- An alternative way to perform gastroscopy in large frogs and toads
- Authors: Marco Di Giuseppe; Laura Faraci, Marco Luparello
- Relapses in dogs with steroid‐responsive meningitis‐arteritis
- Authors: E. Biedermann; A. Tipold, T. Flegel
To describe relapse rates in steroid‐responsive meningitis‐arteritis and to describe clinical and laboratory parameters in dogs with and without relapses.
Seventy‐four dogs with steroid‐responsive meningitis‐arteritis were retrospectively identified and assigned to one of three groups: (1) without relapse; (2) at least one relapse and (3) unknown relapse status. The following parameters are reported for the first two groups: sex, age, breed, body weight, nucleated cell count, total protein concentration and percentage of neutrophils on initial cerebrospinal fluid analysis, immunoglobulin A in serum and initial cerebrospinal fluid analysis, nucleated cell count on cerebrospinal fluid analysis at 3‐month re‐evaluation, C‐reactive protein in serum and initial cerebrospinal fluid analysis and at 3‐month re‐evaluation.
Relapses occurred in 32 · 4% of dogs (one relapse: 62 · 5%; two relapses: 25 · 0%; three relapses: 8 · 3%; four relapses: 4 · 2%), 55 · 4% were relapse‐free and in 12 · 2% the relapse status was unknown. C‐reactive protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid on 3‐month re‐evaluation was normal in 80% and 75% of dogs with relapses, respectively. In dogs without relapse, C‐reactive protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid on 3‐month re‐evaluation was normal in 100% and 90% of dogs, respectively.
Relapses are frequent but no reliable predictive indicator has emerged in this study. Nevertheless, elevated C‐reactive protein in serum warrants continuing therapy; normal C‐reactive protein in serum does not exclude future relapse.
- Redundant arytenoid mucosa: clinical presentation, treatment and outcome
in three cats
- Authors: D. De Lorenzi; C. Mantovani, F. Tripaldi, H. Ferasin
Abstract: Three cats showing chronic, intermittent respiratory distress associated with increased noise on inspiration were examined. Head, neck and thoracic radiographs were unremarkable and laboratory findings were within normal ranges. In all three cats direct laryngoscopy revealed bilateral redundant arytenoid mucosa, which collapsed into the supraglottic and glottis airways during inspiration. Temporary tracheostomy and endoscopic diode laser excision of the excessive mucosa resolved symptoms in all three cats. Redundant arytenoid mucosa is a rare condition that may cause signs similar to laryngeal paralysis or laryngeal mass in cats. According to our results, diode laser surgery in association with temporary tracheostomy appears an appropriate mode of therapy.
- A retrospective evaluation of polyurethane, long‐stay, peripheral
venous cannulae in dogs undergoing radiotherapy
- Authors: M. J. Macfarlane; J. Morris, S. Burnside, A. Bell
The aim of this retrospective study was to review placement duration and associated complications of long‐stay, peripheral venous cannulae in dogs undergoing a radiotherapy protocol. Factors affecting duration of stay of the cannulae were evaluated.
The records of patients which had a single‐lumen, 16‐gauge, 16‐cm polyurethane cannulae inserted into a peripheral vein between 2010 and 2014 were reviewed.
Forty‐one cannulae were placed in 41 patients. Median duration of cannula stay was 14 days (range 2 to 26). In 14 cases (~34%) the cannula was removed at the end of the radiotherapy course. In 13 (~32%) cases, cannula‐related complications resulted in premature removal. Use of steroids and antibiotics appeared to be associated with a longer median duration of stay.
No life‐threatening complications were encountered. Indwelling, polyurethane, saphenous cannulae were an effective and safe way to maintain venous access in this group of patients. Prednisolone and antibiotics were typically commenced for acute radiation side effects ‐midway through the protocol; therefore their association with length of stay may not be a direct result of their administration.
- Slipping on salmon oil: another cause of hypercalcaemia in dogs
- Authors: G. Polton
- Brachycephalic airway syndrome: a comparative study between pugs and
- Abstract: OBJECTIVE
To compare clinical features of brachycephalic airway syndrome and long‐term surgical outcomes between pugs and French bulldogs and evaluate the influence of laryngeal collapse.
This retrospective study included 72 dogs that underwent wedge rhinoplasty and folded flap palatoplasty for brachycephalic airway syndrome. Epidemiological data, clinical signs, postoperative complications and owners’ responses to a questionnaire at least six months after surgery were compared between pugs and French bulldogs. Spearman's rank correlation tests were used for associating laryngeal collapse with age and respiratory signs before and after surgery.
On the basis of the results of the owners’ questionnaires (available in 52/72 dogs), French bulldogs presented with lower activity levels and more severe digestive signs than pugs. Owners perceived clinical improvement in 88 · 5% of all dogs. The grades of respiratory and digestive signs were not different between the breeds in the long‐term follow‐up, and the grade of laryngeal collapse did not influence the grade of respiratory signs or surgical outcome.
Surgical treatment resulted in improved clinical signs in pugs and French bulldogs with brachycephalic airway syndrome, with a high owner satisfaction rate. There were no correlations between the severity of laryngeal collapse and overall respiratory signs or prognosis.
- Morphology of splenocaval congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats
- Authors: R. N. White; A. T. Parry
To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the splenic vein communicating with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs and cats managed for congenital portosystemic shunts.
Ninety‐eight dogs and eight cats met the inclusion criteria of a congenital portosystemic shunt involving the splenic vein communicating with the prehepatic caudal vena cava plus recorded intra‐operative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography and gross observations at surgery. All cases (both dogs and cats) had a highly consistent shunt that involved a distended gastrosplenic vein that communicated with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen via an anomalous left gastric vein.
The morphology of the shunt type described appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between the left gastric vein and the caudal vena cava and the subsequent development of preferential blood flow through an essentially normal portal venous system. The abnormal communication (shunt) was through the left gastric vein and not the splenic vein, as might have been expected. This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery.
- An end‐to‐end urethral anastomosis after inguinal
tunnelization: a new technique in a dog
- Authors: K. Minier; I. Bemelmans, J. Benoit
Abstract: An 8‐year‐old male dog was presented with a peri‐urethral intrapelvic mass with the characteristics of a sarcoma on computed tomography and cytology evaluation. A two‐step procedure leading to a permanent urinary diversion was performed. During the same procedure, the caudal pelvic urethra and mass were resected and an extrapelvic anastomosis of the pelvic portion of the urethra to its penile portion was performed after passage of the pelvic urethra through the inguinal canal. The procedure successfully produced a tension‐free end‐to‐end urethral anastomosis and no complications were observed during the postoperative period. Histologically, the lesion was reported as a narrowly excised liposarcoma. A 4‐week course of curative intent of radiotherapy was initiated 2 weeks after surgery. Eight months later, the dog was free of clinical signs.
- Ethical principles for novel therapies in veterinary practice
- Authors: J. W. Yeates
To present insights to aid decision‐making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials.
Materials and Methods
EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and “translated” into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons.
A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication.
These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments.
- Indications, outcome and complications with axial pattern skin flaps in
dogs and cats: 73 cases
- Authors: E. J. Field; G. Kelly, D. Pleuvry, J. Demetriou, S. J. Baines
To determine the indications, frequency of complications and long term outcome associated with axial pattern flaps used to repair wound defects in dogs and cats.
Medical records from two independent referral centres for dogs and cats undergoing wound repair with an axial pattern flap were reviewed.
Seventy‐three animals were included, 49 dogs: 24 cats. Indications for axial pattern flaps were chronic wounds (43/73; 59%) and closure following tumour resection (30/73; 41%). Axial pattern flaps used were: thoracodorsal, caudal superficial epigastric, reverse saphenous conduit, superficial brachial, deep circumflex iliac, superficial cervical, caudal auricular, lateral thoracic, cranial superficial epigastric, genicular and superficial temporal. Postoperative complications occurred in 64 patients (89%) and 8 patients (11%) had no complications. Complications were: dehiscence, swelling of the flap, necrosis, infection, discharge and seroma. Flap outcome was excellent in 16 patients (23%), good in 29 (41%), fair in 21 (30%) and poor in 5 (7%).
There is a high complication rate associated with axial pattern flaps but these are usually easily managed and long term outcome is excellent, in either species.
- Evaluation of owner experiences and adherence to home‐cooked diet
recipes for dogs
- Authors: L. N. Johnson; D. E. Linder, C. R. Heinze, R. L. Kehs, L. M. Freeman
To evaluate owner experiences and adherence to home‐cooked diet recipes for dogs.
Clients of a veterinary teaching hospital clinical nutrition service who had a home‐cooked diet recipe formulated for their dogs between March 2011 and December 2013 were given a survey by email, postal mail and telephone. Survey questions addressed motivations, positive and negative aspects of feeding home‐cooked diets and current feeding practices. Responses were compared to animals’ medical records to determine adherence.
Of the 93 owners who were contacted, 53 (57%) completed the survey. Of the 53 respondents, 43 owners (81%) reported that they were still feeding an home‐cooked diet or had fed an home‐cooked diet until the time of their dogs’ deaths. The most common motivation for feeding a home‐cooked diet was suitability for specific medical needs. Of the 30 surveys that included a complete diet history, only four (13%) demonstrated exact adherence to home‐cooked diet recipes.
Most respondents liked and continued to feed a home‐cooked diet, but few owners adhered to prescribed recipes and many dogs required recipe modifications. It is important to counsel dog owners about benefits and drawbacks of feeding home‐cooked diets, importance of recipe adherence and necessity for follow‐up after diet formulation with a board‐certified veterinary nutritionist.
- Assessment of mitral regurgitation in dogs: comparison of results of
echocardiography with magnetic resonance imaging
- Abstract: OBJECTIVES
Echocardiography is used routinely to assess mitral regurgitation severity, but echocardiographic measures of mitral regurgitation in dogs have not been compared with other quantitative methods. The study aim was to compare echocardiographic measures of mitral regurgitation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging‐derived mitral regurgitant fraction in small‐breed dogs.
Dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease scheduled for magnetic resonance imaging assessment of neurological disease were recruited. Correlations were tested between cardiac magnetic resonance imaging‐derived mitral regurgitant fraction and the following echocardiographic measures: vena contracta/aortic diameter, transmitral E‐wave velocity, amplitude of mitral prolapse/aortic diameter, diastolic left ventricular diameter:aortic diameter, left atrium:aortic diameter, mitral regurgitation jet area ratio and regurgitant fraction calculated using the proximal isovelocity surface area method.
Measurement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging‐derived mitral regurgitant fraction was attempted in 21 dogs. Twelve consecutive, complete studies were obtained and 10 dogs were included in the final analysis: vena contracta/aortic diameter (r = 0 · 89, p = 0 · 001) and E‐wave velocity (r = 0 · 86, p = 0 · 001) had the strongest correlations with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging‐derived mitral regurgitant fraction. E velocity had superior repeatability and could be measured in all dogs. The presence of multiple jets precluded vena contracta/aortic diameter measurement in one dog.
Measurement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging‐derived mitral regurgitant fraction is feasible but technically demanding. The echocardiographic measures that correlated most closely with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging‐derived mitral regurgitant fraction were vena contracta/aortic diameter and E‐wave velocity.
- Gastric dilatation volvulus: a retrospective study of 203 dogs with
ventral midline gastropexy
- Abstract: OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the recurrence rate of gastric dilatation volvulus and the incidence of complications in subsequent coeliotomies following ventral midline gastropexy.
The medical records of dogs treated for gastric dilatation volvulus by ventral midline gastropexy were retrospectively reviewed. Owners were contacted and invited to complete a questionnaire and to return to the clinic for ultrasonographic and radiographic follow‐up.
The questionnaire was completed by 203 owners 2 to 123 months postoperatively, 24 of whom attended the follow‐up examination. Of the 203 dogs, 13 (6 · 4%) underwent subsequent ventral midline coeliotomy and none developed complications related to the gastropexy site. In 23 of the 24 re‐evaluated dogs, the stomach was closely associated with the abdominal on radiography and/or ultrasound. The recurrence rate for clinical signs of gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy was 6 · 4%.
This study shows that the recurrence of gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy is low and adhesion of the stomach to the abdominal wall is persistent in almost all dogs that were re‐examined. The gastropexy site did not appear to interfere with subsequent coeliotomy.
- Primary pulmonary neoplasia in cats: assessment of computed tomography
findings and survival
- Authors: J. Nunley; J. Sutton, W. Culp, D. Wilson, K. Coleman, R. Demianiuk, A. Schechter, G. Moore, T. Donovan, P. Schwartz
To identify variables with a preoperative computed tomography scan that influence survival of cats undergoing surgical removal of a primary lung tumour. A secondary objective was to determine whether histologic type and or grade of feline pulmonary tumours affects long term survival.
Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for cats with preoperative computed tomography scans and surgical resection of primary lung tumours. Pulmonary carcinomas were reviewed for histologic diagnosis using two different approaches, histologic grade as well as major histologic pattern.
Median survival time of all (n = 28) cats was 156 days. Median survival time for cats with lymph node enlargement was 65 days versus 498 days for cats without lymph node enlargement on preoperative computed tomography scan. Median survival time for cats with preoperative pleural effusion was 2 · 5 days versus 467 days for cats without pleural effusion. Cats with low or intermediate grade tumours had a median survival time of 730 days versus 105 days for cats with high grade tumours.
Cats with preoperative lymph node enlargement and pleural effusion have shorter survival times than cats without.
- The effect of prophylactic topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in canine
primary closed‐angle glaucoma
- Authors: R. Stavinohova; J. R. Newton, C. Busse
To determine the effect of 1% brinzolamide, 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride or combination 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride/0 · 5% timolol to delay the elevation of the intraocular pressure in second eyes of dogs with primary closed‐angle glaucoma.
Analysis of retrospectively collated data from 40 dogs with primary closed‐angle glaucoma, where the non‐affected eye was treated prophylactically with brinzolamide (n = 10), dorzolamide (n = 18) or combination dorzolamide/timolol therapy (n = 12).
The 40 treated dogs (median age of 76 · 2 months) comprised 25 females/15 males, 19 entire/21 neutered. Twenty dogs developed glaucoma in the contralateral eye (median time of 9 · 2 months). No statistically significant difference was identified during treatment failure between the treatment groups (P = 0 · 66). The second eye remained normotensive in 20 dogs; four dogs until the conclusion of the study (median: 27 · 0 months), three dogs until death (median: 15 · 4 months), seven dogs until lost to follow‐up (median: 11 · 6 months). Out of these 20 dogs, treatment was discontinued because of lack of owner compliance in two dogs and following a local drug reaction in four dogs (median: 8 · 9 months).
There was no evidence that the tested drugs delayed elevation of intraocular pressure in contralateral eyes of dogs with primary closed‐angle glaucoma.
- Inguinal enterocutaneous fistula in a dog
- Authors: A. J. Kortum; E. J. Best
Abstract: A two‐year‐old Jack Russell terrier presented with a chronic history of weight loss and the recent development of a discharging wound in the left inguinal region that was confirmed by ultrasound and contrast radiography to be an enterocutaneous fistula. One day following admission the dog displayed signs of abdominal pain and the general condition deteriorated. At exploratory coeliotomy there was evidence of septic peritonitis and a segment of jejunum was found firmly adhered to the left inguinal canal. The affected jejunal segment was excised and an end‐to‐end anastomosis performed. A penrose drain was placed in the inguinal wound which was subsequently managed with open drainage. The inguinal wound healed successfully by second intention and the dog returned to normal body condition. The left testis became atrophic and castration was performed several weeks later. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first veterinary case report of an inguinal enterocutaneous fistula.
- Retrobulbar lymphoma associated with a ballistic foreign body in a cat
- Authors: C. Robat; I. Bemelmans, L. Marescaux
Abstract: A seven‐year‐old domestic shorthair cat, adopted 5 years previously with a corneal perforation of the left eye, was presented for investigation of a left orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a metallic foreign body within a contrast‐enhancing, heterogeneous orbital mass. Large cell lymphoma was diagnosed from a fine needle aspirate. The cat staged negatively and was treated with l‐asparaginase, prednisolone and three fractions of radiation therapy. A rapid clinical remission was obtained and the cat remained in remission for 3 years after therapy. This is the first report of large cell lymphoma likely occurring secondary to a foreign body.
- Surgical management of canine refractory retrobulbar abscesses: six cases
- Authors: G. Tremolada; M. Milovancev, W. T. N. Culp, J. A. Bleedorn
To report the clinical presentation, surgical treatment and outcomes of dogs with retrobulbar abscesses refractory to intra‐oral lancing and antibiotics.
Medical records from January 2006 through September 2014 were reviewed and dogs with retrobulbar abscesses failing treatment with antibiotics and intra‐oral lancing were included. Clinicopathologic, imaging and surgical details were extracted from the medical records. Referring veterinarians and owners were interviewed via telephone for follow‐up data.
A total of six dogs were included in the study. The most common clinical signs were pain upon opening of the mouth, exophthalmos and prolapsed nictitans. Computed tomography was performed in five dogs, ultrasound in four and magnetic resonance imaging in one. Imaging identified an abscess in all dogs, with a suspected foreign body in four dogs. Surgical approach was a modified lateral orbitotomy in five dogs. No foreign body was identified during surgery in all dog. All dogs surviving to discharge did not have recurrence of clinical signs (follow‐up time range: 27 to 95 months).
Dogs with retrobulbar abscesses refractory to standard therapy can experience long‐term resolution of clinical signs with surgical treatment, most commonly via a modified lateral orbitotomy.
- Portal vein anatomy in the dog: comparison between computed tomographic
angiography (CTA) and intraoperative mesenteric portovenography (IOMP)
- Authors: A. T. Parry; R. N. White
To compare and contrast the findings of intra‐operative mesenteric portovenography (IOMP) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) for the visualisation and identification of the extrahepatic and intrahepatic portal venous system in the normal dog.
Retrospective study of dogs with raised post‐prandial bile acids concentrations, normal portal venous pressures and grossly normal portal vasculature that had undergone both CTA and IOMP was performed. Images and video were compared with the published anatomic literature.
Ten dogs met the inclusion criteria. CTA documented the portal vein and its tributaries in all 10 dogs. IOMP documented the portal vein and the cranial mesenteric vein in all 10 dogs and the splenic vein in 1 dog but failed to show the caudal mesenteric and gastroduodenal veins in any dog. CTA documented more extrahepatic portal venous tributaries than IOMP. Both techniques documented the intrahepatic portal vasculature completely with equal clarity.
There was a large difference between the ability of the two techniques to delineate the normal portal vasculature; CTA consistently visualised the extrahepatic portal vasculature more completely than the IOMP and, as such, might be considered the modality of choice for imaging the normal portal vasculature in the dog.
- Urethrotomy of the glans penis in three male dogs with urolithiasis
- Authors: F. Cinti; G. Pisani, U. Carusi, P. Buracco
Abstract: Three intact male dogs with stranguria and haematuria caused by uroliths in the penile urethra underwent urethrotomy using a novel surgical approach directly over the caudal part of the os penis because conservative procedures to resolve the obstructions had failed. Haemorrhage was minimal, and the incisions healed rapidly by second intention. Complications did not occur during the 6‐month follow‐up period. Urethrotomy directly over the os penis is straightforward, associated with few complications and holds promise for the removal of urinary calculi in the penile urethra.
- Straelensiosis in two cats and ten dogs from Israel
- Authors: R. Kaufmann; P. Bourdeau, L. Waldman, S. Amiel, G. Zur
Abstract: Straelensiosis is uncommonly described outside Europe. This report describes straelensiosis in two cats and in ten dogs diagnosed with the disease outside Europe. Both cats displayed erythematous macules or nodules on the abdominal skin. One cat was extremely pruritic, while in the other the lesions were incidental findings when the cat was presented for neutering. The mites were noted in skin scrapings in both cats and histopathologically in one cat. All dogs showed a general distribution of papules, and intense pruritus was noted in six dogs. The diagnosis in all dogs was based on histopathology. Treatment of the animals in this study varied, and among the various administrated treatments, amitraz showed promising results.
- Cerebral pyogranuloma associated with systemic coronavirus infection in a
- Authors: K. Gnirs; J. F. Quinton, C. Dally, A. Nicolier, Y. Ruel
Abstract: A 2‐year‐old male ferret was presented with central nervous system signs. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed a well‐defined contrast‐enhancing lesion on the rostral forebrain that appeared extraparenchymal. Surgical excision of the mass was performed and the ferret was euthanised during the procedure. Histopathology of the excised mass showed multiple meningeal nodular lesions with infiltrates of epithelioid macrophages, occasionally centred on degenerated neutrophils and surrounded by a broad rim of plasma cells, features consistent with pyogranulomatous meningitis. The histopathological features in this ferret were similar to those in cats with feline infectious peritonitis. Definitive diagnosis was assessed by immunohistochemistry, confirming a ferret systemic coronavirus (FSCV) associated disease. This is the first case of coronavirus granuloma described on CT‐scan in the central nervous system of a ferret.
- Successful treatment of intra‐abdominal eumycotic mycetoma caused by
Penicillium duponti in a dog
- Authors: J. Janovec; D. J. Brockman, S. L. Priestnall, N. J. Kulendra
Abstract: A 2‐year‐old female neutered golden retriever was presented for investigation of an intra‐abdominal mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass associated with the caudal pole of the right kidney. Incisional biopsy findings were consistent with eumycotic mycetoma. The mass was subsequently removed in conjunction with right ureteronephrectomy. Two years later, the dog re‐presented with a splenic mass and fungal plaques located throughout the peritoneum. Splenectomy was performed and the mass was diagnosed as eumycotic mycetoma caused by Penicillium duponti. Indefinite systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg itraconazole orally once a day was initiated. Thirty‐two months after the last surgery, there were no clinical signs apart from mild polydipsia. Haematology and biochemistry results were unremarkable. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of intra‐abdominal eumycotic mycetoma with a combination of surgery and systemic antifungal therapy in the dog. Penicillium duponti has not apparently been reported to cause disease in animals or humans.
- Massive haemorrhage associated with inadvertent incision of a suspected
carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a cat
- Authors: A. W. Pfaff; E. A. Rozanski, A. M. Lynch
Abstract: A 12‐year‐old, castrated male, domestic long‐haired cat experienced massive haemorrhage associated with an incision of a swelling on the neck 2 weeks after right‐sided ventral bulla osteotomy. Emergent control of haemorrhage was gained through unilateral carotid artery ligation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was provided in conjunction with massive blood transfusion. The cat made an unremarkable recovery. Carotid artery pseudoaneurysm due to surgical disruption of the carotid artery during ventral bulla osteotomy, specifically through the use of self‐retaining retractors, was suspected. This case highlights the development of pseudoaneurysm as a potential complication of head and neck surgery, and additionally describes a case of massive transfusion in a cat.
- Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis of the spine in a
- Authors: K. Bossens; S. Bhatti, I. Van Soens, I. Gielen, L. Van Ham
Abstract: A nine‐year‐old intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for paraparesis, ataxia and severe spinal hyperaesthesia. Neurological examination indicated a T3‐L3 spinal cord segment lesion. Computed tomography of the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral vertebral column was performed. This showed contiguous smooth new bone formation ventral and lateral to the vertebrae extending from the cranial thoracic area to the lumbosacral junction and appearing similar to canine diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. There was also marked dorsolateral stenosis of the vertebral canal at the level of T4‐T5 because of degenerative changes of the facet joints. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first published report of feline diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.
- Opportunistic fungal infections in dogs treated with ciclosporin and
glucocorticoids: eight cases
- Authors: S. R. Dowling; J. Webb, J. D. Foster, J. Ginn, D. S. Foy, L. A. Trepanier
Abstract: Glucocorticoids are the standard of care for the treatment of immune‐mediated disorders, and ciclosporin is increasingly being used off‐label as an adjunct immunosuppressive drug in dogs. However, opportunistic infections can develop during combination immunosuppressive regimens. This case series describes atypical fungal infections in eight dogs treated with immunosuppressive dosages of glucocorticoids and ciclosporin. The median duration of combined treatment prior to the identification of fungal infection was 31 (range, 13 to 201) days, although two dogs received glucocorticoids for prolonged periods prior to the addition of ciclosporin. The estimated prevalence of serious fungal infections with this drug combination appears to be low (approximately 1 · 67%), but these infections led directly or indirectly to death or euthanasia in five of eight (63%) dogs. These cases highlight the need for frequent clinical monitoring of dogs receiving immunosuppressive dosages of glucocorticoids and ciclosporin.
- Pneumopericardium, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and
pneumoretroperitoneum complicating pulmonary metastatic carcinoma in a cat
- Authors: V. Greci; A. Baio, L. Bibbiani, E. Caggiano, S. Borgonovo, D. Olivero, P. M. Rocchi, V. Raiano
Abstract: This report describes a case of severe spontaneous tension pneumopericardium with concurrent pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and retropneumoperitoneum in a cat presenting with dyspnoea and signs of cardiac tamponade secondary to metastatic pulmonary carcinoma. Spontaneous pneumopericardium is an extremely uncommon condition consisting of pericardial gas in the absence of iatrogenic/traumatic causes. In humans, it has been described secondary to pneumonia or lung abscess and very rarely secondary to pulmonary neoplasia.
- Bilateral hydronephrosis with urinary tract infection in a Campbell's
hamster (Phodopus campbelli)
- Authors: A. Eleftheriou; N. R. Wyre
- Intraoral diode laser epiglottectomy for treatment of epiglottis
chondrosarcoma in a dog
- Authors: D. De Lorenzi; D. Bertoncello, A. Dentini
Abstract: Laryngeal tumours are rare in dogs. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but it is usually palliative in malignant conditions, due to advanced stage of the tumour at the time of diagnosis. In veterinary medicine, little information is available about the use of diode laser in laryngeal oncological surgery. In the case reported here, a dog with an epiglottic chondrosarcoma was successfully treated with diode laser epiglottectomy. The surgical technique and follow up are described.
- Calling time on survival times?
- Authors: Z. Belshaw; R. Dean
Pages: 635 - 636
- Contamination of multidose butorphanol vials in small animal general
- Authors: A. Bell; T. T. Yamaoka, L. Akil, D. Watson, C. Devine
Pages: 637 - 640
To assess and quantify medetomidine contamination of butorphanol multidose vials in small animal general practices and determine if practice policies and procedures regarding drug handling, as determined by questionnaire, impact upon contamination level.
Samples of butorphanol were withdrawn from in‐use vials in participating practices in June and July 2013. Samples were analysed using high‐performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Forty‐one samples were obtained from 31 practices. Contamination was detected in 29 samples from 10 mL vials. The mean (αsd) contamination was 0 · 275 (α0 · 393) µg/mL; maximum contamination in any vial was 2 · 034 µg/mL. There was no correlation between volume of the vial used and the level of contamination. None of the survey factors predicted contamination levels of the vials.
Contamination of butorphanol multidose vials with medetomidine was common but the level of contamination was insufficient to cause detrimental effects in dogs if butorphanol were to be administered alone. The potential for sporadic higher levels of contamination must be taken into account, especially when using 50 mL vials when sedating critically ill cases, because there is a risk of clinical side effects.