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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 194 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover   Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
  [SJR: 0.677]   [H-I: 53]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [819 journals]
  • Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting a gene
           within the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the pdhA gene, for rapid
           detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum
    • Authors: Zhang, F; Bao, S, Yu, S, Cheng, J, Tan, L, Qiu, X, Song, C, Dai, Y, Fei, R, Ding, C.
      Pages: 260 - 267
      Abstract: Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections impose a significant economic burden on the poultry industry. In the current study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and optimized to detect M. gallisepticum based on a gene within the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the pdhA gene, which codes for the major subunit (E1α) in the complex. The reaction conditions were optimized, and the specificity was confirmed by successful amplification of several M. gallisepticum strains, while no amplification was detected with 20 other major bacterial and viral pathogens of poultry. Additionally, the LAMP assay achieved 10-fold higher sensitivity than an existing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The LAMP assay was applied to swab samples collected from poultry farms and compared with PCR. The positive detection rate was 20.2% (37/183) by LAMP and 13.1% (24/183) by PCR. The LAMP assay could provide a cost-effective, quick, and sensitive method for the detection of M. gallisepticum.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715584155
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • DOG1 is a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for diagnosis
           of canine gastrointestinal stromal tumors
    • Authors: Dailey, D. D; Ehrhart, E. J, Duval, D. L, Bass, T, Powers, B. E.
      Pages: 268 - 277
      Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and leiomyosarcomas are histologically similar primary neoplasms commonly occurring in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs and humans. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) is needed to differentiate between these 2 entities and positive reactivity for KIT (cluster of differentiation [CD]117) is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of canine GIST. Studies estimate 5–10% of human GISTs stain negative or only weakly positive for KIT and have identified DOG1 (discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumors protein 1) as a highly sensitive and specific marker for human GISTs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate immunoreactivity of a commercially available DOG1 antibody for use in diagnosis of canine GISTs. Fifty-five primary mesenchymal gastrointestinal tumors with histologic features consistent with GIST or leiomyosarcoma were evaluated via IHC for KIT, DOG1, and desmin. A subset of tumors was additionally evaluated for reactivity for smooth muscle actin (SMA). Thirty-three tumors (60%) were diagnosed as GIST based on positive immunoreactivity for KIT or DOG1 regardless of reactivity for desmin or SMA. Most GISTs (32/33, 97.0%) had similar staining for both KIT and DOG1. DOG1 expression was identified in 2 tumors (1 study tumor and 1 additional tumor) negative for KIT and desmin that had histologic features consistent with KIT-negative, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA)-mutant human GISTs. Our results suggest that DOG1 has improved specificity and sensitivity to that of KIT for differentiating between canine GISTs and leiomyosarcomas. Inclusion of both DOG1 and KIT IHC in diagnostic panels will improve the accuracy of canine GIST diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715578878
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • A novel pathogenic mechanism for cerebellar lesions produced by Solanum
           bonariense in cattle
    • Authors: Verdes, J. M; Marquez, M, Calliari, A, Battes, D, Morana, J. A, Gimeno, E. J, Odriozola, E, Giannitti, F, Guerrero, F, Fidalgo, L. E, Pumarola, M.
      Pages: 278 - 286
      Abstract: Intoxication with Solanum bonariense in cattle causes cerebellar cortical degeneration with perikaryal vacuolation, axonal swelling, and death primarily of Purkinje cells, with accumulation of electron-dense residual storage bodies in membrane-bound vesicles. The pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. Previously, we proposed that inhibition of protein synthesis in Purkinje cells among other altered metabolic pathways could lead to cytoskeletal alterations, subsequently altering cell-specific axonal transport. In the present study, immunohistochemical and histochemical methods were used to identify neuronal cytoskeletal alterations and axonal loss, demyelination, and astrogliosis in the cerebellum of intoxicated bovines. Samples of cerebellum from 3 natural and 4 experimental cases and 2 control bovines were studied. Immunoreactivity against neurofilament (NF)-200KDa confirmed marked loss of Purkinje neurons, and phospho-NF protein, β-tubulin, and affinity reaction against phalloidin revealed an altered perikaryal distribution of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins in the remaining Purkinje cells in intoxicated cattle. Reactive astrogliosis in every layer of the cerebellar cortex was also observed with anti–glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. In affected cattle, demyelination and axonal loss in the cerebellar white matter, as well as basket cell loss were demonstrated with Klüver–Barrera and Bielschowsky stains, respectively. Based on these results, we propose that neuronal cytoskeletal alterations with subsequent interference of the axonal transport in Purkinje cells may play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder, and also that demyelination and axonal loss in the cerebellar white matter, as well as astrogliosis in the gray matter, likely occur secondarily to Purkinje cell degeneration and death.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715582048
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Detection of Aleutian mink disease virus DNA and antiviral antibodies in
           American mink (Neovison vison) 10 days postinoculation
    • Authors: Farid, A. H; Hussain, I, Arju, I.
      Pages: 287 - 294
      Abstract: Early detection of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV; Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has important ramifications in virus eradication programs. A spleen homogenate containing a local isolate of AMDV was injected intraperitoneally into black (n = 44) and sapphire (n = 12) American mink (Neovison vison). Animals were euthanized 10 days postinoculation and anti-AMDV antibodies and AMDV DNA were tested in plasma and 7 organs by CIEP and PCR, respectively. Viral DNA was detected in the plasma, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung samples of all inoculated mink, but was not detected in some small intestine, kidney, and liver samples. In contrast, antibodies were detected in the plasma of 3 sapphire (25.0%) and 19 black (43.2%) mink but not in any of the organs. The sensitivity of the CIEP test on plasma samples was 39.3%, implying that low levels of antibodies during the early stages of virus exposure resulted in failure to detect infection by the CIEP test. We concluded that CIEP is not a reliable test for early detection of AMDV infection in mink and that there were considerable differences among mink of each color type for production of detectable levels of antibodies. PCR tests on samples of saliva, rectal swabs, and feces did not produce consistent and reliable results.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715580982
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Comparison of trace mineral concentrations in tail hair, body hair, blood,
           and liver of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California
    • Authors: Roug, A; Swift, P. K, Gerstenberg, G, Woods, L. W, Kreuder-Johnson, C, Torres, S. G, Puschner, B.
      Pages: 295 - 305
      Abstract: Measuring trace mineral concentrations can be an important component of assessing the health of free-ranging deer. Trace mineral concentrations in liver most accurately reflect the trace mineral status of an individual, but, in live animals, whole blood or serum are the most commonly used sample types. Trace minerals measured in serum, such as copper, zinc, and iron, do not always accurately correlate to liver concentrations, and supplementary samples for evaluating the trace mineral status in live deer would be useful. We evaluated the utility of body and tail hair for measuring selenium, copper, zinc, iron, and manganese in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) by using Spearman rank correlations and linear regression. Correlations were strongest at the time of or shortly after growth of the winter coat and in resident deer. In live deer, strong correlations and moderate linear associations (R 2 = 0.57) were detected between body and tail hair and whole blood selenium in December. In postmortem-sampled deer, a strong correlation and linear association (R 2 = 0.80) were found between liver and body hair selenium in August–November. Results indicate that body hair, if collected during or shortly after growth of the winter coat, can be used as a supplementary sample for measuring selenium concentrations in deer. None of the other correlations and linear associations were found to be sufficiently strong to conclude that hair can reliably be utilized as a complementary sample for measuring these trace mineral concentrations.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715577826
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • The degree of acceptability of swine blood values at increasing levels of
           hemolysis evaluated through visual inspection versus automated
    • Authors: Di Martino, G; Stefani, A. L, Lippi, G, Gagliazzo, L, McCormick, W, Gabai, G, Bonfanti, L.
      Pages: 306 - 312
      Abstract: The pronounced fragility that characterizes swine erythrocytes is likely to produce a variable degree of hemolysis during blood sampling, and the free hemoglobin may then unpredictably bias the quantification of several analytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of acceptability of values obtained for several biochemical parameters at different levels of hemolysis. Progressively increased degrees of physical hemolysis were induced in 3 aliquots of 30 nonhemolytic sera, and the relative effects on the test results were assessed. To define the level of hemolysis, we used both visual estimation (on a scale of 0 to 3+) and analytical assessment (hemolytic index) and identified the best analytical cutoff values for discriminating the visual levels of hemolysis. Hemolysis led to a variable and dose-dependent effect on the test results that was specific for each analyte tested. In mildly hemolyzed specimens, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, β1-globulin, β2-globulin, α1-globulin, -globulin, sodium, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were not significantly biased, whereas α2-globulin, albumin, urea, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, nonesterified fatty acids, bilirubin, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, lipase, triglycerides, lactate dehydrogenase, unbound iron-binding capacity, and uric acid were significantly biased. Chloride and total protein were unbiased even in markedly hemolyzed samples. Analytical interference was hypothesized to be the main source of this bias, leading to a nonlinear trend that confirmed the difficulty in establishing reliable coefficients of correction for adjusting the test results.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715585155
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Application of a pathogen microarray for the analysis of viruses and
           bacteria in clinical diagnostic samples from pigs
    • Authors: Jaing, C. J; Thissen, J. B, Gardner, S. N, McLoughlin, K. S, Hullinger, P. J, Monday, N. A, Niederwerder, M. C, Rowland, R. R. R.
      Pages: 313 - 325
      Abstract: Many of the disease syndromes challenging the commercial swine industry involve the analysis of complex problems caused by polymicrobial, emerging or reemerging, and transboundary pathogens. This study investigated the utility of the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California), designed to detect 8,101 species of microbes, in the evaluation of known and unknown microbes in serum, oral fluid, and tonsil from pigs experimentally coinfected with Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2). The array easily identified PRRSV and PCV-2, but at decreased sensitivities compared to standard polymerase chain reaction detection methods. The oral fluid sample was the most informative, possessing additional signatures for several swine-associated bacteria, including Streptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715578484
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Enhanced detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
           in fixed tissues by in situ hybridization following tyramide signal
    • Authors: Trang, N. T; Hirai, T, Ngan, P. H, Lan, N. T, Fuke, N, Toyama, K, Yamamoto, T, Yamaguchi, R.
      Pages: 326 - 331
      Abstract: This study evaluated the sensitivity of biotinyl–tyramide-based in situ hybridization (TISH) method by comparison with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) methods. This study also determined the effect of fixative and fixation time on the detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in paraffin-embedded tissues. Lung samples were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) or 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) for various times before paraffin embedding. Of 30 paraffin-embedded lung samples, fixed for 1 day in 4% PFA or 10% NBF, 18 (60%) were positive for PRRSV by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR). All 18 lung samples (100%) also were positive for PRRSV by TISH, but only 10 of these 18 specimens (56%) were positive for PRRSV by IHC and CISH. We demonstrated that TISH can detect PRRSV RNA in paraffin-embedded tissues after up to 90 days of fixation. PRRSV nucleic acids and antigens were better preserved in 4% PFA than in 10% NBF. Compared with CISH and IHC testing methods, TISH appeared to be more sensitive for the detection of PRRSV in paraffin-embedded tissues.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715579260
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by
    • Authors: Madsen-Bouterse, S. A; Schneider, D. A, Dassanayake, R. P, Truscott, T. C, Zhuang, D, Kumpula-McWhirter, N, O'Rourke, K. I.
      Pages: 332 - 343
      Abstract: Diagnostic analyses often employ single antibody systems but are potentially limited by epitope sequence variation. United States regulatory testing for scrapie primarily uses antibody F99/97.6.1 for immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the prion protein associated with scrapie (PrPSc). Whereas the epitope bound by F99/97.6.1 is highly conserved in sheep, a polymorphism in caprine PRNP results in a glutamine to lysine change at codon 222 and affects PrP detection. This study evaluated the performance of immunoassays (Western blot and IHC) in the presence of PRNP polymorphisms observed in U.S. goat populations. Effects of naturally occurring caprine prion protein alterations at codons 142, 143, 146, 154, or 222 were first evaluated using bacterially expressed recombinant normal cellular prion protein (rec-PrPC) and commercially available antibodies (F99/97.6.1, F89/160.1.5, L42, and SAF84). Detection of rec-PrPC using F89/160.1.5 was reduced by alterations at 142 and 143; this was also observed in brain PrPC from goats expressing these PRNP variants. Effect of allelic variation at 222 was confirmed by Western blot with F99/97.6.1. No differences were observed with L42 or SAF84. IHC of brain demonstrated reduced signal with F89/160.1.5 in animals heterozygous at 143. Decreasing F89/160.1.5 titers were used to demonstrate the impact of PrPSc immunolabeling in preclinical goats and as a surrogate for F99/97.6.1 detection in 222 variants. In the absence of epitope-relevant knowledge of individual goat PRNP, a multi-antibody approach or an antibody that binds an invariant site may provide a more robust immunoassay of PrPSc in classical scrapie, thus reducing the likelihood of false-negative results due to allelic variation.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715585865
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • An evaluation of the use of immunoglobulin A antibody response against
           mycobacterial antigens for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection
           in cattle
    • Authors: Jeon, H. S; Shin, A.-R, Son, Y.-J, Kim, J.-M, Jang, Y, Kim, S, Lee, K.-I, Choi, C. H, Park, J.-K, Kim, H.-J.
      Pages: 344 - 351
      Abstract: Antibody responses are useful indicators of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. Many studies have evaluated the ability of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to serodiagnose bovine tuberculosis (TB). In the current study, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG responses against the MPB70 and MPB83 antigens of M. bovis, the 38 kDa phosphate-binding lipoprotein (PstS1) that is a well-known serodiagnostic M. tuberculosis antigen, and a newly identified protein, termed Rv1483c, were compared in M. bovis–infected and noninfected cattle as well as in field samples. The diagnostic utility of the IgA antibody to MPB70 and MPB83 for bovine TB was superior or comparable to that of the IgG antibody, and the sensitivity of serodiagnosis increased when the results of antigen binding by IgA and IgG were combined. The sensitivities of the IgG and IgA antibodies to the Rv1483c and PstS1 proteins were significantly lower than those to MPB70 and MPB83, and no diagnostic utility for Rv1483c was observed in field samples. Importantly, the IgA antibody reacted strongly to the MPB70 and MPB83 antigens and differentiated cattle with TB from healthy cattle in a multiantigen printed immunoassay. The results of this study support the feasibility of using IgA antibody against the MPB70 and MPB83 antigens to detect bovine TB. In addition, approaches using assays for both IgA and IgG antibodies may increase detection accuracy.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715578879
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Assessment of platelet function in healthy sedated cats using three whole
           blood platelet function tests
    • Authors: Ho, K. K; Abrams-Ogg, A. C. G, Wood, R. D, O'Sullivan, M. L, Kirby, G. M, Blois, S. L.
      Pages: 352 - 360
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to establish feline references intervals for 3 commercial whole blood platelet function test analyzer systems: Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PF: Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX). Venipuncture was performed on 55 healthy sedated cats, and platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen (COL), and arachidonic acid (AA; MP only) was assessed using citrated blood. For the MP analyzer, median (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) area under curve (Units) for ADP, COL, and AA agonists were 87 (11–176), 81 (32–129), and 91 (59–129), respectively. For the PF analyzer, median (95% CIs) closure time, using COL–ADP cartridges, was 69 (46–89) sec. For the PW assay, median (95% CIs) percent aggregations for ADP and COL agonists were 71 (18–92) and 49 (9–96), respectively, using impedance hematology analyzer platelet counts, and 94 (25–98) and 68 (14–119), respectively, using flow cytometry hematology analyzer platelet counts. There were low correlations between the PF analyzer (COL–ADP cartridge) and MP analyzer (COL agonist; = 0.11), and between the PF analyzer (COL–ADP cartridge) and PW assay (COL agonist using impedance platelet counts; = 0.14). The PW assay percent aggregations using impedance and flow cytometric platelet counts were correlated for both ADP ( = 0.64) and COL ( = 0.64) agonists. Platelet function testing using these tests are feasible in cats, but 95% CIs are wide, so single results may be difficult to interpret. Platelet counting by impedance or flow cytometry may be used for the PW assay but are not interchangeable.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715584994
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after suppression
           with fludrocortisone in cats: a pilot study
    • Authors: Matsuda, M; Behrend, E. N, Kemppainen, R, Refsal, K, Johnson, A, Lee, H.
      Pages: 361 - 368
      Abstract: Primary hyperaldosteronism is an increasingly recognized syndrome in cats, and diagnosis can be difficult. A potential diagnostic method has been reported, utilizing oral fludrocortisone administered twice daily for 4 days followed by collection of urine. In the current study, we sought to determine if blood sampling and a shorter dosing period would provide a possible means to test for primary hyperaldosteronism. Also, cortisol concentrations were measured to assess the potential of fludrocortisone to act as a glucocorticoid in cats. In phase I, 8 healthy laboratory cats were studied in a placebo-controlled, crossover design. Serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before and on the second, third, and fourth day of treatment and compared within groups. In phase II, based on the results obtained in phase I, 8 healthy client-owned cats were administered 3 doses of fludrocortisone or placebo. Serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were compared before and after treatment within groups. In both phases, serum aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were significantly suppressed in fludrocortisone-treated cats. Thus, it was determined that oral administration of fludrocortisone causes suppression of serum aldosterone in healthy adult cats after only 3 doses. Further research is needed to determine the effects of oral fludrocortisone in cats with primary hyperaldosteronism and cats with other disorders causing hypertension and/or hypokalemia to determine if this protocol can be used as a tool for the definitive diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715583530
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Morphologic, molecular, and ultrastructural characterization of a feline
           synovial cell sarcoma and derived cell line
    • Authors: Cazzini, P; Frontera-Acevedo, K, Garner, B, Howerth, E, Torres, B, Northrup, N, Sakamoto, K.
      Pages: 369 - 376
      Abstract: A 2.5-year-old, male, neutered cat presented with a 5-month history of progressive right hind limb lameness and an enlarged right popliteal lymph node. Radiographs revealed significant bony lysis of the tarsus and distal tibia, and fine-needle aspirate of the bone lesion and lymph node revealed a neoplastic population of cells with uncertain origin. Amputation was elected, and the mass was submitted for histology and cellular culture for better characterization. Histologic examination revealed a mixture of spindle-shaped cells and larger, round to polygonal cells. All cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, and only the larger polygonal cells were also positive for cytokeratin. All cells were negative for desmin, smooth muscle actin, cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD18, CD79a, macrophage antibody (MAC)387, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Cultured neoplastic cells failed to express CD18, and were not able to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1)β, and IL-6 when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, disproving that the cells originated from the macrophage or monocyte line. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells were characterized by abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, interdigitating cellular processes, and membrane condensations. Based on location and cytologic, histologic, ultrastructural, and functional studies, this neoplasm was considered a synovial cell sarcoma.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715583529
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • A new trivalent SnSAG surface antigen chimera for efficient detection of
           antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and diagnosis of equine protozoal
    • Authors: Yeargan, M; de Assis Rocha, I, Morrow, J, Graves, A, Reed, S. M, Howe, D. K.
      Pages: 377 - 381
      Abstract: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the SnSAG surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona provide reliable detection of infection by the parasite. Moreover, accurate serodiagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is achieved with the SnSAG ELISAs by measuring antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to reveal active infection in the central nervous system. Two independent ELISAs based on recombinant (r)SnSAG2 or a chimeric fusion of SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 (rSnSAG4/3) are currently used together for EPM serodiagnosis to overcome varied antibody responses in different horses. To achieve reliable antibody detection with a single ELISA instead of 2 separate ELISAs, rSnSAG2 was fused with rSnSAG4/3 into a single trivalent protein, designated rSnSAG2/4/3. Paired serum and CSF from 163 horses were tested with all 3 ELISAs. When the consensus antibody titers obtained with the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs were compared to the single SAG2/4/3 ELISA titers, Spearman rank correlation coefficients of = 0.74 and = 0.90 were obtained for serum and CSF, respectively, indicating strong agreement between the tests. When the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 consensus serum-to-CSF titer ratio was compared to the rSnSAG2/4/3 serum-to-CSF titer ratio, the Spearman correlation coefficient was = 0.87, again signifying strong agreement. Importantly, comparing the diagnostic interpretation of the serum-to-CSF titer ratios yielded a Cohen kappa value of 0.77. These findings suggest that the single ELISA based on the trivalent rSnSAG2/4/3 will provide serologic and diagnostic results that are highly comparable to the consensus of the 2 independent ELISAs based on rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715584995
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Microlichus americanus acariasis in saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola)
           with dermatitis and feather loss
    • Authors: Rettenmund, C. L; Ossiboff, R. J, McAloose, D, Knee, W, Wade, S. E, Pare, J. A.
      Pages: 382 - 386
      Abstract: Over a 5-year period, 13 saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola) housed in mixed aviaries at the Bronx Zoo (Bronx, New York) were examined with feather loss and dermatitis, primarily affecting the nape, neck, and dorsum. Feather loss, hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and mixed granulocytic and mononuclear inflammation were identified in biopsies from live birds and tissue sections from postmortem specimens. In 10 of 13 cases, sections of arthropod parasites were seen histologically within feather follicles and along the surface of affected skin. Based on morphological characteristics, mites recovered from samples of formalin-fixed skin in 4 birds were identified as Microlichus americanus, an epidermoptid mite infrequently reported from wild birds and hippoboscid flies. Gross and histological lesions strongly implicate M. americanus as the cause of dermatitis affecting practically all saffron finches in the collection.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715581677
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Pneumonia and bacteremia in a golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus
           chrysomelas) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae during a
           translocation program of free-ranging animals in Brazil
    • Authors: Bueno, M. G; Iovine, R. O, Torres, L. N, Catao-Dias, J. L, Pissinatti, A, Kierulff, M. C. M, Carvalho, V. M.
      Pages: 387 - 391
      Abstract: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important emerging pathogen in humans, particularly the invasive hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype. In addition, the organism is an important public health concern because of nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance. Nonhuman primates in captivity are susceptible to Klebsiella, particularly when a stress factor is involved. Infections vary depending on the species but can cause significant morbidity and mortality in these animals. The objective of this study was to describe a case of bronchopneumonia and bacteremia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a free-ranging golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) caught and maintained in quarantine during a translocation program for conservation purposes. An adult male, that had showed emaciation and apathy, was clinically examined and, despite being provided supportive therapy, died 2 days after onset of clinical signs. At postmortem examination, generalized bilateral pneumonia and pericarditis were observed. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin for histology, and pulmonary tissues and cardiac blood were collected for microbiologic diagnostic procedures. Bacteria that were shown to be HMV K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae strains were isolated from the pulmonary fluids and cardiac blood in pure cultures. Severe bronchopneumonia was the main pathological finding. The consequences of the confirmed presence of the HMV phenotype of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae in this wildlife species for human, animal, and ecosystem health should be determined. These results demonstrate the importance of quarantine and potential pathogen screening during wildlife translocation procedures.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715584792
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Emydid herpesvirus 1 infection in northern map turtles (Graptemys
           geographica) and painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)
    • Authors: Ossiboff, R. J; Newton, A. L, Seimon, T. A, Moore, R. P, McAloose, D.
      Pages: 392 - 395
      Abstract: A captive, juvenile, female northern map turtle (Graptemys geographica) was found dead following a brief period of weakness and nasal discharge. Postmortem examination identified pneumonia with necrosis and numerous epithelial, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies, consistent with herpesviral pneumonia. Similar intranuclear inclusions were also associated with foci of hepatocellular and splenic necrosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of fresh, frozen liver for the herpesviral DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene yielded an amplicon with 99.2% similarity to recently described emydid herpesvirus 1 (EmyHV-1). Molecular screening of turtles housed in enclosures that shared a common circulation system with the affected map turtle identified 4 asymptomatic, EmyHV-1 PCR-positive painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and 1 asymptomatic northern map turtle. Herpesvirus transmission between painted and map turtles has been previously suggested, and our report provides the molecular characterization of a herpesvirus in asymptomatic painted turtles that can cause fatal herpesvirus-associated disease in northern map turtles.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715584793
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cerebral oligodendroglioma mimicking intraventricular neoplasia in three
    • Authors: Rissi, D. R; Levine, J. M, Eden, K. B, Watson, V. E, Griffin, J. F, Edwards, J. F, Porter, B. F.
      Pages: 396 - 400
      Abstract: Oligodendroglioma is one of the most common primary central nervous system neoplasms of dogs. It is often diagnosed in older, brachycephalic breeds, and although its typical clinical features and neuroanatomic location have been well described, less common presentations may hinder its diagnosis. We describe 3 cases of canine cerebral oligodendroglioma that clinically and grossly present as intraventricular tumors. Histologic findings in all cases were typical of oligodendroglioma. Neoplastic cells were uniformly immunoreactive for Olig2 and negative for neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. In addition to the immunopositivity for Olig2, a cluster of morphologically distinct neoplastic cells in one of the cases was immunoreactive for synaptophysin, and the case was diagnosed as an oligodendroglioma with neurocytic differentiation. Based on these findings, oligodendroglioma should be included as a differential diagnosis for intraventricular neoplasia in dogs. Furthermore, oligodendroglioma with ventricular involvement should be differentiated from central neurocytoma by immunohistochemistry.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715584619
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
  • Corrigendum
    • Pages: 401 - 401
      Abstract: Allender MC, Bunick D, Dzhaman E, Burrus L, Maddox C. Development and use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in snakes. J Vet Diagn Invest 2015;27:217–220. (Original doi: 10.1177/1040638715573983). In the article titled "Development and use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in snakes" by Matthew C. Allender et al., on page 218 in Table 1, the Probe-FAM primer should read as follows: CGATCGGCGCCCGTCGTC.
      PubDate: 2015-06-02T12:17:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715583646
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2015)
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