- Management of an infected cementless cup with prosthetic retention and
antibiotic therapy in a dog
- Authors: B. J. Dan; S. E. Kim, A. Pozzi
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: A two‐year‐old Rottweiler presented for acute onset of a right hindlimb lameness 20 weeks after a cementless total hip replacement (THR) and 16 weeks after open reduction to address luxation of the THR. Radiographs revealed periosteal proliferation of the medial acetabulum and a stable implant. Synovial fluid cytology was consistent with inflammatory joint fluid. Treatment consisted of surgical debridement and intravenous and oral antibiotics. THR implants were not removed. Culture of tissue removed from the THR site yielded growth of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus species. Lameness resolved 2 months after surgery. Twenty months after surgery, the dog was exercising normally with no clinical lameness and pelvic radiographs revealed no evidence of implant loosening and markedly decreased periosteal reaction. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of an infected THR site successfully treated without prosthesis explantation in the dog.
- Backyard poultry: legislation, zoonoses and disease prevention
- Authors: M. L. Whitehead; V. Roberts
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: In law, backyard poultry are “food‐producing animals” and “farmed animals” and are subject to regulations regarding welfare, prescribing, banned procedures, disposal of carcases, feeding bans, notifiable diseases and disease surveillance in addition to those applying to most other pets. Many owners and some veterinary surgeons are unclear about the requirements of these regulations. Backyard poultry are also associated with some different zoonotic disease risks to mammalian pets. Because a high proportion of poultry morbidity and mortality relates to infectious diseases, the health of backyard poultry is amenable to improvement through basic husbandry, biosecurity, hygiene and preventive medicine measures that can be incorporated into a simple “flock‐health plan”. This article reviews these topics.
- Hepatic fungal infection in a young beagle with unrecognised hereditary
cobalamin deficiency (Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome)
- Authors: P. H. Kook; M. Drögemüller, T. Leeb, S. Hinden, M. Ruetten, J. Howard
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: A 12‐month‐old beagle presented for anorexia, pyrexia and vomiting. The dog had been treated intermittently with antibiotics and corticosteroids for inappetence and lethargy since five months of age. Previous laboratory abnormalities included macrocytosis and neutropenia. At presentation, the dog was lethargic, febrile and thin. Laboratory examination findings included anaemia, a left shift, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Multiple, small, hypoechoic, round hepatic lesions were observed on abdominal ultrasound. Cytological examination of hepatic fine needle aspirates revealed a fungal infection and associated pyogranulomatous inflammation. The dog's general condition deteriorated despite supportive measures and treatment with fluconazole, and owners opted for euthanasia before hypocobalaminaemia was identified. Subsequent genomic analysis revealed a CUBN:c.786delC mutation in a homozygous state, confirming hereditary cobalamin malabsorption (Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome). Similar to human infants, dogs with Imerslund‐Gräsbeck syndrome may rarely be presented for infectious diseases, distracting focus from the underlying primary disorder.
- Retrospective clinical evaluation of hypobaric spinal anaesthesia in dogs
undergoing pelvic limb orthopaedic surgery
- Authors: C. De Gennaro; E. Vettorato, F. Corletto
Pages: n/a - n/a
To evaluate intraoperative effects, complications, postoperative rescue analgesia requirement and presence of postoperative unilateral blockade after hypobaric spinal anaesthesia in dogs.
Retrospective review of case records of dogs that underwent pelvic limb orthopaedic surgery and received hypobaric spinal anaesthesia. Cases that contained complete information on perioperative analgesia, end tidal anaesthetic agent, arterial blood pressure, postoperative urination, motor function and assessment at the sixth week re‐examination were selected.
Twenty‐four of forty‐eight records were sufficiently complete to meet the selection criteria. Local anaesthetic dose and volume of the solution administered were 0 · 22 (±0 · 06) mg/kg and 0 · 16 (±0 · 05) mL/kg, respectively. Fentanyl was administered intraoperatively in seven dogs (29%); mean ± sd end‐expired isoflurane was 1 · 09 ± 0 · 17%; hypotension was observed in nine dogs (37 · 5%). Unilateral blockade was documented in 18 dogs (75%); 6 dogs (25%) required methadone postoperatively; urinary retention was not observed. One dog developed steroid responsive meningitis arteritis.
Hypobaric spinal anaesthesia achieved unilateral postoperative pelvic limb motor blockade in dogs, although bilateral block occurred in a proportion of animals; intraoperative hypotension was not infrequent. Fentanyl and postoperative methadone might be required to control nociception and pain, despite technical success in performing spinal anaesthesia.
- ARFI elastography as a complementary diagnostic method of mammary neoplas
in female dogs – preliminary results
- Authors: M. A. R. Feliciano; M. C. Maronezi, L. Pavan, T. L. Castanheira, A. P. R. Simões, C. F. Carvalho, J. C. Canola, W. R. R. Vicente
Pages: n/a - n/a
To evaluate the applicability of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography as a complementary method in diagnosing mammary neoplasia in dogs.
Mammary tumours from 50 female dogs were evaluated and divided into two groups: G1 (benign tissue) and G2 (malignant tumours). The nodules were assessed by B‐Mode ultrasonography, qualitative and quantitative acoustic radiation force impulse elastography and histopathology.
B‐Mode ultrasound examination was ineffective at separating the tumours into the two groups. Likewise, there was no correlation between the grayscale images of the mammary tissue by qualitative elastography. A difference was found in the deformity of the mammary masses between the malignant and benign groups (P = 0 · 002). Using quantitative elastography, the mean values of shear velocity were 3 · 33 m/s for malignant tumours and 1 · 28 m/s for benign tissue (P
- Final year veterinary students’ attitudes towards small animal
dentistry: a questionnaire‐based survey
- Authors: R. Perry
Pages: n/a - n/a
To investigate the attitudes of final year veterinary students towards small animal dentistry and to examine the teaching received in this subject, both at university and during extra‐mural studies.
A cross‐sectional study of all UK final year veterinary students in 2012 was designed and used by a self‐administered Internet‐based questionnaire.
Six of seven universities participated with 188 student responses. All students felt that it was important or very important for a small animal practitioner to have a broad understanding of dentistry, and that orodental problems were common or very common in small animals. Almost all (99 · 5%) students perceived small animal dentistry as an important or very important subject. Less than 40% of students felt that the teaching had prepared them for entering practice. Over 50% reported that they neither felt confident in discussing orodental problems with clients nor in performing a detailed examination of the oral cavity.
Dental problems are perceived by students as frequently encountered in small animal practice. The veterinary surgeon should be adequately trained to detect, diagnose and treat dental disease in small animals and many students feel that their current teaching is inadequate.
- Mesenteric‐reno‐caval shunt in an aged dog
- Authors: Swan Specchi; Pascaline Pey, Romain Javard, Isabelle Caron, Giovanna Bertolini
Pages: n/a - n/a
- Are the fabellae bisected by the femoral cortices in a true craniocaudal
pelvic limb radiograph?
- Authors: M. Aiken; D. Barnes
Pages: n/a - n/a
To assess whether the bisection of the fabellae by their respective femoral cortices is a useful criterion for assessing positioning of craniocaudal pelvic limb radiographs, and whether this is consistent in limbs affected or unaffected by medial patella luxation.
Computed tomography multi‐planar reconstructions were used to determine the relative positions of the fabellae with respect to the femoral cortices.
Only 36% of fabellae overall were bisected by the femoral cortex. There was no significant difference between limbs affected or unaffected by medial patella luxation.
The accurate measurement of femoral varus angle is important in pre‐surgical planning of distal femoral ostectomy. Radiography is normally used to obtain the femoral varus angle, and femoral rotational malpositioning will induce errors in the femoral varus angle measured. Bisection of the fabellae by the femoral cortices is commonly cited as a criterion by which to assess whether a radiographic projection is truly craniocaudal, yet this study has shown this not to be valid.
- Pancreatic surgical biopsy in 24 dogs and 19 cats: postoperative
complications and clinical relevance of histological findings
- Authors: K. M. Pratschke; J. Ryan, A. McAlinden, G. McLauchlan
Pages: n/a - n/a
To assess the immediate postoperative complications associated with pancreatic biopsy in dogs and cats and review the clinical relevance of biopsy findings.
Retrospective review of clinical records from two referral institutions for cases undergoing pancreatic biopsy between 2000 and 2013.
Twenty‐four dogs and 19 cats that had surgical pancreatic biopsy had sufficient detail in their clinical records and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Postoperative complications were seen in 10 cases of which 5 were suggestive of post‐surgical pancreatitis. Two patients were euthanased within 10 days of surgery because of the underlying disease; neither suffered postoperative complications. Pancreatic pathology was found in 19 cases, 7 cases showed no change other than benign pancreatic nodular hyperplasia, and no abnormalities were seen in 18 cases.
Complications may be encountered following surgical pancreatic biopsy, although the risk should be minimal with good surgical technique. Pancreatic biopsy may provide a useful contribution to case management but it is not clear whether a negative pancreatic biopsy should be used to rule out pancreatic disease. Dogs were more likely to have no significant pathology found on pancreatic biopsy than cats, where chronic pancreatitis was the most common finding.
- Extended proximal trochleoplasty for the correction of bidirectional
patellar luxation in seven Pomeranian dogs
- Authors: C. Wangdee; H. A. W. Hazewinkel, J. Temwichitr, L. F. H. Theyse
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Seven Pomeranians with bidirectional patellar luxation (BPL) were prospectively studied regarding aetiology and results of a new surgical technique. Radiographic evaluation of the ratio between patellar ligament length and patellar bone length revealed no differences between Pomeranians with bidirectional patellar luxation and healthy stifle joints. Functional rather than anatomic patella alta might be associated with bidirectional patellar luxation in Pomeranians. The surgical outcome of extended proximal trochleoplasty was good‐to‐excellent in 87·5% of the stifles and all dogs achieved functional recovery. There was only minimal radiographic progression of osteophyte formation at 48 weeks after surgery. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on bidirectional patellar luxation in small breed dogs and its successful surgical treatment.
- Inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers of disease severity in dogs with
- Authors: M. Kocaturk; A. Tvarijonaviciute, S. Martinez‐Subiela, F. Tecles, O. Eralp, Z. Yilmaz, J. J. Ceron
Pages: n/a - n/a
To study changes in serum C‐reactive protein, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin and albumin concentration, total anti‐oxidant capacity and paraoxonase‐1 and butyrylcholinesterase activity in dogs with parvoviral enteritis of different degrees of clinical severity.
Prospective study of 9 healthy and 43 dogs with parvoviral enteritis that were classified into mildly, moderately and affected groups.
Dogs with parvoviral enteritis had a significant increase in C‐reactive protein compared with healthy dogs, with an increase of higher magnitude in animals with more severe clinical signs. All dogs with parvoviral enteritis had a significant increase in haptoglobin concentration compared with healthy dogs, but with no difference according to disease severity. There was a decrease in paraoxonase‐1 activity in parvoviral enteritis.
Major increases of C‐reactive protein concentrations in dogs with parvoviral enteritis are a marker of disease severity. In addition, higher values for anti‐oxidants in severe cases compared with mild and moderate cases suggest a possible compensatory anti‐oxidant mechanism.
- Advanced diagnostic imaging and surgical treatment of an odontogenic
retromasseteric abscess in a guinea pig
- Authors: V. Capello; A. Lennox
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: A two‐year‐old guinea pig presented for difficulty chewing. Examination and diagnostic imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance, revealed an odontogenic retromasseteric abscess associated with a mandibular cheek tooth. Treatment included removal of the abscess and marsupialisation of the surgical site for repeated debridement and healing by second intention. Unique features of this case included the use of advanced diagnostic imaging and utilisation of marsupialisation for surgical correction.
- Measurement of the S‐adenosyl methionine (SAMe) content in a range
of commercial veterinary SAMe supplements
- Authors: C. P. Sturgess
Pages: n/a - n/a
To measure the percentage of the stated amount of S‐adenosyl methionine present in a range of commercially available S‐adenosyl methionine supplements for veterinary use.
Sixty‐four samples of products containing S‐adenosyl methionine marketed to support liver function were obtained from five manufacturers via three commercial wholesalers. The amount of S‐adenosyl methionine in each product was measured using high‐pressure liquid chromatography.
There were greater than threefold variation in the percentage of measured S‐adenosyl methionine compared to the stated amount on the packaging which was significantly (P
- Blood concentrations of d‐ and l‐lactate in healthy rabbits
- Authors: I. Langlois; A. Planché, S. R. Boysen1, S. Abeysekara, G. A. Zello
Pages: n/a - n/a
To determine whole blood and serum concentrations of l‐lactate and serum concentrations of d‐lactate in healthy rabbits and compare three methods of analysis for l‐lactate measurement.
Prospective study using 25 rabbits. Concentrations of whole blood l‐lactate were measured using a portable analyser and a blood gas analyser. The remainder of the sample was allowed to clot for centrifugation. Serum was stored at −20°C for determination of l‐ and d‐ lactate by high‐performance liquid chromatography.
d‐lactate values by high‐performance liquid chromatography were 0 · 17 ± 0 · 08 mmol/L. l‐lactate values were 5 · 1 (±2 · 1) mmol/L by high‐performance liquid chromatography, 6 · 9 (±2 · 7) mmol/L with the portable analyser and 7 · 1 (±1 · 6) mmol/L with the blood gas analyser. No significant difference (P > 0 · 05) was found between the two analysers. Significant difference existed between serum l‐lactate values obtained by high‐performance liquid chromatography and the whole blood values obtained with the blood gas analyser (P
- Prepuce and partial penile amputation for treatment of preputial gland
neoplasia in two ferrets
- Authors: Y. R. A. van Zeeland; A. Lennox, J. F. Quinton, N. J. Schoemaker
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Preputial tumours in ferrets are frequently malignant and therefore warrant prompt investigation. As many cases do not respond favourably to surgery, even in combination with radiation therapy, wide surgical resection has been recommended. Such a procedure may necessitate partial or total penile resection but outcomes have thus far not been well described. The current case series describes two ferrets in which surgical resection, including penile amputation, was performed using 10 and 5 mm margins, respectively. In the first case, no recurrence of preputial gland adenocarcinoma was noted for 32 months postsurgery, whereas multiple attempts at surgery and radiation therapy were unsuccessful in the second. These cases suggest that margins of at least 1 cm may help achieve a better outcome. Penile amputation for the treatment of preputial tumours appears to be well tolerated by ferrets, as demonstrated by these cases.
- Effects of probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on
the faecal microflora of pet rabbits
- Authors: L. Benato; P. Hastie, P. O'Shaughnessy, J.-A. Murray, A. Meredith
Pages: n/a - n/a
Probiotics are frequently used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in pet rabbits based largely on anecdotal evidence of a beneficial effect. However, there has been little work performed to assess any such benefit in health or disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotics on faecal levels of four important candidate gastrointestinal bacteria (Bacteroides species, Enterococcus faecium, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Clostridium spiroforme) in pet rabbits. Additional aims were to evaluate the effect of probiotics on bodyweight and faecal weight and diameter.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Double-blind triple cross-over study in six healthy rabbits orally administered two probiotic strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC Sc47 and E. faecium NCIMB 30183. Levels of bacteria in faecal pellets were subsequently determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Oral administration of probiotic E. faecium NCIMB 30183 was associated with a significant (P = 0 · 042) increase in faecal levels of E. faecium. However, probiotic treatment did not affect faecal levels of Bacteroides species, F. succinogenes or C. spiroforme, bodyweight, or faecal weight and diameter.
The inclusion of dietary probiotic supplementation using E. faecium NCIMB 30183 can increase faecal levels of certain bacterial flora of healthy adult rabbits. Further work is required to investigate the effects of probiotics in animals affected with gastrointestinal disease.
- Total vertebrectomy for stabilisation of chronic spinal lumbar luxation in
a paraplegic dog without nociception
- Authors: P. V. Tertuliano Marinho; C. C. Zani, F. De Biasi, M. V. Bahr Arias
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: An adult male crossbred dog was referred with a history of a road traffic accident that took place 1 month earlier. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia with absent nociception in the pelvic limbs. On epaxial palpation, significant curvature of the anatomical axis of the spine between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae was observed, with the presence of a bone end almost piercing the dog's skin. Survey radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed severe dislocation between L3 and L4 vertebrae. During surgery, the spinal cord was not visible between the dislocated segments. Because of difficulties in reducing the lumbar luxation during surgery, vertebrectomy and vertebral shortening were performed. After alignment between vertebrae L3 and L5, eight cortical orthopaedic screws and bone cement were used for fixation. After 30 days, the dog started to use a wheelchair and was considered by its owner to have a good quality of life with no evidence of pain. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of severe luxation treated by total vertebrectomy and spine shortening in a dog. This surgery can be considered as an option in the management of severe spine luxation when the spinal cord is physically transected.
- Reverse TPLO for asymmetrical -premature closure of the proximal tibial
physis in a dog
- Authors: R. M. Demianiuk; L. P. Guiot
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: A 4 · 5-month-old, 13 · 8 kg, female neutered mixed breed dog was presented for evaluation of acute non-weight bearing right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographs revealed a tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture for which open reduction/internal fixation was performed. Asymmetrical premature closure of the cranial aspect of the proximal tibial physis ensued with a tibial plateau angle of −12°. Abnormal stifle biomechanics resulted in lameness and caudal cruciate ligament fraying. Tibial plateau -levelling osteotomy was performed in standard fashion with the exception that the proximal tibial -fragment was rotated cranioproximally to increase the tibial plateau angle from −12° to +5° (reverse tibial -plateau levelling osteotomy). Normal healing and resolution of lameness followed and the dog remained -clinically healthy 2 years postoperatively. This case report demonstrates that any change in proximal tibial anatomy, whether traumatic, iatrogenic or with therapeutic intent, can cause altered stifle biomechanics and should not be underestimated. Surgical management through corrective -osteotomy can be used to restore adequate function.
- Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia
- Authors: M. E. Aslanian; C. R. Sharp, M. S. Garneau
Abstract: A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency.
- Lateral orbitotomy for treatment of an orbital abscess in a dog
- Authors: R. Vallefuoco; C. Molas, P. Moissonnier, S. Chahory
Abstract: A two-year-old Jack Russell terrier was diagnosed with a retrobulbar abscess and orbital cellulitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging examination and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Transoral ventral drainage was attempted but was unsuccessful. The abscess was successfully treated by open drainage through a lateral orbitotomy. Despite the exposure of the orbital structures, the orbital soft tissues healed by second intention without further complications. The open drainage was well tolerated and resulted in immediate reduction of inflammation and pain, allowing a quick recovery. This report describes the diagnosis and, surgical management and the long-term (3 years) follow-up of an unusual case of orbital abscess associated with diffuse periorbital cellulitis successfully treated by open drainage through a lateral orbitotomy.
- Patient safety: the elephant in the room
- Authors: Catherine Oxtoby
Pages: 389 - 390
- Gastrointestinal toxicity after vincristine or cyclophosphamide
administered with or without maropitant in dogs: a prospective randomised
- Authors: S. L. Mason; I. A. Grant, J. Elliott, P. Cripps, L. Blackwood
First page: 391
To assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal toxicity in dogs receiving chemotherapy with vincristine and cyclophosphamide and the efficacy of maropitant citrate (Cerenia™, Zoetis) in reducing these events.
Dogs receiving chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide or vincristine were randomised to either receive maropitant or not in the period immediately after treatment and for 4 days afterwards. Owners completed a diary of adverse events following treatment.
Adverse events occurred in 40/58 (69%) dogs in the vincristine group. Most of these adverse events were mild and included: lethargy (62%), appetite loss (43%), diarrhoea (34%) and vomiting (24%). Adverse events occurred in 34/42 (81%) dogs treated with cyclophosphamide. Most of these adverse events were mild and included: lethargy (62%), diarrhoea (36%), appetite loss (36%) and vomiting (21%). There was no difference in total clinical score, vomiting, diarrhoea, appetite loss or lethargy score between dogs treated with maropitant and non-treated dogs in either the vincristine or cyclophosphamide groups.
Chemotherapy-related side effects are frequent but usually mild in dogs receiving vincristine or cyclophosphamide. Prophylactic administration of maropitant does not reduce the frequency of adverse events and maropitant should be administered only as required for individual cases.
- The effect of season and track condition on injury rate in racing
- Authors: J. Iddon; R. H. Lockyer, S. P. Frean
First page: 399
To identify environmental and management factors affecting injury rate in racing greyhounds.
Surveys of racing injuries at two greyhound tracks in the UK were conducted using injury data collected by track veterinary surgeons. At Track A the relative frequency of common injuries was determined and compared with previously published studies conducted in the UK. At Track B the effects of month of the year, ambient temperature and track condition (“going”) on injury rate were determined.
Comparison of common injuries at Track A with previous studies suggested a change in the relative frequency of some injury types following a change in track surface from grass to sand. Estimated injury rates suggest improved track safety with the change in track surface. At Track B, injury rate increased significantly with faster track conditions. Time of year and ambient temperature had no significant effect on injury rate.
Changes in track maintenance resulting in a slower track may reduce injury rate in racing greyhounds, with associated welfare benefits.
- Intra-articular mepivacaine reduces interventional analgesia requirements
during arthroscopic surgery in dogs
- Authors: T. A. G. Dutton; M. A. Gurney, S. R. Bright
First page: 405
To document efficacy of intra-articular mepivacaine in dogs based on the hypothesis that this would blunt the haemodynamic response to a nociceptive stimulus (arthroscopic surgery), reducing interventional analgesia requirements.
A dose of mepivacaine 2% 0 · 1 ml/kg (2 mg/kg) was injected intra-articularly into one randomly assigned elbow joint before surgery in eight dogs undergoing bilateral elbow arthroscopy. Baseline haemodynamic measurements were recorded immediately before the start of each arthroscopic procedure and repeated at arthrocentesis, saline distension of the joint, incision, arthroscopic cannula and obturator insertion and placement of the second portal and haemodynamic variability calculated. If baseline parameters increased by more than 20% suggesting nociception, 1 µg/kg fentanyl was administered intravenously.
Significantly less fentanyl was required during arthroscopy on the mepivacaine treated elbows compared to the non-treated elbows (P = 0 · 003) and the time to first fentanyl administration was significantly longer (P = 0 · 0001) in the mepivacaine treated elbows (21 · 2 ± 4 · 9 minutes) compared to the non-treated elbows (6 · 1 ± 2 · 3 minutes). Haemodynamic variability was significantly reduced in the mepivacaine group (heart rate P = 0 · 04, mean arterial pressure P = 0 · 003).
Intra-articular mepivacaine blunts the haemodynamic response to arthroscopic surgery in dogs and reduces interventional analgesia requirement.
- Prospective study to investigate the use of fine needle aspiration
techniques in UK veterinary practice
- Authors: K. L. Bowlt; R. Newton, S. Murphy, L. Blackwood, M. Starkey
First page: 409
To document the fine needle aspiration methods used by UK veterinary practitioners for the assessment of cutaneous masses and relate this to the achievement of a representative sample.
An internet-based questionnaire was designed and publicised in the UK national veterinary press, at a national surgical meeting, and in letters to veterinary surgeons.
One hundred and seventy respondents replied to the questionnaire: 58 · 2% sampled cutaneous masses on the basis of appearance or behaviour; 41 · 3% sampled every cutaneous mass. Practitioners with a greater oncological caseload or who graduated more recently were more likely to recommend fine needle aspiration for every cutaneous mass (P = 0 · 019 and P = 0 · 0002 respectively); 66 · 5% of respondents applied suction during fine needle aspiration; 89% of all respondents used a 2 or 5 mL syringe in combination with a 21 or 23 G needle. There was no statistically significant association between achievement of a representative sample and syringe (P = 0 · 64) or needle size (P = 0 · 63).
Fine needle aspiration is widely used in UK practice, but may be underutilised in practices with lower oncological caseloads. Survey participants reported a high rate of representative samples obtained using all the commonly used techniques. Further work is required to confirm these observations.
- In vitro comparison of output fluid temperatures for room temperature and
- Authors: N. Soto; H. A. Towle Millard, R. A. Lee, H. Y. Weng
First page: 415
To determine if prewarmed intravenous fluids produce superior fluid output temperatures compared with room temperature fluids at common anaesthetic fluid rates for small animal patients.
A prospective, randomised, in vitro fluid line test-vein study was performed. Nine flow rates were analysed (10, 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, 260 and 300 mL/hour) for room temperature fluids (21°C) and for five prewarmed fluids (40, 45, 50, 55 and 60°C).
For each flow rate tested, room temperature fluids never exceeded 25°C at any time point for each trial (range 18 to 25°C). For each flow rate tested, prewarmed fluids never exceeded 25 · 5°C at any time point for each trial (range 18 to 25 · 5°C). The mean output fluid temperature of prewarmed fluids was significantly warmer than room temperature fluids only at 300 mL/hour for 40°C (P = 0 · 0012), 45°C (P = 0 · 004), 50°C (P = 0 · 0002), 55°C (P = 0 · 0001) and 60°C (P
- Venous air embolism detected on computed tomography of small animals
- Authors: H. G. Heng; J. D. Ruth, K. Lee
First page: 420
To describe the prevalence, location and clinical significance of abnormal gas accumulations in dogs and cats detected on computerised tomography images.
Retrospective evaluation of all canine and feline computed tomography examinations (292 pre-contrast and 219 post-contrast) performed in a 12-month time period. All studies were evaluated for the presence of venous air emboli. The location of intravenous gas was noted and the volume of intravenous air emboli was estimated visually. The medical records of animals with venous air embolism were reviewed for signs of cardiopulmonary complications.
The overall prevalence of air embolism on pre- and incidence on post-contrast images was 4 · 5 and 2 · 3%, respectively. The prevalence of air embolism on pre-contrast and incidence on post-contrast thoracic images was 35 · 7 and 14 · 2%, respectively. The volume of venous air was generally small and the most common was in an axillary vein. None of the animals had any cardiopulmonary complications.
The presence of small volume venous air embolism on routine computed tomography examinations is a frequent incidental finding that does not appear to cause cardiopulmonary complications.
- Transrectal bladder prolapse secondary to pelvic fracture in two dogs
- Authors: L. Z. Crivellenti; M. P. Silveira, A. N. Silva, S. Borin‐Crivellenti, T. M. M. Raposo, D. K. Honsho
Pages: 424 - 426
Abstract: This report describes the exteriorisation of the urinary bladder in two dogs as a result of a laceration of the rectum from a traumatic pelvic fracture. Clinical examination and contrast radiography of the bladder were used as diagnostic tools. Both patients were treated with exploratory laparotomy, where traction of the bladder was utilised to pull the bladder through the traumatic rectal laceration allowing the organ to return to its normal anatomical position. This procedure was followed by surgical reconstruction of the rectum, resulting in effective resolution of each case.
- Laparoscopic treatment of persistent inguinal haemorrhage after prescrotal
orchiectomy in a dog
- Authors: A. Koenraadt; L. Stegen, T. Bosmans, B. Van Goethem
Pages: 427 - 430
Abstract: A one‐year‐old male Jack Russell terrier developed a prescrotal haematoma after elective orchiectomy. When surgical exploration failed to locate the responsible vessel and conservative therapy (applying a pressure bandage) was not successful in stabilising the dog, abdominal laparoscopy was performed. The haemorrhage originated from the spermatic cord in the inguinal canal bilaterally. After retracting the spermatic cord into the abdomen, haemostasis was performed using a vessel‐sealing device. The prescrotal haematoma was removed and the dog made an uncomplicated recovery.
- Intranasal epidermoid cyst causing upper airway obstruction in three
- Authors: D. Murgia; M. Pivetta, K. Bowlt, C. Volmer, A. Holloway, R. Dennis
Pages: 431 - 435
Abstract: This case report describes three brachycephalic dogs with intranasal epidermoid cysts that were causing additional upper airway obstruction. Although epidermoid cysts have been described in several locations in dogs, to the authors’ knowledge intranasal epidermoid cysts have not been previously reported. All dogs had mucopurulent to haemorrhagic nasal discharge. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed the presence of unilateral or bilateral intranasal cystic lesions obstructing the nasal cavities partially or completely, with atrophy of the ipsilateral nasal turbinates. The cystic lesions were surgically excised in all dogs using a modified lateral alveolar mucosal approach to the affected nasal cavity. Aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture of the cystic contents were negative and histology of the excised tissue was consistent with a benign intranasal epidermoid cyst in each dog. Upper airway obstruction was clinically improved in two dogs.