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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 216 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Domestic Animal Endocrinology
  [SJR: 0.751]   [H-I: 59]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-7240
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Activities for Leptin in Bovine Trophoblast Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): C.K. Hughes, M.M. Xie, S.R. McCoski, A.D. Ealy
      Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6- or 24-h. Transcript profiles were examined from extracted RNA. Leptin supplementation did not affect abundance of the maternal recognition of pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), but leptin increased (P < 0.05) abundance of chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 2 (CSH2; i.e. placental lactogen) at both 6- and 24-h at each concentration tested. At 24-h, the greatest CSH2 abundance (P < 0.05) was detected in cells supplemented with 50 ng/mL leptin. Transcript abundance of the remodeling factor, metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), was greater (P < 0.05) in leptin-treated cells at 24-h but not at 6-h. The 24-h MMP2 response was greatest (P < 0.05) at 250 ng/mL. Transcript abundance for MMP9 was not altered by leptin treatment. In a separate set of studies, cell proliferation assays were completed. Leptin supplementation did not affect CT1 proliferation at any dose tested. In conclusion, leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell proliferation or IFNT expression, but leptin increases CSH2 and MMP2 transcript abundance. Both of these factors are involved with peri- and post-implantation placental development and function, and this implicates leptin as a potential mediator of early placental development and function in cattle.

      PubDate: 2016-09-16T05:14:08Z
       
  • Role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 in estradiol 17β -induced
           alterations in protein synthesis and protein degradation rates in fused
           bovine satellite cell cultures1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): E. Kamanga-Sollo, K.J. Thornton, M.E. White, W.R. Dayton
      In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (TBA) (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures, however the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates non-genomic effects of E2 on cellular function. Our current data show that inhibition of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9), or heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF) suppresses E2-stimulate protein synthesis rate in cultures bovine satellite cells (BSC) (P < 0.001) suggesting that all of these are required in order for E2 to stimulate protein synthesis in these cultures. In contrast, inhibition of GPER-1, MMP2/9, or hbEGF has no effect on the ability of E2 to suppress protein degradation rates in fused BSC cultures indicating that these factors are not required in order for E2 to suppress protein degradation rate in these cells. Furthermore, treatment of fused BSC cultures with E2 increased (P < 0.05) pAKT levels in fused BSC cultures compared to untreated control cultures, indicating that the pAKT pathway may play a role in E2-stimulated effects on cultured BSC. In summary, our current data show that active GPER-1, MMP2/9, and hbEGF are necessary for E2-stimulated protein synthesis but not for E2-simulated suppression of protein degradation in cultured BSC. Additionally, E2-treatment increases pAKT levels in cultured BSC.

      PubDate: 2016-09-16T05:14:08Z
       
  • Is progesterone the key regulatory factor behind ovulation rate in
           sheep'
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 58
      Author(s): P.M. Bartlewski, J. Sohal, V. Paravinja, T. Baby, M.E.F. Oliveira, M. Murawski, T. Schwarz, D.A. Zieba, D.H. Keisler
      Ovarian antral follicles in the ewe grow in an orderly succession, producing 3 to 4 waves per estrous cycle. In prolific sheep, some large antral follicles from the second-to-last wave of the estrous cycle are added to the ovulatory follicles emerging just before estrus to give a higher ovulation rate; it is feasible that regression of these follicles is prevented by an increase in serum concentrations of FSH or LH pulsatility at proestrus. Prolific sheep tend to have a shorter luteal phase than nonprolific ewes and there is a great deal of evidence that luteal progesterone (P4), in addition to regulating LH release, may govern the secretion of FSH heralding the emergence of follicular waves. The specific purpose of this study was to determine whether or not extending the duration of the luteal phase in prolific sheep to that typically seen in nonprolific breeds would alter the follicle wave dynamics and ovulation rate. In 2 separate experiments, exogenous P4 (7.5 mg per ewe intramuscularly) was administered on day 11 at PM and day 12 at AM (day 0 = first ovulation of the interovulatory interval studied) in moderately prolific Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes (experiment 1, n = 8) and highly prolific Olkuska ewes (experiment 2, n = 7; TRT), whereas the equinumerous groups of animals served as controls (CTR). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed daily, and jugular blood samples were drawn twice a day from day 9 until the next ovulation. Progesterone injections resulted in relatively uniform increments in serum P4 levels, but the mean duration of the interovulatory interval did not differ (P > 0.05) between TRT and CTR groups of ewes in either experiment. The mean ovulation rate post-treatment was 1.6 ± 0.2 vs 3.2 ± 0.4 (experiment 1, P < 0.001) and 3.2 ± 0.8 vs 4.0 ± 1.0 (experiment 2, P > 0.05) in TRT vs CTR, respectively. The number and percentage of ovulating follicles from the penultimate wave of the interovulatory interval studied was 0.25 ± 0.16 vs 1.75 ± 0.45 (P < 0.01) and 25.0 ± 16.4% vs 75.0 ± 16.4% (P < 0.05) in experiment 1, and 0.50 ± 0.30 vs 1.60 ± 0.40 (P < 0.05) and 13.8 ± 9.0% vs 53.4 ± 16.7% (P < 0.05) in experiment 2, for TRT vs CTR, respectively. In summary, administration of P4 at the end of diestrus decreased the incidence of ovulations from the penultimate wave of the estrous cycle in both the moderately and highly prolific strains of sheep, but it reduced the ovulation rate only in moderately prolific ewes.

      PubDate: 2016-09-16T05:14:08Z
       
  • Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of
           glucose tolerance
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): M.K. Reeve-Johnson, J.S. Rand, S.T. Anderson, D.J. Appleton, J.M. Morton, D. Vankan
      The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between 2-min and 2-h glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and <0.001 respectively) were positively associated with body weight and body condition score. Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared.

      PubDate: 2016-09-01T01:11:04Z
       
  • Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association
           with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of
           finishing beef steers and heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): A.P. Foote, K.E. Hales, H.C. Freetly
      Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating dry matter intake (DMI). The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and average daily BW gain (ADG) measurement period and to determine the association of those ghrelin measurements with DMI, ADG, ADG:DMI ratio (G:F), and residual feed intake in finishing beef steers and heifers. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 83 before feeding and between 0730 h and 1130 h. Samples were analyzed for acyl and total ghrelin using commercially available RIA. DMI in steers was greater during the last 35-d period of the experiment compared with the first 35 d (P < 0.01) and was greater than heifers regardless of period (P < 0.01). Steers had greater acyl ghrelin concentrations on day 0 than heifers, but concentrations decreased by day 83 to equal concentrations in heifers (P < 0.01). Total ghrelin concentrations were lower on day 0 in heifers but increased by day 83 and did not differ from steers on day 83 (P < 0.01). A mixed model analysis was used to determine the association of ghrelin concentrations and ratio with production traits, independent of breed and sire effects. There was an interaction of day 0 acyl ghrelin concentrations with time of sample collection for 84-d DMI (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P = 0.09), indicating a general positive association of acyl ghrelin with production traits, but the association weakened as time of sample collection increased. The mean ghrelin ratio tended (P = 0.08) to be positively associated with DMI in the last 35-d period. The ghrelin ratio on day 0 interacted with time of sample collection for ADG and G:F (P < 0.05), indicating an overall positive association of the ghrelin ratio with ADG and G:F. Results indicate that ghrelin is associated with DMI, ADG, and feed efficiency of finishing beef cattle, and data lend more evidence that ghrelin is involved in appetite regulation of ad libitum fed cattle.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • Changes in ovarian function associated with circulating concentrations of
           estradiol before a GnRH-induced ovulation in beef cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): E.L. Larimore, O.L. Amundson, G.A. Bridges, A.K. McNeel, R.A. Cushman, G.A. Perry
      These studies were conducted to evaluate causes for differences in circulating concentrations of estradiol before a GnRH-induced ovulation. Beef cows were synchronized by an injection of GnRH on day −7 and an injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on day 0. In experiment 1, blood samples were collected every 3 h from PGF2α on day 0 to hour 33 after PGF2α and at slaughter (hour 36 to 42; n = 10). Cows were assigned to treatment group based on circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2): HighE2 vs LowE2. At slaughter, follicular fluid (FF) and granulosa cells were collected from the dominant follicle. In experiment 2, blood samples (n = 30) were collected every 8 h from PGF2α until the dominant follicle was aspirated via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration to collect FF and granulosa cells (hour 38 to 46). In experiment 1, HighE2 had increased abundance of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and LHR (P ≤ 0.02), and greater concentrations of estradiol and androstenedione (P ≤ 0.02) in the FF. In experiment 2, HighE2 had increased abundance of CYP11A1, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and LHR (P ≤ 0.03) vs either LowE2 or GnRHLowE2. There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for LH pulse frequency to be increased in both the GnRHLowE2 and HighE2 compared with LowE2. HighE2 cows experienced increas in circulating concentrations of estradiol compared with LowE2. In conclusion, animals with greater concentrations of circulating estradiol before fixed-time AI experienced an upregulation of the steroidogenic pathway during the preovulatory period.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • Different dietary energy intake affects skeletal muscle development
           through an Akt-dependent pathway in Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred
           ewe lambs
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): J.X. Zhao, X.D. Liu, K. Li, W.Z. Liu, Y.S. Ren, J.X. Zhang
      The objective of this experiment was to investigate the mechanisms through which different levels of dietary energy affect postnatal skeletal muscle development in ewe lambs. Twelve Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred ewe lambs (100 d of age; 20 ± 0.5 kg BW) were selected randomly and divided into 2 groups in a completely randomized design. Animals were offered identical diets at 100% or 65% of ad libitum intake. Lambs were euthanized when BW in the ad libitum group reached 35 kg and the semitendinosus muscle was sampled. Final BW and skeletal muscle weight were decreased (P < 0.01) by feed restriction. Both muscle fiber size distribution and myofibril cross-sectional area were altered by feed restriction. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) content was decreased (P < 0.05) when lambs were underfed, whereas no difference for IGF-2 mRNA expression was observed (P > 0.05). Feed restriction altered phosphor-Akt protein abundance (P < 0.01). Moreover, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was inhibited by feed restriction, which was associated with decreased phosphor-mTOR, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (phosphor-4EBP1), and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase (phosphor-S6K). Both mRNA expression of myostatin and its protein content were elevated in feed-restricted ewe lambs (P < 0.05). In addition, mRNA expression of both muscle RING finger 1 and muscle atrophy F-box was increased when ewe lambs were underfed. In summary, feed restriction in young growing ewe lambs attenuates skeletal muscle hypertrophy by inhibiting protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation, which may act through the Akt-dependent pathway.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • Diagnosis of prediabetes in cats: glucose concentration cut points for
           impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): M.K. Reeve-Johnson, J.S. Rand, D. Vankan, S.T. Anderson, R. Marshall, J.M. Morton
      Diabetes is typically diagnosed in cats once clinical signs are evident. Diagnostic criteria for prediabetes in cats have not been defined. The objective of the study was to establish methodology and cut points for fasting and 2-h blood glucose concentrations in healthy client-owned senior cats (≥8 yr) using ear/paw samples and a portable glucose meter calibrated for feline blood. Of the 78 cats, 27 were ideal (body condition score [BCS] 4 or 5 of 9), 31 overweight (BCS 6 or 7), and 20 obese (BCS 8 or 9); 19 were Burmese and 59 non-Burmese. After an 18–24-h fast and an ear/paw blood glucose measurement using a portable glucose meter, glucose (0.5 g/kg bodyweight) was administered intravenous and blood glucose measured at 2 min and 2 h. Cut points for fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations were defined as the upper limits of 95% reference intervals using cats with BCS 4 or 5. The upper cut point for fasting glucose was 6.5 mmol/L. Of the overweight and obese cats, 1 (BCS 7) was above this cut point indicating evidence of impaired fasting glucose. The cut point for 2-h glucose was 9.8 mmol/L. A total of 7 cats (4 with BCS 8 or 9 including 1 Burmese; 3 with BCS 6 or 7, non-Burmese) were above this cut point and thus had evidence of impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the methodology and cutpoints for diagnosis of prediabetes are defined for use in healthy cats 8 yr and older with a range of BCSs.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • The theory of follicle selection in cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): O.J. Ginther
      Selection of the dominant follicle (DF) during a follicular wave is manifested by diameter deviation or continued growth rate of the largest follicle (F1) and decreased growth rate of the next largest follicle (F2) when F1 reaches about 8.5 mm in cattle. The process of deviation in the future DF begins about 12 h before diameter deviation and involves an F1 increase in granulosa LH receptors and estradiol and maintenance of intrafollicular free insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Thereby, only F1 is developmentally prepared to use the declining FSH in the wave-stimulating FSH surge and to respond to a transient increase in LH to become the DF. A follicle that emerges first may maintain an F1 ranking and become the DF by being first to reach a critical developmental stage. However, an early size advantage is not a requisite component of the deviation process as indicated by (1) F1 and F2 may switch diameter rankings during a common growth phase that precedes diameter deviation owing to intraovarian factors that affect growth of individual follicles; (2) any follicle that reaches 5 mm regardless of diameter ranking may become a DF unless it is selected against during deviation; (3) a subordinate follicle may become dominant if the DF is ablated; (4) when F1 is ablated at 8.5 mm, the next largest follicle that is greater than 7.0 mm or the first follicle to subsequently reach 7.0 mm becomes the DF; (5) after ablation of F1 at 8.5 mm, IGF1 and estradiol increase in the intrafollicular fluid of F2 beginning at 6 h, and F2 grows to 8.5 mm in 12 h to become the DF. These considerations indicate that selection of a DF or partitioning into a DF and subordinate follicles is not initiated before the end of the common growth phase. That is, the deviation process represents the entire follicle selection mechanism.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • Temporal relationships between minor, preovulatory, or periovulatory FSH
           surges and the emergence and development of 2-mm follicles of wave 1 in
           Bos taurus heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): J.M. Baldrighi, M.A.R. Siddiqui, O.J. Ginther
      The number and day of emergence (first detection) of 2-mm follicles and the number and day when the 2-mm follicles reached 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-mm during wave 1 were determined every 0.5 d (n = 9 heifers). Emergence of the follicles at each of the indicated diameters was normalized to the beginning and ending nadir and the peak of each of a minor FSH surge, the preovulatory surge, and the periovulatory surge. Relative to the day of ovulation (day 0), the minor FSH surge, preovulatory surge, and periovulatory surge encompassed (nadir to nadir) days −7.0 to −2.5 (peak, day −4.0), days −2.5 to −0.5 (peak, day −1.0), and days −0.5 to 4 (peak, day 0), respectively. Distinct mean nadirs occurred between the minor and preovulatory surges and between the preovulatory and periovulatory surges. A small percentage of 2-mm follicles (12%) and 3-mm follicles (2%) emerged during the minor FSH surge. The 4-mm follicles emerged during the preovulatory surge (24% of follicles) and periovulatory surge (76%). The 5-mm and 6-mm follicles emerged only during the periovulatory surge. The first increase (P < 0.05) in number of 2-, 3-, and 4-mm follicles began at 1.5, 1.0, and 0 d, respectively, before the nadir at the beginning of the preovulatory surge. The first increase (P < 0.05) in number of 5- and 6-mm follicles began at 0.5 and 0 d, respectively, before the intervening nadir between the preovulatory and periovulatory surges. Results demonstrated that each of the 3 surges including the minor surge contributed to the emergence of follicles at various diameters during wave 1. The emergence of 2-mm follicles during the descending portion of the minor surge indicated that smaller follicles (eg, 1 mm) apparently emerged during the major portion of the minor surge. The increasing diameter of the 2 largest follicles was not interrupted during the distinct intervening nadir between the preovulatory and periovulatory FSH surges.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • Repeatability of the ACTH stimulation test as reflected by salivary
           cortisol response in healthy horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): M.D. Scheidegger, V. Gerber, A. Ramseyer, G. Schüpbach-Regula, R.M. Bruckmaier, J.H. van der Kolk
      The aim of this study was to further characterize the ACTH stimulation test as reflected by salivary cortisol response and to measure the short- and long-term repeatability of it in healthy horses as a tool to assess the capacity of the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. Nineteen healthy horses were subjected to 3 ACTH stimulation tests. Intervals were 2 wk and 5 mo between the first and second and the second and third tests, respectively. A dose of 1-μg/kg BW synthetic ACTH was injected intravenously. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after administration for cortisol measurements using a competitive enzyme immunoassay. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare values within and among horses. Mean ± SD total increase in cortisol concentrations integrated over the entire sampling period was 34.5 ± 11.0 ng/mL. The highest measured concentration at a single time point was 9.7 ± 2.7 ng/mL and was reached after 122 ± 22 min. For the short- and long-term repeatability, intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.90 and 0.33, respectively. The 3 ACTH stimulation tests results differed significantly among (P < 0.00001) but not within (P = 0.538) individual horses. The Freiberger stallions had a higher salivary cortisol baseline concentration and a lower response to ACTH stimulation as compared with Warmblood mares and geldings. The present study confirmed that the administration of ACTH in healthy horses reliably stimulates the salivary secretion of cortisol and shows that the test is repeatable in the short- and long-term.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • Changes in peripheral anti-Müllerian hormone concentration and their
           relationship with testicular structure in beef bull calves
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): G. Kitahara, R. Kamata, Y. Sasaki, H. El-Sheikh Ali, S. Mido, I. Kobayashi, K. Hemmi, T. Osawa
      The aim of this study was to clarify the time-course of changes in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and testosterone (T) concentrations in peripheral blood and to determine the relationships between blood AMH concentration and testicular development during the early postnatal and prepubertal periods in beef bull calves. A total of 17 Japanese Black bull calves were enrolled in this study. The wk in which the calf was born (within 6 d after birth) was defined as M 0. Blood samples were taken once in every mo from M 0 to M 6 from each bull calf, and plasma AMH and T concentrations were determined. Of the 17 calves, 10 were castrated at 6 mo of age (prepuberty) and the right testis was histologically examined. Plasma AMH concentration (means ± SE) at M 0, 1, and 2 were 123.5 ± 9.8, 189.6 ± 18.7, and 254.6 ± 14.1 ng/mL, respectively. From M 0 through M 2, plasma AMH concentration was significantly greater each mo than in the previous mo (P < 0.05); however, plasma AMH concentration significantly decreased over the last 3 mo of the study (P < 0.05). The average age at which plasma AMH concentration was the highest was 2.3 ± 0.1 mo of age. Plasma T concentration significantly increased from M 0 (0.18 ± 0.02 ng/mL) until M 6 (6.52 ± 1.41 ng/mL). Plasma AMH and T concentrations at M 4, 5, and 6 were significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.05). Linear regression did not reveal a significant relationship between Sertoli or Leydig cell numbers and plasma AMH or T concentrations, respectively. In conclusion, blood AMH concentration peaks at 2 mo of age and is negatively correlated with blood T concentration from 4 to 6 mo of age. Although prepubertal blood AMH or T concentrations did not reflect Sertoli or Leydig cell numbers at the end of the prepubertal period, blood AMH concentration may be indicative of abnormal Sertoli cells function.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • Downregulation of LH and FSH receptors after hCG and eCG treatments in the
           porcine oviduct
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): I. Małysz-Cymborska, A. Andronowska
      The influence of induction of ovulation and superovulation with eCG and hCG on LH and FSH receptor levels in porcine oviducts on day 3 postcoitum was studied. In experiment I, gilts were assigned into cyclic (control; n = 5) and inseminated (n = 5) groups. In experiment II, there were 3 groups of animals: inseminated (n = 5), induced ovulation/inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n = 5) and superovulated/inseminated (1500 IU eCG, 1000 IU hCG; n = 5) gilts. Oviduct tissues were collected 3 d after insemination or PBS infusion. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of FSH receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LH/CGR) was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR and protein levels using Western blots. Localization of LH/CGR and FSHR-positive cells was studied by immunohistochemical staining. Insemination by itself did not influence mRNA and protein levels of LH/CGR. However, FSHR mRNA expression in the isthmus and ampulla of the oviduct was affected by insemination (P < 0.05). Similarly, insemination decreased FSHR protein level in the isthmus (P < 0.05). Stimulation with hCG and eCG did not affect LH/CGR and FSHR mRNA expression, either in the isthmus or in the ampulla. Nevertheless, superovulation decreased LH/CGR protein level in the oviductal ampulla (P < 0.05) in comparison with inseminated gilts. Similarly, protein levels of FSHR in the oviductal ampulla decreased after superovulation (P < 0.05). LH/CGR-positive cells were observed in the mucosa as well as in smooth muscle cells of both parts of the oviduct. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor–positive cells were observed in smooth muscle cells and blood vessels of the isthmus. In the ampulla, FSHR-positive cells were observed in the smooth muscle as well as in the mucosa. Summarizing, the present study revealed for the first time that stimulation with eCG and hCG, especially in high doses, can change LH/CGR and FSHR levels in porcine oviducts. This may in turn alter many signaling pathways, eg, PGs or vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis, and consequently disturb the oviductal environment, with possible detrimental effects on fertilization and/or embryonic development.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • Molecular cloning, expression analysis, and function of decorin in goat
           ovarian granulosa cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): J.Y. Peng, K.X. Gao, H.Y. Xin, P. Han, G.Q. Zhu, B.Y. Cao
      Decorin (DCN), a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), participates in ECM assembly and influences cell proliferation and apoptosis in many mammalian tissues and cells. However, expression and function of DCN in the ovary remain unclear. This study cloned the full-length cDNA of goat DCN obtained from the ovary of an adult goat. Sequence analysis revealed that the putative DCN protein shared a highly conserved amino acid sequence with known mammalian homologs. The tissue distribution of DCN mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR, and the results showed that DCN was widely expressed in the tissues of adult goat. Immunohistochemistry results suggested that DCN protein existed in the granulosa cells and oocytes from all types of follicles and theca cells of antral follicles. Moreover, hCG-induced DCN mRNA expression was significantly reduced by the inhibitors of protein kinase A, PI3K, or p38 kinase (P < 0.05), which are key mediators involved in hCG-induced DCN expression. Overexpression of DCN significantly increased apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in cultured granulosa cells (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis also showed that overexpression of DCN upregulated the expression levels of p21 protein (P < 0.05), whereas no effects were observed on the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 and on Bcl-2/Bax ratio (P > 0.05). These findings suggested that DCN regulates the apoptosis and cell cycle of granulosa cells.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T00:11:59Z
       
  • Moderate high or low maternal protein diets change gene expression but not
           the phenotype of skeletal muscle from porcine fetuses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): C. Kalbe, D. Lösel, J. Block, L. Lefaucheur, K.-P. Brüssow, O. Bellmann, R. Pfuhl, B. Puppe, W. Otten, C.C. Metges, C. Rehfeldt
      The aim of our study was to characterize the immediate phenotypic and adaptive regulatory responses of fetuses to different in utero conditions reflecting inadequate maternal protein supply during gestation. The gilts fed high (250% above control) or low (50% under control) protein diets isoenergetically adjusted at the expense of carbohydrates from the day of insemination until the fetuses were collected at d 64 or 94 of gestation. We analyzed body composition, histo-morphology, biochemistry, and mRNA expression of fetal skeletal muscle. Both diets had only marginal effects on body composition and muscular cellularity of fetuses including an unchanged total number of myofibers. However, mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MYOG, MRF4, P ≤ 0.1), IGF system (IGF1, IGF1R, P ≤ 0.05) and myostatin antagonist FST (P = 0.6, in males only) was reduced in the fetal muscle exposed to a maternal low protein diet. As a result of excess protein, MYOD, MYOG, IGF1R and IGFBP5 mRNA expression (P ≤ 0.05) was upregulated in fetal muscle. Differences in muscular mRNA expression indicate in utero regulatory adaptive responses to maternal diet. Modulation of gene expression immediately contributes to the maintenance of an appropriate fetal phenotype that would be similar to that observed in the control fetuses. Moreover, we suggest that the modified gene expression in fetal skeletal muscle can be viewed as the origin of developmental muscular plasticity involved in the concept of fetal programming.

      PubDate: 2016-08-21T22:47:47Z
       
  • A miRNA-target network putatively involved in follicular atresia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): F.X. Donadeu, J. Ioannidis
      In a previous microarray study we identified a subset of miRNAs which expression was distinctly higher in atretic than healthy follicles of cattle. In the present study we investigated the involvement of those miRNAs in granulosa and theca cells during atresia. RT-qPCR confirmed that miR-21-5p/-3p, miR-150, miR-409a, miR-142-5p, miR-378, miR-222, miR-155 and miR-199a-5p were expressed at higher levels in atretic than healthy follicles (9-17 mm, classified based on steroidogenic capacity). All miRNAs except miR-21-3p and miR-378 were expressed at higher levels in theca than granulosa cells. The expression of 13 predicted miRNA targets was determined in follicular cells by RT-qPCR, revealing downregulation of HIF1A, ETS1, JAG1, VEGFA and MSH2 in either or both cell types during atresia. Based on increases in miRNA levels simultaneous with decreases in target levels in follicular cells, several predicted miRNA-target interactions were confirmed that are putatively involved in follicular atresia, namely miR-199a-5p/miR-155-HIF1A in granulosa cells, miR-155/miR-222-ETS1 in theca cells, miR-199a-5p-JAG1 in theca cells, miR-199a-5p/miR-150/miR-378-VEGFA in granulosa and theca cells, and miR-155-MSH2 in theca cells. These results offer novel insight on the involvement of miRNAs in follicle development by identifying a miRNA-target network that is putatively involved in follicle atresia.

      PubDate: 2016-08-16T21:47:35Z
       
  • Effect of fish oil on lateral mobility of prostaglandin F2α (FP)
           receptors and spatial distribution of lipid microdomains in bovine luteal
           cell plasma membrane in vitro1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): Michele R. Plewes, Patrick D. Burns, Peter E. Graham, Richard M. Hyslop, B. George Barisas
      Lipid microdomains are ordered regions on the plasma membrane of cells, rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, ranging in size from 10 to 200 nm in diameter. These lipid-ordered domains may serve as platforms to facilitate co-localization of intracellular signaling proteins during agonist-induced signal transduction. It is hypothesized that fish oil will disrupt the lipid microdomains, increasing spatial distribution of these lipid-ordered domains and lateral mobility of the prostaglandin (PG) F2α (FP) receptors in bovine luteal cells. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of fish oil on 1) the spatial distribution of lipid microdomains, 2) lateral mobility of FP receptors and 3) lateral mobility of FP receptors in the presence of PGF2α on the plasma membrane of bovine luteal cells in vitro. Bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and corpora lutea were digested using collagenase. In Experiment 1, lipid microdomains were labeled using cholera toxin subunit B Alexa Fluor 555. Domains were detected as distinct patches on the plasma membrane of mixed luteal cells. Fish oil treatment decreased fluorescent intensity in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). In Experiment 2, single particle tracking was used to examine the effects of fish oil treatment on lateral mobility of FP receptors. Fish oil treatment increased micro- and macro-diffusion coefficients of FP receptors as compared to control cells (P < 0.05). In addition, compartment diameters of domains were larger and residence times were reduced for receptors in fish oil treated cells (P < 0.05). In Experiment 3, single particle tracking was used to determine the effects of PGF2α on lateral mobility of FP receptors and influence of fish oil treatment. Lateral mobility of receptors was decreased within 5 min following addition of ligand for control cells (P < 0.05). However, lateral mobility of receptors was unaffected by addition of ligand for fish oil treated cells (P > 0.10). The data presented provide strong evidence that fish oil causes a disruption in lipid microdomains and affects lateral mobility of FP receptors in the absence and presence of PGF2α.

      PubDate: 2016-08-12T20:59:21Z
       
  • Validation of different measures of insulin sensitivity of glucose
           metabolism in dairy cows using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test
           as the gold standard
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J. De Koster, M. Hostens, K. Hermans, W. Van den Broeck, G. Opsomer
      The aim of the present research was to compare different measures of insulin sensitivity in dairy cows at the end of the dry period. To do so, 10 clinically healthy dairy cows with a varying body condition score were selected. By performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) tests, we previously demonstrated a negative association between the insulin sensitivity and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism and the body condition score of these animals. In the same animals, other measures of insulin sensitivity were determined and the correlation with the HEC test, which is considered as the gold standard, was calculated. Measures derived from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) are based on the disappearance of glucose after an intravenous glucose bolus. Glucose concentrations during the IVGTT were used to calculate the area under the curve of glucose and the clearance rate of glucose. In addition, glucose and insulin data from the IVGTT were fitted in the minimal model to derive the insulin sensitivity parameter, Si. Based on blood samples taken before the start of the IVGTT, basal concentrations of glucose, insulin, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined and used to calculate surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity, such as the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index including β-hydroxybutyrate. Correlation analysis revealed no association between the results obtained by the HEC test and any of the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity. For the measures derived from the IVGTT, the area under the curve for the first 60 min of the test and the Si derived from the minimal model demonstrated good correlation with the gold standard.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Marine macroalgal extracts to maintain gut homeostasis in the weaning
           piglet
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56, Supplement
      Author(s): T. Sweeney, J.V. O'Doherty
      The mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a dynamic environment, where a symbiotic relationship exists between the resident microbiota and the digestive and immune systems of the host. The development of the immune system begins in-utero and is further developed after the colonization of the GIT with microbiota during birth and postnatal life. The early establishment of this relationship is fundamental to the development and long-term maintenance of gut homeostasis. Regulatory mechanisms ensure an appropriate level of immune reactivity in the gut to accommodate the presence of beneficial and dietary microorganisms, whereas allowing effective immune responses to clear pathogens. However, unfavorable alterations in the composition of the microbiota, known as dysbiosis, have been implicated in many conditions including post-weaning diarrhea in pigs. Weaning is a major critical period in pig husbandry. It involves complex dietary, social, and environmental stresses that interfere with gut development. Post-weaning complications in piglets are characterized by a reduction in-feed intake and growth, atrophy of small intestine architecture, upregulation of intestinal inflammatory cytokines, alterations in GIT microflora, diarrhea, and heightened susceptibility to infection. These challenges have been controlled with in-feed prophylactic antibiotics and dietary minerals. However, these strategies are under scrutiny because of their role in promoting multidrug resistant bacteria and the accumulation of minerals in the environment, respectively. Therefore, significant efforts are being made to identify natural alternatives to support homeostasis in the piglet GIT, in particular during the weaning period. Chemodiversity in nature; including microorganisms, terrestrial plants, seaweeds, and marine organisms, offers a valuable source for novel bioactives. In this review, we discuss the advances in our understanding of the immune mechanisms by which the dynamic interplay of the intestinal microbiota and its host normally favors a homeostatic, symbiotic relationship, and how feeding macroalgal bioactives in both the maternal diet and the piglet diet, can be used to support this symbiotic relationship in times of challenge.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Adrenomedullin regulates intestinal physiology and pathophysiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56, Supplement
      Author(s): S. Martínez-Herrero, A. Martínez
      Adrenomedullin (AM) and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) are 2 biologically active peptides produced by the same gene, ADM, with ubiquitous distribution and many physiological functions. Adrenomedullin is composed of 52 amino acids, has an internal molecular ring composed by 6 amino acids and a disulfide bond, and shares structural similarities with calcitonin gene-related peptide, amylin, and intermedin. The AM receptor consists of a 7-transmembrane domain protein called calcitonin receptor-like receptor in combination with a single transmembrane domain protein known as receptor activity–modifying protein. Using morphologic techniques, it has been shown that AM and PAMP are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, being specially abundant in the neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa; in the enterochromaffin-like and chief cells of the gastric fundus; and in the submucosa of the duodenum, ileum, and colon. This wide distribution in the gastrointestinal tract suggests that AM and PAMP may act as gut hormones regulating many physiological and pathologic conditions. To date, it has been proven that AM and PAMP act as autocrine/paracrine growth factors in the gastrointestinal epithelium, play key roles in the protection of gastric mucosa from various kinds of injury, and accelerate healing in diseases such as gastric ulcer and inflammatory bowel diseases. In addition, both peptides are potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying; they regulate the active transport of sugars in the intestine, regulate water and ion transport in the colon, modulate colonic bowel movements and small-intestine motility, improve endothelial barrier function, and stabilize circulatory function during gastrointestinal inflammation. Furthermore, AM and PAMP are antimicrobial peptides, and they contribute to the mucosal host defense system by regulating gut microbiota. To get a formal demonstration of the effects that endogenous AM and PAMP may have in gut microbiota, we developed an inducible knockout of the ADM gene. Using this model, we have shown, for the first time, that lack of AM/PAMP leads to changes in gut microbiota composition in mice. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this lack of AM/PAMP may have an impact in the development and/or progression of intestinal diseases through their effect on microbiota composition.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • The gut microbiome as a virtual endocrine organ with implications for farm
           and domestic animal endocrinology
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56, Supplement
      Author(s): T.F. O'Callaghan, R.P. Ross, C. Stanton, G. Clarke
      The gut microbiome exerts a marked influence on host physiology, and manipulation of its composition has repeatedly been shown to influence host metabolism and body composition. This virtual endocrine organ also has a role in the regulation of the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis also appears to be under the influence of the gut microbiota. This is clear from studies in microbiota-deficient germ-free animals with exaggerated responses to psychological stress that can be normalized by monocolonization with certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may thus be useful in treating or preventing stress-related microbiome-gut-brain axis disorders and metabolic diseases, much the same way as redirections of metabolopathies can be achieved through more traditional endocrine hormone-based interventions. Moreover, the implications of these findings need to be considered in the context of farm and domestic animal physiology, behavior, and food safety.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Glucagon-like peptide 2 and its beneficial effects on gut function and
           health in production animals
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56, Supplement
      Author(s): E.E. Connor, C.M. Evock-Clover, E.H. Wall, R.L. Baldwin, M. Santin-Duran, T.H. Elsasser, D.M. Bravo
      Numerous endocrine cell subtypes exist within the intestinal mucosa and produce peptides contributing to the regulation of critical physiological processes including appetite, energy metabolism, gut function, and gut health. The mechanisms of action and the extent of the physiological effects of these enteric peptides are only beginning to be uncovered. One peptide in particular, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) produced by enteroendocrine L cells, has been fairly well characterized in rodent and swine models in terms of its ability to improve nutrient absorption and healing of the gut after injury. In fact, a long-acting form of GLP-2 recently has been approved for the management and treatment of human conditions like inflammatory bowel disease and short bowel syndrome. However, novel functions of GLP-2 within the gut continue to be demonstrated, including its beneficial effects on intestinal barrier function and reducing intestinal inflammation. As knowledge continues to grow about GLP-2's effects on the gut and its mechanisms of release, the potential to use GLP-2 to improve gut function and health of food animals becomes increasingly more apparent. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize: (1) the current understanding of GLP-2's functions and mechanisms of action within the gut; (2) novel applications of GLP-2 (or stimulators of its release) to improve general health and production performance of food animals; and (3) recent findings, using dairy calves as a model, that suggest the therapeutic potential of GLP-2 to reduce the pathogenesis of intestinal protozoan infections.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Endogenous and exogenous factors influencing the concentrations of
           adiponectin in body fluids and tissues in the bovine
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56, Supplement
      Author(s): Helga Sauerwein, Susanne Häußler
      Adiponectin, one of the messenger molecules secreted from adipose tissue that are collectively termed adipokines, has been demonstrated to play a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism in humans and laboratory rodents; it improves insulin sensitivity and exerts antidiabetic and antiinflammatory actions. Adiponectin is synthesized as a 28 kDa monomer but is not secreted as such; instead, it is glycosylated and undergoes multimerization to form different molecular weight multimers before secretion. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines (μg/mL range) in the circulation. The concentrations are negatively correlated with adipose depot size, in particular with visceral fat mass in humans. Adiponectin exerts its effects by activating a range of different signaling molecules via binding to 2 transmembrane receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2. The adiponectin receptor 1 is expressed primarily in the skeletal muscle, whereas adiponectin receptor 2 is predominantly expressed in the liver. Many of the functions of adiponectin are relevant to growth, lactation, and health and are thus of interest in both beef and dairy production systems. Studies on the role of the adiponectin protein in cattle have been impeded by the lack of reliable assays for bovine adiponectin. Although there are species-specific bovine adiponectin assays commercially available, they suffer from a lack of scientific peer-review of validity. Quantitative data about the adiponectin protein in cattle available in the literature emerged only during the last 3 yr and were largely based on Western blotting using either antibodies against human adiponectin or partial peptides from the bovine sequence. Using native bovine high–molecular-weight adiponectin purified from serum, we were able to generate a polyclonal antiserum that can be used for Western blot but also in an ELISA system, which was recently validated. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the literature about the adiponectin protein in cattle addressing the following aspects: (1) the course of the adiponectin serum concentrations during development in both sexes, during inflammation, nutritional energy deficit and energy surplus, and lactation-induced changes including the response to supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and with niacin, (2) the concentrations of adiponectin in subcutaneous vs visceral fat depots of dairy cows, (3) the protein expression of adiponectin in tissues other than adipose, and (4) the concentrations in different body fluids including milk.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Mechanisms of protein balance in skeletal muscle
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56, Supplement
      Author(s): T.G. Anthony
      Increased global demand for adequate protein nutrition against a backdrop of climate change and concern for animal agriculture sustainability necessitates new and more efficient approaches to livestock growth and production. Anabolic growth is achieved when rates of new synthesis exceed turnover, producing a positive net protein balance. Conversely, deterioration or atrophy of lean mass is a consequence of a net negative protein balance. During early life and periods of growth, muscle mass is driven by increases in protein synthesis at the level of mRNA translation. Throughout life, muscle mass is further influenced by degradative processes such as autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Multiple signal transduction networks guide and coordinate these processes alongside quality control mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Genetics, hormones, and environmental stimuli each influence proteostasis control, altering capacity and/or efficiency of muscle growth. An overview of recent findings and current methods to assess muscle protein balance and proteostasis is presented. Current efforts to identify novel control points have the potential through selective breeding design or development of hormetic strategies to better promote growth and health span during environmental stress.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Host-targeted approaches to managing animal health: old problems and new
           tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56, Supplement
      Author(s): M.E. Cook, D.E. Bütz, M. Yang, J.M. Sand
      Our fellow medical and regulatory scientists question the animal producer's dependence on antibiotics and antimicrobial chemicals in the production of animal products. Retail distributors and consumers are putting even more pressure on the animal industry to find new ways to produce meat without antibiotics and chemicals. In addition, federal funding agencies are increasingly pressuring researchers to conduct science that has application. In the review that follows, we outline our approach to finding novel ways to improve animal performance and health. We use a strict set of guidelines in our applied research as follows: (1) Does the work have value to society' (2) Does our team have the skills to innovate in the field' (3) Is the product we produce commercially cost-effective' (4) Are there any reasons why the general consumer will reject the technology' (5) Is it safe for the animal, consumer, and the environment' Within this framework, we describe 4 areas of research that have produced useful products, areas that we hope other scientists will likewise explore and innovate such as (1) methods to detect infection in herds and flocks, (2) methods to control systemic and mucosal inflammation, (3) improvements to intestinal barrier function, and (4) methods to strategically potentiate immune defense. We recognize that others are working in these areas, using different strategies, but believe our examples will illustrate the vast opportunity for research and innovation in a world without antibiotics. Animal scientists have been given a new challenge that may help shape the future of both animal and human medicine.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Prostaglandin synthesis by the porcine corpus luteum: effect of tumor
           necrosis factor-α
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J. Chang, S. Frandsen, J.E. Gadsby
      The porcine corpus luteum (CL) displays delayed sensitivity to PGF-2α (luteolytic sensitivity, [LS]) until days 12 to 13 of cycle. The control of LS is unknown, but it is temporally associated with macrophage (which secrete TNF-α) infiltration into the CL. Other studies showed that TNF-α induces LS in vitro and that prostaglandins may be involved in this mechanism. In experiment 1, PGF-2α and PGE secretion by luteal cells (LCs) was measured on days 4 to 14 of the estrous cycle, and the expression of PTGFS/AKR1B1 and PTGES/mPGES-1, by Western blot, before (day 7) vs after (day 13) the onset of LS. Results showed that the PGF-2α:PGE ratio increased significantly (P < 0.05) from day 4 to 13–14, and PTGFS/AKR1B1 and PTGES/mPGES-1 were significantly increased (P < 0.05) on day 13 (vs day 7). In experiment 2, LCs were collected from porcine CL at early (∼days 4–6) or mid (∼days 7–12) stages of the estrous cycle and cultured with 0, 0.1, 1, or 10-ng/mL TNF-α. Results showed that TNF-α significantly increased (P < 0.05) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and mPGES-1 but not AKR1B1. TNF-α had no significant effects on AKR1B1 or mPGES protein abundance. TNF-α significantly increased (P < 0.05) PGE-2 but had no effect on PGF2αs secretion or on the PGF2α:PGE2 ratio. In conclusion, although TNF-α increased COX2 and mPGES-1 mRNA, and PGE-2 secretion in vitro, it did not increase the PGF2α:PGE2 ratio. Studies are currently directed toward exploring other pathways (eg, FP receptor signaling) by which TNF-α induces LS in the porcine CL.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy
           metabolism of periparturient dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56, Supplement
      Author(s): B. Kuhla, C.C. Metges, H.M. Hammon
      The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system, metabolism, and feed intake, and increases the risk for metabolic disorders. Future research should focus on a timely parallel increase in feed intake and milk yield during early lactation to reduce the impact of body fat on feed intake, metabolic health, and negative energy balance.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Expression of progesterone receptor in the porcine uterus and placenta
           throughout gestation: correlation with expression of uteroferrin and
           osteopontin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): C.B. Steinhauser, F.W. Bazer, R.C. Burghardt, G.A. Johnson
      Progesterone (P4) stimulates production and secretion of histotroph, a mixture of hormones, growth factors, nutrients, and other substances required for growth and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and placental membranes). Progesterone acts through the progesterone receptor (PGR); however, there is a gap in our understanding of P4 during pregnancy because PGR have not been localized in the uteri and placentae of pigs beyond day 18. Therefore, we determined endometrial expression of PGR messenger RNA (mRNA) and localized PGR protein in uterine/placental tissues throughout the estrous cycle and through day 85 of pregnancy in pigs. Further, 2 components of histotroph, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5 (ACP5; uteroferrin) and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1; osteopontin) proteins, were localized in relation to PGR during pregnancy. Endometrial expression of PGR mRNA was highest at day 5 of the estrous cycle, decreased between days 5 and 11 of both the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and then increased between days 11 and 17 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.01), but decreased from days 13 to 40 of pregnancy (P < 0.01). Progesterone receptor protein localized to uterine stroma and myometrium throughout all days of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. PGR were expressed by uterine luminal epithelium (LE) between days 5 and 11 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, then PGR became undetectable in LE through day 85 of pregnancy. During the estrous cycle, PGR were downregulated in LE between days 11 and 15, but expression returned to LE on day 17. All uterine glandular epithelial (GE) cells expressed PGR from days 5 to 11 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, but expression decreased in the superficial GE by day 12. Expression of PGR in GE continued to decrease between days 25 and 85 of pregnancy; however, a few glands near the myometrium and in close proximity to areolae maintained expression of PGR protein. Acid phosphatase 5 protein was detected in the GE from days 12 to 85 of gestation and in areolae. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 protein was detected in uterine LE in apposition to interareolar, but not areolar areas of the chorioallantois on all days examined, and in uterine GE between days 35 and 85 of gestation. Interestingly, uterine GE cells adjacent to areolae expressed PGR, but not ACP5 or SPP1, suggesting these are excretory ducts involved in the passage, but not secretion, of histotroph into the areolar lumen and highlighting that P4 does not stimulate histotroph production in epithelial cells that express PGR.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Development of the independent function of fetal thyroid glands in the dog
           in connection with iodothyronine concentrations in pregnant bitches, fetal
           fluids and fetal serum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J. Thuróczy, J. Szilágyi, L. Müller, L. Balogh
      Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant bitches were measured. The allantoic and amniotic fluid samples were collected separately in the third week of pregnancy and fetal blood samples were collected in the fourth week of pregnancy. There was no difference between T4 results in the pregnant and non-pregnant animals, but the measured serum concentrations exceeded the healthy range for normal adults. Serum T4 concentrations were lower in the fetus than in adults (P < 0.01). Fetal T4 concentrations continuously increased and reached 13.38 ± 6.19 nmol/L before birth. The fetal serum T4 concentrations were lower than the T4 concentrations in allantoic and amniotic fluid until the seventh week and the fetal serum T3 concentrations were lower than in fetal fluids throughout the pregnancy (P < 0.01). Maximum T3 concentrations in allantoic and amniotic fluid exceeded the concentrations in the fetal and maternal serum. It is conceivable that the considerable differences between maternal and fetal serum T4 concentrations in healthy animals are explained by the T4 impermeability of the placenta. Extremely high maternal T4 (193.5 nmol/L) in one bitch was associated with T4 concentrations under the detection limit in the fetal fluids and serum suggesting an inhibitory effect. The T4 concentrations in all of the fetal fluids and serum were under the detectable concentration that can be defined by 3.0 nmol/L in that bitch. We have demonstrated that fetal thyroid glands start functioning independently at the same time as thyroid cell formation in the dog, but the overproduction of maternal T4 may have a suppressive effect on fetal iodothyronine production.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Prolactin role in the bovine uterus during adenomyosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): M. Łupicka, B.M. Socha, A.A. Szczepańska, A.J. Korzekwa
      Adenomyosis is uterine dysfunction defined as the presence of endometrial glands within the myometrium. It is suggested that adenomyosis is oestrogen-dependent pathology, and prolactin (PRL) also affects its development. In the uterus of ruminants, PRL stimulates gland proliferation and function. We hypothesised that in the bovine uterus, expression of PRL and its receptors (PRLRs) during adenomyosis is disturbed and modulated by oestradiol (E2). Uterine tissues were collected post mortem from cows; epithelial, stromal and myometrial cells were isolated; and cultured and treated with E2. Material was divided into two groups: control (non-adenomyotic) and uteri with adenomyosis. In adenomyotic uterine tissue, PRL and its long-form receptor (lPRLR) protein were increased, as determined by western blotting. Immunohistostaining showed that during adenomyosis, PRL and its receptors are highly expressed in adenomyotic lesions. In cultured myometrial cells, protein expression of PRL and its receptors was increased during adenomyosis. Oestradiol decreased PRLRs protein expression in non-adenomyotic stromal cells and in adenomyotic myometrial cells, and increased PRL secretion by adenomyotic myometrial cells. Moreover, PRL secretion was increased in untreated epithelial and stromal cells during adenomyosis. On the other hand, in stromal cells, PRLRs mRNA and protein expression was decreased, as determined by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Obtained results show that significant changes in PRL and PRLRs expression are observed in uterine tissue and cells during adenomyosis, which were also affected by E2. These data suggest involvement of PRL in adenomyosis development and the link between PRL and E2 actions during the dysfunction in cows.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T14:10:17Z
       
  • Preface: Eighth International Conference on Farm Animal Endocrinology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): Mogens Vestergaard, Rupert Bruckmaier, Akio Miyamoto


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Characteristics, tissue-specific expression, and hormonal regulation of
           expression of tyrosine aminotransferase in the avian female reproductive
           tract
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): W. Lim, G. Song
      Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Accumulation of tyrosine in the body due to a genetic mutation in the TAT gene causes tyrosomia type II in humans. The TAT gene is regarded as a model for studying steroid-inducible factors regulating a variety of biological functions of TAT. However, little is known of the effects of estrogen on the expression of the TAT gene in chickens. Therefore, in the present study, we identified expression of the avian TAT gene in various organs. The results showed the TAT was detected predominantly in the liver and reproductive organs including testis, oviduct, and ovary. Specifically, TAT mRNA was expressed abundantly in the glandular and luminal epithelia of the oviducts in response to endogenous and exogenous estrogens which also induce dramatic morphological changes in the oviduct of chickens. In addition, target microRNAs of TAT (miR-1460, miR-1626-3p, miR-1690-5p, and miR-7442-3p) were found to modulate expression of the TAT gene. Especially, miR-1690-5p influenced TAT gene transcription by binding directly to its 3′-UTR region. Moreover, the expression of TAT was abundant in glandular epithelia of cancerous but not normal ovaries from laying hens. Taken together, our findings suggest that TAT plays an important role in the cytodifferentiation of oviducts in response to estrogen and in the progression of ovarian cancer in chickens.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of salivary cortisol measurement in
           domestic canines
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): M.L. Cobb, K. Iskandarani, V.M. Chinchilli, N.A. Dreschel
      Salivary cortisol is widely used as an indicator of stress and welfare in canine research. However, much remains unclear about the basic features of this hormone marker in domestic dogs. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine a reference range for cortisol concentration in the saliva of dogs and examine how canine characteristics, environmental effects and experimental considerations relate to salivary cortisol concentrations. A systematic review of literature databases and conference proceedings from 1992 to 2012 identified 61 peer-reviewed studies using domestic dog salivary cortisol. Researchers were contacted via email, and 31 raw data sets representing a total of 5,153 samples from 1,205 dogs were shared. Meta-analysis provided a cortisol concentration range of 0 to 33.79 μg/dL (mean 0.45 μg/dL, SEM 0.13). Significant effects (P < 0.05) were found for sex and neuter status, age, regular living environment, time in environment before testing, testing environment, owner presence during testing, and collection media. Significant effects were not found for dog breed, body weight, dog type, coat color, assay type, exercise, eating, or use of salivary stimulant. Care should be taken when using cortisol studies for dogs at a group or population level as there is a large amount of intraindividual and interindividual variability and external variables could influence salivary cortisol concentration. This analysis highlights the importance of carefully controlling experimental design to compare samples within and between individual dogs, as well as establishing and using best practices for saliva collection. Caution should be exercised in comparing different studies, as the results could be the reflection of a plethora of factors.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • A transcriptional cofactor YAP regulates IFNT expression via transcription
           factor TEAD in bovine conceptuses
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): K. Kusama, R. Bai, T. Sakurai, H. Bai, A. Ideta, Y. Aoyagi, K. Imakawa
      Interferon tau (IFNT) is the pregnancy recognition protein in all ruminants, and its expression is restricted to trophoblast cells. Interferon tau production increases as the conceptus elongates; however, its expression is downregulated soon after the initiation of conceptus attachment to the uterine epithelium. Our previous study identified that among 8 bovine IFNT genes, only 2 forms of IFNTs, IFNT2 and IFN-tau-c1, were expressed by the conceptuses during the periattachment period. To characterize whether Hippo signaling including a transcription cofactor yes-associated protein (YAP) was involved in the IFNT regulation, we examined the expression and effects of YAP and/or TEAD in human choriocarcinoma JEG3 and bovine trophoblast CT-1 cells, and in bovine conceptuses obtained from day 17, 20 or 22 pregnant animals (pregnant day 19.5 = day of conceptus attachment to the endometrium). YAP was expressed in bovine conceptuses and transfection of YAP or TEAD4, a transcription factor partner of YAP, expression plasmid increased the luciferase activity of IFNT2 and IFN-tau-c1 reporter plasmids in JEG3 cells. In the presence of YAP expression plasmid, TEAD2 or TEAD4 expression plasmid further upregulated transcriptional activity of IFNT2 or IFN-tau-c1 constructs, which were substantially reduced in the absence of the TEAD-binding site on IFNT2 or IFN-tau-c1 promoter region in JEG3 cells. In CT-1 cells, treatment with TEAD2, TEAD4, or YAP small-interfering RNA downregulated endogenous IFNT expression. It should be noted that TEAD2 and TEAD4 were predominantly localized in the nuclei of trophectoderm of Day 17 conceptuses, but nuclear localization appeared to be lower in those cells of conceptuses on days 20 and 22 of pregnancy. Moreover, the binding of TEAD4 to the TEAD-binding site of the IFN-tau-c1 promoter region in day 17 conceptuses was less in day 20 and 22 conceptuses. Furthermore, the level of YAP phosphorylation increased in day 20 and 22 conceptuses. These results indicated that although YAP/TEAD had the ability to up-regulate IFNT gene transcription on day 17, IFNT2 or IFN-tau-c1 was down-regulated following changes in the localization of TEAD2 and TEAD4 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and increases in phosphorylation and degradation of YAP. These data suggest that TEAD relocation and/or YAP degradation following its phosphorylation down-regulates IFNT gene transcription after conceptus attachment to the uterine endometrium.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Transcript levels of genes implicated in steroidogenesis in the testes and
           fat tissue in relation with androstenone accumulation in fat of pubertal
           pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): A. Robic, K. Feve, J. Riquet, A. Prunier
      The present study was performed to measure mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes in testes and fat tissue and determine whether they are related to fat androstenone level. Real time PCR experiments were performed on 26 testes and 12 adipose tissue samples from pubertal boars using 21 genes. The absence of significant correlations between fat androstenone and the transcriptional activity of the SRD5A2 and SRD5A3 genes but the high correlation coefficient with that of the SRD5A1 gene (r = 0.62, P < 0.05) suggest that the enzyme coded by SRD5A1 is mainly responsible for the last step of androstenone synthesis. The testicular transcriptional activities of CYP17, CYP11A1, CYP19A, AKR1C-pig6, SRD5A1, LHCGR, and AR were significantly correlated. Only transcriptional levels of CYP17, CYP11A1, CYP19A, SRD5A1 and AKR1C-pig6 were correlated with the fat concentration of androstenone (0.57 < r < 0.70, P < 0.05) confirming that the amount of androstenone stored in fat is related to the production in testes of androstenone and more generally to all sex steroids. Altogether, our data are in favor of a preponderant role of AKR1C-pig6 instead of HSD17B3 for testicular synthesis of steroids. Concerning fat tissue, our data do not support a significant de novo biosynthesis of steroids in porcine adipose tissues. The presence of transcripts coding for steroid enzymes, especially those of AKR1C-pig6, suggests that steroids can be transformed. None of transcript abundance was related to androstenone accumulation (P > 0.1). Therefore, steroids synthesized elsewhere can be transformed in fat tissue but synthesis of androstenone is unlikely.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T14:44:46Z
       
  • Characteristics and functions of a minor FSH surge near the end of an
           interovulatory interval in Bos taurus heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): O.J. Ginther, J.M. Baldrighi, M.A.R. Siddiqui, C.A. Wolf
      The apparent function of a minor FSH surge based on temporality with follicular events was studied in 10 heifers with 2 follicular waves per interovulatory interval. Individual follicles were tracked from their emergence at 2 mm until their outcome was known and a blood sample was collected for FSH and LH assay every 12 h from Day −14 (Day 0 = ovulation) to Day 4. A minor FSH surge occurred in each heifer (peak, Day −4.6 ± 0.2). Concentration of LH increased (P < 0.05) during the FSH increase of the minor surge but did not decrease during the FSH decrease. A minor follicular wave with 8.2 ± 2.0 follicles occurred in 6 of 10 heifers. The maximal diameter (mean, 3.4 ± 0.9 mm) of 77% of the minor-wave follicles occurred in synchrony on Day −4.4 ± 0.4. Most (59%) of minor wave follicles regressed before ovulation and 41% decreased and then increased in diameter (recovered) on Day −1.9 ± 0.3 to become part of the subsequent wave 1. A mean of 3.7 ± 0.9 regressing subordinate follicles from wave 2 recovered on the day before or at the peak of the minor FSH surge. The growth rate of the preovulatory follicle decreased (P < 0.02) for 3 d before the peak of the minor FSH surge and then increased (P < 0.03). Concentration of LH increased slightly but significantly temporally with the resurgence in growth rate of the preovulatory follicle. A minor LH surge peaked (P < 0.0002) on Day 3 at the expected deviation in growth rates between the future dominant and subordinate follicles. Results indicated on a temporal basis that the recovery of some regressing subordinate follicles of wave 2 was attributable to the minor FSH surge. The hypothesis was supported that some regressing follicles from the minor follicular wave recover to become part of wave 1.

      PubDate: 2016-03-19T18:43:07Z
       
  • Assessment of caprine corpora lutea growth, progesterone concentration and
           eNOS expression: Effect of a compensatory gain model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J. Thammasiri, C. Navanukraw, S. Uriyapongson, V. Khanthusaeng, K. Lertchunhakiat, S. Boonkong
      The experiment was conducted to evaluate corpus luteum (CL) growth, progesterone (P4) concentration and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in nutrient stair-step fed goats. Female goats (n = 32) that exhibited at least two, normal, consecutive estrous cycles were randomly assigned to either the control or stair-step fed group. In the control group, goats were fed ad libitum (100% of nutrient requirement for goats). The goats in the stair-step group were fed 70% of the control consumption for the first 42 d and 130% for the later 42 d during four consecutive estrous cycles (84 d). Blood and luteal samples were collected on days 3, 8, 13, 18 of the estrous cycle to determine concentration of glucose, insulin, P4, luteal growth, and eNOS expression. Luteal growth was determined using fresh CL weight, DNA content, DNA and protein concentrations, and cell proliferation (labeling index of Ki67). During realimentation phase at 4 h, glucose and insulin concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in stair-step fed goat than control goats. Fresh CL weight, DNA content, protein concentrations and labeling index of Ki67 on day 8 of the estrous cycle in the stair-step group were greater (P < 0.05) than that of the control group. Protein for eNOS was located in the capillaries of CL throughout of the estrous cycle in both groups. Greater serum P4 concentrations and eNOS protein (P < 0.05) were observed in the stair-step fed goats on day 3 (1.83 ng/mL and 6.79%) compared to the control goats (0.98 ng/mL and 6.02%), and on day 8 (5.15 ng/mL and 7.88%) compared to the control goats (4.54 ng/mL and 7.07%). These data demonstrate that luteal growth, progesterone concentration, and eNOS protein were partially affected by nutrient compensatory gain in goats.

      PubDate: 2016-03-10T17:27:29Z
       
  • Dynamics of L cells along the crypt-villous axis in the chicken ileum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): K. Nishimura, K. Hiramatsu, T. Watanabe
      The dynamics of L cells along the crypt-villous axis were investigated in the ileum of male White Leghorn chicks (7 d of age, n=5). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and an in situ hybridization technique to detect proglucagon mRNA. Immunocytochemistry using colloidal gold was also applied to quantitatively evaluate the GLP-1 content. The cells expressing a proglucagon mRNA signal were distributed mainly in the crypts and the bottom of the villi, but were never found in the upper part of the villi. Most of the cells expressing a proglucagon mRNA signal (97%) were immunoreactive for GLP-1 antiserum. In contrast, GLP-1 immunoreactive cells were distributed from the crypts to the middle part of the villi, and only 55% of them expressed a proglucagon mRNA signal. Quantitative evaluation by immunocytochemistry of GLP-1 using colloidal gold revealed that the GLP-1 content was significantly lower in L cells located in the villous epithelium than that of L cells located in the crypts (p<0.01). These findings indicate that L cells in the chicken ileum mature and complete GLP-1 production in the crypts. L cells in the villous epithelium secrete GLP-1, but do not synthesize this peptide.

      PubDate: 2016-03-05T16:53:21Z
       
  • Molecular characterization of kisspeptin gene and effect of
           nanoencapsulted kisspeptin-10 on reproductive maturation in Catla catla
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): M.A. Rather, I.A. Bhat, G.B. Pathakota, A. Chaudhari, J.K. Sundaray, R. Sharma
      Kisspeptin, a member of the RF-amide related peptide family, has emerged recently as an essential gatekeeper of various reproductive processes via its ability to activate kisspeptin receptors at puberty. In this study, the kiss1 gene and its receptor kiss1rb were cloned and characterized from the brain of Catla catla. Further, the effects of kissppetin-10 (K-10) and chitosan encapsulated K-10 nanoparticles (CK-10) on gene expression were assessed. The full-length cDNA sequence of kiss1 is 754 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 351 bp that encodes a putative protein of 116 amino acids. The kiss1rb cDNA is 1280 bp long and contains a 5'-UTR (untranslated region) of 30 bp, 3'-UTR of 149 bp, and an ORF(open reading frame) of 1101 bp. The expression patterns of kiss1 and kiss1rb mRNA in basal tissues revealed that they are mainly expressed in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads. CK-10 nanoparticles with a particle size of 125 nm and a zeta potential of 36.45 mV were synthesized and compared with K-10. Chitosan nanoparticles showed 60% entrapment efficiency for K-10. The mRNA expression of reproductive genes (GnRH, LH and FSH) in fish injected with K-10 declined after 6 h while those injected with CK-10 showed controlled and a sustained surge of mRNA expression of these genes with a peak at 12 h. Histological examination of ovaries indicated a pronounced effect of CK-10 on maturation and gonadal development. The study reports that this sustained-release-delivery-system will help in increasing the half-life of K-10 and other therapeutic protein drugs in the biological system. Besides, the nanoformulation developed in the current study may be useful for developing therapies against various reproductive dysfunctions in vertebrates.

      PubDate: 2016-03-05T16:53:21Z
       
  • Endocrine, morphometric and ultrasonographic characterization of neck
           adiposity in Andalusian horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): T. Martin-Gimenez, I. de Blas, E. Aguilera-Tejero, E. Diez de Castro, C.N. Aguirre-Pascasio
      Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) can be diagnosed by hormonal measurements; however, it would be important to find simpler measurements that allow easy identification of affected or at risk individuals. In horses, the dorsal neck region is one of the most frequent anatomical sites for fat deposition and neck obesity has been linked to EMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of hormonal markers of obesity (leptin) and insulin resistance (insulin) with morphometric and ultrasonographic neck measurements in Andalusian horses. Plasma leptin and insulin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 127 Andalusian horses. Neck circumferences (NC) were measured at three equidistant locations at 25%, 50% and 75% of neck length (NC-25%, NC-50%, NC-75%). At the same three locations, subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT-25%, SFT-50%, SFT-75%) was measured ultrasonographically. In the population under study, a tendency to adiposity was confirmed by the elevated plasma leptin levels (7.47 ± 5.03 ng/mL). However, plasma insulin concentrations (4.05 ± 3.74 μIU/mL) were within normal range in most horses. Our results indicate that NC showed significant sexual dimorphism and did not correlate well with hormonal measurements. Ultrasonographic assessment of fat thickness at the base of the neck (SFT-75%) was significantly correlated with both plasma leptin and insulin, and did not show differences between males and females. Thus, in the search for a single objective parameter which can be used in large populations SFT-75% is a potential candidate and may be a meaningful parameter to predict EMS.

      PubDate: 2016-02-29T16:06:26Z
       
  • Expression of nerve growth factor and its receptors in the uterus of
           rabbits: functional involvement in prostaglandin synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): M. Maranesi, F. Parillo, L. Leonardi, P.G. Rebollar, B. Alonso, L. Petrucci, A. Gobbetti, C. Boiti, J. Arruda-Alencar, A. Moura, M. Zerani
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate: 1) the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF) and the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1) and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) in the rabbit uterus; and 2) the in vitro effects of NGF on PGF2α and PGE2 synthesis and on the PGE2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) activity by the rabbit uterus. NGF, NTRK1, and NGFR were immunolocalized in the luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma cells of the endometrium. RT-PCR indicated the presence of mRNA for NGF, NTRK1, and NGFR in the uterus. NGF increased (P < 0.01) in vitro secretions of PGF2α and PGE2 but co-incubation with either NTRK1 or oxide nitric synthase (NOS) inhibitors reduced (P < 0.01) PGF2α production and blocked (P < 0.01) PGE2 secretion. Prostaglandins releases were lower (P < 0.01) than control when uterine samples were treated with NGF plus cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. However, addition of NGFR inhibitor reduced (P < 0.01) PGF2α secretion less efficiently than NTRK1 or NOS inhibitors, but had no effect on PGE2 yield. NGF increased (P < 0.01) the activity of PGE2-9-K, while co-incubation with NTRK1 or NOS inhibitors abolished (P < 0.01) this increase in PGE2-9-K activity. However, co-treatment with either COX or NGFR inhibitors had no effect on PGE2-9-K activity. This is the first study to document the distribution of NGF/NTRK1 and NGFR systems and their effects on PG synthesis in the rabbit uterus. NGF/NTRK1 increases PGF2α and PGE2 productions by up-regulating NOS and PGE2-9-K activities, whereas NGF/NGFR augments only PGF2α secretion, through an intracellular mechanism that is still unknown.

      PubDate: 2016-02-20T13:06:37Z
       
  • Increased expression of pentraxin 3 after in vivo and in vitro stimulation
           with gonadotropins in porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes and granulosa cells
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): E. Nagyova, J. Kalous, L. Nemcova
      It has been previously shown that multimeric pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a key component of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix (ECM) in mice. In response to the ovulatory LH surge, the cumulus cells assemble a unique ECM that envelopes the oocyte and cumulus cell complex. Importantly, cumuli from PTX3-/- mice were defective in their ECM organization and their fertility was impaired. It has been demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) catalyzes the formation of heavy chains of (inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor) -hyaluronan complexes and these are then cross-linked via PTX3. This process is tightly regulated, and requires the proteins to meet/interact in the correct order. Finally, in this way the above-listed proteins form the cumulus oophorus ECM. We investigated whether PTX3 is expressed in the porcine preovulatory follicle. Porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC) and mural granulosa cells (MGC) from gilts were obtained either after stimulation in vivo with eCG/ hCG (4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 h) or culture in vitro (4, 24 and 44 h) in FSH/LH-supplemented medium. The methods performed were real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunostaining. The expression of PTX3 transcripts was significantly increased 24 h after either in vivo hCG stimulation or in vitro FSH/LH treatment in both OCC and MGC. Western blot analysis with PTX3 antibody revealed that not only matrix extracts from in vivo stimulated gilts contain high levels of PTX3 protein, but also matrix extracts of FSH/LH-stimulated OCC cultured in medium supplemented either with follicular fluid or with porcine serum. The localization of PTX3 in the cumulus oocyte complex was confirmed by immunostaining. In conclusion, PTX3 is produced by porcine OCC and mural granulosa cells both in vivo and in vitro with gonadotropin stimuli inducing cumulus expansion.

      PubDate: 2016-02-20T13:06:37Z
       
  • Expression analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 4 between fat and lean
           birds in adipose tissue and serum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): B.H. Cheng, L. Leng, M.Q. Wu, Q. Zhang, X.Y. Zhang, S.S. Xu, Z.P. Cao, Y.M. Li, P. Luan, H. Li
      The objectives of the current study were to characterize the tissue expression of chicken (Gallus gallus) bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and compare differences in its expression in abdominal fat tissue and serum between fat and lean birds, and to determine a potential relationship between the expression of BMP4 and abdominal fat tissue growth and development. The results showed that chicken BMP4 mRNA and protein were expressed in various tissues, and the expression level of BMP4 transcript and protein was relatively higher in adipose tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 in abdominal fat tissue of fat males were lower than that of lean males at 1, 2, 5 and 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the serum BMP4 content of fat males was lower than that of lean males at 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in preadipocytes than in mature adipocytes (P < 0.05), and the expression level decreased during differentiation in vitro (P < 0.05). These results suggested that chicken BMP4 might affect abdominal fat deposition through differences in its expression level. The results of this study will provide basic molecular information for studying the role of BMP4 in the regulation of adipogenesis in avian species.

      PubDate: 2016-02-01T12:11:52Z
       
  • Effects of steroid treatment on growth, nutrient partitioning, and
           expression of genes related to growth and nutrient metabolism in adult
           triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): B.M. Cleveland, G.M. Weber
      The contribution of sex steroids to nutrient partitioning and energy balance during gonad development was studied in rainbow trout. Specifically, 19-mo old triploid (3N) female rainbow trout were fed treatment diets supplemented with estradiol-17β (E2), testosterone (T), or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at 30 mg steroid/kg diet for a 1-mo period. Growth performance, nutrient partitioning, and expression of genes central to growth and nutrient metabolism were compared to 3N and age-matched diploid (2N) female fish consuming a control diet not supplemented with steroids. Only 2N fish exhibited active gonad development, with gonad weights (GSI) increasing from 3.7% to 5.5% of body weight throughout the study while GSI in 3N fish remained at 0.03%. Triploid fish consuming DHT exhibited faster specific growth rates than 3N controls (P < 0.05). Consumption of E2 in 3N fish reduced fillet growth and caused lower fillet yield compared to all other treatment groups (P < 0.05). In contrast, viscera fat gain was not affected by steroid consumption (P > 0.05). Gene transcripts associated with physiological pathways were identified in maturing 2N and E2-treated 3N fish that differed in abundance from 3N control fish (P < 0.05). In liver these mechanisms included the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis (igf1, igf2), IGF binding proteins (igfbp1b1, igfbp2b1, igfbp5b1, igfbp6b1), and genes associated with lipid binding and transport (fabp3, fabp4, lpl, cd36), fatty acid oxidation (cpt1a), and the pparg transcription factor. In muscle these mechanisms included reductions in myogenic gene expression (fst, myog) and the proteolysis-related gene, ctsl, suggesting an E2-induced reduction in the capacity for muscle growth. These findings suggest that increased E2 signaling in the sexually maturing female rainbow trout alters physiological pathways in liver, particularly those related to IGF signaling and lipid metabolism, to partition nutrients away from muscle growth towards support of maturation-related processes. In contrast, the mobilization of viscera lipid stores appear to be mediated less by E2 and more by energy demands associated with gonad development. These findings improve understanding of how steroids regulate nutrient metabolism to meet the high energy demands associated with gonad development during sexual maturation.

      PubDate: 2016-01-28T12:02:36Z
       
 
 
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