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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 188 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences     Open Access  

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Journal Cover   Domestic Animal Endocrinology
  [SJR: 0.75]   [H-I: 50]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-7240
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2589 journals]
  • Environmental heat stress modulates thyroid status and its response to
           repeated endotoxin challenge in steers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): S. Kahl , T.H. Elsasser , R.P. Rhoads , R.J. Collier , L.H. Baumgard
      The objective of this study was to evaluate in cattle, the effects of acute exposure to a heat stress (HS) environment on the status of the pituitary (thyrotropin, TSH) – thyroid (thyroxine, T4) – peripheral tissue T4 deiodination (type 1 5’-deiodinase, D1; triiodothyronine, T3; reverse-triiodothyronine, rT3) axis and the further response of this pituitary-thyroid-peripheral tissue axis (PTTA) to perturbation caused by the induction of the proinflammatory innate immune state provoked by the administration of Gram-negative bacteria endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Ten steers (318 ± 49 kg BW) housed in controlled environment chambers were subjected to either a thermoneutral (TN: constant 19°C) or HS temperature conditions (cyclical daily temperatures: 32.2 to 40.0°C) for a total period of 9 d. In order to minimize the effects of altered plane of nutrition due to HS, steers in TN were pair-fed to animals in HS conditions. Steers received two LPS challenges 3 d apart (LPS1 and LPS2; 0.2 μg/kg BW, intravenously, Escherichia Coli 055:B5) with the first challenge administered on d 4 relative to the start of the environmental conditioning. Jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 24 h relative to the start of each LPS challenge. Plasma TSH, T4, T3, and rT3 were measured by RIA. Liver D1 activity was measured in biopsy samples collected before the LPS1 (0 h) and 24 h after LPS2. Before the start of LPS1, HS decreased (P < 0.01 vs. TN) plasma TSH (40%), T4 (45.4%), and T3 (25.9%), but did not affect rT3 concentrations. In TN steers, the LPS1 challenge decreased (P < 0.01 vs. 0 h) plasma concentrations of TSH between 1 and 7 h and T4 and T3 at 7 and 24 h. In HS steers, plasma TSH concentrations were decreased at 2 h only (P < 0.05), while plasma T3 was decreased at 7 and 24 h (P < 0.01). Whereas plasma T4 concentrations were already depressed in HS steers at 0 h, LPS1 did not further affect the levels. Plasma rT3 concentrations were increased in all steers at 4, 7, and 24 h after LPS1 (P < 0.01). The patterns of concentration change of T4, T3, and rT3 during LPS2 mirrored those observed in LPS1; the responses in plasma TSH were of smaller magnitude than those incurred after LPS1. The LPS challenges reduced (P < 0.01) hepatic activity of D1 in all animals but no differences were observed between steers subjected to TN or HS environment. The data are consistent with the concept that acute exposure of cattle to a HS environment results in the depression of the pituitary and thyroid components of the PTTA while a normal capacity to generate T3 from T4 in the liver is preserved. The data also suggest that LPS challenge further suppresses all components of the PTTA including liver T3 generation and these PTTA perturbations are more pronounced in steers that encounter a HS exposure.


      PubDate: 2015-03-01T02:19:05Z
       
  • Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor system in
           porcine oviducts after induction of ovulation and superovulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): I. Małysz-Cymborska , A. Andronowska
      This study was performed to determine the influence of insemination as well as treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system in porcine oviducts. In the first experiment, 10 gilts were assigned to 2 groups: cyclic (treated with phosphate-buffered saline; n = 5) and inseminated (n = 5). In experiment II, 15 gilts were assigned to 3 groups: inseminated (control; n = 5), induced ovulation and inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n = 5), and superovulated and inseminated (1500 IU eCG, 1000 IU hCG; n = 5). Oviducts (isthmus and ampulla) were collected 3 days after phosphate-buffered saline treatment (experiment I) or insemination. Blood samples were collected during slaughter for E2 (estradiol) and P4 (progesterone) analysis. Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) of the VEGF system were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein by Western blot and E2 and P4 using radioimmunoassays. Insemination by itself decreased VEGF 120 mRNA expression and VEGF-A protein level in the oviductal isthmus (P < 0.05) but did not alter VEGF 164 mRNA. Expression of Flt-1 (c-fms-like tyrosine kinase VEGFR-1) mRNA increased in the isthmus of inseminated relative to cyclic gilts (P < 0.05), whereas KDR (fetal liver kinase-1 VEGFR-2) mRNA levels decreased in both the oviductal isthmus (P < 0.05) and ampulla (P < 0.001). Superovulation decreased VEGF 120 and VEGF 164 mRNA expression in the isthmus compared with the inseminated group (P < 0.05), and lowered protein levels of VEGF-A in the isthmus of both stimulated groups (P < 0.001). Expression of Flt-1 mRNA was affected by hCG and eCG treatment in both gonadotropin-stimulated groups in the isthmus as well as in the ampulla (P < 0.001) and protein levels in the ampulla of superovulated gilts (P < 0.05). Protein levels of KDR were reduced in the oviductal ampulla of gilts in both the induced ovulation and superovulated groups (P < 0.05). The concentrations of both E2 and P4 increased significantly in superovulated group of gilts (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 for E2 and P4, respectively). Our study showed that insemination alone as well as ovarian stimulation affected the mRNA and protein profiles of the VEGF system in the porcine oviduct. Disrupted VEGF system expression may be crucial to many events occurring during the periovulatory period and consequently could lead to deprivation of VEGF-dependent factors that are necessary for proper fertilization, gamete transport, and embryo development.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Temporal dynamic of adrenocortical and gonadal photo-responsiveness in
           male Japanese quail exposed to short days
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): M.F. Dominchin , R.H. Marin , R. Palme , J.M. Busso
      The study evaluated whether different short-term endocrine testicular and adrenocortical responses to short photoperiod exposure can persist over time and particularly when birds exhibit spontaneous cloacal gland recovery. At 11 wk of age, 33 male Japanese quail exposed to long photoperiod were switched to short photoperiod (8L:16D). Another group of males was kept under long photoperiod (n = 11; LD quail). After 5 wk of short photoperiod exposure, quail were classified as nonresponsive or responsive to short photoperiod, depending on whether the cloacal gland volume was above or below 1,000 mm3 and with or without foam production, respectively. Since 11 wk of age and during a 20-wk period, droppings of all quail were collected to determine corticosterone and androgen metabolites (AM) by enzyme immunoassays. Cloacal gland volume was also determined weekly. Both short photoperiod nonresponsive (SD-NR) and responsive quail showed overall significantly lower (P < 0.01) AM values (518.8 ± 11.9 and 248.6 ± 17.1 ng/g, respectively) than quail that remained under long photoperiod (814.3 ± 24.1 ng/g). However, nonresponsive quail showed a significantly smaller reduction in their AM levels than their responsive counterparts. During the first 6 wk of short photoperiod exposure, SD-NR quail showed similar corticosterone metabolites values than LD quail. Corticosterone metabolite profiles changed from 7 wk of short photoperiod exposure onward, with photoperiodic differences (P < 0.01) persisting up to the end of study (LD: 228.9 ± 22.4 > SD-NR: 133.1 ± 15.5 > short photoperiod responsive: 61.6 ± 17.9 ng/g, respectively). Testicular and adrenocortical glands showed different degrees of activity associated with cloacal gland photoresponsiveness to short photoperiod manipulation. Our findings suggest long-term effects of short photoperiod, both in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity of quail, including males that exhibited spontaneous cloacal gland recovery.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49




      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49




      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in canine cortisol-secreting
           adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenals
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): S. Galac , M.M.J. Kool , M.F. van den Berg , J.A. Mol , H.S. Kooistra
      We report on a screening for the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in normal canine adrenals (n = 10) and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors (11 adenomas and 26 carcinomas). The relative mRNA expression of SF-1 was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and revealed no differences between normal adrenals, adenomas, and carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated SF-1 protein expression in a nuclear pattern throughout the normal adrenal cortex and a predominantly nuclear staining pattern in adrenocortical tumors. Of the 15 dogs available for follow up, 7 dogs developed hypercortisolism within 2.5 yr after adrenalectomy, with metastatic disease in 6 dogs and adrenocortical tumor regrowth in 1 dog. The relative SF-1 mRNA expression in dogs with early recurrence was greater (2.46-fold, P = 0.020) than in dogs in remission for at least 2.5 yr after adrenalectomy. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of SF-1 expression in normal canine adrenals and adrenocortical tumors. The high SF-1 mRNA expression in carcinomas with early recurrence might indicate its value as a prognostic marker, as well as its potential for therapeutic development.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Effects of sitagliptin on plasma incretin concentrations after glucose
           administration through an esophagostomy tube or feeding in healthy cats
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): N. Nishii , S. Takashima , A. Iguchi , Y. Murahata , A. Matsuu , Y. Hikasa , H. Kitagawa
      We investigated the effect of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on plasma incretin concentrations after glucose administration through an esophagostomy tube or feeding in healthy cats. Six cats were used for the glucose administration experiment and 5 cats were used for the feeding experiment. Glucose administration through an esophagostomy tube increased plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations by 6-fold, whereas plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations did not change. Feeding increased both plasma GLP-1 concentrations by 1.5-fold and GIP concentrations by 4.6-fold. Sitagliptin was administered through an esophagostomy tube (25 and 50 mg per cat) in the glucose administration experiment and orally (25 mg per cat) in the feeding experiment. Sitagliptin treatment potentiated the GLP-1 response to glucose by 1.5-fold (P < 0.05). In addition, postprandial plasma GLP-1 concentration was higher by 2-fold when sitagliptin was administered (P < 0.05). In contrast, administration of sitagliptin did not affect plasma GIP concentrations after glucose administration or feeding. Sitagliptin enhanced insulin secretion following glucose administration by 1.5-fold (P < 0.05); however, it did not influence the plasma glucose concentration. Furthermore, sitagliptin had no effect on the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. In conclusion, this study provides no evidence that sitagliptin is beneficial for management of feline diabetes mellitus.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Obituary
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50




      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Sex differences in the expression of estrogen receptor alpha within
           noradrenergic neurons in the sheep brain stem
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): J.L. Rose , A.S. Hamlin , C.J. Scott
      In female sheep, high levels of estrogen exert a positive feedback action on gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion to stimulate a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Part of this action appears to be via brain stem noradrenergic neurons. By contrast, estrogen action in male sheep has a negative feedback action to inhibit GnRH and LH secretion. To investigate whether part of this sex difference is due to differences in estrogen action in the brain stem, we tested the hypothesis that the distribution of estrogen receptor α (ERα) within noradrenergic neurons in the brain stem differs between rams and ewes. To determine the distribution of ERα, we used double-label fluorescence immunohistochemistry for dopamine β-Hydroxylase, as a marker for noradrenergic and adrenergic cells, and ERα. In the ventrolateral medulla (A1 region), most ERα-immunoreactive (-ir) cells were located in the caudal part of the nucleus. Overall, there were more ERα-ir cells in rams than ewes, but the proportion of double-labeled cells was did not differ between sexes. Much greater numbers of ERα–ir cells were found in the nucleus of the solitary tract (A2 region), but <10% were double labeled and there were no sex differences. The majority of ERα-labeled cells in this nucleus was located in the more rostral areas. ERα-labeled cells were found in several rostral brain stem regions but none of these were double labeled and so were not quantified. Because there was no sex difference in the number of ERα-ir cells in the brain stem that were noradrenergic, the sex difference in the action of estrogen on gonadotropin secretion in sheep is unlikely to involve actions on brain stem noradrenergic cells.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Modulation of periovulatory endocrine profiles in beef cows: consequences
           for endometrial glucose transporters and uterine fluid glucose levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): M.R. França , F.S. Mesquita , E. Lopes , G. Pugliesi , V. Van Hoeck , M.R. Chiaratti , C.B. Membrive , P.C. Papa , M. Binelli
      In beef cattle, proestrus estradiol and subsequent progesterone (P4) concentrations can regulate the endometrial characteristics and thereby determine maternal receptivity toward the embryo. However, the underlying mechanisms linking periovulatory endocrine profiles to receptivity, which is crucial to obtain pregnancy, need to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the size of the preovulatory follicle (POF) and subsequent circulating P4 concentrations, during early diestrus, modulate endometrial levels of glucose transporter transcripts and proteins, and subsequently affect the luminal glucose availability in the uterus. Therefore, follicle growth of Nelore cows was manipulated, and cows were assigned to 2 experimental groups: (1) large follicle and large corpus luteum (LF-LCL) group with a large POF and corpus luteum (CL); and (2) small follicle and small corpus luteum (SF-SCL) group with a small POF and CL. At day 7 post gonadotropin-releasing hormone induced ovulation (gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment = day 0), animals were slaughtered (n = 18 per group), and uterine tissues and washings were collected for characterization of glucose transporters and glucose levels, respectively. The diameter of POF was larger (P < 0.05) in the LF-LCL cows compared with their SF-SCL counterparts (12.8 ± 0.4 vs 11.1 ± 0.4 mm). Furthermore, CL size (17.49 ± 0.88 vs 14.48 ± 0.52 mm) and circulating P4 concentrations at day 7 (4.5 ± 1.0 vs 3.3 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the LF-LCL cows compared with the SF-SCL cows. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in gene expression patterns of SLC2A1, SLC2A3, SLC2A4, SLC2A5, SLC5A1, ATP1A2, ATP1B2, and SLC37A4. However, the protein abundance of endometrial SLC2A1was increased in the LF-LCL group compared with the SF-SCL group (P < 0.05). SLC2A1 and SLC2A4 protein products were mainly identified at the endometrial luminal and glandular epithelium membranes as well as in the endometrial stroma. Glucose concentrations in uterine washings were similar between groups. In conclusion, we provided information on the potential link between endocrine profiles and glucose transport pathways in the bovine endometrium. More specifically, our data reveal that the size of the POF, and subsequent P4 concentrations, do not functionally affect the main endometrial glucose transporter pathways or uterine fluid glucose concentrations during diestrus.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Relationship between plasma and tissue corticosterone in laying hens
           (Gallus gallus domesticus): implications for stress physiology and animal
           welfare
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): C.R. Ralph , P.H. Hemsworth , B.J. Leury , A.J. Tilbrook
      This study directly compared the dynamics of change in plasma corticosterone concentration with the dynamics of change in tissue corticosterone concentration in laying hens. In concert, we measured the rate of gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and heart. We evaluated these changes acutely, over 3 h in response to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection, and chronically, over 24 h in response to food and water deprivation. In response to ACTH injection, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma corticosterone concentration and a parallel significant increase in corticosterone concentration in the skeletal muscle, kidney, and heart. However, the change in corticosterone concentration in the liver did not parallel the plasma, at times it was greater than the plasma, and there was a second significant increase (P < 0.05) in corticosterone concentration in the liver after 180 min. Under these conditions, the rate of gluconeogenesis in the liver decreased and the rate of glycogenesis increased. In contrast, after 12 h and 24 h of food and water deprivation plasma corticosterone concentration was increased, and this was paralleled by increased corticosterone concentration in the liver, an increase in the rate of gluconeogenesis and a decrease in the rate of glycogenesis. After ACTH injection, glucose concentration in the liver was not significantly depleted but after 12 h or 24 h of food and water deprivation it was significantly depleted (P < 0.05). Plasma corticosterone concentration provided different insight into the effect of the stressor on hen physiology under acute and chronic conditions. Our data suggest that extending our evaluation of stress to the site of corticosterone action, that is, the target tissue, may enhance our ability to evaluate stress and the welfare of laying hens.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a
           low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet
           ad libitum for 8 wk
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): M. Coradini , J.S. Rand , J.M. Morton , J.M. Rawlings
      Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R 2 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R 2 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators change leukotriene B4 and leukotriene
           C4 synthesis and secretion in an inflamed porcine endometrium
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): J. Czarzasta , A. Andronowska , B. Jana
      We studied the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α] and interleukin [IL]-1β), and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) on leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase (LTCS) protein expression in, and LTB4 and LTC4 secretion from, an inflamed porcine endometrium. On day 3 of the estrous cycle (day 0 of the study), 50 mL of either saline or Escherichia coli suspension (109 CFU/mL) was injected into each uterine horn of gilts (n = 12 per group). Endometrial explants, obtained 8 and 16 days later, were incubated for 24 h with LPS (10 or 100 ng/mL of medium), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10 (each cytokine: 1 or 10 ng/mL of medium). Although acute endometritis developed in all bacteria-inoculated gilts, a severe form of acute endometritis was diagnosed more often on day 8 of the study than on day 16. The amount of the LTA4 hydrolase (LTAH) protein in the inflamed endometrium on day 8 was greater after applying the lower dose of TNF-α (P < 0.001) and both doses of IL-1β (P < 0.001) and IL-4 (1 ng, P < 0.01 and 10 ng, P < 0.001) than in the saline-treated uteri. A similar situation was observed in the case of the inflamed tissue on day 16 in response to LPS (100 ng, P < 0.01), TNF-α (10 ng, P < 0.05), and IL-4 (1 ng, P < 0.001). The content of LTC4 synthase in the inflamed endometrium on day 8 was reduced by LPS (100 ng, P < 0.05), IL-1β (10 ng, P < 0.05), IL-4 (1 and 10 ng, P < 0.05), and IL-10 (1 ng, P < 0.01) but increased after the application of LPS (100 ng, P < 0.05) and TNF-α (1 and 10 ng, P < 0.001), IL-1β, and IL-4 (1 ng, P < 0.05 and 10 ng, P < 0.001) on day 16. On day 8, endometrial secretion of LTB4 from the saline-injected and E coli-injected organs was similar in response to all of the used mediators. On the other hand, the contents of LTB4 in the medium decreased after incubating the inflamed tissues from day 16 with TNF-α (1 ng, P < 0.05 and 10 ng, P < 0.01), IL-1β (1 ng, P < 0.01), and IL-10 (10 ng, P < 0.05) compared with the saline-treated ones. Secretion of LTC4 from the inflamed uteri on day 8 was elevated by the lower doses of TNF-α (P < 0.01) and IL-10 (P < 0.05), whereas on day 16, such an effect occurred in response to the higher doses of IL-4 (P < 0.01) and IL-10 (P < 0.05). The obtained results show that pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators participate in the synthesis/secretion of LTs from an inflamed porcine endometrium. Our data suggest that inflammatory mediators may indirectly affect the processes regulated by LTs by influencing LT production.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor A improves quality of matured porcine
           oocytes and developing parthenotes
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): M. Kere , C. Siriboon , J.W. Liao , N.W. Lo , H.I. Chiang , Y.K. Fan , J.P. Kastelic , J.C. Ju
      Vascular endothelial growth factor is a multipotent angiogenic factor implicated in cell survival and proliferation. The objective was to determine effects of exogenous recombinant human VEGFA (or VEGFA165) in culture media on porcine oocyte maturation and parthenote development. Adding 5 ng/mL VEGFA to the culture medium improved the maturation rate of denuded oocytes (P < 0.05), although 5, 50, or 500 ng/mL did not significantly affect nuclear maturation of oocytes. Parthenotes from oocytes cultured either in in vitro maturation or in vitro culture medium supplemented with 5 or 50 ng/mL VEGFA had an improved blastocyst rate and increased total numbers of cells (P < 0.05). Moreover, those treated with 5 ng/mL of VEGFA had a higher hatched blastocyst rate (average of 121 cells per blastocyst). All VEGFA-treated oocytes had reduced apoptotic indices (P < 0.05), except for those with a higher dose (500 ng/mL) of VEGFA which had more apoptotic cells (P < 0.05). Adding 5 ng/mL VEGFA to oocytes during the last 22 h of in vitro maturation improved (P < 0.05) blastocyst rates and total numbers of cells, with reduced apoptosis indices similar to that of long-term (44 h) culture. Furthermore, Axitinib (VEGFR inhibitor) reversed the effects of VEGFA on parthenote development (P < 0.05). Follicular fluids from medium (2–6 mm) to large (>6 mm) follicles contained 5.3 and 7.0 ng/mL vascular endothelial growth factor protein, respectively, higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations in small (<2 mm) follicles (0.4 ng/mL). Also, VEGFA and its receptor (VEGFR-2) were detected (immunohistochemistry) in growing follicles and developing blastocysts. In addition, VEGFA inhibited caspase-3 activation in matured oocytes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this is apparently the first report that VEGFA has proliferative and cytoprotective roles in maturing porcine oocytes and parthenotes. Furthermore, an optimal VEGFA concentration promoted porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent development.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Expression of variant transcripts of the potassium channel tetramerization
           domain-containing 15 (KCTD15) gene and their association with fatness
           traits in chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): S.S. Liang , H.J. Ouyang , J. Liu , B. Chen , Q.H. Nie , X.Q. Zhang
      The aim of this study was to characterize the structure, expression, and biological functions of potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15 (KCTD15) in chickens. We compared the KCTD15 expression level in samples of hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens that were maintained on different dietary status. An association analysis of KCTD15 gene variant transcripts with fatness traits in a F2 resource population of chickens was performed. Three KCTD15 transcripts were identified in which the complete transcript was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue and the hypothalamus. The chicken KCTD15 gene was regulated by both feeding and fasting and consumption of a high-fat diet. The expression level of KCTD15 gene was markedly decreased in hypothalamus and liver of fasted and refed chickens (P < 0.05) and significantly downregulated in adipose tissue by the high-fat diet (P < 0.05). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the KCTD15 gene were significantly associated with a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). These results suggest that KCTD15 have a potential role regulation of obesity and fat metabolism in chickens.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Poor maternal nutrition during gestation in sheep reduces circulating
           concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth
           factor binding protein-3 in offspring
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): M.L. Hoffman , M.A. Rokosa , S.A. Zinn , T.A. Hoagland , K.E. Govoni
      To determine if poor maternal nutrition alters growth, body composition, circulating growth factors, and expression of genes involved in the development of muscle and adipose of offspring, 24 Dorset and Shropshire ewes were fed either 100% (control fed), 60% (restricted fed), or 126% (over fed) of National Research Council requirements. Diets began at day 116 ± 6 of gestation until parturition. At parturition, 1 lamb from each control fed (CON), restricted fed (RES), and over fed (OVER) ewe was necropsied within 24 h of birth (1 d; n = 3/treatment) or reared on a control diet for 3 mo (CON = 5, RES = 5, and OVER = 3/treatment) and then euthanized. Body weights and blood samples were collected from lambs from 1 d to 3 mo. Organ weights, back fat thickness, loin eye area, and tissue samples (quadriceps, adipose, and liver) were collected at 1 d and 3 mo of age. The RES lambs weighed 16% less than CON (P = 0.01) between 1 d and 3 mo of age. In RES, there was a tendency for reduced heart girth at 1 d and 3 mo (P < 0.07) and back fat was reduced 36% at 3 mo (P = 0.03). Heart weight was 30% greater in OVER at 1 d when compared with RES lambs (P = 0.02). Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were reduced in RES and OVER lambs (P < 0.05). Leptin tended to be greater in OVER lambs compared with CON at 1 d and 3 mo (P ≤ 0.08). Triiodothyronine was reduced in RES at 1 d (P = 0.05) and triglycerides tended to be greater in OVER at 3 mo (P = 0.07). In liver, there was a tendency for increased expression of IGF-I in OVER (P = 0.06) and decreased IGFBP-3 in RES (P = 0.09) compared with CON lambs at 1 d. In adipose tissue, adiponectin expression was decreased in RES (P = 0.05) at 3 mo. At 1 d of age, muscle expression of IGF-I tended to increase in RES (P = 0.06). In conclusion, poor maternal nutrition during gestation reduced growth rate in offspring which may be because of reduced circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and decreased expression of IGFBP-3 in the liver.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken
           leptin receptor in growing chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): M.M. Lei , S.Q. Wu , X.B. Shao , X.W. Li , Z. Chen , S.J. Ying , Z.D. Shi
      In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but feed intake was stimulated by cLEPR ECD immunization (P < 0.05). The treatment also upregulated the gene expression levels of lepR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (ACC2), and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Is the mouse follicle culture a good model for the goat with respect to
           the development of preantral follicles in vitro'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): R.M.P. Rocha , A.M.C.V. Alves , L.F. Lima , A.B.G. Duarte , R.N. Chaves , I.R. Brito , E.C. Costa , M.P. Bernuci , A.C.J.S. Rosa-e-Silva , M. Xu , A.P.R. Rodrigues , C.C. Campello , J.R. Figueiredo
      The present study evaluated the efficiency of using 2 culture media developed for mice and for goats in the in vitro preantral follicle culture of each species. Murine and caprine secondary follicles were cultured in vitro with human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (murine medium) or with bovine recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone in association with growth hormone (caprine medium). The results showed that murine follicles cultured in caprine medium had lower (P < 0.05) rates of follicular survival and growth, whereas for caprine follicles, these variables were not affected by the type of medium used (P > 0.05). After in vitro maturation, a higher (P < 0.05) number of oocytes that resumed meiosis were observed in the murine medium for both species. In contrast, only in the caprine species estradiol production was significantly superior when the caprine medium was used. Higher progesterone production was observed in the presence of the murine medium only for murine follicles (P < 0.05). In conclusion, murine and caprine preantral follicles cultured under the same in vitro culture medium conditions respond differently; caprine oocytes grown in vitro in the presence of the murine medium show the greatest developmental competence among the tested combinations. Therefore, under the present experimental conditions, the mouse follicle culture has proved be a good model for the development of new culture media for caprine preantral follicles.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Hepatic steroid metabolizing enzyme activity during early, mid, and late
           bovine pregnancy
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): C.G. Hart , L.E. Camacho , K.C. Swanson , K.A. Vonnahme , C.O. Lemley
      The objective was to examine hepatic steroid inactivating enzymes throughout gestation and determine the effect of early to mid-gestation maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation on the activity of these enzymes. On day 30 of gestation, cows were assigned to dietary treatments: control (CON; 100% National Research Council; n = 18) and restricted (RES; 60% National Research Council; n = 30). On day 85, cows were slaughtered (CON, n = 6 and RES, n = 6), remained on control (CC, n = 12) and restricted (RR, n = 12), or were realimented to control (RC, n = 11). On day 140, cows were slaughtered (CC, n = 6; RR, n = 6; RC, n = 5), remained on control (CCC, n = 6; RCC, n = 5), or were realimented to control (RRC, n = 6). On day 254, all remaining cows were slaughtered. Jugular blood samples were collected before the slaughter for steroid analysis. At slaughter, maternal liver samples were collected for hepatic enzyme activity analysis. Activity of cytochrome P450 3A decreased (P = 0.05) from mid- to late-gestation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha DNA binding activity was increased (P < 0.01) on day 140 and 254 of gestation vs day 85. Concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) increased (P < 0.01) as gestation proceeded, whereas progesterone concentrations (P4) tended to increase (P = 0.06) from mid- to late-gestation. Activity of cytochrome P450 1A and 2C were decreased (P < 0.05) in nutrient restricted cows vs control, whereas concentrations of E2 were increased (P < 0.05) in nutrient restricted cows vs control. A longer period of nutrient realimentation from mid- to late-gestation increased (P < 0.05) aldo-keto reductase 1C activity and decreased (P < 0.05) P4 concentrations compared with the shorter period of nutrient realimentation. In addition, significant negative correlations were observed for cytochrome P450 3A activity vs E2 (r 2 = −0.30; P < 0.05) and aldo-keto reductase 1C activity vs P4 (r 2 = −0.29; P < 0.05). The present study implicates hepatic steroid inactivation in the partial modulation of peripheral concentrations of E2 and P4 during gestation.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Maternal insulin sensitivity in midpregnancy does not determine birth
           weight after embryo transfer between large and small breed sheep
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): M.H. Oliver , A.L. Jaquiery , P.R. Kenyon , S.J. Pain , C.M. Jenkinson , H.T. Blair , J.G.B. Derraik , F.H. Bloomfield
      Embryo transfer of large sheep breed embryos (Suffolk) into small breed ewes (Cheviot) constrains birth size, but the maternal factors influencing fetal growth restriction are unknown. We hypothesized that reciprocal embryo transfer crosses between breeds of divergent size would affect pregnancy-related development of maternal insulin resistance in midgestation, thereby influencing fetal growth. Following superovulation, embryos were surgically collected 6 d postmating and transferred to recipients on the same day. Between- and within-breed transfers were performed. Between 60 and 70 d of pregnancy overnight-fasted ewes underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps for assessment of insulin sensitivity. Maternal insulin sensitivity did not vary with transferred lamb breed. Overall, Cheviot ewes tended to have higher fasting glucose (P = 0.068), fasting insulin (P = 0.052), and steady-state glucose (P = 0.065) concentrations than Suffolk ewes at the stage of pregnancy studied. As expected, transferred between-breed Suffolk lambs were born lighter (P = 0.014), and transferred between-breed Cheviot lambs tended to be heavier at birth (P = 0.056) than respective lambs transferred within breed. Midgestation insulin sensitivity does not appear to be a major factor constraining growth of large breed sheep fetus transferred into smaller breed or a factor in releasing constraint in growth of a small breed fetus within a larger breed ewe. However, as embryo size is already different between transferred groups by 19 d, factors other than maternal gestational insulin resistance may determine fetal growth in this embryo transfer paradigm.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1, matrix metalloproteinases 2
           and 9, and heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor
           in estradiol-17β-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): E. Kamanga-Sollo , K.J. Thornton , M.E. White , W.R. Dayton
      In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters. Although the positive effects of E2 on rate and efficiency of bovine muscle growth are well established, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Combined E2 and trenbolone acetate implants result in significantly increased muscle satellite cell number in feedlot steers. Additionally, E2 treatment stimulates proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells (BSC). Studies in nonmuscle cells have shown that binding of E2 to G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 results in activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9) resulting in proteolytic release of heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF) from the cell surface. Released hbEGF binds to and activates the epidermal growth factor receptor resulting in increased proliferation. To assess if GPER-1, MMP2/9, and/or hbEGF are involved in the mechanism of E2-stimulated BSC proliferation, we have examined the effects of G36 (a specific inhibitor of GPER-1), CRM197 (a specific inhibitor of hbEGF), and MMP-2/MMP-9 Inhibitor II (an inhibitor of MMP2/9 activity) on E2-stimulated BSC proliferation. Inhibition of GPER-1, MMP2/9, or hbEGF suppresses E2-stimulated BSC proliferation (P < 0.001) suggesting that all these are required in order for E2 to stimulate BSC proliferation. These results strongly suggest that E2 may stimulate BSC proliferation by binding to GPER-1 resulting in MMP2/9-catalyzed release of cell membrane-bound hbEGF and subsequent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by binding of released hbEGF.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Neonatal glucocorticoid overexposure programs pituitary-adrenal function
           in ponies
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): J.K. Jellyman , O.A. Valenzuela , V.L. Allen , A.J. Forhead , N.B. Holdstock , A.L. Fowden
      The present study tested the hypothesis that overexposure to endogenous glucocorticoids in neonatal life alters the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in ponies at 1 and 2 yr of age. Newborn foals received saline (0.9% NaCl, n = 8, control) or long-acting adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH1-24) (Depot Synacthen 0.125 mg intramuscularly twice daily, n = 9) for 5 d after birth to raise cortisol concentrations 5- to 6-fold. At 1 and 2 yr of age, HPA axis function was assessed by bolus administration of short-acting ACTH1-24 (1 μg/kg intravenous) and insulin (0.5 U/kg intravenous) to induce hypoglycemic on separate days. Arterial blood samples were taken at 5 to 30-min intervals before and after drug administration to measure plasma ACTH and/or cortisol concentrations. There were no differences in the basal plasma ACTH or cortisol concentrations or in the cortisol response to exogenous ACTH1-24 with neonatal treatment or age. At 1 and 2 yr of age, the increment in plasma ACTH but not cortisol at 60 min in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was greater in ponies treated neonatally with ACTH than saline (P < 0.05). Neonatal cortisol overexposure induced by neonatal ACTH treatment, therefore, alters functioning of the HPA axis in adult ponies.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • The effects of parity, litter size, physiological state, and milking
           frequency on the metabolic profile of Lacaune dairy ewes
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): E. González-García , A. Tesniere , S. Camous , F. Bocquier , F. Barillet , P. Hassoun
      Effects of parity (primiparous, PRIM vs multiparous, MULT) and litter size (singletons, SING vs twins, TWIN) on metabolic profiles from 1 wk before lambing to the end of lactation were studied in 48 Lacaune dairy ewes reared in confinement during most of the year and grazed on improved pastures at the end of lactation (summer). Another group of 48 ewes was incorporated during the milking period (ie, from 1 wk after weaning), to measure the effects of milking frequency (1 vs 2 milkings per day) on intake, milk production and composition, and body energy usage. Thus, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, ewes (n = 96) were allocated to homogeneous groups according to body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) and were monitored from late pregnancy to late lactation as a function of parity (PRIM, n = 48; MULT, n = 48), litter size (LSi) (SING, n = 40; TWIN, n = 56) and daily milking frequency (FREQ; milked once, ONE; n = 48; or twice, TWO; n = 48). Individual BW, BCS, plasma metabolites, and metabolic hormones were measured regularly (ie, 9 consecutive sampling dates). The BW was higher in MULT but no differences because of LSi or FREQ were detected at the intra-parity group level. The BCS was higher in MULT and in ewes with SING throughout the experiment. The latter was related to the demands for body reserves mobilization, as expressed by higher nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in ewes with TWIN from late pregnancy to weaning (35 d postpartum) in both PRIM and MULT ewes. This was consistent with higher insulin in MULT and higher triiodothyronine, leptin and insulin-like growth factor 1 in ewes with SING during this period. Differences in energy balance because of FREQ were evident after interpretation of plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and leptin concentration during the milking period. At similar feed intakes, ewes in ONE were in positive balance with regard to TWO. Overall, clear effects of parity, LSi, physiological states, and FREQ on metabolic profiles were found because of differences in nutrient partitioning when combining these experimental factors. Without considering FREQ, changes in metabolic measures in milking period were marginal compared with the periparturient adjustments performed until weaning to compensate energy deficiencies.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Effects of oral butyrate application on insulin signaling in various
           tissues of chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): G. Mátis , A. Kulcsár , V. Turowski , H. Fébel , Zs. Neogrády , K. Huber
      The influence of butyrate on insulin signaling in chickens was studied because butyrate is produced during microbial fermentation in the large intestine of birds, and butyrate is widely used as a feed additive in animal production. Ross 308 broiler chickens received a daily intraingluvial bolus of sodium butyrate (0.25 g/kg body weight) on days 20–24 of life (n = 10). Plasma butyrate concentration increased after receiving oral butyrate treatment (P < 0.001). Oral butyrate application was associated with decreased protein expression of insulin receptor β subunit (IRβ) in liver (P = 0.008) and both abdominal (P = 0.003) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (P < 0.001), but with elevated IRβ expression in muscle (P = 0.045), assessed by Western blotting. The quantity of hepatic phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase was reduced in the butyrate-treated group (P = 0.007); further, mammalian target of rapamycin was downregulated by butyrate in liver (P < 0.001) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 0.038). Oral butyrate application provoked reduced systemic insulin sensitivity in chickens, indicated by elevated fasting blood glucose and subsequently, insulin level. However, responses of insulin signaling cascade to butyrate were tissue specific, suggesting that butyrate could act on glucose shifting among tissues by selectively increasing the glucose uptake of skeletal muscle via IRβ upregulation.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction does not necessarily impair insulin
           sensitivity in old horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): L.M. Mastro , A.A. Adams , K.L. Urschel
      Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity in comparison with younger adult horses; however, the difference in insulin sensitivity between horses with PPID and aged-matched controls has not been well characterized. The objective of the study was to determine if aged horses with PPID had reduced insulin sensitivity and alterations in the insulin-mediated signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle when compared with healthy aged horses. Isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedures were conducted in 12 horses that were classified as either PPID (n = 6; age: 25.0 ± 2.5 yr; mean ± standard deviation) or non-PPID, aged-matched controls (control) (n = 6; age: 25.7 ± 2.0 yr). Blood samples were taken before and during the clamp procedures to measure plasma glucose, insulin, and amino acid concentrations, and 2 muscle biopsies were collected from the gluteus medius muscle, one in the basal state and the second at the end of the clamp procedure (insulin-stimulated state). Plasma insulin concentrations increased ∼9-fold during the clamp compared with basal conditions (P < 0.001) in both groups. During the last 30 min of the clamp, the rate of glucose infusion required to maintain isoglycemia in horses with PPID was similar to that in the control horses (P = 0.67). The plasma concentrations of most indispensible amino acids were lower in the insulin-stimulated state than the basal state (P < 0.05). PPID status did not have an effect on the activation of factors associated with protein synthesis and breakdown; however, factors associated with protein synthesis had increased phosphorylation in the insulin-stimulated state, compared with basal. The results from this study provide evidence that PPID is not always associated with impairments in insulin sensitivity.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Characterization of proopiomelanocortin in the snakeskin gourami
           (Trichopodus pectoralis) and its expression in relation to food intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50
      Author(s): S. Boonanuntanasarn , A. Jangprai , G. Yoshizaki
      Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor of several hormones involved in physiological systems including feed intake. The snakeskin gourami (Trichopodus pectoralis) POMC complementary DNA (TpPOMC) was cloned and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that TpPOMC was clustered in a major POMC lineage in fish. Analysis of the K a to K s ratios for the entire POMC sequence and for each hormonal segment suggested that different POMC-derived peptide segments were subject to different evolutionary pressures. High expression level of TpPOMC was observed in all brain regions, with the highest levels in the diencephalon and pituitary gland. In situ hybridization also revealed that TpPOMC-expressing cells were distributed in discrete brain regions. The transcription level of TpPOMC was also found at moderate levels in several peripheral tissues, including gills, liver, head kidney, trunk kidney, stomach, intestine, spleen, ovary and testis, and at a low level in muscle. The expression level of TpPOMC was evaluated in each brain region (telencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and diencephalon together with the pituitary gland) at 1 h before the first and the last meals of the day and compared with expression levels at a time interval between the first and the last meals of the day. Low expression levels of TpPOMC were found at 1 h before the last meal of the day (P < 0.05). These finding suggest that decreased POMC expression level may lead to reduced melanocyte-stimulating hormones, which may in part be responsible for stimulating food intake. The effect of short-term fasting (24 h) on TpPOMC expression level in each brain region was also investigated. In telencephalon and diencephalon together with the pituitary gland, TpPOMC messenger RNA reached a nadir at 12 h of fasting, whereas TpPOMC transcript showed a nadir at 6 h of fasting in metencephalon and mesencephalon. A peak of TpPOMC level was observed at 18 h of fasting in metencephalon and diencephalon together with the pituitary gland. These findings suggest that TpPOMC expression is affected by nutritional status.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50




      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 50




      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Undernutrition regulates the expression of a novel splice variant of
           myostatin and IGF1 in ovine skeletal muscle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): F. Jeanplong , C.C. Osepchook , S.J. Falconer , H.K. Smith , J.J. Bass , C.D. McMahon , J.M. Oldham
      Undernutrition suppresses the growth of skeletal muscles and alters the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a key mitogen, and myostatin, a potent inhibitor of myogenesis. These changes can explain, at least in part, the reduced growth of skeletal muscles in underfed lambs. We have recently identified a myostatin splice variant (MSV) that binds to and antagonizes the canonical signalling of myostatin. In the current study, we hypothesized that expression of MSV would be reduced in conjunction with myostatin and IGF1 in response to underfeeding in skeletal muscles of sheep. Young growing ewes were fed either ad libitum or an energy restricted diet (30% of maintenance requirements) for 28 d. This regime of underfeeding resulted in a 24% reduction in body mass (P < 0.001) and a 36% reduction in the mass of the semitendinosus (ST) muscles relative to controls (P < 0.001) by d 28. The concentrations of MSV and IGF1 mRNA were reduced (both P < 0.001), but myostatin mRNA was not altered in ST muscles. Unlike the reduced expression of mRNA, the abundance of MSV protein was increased (P < 0.05) and there was no change in the abundance of myostatin protein. Our results suggest that undernutrition for 28 d decreases the signalling of myostatin by increasing the abundance of MSV protein. While this action may reduce the growth inhibitory activity of myostatin, it cannot prevent the loss of growth of skeletal muscles during undernutrition.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Molecular characterization and hormonal regulation of tissue inhibitor of
           metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) in goat ovarian granulosa cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J.Y. Peng , P. Han , H.Y. Xin , S.Y. Ji , K.X. Gao , X.P. An , B.Y. Cao
      Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) belongs to a group of endogenous inhibitors that control the activity of matrix metalloproteinases and other metalloproteinases. TIMP1 is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. In this study, the full-length cDNA of goat (Capra hircus) Timp1 was cloned from adult goat ovary for the first time to better understand the regulatory role of TIMP1. The putative TIMP1 protein shared a high amino acid sequence identity with other species. Real-time PCR results showed that Timp1 was widely expressed in adult goat tissues, and mRNA expression was higher in the ovary than in other tissues; meanwhile, increasing expression of Timp1 was also discovered during the process of follicle growth and corpus luteum. We then investigated Timp1 expression patterns in different types of ovarian follicular cells from goats. In small or large antral follicles, Timp1 expression was higher (P < 0.05) in theca cells than in granulosa cells, cumulus cells, and oocytes. Increasing expression of Timp1 in theca and granulosa cells was observed as the variation of the follicle size. Immunohistochemical analyses further revealed the presence of the TIMP1 proteins in follicles at all antral stages of development. The most intense staining for TIMP1 was observed in the theca cells and granulosa cells of large antral follicles and corpus luteum. Timp1 was highly (P < 0.05) induced in granulosa cells in vitro after treatment with the luteinizing hormone (LH) agonist, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Treatments with forskolin (FSK), phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate (PMA), or PMA + FSK could also stimulate Timp1 mRNA expression. The effects of hCG were reduced (P < 0.05) by the inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, MAPK kinase, or p38 kinase, indicating that Timp1 expression could be adjusted by LH-initiated activation of these signaling mediators. Our results suggested that TIMP1 may be involved in regulating ovarian follicle development and ovulation.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Effects of season, age, sex and housing on salivary cortisol
           concentrations in horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): J. Aurich , M. Wulf , N. Ille , R. Erber , M. von Lewinski , R. Palme , C. Aurich
      Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Since spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analysed salivary cortisol concentration over 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between non-pregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentration were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Expression profiles of relaxin family peptides and their receptors
           indicate their influence on spermatogenesis in the domestic cat (Felis
           catus)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): B.C. Braun , K. Müller , K. Jewgenow
      Disturbed spermatogenesis is a common problem in felines. Studying spermatogenesis in the domestic cat can improve understanding of the biological background and help to counteract fertility problems in other feline species. Here, we analyzed three relaxin family peptides (relaxin, relaxin-3 and INSL3) and their receptors (RXFP1, RXFP2 and RXFP3) as potential spermatogenic factors involving their expression in the testis at different stages of its development. It may be concluded from its stage-dependent expression that relaxin together with RXFP1 appears to be involved in the first stage of spermatogenesis, whereas relaxin-3 via binding to RXFP3 influences spermiogenesis. Furthermore, correlations were observed between relaxin, relaxin-3, RXFP1, RXFP2 and RXFP3 and the relative numbers of haploid cells in testes. The peptide INSL3 was highly expressed at all testis development stages. Due to the low and stage-independent expression of its receptor RXFP2, an auto/paracrine function of INSL3 in spermatogenesis seems unlikely. In the adult testis, mRNA expression of relaxin, RXFP1 and RXFP3 mRNA predominantly occurs in the tubular testis compartment whereas INLS3 is mainly expressed in the interstitium.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Prenatal tolbutamide treatment alters plasma glucose and insulin
           concentrations and negatively affects the postnatal performance of
           chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology
      Author(s): L. Franssens , J. Lesuisse , Y. Wang , B. De Ketelaere , E. Willems , A. Koppenol , X. Guo , J. Buyse , E. Decuypere , N. Everaert
      To examine the relationship of insulin and glucose, broiler embryos were subjected to acute or prolonged hypoglycemia during the late embryonic phase by respectively injecting once (at embryonic day (ED) 16 or 17), or on three consecutive days (ED 16, 17 and 18) with tolbutamide (80 μg/g embryo weight), a substance that stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas. After one tolbutamide injection, a prolonged (32 h) decrease of plasma glucose and a profound acute increase in plasma insulin were observed. The three consecutive tolbutamide injections induced hypoglycemia for four days (from ED16 to ED19). The postnatal performance after three consecutive tolbutamide injections in broiler embryos was also investigated. Body weight was lower in tolbutamide-treated chickens from hatch to 42 d compared to sham (P = 0.001) and control (P < 0.001) chickens. Feed intake was lower in the tolbutamide group from hatch to 42 d as compared to sham (P = 0.007) and control (P = 0.017) animals. In addition, at 42 d, plasma glucose concentrations, after an insulin injection challenge (50 μg/kg BW), were higher in tolbutamide-treated chickens compared to the sham and control group, as were their basal glucose levels (P-value of group effect < 0.001). In conclusion, tolbutamide treatment during the late embryonic development in broilers resulted in prolonged hypoglycemia in this period and negatively influenced the posthatch performance.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the glucagon-like peptide-1
           analog liraglutide in healthy cats
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): M.J. Hall , C.A. Adin , S. Borin-Crivellenti , A.J. Rudinsky , P. Rajala-Schultz , J. Lakritz , C. Gilor
      Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal hormone that induces glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion while suppressing glucagon secretion. Glucagon-like peptide-1 also increases beta cell mass and satiation while decelerating gastric emptying. Liraglutide is a fatty-acid derivative of GLP-1 with a protracted pharmacokinetic profile that is used in people for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of liraglutide in healthy cats. Hyperglycemic clamps were performed on days 0 (HGC) and 14 (LgHGC) in 7 healthy cats. Liraglutide was administered subcutaneously (0.6 mg/cat) once daily on days 8 through 14. Compared with the HGC (mean ± standard deviation; 455.5 ± 115.8 ng/L), insulin concentrations during LgHGC were increased (760.8 ± 350.7 ng/L; P = 0.0022), glucagon concentrations decreased (0.66 ± 0.4 pmol/L during HGC vs 0.5 ± 0.4 pmol/L during LgHGC; P = 0.0089), and there was a trend toward an increased total glucose infused (median [range] = 1.61 (1.11–2.54) g/kg and 2.25 (1.64–3.10) g/kg, respectively; P = 0.087). Appetite reduction and decreased body weight (9% ± 3%; P = 0.006) were observed in all cats. Liraglutide has similar effects and pharmacokinetics profile in cats to those reported in people. With a half-life of approximately 12 h, once daily dosing might be feasible; however, significant effects on appetite and weight loss may necessitate dosage or dosing frequency reductions. Further investigation of liraglutide in diabetic cats and overweight cats is warranted.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Genetic variants in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are
           associated with concentrations of plasma cortisol, muscle glycogen
           content, and meat quality traits in male Nellore cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): M.D. Poleti , R.H. DeRijk , A.F. Rosa , C.T. Moncau , P.S. Oliveira , L.L. Coutinho , J.P. Eler , J.C.C. Balieiro
      The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key components in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis and coordinate the physiological response to stress agents to reestablish homeostasis. Genetic variations of GR (NR3C1) and MR (NR3C2) genes could explain the alterations in animals to adapt to challenges, and therefore, their influence on production traits. The present study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine NR3C1 and NR3C2 genes and explore their associations to relevant traits of beef cattle production. Genotypes and phenotypes were collected from 241 male Nellore cattle (119 noncastrated and 122 castrated surgically) with an average of 24 ± 1.2 mo of age and live weight of 508 ± 39 kg. The traits evaluated were concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, muscle glycogen and lactate content, and pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force of longissimus thoracis measured on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days postmortem. Five SNPs were identified, 2 in the NR3C1 gene and 3 in the NR3C2 gene. There was an associative relationship between the SNP NR3C1_1 g.3293A>G and postmortem plasma concentration of cortisol (P = 0.0008). The SNPs NR3C2_1 g.115T>C and NR3C2_2 g.570T>C were associated with muscle glycogen content (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0158), postmortem plasma concentration of ACTH (P = 0.0118 and P = 0.0095), and cooking loss of the steak aged 1 d (P = 0.0398 and P = 0.0423). Haplotype analysis showed associations of GR haplotypes with postmortem plasma concentrations of cortisol and MR haplotypes with meat color, cooking losses, muscle glycogen content, and plasma concentrations of ACTH. The associations observed in the present study show that SNPs in GR and MR genes are related with changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and metabolic profile in cattle, leading to individual variation in meat quality traits.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Estradiol concentration and the expression of estrogen receptors in the
           testes of the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica) during the
           annual reproductive cycle
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): A. Leska , J. Kiezun , B. Kaminska , L. Dusza
      Seasonal fluctuations in the activity of bird testes are regulated by a complex mechanism where androgens play a key role. Until recently, the role played by estrogens in males has been significantly underestimated. However, there is growing evidence that the proper functioning of the testes is associated with optimal estradiol (E2) concentration in both the plasma and testes of many mammalian species. Estrogens are gradually emerging as very important players in hormonal regulation of reproductive processes in male mammals. Despite the previously mentioned, it should be noted that estrogenic action is limited by the availability of specific receptors—estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Interestingly, there is a general scarcity of information concerning the estrogen responsive system in the testes of male birds, which is of particular interest in exploring the phenomenon of seasonality of reproduction. To address this question, we have investigated for the first time the simultaneous expression of testicular ERα and ERβ genes and proteins with the accompanying plasma and testicular E2 concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of male bird. The research model was the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica), a species whose annual reproductive cycle can be divided into 3 distinct phases characterized by changes in testicular activity. It has been revealed that the stable plasma E2 profile did not correspond to changing intratesticular E2 profile throughout the experiment. The expression of ERα and ERβ genes and proteins was detected in gander testes and it fluctuated on a seasonal basis with lower level in breeding and sexual reactivation stages and higher level during the nonbreeding stage. Our results demonstrated changes in testicular sensitivity to estrogens in male domestic goose during the annual reproductive cycle. The seasonal pattern of estrogen receptors (ERs) expression was analyzed against the hormonal background and a potential mechanism of ERs regulation in bird testes was proposed. The present study revealed seasonal variations in the estrogen responsive system, but further research is needed to fully explore the role of estrogens in the reproductive tract of male birds.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Regulation of lipid metabolism and peroxisome proliferator-activated
           receptors in rainbow trout adipose tissue by lipolytic and antilipolytic
           endocrine factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): L. Cruz-Garcia , J. Sánchez-Gurmaches , M. Monroy , J. Gutiérrez , I. Navarro
      The aim of this study was to determine the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I on glycerol release and the regulation of IGF-I and IGF-II expression by GH in isolated rainbow trout adipocytes. Cells were also incubated with GH, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), or insulin to analyze the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and lipid metabolism markers: hormone sensitive lipase, fatty acid synthase (FAS), and lipoprotein lipase. Complimentary in vivo experiments were performed by intraperitoneally administering insulin, TNFα, or lipopolysaccharide and subjecting the animals to fasting and refeeding periods. The results showed that IGF-I had an antilipolytic effect and GH had a lipolytic effect; the latter occurred independently of IGF modulation and in conjunction with a reduction in PPARα expression in adipocytes. The anabolic action of insulin was demonstrated through its upregulation of lipogenic genes such as lipoprotein lipase, FAS, and PPARγ, whereas GH, by contrast, inhibited FAS expression in adipose tissue. The gene transcription levels of PPARs changed differentially during fasting and refeeding, and the TNFα and/or lipopolysaccharide administration suggested that the regulation of PPARs helps maintain metabolic adipose tissue homeostasis in rainbow trout.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Pharmacology of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog exenatide
           extended-release in healthy cats
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): A.J. Rudinsky , C.A. Adin , S. Borin-Crivellenti , P. Rajala-Schultz , M.J. Hall , C. Gilor
      Exenatide extended-release (ER) is a microencapsulated formulation of the glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonist exenatide. It has a protracted pharmacokinetic profile that allows a once-weekly injection with comparable efficacy to insulin with an improved safety profile in type II diabetic people. Here, we studied the pharmacology of exenatide ER in 6 healthy cats. A single subcutaneous injection of exenatide ER (0.13 mg/kg) was administered on day 0. Exenatide concentrations were measured for 12 wk. A hyperglycemic clamp (target = 225 mg/dL) was performed on days −7 (clamp I) and 21 (clamp II) with measurements of insulin and glucagon concentrations. Glucose tolerance was defined as the amount of glucose required to maintain hyperglycemia during the clamp. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed on weeks 0, 2, and 6 after injection. Plasma concentrations of exenatide peaked at 1 h and 4 wk after injection. Comparing clamp I with clamp II, fasting blood glucose decreased (mean ± standard deviation = −11 ± 8 mg/dL, P = 0.02), glucose tolerance improved (median [range] +33% [4%–138%], P = 0.04), insulin concentrations increased (+36.5% [−9.9% to 274.1%], P = 0.02), and glucagon concentrations decreased (−4.7% [0%–12.1%], P = 0.005). Compared with preinjection values on continuous glucose monitoring, glucose concentrations decreased and the frequency of readings <50 mg/dL increased at 2 and 6 wk after injection of exenatide ER. This did not correspond to clinical hypoglycemia. No other side effects were observed throughout the study. Exenatide ER was safe and effective in improving glucose tolerance 3 wk after a single injection. Further evaluation is needed to determine its safety, efficacy, and duration of action in diabetic cats.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Conjoint regulation of glucagon concentrations via plasma insulin and
           glucose in dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): M. Zarrin , O. Wellnitz , R.M. Bruckmaier
      Insulin and glucagon are glucoregulatory hormones that contribute to glucose homeostasis. Plasma insulin is elevated during normoglycemia or hyperglycemia and acts as a suppressor of glucagon secretion. We have investigated if and how insulin and glucose contribute to the regulation of glucagon secretion through long term (48 h) elevated insulin concentrations during simultaneous hypoglycemia or euglycemia in mid-lactating dairy cows. Nineteen Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: an intravenous insulin infusion (HypoG, n = 5) to decrease plasma glucose concentrations (2.5 mmol/L), a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to study effects of insulin at simultaneously normal glucose concentrations (EuG, n = 6) and a 0.9% saline infusion (NaCl, n = 8). Plasma glucose was measured at 5-min intervals, and insulin and glucose infusion rates were adjusted accordingly. Area under the curve of hourly glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations on day 2 of infusion was evaluated by analysis of variance with treatments as fixed effect. Insulin infusion caused an increase of plasma insulin area under the curve (AUC)/h in HypoG (41.9 ± 8.1 mU/L) and EuG (57.8 ± 7.8 mU/L) compared with NaCl (13.9 ± 1.1 mU/L; P < 0.01). Induced hyperinsulinemia caused a decline of plasma glucose AUC/h to 2.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L in HypoG (P < 0.01), whereas plasma glucose AUC/h remained unchanged in EuG (3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L) and NaCl (4.1 ± 0.1 mmol/L). Plasma glucagon AUC/h was lower in EuG (84.0 ± 6.3 pg/mL; P < 0.05) and elevated in HypoG (129.0 ± 7.0 pg/mL; P < 0.01) as compared with NaCl (106.1 ± 5.4 pg/mL). The results show that intravenous insulin infusion induces elevated glucagon concentrations during hypoglycemia, although the same insulin infusion reduces glucagon concentrations at simultaneously normal glucose concentrations. Thus, insulin does not generally have an inhibitory effect on glucagon concentrations. If simultaneously glucose is low and insulin is high, glucagon is upregulated to increase glucose availability. Therefore, insulin and glucose are conjoint regulatory factors of glucagon concentrations in dairy cows, and the plasma glucose status is the key factor to decide if its concentrations are increased or decreased. This regulatory effect can be important for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis if insulin secretion is upregulated by other factors than high glucose such as high plasma lipid and protein concentrations at simultaneously low glucose.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Serotonin receptor expression is dynamic in the liver during the
           transition period in Holstein dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): J. Laporta , L.L. Hernandez
      Nonneuronal serotonin (5-HT) participates in glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the actions of 5-HT in the liver during the transition period in dairy cattle. Here, we explore circulating patterns of 5-HT and characterize the hepatic 5-HT receptor and glucose transporter profiles around calving in multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 6, average lactation = 4 ± 1.9). Concentrations of serum 5-HT decreased on day −3 compared with −5 and −7 precalving (167.7 ± 80 vs 1511.1 ± 602 ng/mL). 5-HT nadir was on day −1 precalving and remained low postcalving (481.4 ± 49 ng/mL). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased precalving (P = 0.008) and were positively correlated with 5-HT during the precalving period (r = 0.55, P = 0.043). On day 1, postcalving hepatic messenger RNA expression of 5-HT 1D, 2B, 3C, 6, and 7 receptors were decreased compared with day −7 (P < 0.048). The 5-HT 3A and 5-HT 3B decreased on day 7. The 5-HT 2A increased on days 1 and 7 compared with −7 (P < 0.05). The 5-HT 1F and 5-HT 1A receptors were increased 2.5- and 3.8-fold on day 7, respectively, compared with days −7 and 1 (P < 0.046). The 5-HT 5A was not detected, and 5-HT 4 was detected on days −7 and 1 only. Expression of Glut-2,-5 and SGLT1 were decreased on days 1 and 7 compared with −7 (P < 0.05), whereas Glut-1 was increased on day 7 compared with −7 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that 5-HT could be important for liver glucose homeostasis possibly through receptor mediated signaling at specific times. Additional research is needed to further explore the functional role of these receptors in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2
           messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): Y. Kobayashi , B.C. Peterson , G.C. Waldbieser
      This study tested the hypothesis that increased growth in channel catfish is associated with expression of the genes that code for uncoupling proteins (UCP) 2 and 3, members of the mitochondrial channel proteins involved in nutrient sensing and metabolism. The specific objective was to contrast the levels of UCP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in fast vs slow growing catfish as well as in fed vs fasted catfish. Two distinct UCP2 transcripts were identified and named UCP2a and UCP2b, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of catfish UCP2s were highly similar to UCP2 and other UCPs from other fish and mammals (>75%). Expression of UCP2a mRNA was detectable at very low levels in various metabolically active tissues, whereas the expression of UCP2b mRNA was readily detectable in the muscle and heart. In a 21-wk feeding study, fish that grew faster had a greater percent body fat at the end of the study (P < 0.01). Expression of UCP2b mRNA tended to be lower (P < 0.10) in fast growing fish in the middle of the study although levels were similar at the beginning and the end of the study. In the fed vs fasted study, expression of UCP2b mRNA in muscle was increased (P < 0.05) in fish assigned to 30 d of fasting. Our results suggest that, based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities and tissue mRNA distribution, catfish UCP2b may be the analog to UCP3. Moreover, our results suggest selection toward growth and associated fat accumulation appears to be independent of muscle UCP2b mRNA expression and UCP2b-mediated mechanisms.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Differential gene expression and immunolocalization of platelet-derived
           growth factors and their receptors in caprine ovaries
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): I.R. Brito , A.D. Sales , G.Q. Rodrigues , C.H. Lobo , S.V. Castro , A.W.B. Silva , A.A.A. Moura , J.R.V. Silva , A.P.R. Rodrigues , J.R. Figueiredo
      This study evaluated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and immunolocalization of all members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family in caprine ovaries by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Detectable levels of PDGF-A mRNA were not observed in primordial follicles. Higher levels of PDGF-B mRNA were observed in primary follicles than in primordial follicles (P < 0.05). PDGF-D mRNA levels were higher in secondary follicles than in the other preantral follicle categories (P < 0.05). PDGF-B mRNA expression was higher than PDGF-C mRNA expression in primary follicles (P < 0.05). In antral follicles, PDGF-A mRNA expression was higher in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from small antral follicles than in those from large antral follicles and their respective granulosa/theca (GT) cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in COCs from small and large antral follicles, PDGF-A mRNA expression was higher than that of the other PDGF isoforms (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PDGF-B and PDGF-D and PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β were higher in GT cells from large antral follicles than in GT cells from small antral follicles and in their respective COCs (P < 0.05). In COCs and GT cells from small antral follicles, the mRNA levels of PDGFR-α were higher than those of PDGFR-β (P < 0.05). All proteins were observed in the cytoplasm of oocytes from all follicular categories. In granulosa cells, all PDGFs and PDGFR-β were detected from starting at the secondary stage, and in theca cells, all proteins, except PDGF-C, were detected starting at the antral stage. In conclusion, PDGF and its receptors are differentially expressed in the oocytes and ovarian cells according to the stage of follicular development, suggesting their role in the regulation of folliculogenesis in goats.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Impact of maternal malnutrition during the periconceptional period on
           mammalian preimplantation embryo development
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): M.A. Velazquez
      During episodes of undernutrition and overnutrition the mammalian preimplantation embryo undergoes molecular and metabolic adaptations to cope with nutrient deficits or excesses. Maternal adaptations also take place to keep a nutritional microenvironment favorable for oocyte development and embryo formation. This maternal-embryo communication takes place via several nutritional mediators. Although adaptive responses to malnutrition by both the mother and the embryo may ensure blastocyst formation, the resultant quality of the embryo can be compromised, leading to early pregnancy failure. Still, studies have shown that, although early embryonic mortality can be induced during malnutrition, the preimplantation embryo possesses an enormous plasticity that allows it to implant and achieve a full-term pregnancy under nutritional stress, even in extreme cases of malnutrition. This developmental strategy, however, may come with a price, as shown by the adverse developmental programming induced by even subtle nutritional challenges exerted exclusively during folliculogenesis and the preimplantation period, resulting in offspring with a higher risk of developing deleterious phenotypes in adulthood. Overall, current evidence indicates that malnutrition during the periconceptional period can induce cellular and molecular alterations in preimplantation embryos with repercussions for fertility and postnatal health.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Neonatal oxytocin administration and supplemental milk ameliorate the
           weaning transition and alter hormonal expression in the gastrointestinal
           tract in pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): J.-L. Rault , J. Ferrari , J.R. Pluske , F.R. Dunshea
      The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of milk supplementation during lactation, over 1 wk after weaning, and oxytocin administration for the first 14 d of life on the pigs' response to weaning. Pigs from 20 litters were allocated to each of these 3 treatments in a randomized factorial design. Oxytocin was administered subcutaneously daily from 0 to 14 d of age at a rate of 10 I.U. per kg. The milk supplement consisted of a mixture of 25% skim milk powder offered either during lactation between 10 and 20 d of age or for the first week after weaning as a transitional diet along with dry pellets. Pigs were weaned at 21 d of age. Growth rate was measured from birth to slaughter at 140 d of age and feed intake of supplemental milk or feed from 10 to 56 d of age. Organ weights (heart, liver, stomach, and kidneys) and the gene expression of ghrelin, leptin, and glucagon-like peptides (glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2) were measured in the stomach, ileum, and duodenum at 10, 21, and 28 d of age. Milk supplementation after weaning resulted in immediate feed intake and partially alleviated the depression in growth rate over the first 7 d postweaning (P < 0.001), but milk supplementation during lactation had no effects (P > 0.1). However, effects were only transient and disappeared once the milk liquid diet was removed. Neonatal oxytocin administration reduced weight loss over the first 2 d after weaning (P = 0.03), without affecting feed intake (P > 0.1), hence possibly reducing weaning stress. Seven days after weaning, oxytocin-treated pigs had greater stomach ghrelin and leptin expression (both P = 0.02), and pigs supplemented with milk after weaning had greater stomach leptin and glucagon-like peptide-2 expression (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05, respectively). Hence, neonatal oxytocin administration or postweaning milk supplementation are both effective means of enhancing gastric leptin expression and reducing weight loss at weaning, likely improving gut health during this critical period.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Ovariectomy in young prepubertal dairy heifers causes complete suppression
           of mammary progesterone receptors
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): B.T. Velayudhan , B.P. Huderson , S.E. Ellis , C.L. Parsons , R.C. Hovey , A.R. Rowson , R.M. Akers
      Mammary growth and development depends on ovarian steroids and particularly interaction of estrogen and progesterone with their intracellular receptors. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of ovariectomy on the expression of protein and messenger RNA for estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) and their relation to mammary ductal development and cell proliferation. Prepubertal Holstein heifers 2, 3, or 4 mo of age were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments, ovariectomized (OVX; n = 8) or sham operated (INT; n = 12). Mammary parenchymal (PAR) tissue samples were harvested 30 d after surgery. Localization and quantitation of ESR1 and PGR in PAR were determined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative multispectral imaging. Relative messenger RNA expression of ESR1 and PGR in PAR was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. We observed the complete absence of PGR-positive epithelial cell nuclei and reduced PGR transcript abundance in mammary parenchyma of OVX heifers. The percent of epithelial cells expressing ESR1 did not differ by treatment but was decreased with age. However, average intensity of ESR1 expression per cell was reduced in OVX heifers. The abundance of Ki67 labeled epithelial cells and stromal cells was reduced after ovariectomy. These data suggest that reduced mammary development after ovariectomy may be mediated by loss of PGR expression and reduced ESR1 expression in positive cells. A presumptive relationship with ovarian-derived circulating estradiol remains unresolved, but data suggest other ovarian-derived agents may play a role. Use of specific antagonists to manipulate expression or action of PGR and ESR1 receptors should provide direct evidence for roles of these receptors in prepubertal bovine mammary development.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Duration of maternal undernutrition differentially alters fetal growth and
           hormone concentrations
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 51
      Author(s): M.E. Field , R.V. Anthony , T.E. Engle , S.L. Archibeque , D.H. Keisler , H. Han
      To investigate the impact of duration of maternal undernutrition in twin sheep pregnancies, ewes were either fed 100% (C) or 50% of their nutrient requirements from 28 to 78 d gestational age (dGA) and readjusted to 100% beginning at 79 dGA (LC) or continuously restricted from 28 to 135 dGA (LL). Weights of the fetus, empty carcass, brain, and liver were greater in the LC than LL fetuses at 135 dGA (P ≤ 0.05). Although umbilical vein (UmV) glucose concentrations did not differ, the UmV:umbilical artery (UmA) glucose gradient was smaller (0.26 ± 0.03 vs 0.38 ± 0.03 and 0.39 ± 0.04 mmol L−1; P ≤ 0.05) in LL than C and LC fetuses, respectively. Umbilical vein concentrations of IGF-1 were less (46.7 ± 5.62 vs 74.3 ± 6.71 ng/mL; P ≤ 0.05) in LL than LC fetuses. Additionally, LL fetuses tended (P ≤ 0.10) to have lower UmA concentrations of insulin (0.24 ± 0.13 vs 0.70 ± 0.15 ng/mL) and IGF-1 (66.6 ± 7.51 vs 91.4 ± 8.97 ng/mL) than LC fetuses. Although most of the observed differences occurred between LC and LL pregnancies, LC fetuses tended (P ≤ 0.10) to have greater UmV and UmA pCO2 than C fetuses. Furthermore, the UmV:UmA O2 content gradient tended to be greater (5.02 ± 0.43 vs 3.41 ± 0.47; P ≤ 0.10) in C than LL fetuses. UmA placental lactogen also tended to be greater (46.6 ± 4.40 vs 31.1 ± 4.69 ng/mL; P ≤ 0.10) in LL than C fetuses. These data suggest that in twin pregnancies, maternal undernutrition followed by realimentation induces a different fetal outcome compared with continuous nutrient restriction, and both may differ physiologically from control fed pregnancies.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Plasma anti-mullerian hormone: an endocrine marker for in vitro
           embryo production from Bos taurus and Bos indicus donors
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 49
      Author(s): B.M. Guerreiro , E.O.S. Batista , L.M. Vieira , M.F. Sá Filho , C.A. Rodrigues , A. Castro Netto , C.R.A. Silveira , B.M. Bayeux , E.A.R. Dias , F.M. Monteiro , M. Accorsi , R.N.V.R. Lopes , P.S. Baruselli
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between plasma anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) concentration and in vitro embryo production (IVP) from Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Nelore) donors. A total of 59 Holstein (15 prepubertal heifers aged 8–10 mo, 15 cyclic heifers aged 12–14 mo, 14 lactating cows, and 15 nonlactating cows) and 34 Nelore (12 prepubertal heifers aged 10–11 mo, 10 prepubertal heifers aged 21–23 mo, and 12 cyclic heifers aged 24–26 mo) females were enrolled. All females underwent an ovum pick-up (OPU), without previous synchronization of the follicular wave, and IVP procedure. Immediately before the OPU procedure, blood samples were collected for subsequent AMH determination. A positive correlation was observed between the plasma AMH and number of in vitro embryos produced from Holstein (r = 0.36, P < 0.001) and Nelore (r = 0.50, P = 0.003) donors. For additional analyses, donors within each genotype were classified into 1 of 2 AMH categories (low or high) according to the average AMH concentration for each genotype. The results revealed that females classified as having high AMH presented a greater number of visible aspirated follicles (Holstein: 20.9 ± 1.5 vs 13.6 ± 0.9, P < 0.0001; Nelore: 54.3 ± 6.1 vs 18.6 ± 2.1, P < 0.0001) and a greater number of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (Holstein: 17.3 ± 1.5 vs 9.0 ± 0.9, P < 0.0001; Nelore: 45.3 ± 6.4 vs 13.4 ± 1.7, P < 0.0001). However, there was no difference in the blastocyst production rate (Holstein: 20.6% ± 4.0% vs 19.8% ± 4.2%, P = 0.60; Nelore: 33.7% ± 6.5% vs 27.4% ± 5.5%, P = 0.41, high and low AMH, respectively). Moreover, donors classified as having high AMH yielded a greater number of embryos produced per OPU (Holstein: 3.0 ± 0.7; Nelore: 7.0 ± 1.7) compared with those classified as having low AMH (Holstein: 1.2 ± 0.3, P = 0.04; Nelore: 2.2 ± 0.5, P = 0.007). In conclusion, although the plasma AMH concentration did not alter the ability of the cumulus-oocyte complex to reach the blastocyst stage, the AMH concentration in plasma can be an accurate endocrine marker for the in vitro embryo yield from either B. taurus (Holstein) or B. indicus (Nelore) donors. Therefore, AMH is a promising tool to enhance the overall efficiency of OPU–IVP programs in the field as a selective criterion for high embryo producing donors.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 48




      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 48




      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
  • Characterization of glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP2R) gene in
           chickens: functional analysis, tissue distribution, and developmental
           expression profile of GLP2R in embryonic intestine
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Domestic Animal Endocrinology, Volume 48
      Author(s): C. Mo , Y. Zhong , Y. Wang , Z. Yan , J. Li
      This study characterized the glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP2R) gene of chickens because relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism of GLP2 actions in nonmammalian species. With the use of reverse transcription PCR, we first cloned the chicken GLP2R (cGLP2R) from adult intestine, which was predicted to encode a 529-amino acid receptor precursor. With the use of a pGL3-CRE luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that cGLP2R expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells could be potently activated by cGLP2 (half maximal effective concentration, 1.06nM) but not by its structurally related peptides, including the newly identified glucagon-like peptide, indicating that cGLP2R is a functional receptor specific to cGLP2. Reverse transcription PCR assay revealed that cGLP2R mRNA was widely expressed in adult chicken tissues, including pancreas and various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. With the use of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assays, we further investigated the mRNA expression of cGLP2R and its potential downstream mediators, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, epiregulin, and amphiregulin), in the distal duodenum of developing embryos. The mRNA expression levels of GLP2R and EGFR ligands (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and amphiregulin) were shown to increase (P < 0.05 or 0.01) during the late embryonic stages (E16 and E20), implying a potential coordinated action of GLP2 and EGFR ligands on embryonic intestine development. Taken together, our findings not only establish a molecular basis to explore the physiological roles of GLP2 in birds, but they also provide comparative insights into the roles of GLP2R and its ligand in vertebrates, such as its roles in embryonic intestine development.


      PubDate: 2015-02-08T21:28:09Z
       
 
 
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