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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 216 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
  [SJR: 0.701]   [H-I: 60]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [852 journals]
  • Revised JVDI organizational structure
    • Authors: Maxie; G.
      Pages: 485 - 485
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716664332
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Experimental infection of conventional nursing pigs and their dams with
           Porcine deltacoronavirus
    • Authors: Vitosh-Sillman, S; Loy, J. D, Brodersen, B, Kelling, C, Doster, A, Topliff, C, Nelson, E, Bai, J, Schirtzinger, E, Poulsen, E, Meadors, B, Anderson, J, Hause, B, Anderson, G, Hesse, R.
      Pages: 486 - 497
      Abstract: Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly identified virus that has been detected in swine herds of North America associated with enteric disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the pathogenicity, course of infection, virus kinetics, and aerosol transmission of PDCoV using 87 conventional piglets and their 9 dams, including aerosol and contact controls to emulate field conditions. Piglets 2–4 days of age and their dams were administered an oronasal PDCoV inoculum with a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR quantification cycle (Cq) value of 22 that was generated from a field sample having 100% nucleotide identity to USA/Illinois121/2014 determined by metagenomic sequencing and testing negative for other enteric disease agents using standard assays. Serial samples of blood, serum, oral fluids, nasal and fecal swabs, and tissues from sequential autopsy, conducted daily on days 1–8 and regular intervals thereafter, were collected throughout the 42-day study for qRT-PCR, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Diarrhea developed in all inoculated and contact control pigs, including dams, by 2 days post-inoculation (dpi) and in aerosol control pigs and dams by 3–4 dpi, with resolution occurring by 12 dpi. Mild to severe atrophic enteritis with PDCoV antigen staining was observed in the small intestine of affected piglets from 2 to 8 dpi. Mesenteric lymph node and small intestine were the primary sites of antigen detection by immunohistochemistry, and virus RNA was detected in these tissues to the end of the study. Virus RNA was detectable in piglet fecal swabs to 21 dpi, and dams to 14–35 dpi.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716654200
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Sinusoidal endothelial cell and hepatic stellate cell phenotype correlates
           with stage of fibrosis in chronic liver disease in dogs
    • Authors: Vince, A. R; Hayes, M. A, Jefferson, B. J, Stalker, M. J.
      Pages: 498 - 505
      Abstract: We evaluated the extent of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease of dogs using a modification of Ishak’s staging criteria for human chronic liver disease, and examined the association of stage of fibrosis with immunophenotypic markers of transdifferentiation of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic stellate cells. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin and eosin–stained liver biopsy specimens from 45 case dogs with chronic liver disease and 55 healthy control dogs were scored for the presence and extent of fibrosis. This stage score for fibrosis strongly correlated with upregulated von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression in lobular sinusoidal endothelial cells (Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC] = 0.57, p < 0.05). Immunoreactivity for vWF factor was identified in 68.9% of case biopsies, varying in distribution from periportal to diffuse, whereas vWF immunoreactivity was identified in only 14.5% of control specimens, and was restricted to the immediate periportal sinusoids. The majority of both case and control biopsies exhibited similar prominent lobular perisinusoidal expression of alpha–smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). A minority of specimens (17.8% of case biopsies, 1.8% of control biopsies) exhibited low perisinoidal α-SMA expression, and there was a weak negative correlation between α-SMA expression and stage of fibrosis (SCC = –0.29, p = 0.0037). These results document a method for staging the severity of fibrosis in canine liver biopsies, and show a strong association between fibrosis and increased expression of vWF in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716658499
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Characterization of a novel Canine distemper virus causing disease in
    • Authors: Pope, J. P; Miller, D. L, Riley, M. C, Anis, E, Wilkes, R. P.
      Pages: 506 - 513
      Abstract: Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a common cause of a multisystemic disease in both domestic dogs and wildlife species, including raccoons and foxes. Outbreaks of CDV in domestic dogs in eastern Tennessee have occurred since 2012, and it was determined that these outbreaks resulted from a novel genotype of CDV. We hypothesized that this virus is also infecting area wildlife and may be a source of the virus for these outbreaks in dogs. From 2013 to 2014, autopsies were performed and tissues collected from raccoons (Procyon lotor; n = 50) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus; n = 8) for CDV testing. A real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to document the presence of CDV in tissue samples, and a portion of the virus was subsequently sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. A high percentage of wildlife, both with (86%) and without (55%) clinical signs, tested positive for CDV, with the majority (77%) testing positive for the novel genotype. Microscopic findings, including syncytia in the lungs and viral inclusion bodies in urothelium, astrocytes, neurons, and bronchiolar epithelium, were also consistent with canine distemper. Minimal inflammation in the central nervous system of affected animals was indicative of the acute neurologic form of the disease. Pneumonia and parasitism were also commonly found in CDV-infected animals. Based on these results, CDV appears to be prevalent in eastern Tennessee wildlife. Subclinical or clinically recovered shedders are a potential source of this novel genotype for domestic dogs, and this genotype is genetically distinct from vaccine strains.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716656025
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Resistance of canine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
           strains to pradofloxacin
    • Authors: Kizerwetter-Swida, M; Chrobak-Chmiel, D, Rzewuska, M, Binek, M.
      Pages: 514 - 518
      Abstract: We investigated in vitro activity of a novel veterinary fluoroquinolone, pradofloxacin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) isolates and compared with other fluoroquinolones. A total of 38 MRSP isolates were subjected to agar disk diffusion tests for sensitivity to pradofloxacin, orbifloxacin, marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of pradofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin were determined. Mutations in the genes encoding DNA gyrase subunit A (GyrA) and topoisomerase IV (GrlA) proteins associated with fluoroquinolone resistance were studied by an analysis of partial sequences of the genes encoding these proteins. Two MRSP isolates were susceptible in disk diffusion and microdilution test to all fluoroquinolones tested, including pradofloxacin. Based on the results of the disk diffusion testing, 33 of 38 isolates showed resistance to pradofloxacin and 3 were intermediate, whereas, by pradofloxacin MIC testing, 35 isolates were classified as resistant and 1 as intermediate. Single alterations in GyrA and GrlA proteins were observed in the 35 resistant isolates and the 1 intermediate isolate (MIC results). These same 36 isolates were also resistant to the other tested fluoroquinolones. The results of the current study showed that MRSP isolates are usually resistant to all fluoroquinolones, including pradofloxacin. Therefore, in routine susceptibility testing to pradofloxacin by disk diffusion, the results should be carefully interpreted for MRSP isolates, especially those resistant to other fluoroquinolones and, in questionable cases, the pradofloxacin MIC should be determined to confirm the susceptibility testing results.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716660131
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Resolving Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected
           U.S. beef calves with complete genome sequence
    • Authors: Workman, A. M; Heaton, M. P, Harhay, G. P, Smith, T. P. L, Grotelueschen, D. M, Sjeklocha, D, Brodersen, B, Petersen, J. L, Chitko-McKown, C. G.
      Pages: 519 - 528
      Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic variation. To effectively control BVDV by vaccination, it is important to know which subtypes of the virus are circulating and how their prevalence is changing over time. Accordingly, the purpose of our study was to estimate the current prevalence and diversity of BVDV subtypes from persistently infected (PI) beef calves in the central United States. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR (5' untranslated region) for 119 virus strains revealed that a majority (82%) belonged to genotype 1b, and the remaining strains were distributed between genotypes 1a (9%) and 2 (8%); however, BVDV-2 subtypes could not be confidently resolved. Therefore, to better define the variability of U.S. BVDV isolates and further investigate the division of BVDV-2 isolates into subtypes, complete genome sequences were obtained for these isolates as well as representatives of BVDV-1a and -1b. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete coding sequence provided more conclusive genetic classification and revealed that U.S. BVDV-2 isolates belong to at least 3 distinct genetic groups that are statistically supported by both complete and individual coding gene analyses. These results show that a more complex set of BVDV-2 subtypes has been circulating in this region than was previously thought.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716654943
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • A new quantitative PCR method for the detection of Anaplasma platys in
           dogs based on the citrate synthase gene
    • Authors: da Silva, C. B; Pires, M. S, Vilela, J. A. R, Peckle, M, da Costa, R. L, Vitari, G. L. V, Santos, L. A, Santos, H. A, Massard, C. L.
      Pages: 529 - 535
      Abstract: Anaplasma platys is an obligate intracellular bacterium that primarily affects dogs, but it can also infect humans. Our study aimed to standardize a quantitative real-time (q)PCR method using the citrate synthase gene (gltA) as a specific target for A. platys detection in naturally infected dogs. Primers (gltA84F and gltA84R) and probe (PLATYSp) were designed to amplify an 84-bp fragment based on the gltA gene sequences of A. platys available in GenBank. A total of 186 dog blood samples originating from the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro were tested by qPCR. Additionally, the same samples were tested by cytology and a nested (n)PCR that targeted the 16S ribosomal DNA to determine the performance of our qPCR method compared to these existing techniques. Among the samples tested with qPCR, 17.2% were considered positive, significantly more than detected by nPCR (14.0%). Under optical microscopy, inclusions were observed in platelets of 25.3% of the samples, and among these samples, only 33.9% were identified as positive for A. platys using qPCR. The qPCR technique proved to be more specific than cytology and to have superior sensitivity to nPCR for detecting A. platys in dogs. The development of this new qPCR method contributes to the advancement of research involving A. platys. Furthermore, it can be used to quantify the presence of this bacterium to evaluate the treatment of infected animals, or even as a more sensitive and specific tool for situations indicating possible clinical disease but with negative cytology.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716659101
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Investigation of false positives associated with loop-mediated isothermal
           amplification assays for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in archived tissue
           samples of captive felids
    • Authors: Suleman, E; Mtshali, M. S, Lane, E.
      Pages: 536 - 542
      Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that infects humans and many different animals, including felids. Many molecular and serologic tests have been developed for detection of T. gondii in a wide range of hosts. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a field-friendly technique that lacks the practical drawbacks of other molecular and serologic tests, and LAMP assays have been successfully developed for detection of T. gondii in fresh tissue samples. In the current study, both a previously published and a de-novo designed LAMP assay were compared to a quantitative real-time (q)PCR assay, for the detection of T. gondii in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from captive wildlife. The LAMP assays produced conflicting results, generating both false positives and false negatives. Furthermore, the LAMP assays were unable to positively identify samples with low levels of parasites as determined by qPCR and histopathology. Therefore, these LAMP assays may not be the most suitable assays for detection of T. gondii in archived FFPE and frozen tissue samples.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716659864
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Development of a duplex lateral flow assay for simultaneous detection of
           antibodies against African and Classical swine fever viruses
    • Pages: 543 - 549
      Abstract: Classical swine fever (CSF) and African swine fever (ASF) are both highly contagious diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar and are clinically indistinguishable. For both diseases, antibody detection is an integral and crucial part of prevention and control measures. The purpose of our study was to develop and initially validate a duplex pen-side test for simultaneous detection and differentiation of specific antibodies against CSF virus (CSFV) and ASF virus (ASFV). The test was based on the major capsid protein VP72 of ASFV and the structural protein E2 of CSFV, both considered the most immunogenic proteins of these viruses. The performance of the pen-side test was evaluated using a panel of porcine samples consisting of experimental, reference, and field sera, with the latter collected from European farms free of both diseases. The new lateral flow assay was able to detect specific antibodies to ASFV or CSFV, showing good levels of sensitivity and specificity. These preliminary data indicate the potential of the newly developed pen-side test for rapid differential detection of antibodies found in the 2 diseases, which is of particular importance in the field and in front-line laboratories where equipment and skilled personnel are limited and control of ASF and CSF is crucial.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716654942
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Infectious agents identified in aborted swine fetuses in a high-density
           breeding area: a three-year study
    • Authors: Salogni, C; Lazzaro, M, Giacomini, E, Giovannini, S, Zanoni, M, Giuliani, M, Ruggeri, J, Pozzi, P, Pasquali, P, Boniotti, M. B, Alborali, G. L.
      Pages: 550 - 554
      Abstract: Reproductive failure in sows is one of the most important factors affecting pig breeding. Many reproductive disorders are linked to both environmental factors and infectious agents. The goal of our study was to determine the presence of pathogens that are known to cause abortion, considering a set of conditioning factors, such as seasonality and pregnancy period. A large number of aborted fetuses (1,625 fetuses from 140 farms) from a high-density breeding area in northern Italy was analyzed for a period of 3 years. The pigs were diagnosed based on direct (culture, PCR) or indirect (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) evidence. An infectious etiologic agent was found in 323 of 549 cases of abortion (58.8%). These included viral agents (Porcine circovirus-2, 138/323; Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, 108/323; porcine parvovirus, 20/323; pseudorabies virus, 6/323; and Encephalomyocarditis virus, 3/323) and bacteria (Escherichia coli, 64/323; Streptococcus sp., 63/323; Staphylococcus sp., 5/323; Pasteurella sp., 3/323; Shigella sp., 1/323; and Yersinia sp., 1/323). This study describes the prevalence of infectious agents involved in reproductive failure in a high-density swine population. The data can be useful to swine breeders, practitioners, and medical specialists in monitoring animal health and in supervising the breeding process.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716656024
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Evaluation of a proposed molecular methodology for the serotyping of
           Avibacterium paragallinarum
    • Authors: Wang, H; Sun, H, Blackall, P. J, Zhang, Z, Zhou, H, Xu, F, Chen, X.
      Pages: 555 - 560
      Abstract: A multiplex (m)PCR and a PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of Avibacterium paragallinarum have been proposed as alternatives to conventional serotyping by the Page scheme. We evaluated both methods, and also sequenced the PCR-RFLP target fragment to reexamine the capacity of molecular serotyping. Eleven reference strains and 27 field isolates were used. Many reference strains and isolates were misidentified as Page serogroup B. The sequence analysis revealed 6 profiles based on the matching rates of the target sequence with the 3 reverse primers of the mPCR. The reference strains and field isolates in profiles 1 and 4 were correctly identified as serogroup A or C by the mPCR. The strains and/or isolates in profiles 2, 3, 5, and 6 could be misidentified as serogroup B or as nontypeable by the mPCR. The homology comparison of the sequences showed that the target sequence of the mPCR, called region 2, was not Page serogroup specific, although some Kume serovars, such as A-1 and C-2, were correctly serotyped. In addition, there was a 9 nucleotide deletion in the sequences of profiles 1, 3, and 5, but not of profiles 2, 4, and 6. Overall, we confirmed that the mPCR and PCR-RFLP molecular assays are not suitable for identifying the serogroups of A. paragallinarum isolates. With further study, analysis of region 2 sequences may have potential as a means of recognizing the Kume serovars of A. paragallinarum isolates.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716659523
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Age-related changes of platelet and plasma coagulation parameters in young
    • Pages: 561 - 567
      Abstract: The literature on hemostatic processes in swine is sparse and often fragmentary; hence, we conducted our study to characterize age-related changes in selected parameters of primary and secondary hemostasis in 50 growing pigs between day 2 and week 24 of age. We measured platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume, platelet-to-large cell ratio, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen concentration. Among primary hemostasis parameters, PLT underwent the largest fluctuation with the animals’ age, ranging from 340 to 730 x 109/L. However, statistical significance was only detected for 4-week-old piglets compared to 18-week-old animals. Of the secondary hemostasis parameters measured, TT and aPTT were the most changeable. Activated partial thromboplastin time displayed a characteristic biphasic course, being relatively short before week 5 of age (17.8–19.9 s) and then becoming much longer (28.7–52.5 s). The aPTTs measured in animals 6 weeks of age and older were statistically different (p < 0.01) from those in younger piglets. The 2 main components of hemostasis, platelet hemostasis and plasma coagulation, did not develop at the same time. It took much longer for secondary hemostasis to stabilize, whereas platelet parameters were stable early in life.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716658928
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus infection in
           two commercial layer facilities: lesions and viral antigen distribution
    • Authors: Arruda, P. H. E; Stevenson, G. W, Killian, M. L, Burrough, E. R, Gauger, P. C, Harmon, K. M, Magstadt, D. R, Yoon, K.-J, Zhang, J, Madson, D. M, Pineyro, P, Derscheid, R. J, Schwartz, K. J, Cooper, V. L, Halbur, P. G, Main, R. G, Sato, Y, Arruda, B. L.
      Pages: 568 - 573
      Abstract: The largest outbreak of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus (HPAIV) infection in U.S. history began in December 2014 resulting in the euthanasia of millions of birds and collateral economic consequences to the U.S. poultry industry. We describe 2 cases of H5N2 HPAIV infection in laying hens in Iowa. Following a sharp increase in mortality with minimal clinical signs, 15 dead birds, from 2 unrelated farms, were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Common lesions included diffuse edema and multifocal hemorrhage of the comb, catarrhal exudate in the oropharynx, and multifocal tracheal hemorrhage. Less common lesions included epicardial petechiae, splenic hemorrhage, and pancreatic necrosis. Influenza A virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple cell types including ependymal cells, the choroid plexus, neurons, respiratory epithelium and macrophages in the lung, cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, necrotic foci in the spleen, Kupffer cells in the liver, and necrotic acinar cells in the pancreas. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing confirmed H5N2 HPAIV with molecular characteristics similar to other contemporary U.S. H5N2 HPAIVs in both cases.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716658929
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Rapid detection of Porcine circovirus 2 by recombinase polymerase
    • Authors: Wang, J; Wang, J, Liu, L, Li, R, Yuan, W.
      Pages: 574 - 578
      Abstract: Porcine circovirus–associated disease, caused primarily by Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), has become endemic in many pig-producing countries and has resulted in significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Tests for PCV-2 infection include PCR, nested PCR, competitive PCR, and real-time PCR (rtPCR). Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) has emerged as an isothermal gene amplification technology for the molecular detection of infectious disease agents. RPA is performed at a constant temperature and therefore can be carried out in a water bath. In addition, RPA is completed in ~30 min, much faster than PCR, which usually takes >60 min. We developed a RPA-based method for the detection of PCV-2. The detection limit of RPA was 102 copies of PCV-2 genomic DNA. RPA showed the same sensitivity as rtPCR but was 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. Successful amplification of PCV-2 DNA, but not other viral templates, demonstrated high specificity of the RPA assay. This method was also validated using clinical samples. The results showed that the RPA assay had a diagnostic agreement rate of 93.7% with conventional PCR and 100% with rtPCR. These findings suggest that the RPA assay is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective method for PCV-2 detection, which could be potentially applied in clinical diagnosis and field surveillance of PCV-2 infection.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716654201
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Hyperplastic stomatitis and esophagitis in a tortoise (Testudo graeca)
           associated with an adenovirus infection
    • Authors: Garcia-Morante, B; Penzes, J. J, Costa, T, Martorell, J, Martinez, J.
      Pages: 579 - 583
      Abstract: A 2-year-old female, spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) was presented with poor body condition (1/5) and weakness. Fecal analysis revealed large numbers of oxyurid-like eggs, and radiographs were compatible with gastrointestinal obstruction. Despite supportive medical treatment, the animal died. At gross examination, an intestinal obstruction was confirmed. Histopathology revealed severe hyperplastic esophagitis and stomatitis with marked epithelial cytomegaly and enormous basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy examination revealed a large number of 60–80 nm, nonenveloped, icosahedral virions arranged in crystalline arrays within nuclear inclusions of esophageal epithelial cells, morphologically compatible with adenovirus-like particles. PCR for virus identification was performed with DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. A nested, consensus pan-adenovirus PCR and sequencing analysis showed a novel adenovirus. According to phylogenetic calculations, it clustered to genus Atadenovirus in contrast with all other chelonian adenoviruses described to date. The present report details the pathologic findings associated with an adenovirus infection restricted to the upper digestive tract.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716659903
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Pulmonary embolization of immature Fascioloides magna causing fatal
           hemothorax confirmed by molecular technique in a heifer in the United
    • Authors: Lee, J. K; Rosser, T. G, Cooley, J.
      Pages: 584 - 588
      Abstract: The current report describes the use of a molecular technique to identify immature Fascioloides magna. An 18-month-old Brangus heifer was found dead in the field without any prior clinical signs. The cause of death was exsanguination into the thoracic cavity associated with pulmonary embolization and infection by immature Fascioloides magna resulting in 2 large foci of pulmonary necrosis and focal arteriolar and lung rupture. The liver had a few random migratory tracts with typical iron and porphyrin fluke exhaust, but no identified fluke larvae. A single immature fluke was found in the lungs, and species level identification as F. magna was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 region, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS2) and of partial 28S rRNA gene sequence. This is one of only a few pulmonary fascioloidiasis cases associated with hemothorax in the veterinary literature.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716660129
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Comparative evaluation of the nested ITS PCR against the 18S PCR-RFLP in a
           survey of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kwale County, Kenya
    • Authors: Odongo, S; Delespaux, V, Ngotho, M, Bekkele, S. M, Magez, S.
      Pages: 589 - 594
      Abstract: We compared the nested internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment length polymorphism) pan-trypanosome assays in a cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomiasis in 358 cattle in Kwale County, Kenya. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis as determined by the nested ITS PCR was 19.6% (70/358) and by 18S PCR-RFLP was 16.8% (60/358). Of the pathogenic trypanosomes detected, the prevalence of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax was greater than that of Trypanosoma simiae. The nested ITS PCR detected 83 parasite events, whereas the 18S PCR-RFLP detected 64; however, overall frequencies of infections and the parasite events detected did not differ between the assays (2 = 0.8, df = 1, p > 0.05 and 2 = 2.5, df = 1, p > 0.05, respectively). The kappa statistic (0.8) showed good agreement between the tests. The nested ITS PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP had comparable sensitivity, although the nested ITS PCR was better at detecting mixed infections (2 = 5.4, df = 1, p < 0.05).
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716659100
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Validation of a gauze sponge sampling methodology to detect Tritrichomonas
           foetus by real-time PCR
    • Authors: Dewell, G. A; Phillips, P. E, Dohlman, T. M, Harmon, K. M, Gauger, P. C.
      Pages: 595 - 598
      Abstract: Bovine trichomoniasis is a concern for the cattle industry. Advances in testing systems have increased the ability to detect the disease in bulls. However, the greatest limitation is proper collection of an adequate sample. The low repeatability observed with most sample collection techniques can cause false-negative results. The aim of our study was to validate a sample collection technique that increases diagnostic sensitivity and is easier and safer to collect than preputial scraping. Commercial bulls (n = 111) of unknown infection status were sampled for detection of Tritrichomonas foetus using 2 different collection methods: 1) preputial scraping with a dry insemination pipette and 2) penile sponging with a 16-ply gauze sponge. Preputial scraping samples were collected by vigorously scraping preputial and penile mucosa using a rigid insemination pipette while applying negative pressure with a syringe. Penile sponge samples were obtained by swabbing the penile and preputial mucosa with a gauze sponge during full extension of the penis. All samples were processed using a commercial medium and submitted under similar conditions for PCR testing. Positive PCR results were detected in 37 of 111 (33%) bulls using the preputial scraping technique; however, 39 of 111 (35%) were positive using the penile sponging technique. The Newton–Raphson algorithm predicted that the sensitivity of the preputial scraping method was 0.919 (95% CI: 0.689–0.983) and the sensitivity of the penile sponging was 0.949 (95% CI: 0.818–0.987). These data indicate that the penile sponging technique is a reliable alternative to the preputial scraping method.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716653637
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • A renal adenocarcinoma in a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) resembling
           human collecting duct carcinoma
    • Authors: Kao, C.-F; Chen, J.-L, Tsao, W.-T, Lee, A.-H, Liu, C.-H, Wang, F.-I.
      Pages: 599 - 603
      Abstract: A 5-year-old male captive corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) with caudal coelomic swelling was admitted for surgical treatment. Laparotomy revealed a 5 x 4 x 2.5 cm, firm, expansile, irregularly shaped mass arising from the middle portion of the right kidney with a mild lobulated pattern and mottled white-to-tan. Microscopically, the mass was composed of numerous bizarre angulated tubules of polygonal neoplastic cells separated by a scirrhous stroma with remarkable heterophilic infiltrates. The neoplastic cells were nonciliated and mucin secreting, with abundant brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm. There were marked cellular and nuclear atypia, frequent cell individualization, and stromal invasion, indicative of malignant behavior, which was confirmed by metastasis to the left kidney 1.5 months postoperatively. Both neoplastic epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells contributing to the scirrhous stroma had variable immunopositivity for pan-cytokeratin. The neoplasm was considered a renal adenocarcinoma resembling human collecting duct carcinoma.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716661380
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Isolation and characterization of atypical Listeria monocytogenes
           associated with a canine urinary tract infection
    • Authors: Palerme, J.-S; Pan, P. C, Parsons, C. T, Kathariou, S, Ward, T. J, Jacob, M. E.
      Pages: 604 - 607
      Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described in a diabetic dog. The serotype of the L. monocytogenes isolate was determined to be 1/2a (3a), with the multilocus genotyping pattern 2.72_1/2a. A nucleotide substitution (Gly145Asp) was detected at residue 145 in the promoter prfA region. This residue is within the critical helix-turn-helix motif of PrfA. The source of the L. monocytogenes strain remains unknown, and the dog recovered after a 4-week course of cephalexin (30 mg/kg orally twice daily).
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716661381
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for
           detecting virulent Rhodococcus equi
    • Authors: Kinoshita, Y; Niwa, H, Higuchi, T, Katayama, Y.
      Pages: 608 - 611
      Abstract: Rhodococcus equi is the most important causative bacterium of severe pneumonia in foals. We report herein the development of a specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, which targets a gene encoding vapA for detecting virulent R. equi. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 104 colony forming units (CFU)/mL, which was equal to 10 CFU/reaction. The clinical efficacy of the LAMP assay was compared with those of 2 published PCR-based methods: nested PCR and quantitative real-time (q)PCR. Agreements between bacterial culture, which is the gold standard for detection of R. equi, and each of the 3 molecular tests were measured by calculating a kappa coefficient. The kappa coefficients of the LAMP (0.760), nested PCR (0.583), and qPCR (0.888) indicated substantial agreement, moderate agreement, and almost perfect agreement, respectively. Although the clinical efficacy of LAMP was not the best among the 3 methods tested, LAMP could be more easily introduced into less well-equipped clinics because it does not require special equipment (such as a thermocycler) for gene amplification. Veterinary practitioners could diagnose R. equi pneumonia more quickly by using LAMP and could use the results to select an appropriate initial treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716656222
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • The detection of Felis catus papillomavirus 3 DNA in a feline bowenoid in
           situ carcinoma with novel histologic features and benign clinical behavior
    • Authors: Munday, J. S; Fairley, R, Atkinson, K.
      Pages: 612 - 615
      Abstract: Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC; papillomavirus-associated squamous cell carcinoma in situ) is an uncommon skin neoplasm of cats that can result in euthanasia because of the development of multiple lesions or because of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. BISCs are currently thought to be caused by Felis catus papillomavirus 2 (FcaPV-2). The presently described cat developed a single 0.5 cm in diameter interscapular mass. Over the following 18 months, the mass doubled in size; no additional lesions developed. The mass was surgically excised and histologically diagnosed as a BISC. However, in contrast to previously reported BISCs, neither prominent thickening of the deep aspects of the follicular infundibula nor marked cell dysplasia were present. Furthermore, ~50% of the keratinocytes in the affected epidermis had prominent PV cytopathic changes that included shrunken angular nuclei and elongated basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. As the histopathology was not typical for FcaPV-2 infection, polymerase chain reaction was performed and revealed only DNA sequences from Felis catus papillomavirus 3 (FcaPV-3). No further BISCs developed in this cat 6 months postremoval, hence surgical excision appeared to be curative. Results from this case suggest that, although FcaPV-2 appears to be the predominant cause of BISCs in cats, infection by FcaPV-3 can also cause these neoplasms. BISCs caused by FcaPV-3 appear to have unique histologic features that allow the causative PV type to be predicted. Results from this single case suggest that BISCs caused by FcaPV-3 may have a more benign clinical course than those caused by FcaPV-2.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716658930
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
  • Book Review: Clostridial Diseases of Animals
    • Authors: OToole; D.
      Pages: 616 - 616
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T10:36:14-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638716663489
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 5 (2016)
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