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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 194 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

        1 2     

Journal Cover   Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
  [SJR: 0.677]   [H-I: 53]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [819 journals]
  • Coinfection with a novel fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus and a novel
           Spirorchis sp. in an eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina) in Florida
    • Authors: Yonkers, S. B; Schneider, R, Reavill, D. R, Archer, L. L, Childress, A. L, Wellehan, J. F. X.
      Pages: 408 - 413
      Abstract: Herpesviruses are important pathogens of chelonians, and include Chelonid herpesvirus 5, which is associated with fibropapillomatosis in sea turtles. Spirorchid trematodes are blood flukes that reside within the cardiovascular system of marine turtles and may be associated with severe disease. An eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina) at the South Florida Wildlife Care Center (Fort Lauderdale, Florida) was presented to the facility with papillomatous growths behind both rear legs. Surgical removal resulted in remission for 8 months; however, lesions recurred, prompting a second surgery and acyclovir therapy. Surgical biopsies revealed subacute superficial inflammation associated with the supporting stroma of the cutaneous papillomas and granulomas within the superficial dermis containing fragmented and collapsed brown trematode eggs surrounded by multinucleated giant cells and epithelioid macrophages. Pan-herpesviral and pan-trematode consensus polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were run on tissue samples. Comparative sequence analysis revealed a novel alphaherpesvirus and a novel trematode in the genus Spirorchis. The animal became anorexic and was euthanized due to poor quality of life. While we do not yet have a complete understanding of the effects of herpesvirus and trematode infections in eastern box turtles, the findings thus presented provide initial insights into the disease relationships among these chelonians.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715589612
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Analytical validation of an immunoassay for the quantification of
           N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in feline blood
    • Authors: Mainville, C. A; Clark, G. H, Esty, K. J, Foster, W. M, Hanscom, J. L, Hebert, K. J, Lyons, H. R.
      Pages: 414 - 421
      Abstract: The measurement of N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker for heart stress detectable in blood, has been shown to have clinical utility in cats with heart disease. A second-generation feline enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Cardiopet® proBNP, IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine) was developed to measure NT-proBNP in routine feline plasma or serum samples with improved analyte stability. Results of the analytical validation for the second-generation assay are presented. Analytic sensitivity was 10 pmol/l. Accuracy of 103.5% was determined via serial dilutions of 6 plasma samples. Coefficients of variation for intra-assay, interassay, and total precision were in the ranges of 1.6–6.3%, 4.3–8.8%, and 10.1–15.1%, respectively. Repeatability across 2 lots for both serum and plasma had an average coefficient of determination (r 2) of 0.99 and slope of 1.11. Stability of the analyte was found to be high. In serum samples held at 4°C for 24–72 hr, the mean percent recovery from time zero was ≥99%. In serum samples held at 25°C for 24 hr, the mean percent recovery from time zero was 91.9%, and for 48 hr, 85.6%. A method comparison of the first- and second-generation assays with a clinically characterized population of cats revealed no difference in the tests’ ability to differentiate levels of NT-proBNP between normal cats and cats with occult cardiomyopathy (P < 0.001). Results from our study validate that the second-generation feline Cardiopet proBNP assay can measure NT-proBNP in routine feline plasma and serum samples with accuracy and precision.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715588330
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • European interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) real-time
           RT-PCR detection in experimental and field samples: The method of
           extraction is critical for SBV RNA detection in semen
    • Authors: Schulz, C; van der Poel, W. H. M, Ponsart, C, Cay, A. B, Steinbach, F, Zientara, S, Beer, M, Hoffmann, B.
      Pages: 422 - 430
      Abstract: Molecular methods for the detection of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) RNA were rapidly developed after the emergence of this novel orthobunyavirus in Europe. The SBV epizootic wave has declined, but infectious SBV in SBV RNA–positive semen remains a possible risk for the distribution of SBV. However, the abilities of SBV molecular detection methods used at European laboratories have not yet been assessed, to our knowledge. The performances of extraction and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) methods used at 27 German and 17 other European laboratories for SBV RNA detection in the matrices of whole blood, serum, tissue homogenate, RNA eluates, and bovine semen were evaluated in 2 interlaboratory trials with special emphasis on semen extraction methods. For reliable detection of viral genome in bovine semen samples, highly effective extraction methods are essential to cope with the potential inhibitory effects of semen components on PCR results. All methods used by the 44 laboratories were sufficiently robust to detect SBV RNA with high diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (95.8%) in all matrices, except semen. The trials demonstrated that the published recommended semen extraction methods (Hoffmann et al. 2013) and a combination of TRIzol LS with an alternative extraction kit have a considerably higher diagnostic sensitivity to detect SBV RNA in semen up to a detection limit of Cq ≤35 compared to other extraction methods used. A thorough validation of extraction methods with standardized semen batches is essential before their use for SBV RNA detection in bovine semen.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715593798
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein
           and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and
           symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic
           wasting disease
    • Authors: Spraker, T. R; Gidlewski, T, Powers, J. G, Nichols, T, Balachandran, A, Cummings, B, Wild, M. A, VerCauteren, K, O'Rourke, K. I.
      Pages: 431 - 441
      Abstract: The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrPCWD) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrPCWD immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrPCWD in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans). Data was placed in a formula to generate an overall obex score. Data suggests that PrPCWD immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration has a unique and relatively consistent pattern of progression throughout a section of obex. This scoring technique utilizing a single section of obex may prove useful in future work for estimating the presence and abundance of PrPCWD in peripheral tissues and the nervous system in elk with CWD.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715593368
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Whole genome sequence analysis of circulating Bluetongue virus serotype 11
           strains from the United States including two domestic canine isolates
    • Authors: Gaudreault, N. N; Jasperson, D. C, Dubovi, E. J, Johnson, D. J, Ostlund, E. N, Wilson, W. C.
      Pages: 442 - 448
      Abstract: Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-transmitted pathogen that typically infects and causes disease in domestic and wild ruminants. BTV is also known to infect domestic canines as discovered when dogs were vaccinated with a BTV-contaminated vaccine. Canine BTV infections have been documented through serological surveys, and natural infection by the Culicoides vector has been suggested. The report of isolation of BTV serotype 11 (BTV-11) from 2 separate domestic canine abortion cases in the states of Texas in 2011 and Kansas in 2012, were apparently unrelated to BTV-contaminated vaccination or consumption of BTV-contaminated raw meat as had been previously speculated. To elucidate the origin and relationship of these 2 domestic canine BTV-11 isolates, whole genome sequencing was performed. Six additional BTV-11 field isolates from Texas, Florida, and Washington, submitted for diagnostic investigation during 2011 and 2013, were also fully sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the BTV-11 domestic canine isolates are virtually identical, and both share high identity with 2 BTV-11 isolates identified from white-tailed deer in Texas in 2011. The results of the current study further support the hypothesis that a BTV-11 strain circulating in the Midwestern states could have been transmitted to the dogs by the infected Culicoides vector. Our study also expands the short list of available BTV-11 sequences, which may aid BTV surveillance and epidemiology.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715585156
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Evaluation of an Erns-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to
           distinguish Classical swine fever virus-infected pigs from pigs vaccinated
           with CP7_E2alf
    • Authors: Pannhorst, K; Frohlich, A, Staubach, C, Meyer, D, Blome, S, Becher, P.
      Pages: 449 - 460
      Abstract: Infections with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are a major economic threat to pig production. To combat CSF outbreaks and to maintain trade, new marker vaccines were developed that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). The chimeric pestivirus CP7_E2alf was shown to be safe and efficacious. Its DIVA strategy is based on the detection of CSFV Erns-specific antibodies that are only developed on infection. However, for the new marker vaccine to be considered a valuable control tool, a validated discriminatory assay is needed. One promising candidate is the already commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, PrioCHECK CSFV Erns ELISA (Prionics BV, Lelystad, The Netherlands). Four laboratories of different European Union member states tested 530 serum samples and country-specific field sera from domestic pigs and wild boar. The ELISA displayed a good robustness. However, based on its reproducibility and repeatability, ranges rather than single values for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were defined. The ELISA displayed a sensitivity of 90–98% with sera from CSFV-infected domestic pigs. A specificity of 89–96% was calculated with sera from domestic pigs vaccinated once with CP7_E2alf. The ELISA detected CSFV infections in vaccinated domestic pigs with a sensitivity of 82–94%. The sensitivity was lower with sera taken ≤21 days post-challenge indicating that the stage of CSFV infection had a considerable influence on testing. Taken together, the PrioCHECK CSFV Erns ELISA can be used for detection of CSFV infections in CP7_E2alf-vaccinated and nonvaccinated domestic pig populations, but should only be applied on a herd basis by testing a defined number of animals.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715592446
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Proficiency monitoring of monoclonal antibody cocktail-based enzyme-linked
           immunosorbent assay for detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in
    • Authors: Lee, K. W; Blankenship, K, McKinney, B, Kern, G, Buch, J, Greenwood, J, Brazis, P, Drouet, L, Tambone, C, Faas, R, Weaver, G.
      Pages: 461 - 469
      Abstract: The purpose of our study was to document the continued comparative proficiency of different laboratories that perform a monoclonal antibody–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (macELISA) for detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E in dogs. Replicate samples of 18 different sera pools were independently evaluated in a single blinded fashion by each of 16 different operators functioning in 10 different laboratories. The average intra-assay variance among reactive assay calibrators in all laboratories was 6.0% (range: 2.7–16.1%), while the average intralaboratory interassay variance was 7.5% (range: 3.9–10.9%). The overall interassay interlaboratory variance was consistent among laboratories and averaged 11.4% (range: 8.5–12.5%). All laboratories yielded similar profiles and magnitudes of responses for replicate unknown samples; dose response profiles observed in each of the laboratories were indistinguishable. Considering the positive or negative results, interassay interlaboratory concordance of results exceeded 90%. Correlation of optical density values between and among all laboratories was strong (r > 0.9, P < 0.001). Collectively, the results demonstrated that the macELISA for measuring allergen-specific canine IgE is reproducible, and documents that consistency of results can be achieved not only in an individual laboratory by differing operators but also among laboratories using the same monoclonal-based ELISA.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715587547
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Causes of mortality in farmed mink in the Intermountain West, North
    • Authors: Wilson, D. J; Baldwin, T. J, Whitehouse, C. H, Hullinger, G.
      Pages: 470 - 475
      Abstract: The primary causes of mortality were identified in postmortem examination of 339 (90.9%) of 373 farmed mink (Neovison vison; syn. Mustela vison) from January 2009 through June 2014 at the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Logan, Utah). Mink were raised under farm conditions in the Intermountain West in North America, except for 1 submission of mink from Wisconsin. In the 339 mink where cause(s) of death were established, 311 (91.7%) died from a single disease or condition, whereas 28 (8.3%) had 2 diseases or conditions contributing to death. Where cause(s) of death were evident, 11 diseases accounted for 321 (94.7%) of the diagnoses: bacterial pneumonia (67, 18.8%), Aleutian mink disease (61, 17.7%), mink viral enteritis (56, 16.2%), hepatic lipidosis (28, 8.1%), nutritional myopathy (24, 7%), bacterial enterocolitis (17, 4.9%), bacterial septicemia (16, 4.6%), starvation (15, 4.3%), epizootic catarrhal gastroenteritis of mink (14, 4.1%), pancreatitis (13, 3.8%), and bacterial metritis (10, 2.9%). In 34 (9.1%) animals, a cause of death was not evident. In an additional 16 (4.3%) of the mink, botulism was suspected from clinical history but could not be confirmed by laboratory testing. Control measures for the most common causes of death in farmed mink include testing and removal of positive animals (Aleutian mink disease), vaccination (Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, mink viral enteritis), avoidance of obesity in mink (hepatic lipidosis), and environmental management, including maintaining clean water cups, floors, feed troughs, cages, feed silos, feed truck tires, workers’ shoes, dining areas for farm personnel, leather mink handling gloves, street clothes, and coveralls.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715586438
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Performance characteristics of polymerase chain reaction and histological
           methods for the detection of Haplosporidium nelsoni in the eastern oyster
           (Crassostrea virginica)
    • Authors: Gagne, N; Veniot, A, Stephenson, M, McClure, C.
      Pages: 476 - 488
      Abstract: Fitness for purpose and validation are increasingly becoming a benchmark in the development of test methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in aquatic animals. The design of the evaluation and the analysis of data are critical to demonstrate test method performance characteristics and fitness for purpose, as stated in the World Organization for Animal Health pathway for test validation. Three test methods for the detection of the oyster parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni were selected for the validation study described herein: histology, end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR (qPCR). Preliminary work evaluated the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the PCR and qPCR assay in development. The following stage used test results on 100 oysters in 3 different laboratories to assess diagnostic sensitivity (DSe), diagnostic specificity (DSp), repeatability, and reproducibility. Repeatability and reproducibility were within 68–95%. The final part of the project evaluated DSe and DSp using test results on 400 oysters and results from the first 100 oysters tested. In the absence of a 100% gold standard test, latent class modeling methods were explored to characterize the tests (i.e., Bayesian analyses). For both PCR methods, DSe was >90%, and in the 60% range for histology, whereas DSp was >90% for all methods. Based on the results of this validation, a threshold cycle value of 30 for qPCR corresponds to the limit of sensitivity for histology where unreliable detection becomes more frequent, thus providing a threshold helpful in diagnostic settings where both histology and qPCR are used.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715592666
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Histologic and clinical features of primary and secondary vasculitis: a
           retrospective study of 42 dogs (2004-2011)
    • Authors: Swann, J. W; Priestnall, S. L, Dawson, C, Chang, Y.-M, Garden, O. A.
      Pages: 489 - 496
      Abstract: Inflammation of the blood vessel wall has been reported infrequently in dogs, and it may occur without apparent cause (primary vasculitis) or as a pathologic reaction to a range of initiating insults (secondary vasculitis). The aims of our study were to report histologic, clinical, and survival data from a large series of cases with primary and secondary vasculitis, and to compare the clinical parameters and outcome data between groups. Clinical data was collected retrospectively from the medical records of 42 client-owned dogs with a histologic diagnosis of primary or secondary vasculitis, and follow-up information was obtained. Cases were grouped according to clinical and histologic descriptors, and biochemical, hematologic, and survival data was compared between groups. Several forms of primary vasculitis were observed, and vascular inflammation was observed in conjunction with numerous other diseases. Female dogs were more likely to develop primary vasculitis, and serum globulin concentration was greater in dogs with primary vasculitis compared to those with underlying disease. All dogs with primary vasculitis of the central nervous system died or were euthanized shortly after presentation, but other forms of primary vasculitis could be managed effectively. In conclusion, presentation of clinical cases in this series was variable, and there did not appear to be well-defined vasculitic syndromes as described in people.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715587934
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Coordinate expression of cytokeratins 7 and 14, vimentin, and Bcl-2 in
           canine cutaneous epithelial tumors and cysts
    • Authors: Pieper, J. B; Stern, A. W, LeClerc, S. M, Campbell, K. L.
      Pages: 497 - 503
      Abstract: Forty-seven canine cutaneous epithelial tumors and cysts were examined to determine coordinate expression of cytokeratins 7 (CK7) and 14 (CK14), vimentin, and Bcl-2 using commercially available antibodies. Within non-affected normal skin adjacent to tumors or cysts, CK7 expression was observed in luminal cells in apocrine glands; CK14 expression was observed in the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, basal layer of outer root sheath, sebaceous glands, and myoepithelial cells of apocrine glands; vimentin expression was observed in dermal papilla and scattered non-epithelial cells within the epidermis; and Bcl-2 expression was observed in scattered non-epithelial cells in the epidermis and some apocrine glands. The pattern of expression of CK7 and CK14 in cases of adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac (CK7+/CK14–) and hepatoid gland tumors (CK7–/CK14+) may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Loss of expression of CK14 and vimentin, identifying myoepithelial cells, was observed in apocrine and ceruminous adenocarcinomas. Differences in patterns of expression of Bcl-2 were observed between infundibular keratinizing acanthomas compared to trichoepitheliomas.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715594115
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Analytical validation of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay in
    • Authors: Van Der Vekens, N; van Dievoet, M.-A, De Puydt, H, Decloedt, A, Ven, S, De Clercq, D, Deprez, P, van Loon, G.
      Pages: 504 - 509
      Abstract: Although cardiac troponin T (cTnT) assays have been used to detect myocardial damage in horses, a cTnT assay has not been analytically validated, to our knowledge. The aims of this study were to estimate the precision of a high-sensitivity cTnT assay in horses and determine the effect of hemolysis on the measured cTnT concentration. Serum samples from horses were mixed in 3 different pools. Pool 1 consisted of samples from 3 healthy horses, pool 2 from 6 horses with heart failure or atypical myopathy, and pool 3 from 10 horses with atypical myopathy. The within- and between-run coefficients of variation were determined for each pool. Pools 2 and 3 were diluted to estimate linearity. To study the influence of sample hemolysis, serum was collected from 4 horses with a high cTnT concentration, in which hemolysis was mechanically induced. In addition, ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid blood tubes were collected from 3 other horses, from which hemolysate was prepared and added to plasma at different concentrations. The within- and between-run coefficients of variation of all pools were
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715593601
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Rapid and sensitive detection of Feline immunodeficiency virus using an
           insulated isothermal PCR-based assay with a point-of-need PCR detection
    • Authors: Wilkes, R. P; Kania, S. A, Tsai, Y.-L, Lee, P.-Y. A, Chang, H.-H, Ma, L.-J, Chang, H.-F. G, Wang, H.-T. T.
      Pages: 510 - 515
      Abstract: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important infectious agent of cats. Clinical syndromes resulting from FIV infection include immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections, and neoplasia. In our study, a 5' long terminal repeat/gag region–based reverse transcription insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) was developed to amplify all known FIV strains to facilitate point-of-need FIV diagnosis. The RT-iiPCR method was applied in a point-of-need PCR detection platform—a field-deployable device capable of generating automatically interpreted RT-iiPCR results from nucleic acids within 1 hr. Limit of detection 95% of FIV RT-iiPCR was calculated to be 95 copies standard in vitro transcription RNA per reaction. Endpoint dilution studies with serial dilutions of an ATCC FIV type strain showed that the sensitivity of lyophilized FIV RT-iiPCR reagent was comparable to that of a reference nested PCR. The established reaction did not amplify any nontargeted feline pathogens, including Felid herpesvirus 1, feline coronavirus, Feline calicivirus, Feline leukemia virus, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and Chlamydophila felis. Based on analysis of 76 clinical samples (including blood and bone marrow) with the FIV RT-iiPCR, test sensitivity was 97.78% (44/45), specificity was 100.00% (31/31), and agreement was 98.65% (75/76), determined against a reference nested-PCR assay. A kappa value of 0.97 indicated excellent correlation between these 2 methods. The lyophilized FIV RT-iiPCR reagent, deployed on a user-friendly portable device, has potential utility for rapid and easy point-of-need detection of FIV in cats.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715593597
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Comparative performance of fetal goat tongue cell line ZZ-R 127 and fetal
           porcine kidney cell line LFBK-{alpha}v{beta}6 for Foot-and-mouth disease
           virus isolation
    • Authors: Fukai, K; Morioka, K, Yamada, M, Nishi, T, Yoshida, K, Kitano, R, Yamazoe, R, Kanno, T.
      Pages: 516 - 521
      Abstract: The fetal goat tongue cell line ZZ-R 127 and the fetal porcine kidney cell line LFBK-αvβ6 have been reported to have high sensitivity to various Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains. The suitability of ZZ-R 127 cells for FMDV isolation not only from epithelial suspensions but also from other clinical samples has already been confirmed in a previous study. However, to our knowledge, the suitability of LFBK-αvβ6 cells has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epithelial materials. In addition, both cell lines have never been compared, in terms of use for FMDV isolation, under the same conditions. Therefore, in the current study, the virus isolation rates of both cell lines were compared using clinical samples collected from animals infected experimentally with FMDV. Viruses were successfully isolated from clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions for both cell lines. The virus isolation rates for the 2 cell lines were not significantly different. The Cohen kappa coefficients between the virus isolation results for both cell lines were significantly high. Taken together, these results confirmed the suitability of LFBK-αvβ6 cells for FMDV isolation from clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions. The levels of susceptibility of both cell lines to FMDV isolation were also confirmed to be almost the same.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715584156
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi infection
           in cats after exposure to wild-caught adult Ixodes scapularis
    • Authors: Lappin, M. R; Chandrashekar, R, Stillman, B, Liu, J, Mather, T. N.
      Pages: 522 - 525
      Abstract: Cats are infected by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi when exposed to infected Ixodes scapularis (black-legged ticks). The purpose of our study was to allow wild-caught I. scapularis to feed on healthy research cats (n = 4) and temporally evaluate for A. phagocytophilum DNA in blood by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay as well as for antibody responses to the B. burgdorferi C6 peptide, to the A. phagocytophilum P44 peptide, and to a novel A. phagocytophilum peptide (P44-4). Prior to I. scapularis infestation, all cats were negative for antibodies against both organisms based on a kit optimized for dog serum, and negative for A. phagocytophilum DNA in blood using a conventional PCR assay. Using the pre-infestation samples, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies against the P44-4 peptide was optimized. Cats were infested with wild-caught I. scapularis for 7 days. Genomic DNA of A. phagocytophilum was amplified from the blood before antibodies were detected in all 4 cats. Antibodies against the C6 peptide, P44 peptide, and P44-4 peptide were detected in the sera of all 4 cats. Antibodies against P44-4 were detected prior to those against P44 in 3 out of 4 cats. The results suggest that a PCR assay should be considered in acutely ill cats with suspected anaplasmosis that are seronegative.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715593598
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins C and F
           in experimentally infected Beagle dogs
    • Authors: Callister, S. M; LaFleur, R. L, Jobe, D. A, Lovrich, S. D, Wasmoen, T. L.
      Pages: 526 - 530
      Abstract: Antibody levels to outer surface proteins C and F (OspC and OspF, respectively) in sera collected from laboratory Beagle dogs at 1, 2, and 4 months after challenge with infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) were determined. Each dog was confirmed by culture to harbor Borrelia burgdorferi in the skin (n = 10) or the skin and joints (n = 14). Significant levels of immunoglobulin M (Ig)M or IgG anti-OspC antibodies were detected in single serum samples from only 3 (13%) dogs. Similarly, IgM anti-OspF antibodies were detected in only 1 (4%) serum sample collected from a dog with B. burgdorferi in the skin and joints. In contrast, 4 (29%) dogs with skin and joint infections produced IgG anti-OspF antibodies after 2 months, and the response expanded to include 2 (20%) dogs with skin infection and 4 additional dogs with skin and joint infections (overall sensitivity = 62%) after 4 months. The findings failed to support the utility of OspC-based antibody tests for diagnosing canine Lyme disease, but demonstrated that dogs with B. burgdorferi colonizing joint tissue most often produced significant levels of IgG anti-OspF antibodies. Therefore, additional studies to more thoroughly evaluate the clinical utility of OspF-based antibody tests are warranted.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715583868
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Prognostic significance of tissue and serum HER2 and MUC1 in canine
           mammary cancer
    • Authors: Campos, L. C; Silva, J. O, Santos, F. S, Araujo, M. R, Lavalle, G. E, Ferreira, E, Cassali, G. D.
      Pages: 531 - 535
      Abstract: The aim of our study was to compare serum levels and protein tissue of human epidermal growth factor receptor–2 proto-oncogene (HER2) and mucin 1 (MUC1) using an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in canine mammary carcinomas and investigate how the 2 markers correlate with dogs with metastasis and without metastasis to a regional lymph node. Forty-eight female dogs were selected, including 14 with non-metastatic cancer, 14 with lymph node metastasis, and 20 healthy animals. Serum samples were collected from all the animals and tissues from 28 dogs with malignant mammary tumor with or without metastasis for evaluated HER2 and MUC1 expression. Tissue sample were evaluated for MUC1 and HER2 immunoexpression by IHC. The results showed measurable serum levels of MUC1 and HER2 in all groups. While serum MUC1 levels were significantly higher in animals with metastasis than the other 2 groups, no increase was observed in HER2 serum levels. The MUC1 IHC results showed that only membrane immunostaining was significantly different between the groups. Statistically, there was an association between immunostaining and the serum HER2 levels. Our results indicate that serum concentrations of HER2 and the IHC staining pattern for HER2 in primary tumor do not correlate with the presence of regional metastasis. However, increased concentrations of MUC1 in the serum of dogs with mammary cancer are associated with the presence of metastasis to regional lymph nodes. A membrane pattern of IHC staining for MUC1 in the primary tumor suggests that metastases to regional lymph node are present.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715592445
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Ameloblastoma in a wild black rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis)
    • Authors: Comolli, J. R; Olsen, H. M. H, Seguel, M, Schnellbacher, R. W, Fox, A. J, Divers, S. J, Sakamoto, K.
      Pages: 536 - 539
      Abstract: Reports of neoplasia in captive reptiles are becoming more frequent; however, there is still scarce knowledge of the occurrence of neoplasia in wild reptiles. A wild black rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) was presented to the Zoological Medicine service of the University of Georgia’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 3 cm in diameter solid mandibular mass that was partially ulcerated. Radiographically, the mass was radiopaque with small bone spicules and partial osteolysis of the adjacent mandible. Histologic examination of the mass revealed a neoplasm composed of cuboidal to polygonal cells arranged in islands, anastomosing cords, and trabeculae of pseudostratified epithelium with a palisading peripheral layer of densely packed columnar cells with cytoplasmic clearing. The neoplastic tissue was separated from the mesenchyme by a prominent band of fine collagen. Neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin and negative for smooth muscle actin. Electron microscopy highlighted the presence of tonofilaments and microvilli. These findings led to the diagnosis of ameloblastoma, an odontogenic epithelial tumor known to occur in humans and most veterinary species.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715590652
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Comparison between available serologic tests for detecting antibodies
           against Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in horses in
    • Authors: Schvartz, G; Epp, T, Burgess, H. J, Chilton, N. B, Lohmann, K. L.
      Pages: 540 - 546
      Abstract: To investigate the agreement between available serologic tests for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi, 50 serum samples from horses of unknown clinical status and at low risk for infection were tested. In addition to a point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pocELISA), the evaluated tests included 2 indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) for antibodies against A. phagocytophilum and an IFAT, an ELISA confirmed with Western blot, and the Lyme multiplex assay for antibodies against B. burgdorferi. For each pair-wise comparison between serologic tests, the difference in the proportion of seropositive results as well as kappa and the prevalence-adjusted, bias-adjusted kappa were calculated. The proportion of seropositive results differed significantly in each pairwise comparison of tests for detection of antibodies against A. phagocytophilum, and between the pocELISA and IFAT as well as between the pocELISA and Lyme multiplex assay for detection of antibodies against B. burgdorferi. Agreement based on kappa varied from poor to fair while agreement was improved when evaluating prevalence-adjusted, bias-adjusted kappa. Lack of agreement may be explained by differences in methodology between the evaluated tests, cross-reactivity or false-positive and false-negative tests. In addition to the limitations of serologic test interpretation in the absence of clinical disease, this data suggest that screening of horses for exposure to tick-borne diseases in nonendemic areas may not be warranted.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715587548
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Coinfection with Clostridium piliforme and Felid herpesvirus 1 in a kitten
    • Authors: Neto, R. T; Uzal, F. A, Hodzic, E, Persiani, M, Jolissaint, S, Alcaraz, A, Carvallo, F. R.
      Pages: 547 - 551
      Abstract: A 1-month-old Domestic Shorthair kitten was submitted for autopsy, with a history of upper respiratory tract infection and diarrhea. This was the third kitten from the same litter that had died with similar clinical findings within a period of 1 month. Severe conjunctivitis, rhinitis, tracheitis, and bronchointerstitial pneumonia were present, together with lymphohistiocytic colitis. Respiratory lesions were caused by infection with Felid herpesvirus 1. Colonic lesions were associated with the presence of long filamentous bacteria, identified as Clostridium piliforme, in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Our report describes a case of concurrent C. piliforme infection (Tyzzer’s disease) and feline rhinotracheitis in a kitten.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715593600
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Long-term survival in a dog with meningoencephalitis and epidural
           abscessation due to Actinomyces species
    • Authors: Song, R. B; Vitullo, C. A, da Costa, R. C, Daniels, J. B.
      Pages: 552 - 557
      Abstract: A 2-year-old, female spayed Golden Retriever dog was presented to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center for evaluation of ataxia, cervical pain, 1 episode of acute collapse, dull mentation, and inappetence. Physical examination revealed an elevated temperature of 39.7°C and severe cervical pain. Blood work revealed a mature neutrophilia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed nondegenerative neutrophilic pleocytosis with no infectious agents. A presumptive diagnosis of steroid-responsive meningitis–arteritis was made, and corticosteroid therapy was started. The patient improved initially but experienced a vestibular episode characterized by falling and vertical nystagmus. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed an epidural abscess in the cervical vertebral canal and diffuse meningeal enhancement in the brain and cranial cervical spine. Abscess drainage revealed degenerate neutrophils and several filamentous, branching organisms. Culture of the initial CSF using an enrichment broth revealed growth of a Gram-positive organism 5 days after fluid collection. The isolate was identified by partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Actinomyces spp. The patient was successfully treated with long-term antibiotics. Our study reports the long-term survival after medical treatment of bacterial meningoencephalitis and epidural abscessation due to Actinomyces sp. infection in a dog. Bacterial meningoencephalitis should be included as a differential diagnosis in patients with cervical pain and fever, even when a nondegenerative neutrophilic pleocytosis is found on CSF analysis. Culture of the CSF with use of an enrichment broth should be considered in all cases of neutrophilic pleocytosis to rule out infections of the central nervous system.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715586439
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
  • Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigens 1, 4, and 7 in galgos (Spanish
    • Authors: Spada, E; Proverbio, D, Vinals Florez, L. M, del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, M, Perego, R, Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G, Baggiani, L.
      Pages: 558 - 561
      Abstract: Galgos (Spanish Greyhounds), in common with other sighthounds, have higher hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, and red blood cell counts than other breeds. In addition to these hematological characteristics, the physical characteristics of these dogs (medium to large dogs with an easily accessible jugular vein and a good temperament) make galgos ideal blood donors. However, to date, there are only published reports concerning dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 in this breed. Information on DEAs 4 and 7 would be useful when recruiting blood donors to donation programs, as DEA 1 and 7–negative and DEA 4–positive dogs can be considered universal donors. Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid–anticoagulated jugular blood samples were collected from 205 galgos. Dogs were aged between 1 and 10 years, 102 were female (49.8%) and 103 male (50.2%), and all were living in South Madrid, Spain. All 205 blood samples were tested for DEA 1 by card agglutination, and 150 of these samples were tested for DEA 4 and DEA 7 by gel column agglutination using polyclonal anti-DEA antibodies. Of the 205 galgos blood samples typed, 112 out of 205 (54.6%) were positive for DEA 1. Of the 150 blood samples tested, all (150/150, 100%) were positive for DEA 4, and 12 out of 150 (8%) samples tested positive for DEA 7. Of these samples, 70 out of 150 (46.7%) were positive only for DEA 4. There was no relationship between blood types and sex. In addition to the hematological characteristics previously reported and the physical characteristics of these dogs, the relative prevalence of blood types DEA 1, 4, and 7 make galgos good candidates for blood donation in blood donor programs.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T13:37:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715592025
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 4 (2015)
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