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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 188 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences     Open Access  

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Journal Cover   Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
  [SJR: 0.627]   [H-I: 51]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [757 journals]
  • The 2014 E. P. Pope Memorial Award to Dr. Tim Baszler
    • Pages: 4 - 5
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714563287
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be
           associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export
    • Authors: Moore, S. J; O'Dea, M. A, Perkins, N, O'Hara, A. J.
      Pages: 6 - 17
      Abstract: The prevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was investigated in cattle prior to export. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect nucleic acids from the following viruses and bacteria in nasal swab samples: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Between 2010 and 2012, nasal swabs were collected from 1,484 apparently healthy cattle destined for export to the Middle East and Russian Federation. In addition, whole blood samples from 334 animals were tested for antibodies to BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nasal prevalence of BoCV at the individual animal level was 40.1%. The nasal and seroprevalence of BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 was 1.0% and 39%, 1.2% and 46%, 3.0% and 56%, and 1.4% and 87%, respectively. The nasal prevalence of H. somni, M. bovis, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida was 42%, 4.8%, 13.4%, and 26%, respectively. Significant differences in nasal and seroprevalence were detected between groups of animals from different geographical locations. The results of the current study provide baseline data on the prevalence of organisms associated with BRD in Australian live export cattle in the preassembly period. This data could be used to develop strategies for BRD prevention and control prior to loading.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714559741
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • An outbreak of thyroid hyperplasia (goiter) with high mortality in
           budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)
    • Authors: Loukopoulos, P; Bautista, A. C, Puschner, B, Murphy, B, Crossley, B. M, Holser, I, Gomes, L, Shivaprasad, H. L, Uzal, F. A.
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: An outbreak of goiter with high morbidity and mortality in a flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in California is described. Forty-five out of 400 adult birds exhibited signs of illness, weight loss, and enlargement in the crop area; 15 of the 45 birds died over a 2–3-month period. Diet consisted of a commercial mixture with the addition of broccoli, whole oats, and carrots, but no minerals or supplements. Six budgerigars were subjected to necropsy; all 6 birds had severely enlarged thyroid glands. Thyroid follicular hyperplasia was histologically observed in all birds examined, while granulomatous thyroiditis and microfollicular adenoma were observed in 2 birds, respectively. Virological, bacteriological, parasitological, and heavy metal analyses were negative or within normal limits. The total iodine in the thyroid glands of affected birds was measured by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Following iodine supplementation and removal of broccoli from the diet, the owner reported weight gain and a reduced death rate among clinically affected birds; no additional birds became sick. The presence of broccoli with its iodine-binding ability and the complete lack of added minerals in the diet of these animals were thought to be the predisposing factors for the outbreak in the present study. Outbreaks of goiter accompanied by high mortality are rare in any species and, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, have not been described previously in any avian species. Recognition of this condition may help improve medical, welfare, and trade standards concerning this species.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714559025
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Sequence-characterized amplified regions that differentiate New World
           screwworms from other potential wound-inhabiting flies
    • Authors: Christen, J. A; Skoda, S. R, Heng-Moss, T. M, Lee, D. J, Foster, J. E.
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: New World screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858), were once devastating pests of warm-blooded animals in the United States before they were successfully eradicated using the sterile insect technique. Guarding against the introduction of screwworms to North America or any other screwworm-free area relies on rapid, reliable identification of suspected cases. In the current study, the DNA from excised markers generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction was used as the basis to generate 2 species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region molecular markers. Resulting primer pairs, named CR92A1 and J1A2 (each with forward and reverse components), produced amplicons of 852 and 848 base pairs, respectively. The 2 primer pairs successfully discriminated between C. hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775), 8 other species of blowflies, 3 noncalliphorid dipterans, and 1 nondipteran outlier. These primers may become important tools for veterinary laboratories and the screwworm eradication and exclusion program for rapid identification or verification of suspicious larval samples in presumed outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714555897
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Inflammatory, immunological, and intestinal disease biomarkers in Chinese
           Shar-Pei dogs with marked hypocobalaminemia
    • Authors: Grutzner, N; Heilmann, R. M, Cranford, S. M, Holzenburg, A, Suchodolski, J. S, Steiner, J. M.
      Pages: 31 - 40
      Abstract: Chinese Shar-Pei dogs have a high prevalence of hypocobalaminemia and are commonly presented with clinical signs suggestive of severe and long-standing gastrointestinal disease such as diarrhea, vomiting, and/or weight loss. The aim of the current study was to evaluate serum concentrations of inflammatory markers, markers for intestinal disease, and immunological markers in Shar-Peis with hypocobalaminemia or normocobalaminemia (serum cobalamin concentrations within the reference interval). Serum samples from Shar-Peis were collected from various parts of the United States. Serum concentrations of inflammatory markers (i.e., C-reactive protein [CRP], calprotectin [CP], and S100A12), hyaluronic acid (HA, a marker for cutaneous mucinosis), and analytes commonly altered in chronic intestinal diseases (i.e., albumin, zinc, alpha1-proteinease inhibitor [α1PI], immunoglobulin [Ig]A, and IgM) were compared between Shar-Peis with hypocobalaminemia and Shar-Peis with normocobalaminemia. Serum concentrations of CRP, CP, S100A12, HA, zinc, and cα1-PI concentrations did not differ between hypocobalaminemic and normocobalaminemic Shar-Peis (P > 0.05). Serum concentrations of albumin were significantly lower in hypocobalaminemic Shar-Peis (median: 2.5 g/dl) than in normocobalaminemic Shar-Peis (median: 2.9 g/dl; P < 0.0001). Higher serum IgA concentrations and lower serum IgM concentrations were observed in hypocobalaminemic Shar-Peis (median: 1.7 g/l and 0.8 g/l, respectively) than in normocobalaminemic Shar-Peis (median: 0.7 g/l and 1.9 g/l, respectively; both P < 0.0001). In conclusion, no difference was found in serum concentrations of CRP, CP, S100A12, and HA between hypocobalaminemic and normocobalaminemic Shar-Peis whereas some differences were observed in analytes (e.g., albumin, IgA, and IgM) that may be altered in patients with chronic enteropathies.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714560881
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Comparison of culture, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescent in situ
           hybridization for detection of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and "Brachyspira
           hampsonii" in pig feces
    • Authors: Wilberts, B. L; Warneke, H. L, Bower, L. P, Kinyon, J. M, Burrough, E. R.
      Pages: 41 - 46
      Abstract: Swine dysentery is characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea and can occur following infection by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae or "Brachyspira hampsonii ". A definitive diagnosis is often based on the isolation of strongly beta-hemolytic spirochetes from selective culture or by the application of species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays directly to feces. While culture is highly sensitive, it typically requires 6 or more days to complete, and PCR, although rapid, can be limited by fecal inhibition. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been described in formalin-fixed tissues; however, completion requires approximately 2 days. Because of the time constraints of available assays, a same-day FISH assay was developed to detect B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii " in pig feces using previously described oligonucleotide probes Hyo1210 and Hamp1210 for B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii", respectively. In situ hybridization was simultaneously compared with culture and PCR on feces spiked with progressive dilutions of spirochetes to determine the threshold of detection for each assay at 0 and 48 hr. The PCR assay on fresh feces and FISH on formalin-fixed feces had similar levels of detection. Culture was the most sensitive method, detecting the target spirochetes at least 2 log-dilutions less when compared to other assays 48 hr after sample preparation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization also effectively detected both target species in formalin-fixed feces from inoculated pigs as part of a previous experiment. Accordingly, FISH on formalin-fixed feces from clinically affected pigs can provide same-day identification and preliminary speciation of spirochetes associated with swine dysentery in North America.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714563064
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Diagnosis of the Lelystad strain of Porcine reproductive and respiratory
           syndrome virus infection in individually housed pigs: comparison between
           serum and oral fluid samples for viral nucleic acid and antibody detection
    • Authors: Decorte, I; Van Campe, W, Mostin, L, Cay, A. B, De Regge, N.
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: There has been a developing interest in the use of oral fluid for the diagnosis of different pathogens such as Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV and PRRSV-specific antibodies have been shown to be present in oral fluid samples, but the correlation between diagnostic results in oral fluid and serum samples has been insufficiently addressed. Studies investigating this correlation focused on boars older than 6 months and type 2 strains, but it is known that the outcome of a PRRSV infection is age and strain dependent. To address this gap, the current study reports on the detection of PRRSV and PRRSV-specific antibodies in serum and oral fluid samples collected over a 6-week period after an experimental infection of 8-week-old individually housed pigs with Lelystad virus, the type 1 prototype strain. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that significantly more serum samples were PRRSV RNA–positive than oral fluid until 5 days postinfection (dpi). Between 7 and 21 dpi, PRRSV RNA detection was similar in both samples but higher detection rates in oral fluid were found from 28 dpi. Compared with existing literature, this highlights that detection rates at particular time points postinfection might vary in function of strain virulence and animal age and provides useful information for the interpretation of pen-based oral fluid results. An excellent agreement between the oral fluid and serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results was observed at every time point, further supporting the usefulness of oral fluid as a diagnostic sample for antibody detection.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714561252
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • The effect of anatomic site and age on detection of Staphylococcus aureus
           in pigs
    • Authors: Linhares, L. L; Yang, M, Sreevatsan, S, Munoz-Zanzi, C. A, Torremorell, M, Davies, P. R.
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Despite active research into methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pigs since 2004, the ecology of the susceptible ancestral organism has been neglected. A longitudinal study of pigs in 2 intensive production systems was conducted to investigate the effects of age and anatomical site on detection of S. aureus. Sampling was replicated in 2 cohorts per farm, with swabs collected from the nares, tonsils, skin (axilla), and rectum in lactating sows, suckling, weaned, and market-age pigs, plus the vagina of sows. No MRSA were isolated, but S. aureus was detected in a least 1 site in 175 (91.1%) out of 192 pigs. Pig-level prevalence did not differ among the age groups, but the proportion of positive samples (all sites) was higher in market-age pigs (75.2%) and nursery-age pigs (63.2%) than in sows (40.7%) and suckling piglets (38%). Prevalence did not differ among nasal (67.9%), skin (62.3%), and tonsil (61.7%) swabs, but was lower in rectal (42%) and vaginal swabs (39.6%). Multiple multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa types were found in both production systems, but all isolates were of ST398, ST9, or ST5. These MLST lineages have been variably predominant among reports of MRSA in pigs on 3 continents, and the presence of methicillin-sensitive variants in several countries raises the likelihood that MRSA in pigs has likely resulted from independent acquisition of the mecA gene by multiple S. aureus lineages that have been adapted to swine over the long term, rather than recent introduction of novel clones into swine populations.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:07-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714559598
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Analytical validation of a second-generation immunoassay for the
           quantification of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in canine
    • Authors: Cahill, R. J; Pigeon, K, Strong-Townsend, M. I, Drexel, J. P, Clark, G. H, Buch, J. S.
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been shown to have clinical utility as a biomarker in dogs with heart disease. There were several limitations associated with early diagnostic assay formats including a limited dynamic range and the need for protease inhibitors to maintain sample stability. A second-generation Cardiopet® proBNP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine) was developed to address these limitations, and the present study reports the results of the analytical method validation for the second-generation assay. Coefficients of variation for intra-assay, interassay, and total precision based on 8 samples ranged from 3.9% to 8.9%, 2.0% to 5.0%, and 5.5% to 10.6%, respectively. Analytical sensitivity was established at 102 pmol/l. Accuracy averaged 102.0% based on the serial dilutions of 5 high-dose canine samples. Bilirubin, lipids, and hemoglobin had no effect on results. Reproducibility across 3 unique assay lots was excellent with an average coefficient of determination (r 2) of 0.99 and slope of 1.03. Both ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid plasma and serum gave equivalent results at time of blood draw (slope = 1.02, r 2 = 0.89; n = 51) but NT-proBNP was more stable in plasma at 25°C with median half-life measured at 244 hr and 136 hr for plasma and serum, respectively. Plasma is the preferred sample type and is considered stable up to 48 hr at room temperature whereas serum should be frozen or refrigerated when submitted for testing. Results of this study validate the second-generation canine Cardiopet proBNP assay for accurate and precise measurement of NT-proBNP in routine sample types from canine patients.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714562826
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Hematological values for adult eastern Hermann's tortoise (Testudo
           hermanni boettgeri) in semi-natural conditions
    • Authors: Bielli, M; Nardini, G, Di Girolamo, N, Savarino, P.
      Pages: 68 - 73
      Abstract: Hermann’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni) is considered near threatened in the wild but, by contrast, it is one of the most popular pet tortoises in Europe. Scant data is reported in the veterinary literature on hematological values for T. hermanni and, to our knowledge, none focused on the subspecies boettgeri (eastern Hermann’s tortoise). Published reports are based on small sample populations, and confusion arises when comparing the sampling sites, the anticoagulants, and the counting methods used. The purpose of the current study was to establish the normal mean values and reference intervals for the main hematological parameters for captive adult T. hermanni boettgeri and to evaluate the reliability of a semiautomated blood analyzer for red blood cell count and hematocrit determination. Blood values were determined in 23 adult tortoises using a Neubauer chamber with Natt and Herrick solution; red blood cells and hematocrit were also measured using a semiautomated blood analyzer. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, differences between sexes, and agreement between the counting methods. Reference intervals were calculated with the robust method. Wilcoxon signed rank test with continuity correction was used to investigate differences between sexes, and Bland–Altman analysis was performed to compare manual versus semiautomated values. Red blood cells, hematocrit, and hemoglobin determinations were significantly higher in males than in females. White blood cell counts did not show any sex variability. The agreement of manual versus semiautomated determination was considered acceptable for clinical use.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714561251
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids
    • Authors: Snider, D. B; Gardner, D. R, Janke, B. H, Ensley, S. M.
      Pages: 74 - 79
      Abstract: Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle consumption and detection of isocupressic acid in a sample from the dam. Stable metabolites of isocupressic acid include agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid, which have been shown to be present in the serum of mature animals for a few days following consumption of pine needles. As maternal serum is infrequently submitted for diagnosis of cattle abortions, a diagnostic assay capable of confirming isocupressic acid exposure in other matrices would be desirable. To the authors’ knowledge, no previous investigations have indicated whether these stable metabolites of isocupressic acid cross the placenta or are detectable in fetal tissues. Therefore, the presence of agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid was evaluated using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy on fetal thoracic fluid and stomach contents collected from 2 aborted bovine fetuses with a recent herd history of pine needle consumption by the dams and a subsequent abortion outbreak in the herd. Only tetrahydroagathic acid was detected in the fetal thoracic fluid and fetal stomach contents. The current study encourages diagnosticians to collect fetal thoracic fluids to permit the detection of tetrahydroagathic acid in cases of suspected pine needle abortion.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714554443
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Pathology and diagnosis of proliferative and ulcerative dermatitis
           associated with Tunga penetrans infestation in cattle
    • Authors: Marin, R. E; Houston, R, Omanska-Klusek, A, Alcaraz, A, Garcia, J. P, Uzal, F. A.
      Pages: 80 - 85
      Abstract: Tunga penetrans is the smallest biting flea known. In cattle, infestation by T. penetrans (tungiasis) typically affects the skin of the distal legs, udder, prepuce, and perianal area. A detailed clinical and pathologic description of bovine tungiasis, together with electron microscopy and molecular diagnostics to establish the identity of the parasite are described. Ninety percent of the cows and heifers and 80% of the bulls in a herd in northwest Argentina had proliferative and ulcerative skin lesions affecting the coronary band, interdigital space, heels, and rudimentary toes of the fore and/or rear limbs, teats, and/or prepuce. These proliferative lesions had multiple large cavities filled with hemorrhagic fluid, necrotic debris, and Tunga spp. parasites. Histologically, the skin showed diffuse papillary epithelial hyperplasia with severe orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and it was multifocally ulcerated and inflamed. Multifocally, sections of arthropod parasites were observed embedded in the epidermis and dermis with the posterior end toward the surface. Images of wet mounts and scanning electron microscopy of the parasite showed morphologic characteristics compatible with Tunga spp. Polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II and the internal transcribed spacer region indicated 99% homology to published T. penetrans sequences. Tungiasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for proliferative lesions in skin of cattle.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714559597
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Classification and clinical features in 88 cases of equine cutaneous
    • Authors: Miller, C. A; Durham, A. C, Schaffer, P. A, Ehrhart, E. J, Powers, B. E, Duncan, C. G.
      Pages: 86 - 91
      Abstract: Equine cutaneous lymphoma is an uncommon disease that can present with variable clinical signs, immunosuppression, and rapid systemic disease progression. Various subtypes of equine lymphoma have been described and classified according to a veterinary adaptation of the World Health Organization classification system, but little data is available regarding the association between lymphoma subtypes and epidemiological criteria and/or clinical outcome. The objective of the current study was to classify previously diagnosed cases of equine cutaneous lymphoma and correlate subtypes with clinical data to investigate epidemiological trends and prognostic implications. Results from the study confirm T-cell–rich, large B-cell lymphoma (TCRLBCL) as the predominant subtype in equine cutaneous lymphoma. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) was the second most common phenotype in the current study. To the authors’ knowledge, a description of the morphological and immunohistochemical features of CTCL in horses, an epitheliotropic neoplasm similar to the cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma variant (mycosis fungoides) observed in human beings and canids, has not been previously described. Less common lymphoma subtypes identified in the study include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. Quarter Horses almost exclusively developed TCRLBCL, while the frequency of CTCL was increased significantly in Thoroughbreds compared with other breeds. TCRLBCLs more frequently presented as multiple masses while CTCLs were more often solitary nodules. When multiple regions of the body were affected, 100% of cases were TCRBCL. Finally, there was an observable trend for longer survival in cases of TCRLBCL without local recurrence, suggesting adequate surgical excision may be an effective treatment modality.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714561653
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Equine pancreatic disease: A review and characterization of the lesions of
           four cases (2005-2014)
    • Authors: Newman; S. J.
      Pages: 92 - 96
      Abstract: Equine pancreatic disease is considered rare, and successful treatment is limited. Additionally, antemortem diagnosis of equine pancreatitis is difficult because of the lack of definitive diagnostic tests. Although a paucity of information exists on this entity in the horse, pancreatic disease has typically been shown to be secondary to other gastrointestinal, hepatic, and endocrine conditions. No predisposition based on age, sex, or breed appears to exist, but several conditions predispose a horse to pancreatitis, including grain overload, endocrine disease, and parasite migration. A retrospective search of cases within the archive of the University of Tennessee necropsy database revealed only 4 cases during a 9-year period (2005–2014). In only 1 case was pancreatic disease considered primary, and in the other 3, pathologies often seen concurrently with pancreatic lesions were identified. These included cecal rupture, colonic displacement, neoplasia (lymphocytic leukemia), and pituitary adenoma. A review of available historical data and associated laboratory results are included with the gross and histologic characteristics of pancreatic lesions, in these 4 newly reported cases.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714560606
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Enteric disease in postweaned beef calves associated with Bovine
           coronavirus clade 2
    • Authors: Fulton, R. W; Herd, H. R, Sorensen, N. J, Confer, A. W, Ritchey, J. W, Ridpath, J. F, Burge, L. J.
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1) infections are associated with varied clinical presentations including neonatal diarrhea, winter dysentery in dairy cattle, and respiratory disease in various ages of cattle. The current report presents information on BoCV infections associated with enteric disease of postweaned beef cattle in Oklahoma. In 3 separate accessions from a single herd, 1 in 2012 and 2 in 2013, calves were observed with bloody diarrhea. One calf in 2012 died and was necropsied, and 2 calves from this herd died in 2013 and were necropsied. A third calf from another herd died and was necropsied. The gross and histologic diagnosis was acute, hemorrhagic colitis in all 4 cattle. Colonic tissues from all 4 animals were positive by fluorescent antibody testing and/or immunohistochemical staining for BoCV antigen. Bovine coronavirus was isolated in human rectal tumor cells from swabs of colon surfaces of all animals. The genomic information from a region of the S envelope region revealed BoCV clade 2. Detection of BoCV clade 2 in beef cattle in Oklahoma is consistent with recovery of BoCV clade 2 from the respiratory tract of postweaned beef calves that had respiratory disease signs or were healthy. Further investigations on the ecology of BoCV in cattle are important, as BoCV may be an emerging disease beyond the initial descriptions. Challenge studies are needed to determine pathogenicity of these strains, and to determine if current BoCV vaccines are efficacious against the BoCV clade 2 strains.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714559026
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Isolation and genetic characterization of an Actinobacillus
           pleuropneumoniae serovar K12:O3 strain
    • Authors: Ito, H; Matsumoto, A.
      Pages: 102 - 106
      Abstract: An atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 12 strain, termed QAS106, was isolated from a clinical case of porcine pleuropneumonia in Japan. An immunodiffusion (ID) test identified the strain as serovar 12. However, the ID test also demonstrated that strain QAS106 shared antigenic determinants with both the serovar 3 and 15 reference strains. Strain QAS106 was positive in the capsular serovar 12–specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, while the PCR toxin gene profiling and omlA PCR typing assays indicated that strain QAS106 was similar to serovar 3. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of strain QAS106 was identical with that of serovars 3 and 12, but it showed 99.7% identity with that of serovar 15. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that genes involved in biosynthesis of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of strain QAS106 were identical to those of serovar 12 at the amino acid level. On the other hand, strain QAS106 would express putative proteins involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-polysaccharide (O-PS), the amino acid sequences of which were identical or nearly identical to those of serovars 3 and 15. In conclusion, strain QAS106 should be recognized as K12:O3, even though typical serovar 12 strains are K12:O12. The emergence of an atypical A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 12 strain expressing a rare combination of CPS and O-PS antigens would hamper precise serodiagnosis by the use of either CPS- or LPS-based serodiagnostic methodology alone.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714555898
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico
    • Authors: Pedroza-Roldan, C; Paez-Magallan, V, Charles-Nino, C, Elizondo-Quiroga, D, Leonel De Cervantes-Mireles, R, Lopez-Amezcua, M. A.
      Pages: 107 - 111
      Abstract: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714559969
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Cluster of cases of massive hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant
           detection in race horses
    • Authors: Carvallo, F. R; Poppenga, R, Kinde, H, Diab, S. S, Nyaoke, A. C, Hill, A. E, Arthur, R. M, Uzal, F. A.
      Pages: 112 - 116
      Abstract: Five horses originating from 4 different California race tracks were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for necropsy and diagnostic workup. The 5 horses had a history of sudden collapse and death during exercise. In all of them, massive hemoperitoneum and hemorrhages in other cavities or organs were observed. The liver from these 5 animals and from 27 horses that had been euthanized due to catastrophic leg injuries (controls) were subjected to a rodenticide anticoagulant screen. Traces of brodifacoum, diphacinone, or bromadiolone were detected in the 5 horses with massive bleeding (5/5), and no traces of rodenticides were detected in control horses (0/27). Other frequent causes of massive hemorrhages in horses were ruled out in 4 of the cases; one of the horses had a pelvic fracture. Although only traces of anticoagulants were found in the livers of these horses and the role of these substances in the massive bleeding remains uncertain, it is speculated that exercise-related increases in blood pressure may have reduced the threshold for toxicity of these anticoagulants.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714559970
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
  • Identification of Parabodo caudatus (class Kinetoplastea) in urine voided
           from a dog with hematuria
    • Authors: Vandersea, M. W; Birkenheuer, A. J, Litaker, R. W, Vaden, S. L, Renschler, J. S, Gookin, J. L.
      Pages: 117 - 120
      Abstract: A voided urine sample, obtained from a 13-year-old intact male dog residing in a laboratory animal research facility, was observed to contain biflagellate protozoa 5 days following an episode of gross hematuria. The protozoa were identified as belonging to the class Kinetoplastea on the basis of light microscopic observation of Wright–Giemsa-stained urine sediment in which the kinetoplast was observed basal to 2 anterior flagella. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers corresponding with conserved regions within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of representative kinetoplastid species identified nucleotide sequences with 100% identity to Parabodo caudatus. Parabodo caudatus organisms were unable to be demonstrated cytologically or by means of PCR in samples collected from the dog’s environment. The dog had a history of 50 complete urinalyses performed over the 12-year period preceding detection of P. caudatus, and none of these were noted to contain protozoa. Moreover, the gross hematuria that was documented 5 days prior to detection of P. caudatus had never before been observed in this dog. Over the ensuing 2.5 years of the dog’s life, 16 additional complete urinalyses were performed, none of which revealed the presence of protozoa. Bodonids are commonly found in soil as well as in freshwater and marine environments. However, P. caudatus, in particular, has a 150-year-long, interesting, and largely unresolved history in people as either an inhabitant or contaminant of urine. This historical conundrum is revisited in the current description of P. caudatus as recovered from the urine of a dog.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T10:32:08-08:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714562827
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 1 (2014)
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