dystrophy, which has not been previously described in this breed.