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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 215 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 106)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)

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Journal Cover Domestic Animal Endocrinology
  [SJR: 0.882]   [H-I: 53]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-7240
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Different dietary energy intake affects skeletal muscle development
           through an Akt-dependent pathway in Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed
           crossbred ewe lambs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J.X. Zhao, X.D. Liu, K. Li, W.Z. Liu, Y.S. Ren, J.X. Zhang
      The objective of this experiment was to investigate the mechanisms through which different levels of dietary energy affect postnatal skeletal muscle development in ewe lambs. Twelve Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred ewe lambs (100 d of age; 20 ± 0.5 kg BW) were selected randomly and divided into 2 groups in a completely randomized design. Animals were offered identical diets at 100% or 65% of ad libitum intake. Lambs were euthanized when BW in the ad libitum group reached 35 kg and the semitendinosus muscle was sampled. Final BW and skeletal muscle weight were decreased (P < 0.01) by feed restriction. Both muscle fiber size distribution and myofibril cross-sectional area were altered by feed restriction. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) content was decreased (P < 0.05) when lambs were underfed, whereas no difference for IGF-2 mRNA expression was observed (P > 0.05). Feed restriction altered phosphor-Akt protein abundance (P < 0.01). Moreover, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was inhibited by feed restriction, which was associated with decreased phosphor-mTOR, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (phosphor-4EBP1), and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase (phosphor-S6K). Both mRNA expression of myostatin and its protein content were elevated in feed-restricted ewe lambs (P < 0.05). In addition, mRNA expression of both muscle RING finger 1 and muscle atrophy F-box was increased when ewe lambs were underfed. In summary, feed restriction in young growing ewe lambs attenuates skeletal muscle hypertrophy by inhibiting protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation, which may act through the Akt-dependent pathway.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Repeatability of the ACTH stimulation test as reflected by salivary
           cortisol response in healthy horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): M.D. Scheidegger, V. Gerber, A. Ramseyer, G. Schüpbach-Regula, R.M. Bruckmaier, J.H. Van der Kolk
      The aim of this study was to further characterize the ACTH stimulation test as reflected by salivary cortisol response and to measure the short- and long-term repeatability of it in healthy horses as a tool to assess the capacity of the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. Nineteen healthy horses were subjected to 3 ACTH stimulation tests. Intervals were 2 wk and 5 mo between the first and second and the second and third tests, respectively. A dose of 1-μg/kg BW synthetic ACTH was injected intravenously. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after administration for cortisol measurements using a competitive enzyme immunoassay. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare values within and among horses. Mean ± SD total increase in cortisol concentrations integrated over the entire sampling period was 34.5 ± 11.0 ng/mL. The highest measured concentration at a single time point was 9.7 ± 2.7 ng/mL and was reached after 122 ± 22 min. For the short- and long-term repeatability, intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.90 and 0.33, respectively. The 3 ACTH stimulation tests results differed significantly among (P < 0.00001) but not within (P = 0.538) individual horses. The Freiberger stallions had a higher salivary cortisol baseline concentration and a lower response to ACTH stimulation as compared with Warmblood mares and geldings. The present study confirmed that the administration of ACTH in healthy horses reliably stimulates the salivary secretion of cortisol and shows that the test is repeatable in the short- and long-term.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Preface: Eighth International Conference on Farm Animal Endocrinology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): Mogens Vestergaard, Rupert Bruckmaier, Akio Miyamoto



      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association
           with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of
           finishing beef steers and heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): A.P. Foote, K.E. Hales, H.C. Freetly
      Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating dry matter intake (DMI). The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and average daily BW gain (ADG) measurement period and to determine the association of those ghrelin measurements with DMI, ADG, ADG:DMI ratio (G:F), and residual feed intake in finishing beef steers and heifers. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 83 before feeding and between 0730 h and 1130 h. Samples were analyzed for acyl and total ghrelin using commercially available RIA. DMI in steers was greater during the last 35-d period of the experiment compared with the first 35 d (P < 0.01) and was greater than heifers regardless of period (P < 0.01). Steers had greater acyl ghrelin concentrations on day 0 than heifers, but concentrations decreased by day 83 to equal concentrations in heifers (P < 0.01). Total ghrelin concentrations were lower on day 0 in heifers but increased by day 83 and did not differ from steers on day 83 (P < 0.01). A mixed model analysis was used to determine the association of ghrelin concentrations and ratio with production traits, independent of breed and sire effects. There was an interaction of day 0 acyl ghrelin concentrations with time of sample collection for 84-d DMI (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P = 0.09), indicating a general positive association of acyl ghrelin with production traits, but the association weakened as time of sample collection increased. The mean ghrelin ratio tended (P = 0.08) to be positively associated with DMI in the last 35-d period. The ghrelin ratio on day 0 interacted with time of sample collection for ADG and G:F (P < 0.05), indicating an overall positive association of the ghrelin ratio with ADG and G:F. Results indicate that ghrelin is associated with DMI, ADG, and feed efficiency of finishing beef cattle, and data lend more evidence that ghrelin is involved in appetite regulation of ad libitum fed cattle.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Diagnosis of prediabetes in cats: glucose concentration cut points for
           impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): M.K. Reeve-Johnson, J.S. Rand, D. Vankan, S.T. Anderson, R. Marshall, J.M. Morton
      Diabetes is typically diagnosed in cats once clinical signs are evident. Diagnostic criteria for prediabetes in cats have not been defined. The objective of the study was to establish methodology and cut points for fasting and 2-h blood glucose concentrations in healthy client-owned senior cats (≥8 yr) using ear/paw samples and a portable glucose meter calibrated for feline blood. Of the 78 cats, 27 were ideal (body condition score [BCS] 4 or 5 of 9), 31 overweight (BCS 6 or 7), and 20 obese (BCS 8 or 9); 19 were Burmese and 59 non-Burmese. After an 18–24-h fast and an ear/paw blood glucose measurement using a portable glucose meter, glucose (0.5 g/kg bodyweight) was administered intravenous and blood glucose measured at 2 min and 2 h. Cut points for fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations were defined as the upper limits of 95% reference intervals using cats with BCS 4 or 5. The upper cut point for fasting glucose was 6.5 mmol/L. Of the overweight and obese cats, 1 (BCS 7) was above this cut point indicating evidence of impaired fasting glucose. The cut point for 2-h glucose was 9.8 mmol/L. A total of 7 cats (4 with BCS 8 or 9 including 1 Burmese; 3 with BCS 6 or 7, non-Burmese) were above this cut point and thus had evidence of impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the methodology and cutpoints for diagnosis of prediabetes are defined for use in healthy cats 8 yr and older with a range of BCSs.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Molecular cloning, expression analysis, and function of decorin in goat
           ovarian granulosa cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J.Y. Peng, K.X. Gao, H.Y. Xin, P. Han, G.Q. Zhu, B.Y. Cao
      Decorin (DCN), a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), participates in ECM assembly and influences cell proliferation and apoptosis in many mammalian tissues and cells. However, expression and function of DCN in the ovary remain unclear. This study cloned the full-length cDNA of goat DCN obtained from the ovary of an adult goat. Sequence analysis revealed that the putative DCN protein shared a highly conserved amino acid sequence with known mammalian homologs. The tissue distribution of DCN mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR, and the results showed that DCN was widely expressed in the tissues of adult goat. Immunohistochemistry results suggested that DCN protein existed in the granulosa cells and oocytes from all types of follicles and theca cells of antral follicles. Moreover, hCG-induced DCN mRNA expression was significantly reduced by the inhibitors of protein kinase A, PI3K, or p38 kinase (P < 0.05), which are key mediators involved in hCG-induced DCN expression. Overexpression of DCN significantly increased apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in cultured granulosa cells (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis also showed that overexpression of DCN upregulated the expression levels of p21 protein (P < 0.05), whereas no effects were observed on the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 and on Bcl-2/Bax ratio (P > 0.05). These findings suggested that DCN regulates the apoptosis and cell cycle of granulosa cells.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of
           glucose tolerance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): M.K. Reeve-Johnson, J.S. Rand, S.T. Anderson, D.J. Appleton, J.M. Morton, D. Vankan
      The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between 2-min and 2-h glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and <0.001 respectively) were positively associated with body weight and body condition score. Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Temporal relationships between minor, preovulatory, or periovulatory FSH
           surges and the emergence and development of 2-mm follicles of wave 1 in
           Bos taurus heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J.M. Baldrighi, M.A.R. Siddiqui, O.J. Ginther
      The number and day of emergence (first detection) of 2-mm follicles and the number and day when the 2-mm follicles reached 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-mm during wave 1 were determined every 0.5 d (n = 9 heifers). Emergence of the follicles at each of the indicated diameters was normalized to the beginning and ending nadir and the peak of each of a minor FSH surge, the preovulatory surge, and the periovulatory surge. Relative to the day of ovulation (day 0), the minor FSH surge, preovulatory surge, and periovulatory surge encompassed (nadir to nadir) days −7.0 to −2.5 (peak, day −4.0), days −2.5 to −0.5 (peak, day −1.0), and days −0.5 to 4 (peak, day 0), respectively. Distinct mean nadirs occurred between the minor and preovulatory surges and between the preovulatory and periovulatory surges. A small percentage of 2-mm follicles (12%) and 3-mm follicles (2%) emerged during the minor FSH surge. The 4-mm follicles emerged during the preovulatory surge (24% of follicles) and periovulatory surge (76%). The 5-mm and 6-mm follicles emerged only during the periovulatory surge. The first increase (P < 0.05) in number of 2-, 3-, and 4-mm follicles began at 1.5, 1.0, and 0 d, respectively, before the nadir at the beginning of the preovulatory surge. The first increase (P < 0.05) in number of 5- and 6-mm follicles began at 0.5 and 0 d, respectively, before the intervening nadir between the preovulatory and periovulatory surges. Results demonstrated that each of the 3 surges including the minor surge contributed to the emergence of follicles at various diameters during wave 1. The emergence of 2-mm follicles during the descending portion of the minor surge indicated that smaller follicles (eg, 1 mm) apparently emerged during the major portion of the minor surge. The increasing diameter of the 2 largest follicles was not interrupted during the distinct intervening nadir between the preovulatory and periovulatory FSH surges.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Characteristics, tissue-specific expression, and hormonal regulation of
           expression of tyrosine aminotransferase in the avian female reproductive
           tract
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): W. Lim, G. Song
      Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Accumulation of tyrosine in the body due to a genetic mutation in the TAT gene causes tyrosomia type II in humans. The TAT gene is regarded as a model for studying steroid-inducible factors regulating a variety of biological functions of TAT. However, little is known of the effects of estrogen on the expression of the TAT gene in chickens. Therefore, in the present study, we identified expression of the avian TAT gene in various organs. The results showed the TAT was detected predominantly in the liver and reproductive organs including testis, oviduct, and ovary. Specifically, TAT mRNA was expressed abundantly in the glandular and luminal epithelia of the oviducts in response to endogenous and exogenous estrogens which also induce dramatic morphological changes in the oviduct of chickens. In addition, target microRNAs of TAT (miR-1460, miR-1626-3p, miR-1690-5p, and miR-7442-3p) were found to modulate expression of the TAT gene. Especially, miR-1690-5p influenced TAT gene transcription by binding directly to its 3′-UTR region. Moreover, the expression of TAT was abundant in glandular epithelia of cancerous but not normal ovaries from laying hens. Taken together, our findings suggest that TAT plays an important role in the cytodifferentiation of oviducts in response to estrogen and in the progression of ovarian cancer in chickens.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56




      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Downregulation of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone
           receptors after hCG and eCG treatments in the porcine oviduct
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): I. Małysz-Cymborska, A. Andronowska
      The influence of induction of ovulation and superovulation with eCG and hCG on LH and FSH receptor levels in porcine oviducts on day 3 post coitum was studied. In experiment I, gilts were assigned into cyclic (control; n=5) and inseminated (control; n=5) groups. In experiment II, there were three groups of animals: inseminated (n=5), induced ovulation/inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n=5) and superovulated/inseminated (1500 IU eCG, 1000 IU hCG; n=5) gilts. Oviduct tissues were collected 3 d after insemination or PBS infusion. Expression of mRNA for FSHR and LH/CGR was measured by Real-Time RT PCR and protein levels using Western blots. Localization of LH/CGR and FSHR-positive cells was studied by immunohistochemical staining. Insemination by itself did not influence mRNA and protein levels of LH/CGR. However, FSHR mRNA expression in the isthmus and ampulla of the oviduct was affected by insemination (P < 0.05). Similarly, insemination decreased FSHR protein level in the isthmus (P < 0.05). Stimulation with hCG and eCG did not affect LH/CGR and FSHR mRNA expression, either in the isthmus or in the ampulla. Nevertheless, superovulation decreased LH/CGR protein level in the oviductal ampulla (P < 0.05) in comparison with inseminated gilts. Similarly, protein levels of FSHR in the oviductal ampulla decreased after superovulation (P < 0.05). LH/CGR-positive cells were observed in the mucosa as well as in smooth muscle cells of both parts of the oviduct. FSHR-positive cells were observed in smooth muscle cells and blood vessels of the isthmus. In the ampulla, FSHR-positive cells were observed in the smooth muscle as well as in the mucosa. Summarizing, the present study revealed for the first time that stimulation with eCG and hCG, especially in high doses, can change LH/CGR and FSHR levels in porcine oviducts. This may in turn alter many signaling pathways, e.g., PGs or VEGF synthesis, and consequently disturb the oviductal environment, with possible detrimental effects on fertilization and/or embryonic development.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 56




      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of salivary cortisol measurement in
           domestic canines
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): M.L. Cobb, K. Iskandarani, V.M. Chinchilli, N.A. Dreschel
      Salivary cortisol is widely used as an indicator of stress and welfare in canine research. However, much remains unclear about the basic features of this hormone marker in domestic dogs. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine a reference range for cortisol concentration in the saliva of dogs and examine how canine characteristics, environmental effects and experimental considerations relate to salivary cortisol concentrations. A systematic review of literature databases and conference proceedings from 1992 to 2012 identified 61 peer-reviewed studies using domestic dog salivary cortisol. Researchers were contacted via email, and 31 raw data sets representing a total of 5,153 samples from 1,205 dogs were shared. Meta-analysis provided a cortisol concentration range of 0 to 33.79 μg/dL (mean 0.45 μg/dL, SEM 0.13). Significant effects (P < 0.05) were found for sex and neuter status, age, regular living environment, time in environment before testing, testing environment, owner presence during testing, and collection media. Significant effects were not found for dog breed, body weight, dog type, coat color, assay type, exercise, eating, or use of salivary stimulant. Care should be taken when using cortisol studies for dogs at a group or population level as there is a large amount of intraindividual and interindividual variability and external variables could influence salivary cortisol concentration. This analysis highlights the importance of carefully controlling experimental design to compare samples within and between individual dogs, as well as establishing and using best practices for saliva collection. Caution should be exercised in comparing different studies, as the results could be the reflection of a plethora of factors.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • A transcriptional cofactor YAP regulates IFNT expression via transcription
           factor TEAD in bovine conceptuses
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 57
      Author(s): K. Kusama, R. Bai, T. Sakurai, H. Bai, A. Ideta, Y. Aoyagi, K. Imakawa
      Interferon tau (IFNT) is the pregnancy recognition protein in all ruminants, and its expression is restricted to trophoblast cells. Interferon tau production increases as the conceptus elongates; however, its expression is downregulated soon after the initiation of conceptus attachment to the uterine epithelium. Our previous study identified that among 8 bovine IFNT genes, only 2 forms of IFNTs, IFNT2 and IFN-tau-c1, were expressed by the conceptuses during the periattachment period. To characterize whether Hippo signaling including a transcription cofactor yes-associated protein (YAP) was involved in the IFNT regulation, we examined the expression and effects of YAP and/or TEAD in human choriocarcinoma JEG3 and bovine trophoblast CT-1 cells, and in bovine conceptuses obtained from day 17, 20 or 22 pregnant animals (pregnant day 19.5 = day of conceptus attachment to the endometrium). YAP was expressed in bovine conceptuses and transfection of YAP or TEAD4, a transcription factor partner of YAP, expression plasmid increased the luciferase activity of IFNT2 and IFN-tau-c1 reporter plasmids in JEG3 cells. In the presence of YAP expression plasmid, TEAD2 or TEAD4 expression plasmid further upregulated transcriptional activity of IFNT2 or IFN-tau-c1 constructs, which were substantially reduced in the absence of the TEAD-binding site on IFNT2 or IFN-tau-c1 promoter region in JEG3 cells. In CT-1 cells, treatment with TEAD2, TEAD4, or YAP small-interfering RNA downregulated endogenous IFNT expression. It should be noted that TEAD2 and TEAD4 were predominantly localized in the nuclei of trophectoderm of Day 17 conceptuses, but nuclear localization appeared to be lower in those cells of conceptuses on days 20 and 22 of pregnancy. Moreover, the binding of TEAD4 to the TEAD-binding site of the IFN-tau-c1 promoter region in day 17 conceptuses was less in day 20 and 22 conceptuses. Furthermore, the level of YAP phosphorylation increased in day 20 and 22 conceptuses. These results indicated that although YAP/TEAD had the ability to up-regulate IFNT gene transcription on day 17, IFNT2 or IFN-tau-c1 was down-regulated following changes in the localization of TEAD2 and TEAD4 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and increases in phosphorylation and degradation of YAP. These data suggest that TEAD relocation and/or YAP degradation following its phosphorylation down-regulates IFNT gene transcription after conceptus attachment to the uterine endometrium.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Changes in ovarian function associated with circulating concentrations of
           estradiol prior to a GnRH-induced ovulation in beef cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): E.L. Larimore, O.L. Amundson, G.A. Bridges, A.K. McNeel, R.A. Cushman, G.A. Perry
      These studies were conducted to evaluate causes for differences in circulating concentrations of estradiol prior to a GnRH-induced ovulation. Beef cows were synchronized by an injection of GnRH on day -7 and an injection of PGF₂α on d 0. In Experiment 1, blood samples were collected every 3 h from PGF₂α on day 0 to hour 33 after PGF₂α and at slaughter (hour 36 to 42; n=10). Cows were assigned to treatment group based on circulating concentrations of E2: HighE2 vs LowE2. At slaughter, follicular fluid (FF) and granulosa cells were collected from the dominant follicle (DF). In Experiment 2, (n=30) blood samples were collected every 8 h from PGF₂α until the dominant follicle was aspirated via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration to collect FF and granulosa cells (hour 38 to 46). In Experiment 1, HighE2 had increased abundance of 3β-HSD, CYP19A1, and LHR (P ≤ 0.02), and greater concentrations of estradiol and androstenedione (P ≤ 0.02) in the follicular fluid. In Experiment 2, HighE2 had increased abundance of CYP11A1, 3β-HSD, CYP19A1, and LHR (P ≤ 0.03) versus either LowE2 or GnRHLowE2. There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for LH pulse frequency to be increased in both the GnRHLowE2 and HighE2 compared to LowE2. HighE2 cows experienced increased in circulating concentrations of estradiol compared to LowE2. In conclusion, animals with greater concentrations of circulating estradiol prior to fixed-time AI experienced an up-regulation of the steroidogenic pathway during the preovulatory period.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • The theory of follicle selection in cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): O.J. Ginther
      Selection of the dominant follicle (DF) during a follicular wave is manifested by diameter deviation or continued growth rate of the largest follicle (F1) and decreased growth rate of the next largest follicle (F2) when F1 reaches about 8.5 mm in cattle. The process of deviation in the future DF begins about 12 h before diameter deviation and involves an F1 increase in granulosa LH receptors and estradiol and maintenance of intrafollicular free insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Thereby, only F1 is developmentally prepared to utilize the declining FSH in the wave-stimulating FSH surge and to respond to a transient increase in LH to become the DF. A follicle that emerges first may maintain an F1 ranking and become the DF by being first to reach a critical developmental stage. However, an early size advantage is not a requisite component of the deviation process as indicated by: (1) F1 and F2 may switch diameter rankings during a common-growth phase that precedes diameter deviation owing to intraovarian factors that affect growth of individual follicles; (2) any follicle that reaches 5 mm regardless of diameter ranking may become a DF unless it is selected against during deviation; (3) a subordinate follicle may become dominant if the DF is ablated; (4) when F1 is ablated at 8.5 mm, the next-largest follicle that is greater than 7.0 mm or the first follicle to subsequently reach 7.0 mm becomes the DF; (5) after ablation of F1 at 8.5 mm, IGF1 and estradiol increase in the intrafollicular fluid of F2 beginning at 6 h and F2 grows to 8.5 mm in 12 h to become the DF. These considerations indicate that selection of a DF or partitioning into a DF and subordinate follicles is not initiated before the end of the common-growth phase. That is, the deviation process represents the entire follicle-selection mechanism.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:51:23Z
       
  • Transcript levels of genes implicated in steroidogenesis in the testes and
           fat tissue in relation with androstenone accumulation in fat of pubertal
           pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): A. Robic, K. Feve, J. Riquet, A. Prunier
      The present study was performed to measure mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes in testes and fat tissue and determine whether they are related to fat androstenone level. Real time PCR experiments were performed on 26 testes and 12 adipose tissue samples from pubertal boars using 21 genes. The absence of significant correlations between fat androstenone and the transcriptional activity of the SRD5A2 and SRD5A3 genes but the high correlation coefficient with that of the SRD5A1 gene (r = 0.62, P < 0.05) suggest that the enzyme coded by SRD5A1 is mainly responsible for the last step of androstenone synthesis. The testicular transcriptional activities of CYP17, CYP11A1, CYP19A, AKR1C-pig6, SRD5A1, LHCGR, and AR were significantly correlated. Only transcriptional levels of CYP17, CYP11A1, CYP19A, SRD5A1 and AKR1C-pig6 were correlated with the fat concentration of androstenone (0.57 < r < 0.70, P < 0.05) confirming that the amount of androstenone stored in fat is related to the production in testes of androstenone and more generally to all sex steroids. Altogether, our data are in favor of a preponderant role of AKR1C-pig6 instead of HSD17B3 for testicular synthesis of steroids. Concerning fat tissue, our data do not support a significant de novo biosynthesis of steroids in porcine adipose tissues. The presence of transcripts coding for steroid enzymes, especially those of AKR1C-pig6, suggests that steroids can be transformed. None of transcript abundance was related to androstenone accumulation (P > 0.1). Therefore, steroids synthesized elsewhere can be transformed in fat tissue but synthesis of androstenone is unlikely.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T14:44:46Z
       
  • Endocrine regulation of gut maturation in early life in pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): T. Thymann
      Following birth the newborn must adapt to the acute challenges of circulatory changes, active respiration, thermoregulation, microbial colonization, and enteral nutrition. Whereas these processes normally occur without clinical complications in neonates born at term, birth at a preterm state of gestation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In commercial pig production, perinatal mortality is higher than in any other mammalian species. Asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, sepsis and gut dysmotility, represent some of the most common findings. The intestine is a particularly sensitive organ after birth, as it must adapt acutely to enteral nutrition and microbial colonization. Likewise, during the weaning phase, the intestine must adapt to new diets types. Both critical phases are associated with high morbidity. This review focuses on the endocrine changes occurring around birth and weaning. There are a number of endocrine adaptations in late gestation and early postnatal life that are under influence of stage of development and environmental factors such as diet. The review discusses general endocrine changes in perinatal life, but specifically focuses on the role of Glucagon-Like Peptide -2 (GLP-2). This gut-derived hormone plays a key role in development and function of the intestine in early life.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T14:44:46Z
       
  • Early pregnancy in the mare: old concepts re-visited
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): C. Klein
      “Maternal recognition of pregnancy” (MRP) is commonly used to describe the ongoing embryo-maternal communication during early pregnancy that culminates in prevention of luteolysis and ensures ongoing progestin support. The conceptus-derived pregnancy recognition signal has not yet been identified in the mare. Although equine conceptuses produce substantial amounts of estrogens, there is a lack of evidence that estrogens are the pregnancy recognition signal in mares. Conceptus mobility is integral to MRP and is driven by conceptus-derived prostaglandin production. Cessation of conceptus mobility, referred to as fixation, is caused by increases in conceptus size and uterine tone, and reduction in sialic acid content of the embryonic capsule. Gene expression profiling of equine pre-implantation conceptuses revealed expression of neuraminidase 2 (NEU2), an enzyme that cleaves sialic acid from polysaccharide chains. Furthermore, secretion of NEU2 by conceptuses in vitro was functionally active; it appears therefore, that the conceptus itself regulates sialic acid content through expression of NEU2. Based on gene expression profiling, equine conceptuses express increasing amounts of fibrinogen during early development. Western blot analysis confirmed secretion of fibrinogen into culture medium when conceptuses were cultured in vitro and with immunohistochemistry, the acellular glycoprotein capsule of the conceptus had particularly intense staining for fibrinogen. Therefore, we hypothesize that conceptus-derived fibrinogen interacts with endometrial integrins to promote cessation of conceptus mobility and fixation. Indeed, next generation sequencing analysis of conceptus and endometrial samples 16 d after ovulation revealed the integrin signaling pathway is significantly enriched in both sample types. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed ITGAVB1 as the most abundant integrin receptor in endometrium; fibrinogen has the highest affinity for ITGAVB1 amongst integrins receptors to which it binds. Lastly, the equine conceptus expresses increasing quantities of relaxin during pre-implantation development, with the endometrium expressing relaxin receptors. In the pig, mouse and human, relaxin is produced by the corpus luteum and is known to promote angiogenesis during early pregnancy. In summary, substantial advances in understanding MRP in the horse are underway.


      PubDate: 2016-04-06T14:37:11Z
       
  • Stress, cortisol and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in
           identifying individuals prone to obesity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): S.D. Hewagalamulage, T.K. Lee, I.J. Clarke, B.A. Henry
      There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged, that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterised as high cortisol responders (HR) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low cortisol responders (LR). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signalling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. HR sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LR exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals that are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity.


      PubDate: 2016-04-01T21:46:17Z
       
  • The role of mitochondrial DNA copy number, variants and haplotypes in farm
           animal developmental outcome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): Tesha Tsai, Justin C. St. John
      The vast majority of cellular energy is generated through the process of oxidative phosphorylation, which takes place in the electron transfer chain in the mitochondria. The ETC is encoded by two genomes, the chromosomal and the mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes. MtDNA is associated with a number of traits, which include tolerance to heat, growth and physical performance, meat and milk quality and fertility. Mitochondrial genomes can be clustered into groups known as mtDNA haplotypes. MtDNA haplotypes are a potential genetic source for manipulating phenotypes in farm animals. The use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as nuclear transfer, allow favourable chromosomal genetic traits to be mixed and matched with sought after mtDNA haplotype traits. As a result super breeds can be generated.


      PubDate: 2016-04-01T21:46:17Z
       
  • Influence of blanketing and season on vitamin D and parathyroid hormone,
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): S. Azarpeykan, K.E. Dittmer, E.K. Gee, J.C. Marshall, J. Wallace, P. Elder, E. Acke, K.G. Thompson
      The aims of the study were to determine effect of season and blanketing on vitamin D synthesis in horses, and examine the interaction between vitamin D and other analytes involved in calcium homeostasis. Twenty-one healthy horses at pasture were included; 5 were covered with standard horse blankets including neck rugs. Blood samples were collected for 13 mo and analyzed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), ionized calcium (iCa), total calcium (tCa), phosphorus (P), total magnesium (tMg) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Grass and hay samples were collected and analyzed for vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Climate data were also collected. The serum concentration of 25OHD3 in horses either undetectable or below the detection limit of the assay, and the main form of 25OHD was 25OHD2. No differences in serum 25OHD2, 1,25(OH)2D, iCa, tCa, P, tMg and PTH (P ≥ 0.05) concentrations were seen between the 2 groups. Associations were seen between iCa and PTH (P < 0.05), iCa and tMg (P < 0.05) and dietary vitamin D and 25OHD2 (P < 0.05). A strong seasonal trend was seen in serum 25OHD2 (P < 0.0001) which was higher during spring and summer when the amount of sunshine and UV radiation was higher. Parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)2D showed opposing trends with PTH higher in winter while 1,25(OH)2D was higher in summer. The results suggest that dietary vitamin D maybe necessary for horses to fulfill their vitamin D requirements, however further research is required to determine the contribution of vitamin D3 synthesis in the skin to the vitamin D status of the horse.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T19:29:13Z
       
  • Characteristics and functions of a minor FSH surge near the end of an
           interovulatory interval in Bos taurus heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): O.J. Ginther, J.M. Baldrighi, M.A.R. Siddiqui, C.A. Wolf
      The apparent function of a minor FSH surge based on temporality with follicular events was studied in 10 heifers with 2 follicular waves per interovulatory interval. Individual follicles were tracked from their emergence at 2 mm until their outcome was known and a blood sample was collected for FSH and LH assay every 12 h from Day −14 (Day 0 = ovulation) to Day 4. A minor FSH surge occurred in each heifer (peak, Day −4.6 ± 0.2). Concentration of LH increased (P < 0.05) during the FSH increase of the minor surge but did not decrease during the FSH decrease. A minor follicular wave with 8.2 ± 2.0 follicles occurred in 6 of 10 heifers. The maximal diameter (mean, 3.4 ± 0.9 mm) of 77% of the minor-wave follicles occurred in synchrony on Day −4.4 ± 0.4. Most (59%) of minor wave follicles regressed before ovulation and 41% decreased and then increased in diameter (recovered) on Day −1.9 ± 0.3 to become part of the subsequent wave 1. A mean of 3.7 ± 0.9 regressing subordinate follicles from wave 2 recovered on the day before or at the peak of the minor FSH surge. The growth rate of the preovulatory follicle decreased (P < 0.02) for 3 d before the peak of the minor FSH surge and then increased (P < 0.03). Concentration of LH increased slightly but significantly temporally with the resurgence in growth rate of the preovulatory follicle. A minor LH surge peaked (P < 0.0002) on Day 3 at the expected deviation in growth rates between the future dominant and subordinate follicles. Results indicated on a temporal basis that the recovery of some regressing subordinate follicles of wave 2 was attributable to the minor FSH surge. The hypothesis was supported that some regressing follicles from the minor follicular wave recover to become part of wave 1.


      PubDate: 2016-03-19T18:43:07Z
       
  • Assessment of caprine corpora lutea growth, progesterone concentration and
           eNOS expression: Effect of a compensatory gain model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J. Thammasiri, C. Navanukraw, S. Uriyapongson, V. Khanthusaeng, K. Lertchunhakiat, S. Boonkong
      The experiment was conducted to evaluate corpus luteum (CL) growth, progesterone (P4) concentration and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in nutrient stair-step fed goats. Female goats (n = 32) that exhibited at least two, normal, consecutive estrous cycles were randomly assigned to either the control or stair-step fed group. In the control group, goats were fed ad libitum (100% of nutrient requirement for goats). The goats in the stair-step group were fed 70% of the control consumption for the first 42 d and 130% for the later 42 d during four consecutive estrous cycles (84 d). Blood and luteal samples were collected on days 3, 8, 13, 18 of the estrous cycle to determine concentration of glucose, insulin, P4, luteal growth, and eNOS expression. Luteal growth was determined using fresh CL weight, DNA content, DNA and protein concentrations, and cell proliferation (labeling index of Ki67). During realimentation phase at 4 h, glucose and insulin concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in stair-step fed goat than control goats. Fresh CL weight, DNA content, protein concentrations and labeling index of Ki67 on day 8 of the estrous cycle in the stair-step group were greater (P < 0.05) than that of the control group. Protein for eNOS was located in the capillaries of CL throughout of the estrous cycle in both groups. Greater serum P4 concentrations and eNOS protein (P < 0.05) were observed in the stair-step fed goats on day 3 (1.83 ng/mL and 6.79%) compared to the control goats (0.98 ng/mL and 6.02%), and on day 8 (5.15 ng/mL and 7.88%) compared to the control goats (4.54 ng/mL and 7.07%). These data demonstrate that luteal growth, progesterone concentration, and eNOS protein were partially affected by nutrient compensatory gain in goats.


      PubDate: 2016-03-10T17:27:29Z
       
  • Dynamics of L cells along the crypt-villous axis in the chicken ileum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): K. Nishimura, K. Hiramatsu, T. Watanabe
      The dynamics of L cells along the crypt-villous axis were investigated in the ileum of male White Leghorn chicks (7 d of age, n=5). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and an in situ hybridization technique to detect proglucagon mRNA. Immunocytochemistry using colloidal gold was also applied to quantitatively evaluate the GLP-1 content. The cells expressing a proglucagon mRNA signal were distributed mainly in the crypts and the bottom of the villi, but were never found in the upper part of the villi. Most of the cells expressing a proglucagon mRNA signal (97%) were immunoreactive for GLP-1 antiserum. In contrast, GLP-1 immunoreactive cells were distributed from the crypts to the middle part of the villi, and only 55% of them expressed a proglucagon mRNA signal. Quantitative evaluation by immunocytochemistry of GLP-1 using colloidal gold revealed that the GLP-1 content was significantly lower in L cells located in the villous epithelium than that of L cells located in the crypts (p<0.01). These findings indicate that L cells in the chicken ileum mature and complete GLP-1 production in the crypts. L cells in the villous epithelium secrete GLP-1, but do not synthesize this peptide.


      PubDate: 2016-03-05T16:53:21Z
       
  • Cattle temperament influences metabolism: Metabolic response to glucose
           tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers†,‡
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): N.C. Burdick Sanchez, J.A. Carroll, P.R. Broadway, H.D. Hughes, S.L. Roberts, J.T. Richeson, T.B. Schmidt, R.C. Vann
      Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggests that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 Calm and 15 Temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on Temperament Score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 0900 h on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5 mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution) and at 1400 h on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80oC until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, Temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum BUN and insulin sensitivity (calculated using RQUICKI) compared to Calm steers. During the GTT, Temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin, and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to Calm cattle. During the IST, Temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum insulin and a greater (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose as compared to Calm steers. These data demonstrate that differences exist in the manner in which Temperamental steers respond to glucose and insulin, potentially a result of elevated serum NEFA concentrations, which may result in changes in utilization and redistribution of energy in Temperamental versus Calm cattle.


      PubDate: 2016-03-05T16:53:21Z
       
  • Molecular characterization of kisspeptin gene and effect of
           nanoencapsulted kisspeptin-10 on reproductive maturation in Catla catla
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): M.A. Rather, I.A. Bhat, G.B. Pathakota, A. Chaudhari, J.K. Sundaray, R. Sharma
      Kisspeptin, a member of the RF-amide related peptide family, has emerged recently as an essential gatekeeper of various reproductive processes via its ability to activate kisspeptin receptors at puberty. In this study, the kiss1 gene and its receptor kiss1rb were cloned and characterized from the brain of Catla catla. Further, the effects of kissppetin-10 (K-10) and chitosan encapsulated K-10 nanoparticles (CK-10) on gene expression were assessed. The full-length cDNA sequence of kiss1 is 754 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 351 bp that encodes a putative protein of 116 amino acids. The kiss1rb cDNA is 1280 bp long and contains a 5'-UTR (untranslated region) of 30 bp, 3'-UTR of 149 bp, and an ORF(open reading frame) of 1101 bp. The expression patterns of kiss1 and kiss1rb mRNA in basal tissues revealed that they are mainly expressed in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads. CK-10 nanoparticles with a particle size of 125 nm and a zeta potential of 36.45 mV were synthesized and compared with K-10. Chitosan nanoparticles showed 60% entrapment efficiency for K-10. The mRNA expression of reproductive genes (GnRH, LH and FSH) in fish injected with K-10 declined after 6 h while those injected with CK-10 showed controlled and a sustained surge of mRNA expression of these genes with a peak at 12 h. Histological examination of ovaries indicated a pronounced effect of CK-10 on maturation and gonadal development. The study reports that this sustained-release-delivery-system will help in increasing the half-life of K-10 and other therapeutic protein drugs in the biological system. Besides, the nanoformulation developed in the current study may be useful for developing therapies against various reproductive dysfunctions in vertebrates.


      PubDate: 2016-03-05T16:53:21Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 55




      PubDate: 2016-03-05T16:53:21Z
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 55




      PubDate: 2016-03-05T16:53:21Z
       
  • Endocrine, morphometric and ultrasonographic characterization of neck
           adiposity in Andalusian horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): T. Martin-Gimenez, I. de Blas, E. Aguilera-Tejero, E. Diez de Castro, C.N. Aguirre-Pascasio
      Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) can be diagnosed by hormonal measurements; however, it would be important to find simpler measurements that allow easy identification of affected or at risk individuals. In horses, the dorsal neck region is one of the most frequent anatomical sites for fat deposition and neck obesity has been linked to EMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of hormonal markers of obesity (leptin) and insulin resistance (insulin) with morphometric and ultrasonographic neck measurements in Andalusian horses. Plasma leptin and insulin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 127 Andalusian horses. Neck circumferences (NC) were measured at three equidistant locations at 25%, 50% and 75% of neck length (NC-25%, NC-50%, NC-75%). At the same three locations, subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT-25%, SFT-50%, SFT-75%) was measured ultrasonographically. In the population under study, a tendency to adiposity was confirmed by the elevated plasma leptin levels (7.47 ± 5.03 ng/mL). However, plasma insulin concentrations (4.05 ± 3.74 μIU/mL) were within normal range in most horses. Our results indicate that NC showed significant sexual dimorphism and did not correlate well with hormonal measurements. Ultrasonographic assessment of fat thickness at the base of the neck (SFT-75%) was significantly correlated with both plasma leptin and insulin, and did not show differences between males and females. Thus, in the search for a single objective parameter which can be used in large populations SFT-75% is a potential candidate and may be a meaningful parameter to predict EMS.


      PubDate: 2016-02-29T16:06:26Z
       
  • Expression of nerve growth factor and its receptors in the uterus of
           rabbits: functional involvement in prostaglandin synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): M. Maranesi, F. Parillo, L. Leonardi, P.G. Rebollar, B. Alonso, L. Petrucci, A. Gobbetti, C. Boiti, J. Arruda-Alencar, A. Moura, M. Zerani
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate: 1) the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF) and the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1) and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) in the rabbit uterus; and 2) the in vitro effects of NGF on PGF2α and PGE2 synthesis and on the PGE2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) activity by the rabbit uterus. NGF, NTRK1, and NGFR were immunolocalized in the luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma cells of the endometrium. RT-PCR indicated the presence of mRNA for NGF, NTRK1, and NGFR in the uterus. NGF increased (P < 0.01) in vitro secretions of PGF2α and PGE2 but co-incubation with either NTRK1 or oxide nitric synthase (NOS) inhibitors reduced (P < 0.01) PGF2α production and blocked (P < 0.01) PGE2 secretion. Prostaglandins releases were lower (P < 0.01) than control when uterine samples were treated with NGF plus cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. However, addition of NGFR inhibitor reduced (P < 0.01) PGF2α secretion less efficiently than NTRK1 or NOS inhibitors, but had no effect on PGE2 yield. NGF increased (P < 0.01) the activity of PGE2-9-K, while co-incubation with NTRK1 or NOS inhibitors abolished (P < 0.01) this increase in PGE2-9-K activity. However, co-treatment with either COX or NGFR inhibitors had no effect on PGE2-9-K activity. This is the first study to document the distribution of NGF/NTRK1 and NGFR systems and their effects on PG synthesis in the rabbit uterus. NGF/NTRK1 increases PGF2α and PGE2 productions by up-regulating NOS and PGE2-9-K activities, whereas NGF/NGFR augments only PGF2α secretion, through an intracellular mechanism that is still unknown.


      PubDate: 2016-02-20T13:06:37Z
       
  • Increased expression of pentraxin 3 after in vivo and in vitro stimulation
           with gonadotropins in porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes and granulosa cells
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): E. Nagyova, J. Kalous, L. Nemcova
      It has been previously shown that multimeric pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a key component of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix (ECM) in mice. In response to the ovulatory LH surge, the cumulus cells assemble a unique ECM that envelopes the oocyte and cumulus cell complex. Importantly, cumuli from PTX3-/- mice were defective in their ECM organization and their fertility was impaired. It has been demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) catalyzes the formation of heavy chains of (inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor) -hyaluronan complexes and these are then cross-linked via PTX3. This process is tightly regulated, and requires the proteins to meet/interact in the correct order. Finally, in this way the above-listed proteins form the cumulus oophorus ECM. We investigated whether PTX3 is expressed in the porcine preovulatory follicle. Porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC) and mural granulosa cells (MGC) from gilts were obtained either after stimulation in vivo with eCG/ hCG (4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 h) or culture in vitro (4, 24 and 44 h) in FSH/LH-supplemented medium. The methods performed were real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunostaining. The expression of PTX3 transcripts was significantly increased 24 h after either in vivo hCG stimulation or in vitro FSH/LH treatment in both OCC and MGC. Western blot analysis with PTX3 antibody revealed that not only matrix extracts from in vivo stimulated gilts contain high levels of PTX3 protein, but also matrix extracts of FSH/LH-stimulated OCC cultured in medium supplemented either with follicular fluid or with porcine serum. The localization of PTX3 in the cumulus oocyte complex was confirmed by immunostaining. In conclusion, PTX3 is produced by porcine OCC and mural granulosa cells both in vivo and in vitro with gonadotropin stimuli inducing cumulus expansion.


      PubDate: 2016-02-20T13:06:37Z
       
  • Expression analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 4 between fat and lean
           birds in adipose tissue and serum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): B.H. Cheng, L. Leng, M.Q. Wu, Q. Zhang, X.Y. Zhang, S.S. Xu, Z.P. Cao, Y.M. Li, P. Luan, H. Li
      The objectives of the current study were to characterize the tissue expression of chicken (Gallus gallus) bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and compare differences in its expression in abdominal fat tissue and serum between fat and lean birds, and to determine a potential relationship between the expression of BMP4 and abdominal fat tissue growth and development. The results showed that chicken BMP4 mRNA and protein were expressed in various tissues, and the expression level of BMP4 transcript and protein was relatively higher in adipose tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 in abdominal fat tissue of fat males were lower than that of lean males at 1, 2, 5 and 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the serum BMP4 content of fat males was lower than that of lean males at 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in preadipocytes than in mature adipocytes (P < 0.05), and the expression level decreased during differentiation in vitro (P < 0.05). These results suggested that chicken BMP4 might affect abdominal fat deposition through differences in its expression level. The results of this study will provide basic molecular information for studying the role of BMP4 in the regulation of adipogenesis in avian species.


      PubDate: 2016-02-01T12:11:52Z
       
  • Effects of steroid treatment on growth, nutrient partitioning, and
           expression of genes related to growth and nutrient metabolism in adult
           triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): B.M. Cleveland, G.M. Weber
      The contribution of sex steroids to nutrient partitioning and energy balance during gonad development was studied in rainbow trout. Specifically, 19-mo old triploid (3N) female rainbow trout were fed treatment diets supplemented with estradiol-17β (E2), testosterone (T), or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at 30 mg steroid/kg diet for a 1-mo period. Growth performance, nutrient partitioning, and expression of genes central to growth and nutrient metabolism were compared to 3N and age-matched diploid (2N) female fish consuming a control diet not supplemented with steroids. Only 2N fish exhibited active gonad development, with gonad weights (GSI) increasing from 3.7% to 5.5% of body weight throughout the study while GSI in 3N fish remained at 0.03%. Triploid fish consuming DHT exhibited faster specific growth rates than 3N controls (P < 0.05). Consumption of E2 in 3N fish reduced fillet growth and caused lower fillet yield compared to all other treatment groups (P < 0.05). In contrast, viscera fat gain was not affected by steroid consumption (P > 0.05). Gene transcripts associated with physiological pathways were identified in maturing 2N and E2-treated 3N fish that differed in abundance from 3N control fish (P < 0.05). In liver these mechanisms included the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis (igf1, igf2), IGF binding proteins (igfbp1b1, igfbp2b1, igfbp5b1, igfbp6b1), and genes associated with lipid binding and transport (fabp3, fabp4, lpl, cd36), fatty acid oxidation (cpt1a), and the pparg transcription factor. In muscle these mechanisms included reductions in myogenic gene expression (fst, myog) and the proteolysis-related gene, ctsl, suggesting an E2-induced reduction in the capacity for muscle growth. These findings suggest that increased E2 signaling in the sexually maturing female rainbow trout alters physiological pathways in liver, particularly those related to IGF signaling and lipid metabolism, to partition nutrients away from muscle growth towards support of maturation-related processes. In contrast, the mobilization of viscera lipid stores appear to be mediated less by E2 and more by energy demands associated with gonad development. These findings improve understanding of how steroids regulate nutrient metabolism to meet the high energy demands associated with gonad development during sexual maturation.


      PubDate: 2016-01-28T12:02:36Z
       
  • Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their
           association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency,
           and body composition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): A.P. Foote, R.G. Tait, D.H. Keisler, K.E. Hales, H.C. Freetly
      The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual DMI and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations was greater in heifers than steers on day 0 (P < 0.001 for sex by day interaction) and leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but was not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all three time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006) while the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3 % of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all three time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with G:F and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in RFI (≤ 3.2 % of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th-rib and over the rump (P < 0.001), with the mean leptin concentration explaining 21.9 % and 12.7 % of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6 % of the variance for 12th rib fat thickness, YG, and marbling score, respectively. Given these and previous results, it appears that leptin physiology could be a candidate for mechanisms that contribute to feed intake and feed efficiency variation in beef cattle.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T09:23:37Z
       
  • Ovarian follicle development in vitro and oocyte competence: advances and
           challenges for farm animals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J.R.V. Silva, R. van den Hurk, J.R. Figueiredo
      During the last two decades, research on in vitro preantral follicle growth and oocyte maturation has delivered fascinating advances concerning the knowledge of processes regulating follicle growth and the developmental competence of oocytes. These advances include: (1) information about the role of several hormones and growth factors on in vitro activation of primordial follicles; (2) increased understanding of the intracellular pathway involved in the initiation of primordial follicle growth, (3) the growth of primary and secondary follicles up to antral stages, and (4) production of embryos from oocytes from in vitro grown preantral follicles. This review paper describes these advances, especially in regard farm animals, and discusses the reasons that limit embryo production from oocytes derived from preantral follicles cultured in vitro.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T09:23:37Z
       
  • Plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin are associated with average daily
           gain and feeding behavior in grow-finish pigs1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): C.A. Lents, T.M. Brown-Brandl, G.A. Rohrer, W.T. Oliver, B.A. Freking
      The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of sex, sire line, and litter size on concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and total ghrelin in plasma of grow-finish pigs, and to understand the relationship of plasma concentrations of ghrelin with feeding behavior, average daily gain (ADG), and back fat (BF) in grow-finish swine. Yorkshire-Landrace crossbred dams were inseminated with semen from Yorkshire, Landrace, or Duroc sires. Within 24 h of birth, pigs were cross-fostered into litter sizes of normal (N; > 12 pigs/litter) or small (S; ≤ 9 pigs/litter). At 8 wk of age, pigs (n = 240) were blocked by sire breed, sex, and litter size and assigned to pens (n = 6) containing commercial feeders modified with a system to monitor feeding behavior. Total time eating, number of daily meals, and duration of meals were recorded for each individual pig. Body weight (BW) was recorded every 4 wk. Back fat and loin eye area (LEA) were recorded at the conclusion of the 12-wk feeding study. A blood sample was collected at week 7 of the study to quantify concentrations of acyl- and total ghrelin in plasma. Pigs from S litters weighed more (P < 0.05) and tended (P = 0.07) to be fatter than pigs from N litters. Postnatal litter size did not affect ADG, feeding behavior, or concentrations of ghrelin in plasma during the grow-finish phase. Barrows spent more time eating (P < 0.001) than gilts but the number of meals and concentrations of ghrelin did not differ with sex of the pig. Pigs from Duroc and Yorkshire sires had lesser (P < 0.0001) concentrations of acyl-ghrelin than pigs from Landrace sires, but plasma concentrations of total ghrelin were not affected by sire breed. Concentrations of acyl-ghrelin were positively correlated with the number of meals and negatively correlated with meal length and ADG (P < 0.05). A larger number of short-duration meals may indicate that pigs with greater concentrations of acyl-ghrelin consumed less total feed, which likely explains why they were leaner and grew more slowly. Acyl-ghrelin is involved in regulating feeding behavior in pigs, and measuring acyl-ghrelin is important when trying to understand the role of this hormone in swine physiology.


      PubDate: 2016-01-05T08:15:32Z
       
  • Concentrations of progesterone, a metabolite of PGF2α, prolactin, and
           LH during development of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in mares
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): O.J. Ginther, J.M. Baldrighi, T. Castro, C.A. Wolf, V.G. Santos
      In experiment 1, daily blood samples were available from Days 0 to 20 (Day 0 = ovulation) in mares with an interovulatory interval (IOI, n=5) and in mares that developed idiopathic persistent corpus luteum (PCL, n=5). The PCL was confirmed by maintenance of progesterone (P4) concentration until end of the experiment (Day 20). Significant interactions of group and day revealed the novel findings that LH was lower (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than in the IOI group on Days 0 to 4, and prolactin was lower (P < 0.05) on Days 1, 4, 6, and 7. In experiment 2, treatment with a GnRH antagonist (n=6) significantly reduced LH on Days 1 to 6 compared to the controls (n=6) but did not support the hypothesis that low LH during the postovulatory period increases the frequency of PCL. In experiment 3, P4, PGFM (a PGF2α metabolite), and prolactin concentrations on Days 12 to 20 from 2 reported experiments were combined to increase the number of mares with an IOI (n=11) or a PCL (n=11). An abrupt and complete decrease in P4 (luteolysis) began on Day 13 in the IOI group compared to a gradual and partial P4 decline after Day 12 in the PCL group. Concentrations of PGFM and prolactin were lower (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than in the IOI group on the day at the end of the most pronounced decrease in P4. The PCL mares were subgrouped into those with an abrupt but incomplete P4 decrease (partial luteolysis; n=5) at the expected time and those without partial luteolysis (n=6). There were no significant differences between the 2 subgroups in concentrations of PGFM and prolactin, but on a tentative basis (P < 0.10) concentration of PGFM seemed more focused on the day of the most pronounced decrease in P4 in the subgroup with partial luteolysis. Results for PCL compared to IOI indicated: (1) postovulatory LH and prolactin were lower, (2) treatment to reduce postovulatory LH did not increase the incidence, and (3) both PGFM and prolactin were lower on the day of the most pronounced decrease in P4.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T04:42:24Z
       
 
 
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