- Prepuce and partial penile amputation for treatment of preputial gland
neoplasia in two ferrets
- Authors: Y. R. A. van Zeeland; A. Lennox, J. F. Quinton, N. J. Schoemaker
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: Preputial tumours in ferrets are frequently malignant and therefore warrant prompt investigation. As many cases do not respond favourably to surgery, even in combination with radiation therapy, wide surgical resection has been recommended. Such a procedure may necessitate partial or total penile resection but outcomes have thus far not been well described. The current case series describes two ferrets in which surgical resection, including penile amputation, was performed using 10 and 5 mm margins, respectively. In the first case, no recurrence of preputial gland adenocarcinoma was noted for 32 months postsurgery, whereas multiple attempts at surgery and radiation therapy were unsuccessful in the second. These cases suggest that margins of at least 1 cm may help achieve a better outcome. Penile amputation for the treatment of preputial tumours appears to be well tolerated by ferrets, as demonstrated by these cases.
- Effects of probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on
the faecal microflora of pet rabbits
- Authors: L. Benato; P. Hastie, P. O'Shaughnessy, J.-A. Murray, A. Meredith
Pages: n/a - n/a
Probiotics are frequently used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in pet rabbits based largely on anecdotal evidence of a beneficial effect. However, there has been little work performed to assess any such benefit in health or disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotics on faecal levels of four important candidate gastrointestinal bacteria (Bacteroides species, Enterococcus faecium, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Clostridium spiroforme) in pet rabbits. Additional aims were to evaluate the effect of probiotics on bodyweight and faecal weight and diameter.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Double-blind triple cross-over study in six healthy rabbits orally administered two probiotic strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC Sc47 and E. faecium NCIMB 30183. Levels of bacteria in faecal pellets were subsequently determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Oral administration of probiotic E. faecium NCIMB 30183 was associated with a significant (P = 0 · 042) increase in faecal levels of E. faecium. However, probiotic treatment did not affect faecal levels of Bacteroides species, F. succinogenes or C. spiroforme, bodyweight, or faecal weight and diameter.
The inclusion of dietary probiotic supplementation using E. faecium NCIMB 30183 can increase faecal levels of certain bacterial flora of healthy adult rabbits. Further work is required to investigate the effects of probiotics in animals affected with gastrointestinal disease.
- Total vertebrectomy for stabilisation of chronic spinal lumbar luxation in
a paraplegic dog without nociception
- Authors: P. V. Tertuliano Marinho; C. C. Zani, F. De Biasi, M. V. Bahr Arias
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: An adult male crossbred dog was referred with a history of a road traffic accident that took place 1 month earlier. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia with absent nociception in the pelvic limbs. On epaxial palpation, significant curvature of the anatomical axis of the spine between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae was observed, with the presence of a bone end almost piercing the dog's skin. Survey radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed severe dislocation between L3 and L4 vertebrae. During surgery, the spinal cord was not visible between the dislocated segments. Because of difficulties in reducing the lumbar luxation during surgery, vertebrectomy and vertebral shortening were performed. After alignment between vertebrae L3 and L5, eight cortical orthopaedic screws and bone cement were used for fixation. After 30 days, the dog started to use a wheelchair and was considered by its owner to have a good quality of life with no evidence of pain. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of severe luxation treated by total vertebrectomy and spine shortening in a dog. This surgery can be considered as an option in the management of severe spine luxation when the spinal cord is physically transected.
- Reverse TPLO for asymmetrical -premature closure of the proximal tibial
physis in a dog
- Authors: R. M. Demianiuk; L. P. Guiot
Pages: n/a - n/a
Abstract: A 4 · 5-month-old, 13 · 8 kg, female neutered mixed breed dog was presented for evaluation of acute non-weight bearing right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographs revealed a tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture for which open reduction/internal fixation was performed. Asymmetrical premature closure of the cranial aspect of the proximal tibial physis ensued with a tibial plateau angle of −12°. Abnormal stifle biomechanics resulted in lameness and caudal cruciate ligament fraying. Tibial plateau -levelling osteotomy was performed in standard fashion with the exception that the proximal tibial -fragment was rotated cranioproximally to increase the tibial plateau angle from −12° to +5° (reverse tibial -plateau levelling osteotomy). Normal healing and resolution of lameness followed and the dog remained -clinically healthy 2 years postoperatively. This case report demonstrates that any change in proximal tibial anatomy, whether traumatic, iatrogenic or with therapeutic intent, can cause altered stifle biomechanics and should not be underestimated. Surgical management through corrective -osteotomy can be used to restore adequate function.
- Gastrointestinal toxicity after vincristine or cyclophosphamide
administered with or without maropitant in dogs: a prospective randomised
- Authors: S. L. Mason; I. A. Grant, J. Elliott, P. Cripps, L. Blackwood
To assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal toxicity in dogs receiving chemotherapy with vincristine and cyclophosphamide and the efficacy of maropitant citrate (Cerenia™, Zoetis) in reducing these events.
Dogs receiving chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide or vincristine were randomised to either receive maropitant or not in the period immediately after treatment and for 4 days afterwards. Owners completed a diary of adverse events following treatment.
Adverse events occurred in 40/58 (69%) dogs in the vincristine group. Most of these adverse events were mild and included: lethargy (62%), appetite loss (43%), diarrhoea (34%) and vomiting (24%). Adverse events occurred in 34/42 (81%) dogs treated with cyclophosphamide. Most of these adverse events were mild and included: lethargy (62%), diarrhoea (36%), appetite loss (36%) and vomiting (21%). There was no difference in total clinical score, vomiting, diarrhoea, appetite loss or lethargy score between dogs treated with maropitant and non-treated dogs in either the vincristine or cyclophosphamide groups.
Chemotherapy-related side effects are frequent but usually mild in dogs receiving vincristine or cyclophosphamide. Prophylactic administration of maropitant does not reduce the frequency of adverse events and maropitant should be administered only as required for individual cases.
- Prospective study to investigate the use of fine needle aspiration
techniques in UK veterinary practice
- Authors: K. L. Bowlt; R. Newton, S. Murphy, L. Blackwood, M. Starkey
To document the fine needle aspiration methods used by UK veterinary practitioners for the assessment of cutaneous masses and relate this to the achievement of a representative sample.
An internet-based questionnaire was designed and publicised in the UK national veterinary press, at a national surgical meeting, and in letters to veterinary surgeons.
One hundred and seventy respondents replied to the questionnaire: 58 · 2% sampled cutaneous masses on the basis of appearance or behaviour; 41 · 3% sampled every cutaneous mass. Practitioners with a greater oncological caseload or who graduated more recently were more likely to recommend fine needle aspiration for every cutaneous mass (P = 0 · 019 and P = 0 · 0002 respectively); 66 · 5% of respondents applied suction during fine needle aspiration; 89% of all respondents used a 2 or 5 mL syringe in combination with a 21 or 23 G needle. There was no statistically significant association between achievement of a representative sample and syringe (P = 0 · 64) or needle size (P = 0 · 63).
Fine needle aspiration is widely used in UK practice, but may be underutilised in practices with lower oncological caseloads. Survey participants reported a high rate of representative samples obtained using all the commonly used techniques. Further work is required to confirm these observations.
- Polycystic kidney disease in a Neva Masquerade cat
- Authors: Agnieszka Jasik; Marek Kulesza
- In vitro comparison of output fluid temperatures for room temperature and
- Authors: N. Soto; H. A. Towle Millard, R. A. Lee, H. Y. Weng
To determine if prewarmed intravenous fluids produce superior fluid output temperatures compared with room temperature fluids at common anaesthetic fluid rates for small animal patients.
A prospective, randomised, in vitro fluid line test-vein study was performed. Nine flow rates were analysed (10, 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, 260 and 300 mL/hour) for room temperature fluids (21°C) and for five prewarmed fluids (40, 45, 50, 55 and 60°C).
For each flow rate tested, room temperature fluids never exceeded 25°C at any time point for each trial (range 18 to 25°C). For each flow rate tested, prewarmed fluids never exceeded 25 · 5°C at any time point for each trial (range 18 to 25 · 5°C). The mean output fluid temperature of prewarmed fluids was significantly warmer than room temperature fluids only at 300 mL/hour for 40°C (P = 0 · 0012), 45°C (P = 0 · 004), 50°C (P = 0 · 0002), 55°C (P = 0 · 0001) and 60°C (P
- Venous air embolism detected on computed tomography of small animals
- Authors: H. G. Heng; J. D. Ruth, K. Lee
To describe the prevalence, location and clinical significance of abnormal gas accumulations in dogs and cats detected on computerised tomography images.
Retrospective evaluation of all canine and feline computed tomography examinations (292 pre-contrast and 219 post-contrast) performed in a 12-month time period. All studies were evaluated for the presence of venous air emboli. The location of intravenous gas was noted and the volume of intravenous air emboli was estimated visually. The medical records of animals with venous air embolism were reviewed for signs of cardiopulmonary complications.
The overall prevalence of air embolism on pre- and incidence on post-contrast images was 4 · 5 and 2 · 3%, respectively. The prevalence of air embolism on pre-contrast and incidence on post-contrast thoracic images was 35 · 7 and 14 · 2%, respectively. The volume of venous air was generally small and the most common was in an axillary vein. None of the animals had any cardiopulmonary complications.
The presence of small volume venous air embolism on routine computed tomography examinations is a frequent incidental finding that does not appear to cause cardiopulmonary complications.
- Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia
- Authors: M. E. Aslanian; C. R. Sharp, M. S. Garneau
Abstract: A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency.
- Guidelines for Recognition, Assessment and Treatment of Pain
- Authors: Karol Mathews; Peter W Kronen, Duncan Lascelles, Andrea Nolan, Sheilah Robertson, Paulo VM Steagall, Bonnie Wright, Kazuto Yamashita
- Intra-articular mepivacaine reduces interventional analgesia requirements
during arthroscopic surgery in dogs
- Authors: T. A. G. Dutton; M. A. Gurney, S. R. Bright
To document efficacy of intra-articular mepivacaine in dogs based on the hypothesis that this would blunt the haemodynamic response to a nociceptive stimulus (arthroscopic surgery), reducing interventional analgesia requirements.
A dose of mepivacaine 2% 0 · 1 ml/kg (2 mg/kg) was injected intra-articularly into one randomly assigned elbow joint before surgery in eight dogs undergoing bilateral elbow arthroscopy. Baseline haemodynamic measurements were recorded immediately before the start of each arthroscopic procedure and repeated at arthrocentesis, saline distension of the joint, incision, arthroscopic cannula and obturator insertion and placement of the second portal and haemodynamic variability calculated. If baseline parameters increased by more than 20% suggesting nociception, 1 µg/kg fentanyl was administered intravenously.
Significantly less fentanyl was required during arthroscopy on the mepivacaine treated elbows compared to the non-treated elbows (P = 0 · 003) and the time to first fentanyl administration was significantly longer (P = 0 · 0001) in the mepivacaine treated elbows (21 · 2 ± 4 · 9 minutes) compared to the non-treated elbows (6 · 1 ± 2 · 3 minutes). Haemodynamic variability was significantly reduced in the mepivacaine group (heart rate P = 0 · 04, mean arterial pressure P = 0 · 003).
Intra-articular mepivacaine blunts the haemodynamic response to arthroscopic surgery in dogs and reduces interventional analgesia requirement.
- Evaluation of toxicities from combined metronomic and maximal-tolerated
dose chemotherapy in dogs with osteosarcoma
- Authors: S. Bracha; R. Walshaw, T. Danton, S. Holland, C. Ruaux, J. Obradovich
To evaluate the tolerability of a piroxicam and cyclophosphamide metronomic treatment protocol combined with carboplatin alone or carboplatin and doxorubicin at maximal-tolerated doses.
Retrospective study of 30 dogs diagnosed with osteosarcoma. All dogs underwent amputation and chemotherapy treatment with one of the two maximal-tolerated dose protocols. Metronomic chemotherapy was administered in conjunction with these protocols, and continued subsequently. The protocols included 0 · 3 mg/kg piroxicam and 10 to 12 mg/M2 cyclophosphamide with 300 mg/M2 carboplatin alone, or 300 mg/M2 carboplatin alternating with 30 mg/M2 doxorubicin.
Fourteen dogs were treated with the carboplatin and metronomic protocol and 16 were treated with the carboplatin alternating with doxorubicin and metronomic protocol. Grades 3 and 4 toxicities overall were significantly (P = 0 · 018) more common in the former group. The disease-free interval of the carboplatin and metronomic group was 192 days, which was not significantly different (P = 0 · 916) to the 182 days for the carboplatin alternating with doxorubicin and metronomic group. The median survival times of the two groups were 217 and 189 days, respectively.
Piroxicam and cyclophosphamide metronomic protocols can be safely administered in combination with maximal-tolerated dose chemotherapy protocols. A significantly higher frequency of toxicities was observed in dogs treated with the carboplatin and metronomic protocol.
- Lateral orbitotomy for treatment of an orbital abscess in a dog
- Authors: R. Vallefuoco; C. Molas, P. Moissonnier, S. Chahory
Abstract: A two-year-old Jack Russell terrier was diagnosed with a retrobulbar abscess and orbital cellulitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging examination and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Transoral ventral drainage was attempted but was unsuccessful. The abscess was successfully treated by open drainage through a lateral orbitotomy. Despite the exposure of the orbital structures, the orbital soft tissues healed by second intention without further complications. The open drainage was well tolerated and resulted in immediate reduction of inflammation and pain, allowing a quick recovery. This report describes the diagnosis and, surgical management and the long-term (3 years) follow-up of an unusual case of orbital abscess associated with diffuse periorbital cellulitis successfully treated by open drainage through a lateral orbitotomy.
- The effect of season and track condition on injury rate in racing
- Authors: J. Iddon; R. H. Lockyer, S. P. Frean
To identify environmental and management factors affecting injury rate in racing greyhounds.
Surveys of racing injuries at two greyhound tracks in the UK were conducted using injury data collected by track veterinary surgeons. At Track A the relative frequency of common injuries was determined and compared with previously published studies conducted in the UK. At Track B the effects of month of the year, ambient temperature and track condition (“going”) on injury rate were determined.
Comparison of common injuries at Track A with previous studies suggested a change in the relative frequency of some injury types following a change in track surface from grass to sand. Estimated injury rates suggest improved track safety with the change in track surface. At Track B, injury rate increased significantly with faster track conditions. Time of year and ambient temperature had no significant effect on injury rate.
Changes in track maintenance resulting in a slower track may reduce injury rate in racing greyhounds, with associated welfare benefits.
- Comparison of urine and bladder or urethral mucosal biopsy culture
obtained by transurethral cystoscopy, in dogs with chronic lower
urinary tract disease: 41 cases (2002 to 2011)
- Authors: K. F. Sycamore; V. R. Poorbaugh, S. S. Pullin, C. R. Ward
To compare aerobic bacterial culture of urine to cystoscopically obtained mucosal biopsies of the lower urinary tract in dogs.
Retrospective review of case records from dogs that had transurethral cystoscopy at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2002 and 2011. Dogs that had culture results from cystocentesis obtained urine and transurethral cystoscopically obtained mucosal samples were included in the study. Pathogens identified were compared between sampling methods.
Forty dogs underwent transurethral cystoscopy for lower urinary tract disease on 41 occasions. There was significant (P = 0 · 0003) agreement between urine and mucosal biopsy cultures. Both cultures were negative in 66% and positive in 17% of dogs. There was a 17% disagreement between the sampling methods. Although not statistically significant, more mucosal samples than urine cultures were positive for Escherichia coli.
There was a good agreement between pathogen identification from urine and lower urinary tract mucosal cultures. These results do not support the utilisation of transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsy samples for culture in dogs with urinary tract infection and positive urine culture. Individual cases with possible chronic urinary tract infection and negative urine culture may benefit from transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsies for culture.
- Lymphocytic ganglioneuritis secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion in
- Authors: A. E. Mouradian-Darby; B. D. Young, J. F. Griffin, J. Mansell, J. M. Levine
Abstract: This study presents a case of lymphocytic ganglioneuritis in a dog secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion that mimicked a peripheral nerve sheath tumour on magnetic resonance imaging. A four-year-old spayed female dachshund with lumbar pain was imaged via magnetic resonance. A tubular, space-occupying, contrast-enhancing lesion was noted in the right intervertebral foramen at L6 to L7. This was presumed to represent focal enlargement of the right sixth lumbar spinal nerve. A right-sided haemilaminectomy was performed at L6 to L7 and material that grossly resembled extruded nucleus pulposus was removed. The right L6 dorsal root ganglion, dorsal nerve root and proximal spinal nerve were severely enlarged and a partial thickness biopsy was collected from the dorsal root ganglion. Results of histopathological examination of the submitted tissue samples were consistent with extruded disc material and lymphocytic ganglioneuritis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first published report of lymphocytic ganglioneuritis secondary to intervertebral disc disease in a dog.
- Surgical treatment of a duplicated and ectopic ureter in a dog
- Authors: M. Newman; B. Landon
Abstract: An eight-month old female bull mastiff was referred for evaluation of urinary incontinence. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography identified complete duplication of the left ureter with ectopic insertion of the duplicate ureter into the proximal urethra. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed, which improved but did not resolve urinary continence. To the authors’ knowledge, this report details only the second reported case of duplicated ectopic ureter in the dog and the first documenting surgical reimplantation; thus, double-system ureteral ectopia should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis for urinary incontinence.
- Gall bladder rupture associated with cholecystitis in a domestic ferret
- Authors: M. Huynh; P. Guillaumot, J. Hernandez, G. Ragetly
Abstract: A six-year-old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1 year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret.
- Diagnostic value of MRI in dogs with inflammatory nasal disease
- Authors: A. R. R. Furtado; A. Caine, M. E. Herrtage
To determine the value of low‐field magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating sino‐nasal aspergillosis from lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in dogs.
A retrospective study of 41 dogs (25 with lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis and 16 with sino‐nasal aspergillosis) that underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan of the nasal cavity was conducted. On magnetic resonance imaging, turbinate destruction was classified as mild, moderate or severe. The cribriform plate and vomer destruction were classified as present or absent. The intensity of fluid accumulation and turbinates was classified on T1‐weighted and T2‐weighted images as hypointense, hyperintense and isointense based on the brightest area on the same slice.
Turbinate destruction was significantly (P=0·005) associated with sino‐nasal aspergillosis. On T1‐weighted images, sino‐nasal aspergillosis was associated with turbinate hyperintensity, while lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis was significantly (P=0·007) associated with hypointensity. On T2‐weighted images, this feature was shown not to be relevant.
This study has demonstrated that turbinate destruction is the most reliable feature to differentiate sino‐nasal aspergillosis from lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis and that T1‐weighted image was the most useful sequence.
- Radiographic and MRI characteristics of lumbar disseminated idiopathic
spinal hyperostosis and spondylosis deformans in dogs
- Authors: A. Togni; H. J. C. Kranenburg, J. P. Morgan, F. Steffen
To evaluate clinical signs, describe lesions and differences in the magnetic resonance imaging appearance of spinal new bone formations classified as disseminated idiopathic spinal hyperostosis and/or spondylosis deformans on radiographs and compare degeneration status of the intervertebral discs using the Pfirrmann scale.
Retrospective analysis of 18 dogs presented with spinal disorders using information from radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging examinations.
All dogs were found to be affected with both disseminated idiopathic spinal hyperostosis and spondylosis deformans. Neurological signs due to foraminal stenosis associated with disseminated idiopathic spinal hyperostosis were found in two dogs. Spondylosis deformans was associated with foraminal stenosis and/or disc protrusion in 15 cases.
The Pfirrmann score on magnetic resonance imaging was significantly higher in spondylosis deformans compared with disseminated idiopathic spinal hyperostosis and signal intensity of new bone due to disseminated idiopathic spinal hyperostosis was significantly higher compared to spondylosis deformans.
Differences between disseminated idiopathic spinal hyperostosis and spondylosis deformans found on magnetic resonance imaging contribute to an increased differentiation between the two entities. Clinically relevant lesions in association with disseminated idiopathic spinal hyperostosis were rare compared to those seen with spondylosis deformans.
- Veterinary analgesia: moving closer to Nirvana'
- Authors: Derek Flaherty
First page: 291
- Veterinary treatment and rehabilitation of indigenous wildlife
- Authors: E. Mullineaux
First page: 293
Abstract: Veterinary surgeons in general practice are frequently presented with injured or orphaned animals by wildlife rescue centres, members of the public or police officers. Following treatment, many of these animals are released to the wild. Despite the large numbers of wildlife casualties rehabilitated in this way there are few published data detailing species, numbers treated, quality of care provided and outcome following release. There is also ongoing debate regarding the welfare and conservation benefits of such human intervention. This article reviews the available published evidence on wildlife rehabilitation and offers recommendations on future policy.
- Investigation of the effects of a polymerised bovine haemoglobin solution
on tension in isolated canine saphenous artery
- Authors: P. Pawson; F. J. Dowell
First page: 301
To investigate the vasoconstriction induced by a polymerised bovine haemoglobin solution, Hb‐200, in isolated canine arteries.
Rings of canine saphenous artery, from euthanatized dogs, were mounted between stainless steel wires in Krebs’ solution (95% O2, 5% CO2, 37°C) for isometric tension recording. Following incubation with Hb‐200, cumulative concentration response curves to phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and acetylcholine (vasodilator) were investigated. Responses to acute addition of Hb‐200 were also examined in pre‐constricted or pre‐dilated arteries. Responses were further studied in the presence or absence of the endothelium, inhibitors of endothelium‐dependent vasodilation (L‐NAME, charybdotoxin and apamin), an endothelin antagonist (BQ‐788) and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase.
Incubation with Hb‐200 (0·2 or 2 g/L) significantly enhanced phenylephrine‐induced contraction (decreasing half maximal effective concentration, EC50, P=0·0035) and inhibited acetylcholine‐induced relaxation (increasing EC50, P
- Retrospective study of 14 cases of canine arthritis secondary
to Leishmania infection
- Authors: S. Sbrana; V. Marchetti, F. Mancianti, G. Guidi, D. Bennett
First page: 309
To describe the clinical appearance, laboratory findings and response to treatment of dogs with inflammatory joint disease associated with Leishmania infection.
Retrospective analysis of case records of dogs with serologically confirmed leishmaniasis and concurrent inflammatory joint disease presented between 2005 and 2011.
In total, 14 cases met the inclusion criteria. Of these, five (36%) dogs were presented with monoarthritis, five (36%) with oligoarthritis and four (28%) with polyarthritis. The most frequently affected joint was the carpus. Both erosive and non‐erosive disease was identified on radiographic examination. All dogs had an inflammatory synovial fluid with a high white cell count and a preponderance of neutrophils, and in eight (57%) cases Leishmania amastigotes were found in the synovial fluid smears.
Dogs were treated with 50 mg/kg N‐methylglucamine antimoniate twice a day for 1 month and 10 mg/kg allopurinol twice a day for 6 to 9 months combined with prednisolone in five cases. At the 6‐month follow‐up, eight (57%) dogs showed improvement in general and orthopaedic signs and four (28%) dogs were stable.
Leishmaniasis should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with inflammatory arthritis in endemic areas.
- A retrospective study of positive pressure ventilation in 58 dogs:
indications, prognostic factors and outcome
- Authors: Y. Bruchim; I. Aroch, A. Sisso, Y. Kushnir, A. Epstein, E. Kelmer, G. Segev
First page: 314
To assess the usefulness of clinical and clinicopathological parameters as prognostic markers of survival in dogs undergoing positive pressure ventilation.
Retrospective study of case records of 58 client‐owned dogs undergoing positive pressure ventilation. Dogs were divided into two groups; inadequate oxygenation due to pulmonary parenchymal disease (Group 1) and inadequate ventilation (Group 2).
Median duration of positive pressure ventilation was 30 (range 10 to 136) hours. Survival rate was 32% (19 dogs). Survivors were significantly younger (P
- Serum Cardiac Troponin I concentrations in cats with anaemia –
a preliminary, single‐centre observational study
- Authors: S. M. Lalor; D. A. Gunn-Moore, R. Cash, A. Foot, N. Reed, R. J. Mellanby
First page: 320
A range of cardiovascular abnormalities have been associated with anaemia. However, it remains unclear whether anaemia is associated with cardiac myocyte damage in cats. The aim of this study was to assess if cats with anaemia have an increased prevalence of cardiac myocyte damage, as assessed by serum concentrations of cardiac troponin I, compared to non‐anaemic, ill cats.
Serum cardiac troponin I concentrations were measured in 18 anaemic cats and in 31 non‐anaemic, ill cats with non‐primary cardiac, non‐renal and non‐primary haematological disorders.
The serum cardiac troponin I concentrations in the anaemic group (0·43 ng/mL) were significantly higher (P=0·0002) than in the non‐anaemic ill group (0·04 ng/mL). Using a cut‐off of less than 0·16 ng/mL, 12 of the 18 anaemic cats had an increased serum cardiac troponin I concentration, which was significantly higher (P=0·005) than the non‐anaemic ill cats (7 of 31 cats).
Serum cardiac troponin I concentrations were higher in cats with anaemia in this study. Further studies are required to establish whether the anaemia or other confounding factors is the cause of the increased serum cardiac troponin I concentrations.
- Computed tomographic appearance of canine thyroid tumours
- Authors: K. Deitz; L. Gilmour, V. Wilke, E. Riedesel
First page: 323
To describe the computed tomography features of canine thyroid tumours.
METHODS Retrospective study of records of dogs with a thyroid tumour and neck computed tomography. Neck computed tomographies were evaluated for tumour characteristics. Thoracic radiographs and computed tomographies were evaluated for lung nodules.
Of 19 identified cases, 17 were carcinomas and 2 were adenomas; 12 had mineralisation, 16 had heterogeneous attenuation and 16 were unilateral. Tumours were located from the temporomandibular joint to C5. Sixteen had well‐defined margins postcontrast. Tumours were ovoid and mean volume was 57·4 cm3. By computed tomography, eight had definitive or possible invasion into surrounding structures; all eight were histopathologically invasive carcinomas. Five histopathologically non‐invasive tumours and two adenomas had no computed tomography invasion into surrounding structures. Four had complete palpable mobility (two adenomas and two histopathologically invasive carcinomas); one had computed tomography evidence of possible invasion. The sensitivity of palpable mass mobility to determine histopathological invasion was 71% with 0% specificity. The sensitivity of computed tomography invasion to determine histopathological invasion was 70% with 100% specificity.
Computed tomography scans revealed several common features. Palpable mass mobility was not definitive for lack of histopathological invasion. Computed tomography invasion was specific but not very sensitive for histopathological invasion.
- Treatment of five haemodynamically stable dogs with immune‐mediated
thrombocytopenia using mycophenolate mofetil as single agent
- Authors: V. K. Yau; D. Bianco
First page: 330
Abstract: Five dogs were presumptively diagnosed with immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia. As they had all been chronically treated with non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs, administration of immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids was considered contraindicated. Non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs were temporarily discontinued in all the dogs and mycophenolate mofetil was introduced as first‐line single immunomodulatory therapy. This treatment protocol resulted in complete remission of immune‐mediated thrombocytopenia in all the dogs, and mycophenolate mofetil was discontinued after several months of therapy in four of the five dogs with no relapses, even when non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug administration was resumed. The remaining dog required continued mycophenolate mofetil therapy to avoid relapse. One dog experienced diarrhoea, and another dog had diarrhoea and decreased appetite.
- Use of sedation and ropivacaine‐morphine epidural for femoral head
and neck ostectomy in a dog
- Authors: T. K. Aarnes; J. A. E. Hubbell, B. E. Hildreth
First page: 334
Abstract: A five‐year‐old male German shepherd dog presented with traumatic craniodorsal luxation of the right coxofemoral joint with pre‐existing moderate hip dysplasia. A femoral head and neck ostectomy was performed. The patient was sedated with acepromazine and morphine administered intramuscularly. A lumbosacral epidural was performed using a combination of morphine and ropivacaine. Intraoperatively, an infusion of medetomidine, morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine was administered intravenously, and oxygen was administered via facemask. Heart rate, respiratory rate and oscillometric arterial blood pressures were monitored. Postoperatively, carprofen was administered once subcutaneously. On the day of hospital discharge, carprofen and tramadol were administered orally every 12 hours. Twenty‐one days later, the dog was doing well and the surgical staples were removed. Sedation with acepromazine and morphine, administration of an epidural containing morphine and ropivacaine, and intraoperative sedation with medetomidine, morphine, lidocaine and ketamine were suitable for femoral head and neck ostectomy.
- Unilateral shunt formation with thoracic aortic dissection in a whippet
- Authors: I. Cornelis; T. Bosmans, M. Doom, D. Binst, E. Van der Vekens, K. Kromhout, P. Cornillie, L. Van Ham
First page: 337
Abstract: A three‐year‐old neutered male whippet was presented with intermittent, exercise‐induced paraparesis. Femoral pulses were bilaterally absent. Neurologic examination was suggestive of a thoracolumbar myelopathy. Blood pressure measurements revealed hypotension in both pelvic limbs, hypertension in the right thoracic limb and it was immeasurable in the left thoracic limb. Echocardiography was within reference limits. A clear vascular pulsation was palpable on the right ventral abdominal wall. Computed tomographic angiography revealed a dissection of the aortic wall between the left subclavian artery and the brachiocephalic trunk with subsequent thrombus formation. A shunt between the right internal thoracic, cranial and caudal epigastric arteries to preserve blood flow to the pelvic limbs was visualized. Necropsy was declined by the owner. This is the first case report describing the formation of a unilateral vascular shunt following a thoracic aortic occlusion, which presented as exercise‐induced paraparesis.