for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2     

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 170 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (1 follower)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (1 follower)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (7 followers)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (15 followers)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (129 followers)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Animals     Open Access   (5 followers)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (1 follower)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (1 follower)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (1 follower)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (1 follower)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (5 followers)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (5 followers)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (3 followers)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (2 followers)
Companion Animal     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Continental Journal of Animal and Veterinary Research     Open Access   (3 followers)
Continental Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (3 followers)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (1 follower)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (5 followers)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (4 followers)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (3 followers)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (1 follower)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (2 followers)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access   (5 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (19 followers)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (8 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access  
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Hybrid Journal  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (3 followers)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (2 followers)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (2 followers)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (2 followers)

        1 2     

Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation    [6 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [718 journals]   [SJR: 0.627]   [H-I: 51]
  • E. P. Pope Memorial Award 2013 to Dr. Gary A. Anderson
    • Pages: 5 - 5
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713517641|hwp:resource-id:spvdi;26/1/5
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 nucleic acid in fetal bovine
           samples stored under different conditions
    • Authors: Ridpath, J. F; Neill, J. D, Chiang, Y.-W, Waldbillig, J.
      Pages: 6 - 9
      Abstract: Infection of pregnant cattle with both species of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, stillbirths, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive, and immune systems, and the birth of calves persistently infected with BVDV. Accurate diagnosis of BVDV-associated reproductive disease is important to control BVDV at the production unit level and assessment of the cost of BVDV infections in support of BVDV control programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the stability of viral nucleic acid in fetal tissues exposed to different conditions, as measured by detection by polymerase chain reaction. Five different types of fetal tissue, including brain, skin and muscle, ear, and 2 different pooled organ samples, were subjected to conditions that mimicked those that might exist for samples collected after abortions in production settings or possible storage conditions after collection and prior to testing. In addition, tissues were archived for 36 months at –20°C and then retested, to mimic conditions that might occur in the case of retrospective surveillance studies. Brain tissue showed the highest stability under the conditions tested. The impact of fecal contamination was increased following archiving in all tissue types suggesting that, for long-term storage, effort should be made to reduce environmental contaminants before archiving.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713512315|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713512315
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Lack of evidence for the presence of emerging HoBi-like viruses in North
           American fetal bovine serum lots
    • Authors: Bauermann, F. V; Flores, E. F, Falkenberg, S. M, Weiblen, R, Ridpath, J. F.
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: The detection of an emerging pestivirus species, "HoBi-like virus," in fetal bovine serum (FBS) labeled as U.S. origin, but packaged in Europe, raised concerns that HoBi-like virus may have entered the United States. In the current study, 90 lots of FBS originating in North America (NA) were screened for pestivirus antigen and antibodies. Lots in group 1 (G1, 72 samples) and group 2 (G2, 9 samples) originated in NA and were packaged in the United States. Group 3 (G3) was composed of 9 lots collected in NA and processed in Europe. Lots in G1 were claimed negative for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), while lots in G2 and G3 were claimed positive by the commercial processor. All lots in G1 and G2 tested negative by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using HoBi-like–specific primers. Two G1 lots tested positive by BVDV RT-PCR. One of these was also positive by virus isolation. All G2 lots were positive by BVDV RT-PCR. In addition, four G2 lots were VI positive while 1 lot was antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) positive. Two G3 lots were positive by HoBi-like–specific RT-PCR tests. All lots were negative for HoBi_D32/00 neutralizing antibodies. Seven lots (4 G1; 1 G2; 2 G3) had antibodies against BVDV by virus neutralization and/or antigen-capture ELISA. While there is no evidence of HoBi-like viruses in NA based on tested samples, further studies are required to validate HoBi-like virus–free status and develop means to prevent the spread of HoBi-like virus into NA.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713518208|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713518208
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Longitudinal study of the detection of Bluetongue virus in bull semen and
           comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction assays
    • Authors: Gu, X; Davis, R. J, Walsh, S. J, Melville, L. F, Kirkland, P. D.
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Infection with Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a significant impediment to the global movement of bovine semen. Repeat testing of blood from donor animals is specified in the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Manual for the export of semen from regions where BTV may be present. Screening of blood or semen samples has usually been carried out by virus isolation (VI) either by inoculation of chicken embryos followed by passage onto insect and mammalian cell cultures or in vivo inoculation of sheep followed by serology to detect seroconversion. Direct testing of semen for BTV would enable earlier release of semen samples and avoid repeat testing of the donor, as well as provide an option for releasing batches of semen that were collected without certification of the donor. Quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays overcome most of the limitations of other methods and have the potential to provide higher sensitivity. The present study compared 5 qRT-PCR assays, including 2 commercially available kits, for the detection of BTV in semen serially collected from 8 bulls over a period of 90 days after experimental infection. The results of the study show that at least one of the qRT-PCR assays is extremely reproducible and has both very high sensitivity and specificity to reliably detect all available serotypes. The preferred qRT-PCR gave consistently superior results to VI, sheep inoculation, and conventional RT-PCR. Therefore, the assay can be recommended for the screening of bovine semen for freedom from BTV.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713516622|hwp:resource-id:spvdi;26/1/18
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for
           detection of Canine distemper virus modified live vaccine shedding for
           differentiation from infection with wild-type strains
    • Authors: Wilkes, R. P; Sanchez, E, Riley, M. C, Kennedy, M. A.
      Pages: 27 - 34
      Abstract: Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains a common cause of infectious disease in dogs, particularly in high-density housing situations such as shelters. Vaccination of all dogs against CDV is recommended at the time of admission to animal shelters and many use a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. From a diagnostic standpoint for dogs with suspected CDV infection, this is problematic because highly sensitive diagnostic real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests are able to detect MLV virus in clinical samples. Real-time PCR can be used to quantitate amount of virus shedding and can differentiate vaccine strains from wild-type strains when shedding is high. However, differentiation by quantitation is not possible in vaccinated animals during acute infection, when shedding is low and could be mistaken for low level vaccine virus shedding. While there are gel-based RT-PCR assays for differentiation of vaccine strains from field strains based on sequence differences, the sensitivity of these assays is unable to match that of the real-time RT-PCR assay currently used in the authors’ laboratory. Therefore, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that detects CDV MLV vaccine strains and distinguishes them from wild-type strains based on nucleotide sequence differences, rather than the amount of viral RNA in the sample. The test is highly sensitive, with detection of as few as 5 virus genomic copies (corresponding to 10–1 TCID50). Sequencing of the DNA real-time products also allows phylogenetic differentiation of the wild-type strains. This test will aid diagnosis during outbreaks of CDV in recently vaccinated animals.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713517232|hwp:resource-id:spvdi;26/1/27
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Distribution of lymphoid depletion and viral antigen in alpacas
           experimentally infected with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1
    • Authors: Steffen, D. J; Topliff, C. L, Schmitz, J. A, Kammerman, J. R, Henningson, J. N, Eskridge, K. M, Kelling, C. L.
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: It was hypothesized that acute postnatal Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) infection leads to leukopenia and lymphoid depletion of gut-associated lymphoid tissues similar to acute disease in calves. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the pathologic effects, viremia, viral shedding, and viral antigen deposition in 6–24-month-old, acutely infected alpacas following experimental infection with noncytopathic BVDV-1 subgenotype 1b (BVDV C0-6). The BVDV-1 isolate was obtained from a cria with naturally occurring persistent infection. Lymphocytopenia occurred 3–7 days postinfection, with a 50% reduction in peripheral lymphocytes in infected alpacas. Depletion of B-cell populations in gut-associated lymphoid tissues was evident microscopically. Populations of T cells in parafollicular zones and in nodular aggregates along the superficial submucosa remained intact. The BVDV antigen was deposited most consistently in submucosal gastrointestinal aggregated lymphoid tissues of ileum, proximal colon, and stomach compartment three. Viral antigen was more variably evident in other lymphoid tissues. Antigen distribution correlated well with histologic lesions in gastrointestinal aggregated lymphoid tissues, confirming the role of virus in lymphoid depletion. Nasal shedding was detected in all challenged alpacas on day 6 and in 4 out of 12 challenged alpacas on day 9. Viremia was present as early as day 3, and present in all challenged alpacas on days 5, 6, 7, and 9 postchallenge. Lymphocytopenia and depletion of gastrointestinal aggregated lymphoid tissues associated with acute BVDV-1 infection likely results in immune compromise and is expected to exacerbate concurrent infections even though uncomplicated BVDV-1 infection was clinically unapparent.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713509626|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713509626
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Design and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay
           for the rapid detection of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
    • Authors: Diribe, O; North, S, Sawyer, J, Roberts, L, Fitzpatrick, N, La Ragione, R.
      Pages: 42 - 48
      Abstract: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal and opportunistic pathogen of dogs. It is mainly implicated in canine pyoderma, as well as other suppurative conditions of dogs. Although bacterial culture is routinely used for clinical diagnosis, molecular methods are required to accurately identify and differentiate S. pseudintermedius from other members of the Staphylococcus intermedius group. These methods, owing largely to their cost, are not easy to implement in nonspecialized laboratories or veterinary practices. In the current study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification procedure, was employed to develop a rapid, specific, and sensitive S. pseudintermedius assay. Different detection strategies, including the use of a lateral flow device, were evaluated. The assay was evaluated for cross-reactivity against 30 different bacterial species and validated on a panel of 108 S. pseudintermedius isolates, originating from different dog breeds and locations within the United Kingdom. The assay was specific, showing no cross-reactivity during in silico and in vitro testing. When tested using DNA extracts prepared directly from 35 clinical surgical site swabs, the assay could detect S. pseudintermedius in less than 15 min, with a diagnostic sensitivity of 94.6%, superior to that of a polymerase chain reaction method. The LAMP assay also had an analytical sensitivity in the order of 101 gene copies, and the amplified products were readily detected using a lateral flow device. The LAMP assay described in the present study is simple and rapid, opening up the possibility of its use as a diagnostic tool within veterinary practices.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713516758|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713516758
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Sensitivity and specificity of real-time reverse transcription polymerase
           chain reaction, histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling for the
           detection of Rift Valley fever virus in naturally infected cattle and
           sheep
    • Authors: Odendaal, L; Fosgate, G. T, Romito, M, Coetzer, J. A. W, Clift, S. J.
      Pages: 49 - 60
      Abstract: Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling (IHC) were performed on liver specimens from 380 naturally infected cattle and sheep necropsied during the 2010 Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic in South Africa. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time RT-PCR, histopathology, and IHC were estimated in a latent-class model using a Bayesian framework. The Se and Sp of real-time RT-PCR were estimated as 97.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 95.2–98.8%) and 71.7% (95% CI = 65–77.9%) respectively. The Se and Sp of histopathology were estimated as 94.6% (95% CI = 91–97.2%) and 92.3% (95% CI = 87.6–95.8%), respectively. The Se and Sp of IHC were estimated as 97.6% (95% CI = 93.9–99.8%) and 99.4% (95% CI = 96.9–100%), respectively. Decreased Sp of real-time RT-PCR was ascribed to cross-contamination of samples. Stratified analysis of the data suggested variations in test accuracy with fetuses and severely autolyzed specimens. The Sp of histopathology in fetuses (83%) was 9.3% lower than the sample population (92.3%). The Se of IHC decreased from 97.6% to 81.5% in the presence of severe autolysis. The diagnostic Se and Sp of histopathology was higher than expected, confirming the value of routine postmortem examinations and histopathology of liver specimens. Aborted fetuses, however, should be screened using a variety of tests in areas endemic for RVF, and results from severely autolyzed specimens should be interpreted with caution. The most feasible testing option for countries lacking suitably equipped laboratories seems to be routine histology in combination with IHC.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713516759|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713516759
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Improved diagnostic performance of a commercial Anaplasma antibody
           competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant major
           surface protein 5-glutathione S-transferase fusion protein as antigen
    • Authors: Chung, C; Wilson, C, Bandaranayaka-Mudiyanselage, C.-B, Kang, E, Adams, D. S, Kappmeyer, L. S, Knowles, D. P, McElwain, T. F, Evermann, J. F, Ueti, M. W, Scoles, G. A, Lee, S. S, McGuire, T. C.
      Pages: 61 - 71
      Abstract: The current study tested the hypothesis that removal of maltose binding protein (MBP) from recombinant antigen used for plate coating would improve the specificity of a commercial Anaplasma antibody competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The number of 358 sera with significant MBP antibody binding (≥30%I) in Anaplasma-negative herds was 139 (38.8%) when tested using the recombinant major surface protein 5 (rMSP5)-MBP cELISA without MBP adsorption. All but 8 of the MBP binders were rendered negative (
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713511813|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713511813
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Pooling of cultured samples and comparison of multistate laboratory
           workflows with the MagMAX sample preparation system and VetMAX
           quantitative polymerase chain reaction reagents for detection of
           Tritrichomonas foetus-colonized bulls
    • Authors: Effinger, L; Peddireddi, L, Simunich, M, Oberst, R, O'Connell, C, Leyva-Baca, I.
      Pages: 72 - 87
      Abstract: The objectives of the current study were 1) to compare sample preparation workflows and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays (qPCR) as currently used in veterinary diagnostic laboratories with a study protocol utilizing commercially available reagents for individual Tritrichomonas foetus testing, 2) to assess the accuracy of pooling cultured smegma samples followed by extraction and qPCR testing as used in the study laboratory, and 3) to assess the specificity of the currently used primers and probes by sequencing all positive and presumptive positive samples identified in the study laboratory in an attempt to capture any nucleotide variability between T. foetus isolates and to rule out false-positive results possibly due to Simplicimonas moskowitzi. Eight hundred three cultured smegma samples were collected from different regions of the United States with the collaboration of 5 veterinary testing laboratories. The samples were processed individually by the respective laboratories, and then sent to the study laboratory and retested using the study protocol. Comparison testing showed an overall agreement of 95.89% between the veterinary testing laboratories and the study laboratory. One hundred seventy-six positive or presumptive positive samples plus 625 negative qPCR samples were combined and retested using a pooling protocol. Pools consisted of 1 positive sample and 4 negative samples (1/5). These pools were processed using the same study laboratory protocols, and 96% of the positive samples were detected in these pools. Nested PCR followed by sequencing confirmed 175 of the 178 samples classified as positive or presumptive positive in the study laboratory as containing T. foetus–specific DNA.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713510003|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713510003
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections in goats and other animals
           diagnosed at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory
           System: 1990-2012
    • Authors: Giannitti, F; Barr, B. C, Brito, B. P, Uzal, F. A, Villanueva, M, Anderson, M.
      Pages: 88 - 95
      Abstract: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a recognized zoonotic food-borne pathogen; however, little is known about the ecology and epidemiology of diseases caused by the bacterium in California. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the knowledge of the diseases caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis in goats, the animal species most frequently reported with clinical yersiniosis to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, to better understand the epidemiology of this disease. A 23-year retrospective study was conducted to characterize the syndromes caused by the bacterium in goats and their temporospatial distribution, and to determine the number of cases in other animal species. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis–associated disease was diagnosed in 42 goats from 21 counties, with a strong seasonality in winter and spring. Most cases (88%) were observed within particular years (1999, 2004–2006, 2010–2011). The most frequently diagnosed syndrome was enteritis and/or typhlocolitis (64.3%), followed by abscessation (14.3%), abortion (11.9%), conjunctivitis (4.75%), and hepatitis (4.75%). Among other animal species, 59 cases were diagnosed in non-poultry avian species and 33 in mammals other than goats.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713516624|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713516624
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Jejunal hematoma in cattle: a retrospective case analysis
    • Authors: Adaska, J. M; Aly, S. S, Moeller, R. B, Blanchard, P. C, Anderson, M, Kinde, H, Uzal, F.
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: Sixteen years of adult cattle submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System were examined and data captured from cases with anaerobic cultures of intestinal content. Analysis was performed to determine if there were statistical differences between case submission types (nonbloody intestinal content [129 cases], bloody intestinal content [134 cases], and jejunal hematoma [JH; 51 cases]) for the presence of Clostridium perfringens (314 cases), C. perfringens toxinotypes (35 cases), and C. perfringens toxins (51 cases) in the content. Across submission types, significant differences were found in the isolation of C. perfringens between different specimen types (live cow, dead cow, or tissue from a field necropsy) with field samples being the most likely to have C. perfringens detected and live animals the least likely (P = 0.001). In cases of JH, detection of C. perfringens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was more likely when a live or dead animal was submitted (P = 0.023) or when a live animal was submitted (P = 0.019) compared with submission of field necropsy tissues. These differences were not observed when cultures were performed to detect C. perfringens in cases of JH. There were no statistical differences between submission types with regard to any other variables evaluated. Detailed histologic examination of 21 cases of JH suggested disturbance of normal vascular or lymphatic function as the underlying problem in this entity.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713517696|hwp:resource-id:spvdi;26/1/96
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Measurement of urinary canine S100A8/A9 and S100A12 concentrations as
           candidate biomarkers of lower urinary tract neoplasia in dogs
    • Authors: Heilmann, R. M; Wright, Z. M, Lanerie, D. J, Suchodolski, J. S, Steiner, J. M.
      Pages: 104 - 112
      Abstract: Members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins (S100A8, A9, and A12; calgranulins) have been associated with inflammation and cancer in human beings. Proteins S100A8 and A9 were overexpressed in human patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostate carcinoma (PCA), suggesting their potential as biomarkers for diagnosing and/or predicting the progression of such neoplasms. Calgranulins have not been studied in dogs with TCC or PCA. Established in-house immunoassays were validated and found suitable for measuring S100A8/A9 and S100A12 in canine urine samples to allow the study of the role of these biomarkers in dogs with TCC or PCA. Urinary calgranulin concentrations were not affected by blood contamination (e.g., due to cystocentesis), and should be normalized against urine specific gravity or urinary creatinine concentration. Urinary calgranulin concentrations were significantly increased in 11 dogs with TCC or PCA (untreated) compared to 42 healthy dogs, and the ratio between S100A8/A9 and S100A12 was significantly higher in 11 dogs with TCC or PCA than in 10 dogs diagnosed with a urinary tract infection, suggesting that calgranulins are potential biomarkers for TCC or PCA in canine patients. The clinical utility of measuring urinary calgranulins in dogs with suspected TCC or PCA warrants further investigation.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713516625|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713516625
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Comparison of Bovine coronavirus-specific and Bovine respiratory syncytial
           virus-specific antibodies in serum versus milk samples detected by
           enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    • Authors: Ohlson, A; Blanco-Penedo, I, Fall, N.
      Pages: 113 - 116
      Abstract: Bovine coronavirus (BCV; Betacoronavirus 1) and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are significant causes of enteric and respiratory disease in beef and dairy cattle throughout the world. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are widely used to detect serum antibodies for herd monitoring and prevalence studies. In dairy herds, milk is more readily collected than serum. Hence, in order to investigate the test agreement between serum and milk, both serum and milk samples from 105 cows in 27 dairy herds were analyzed in parallel for presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV. The Bland–Altman analyses of data demonstrated good agreement between serum and milk antibody titers for both viruses. The results indicate milk samples are sufficient for surveillance of antibodies to BCV and BRSV.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713509377|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713509377
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • DNA and RNA isolation from canine oncologic formalin-fixed,
           paraffin-embedded tissues for downstream "-omic" analyses: possible or
           not?
    • Authors: Granato, A; Giantin, M, Ariani, P, Carminato, A, Baratto, C, Zorzan, E, Vascellari, M, Bozzato, E, Dacasto, M, Mutinelli, F.
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues represent a unique source of archived biological material, but obtaining suitable DNA and RNA for retrospective "-omic" investigations is still challenging. In the current study, canine tumor FFPE blocks were used to 1) compare common commercial DNA and RNA extraction kits; 2) compare target gene expression measured in FFPE blocks and biopsies stored in a commercial storage reagent; 3) assess the impact of fixation time; and 4) perform biomolecular investigations on archival samples chosen according to formalin fixation times. Nucleic acids yield and quality were determined by spectrophotometer and capillary electrophoresis, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for the following genes: BCL-2–associated X protein, B-cell lymphoma extra large, antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67, proto-oncogene c-KIT (c-kit). Two internal control genes (Golgin A1 and canine transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 4), together with direct sequencing of c-kit exons 8, 9, 11, and 17, were used as end points. Differences in DNA/RNA yield and purity were noticed among the commercial kits. Nucleic acids (particularly RNA) extracted from paraffin blocks were degraded, even at lower fixation times. Compared to samples held in the commercial storage reagent, archived tissues showed a poorer amplification. Therefore, a gold standard protocol for DNA/RNA isolation from canine tumor FFPE blocks for molecular investigations is still troublesome. More standardized storage conditions, including time between sample acquisition and fixation, fixation time, and sample thickness, are needed to guarantee the preservation of nucleic acids and, then, their possible use in retrospective transcriptomic analysis.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713509378|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713509378
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Serologic profiling of Haemophilus parasuis-vaccinated sows and their
           litters using a novel oligopeptide permease A enzyme-linked immunosorbent
           assay reveals unexpected patterns of serological response and maternal
           antibody transfer
    • Authors: Galina Pantoja, L; Stammen, B, Minton, B, Amodie, D.
      Pages: 125 - 130
      Abstract: Haemophilus parasuis is an economically important swine pathogen with 15 recognized serovars. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed that detects serum antibodies to the oligopeptide permease A (OppA) polypeptide membrane protein present in the reference strains for 13 of the H. parasuis serovars. Using the OppA-ELISA, H. parasuis serologic profiles were assessed on 2 swine farms, with seroconversion defined as an OppA-ELISA sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio ≥0.5. Ten gilts from each farm were vaccinated for H. parasuis using either a live avirulent culture vaccine (farm 1) or an inactivated autogenous vaccine (farm 2). Seroconversion occurred in 100% of farm 1 gilts and 90% of farm 2 gilts, with a mean S/P ratio (MSPR) of 3.36 and 1.43, respectively. The OppA-ELISA MSPRs were determined for 2 piglets, 1 male and 1 female, randomly selected from 10 first-parity (P1), 10 second-parity (P2), and 10 third-parity (P3) litters farrowed by respective vaccinated gilts on each farm. On both farms, postfarrowing MSPRs and rate of seropositivity were highest in P1 versus P2 and P3 dams. Parity 1 piglets had higher MSPRs and rates of seropositivity versus later parities, with the difference being significant (P < 0.05) on farm 2. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of nasal swabs indicated that 100% of farm 1 piglets and 47–84%, depending on parity, of farm 2 piglets were H. parasuis–colonized at weaning. The results indicated that H. parasuis vaccination of gilts will not maintain serologic responses in the OppA-ELISA over their reproductive lifetimes, and that maternally derived antibodies do not prevent H. parasuis colonization of piglets.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713510163|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713510163
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Detection of papillomavirus in equine periocular and penile squamous cell
           carcinoma
    • Authors: Newkirk, K. M; Hendrix, D. V. H, Anis, E. A, Rohrbach, B. W, Ehrhart, E. J, Lyons, J. A, Kania, S. A.
      Pages: 131 - 135
      Abstract: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common tumor arising in the periocular and penile areas of horses. Both ultraviolet radiation and papillomaviruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of SCC in various species, including the horse. This retrospective study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect papillomavirus DNA in archival biopsy samples from equine periocular and penile SCC from 3 different geographic areas (northeast, southeast, and central United States). Forty-two periocular SCCs were tested; none contained papillomavirus DNA. Twenty-two penile SCCs were tested, and papillomavirus DNA was identified in 10 (43%) cases. Sequencing of the PCR products revealed homology with Equus caballus papillomavirus 2 (EcPV-2). No geographic distribution in the detection of papillomavirus was identified. Penile SCCs were significantly more likely to be papillomavirus positive than the periocular SCCs (P < 0.001). The role of papillomavirus in the development of penile SCC requires further investigation. The differing pathogeneses of periocular and penile SCC suggest that the tumors may respond differently to treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713511618|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713511618
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Comparison of different serological methods to detect antibodies specific
           to Neospora caninum in bovine and canine sera
    • Authors: Ghalmi, F; China, B, Jenkins, M, Azzag, N, Losson, B.
      Pages: 136 - 140
      Abstract: Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for paresis in dogs and abortion in cattle worldwide. Dogs serve as a definitive host, while cattle serve as intermediate host. Many different methods have been developed to detect specific antibodies present in cattle and dog serum. In the present study, the dense granule protein NcGRA6 was incorporated in a latex beads agglutination test (LAT), and compared to other serological methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the direct agglutination test, the immunoblot, and the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Using the IFAT as the reference method, 100 sera isolated from Algerian cattle and 100 sera isolated from Algerian dogs, both possibly infected with N. caninum, were used to evaluate the LAT. The sensitivity, specificity, and kappa index were calculated for each host species and assay. For dog sera, the sensitivity and the specificity of the LAT was 76% and 100%, respectively. The McNemar test showed that the LAT was not significantly different from IFAT (P > 0.05). For cattle sera, the sensitivity and the specificity of the LAT were 60% and 100%, respectively. The McNemar test indicated that the LAT was significantly different from IFAT (P < 0.01) and that the LAT was only positive for cattle sera with titers of 1:800 or greater, indicating that LAT can be used for cattle in a clinical context. As well, the LAT has the advantage of being easy and rapid to perform compared to the other assays.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713515480|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713515480
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Coxiella burnetii serology assays in goat abortion storm
    • Authors: Emery, M. P; Ostlund, E. N, Ait Ichou, M, Ballin, J. D, McFarling, D, McGonigle, L.
      Pages: 141 - 145
      Abstract: Many commercial antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for Q fever utilize the Nine Mile (Montana tick) strain of Coxiella burnetii as antigen. An ELISA kit manufactured in France employs ovine placenta-sourced antigen and has been used in Europe. Sera from goats experiencing a Q fever abortion storm in the United States were used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these 2 ELISA formats and the Q fever complement fixation test (CFT). Latent class estimates of sensitivity ranged from 97% to 100% with a specificity of 95–100% for the 2 ELISA kits. Estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the CFT were 89% and 82%, respectively. There was not a significant increase in ELISA sensitivity observed with the ovine-sourced antigen kit in this study. Real-time polymerase chain reactions performed on a portion of the sera found that 15 out of 20 sera were congruent across 4 tests for positive and negative sera.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713517233|hwp:resource-id:spvdi;26/1/141
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Development of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect
           Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1-9-11 and serovar 2
    • Authors: Marois-Crehan, C; Lacouture, S, Jacques, M, Fittipaldi, N, Kobisch, M, Gottschalk, M.
      Pages: 146 - 149
      Abstract: Two real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1-9-11 (highly related serovars with similar virulence potential) and serovar 2, respectively. The specificity of these assays was verified on a collection of 294 strains, which included all 16 reference A. pleuropneumoniae strains (including serovars 5a and 5b), 263 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains isolated between 1992 and 2009 in different countries, and 15 bacterial strains other than A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection levels of both qPCR tests were evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA from reference strains of A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 1 and 2, and the detection limit for both assays was 50 fg per assay. The analytical sensitivities of the qPCR tests were also estimated by using pure cultures and tonsils experimentally spiked with A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection threshold was 2.5 x 104 colony forming units (CFU)/ml and 2.9 x 105 CFU/0.1 g of tonsil, respectively, for both assays. These specific and sensitive tests can be used for the serotyping of A. pleuropneumoniae in diagnostic laboratories to control porcine pleuropneumonia.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713519090|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713519090
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Weissella confusa septicemia in a foal
    • Authors: Lawhon, S. D; Lopez, F. R, Joswig, A, Black, H. C, Watts, A. E, Norman, T. E, Porter, B. F.
      Pages: 150 - 153
      Abstract: Weissella confusa is a Gram-positive bacterium that has been identified in environmental and food samples from around the world. Rare cases of bacteremia in immunocompromised people have been reported. A 2-day-old foal was presented for weakness and suspected sepsis. Blood culture yielded pure growth of a Gram-positive coccobacillus, which was identified as W. confusa through sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. Although the foal initially responded to antimicrobial therapy with ceftiofur and metronidazole, it later developed septic complications of the right tarsocrural joint and right digital flexor tendon sheath and was euthanized. Postmortem examination and histology revealed subcutaneous icterus, severe diffuse interstitial pneumonia, septic synovitis, necrotizing vasculitis with marked thrombosis and hemorrhage in the medial digital vessels of the right hind limb, and ischemic necrosis of the right hind hoof laminae. Gram-positive, coccobacilli were observed in the vascular lesion.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713510516|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713510516
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Bromethalin poisoning in a raccoon (Procyon lotor): diagnostic
           considerations and relevance to nontarget wildlife
    • Authors: Bautista, A. C; Woods, L. W, Filigenzi, M. S, Puschner, B.
      Pages: 154 - 157
      Abstract: Submission of a raccoon (Procyon lotor) for necropsy following exhaustion at a California wildlife care center revealed minimal gross pathologic changes and only mild vacuolar changes in the white matter of the brain. Turquoise granular material was noted in the gastrointestinal tract and was submitted for toxicological testing along with portions of the brain, liver, kidney, and mesenteric and perirenal adipose tissues. Testing of the turquoise material for 7 anticoagulant rodenticides, strychnine, 4-aminopyridine, starlicide, and salts revealed none of these compounds; however, desmethylbromethalin was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Other tissues were subsequently analyzed; the mesenteric and perirenal adipose tissues contained desmethylbromethalin. Desmethylbromethalin is the active metabolite of bromethalin, uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, and results in cerebral edema. Bromethalin is a rodenticide that is visually indistinguishable from many other rodenticides, making identification of poisonings by appearance alone nearly impossible. Based on the pathological and toxicological findings, a diagnosis of bromethalin toxicosis was established. In cases of wildlife species with unknown deaths or inconsistent clinical signs with normal or minimal histological findings, bromethalin toxicosis should be considered as a differential. Adipose tissue is the tissue of choice and can be easily harvested from a live or deceased animal to help confirm or rule out bromethalin exposure or intoxication.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713510296|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713510296
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Disseminated histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum) in a pet rabbit: case
           report and review of the literature
    • Authors: Brandao, J; Woods, S, Fowlkes, N, Leissinger, M, Blair, R, Pucheu-Haston, C, Johnson, J, Elster Phillips, C, Tully, T.
      Pages: 158 - 162
      Abstract: A 2.5-year-old intact male miniature lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented with multiple nodules surrounding the eyes, nose, mouth, and prepuce. Cytological evaluation of the periocular nodules revealed the presence of intracellular (within macrophages) and extracellular yeast organisms. The yeast organisms were approximately 3–5 µm in diameter, round to oval, with a thin clear capsule, and contained an eccentrically placed basophilic crescent-shaped nucleus. The clinical pathological interpretation was granulomatous inflammation with intralesional yeast of a morphology consistent with Histoplasma spp. The rabbit was treated with microsized griseofulvin (25 mg/kg, orally, once a day) for 12 days pending final cytological diagnosis of histoplasmosis. No significant improvement was noted during the treatment period, and humane euthanasia was performed. Postmortem examination revealed the presence of intracellular and extracellular yeast organisms in the small intestine, skin (antebrachium, perioral, palpebral, perianal, and pinnal), penis, penile urethra, rectum, axillary lymph node, and conjunctiva. Postmortem fungal culture yielded Histoplasma capsulatum. Based on clinical and postmortem findings, a definitive diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was made. Disseminated histoplasmosis appears to be unreported in rabbits. Although the treatment used did not provide noticeable improvement, available information on histoplasmosis treatment in other species has been reviewed to provide useful information for future management of this condition in rabbits.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713516623|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713516623
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Choriocarcinoma-like tumor in a potbellied pig (Sus scrofa)
    • Authors: Hirata, A; Miyazaki, A, Sakai, H, Imada, N, Kitani, R, Nikami, H, Yanai, T.
      Pages: 163 - 166
      Abstract: A uterine tumor, with histological and immunohistochemical features consistent with those of human choriocarcinoma, was identified in a 10-year-old unmated female pot-bellied pig (Sus scrofa). The tumor showed biphasic proliferation of cytotrophoblast-like cells and syncytiotrophoblast-like cells. Immunohistochemically, the syncytiotrophoblast-like cells were positive for human chorionic gonadotropin, and both types of cells were positive for cytokeratin and negative for vimentin, octamer-binding transcription factor 4, and α-fetoprotein. Because syncytiotrophoblasts are absent in the normal porcine placenta, the tumor was diagnosed as a choriocarcinoma-like tumor.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713515481|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713515481
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Ocular glioneuroma with medulloepitheliomatous differentiation in a
           goldfish (Carassius auratus)
    • Authors: Mandrioli, L; Sirri, R, Gustinelli, A, Quaglio, F, Sarli, G, Chiocchetti, R.
      Pages: 167 - 172
      Abstract: An intraocular mass in the left eye causing chronic severe exophthalmia in an adult female goldfish (Carassius auratus) is described. The fish shared an aquarium with another goldfish found dead with gross and microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis. Histological examination of the left eye, histochemical (periodic acid–Schiff [PAS], Alcian blue, Ziehl–Neelsen) and immunohistochemical tests (glial fibrillary acidic protein, human neuronal protein, vimentin, and cytokeratin AE1/AE3) were carried out on the intraocular mass. Neoplastic cells forming an unencapsulated highly cellular proliferation partially covered by an intact corneal epithelium were stained with Alcian blue, which demonstrated an abundant hyaluronic acid–rich extracellular matrix. Multifocally, there were cyst-like dilatations bordered by neuroepithelial cells, which were PAS-positive. The complex neoplastic proliferation was composed of glial-like cells, neuronal-like cells (immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein and human neuronal protein, respectively) and neuroepithelium, which suggested a retinal origin.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713515218|hwp:resource-id:spvdi;26/1/167
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Congenital portosystemic shunts and hepatic encephalopathy in goat kids in
           California: 11 cases (1999-2012)
    • Authors: Kinde, H; Pesavento, P. A, Loretti, A. P, Adaska, J. M, Barr, B. C, Moore, J. D, Anderson, M. L, Rimoldi, G, Hill, A. E, Jones, M. E. B.
      Pages: 173 - 177
      Abstract: Between 1999 and 2012, 11 cases of congenital portosystemic shunts (cPSS) resulting in hepatic encephalopathy were diagnosed in goat kids necropsied at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System and at the Department of Pathology, Immunology & Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California–Davis. Affected animals included 6 females and 5 males of various breeds including Boer (5/11), Nigerian Dwarf (1/11), Saanen (1/11), Toggenburg (1/11), and mixed-breed (3/11) aged between 1.5 months and 11 months, submitted live (2/11) or dead (9/11) for necropsy. The most frequent clinical signs in these goats were ataxia, blindness, tremors, head bobbing, head pressing, seizures, circling, weakness, and ill thrift. Bile acids were measured in 2 animals, and were elevated in both cases (134 and 209 µmol/l, reference interval = 0–50 µmol/l). Necropsy findings were poor to fair body condition. Grossly, the livers of 4 animals were subjectively small. Microscopic lesions included portal spaces with increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplastic or absent portal veins, diffuse atrophy of the hepatic parenchyma with the presence of small hepatocytes and, in some cases, multifocal hepatocellular macrovesicular vacuolation. In the brain and spinal cord of all animals, there was bilateral and symmetric spongy degeneration affecting the cerebrum, mesencephalon, cerebellum, brainstem, and cervical spinal cord. In all cases, the brain lesions were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Congenital portosystemic shunts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young goats with a history of ill thrift, and nonspecific neurological signs.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713518050|hwp:resource-id:spvdi;26/1/173
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Identification of Lamanema chavezi Becklund 1963 infection in a llama
           (Lama glama) in the United States
    • Authors: Jarvinen, J. A. C; Whitley, E. M, Kreuder, A. J, Schleining, J. A.
      Pages: 178 - 183
      Abstract: Infection with Lamanema chavezi, a parasitic nematode of New World camelids, was diagnosed by examination of feces and formalin-fixed liver from a 14-month-old female llama (Lama glama) that died after a 6-week illness. Infection with L. chavezi was initially suspected when a granuloma containing an unidentified nematode was detected microscopically in the hepatic parenchyma from a necropsy specimen. The subsequent diagnosis of L. chavezi infection was based on the morphologic features of 2 immature nematodes dissected from individual hepatic granulomas, characteristics of eggs detected in feces of the llama by centrifugal flotation in sugar solution (specific gravity: 1.30), development of third-stage larvae within the eggs after incubation of the llama feces at room temperature for ≥30 days, and the morphology of third-stage larvae released from the embryonated eggs. Collectively, these findings indicate that the llama, born and raised in Oregon, harbored an autochthonous L. chavezi infection. Eggs identified as L. chavezi were also detected by centrifugal flotation of pelleted feces from 3 of 7 herd mates of the llama indicating this parasite is endemic in the Oregon herd. The findings reported herein serve to alert diagnosticians and veterinary practitioners to the occurrence of L. chavezi in New World camelids in the United States and describe diagnostic features of this potential pathogen.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14T10:28:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713516626|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713516626
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 1 (2014)
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2014