- Investigation of iron status and markers of inflammation in anaemic and
non-anaemic hospitalised cats
- Authors: M. von Roedern; Y. Buriko, J. Prittie, K. Lamb
Abstract: ObjectivesTo measure iron parameters and markers of inflammation in anaemic cats presented for intensive care unit hospitalisation, and to compare these to cohorts of non-anaemic hospitalised cats and cats that develop hospital-acquired anaemia.MethodsBlood samples were collected for measurement of iron panel and serum amyloid A in addition to routine investigation in cats admitted to the intensive care unit. Medical records were reviewed to determine how many of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome criteria were met and to assign Acute Patient Physiologic and Laboratory Evaluation scores as a measure of illness severity.ResultsSeventy-eight cats were enrolled. Anaemia was documented in 34·6% of cats on presentation and another 10·3% developed anaemia during hospitalisation. Compared with non-anaemic cats, animals that were anaemic on presentation had higher neutrophil and white blood cell counts, and longer hospitalisation. Iron status was consistent with anaemia of inflammation in most anaemic patients. Iron status, serum amyloid A concentration, and prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome did not differ between anaemic and non-anaemic cohorts. All cause mortality was higher in anaemic cats.Clinical SignificanceAnaemia is common in cats hospitalised in the intensive care unit. Systemic inflammation is also common in these cats. Iron status in anaemic cats suggests that anaemia of inflammatory disease may be a significant contributor to anaemia in this patient population.
- Tibial tuberosity advancement in small-breed dogs using TTA Rapid
implants: complications and outcome
- Authors: B. Dyall; H. Schmökel
Abstract: ObjectiveTo assess the perioperative complications and the outcome when treating small-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency with tibial tuberosity advancement using the TTA Rapid implant.Materials and Methods40 dogs (48 stifles) with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency and body weight of 15 kg or less. Diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy or arthrotomy, followed by tibial tuberosity advancement surgery. Six weeks after surgery, the dogs were re-evaluated with clinical examination and radiography. Mid- to long-term outcome was assessed using client questionnaire.ResultsIntraoperative complications consisted of four osteotomy-related fissures through the cranial cortex; two complete fissures were stabilised with a screw, the others healed without intervention. After surgery there were two tibial fractures and two incisional complications. Six weeks postoperatively, limb function was good to excellent in 43 dogs (94%). Two late meniscal injuries occurred. The overall major complication rate was 7/48 14·6%). Mid- to long-term follow-up information was available for 43 stifles: 34 stifles (79%) were free of lameness at a median of 72 weeks postoperatively. The outcome was rated excellent by 88% of the clients and good by 7%.Clinical SignificanceThe use of TTA Rapid implants is an alternative for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in small-breed dogs, with complication rates comparable to those recorded in larger breeds and to other techniques, and with a high degree of owner satisfaction.
- Canine pancytopoenia in a Mediterranean region: a retrospective study of
119 cases (2005 to 2013)
- Authors: P. S. Frezoulis; E. Angelidou, D. Karnezi, I. L. Oikonomidis, M. Kritsepi-Konstantinou, D. Kasabalis, M. E. Mylonakis
Abstract: ObjectivesTo further clarify the causes of pancytopoenia and to investigate whether underlying cause or severity were associated with survival in an area endemic for vector-borne pathogens.MethodsRetrospective review of medical records of 119 dogs with and 238 dogs without pancytopoenia.ResultsMixed-breed dogs and dogs younger than one year had higher odds of being pancytopoenic. The most common diagnoses included monocytic ehrlichiosis (n=42), leishmaniasis (n=28) and parvoviral enteritis (n=19). The mean white blood cell counts were lower in dogs with ehrlichiosis and parvoviral enteritis compared to dogs with leishmaniasis, while platelet counts were lower in ehrlichiosis compared to leishmaniasis or parvoviral enteritis. Total protein concentrations were lower in dogs with parvoviral enteritis compared to ehrlichiosis and leishmaniasis. Higher haematocrit, platelet and white cell counts were associated with better odds of survival.Clinical SignificanceInfectious diseases appear to be the leading causes of canine pancytopoenia in endemic areas; severe leukopoenia (ehrlichiosis, parvoviral enteritis), thrombocytopoenia (ehrlichiosis) and hypoproteinaemia (parvoviral enteritis), represented potentially useful disease-specific diagnostic determinants. The severity of pancytopoenia significantly affects the clinical outcome.
- Bilateral sacroiliac luxation fixation using a single transiliosacral pin:
surgical technique and clinical outcomes in eight cats
- Authors: A. Parslow; D. J. Simpson
Abstract: ObjectivesA very limited safe anatomical window for transiliosacral implant placement exists in cats (
- A retrospective study of dogs with atypical hypoadrenocorticism:
a diagnostic cut-off or continuum'
- Authors: J. A. Wakayama; E. Furrow, L. K. Merkel, P. J. Armstrong
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the clinicopathologic findings and outcome in dogs with atypical hypoadrenocorticism (Group 1) and dogs with suspected atypical hypoadrenocorticism whose post-adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation cortisol concentrations were greater than 55 nmol/L but below the laboratory reference interval (Group 2).MethodsMedical records were searched to identify dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism between January 2004 and June 2014. Dogs were excluded if their Na:K ratio was less than 27 or if they had received prior therapy that could interfere with adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing.ResultsForty dogs were included in Group 1 and nine dogs in Group 2. In Group 1, the most common biochemical abnormalities were hypoalbuminaemia (87%) and hypocholesterolaemia (76%). Of 35 dogs in Group 1 with follow-up biochemistry results, five (14%) developed electrolyte abnormalities at 2 to 51 months post diagnosis. Of seven dogs in Group 2 with follow-up, glucocorticoid therapy was discontinued in two dogs without return of clinical signs, four dogs were subsequently diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease and one dog continued to have clinical signs despite glucocorticoid treatment.Clinical SignificanceDogs with gastrointestinal signs and hypoalbuminaemia and, or, hypocholesterolaemia should be evaluated for atypical hypoadrenocorticism. Follow-up electrolyte monitoring is recommended because some will develop electrolyte abnormalities. Although dogs in Group 2 had a clinical presentation compatible with atypical hypoadrenocorticism, the diagnosis appears unlikely based on review of follow-up data. Dogs with equivocal adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation results should be evaluated for other underlying diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. The use of endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone measurements in these dogs warrants investigation.
- Serial measurement of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentration in
dogs with immune-mediated disease treated with prednisolone
- Authors: H. Ohta; T. Morita, N. Yokoyama, T. Osuga, N. Sasaki, K. Morishita, K. Nakamura, M. Takiguchi
Abstract: ObjectivesIn this pilot study, serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was measured repeatedly in dogs with various immune-mediated diseases that were treated with immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone.MethodsTen client-owned dogs with newly diagnosed immune-mediated disease that had normal canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations (≤200 µg/l) were treated with 2 to 2.2 mg/kg prednisolone orally once daily as the initial treatment. Serum samples were obtained from each of the dogs prior to treatment and at 1- to 4-week intervals during immunosuppressive treatment. The highest canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentration detected during immunosuppressive treatment was defined as the peak canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity.ResultsPeak canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were classified as normal in two dogs, questionable (201 to 399 µg/l) in three dogs, and abnormal (≥400 µg/l) in five dogs. Peak canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were significantly higher than baseline canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations but there was no evidence of clinical pancreatitis.Clinical SignificanceIt remains unclear whether the five of 10 dogs with elevated canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity during prednisone treatment had subclinical pancreatitis or whether the abnormal results were a consequence of prednisolone administration.
- Presumed primary immune-mediated neutropoenia in 35 dogs: a retrospective
- Authors: L. Devine; P. J. Armstrong, J. C. Whittemore, L. Sharkey, N. Bailiff, A. Huang, M. Rishniw
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe, in a cohort of dogs with presumed primary immune-mediated neutropoenia, the presenting clinical characteristics, haematology results, bone marrow characteristics, therapies used (drugs and doses), clinical response to treatment, relapse and outcome at six months and one year.MethodsMulti-institutional recruited retrospective descriptive case series with voluntary submissions. Presumed immune-mediated neutropoenia was diagnosed based on a neutrophil concentration
- Treatment of inflammatory rectal strictures by digital bougienage: a
retrospective study of nine cases
- Authors: A. Lamoureux; C. Maurey, V. Freiche
Abstract: ObjectivesInflammatory rectal strictures in dogs and cats have been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to describe nine cases and their treatment by digital bougienage.MethodsMedical records of dogs and cats referred for constipation, dyschezia or tenesmus and diagnosed with an inflammatory rectal stricture were obtained from the database of two referral centres between 2007 and 2014 and reviewed.ResultsFour dogs and five cats met the inclusion criteria. Four of the five cats were purebred kittens. Three cats and two dogs had a history of diarrhoea and two dogs had a history of bone ingestion. Digital rectal examination revealed rectal strictures in all cases. Histopathology revealed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in all four dogs and in two cats. All cases were treated by digital bougienage. A psyllium-enriched diet was prescribed in all cats and in two dogs. A complete resolution of clinical signs was reported in all eight cases for which follow-up information was available.Clinical SignificanceBenign rectal strictures associated with gastrointestinal inflammation should be routinely included in the differential diagnosis of constipation, tenesmus and dyschezia, especially after an episode of acute or chronic diarrhoea. The treatment described here is simple, minimally invasive and effective in the long term.
- Surgical management of primary, metastatic and recurrent anal sac
adenocarcinoma in the dog: 52 cases
- Authors: D. C. Barnes; J. L. Demetriou
Abstract: ObjectivesTo report the outcomes and complications of a cohort of dogs with primary and recurrent anal sac adenocarcinoma managed with surgery as the first-line treatment. To report the use of lymph node cytology for identification of metastatic disease.MethodsRetrospective review of case records of a single referral centre population of dogs diagnosed with anal sac adenocarcinoma.ResultsFifty-two clinical cases were identified. Altered ultrasonographic appearance of lymph nodes was highly consistent with metastatic disease as assessed by cytology and histopathology. Seven of 58 (12%) perineal surgeries had reported minor complications and seven (12%) others required further surgical intervention. Minor controllable intraoperative bleeding was the only complication noted associated with lymph node extirpation in two of 39 (5%) metastectomy procedures. Six dogs (12%) suffered local recurrence and 22 (42%) developed subsequent or recurrent nodal metastatic disease. From the time of detection of disease recurrence, median additional survival associated with a second surgical intervention was 283 days.Clinical SignificanceCoeliotomy for lymph node metastatectomy in dogs with adenocarcinoma of the anal sac has low morbidity and should be considered in patients presenting with evidence of regional metastatic disease both at initial presentation and with recurrent disease.
- Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 20 dogs (2012 to 2014)
- Authors: M. Muenster; A. Hoerauf, M. Vieth
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the clinical features of canine gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.Materials and MethodsA search of our medical records produced 20 dogs with clinical signs attributable to oesophageal disease, hyper-regeneratory oesophagopathy and no other oesophageal disorders. The clinical, endoscopic and histological findings of the dogs were analysed.ResultsThe 3-year incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was 0·9% of our referral dog population. Main clinical signs were regurgitation, discomfort or pain (each, 20/20 dogs) and ptyalism (18/20 dogs). Oesophagoscopy showed no (5/20 dogs) or minimal (13/20 dogs) mucosal lesions. In oesophageal mucosal biopsy specimens, there were hyperplastic changes of the basal cell layer (13/20 dogs), stromal papillae (14/20 dogs) and entire epithelium (9/20 dogs). Eleven dogs received omeprazole or pantoprazole and regurgitation and ptyalism improved in eight and pain diminished in six of these dogs within three to six weeks.Clinical SignificanceOur findings suggest that canine gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a more common clinical problem than hitherto suspected.
- Comparison of the spread of two different volumes of contrast medium when
performing ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane injection in dog
- Authors: A. Zoff; P. Laborda-Vidal, J. Mortier, M. Amengual, E. Rioja
Abstract: ObjectivesTo compare, via CT imaging, the spread of different volumes of diluted iodinated contrast medium in the transversus abdominis muscle plane of dog cadavers.MethodsProspective, randomised study. An electro stimulation or a SonoTAP needle was inserted in plane with the ultrasound beam in the fascia between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles. A test dose of 1 ml of diluted contrast (30 mg/mL iohexol) was injected to confirm positioning, followed by 0·5 mL/kg (n=14) or 1 mL/kg (n=12) and the distribution of the fluid compared.ResultsContrast medium was identified exclusively in the transversus abdominis plane in 19 of 26 dogs. In one dog, the contrast lay between the external and internal oblique muscles and partially in three dogs. Intraperitoneal contrast was detected in 6 of 26 dogs (23%). No significant differences were found in the dorso-ventral or cranio-caudal spread or area of distribution but a significant difference was found in the transverse spread. There was an association between poor ultrasound visualisation of the tip of the needle and intraperitoneal injection.Clinical SignificanceInjection of 1 mL/kg of diluted contrast did not result in wider cranio-caudal spread in the transversus abdominis muscle plane of dog cadavers when compared with 0·5 mL/kg. Intraperitoneal injection is a risk and might be reduced with good needle visualisation.
- Successful treatment of a metastatic, gastrointestinal stromal tumour in a
dog with toceranib phosphate (Palladia)
- Authors: J. W. Elliott; F. Swinbourne, A. Parry, L. Baines
Abstract: A ten-year-old, female-entire English springer spaniel presented with a large intra-abdominal mass but no other clinical signs. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the caecum with widespread abdominal metastasis was confirmed. Treatment with toceranib phosphate resulted in complete response, despite the absence of exon-8 or exon-11 c-kit mutation. There was no clinical evidence of tumour recurrence nine months after diagnosis.
- Analysis of serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme in
dogs with hepatobiliary diseases
- Authors: K. Kojima; K. Ohno, H. Kanemoto, Y. Goto-Koshino, K. Fukushima, H. Tsujimoto
Abstract: ObjectiveTo reveal the relationship between canine corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity and hepatobiliary diseases.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis of the relationship between serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and diagnosis, serum cortisol concentration and alanine transferase activity in dogs with hepatobiliary diseases. Dogs with a history of glucocorticoid administration were excluded.ResultsSeventy-two dogs with hepatobiliary diseases were analysed. The serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase concentration was increased in dogs with hepatobiliary diseases. There was no correlation between serum cortisol concentration and serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase percentage or activity.Clinical SignificanceDogs with hepatobiliary disease can exhibit high serum alkaline phosphatase activity even if the dogs have not been administrated glucocorticoids and the serum cortisol concentration is normal.
- Type Ia (spherical) communicating colonic duplication in a dog treated
- Authors: N. Fernandez; L. Morrison, T. Liuti, M. Frame, D. Yool
Abstract: A six-month-old Labrador retriever presented for investigation of a colonic mass identified as an incidental finding during exploratory coeliotomy. Computed tomography identified a lesion in the colon which occupied part of its lumen and shared blood supply with the remainder of the colon. The lesion was suspected to be a colonic duplication and it was excised by segmental colectomy during exploratory coeliotomy. Histopathology from the excised colon confirmed the diagnosis of a colonic duplication. The dog recovered uneventfully and had no complications. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of an asymptomatic, spherical, communicating colonic duplication and the first report to describe segmental colectomy for the management of this condition in veterinary patients.
- Gastrointestinal pseudoparasitism by chestnut weevil (Curculio
sikkimensis) larvae in a dog
- Authors: Y. Sato; Y. Ohari, T. Itagaki
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- Pages: 190 - 190
- Bacterial translocation in critical illness
- Authors: T. Krentz; S. Allen
Pages: 191 - 198
Abstract: Bacterial translocation involves the passage of intestinal bacteria to extraintestinal sites and has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in critical illness. This review outlines the pathophysiology of bacterial translocation, host defence mechanisms, and reviews the evidence for the clinical management of critically ill patients in order to minimise the negative outcomes associated with bacterial translocation.
- Re-opening the window on fenestration as a treatment for acute
thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in dogs
- Authors: P. Freeman; N. D. Jeffery
Pages: 199 - 204
Abstract: Acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in dogs is a common cause of “back” pain, pelvic limb paresis or paralysis and incontinence. Treatment of this condition has long been a source of controversy, especially since the introduction of surgical interventions in the 1950s. Unfortunately, formal clinical trials to compare efficacy of conservative and surgical interventions have never been carried out and the current lack of clinical equipoise on this subject now precludes such a trial on ethical grounds. In this article we re-examine and discuss earlier published data on recovery associated with the various therapies, focusing on evidence suggesting that decompressive surgery and fenestration may be equally efficacious.
- Outcome of bioprosthetic valve replacement in dogs with tricuspid valve
- Authors: P. Bristow; J. Sargent, V. Luis Fuentes, D. Brockman
Pages: 205 - 210
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the short-term and long-term outcome in dogs with tricuspid valve dysplasia undergoing tricuspid valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass.MethodsData were collected from the hospital records of all dogs that had undergone tricuspid valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass between 2006 and 2012. Dogs were considered candidates for tricuspid valve replacement if they had severe tricuspid valve regurgitation associated with clinical signs of cardiac compromise.ResultsNine dogs of six different breeds were presented. Median age was 13 months (range 7 to 61 months), median weight 26·5 kg (range 9·7 to 59 kg). Eight bovine pericardial valves and one porcine aortic valve were used. One non-fatal intraoperative complication occurred. Complications during hospitalisation occurred in six dogs, four of which were fatal. Of the five dogs discharged, one presented dead due to haemothorax after minor trauma seven days later. The four remaining dogs survived a median of 533 days; all of these dogs received a bovine pericardial valve.Clinical SignificanceBased on our results, tricuspid valve replacement with bovine or porcine prosthetic valves is associated with a high incidence of complications.
- Clinical findings and results of diagnostic imaging in 82 dogs with
- Authors: E. Fitzgerald; D. Barfield, K. C. L. Lee, C. R. Lamb
Pages: 211 - 218
Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe clinical and imaging findings in dogs with confirmed gastrointestinal ulceration, to compare findings in dogs with perforated and non-perforated ulcers and to estimate the sensitivities of radiography, ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for gastrointestinal ulceration and perforation.MethodsRetrospective review of medical records of 82 dogs that had a macroscopic ulcer in the gastric or intestinal mucosa diagnosed directly at endoscopy, surgery or necropsy and had survey radiography, ultrasonography or a CT scan of the abdomen during the same period of hospitalisation.ResultsThe most frequent clinical signs were vomiting in 88% dogs, haematemesis in 32%, melaena in 31% and weight loss in 7%. The most frequent imaging findings in dogs with non-perforated ulcers were gastrointestinal mural lesion in 56%, mucosal defect compatible with an ulcer in 44% and peritoneal fluid in 21%. In dogs with perforated ulcers the most frequent imaging findings were peritoneal fluid in 83%, gastrointestinal mural lesion in 48%, peritoneal gas in 31% and mucosal defect compatible with an ulcer in 29%. Sensitivities of radiography, ultrasonography and CT were 30, 65 and 67% in dogs with non-perforated ulcers and 79, 86 and 93% in dogs with perforated ulcers, respectively.Clinical SignificanceIn dogs with non-perforated ulcers, survey radiography was usually negative whereas ultrasonography and CT frequently enabled detection of the site of the ulcer; in dogs with perforated ulcers, radiography was frequently positive for peritoneal gas and CT was a sensitive modality for both the ulcer and signs of perforation.
- Combined tibial plateau levelling osteotomy and lateral fabellotibial
suture for cranial cruciate ligament rupture with severe rotational
instability in dogs
- Authors: M. Schaible; J. Shani, A. Caceres, M. Payton, Y. Segev, R. Ben-Amotz
Pages: 219 - 226
Abstract: ObjectiveTo report the use of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy and lateral fabellotibial suture in combination for treatment of severe internal tibial rotational stifle instability in cranial cruciate-deficient stifles.MethodsTwenty-three stifles in 19 dogs were diagnosed with cranial cruciate ligament rupture with severe stifle instability, characterised by marked cranial tibial translation and internal tibial rotation that was evident during orthopaedic examination. A combined tibial plateau levelling osteotomy and lateral fabellotibial suture procedure were performed to stabilise the stifle joint. The surgical complications, short-term lameness scores and owner satisfaction were evaluated.ResultsThe postoperative complication rate was 21·7% with one minor (4·3%) and four major (17·4%) complications. At short-term follow-up one dog had an intermittent low-grade lameness and two dogs had mild tibial internal rotational instability present on palpation without lameness. Owner's overall satisfaction with the operation and recovery was good (21·4%) to excellent (78·6%).Clinical SignificanceThe use of lateral fabellotibial suture in combination with tibial plateau levelling osteotomy was an effective technique for managing cranial cruciate ligament rupture with severe internal tibial rotational stifle instability.
- Toxicity of metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in a UK population of
cancer-bearing dogs: a retrospective study
- Authors: A. Harper; L. Blackwood
Pages: 227 - 230
Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to assess the incidence of toxicity in a group of cancer-bearing dogs treated with metronomic chemotherapy.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of dogs treated with metronomic doses of cyclophosphamide: between 5 and 15 mg/m2/day or every other day for treatment of neoplasia.ResultsOf the 65 dogs included, there were signs of, mostly mild, toxicity in 32 (49%). The most common toxicities were sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (n=16) and gastrointestinal disorders (n=12). Median time to development of sterile haemorrhagic cystitis was 110 days (range 7 to 686 days). Four dogs developed suspected bacterial infections during treatment.Clinical SignificanceMetronomic cyclophosphamide is generally well-tolerated in dogs but the incidence of sterile haemorrhagic cystitis in this study is higher than previously reported. Regular urinalysis is recommended for all dogs receiving cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, as early detection of haemorrhagic cystitis may prevent development of more serious disease.
- Malignant anal sac melanoma in dogs: eleven cases (2000 to 2015)
- Authors: A. Vinayak; C. B. Frank, D. W. Gardiner, K. M. Thieman-Mankin, D. R. Worley
Pages: 231 - 237
Abstract: ObjectivesTo report the signalment, clinical presentation, treatments pursued and outcomes of dogs with malignant anal sac melanoma.MethodsMedical records from five institutions from January 2000 through December 2015 were reviewed and dogs with cytologically- or histologically-confirmed malignant anal sac melanoma were identified. Signalment, clinical signs, staging, cytology, histopathologic analysis, surgical and non-surgical treatments were extracted from the medical records. The referring veterinarians and owners were contacted for follow-up data.ResultsEleven dogs were included and survival data was available for all. The most common clinical signs were bloody anal sac discharge and perianal licking. Initial treatments pursued included surgery (n=8), chemotherapy (n=1), and palliative treatment with pain medications and stool softeners (n=2). In an adjuvant setting, melanoma vaccine was pursued following surgery in three dogs and chemotherapy in one dog. Regardless of treatment, progression-free survival (mean 92·5 days) and overall survival times (median 107 days) were short.Clinical SignificanceDogs in this case series had a guarded to poor prognosis regardless of treatment. Ten of 11 dogs were euthanased due to local or distant disease progression. Only 1 of 11 dogs was alive one year after diagnosis. An understanding of tumour behaviour in this location could lead to improved survival times with earlier diagnosis and treatment.
- Epidemiology of bacterial conjunctivitis in chinchillas (Chinchilla
lanigera): 49 cases (2005 to 2015)
- Authors: S. Ozawa; C. Mans, Z. Szabo, N. Di Girolamo
Pages: 238 - 245
Abstract: ObjectivesTo evaluate the anamnesis, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment and outcome of chinchillas diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis.MethodsMedical records of 49 chinchillas diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis were retrospectively reviewed. Association between clinical signs and type of bacteria involved was determined by means of univariate logistic regression.Results61·5% of the isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, and the most common bacterial species was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (50%), followed by Staphylococcus species (26·9%). Chinchillas with acute conjunctivitis (1 to 3 days) were much more commonly affected by Gram-negative organisms. The majority of chinchillas that presented with concurrent respiratory signs were diagnosed with P. aeruginosa. Clinical resolution of conjunctivitis was reported in 87·8% chinchillas with a median time to clinical resolution of 17·5 days. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolates to potentiated sulphonamides, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin and polymyxin B was 8·3, 36, 62·5, 88·5, 100 and 100%, respectively.Clinical SignificanceP. aeruginosa is the predominant bacterial species associated with bacterial conjunctivitis in chinchillas. With the exception of duration of clinical signs, information on the anamnesis or physical examination findings cannot aid in distinguishing conjunctivitis caused by P. aeruginosa or other Gram-negative bacteria from the ones caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Gentamicin- or polymyxin B-containing antibiotic formulations are recommended for empirical topical therapy.
- Pneumopericardium as a complication of laparoscopy for ovariectomy
- Authors: E. J. Best; E. Hellewell
Pages: 246 - 248
Abstract: A one-year-old poodle×cocker spaniel bitch was presented for laparoscopic ovariectomy. Pre-operative examination was unremarkable. The left ovariectomy was performed uneventfully. Following insufflation of the abdomen and repositioning of the patient, signs consistent with cardiac tamponade developed, resulting in death. Post-mortem radiography demonstrated pneumopericardium.
- Jugular vein venipuncture technique in small lizard species
- Authors: M. Di Giuseppe; M. Morici, A. Martinez Silvestre, F. Spadola
Pages: 249 - 249
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- Pages: 250 - 250