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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 174 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Continental Journal of Animal and Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Continental Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access  
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  

        1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
   [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [737 journals]   [SJR: 0.627]   [H-I: 51]
  • Development of a new real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect
           Duck adenovirus A DNA and application to samples from Swiss poultry flocks
    • Authors: Schybli, M; Sigrist, B, Hess, M, van Leerdam, B, Hoop, R. K, Vogtlin, A.
      Pages: 189 - 194
      Abstract: Between 2008 and 2012, commercial Swiss layer and layer breeder flocks experiencing problems in laying performance were sampled and tested for infection with Duck adenovirus A (DAdV-A; previously known as Egg drop syndrome 1976 virus). Organ samples from birds sent for necropsy as well as blood samples from living animals originating from the same flocks were analyzed. To detect virus-specific DNA, a newly developed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method was applied, and the presence of antibodies against DAdV-A was tested using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In 5 out of 7 investigated flocks, viral DNA was detected in tissues. In addition, antibodies against DAdV-A were detected in all of the flocks.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714523426|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714523426
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Differential diagnosis of Goatpox virus in Taiwan by multiplex polymerase
           chain reaction assay and high-resolution melt analysis
    • Authors: Chan, K.-W; Lee, M.-L, Yang, W.-C, Wong, M.-L, Hsu, W.-L, Ho, C.-F, Hsieh, Y.-C, Wang, C.-Y.
      Pages: 195 - 202
      Abstract: The A32L gene from a Goatpox virus (GTPV) strain isolated from a goat in Yunlin County (Taiwan) displays several substitutions compared with the sequence of the Kenyan GTPV vaccine strain SGP0240 and the Pellor GTPV strain. Samples from the skin lesions on 6 goats with GTPV infection or from goats with Orf virus (ORFV) infection were tested in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system that used primers GPF, GPR1, and GPR2 as well as previously published primers specific for ORFV. These primers were able to amplify either GTPV or ORFV without cross-reactivity. A high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) was carried out on amplified DNA from the skin lesions of 6 goats with GTPV infection and with the GTPV SGP0240 strain. The results indicated that the melting temperature profiles amplified from samples with Yunlin GTPV infection can be differentiated from the GTPV SGP0240 strain. The findings showed that a successful differential assay for these GTPVs had been developed. Accordingly, both methods can be used to detect and differentiate GTPV isolated from animals that may have either been vaccinated or been infected with a wild strain. The multiplex PCR and HRMA could be used on skin samples of suspected cases to serve as the front-line and confirmative assays, respectively, which will be beneficial to the eradication of GTPV.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714522463|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714522463
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Identification of Mycoplasma suis antigens and development of a multiplex
           microbead immunoassay
    • Authors: Guimaraes, A. M. S; Santos, A. P, Timenetsky, J, Bower, L. P, Strait, E, Messick, J. B.
      Pages: 203 - 212
      Abstract: The aims of the current study were to identify Mycoplasma suis antigens and develop a multiplex microbead immunoassay (MIA). A M. suis–expression library was screened for immunogens using sera from infected pigs. Based on bioinformatics, putative antigens were identified within positive inserts; gene fragments were expressed and purified as polyhistidine fusion proteins, and immunoreactivity was confirmed by Western blot. Selected antigens were used to develop a MIA. Sera from noninfected and infected pigs were used to set the median fluorescent intensity (MFI) cutoffs and as positive controls, respectively. Assay specificity was tested using sera from pigs seropositive for other pathogens (2 different pigs seropositive for each pathogen). Samples from 51 field pigs and 2 pigs during the course of acute (pig 1) and chronic (pig 2) infections were tested using MIA, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Sixteen reactive plaques (52 genes) were detected. A heat-shock protein (GrpE), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN), and 4 proteins from paralogous gene families (PGFs) were identified as antigens by Western blot. While GrpE, GAPN, and 1 PGF protein were strong antigens, the others were not suitable as MIA targets. A MIA using GrpE, GAPN, and the strongly reactive PGF protein was developed. Cross-reactivity with sera from pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Porcine circovirus-2, Porcine parvovirus, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine respiratory coronavirus with this MIA was not observed. Pig 2 was consistently positive by MIA and qPCR, whereas pig 1, initially negative, seroconverted before becoming qPCR positive. Only 2 samples (from pig 1) were IHA positive. Five (9.8%) field samples were qPCR positive and 40 (78.43%) were positive for all 3 MIA antigens; however, all were IHA negative. In summary, the MIA is specific and more sensitive than qPCR and IHA, providing simultaneous evaluation of antibody response to M. suis antigens.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713520542|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713520542
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Characterization of Fusobacterium isolates from the respiratory tract of
           white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    • Authors: Brooks, J. W; Kumar, A, Narayanan, S, Myers, S, Brown, K, Nagaraja, T. G, Jayarao, B. M.
      Pages: 213 - 220
      Abstract: A total of 23 clinical isolates of Fusobacterium spp. were recovered at necropsy over a 2-year period from the respiratory tract of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Isolates were identified as Fusobacterium varium (18/23), Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme (3/23), and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum (2/23). Using polymerase chain reaction–based detection of virulence genes, all F. necrophorum isolates were positive for the promoter region of the leukotoxin operon and the hemagglutinin-related protein gene, while all F. varium isolates were negative. The presence of the leukotoxin gene in F. necrophorum isolates and the absence of this gene in F. varium isolates were confirmed by Southern hybridization using 2 separate probes. Toxicity to bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes was observed with all F. necrophorum isolates, but was not observed in any F. varium isolates. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was markedly different for F. varium as compared to F. necrophorum. In summary, no evidence of leukotoxin production was detected in any of the 23 F. varium isolates used in the current study. The data suggests that F. varium, the most common species isolated, may be a significant pathogen in deer with a different virulence mechanism than F. necrophorum.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714523613|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714523613
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Establishment of an agamid cell line and isolation of adenoviruses from
           central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps)
    • Authors: Ball, I; Hoferer, M, Marschang, R. E.
      Pages: 221 - 225
      Abstract: A cell line was established from whole 6–8-week-old central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) embryos. Cells were mid-sized and showed an elongated and polymorphic form. The cell line grew in a monolayer and has been serially passaged for 17 passages at time of publication. This cell line has been used with samples from adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive bearded dragons, and 2 virus isolates have been obtained so far. The isolates show a clear cytopathic effect in inoculated cells. Both virus isolates have been serially passaged on this cell line, and have been identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene and show 100% nucleotide identity to the corresponding region of an agamid adenovirus. Electron microscopic examination of supernatant from infected cells demonstrated the presence of nonenveloped particles, with a diameter of approximately 80 nm in both virus isolates.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714523615|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714523615
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Evaluation of a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin
           type 1 repeat motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) activity enzyme-linked immunosorbent
           assay for measuring plasma ADAMTS13 activity in dogs
    • Authors: Maruyama, H; Kaneko, M, Otake, T, Kano, R, Yamaya, Y, Watari, T, Hasegawa, A, Kamata, H.
      Pages: 226 - 231
      Abstract: A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeat motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) is a von Willebrand factor (vWF)-cleaving protease. Deficiencies in ADAMTS13 activity are known to cause thrombotic diseases in human beings. The present study evaluated whether the human ADAMTS13 activity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit containing human vWF73 (a minimal substrate) and anti-N10 antibody (which specifically recognizes the decapeptide of the C-terminal edge of cleaved vWF by human ADAMTS13) is applicable to the measurement of canine plasma ADAMTS13 activity. Human vWF73 fused with a GST-tag and a His-tag (GST-hvWF73-His) was reacted with recombinant canine (rc)ADAMTS13, canine plasma, and human plasma, and then used in Western blotting using anti-N10 antibody. Linearity and intra- and interassay reproducibility of the human ADAMTS13 activity ELISA kit in canine plasma were further evaluated. Finally, plasma ADAMTS13 activity was measured in 13 healthy dogs and 6 dogs with bacteremia using the human ADAMTS13 activity ELISA kit. Cleaved products with a 28-kDa GST-hvWF73-His were detected specifically in rcADAMTS13 as well as in human ADAMTS13, and also in canine plasma by anti-N10 antibody, showing excellent linearity. Intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.0–12.4%, and interassay CV was 11.5–12.5%. The ADAMTS13 activity was significantly lower in dogs with bacteremia than in healthy dogs (P = 0.0025). The current study revealed that the human ADAMTS13 activity ELISA kit is applicable for measurement of canine plasma ADAMTS13 activity to elucidate the pathology of thrombotic diseases in dogs.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714523609|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714523609
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Development and validation of a gas chromatography-flame ionization
           detection method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum
    • Authors: Hewetson, M; Aaltonen, K, Tulamo, R.-M, Sankari, S.
      Pages: 232 - 239
      Abstract: A simple and accurate method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum that can be applied to sucrose permeability testing in the horse was developed and validated using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The assay provided an acceptable degree of linearity, accuracy, and precision at concentrations of sucrose as low as 2.34 μmol/l and as high as 20.45 μmol/l. Percentage recovery of sucrose from serum ranged from 89% to 102%; repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation) ranged from 3.6% to 6.7% and 4.1% to 9.3%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.73 μmol/l. No interfering peaks were observed except lactose, which gave 2 peaks, one of which overlapped partially with sucrose. To evaluate the suitability of the method for quantifying sucrose in serum samples from horses with naturally occurring gastric ulceration, 10 horses with and without naturally occurring gastric ulceration were subjected to sucrose permeability testing. All horses demonstrated an increase in serum sucrose concentration over time following oral administration of sucrose; however, the increase from baseline was significant for horses with gastric ulceration at 45 min (P = 0.0082) and 90 min (P = 0.0082) when compared with healthy horses. It was concluded that gas chromatography with flame ionization detection is a valid method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum and can be applied directly to the analysis of sucrose in equine serum as part of a larger validation study aimed at developing a blood test for the diagnosis of gastric ulcers in horses.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713519640|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713519640
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and
           botulinum neurotoxin serotype E
    • Authors: Chatla, K; Gaunt, P, Petrie-Hanson, L, Hohn, C, Ford, L, Hanson, L.
      Pages: 240 - 245
      Abstract: Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these signs and mortality after sera from affected fish is administered to sentinel catfish. The diagnosis is confirmed if the toxicity is neutralized with BoNT/E antitoxin. Because small catfish are often unavailable, the utility of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) was evaluated in BoNT/E and VTC bioassays. Channel catfish and zebrafish susceptibilities were compared using trypsin-activated BoNT/E in a 96-hr trial by intracoelomically administering 0, 1.87, 3.7, 7.5, 15, or 30 pg of toxin per gram of body weight (g-bw) of fish. All of the zebrafish died at the 7.5 pg/g-bw and higher, while the catfish died at the 15 pg/g-bw dose and higher. To test the bioassay, sera from VTC-affected fish or control sera were intracoelomically injected at a dose of 10 µl per zebrafish and 20 µl/g-bw for channel catfish. At 96 hr post-injection, 78% of the zebrafish and 50% of the catfish receiving VTC sera died, while no control fish died. When the VTC sera were preincubated with BoNT/E antitoxin, they became nontoxic to zebrafish. Histology of zebrafish injected with either VTC serum or BoNT/E demonstrated renal necrosis. Normal catfish serum was toxic to larval zebrafish in immersion exposures, abrogating their utility in VTC bioassays. The results demonstrate bioassays using adult zebrafish for detecting BoNT/E and VTC are sensitive and practical.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713519642|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713519642
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Total serum bilirubin as a negative prognostic factor in idiopathic canine
           chronic hepatitis
    • Authors: Gomez Selgas, A; Bexfield, N, Scase, T. J, Holmes, M. A, Watson, P.
      Pages: 246 - 251
      Abstract: Total serum bilirubin (TBIL) is used as a prognostic factor in chronic hepatitis (CH) in human beings. To date, the authors are unaware of any studies looking at the value of TBIL as a prognostic factor in idiopathic canine CH. The objective of the current study was to assess if TBIL is a negative prognostic factor in idiopathic canine CH, and to identify other prognostic factors. Thirty-nine dogs with histologically confirmed idiopathic CH admitted to 2 referral centers between 1999 and 2010 were included in the study. Patients with concurrent diseases that could affect TBIL or the survival time were excluded. Total serum bilirubin was measured prior to liver biopsy, and CH was diagnosed according to standardized histological criteria. Survival time was calculated from time of diagnosis to time of death or euthanasia. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors. The mean survival time for the 39 dogs included in the analysis was 197 days (1–2,677), and the mean total serum bilirubin was 11 μmol/l (2–265). Total serum bilirubin was statistically significantly associated with survival (odds ratio = 1.082, P = 0.047) as were weight (odds ratio = 1.028, P = 0.028) and the presence of ascites (odds ratio = 6.758, P = 0.013). The current study demonstrates that TBIL could be used as an additional prognostic factor in canine CH.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713520602|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713520602
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Mortality of live export cattle on long-haul voyages: pathologic changes
           and pathogens
    • Authors: Moore, S. J; O'Dea, M. A, Perkins, N, Barnes, A, O'Hara, A. J.
      Pages: 252 - 265
      Abstract: The cause of death in 215 cattle on 20 long-haul live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East, Russia, and China was investigated between 2010 and 2012 using gross, histologic, and/or molecular pathology techniques. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was used to detect nucleic acids from viruses and bacteria known to be associated with respiratory disease in cattle: Bovine coronavirus (Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2, Bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Bovine parainfluenza virus 3, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. The most commonly diagnosed cause of death was respiratory disease (107/180, 59.4%), followed by lameness (n = 22, 12.2%), ketosis (n = 12, 6.7%), septicemia (n = 11, 6.1%), and enteric disease (n = 10, 5.6%). Two thirds (130/195) of animals from which lung samples were collected had histologic changes and/or positive qRT-PCR results indicative of infectious lung disease: 93 out of 130 (72%) had evidence of bacterial infection, 4 (3%) had viral infection, and 29 (22%) had mixed bacterial and viral infections, and for 4 (3%) the causative organism could not be identified. Bovine coronavirus was detected in up to 13% of cattle tested, and this finding is likely to have important implications for the management and treatment of respiratory disease in live export cattle. Results from the current study indicate that although overall mortality during live export voyages is low, further research into risk factors for developing respiratory disease is required.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714522465|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714522465
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Detection of Avian bornavirus in multiple tissues of infected psittacine
           birds using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
    • Authors: Delnatte, P; Mak, M, Ojkic, D, Raghav, R, DeLay, J, Smith, D. A.
      Pages: 266 - 271
      Abstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV), the cause of proventricular dilation disease in psittacine birds, has been detected in multiple tissues of infected birds using immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the current study, real-time RT-PCR, using primers targeting the ABV matrix gene, was used to detect ABV in 146 tissues from 7 ABV-infected psittacine birds. Eighty-six percent of the samples tested positive, with crossing point values ranging from 13.82 to 37.82 and a mean of 22.3. These results were compared to the findings of a previous study using gel-based RT-PCR and IHC on the same samples. The agreement between the 2 RT-PCR techniques was 91%; when tests disagreed it was because samples were negative using gel-based RT-PCR but positive on real-time RT-PCR. Agreement with IHC was 77%; 16 out of 74 samples were negative using IHC but positive on real-time RT-PCR. The results suggest that real-time RT-PCR is a more sensitive technique than gel-based RT-PCR and IHC to detect ABV in tissues. The tissues that were ranked most frequently as having a high amount of viral RNA were proventriculus, kidney, colon, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Skeletal muscle, on the other hand, was found to have a consistently low amount of viral RNA.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713519641|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713519641
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • An evaluation of serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum by use of a
           multiplex polymerase chain reaction
    • Authors: Morales-Erasto, V; Posadas-Quintana, J. d. J, Fernandez-Diaz, M, Saravia, L. E, Martinez-Castaneda, J. S, Blackall, P. J, Soriano-Vargas, E.
      Pages: 272 - 276
      Abstract: In the present study, the ability of a recently proposed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) to determine the serogroups (A, B, and C) of Avibacterium paragallinarum was evaluated. A total of 12 reference strains and 69 field isolates of Av. paragallinarum from Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Peru were included in the study. With some exceptions (which were serotyped in the current study), all of the isolates and strains had been previously examined by 2 serotyping schemes (Page and Kume) or were the formal reference strains for the schemes. Three of 6 (50%) reference strains of serogroup A, 2 (100%) of serogroup B, and 1 of 4 (25%) reference strains of serogroup C were correctly serotyped by the mPCR. With the field isolates, the mPCR correctly recognized 16 of the 17 serogroup A isolates, 10 of the 12 serogroup B isolates, and 18 of the 37 serogroup C isolates. Overall, the specificity and sensitivity of the PCR test was as follows: 82.6% and 87.3% (serogroup A), 85.7% and 71.9% (serogroup B), and 46.3% and 100% (serogroup C). The poor performance of the mPCR in terms of recognition of serogroup C isolates (low sensitivity of 46.3%) and the relatively high level of uncertainty about the accuracy of the serogroup A and B results (specificity of 87.3% and 71.9%, respectively) means that the assay cannot be recommended as a replacement for conventional serotyping.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714523612|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714523612
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Issues encountered in development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for
           use in detecting Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 exposure in swine
    • Authors: Buehler, J; Lager, K, Vincent, A, Miller, C, Thacker, E, Janke, B.
      Pages: 277 - 281
      Abstract: A potential mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 could more readily infect human beings is through the infection of and adaptation in pigs. To detect the occurrence of such infection, monitoring of pig populations through serological screening would be highly desirable. In the current study, hemagglutination inhibition assays were able to detect antibodies against H5N1 developed in pigs, but because of antigenic variation between clades, the use of multiple virus strains were required. Whole recombinant virus and recombinant hemagglutinin antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were generated that could detect antibody against multiple H5N1 strains, but which also detected antibody against endemic swine influenza viruses. A recombinant hemagglutinin antigen-based ELISA was as effective as the whole virus antigen ELISAs in detecting antibody against the H5N1 virus strains used and eliminated nearly all of the cross-reactivity with non-H5N1 virus antibody. The current study also highlighted the difficulty in establishing a decision (cutoff) value that would effectively counterbalance nonspecific reactivity against sensitivity. The results provide important information and considerations for the development of serological screening assays for highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713518775|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713518775
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Comparative study of peripheral blood leukocytes in healthy dogs and in
           dogs with cancer and inflammatory diseases
    • Authors: Garcia-Sancho, M; Villaescusa, A, Rodriguez-Franco, F, Sainz, A.
      Pages: 282 - 285
      Abstract: In the present study, the peripheral blood lymphocyte subset distribution was compared between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease, dental and skin conditions, and cancer. The immunophenotype of the group with chronic gastrointestinal disease and the group with dental and skin conditions showed no statistically significant differences with other groups of healthy or diseased dogs. When compared with healthy dogs, animals with cancer showed significantly lower absolute values of T cytotoxic cells (CD3+, CD8+) and lymphocytes that express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHC-II+) in peripheral blood. The results suggest that peripheral blood immunophenotype is mainly altered in dogs with cancer but not in other diseases. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714522464|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714522464
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Comparison of two commercial rapid in-clinic serological tests for
           detection of antibodies against Leishmania spp. in dogs
    • Authors: Athanasiou, L. V; Petanides, T. A, Chatzis, M. K, Kasabalis, D, Apostolidis, K. N, Saridomichelakis, M. N.
      Pages: 286 - 290
      Abstract: Antibodies against Leishmania spp. are detected in most dogs with clinical signs of leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. Accurate, rapid in-clinic serological tests may permit immediate confirmation of the diagnosis and implementation of therapeutic measures. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial, rapid in-clinic serological tests for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in sera of dogs, the Snap Canine Leishmania Antibody Test kit (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine) and the ImmunoRun Antibody Detection kit (Biogal Galed Labs, Kibbutz Galed, Israel), using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) as the reference method. A total of 109 sera collected from 65 seropositive and 44 seronegative dogs were used. The sensitivities of the Snap and ImmunoRun kits were 89.23% (95% confidence interval: 79.05–95.54%) and 86.15% (95% confidence interval: 75.33–93.45%), respectively, and the specificity of both tests was 100%. A good agreement between each of the rapid in-clinic serological tests and IFAT and between the 2 rapid in-clinic serological tests was witnessed. Both rapid in-clinic serological tests showed an adequate diagnostic accuracy and can be used for the fast detection of antibodies against L. infantum in dogs.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714523614|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714523614
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Grading of shoulder ulcerations in sows by biopsies
    • Authors: Jensen, H. E; Dahl-Pedersen, K, Barington, K, Kaiser, M, Bonde, M. K, Herskin, M. S, Jensen, K. H.
      Pages: 291 - 296
      Abstract: Shoulder ulcerations can be graded postmortem from 0 to 4 on a pathoanatomical scale. However, veterinarians and farmers express difficulties evaluating the grade of the lesions antemortem. Accurate grading is needed in order to comply with veterinary instruction in relation to the Danish legislation, stating that sows with shoulder ulcers grade 3 or 4 must be kept loose and have access to soft bedding. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if biopsies from the center of a shoulder ulcer can be used to point out animals for which an intervention must be initiated. Postmortem, a punch biopsy was sampled from the center of the ulceration or from the tissue overlaying the tuber spina scapula. Afterward, the shoulders were cross-sectioned and evaluated grossly and histologically ("gold standard"). In total, 121 shoulders were included in the study, and the diagnostic value of a punch biopsy in grading shoulder ulcerations was evaluated. The results showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 0.98, a positive likelihood ratio of 38.36, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22. The agreement between the cross-section evaluation and the punch biopsy was found to be 0.90 by calculating the Cohen kappa value. In conclusion, a single punch biopsy from the center of an ulcer is useful for determining the grade of a shoulder ulcer and can be used to facilitate the identification of sows with ulcers requiring an intervention.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713520540|hwp:resource-id:spvdi;26/2/291
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Disseminated histoplasmosis in two juvenile raccoons (Procyon lotor) from
           a nonendemic region of the United States
    • Authors: Clothier, K. A; Villanueva, M, Torain, A, Reinl, S, Barr, B.
      Pages: 297 - 301
      Abstract: Two 6-month-old raccoon kits, which had been rescued and fostered in preparation for return to the wild, became acutely ill and died 3 weeks before scheduled release. At necropsy, the kits had grossly enlarged livers and spleens, diffusely consolidated lungs, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Histologically, extensive infiltrates of macrophages containing yeast organisms were identified in lung, liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, intestinal tissues, brain, adrenal gland, bone marrow, and thymus of both animals. Histiocytic inflammation with accompanying fibrosis was widespread, with necrotic foci evident in lungs, spleen, and intestinal sections. Fungal organisms were observed on sheep blood agar plates; however, repeated subcultures to fungal media designed to induce conidial structures for fungal identification were unsuccessful. Partial DNA sequencing of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene of the blood agar isolate identified 100% homology with Ajellomyces capsulatus (anamorphic name Histoplasma capsulatum). The kits were rescued and fostered in the San Francisco Bay area and it is likely that the exposure to H. capsulatum occurred in this area. Histoplasma sp. infection in wild mammal species is often used as an indication of spore contamination of a geographic region. Northern California is not known to be an endemic region for H. capsulatum, which is not a reportable disease in this state. The presence of severe, disseminated disease and the need for molecular identification associated with the isolate from a nonendemic region identified in the present report may indicate genetic adaptation and altered characteristics of this agent and may warrant further investigation.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714521207|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714521207
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Skin involvement in lymphomas caused by Marek's disease virus infection in
           Silkie chickens
    • Authors: Liu, L; Qu, Y, Wang, T, Wang, G, Wang, F, Liu, S.
      Pages: 302 - 307
      Abstract: The Silkie is a typical Chinese breed of chicken. In 2012, batches of Silkies were found to have diffuse tumor-like nodules on their skin after feather removal, when they were slaughtered at about 60 days old. Gross examination showed no visible neoplastic lesions on the visceral organs and peripheral nerves, except slight splenomegaly in individual chickens. The disease was prevalent, with high condemnation rates for skin lesions, which caused great economic losses to the company. Tissues, including skin, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves, were collected for histologic examination. Heparinized blood samples were collected for virus isolation and identification. Marek’s disease virus (MDV), Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and Avian leukosis virus (ALV) were analyzed, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Histologic examination showed that all of the tumor-like nodules on the skin were lymphomas. Lymphoproliferative lesions occurred mostly on the skin and only a few on the viscera, including the liver and proventriculus. Infected chick embryo fibroblasts showed clear cytopathic effects; indirect fluorescent antibody test for envelope glycoprotein B was positive. In addition, PCR indicated the presence of MDV serotype 1 infection without REV and ALV. A phylogenetic tree of the Meq gene showed that the isolate (SD121201) and Chinese reference strains, which are very virulent MDVs, are in the same clade. It was concluded that the Silkies tested were infected with MDV serotype 1. The Marek’s disease epidemic has been controlled using CVI988/Rispens vaccines.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714522462|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714522462
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Esophageal cyst in the duodenum of a foal
    • Authors: Loynachan; A. T.
      Pages: 308 - 311
      Abstract: A 21-day-old Thoroughbred colt was euthanized following a history of recurrent colic. A 4.5 cm in diameter, occlusive, submucosal cyst was identified in the duodenum at necropsy. Histologically, the cyst was surrounded by a smooth muscle wall and was lined by both squamous and attenuated cuboidal to columnar epithelium. A diagnosis of an esophageal cyst was made based on the gross and histologic findings.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714523611|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714523611
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Francisella tularensis infection without lesions in gray tree squirrels
           (Sciurus griseus): a diagnostic challenge
    • Authors: Nelson, D. D; Haldorson, G. J, Stanton, J. B, Noh, S. M, Bradway, D. S, Mansfield, K. G, Baszler, T. V.
      Pages: 312 - 315
      Abstract: Fifteen cases of Francisella tularensis infection (tularemia) were identified in western gray (Sciurus griseus) and eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington State, a geographical area with endemic tularemia in wildlife. Nine of the 15 squirrels with F. tularensis infection had gross (2/15) or microscopic (9/15) multifocal necrotizing lesions in the spleen, liver, or lymph nodes, typical of tularemia. Special stains did not reliably identify intralesional bacteria microscopically. Six of the 15 squirrels infected with F. tularensis lacked gross and microscopic lesions typical of tularemia. All 15 squirrels with F. tularensis infection were identified by polymerase chain reaction tests on the spleen, liver, or lymph node (including all 6 squirrels without typical tularemia lesions); 8 out of 9 squirrels were positive by direct fluorescent antibody test of tissues, and 5 out of 15 squirrels were positive by culture of tissues. The findings underscore the importance of considering tularemia as a possible cause of death when no lesions of tularemia can be identified at necropsy. Furthermore, the findings suggest the possibility of subclinical infections in gray squirrels, and the importance of molecular diagnostics for definitive diagnosis of F. tularensis infection in wild squirrels.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713520541|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713520541
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Subcutaneous sparganosis, a zoonotic cestodiasis, in two cats
    • Authors: Woldemeskel; M.
      Pages: 316 - 319
      Abstract: Sparganosis is a zoonotic cestodiasis of human beings and animals caused by plerocercoid or second-stage larvae (sparganum) of pseudophyllidean tapeworms in host tissues. Cats are among definitive hosts in which the larva develops to adult stage in the intestines. Reports on larval infection involving various tissues and organs in cats are scarce. Rare single case reports of visceral sparganosis in cats are previously documented. The present report documents an unusual subcutaneous sparganosis in 2 Domestic Shorthair cats from southern Georgia. Veterinary clinicians should consider sparganosis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous cyst-like masses in cats. As infected animals and animal tissues are sources of human infection, sparganosis warrants public awareness and due precaution to avoid human infection.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713517697|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713517697
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Causes of death in preweaned northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga
           angustirostris, Gill, 1866), Ano Nuevo State Reserve, California, 2012
    • Authors: Spraker, T. R; Lyons, E. T, Kuzmina, T. A, Tift, M. S, Raverty, S, Jaggi, N, Crocker, D. E.
      Pages: 320 - 326
      Abstract: During an ongoing physiological ecology study on pups and adult female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866) on the mainland rookery at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California), an opportunity was afforded to collect fresh dead pups for parasitology and necropsy. The investigation was undertaken to delineate the causes of death of northern elephant seals recovered from Año Nuevo State Reserve. Prior to this study, there was no evidence of increased mortality or health problems on this rookery. Necropsies, histology, and ancillary diagnostic studies were conducted on 21 fresh dead preweaned pups. Ages ranged from 1 stillbirth to pups approximately 2 weeks of age. Gross lesions included varying degrees of bruising, hemorrhage, lacerations, and fractures attributed to blunt force trauma to the head, chest, and/or abdomen in 16 pups; starvation in 6 pups; bite wounds in 2 pups; generalized icterus in 2 pups; presumptive drowning in 2 pups; and 1 stillbirth. Most pups had multiple gross lesions. Following light microscopic examination, pups could be assigned into 4 general diagnostic categories: 1) trauma, 2) nutritional status, 3) infectious conditions, and 4) congenital anomalies. This investigation of preweaned pup mortality of northern elephant seals in California further refines diagnostic categories for perinatal pup mortality.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714523427|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714523427
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
  • Detection of diisocyanates in nesting material associated with mortality
           in pigeon chicks
    • Authors: Mukai, M; Woods, L. W, Stump, S, Ebel, J. G, Levitt, A. S, Frey, M. W, Smith, J, Uzal, F. A, Poppenga, R. H, Puschner, B.
      Pages: 327 - 333
      Abstract: Diisocyanates, commonly used in the production of polyurethane foams, paints, elastomers, varnishes, and coatings, are considered among the most hazardous inhalation toxicants. The present report describes 2 unusual cases of mortality in pigeon chicks associated with nesting material contaminated by diisocyanates. Case 1 was submitted by a racing pigeon breeder who had lost all the hatchlings (n = 125) following replacement of the nesting material with a different lot. All adult birds appeared healthy, and hatchability was not significantly affected, but hatchlings became lethargic and dyspneic after a day of hatch. At necropsy, dark wet lungs were found in the hatchlings. Case 2 was submitted by a show-roller pigeon breeder. In this case, the owner reported lower hatchability, and all hatchlings (approximately 100) died within 2 days of hatching with clinical signs similar to the first case. Necropsy did not reveal any significant findings. For both cases, nesting materials were screened for toxic compounds using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (approximately 190–290 ppm) and 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (unquantified) were detected in the nesting pads. While there is very limited information on toxicosis in birds, there are reports of inhalant exposure of diisocyanates causing pulmonary edema and death in various mammalian species. Although cause–effect relationship of mortality and the nesting material was not established in the present cases, the presence of toxic compounds in the nesting materials is a cause for concern. Further investigation is needed to determine the prevalence and toxicity of diisocyanates-contaminated nesting material in avian species.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26T14:07:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638713520543|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638713520543
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 2 (2014)
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