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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 184 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
   [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [753 journals]   [SJR: 0.627]   [H-I: 51]
  • Farewell letter to JVDI readership
    • Authors: Saliki; J.
      Pages: 720 - 720
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714555845|hwp:resource-id:spvdi;26/6/720
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • The genotyping of Infectious bronchitis virus in Taiwan by a multiplex
           amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase
           chain reaction
    • Authors: Huang, S.-W; Ho, C.-F, Chan, K.-W, Cheng, M.-C, Shien, J.-H, Liu, H.-J, Wang, C.-Y.
      Pages: 721 - 733
      Abstract: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV; Avian coronavirus) causes acute respiratory and reproductive and urogenital diseases in chickens. Following sequence alignment of IBV strains, a combination of selective primer sets was designed to individually amplify the IBV wild-type and vaccine strains using a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ARMS RT-PCR) approach. This system was shown to discriminate the IBV wild-type and vaccine strains. Moreover, an ARMS real-time RT-PCR (ARMS qRT-PCR) was combined with a high-resolution analysis (HRMA) to establish a melt curve analysis program. The specificity of the ARMS RT-PCR and the ARMS qRT-PCR was verified using unrelated avian viruses. Different melting temperatures and distinct normalized and shifted melting curve patterns for the IBV Mass, IBV H120, IBV TW-I, and IBV TW-II strains were detected. The new assays were used on samples of lung and trachea as well as virus from allantoic fluid and cell culture. In addition to being able to detect the presence of IBV vaccine and wild-type strains by ARMS RT-PCR, the IBV Mass, IBV H120, IBV TW-I, and IBV TW-II strains were distinguished using ARMS qRT-PCR by their melting temperatures and by HRMA. These approaches have acceptable sensitivities and specificities and therefore should be able to serve as options when carrying out differential diagnosis of IBV in Taiwan and China.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714547735|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714547735
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Interlaboratory and between-specimen comparisons of diagnostic tests for
           leptospirosis in sheep and cattle
    • Authors: Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J. M, Heuer, C, Hill, F. I, Tisdall, D. J, Wilson, P. R, Benschop, J.
      Pages: 734 - 747
      Abstract: A study was performed to investigate interlaboratory test agreement between a research and a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory on blood and urine samples, and to investigate test agreement between blood, urine, and kidney samples (research laboratory) for leptospirosis diagnosis. Samples were sourced from 399 sheep and 146 beef cattle from a local abattoir. Interlaboratory agreement for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results on urine samples was almost perfect (kappa = 0.90), despite the use of different amplification targets (DNA gyrase subunit B gene vs. 16s ribosomal RNA gene), chemistries (SYTO9 vs. TaqMan probe), and pre-PCR processing. Interlaboratory agreement for microscopic agglutination test (MAT) positivity was almost perfect (kappa = 0.93) for Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo subtype Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) but moderate (kappa = 0.53) for Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona). Among animals that had different titers recorded, higher Hardjobovis and lower Pomona titers were reported by the commercial laboratory than by the research laboratory (P < 0.005). These interlaboratory comparisons can assist researchers and diagnosticians in interpreting the sometimes discrepant test results. Within the research laboratory, the comparison of qPCR results on urine and kidney showed almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.84), suggesting that the qPCR on these 2 specimens can be used interchangeably. The agreement between MAT positivity and urine and kidney qPCR results was fair (kappa = 0.32 and kappa = 0.33, respectively). However, the prevalence ratio of urine and kidney qPCR positivity in Hardjobovis-seropositive versus Hardjobovis-seronegative sheep indicated that Hardjobovis seropositivity found in sheep may be able to predict shedding or renal carriage.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714548476|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714548476
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with
           Parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase
           chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates
    • Authors: Dobey, C. L; Grunenwald, C, Newman, S. J, Muller, L, Gerhold, R. W.
      Pages: 748 - 754
      Abstract: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from elk (Cervus elaphus), goats, and camelids with case histories and lesions suggestive of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis were examined by histology to characterize lesions that could aid in definitively diagnosing P. tenuis infection. Additionally, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) using Parelaphostrongylus-specific primers to determine how PCR results corresponded with histological findings. Histological changes in brain and spinal cord consisted of linear tracks of hemorrhage; tracks or perivascular accumulations of hemosiderin-laden macrophages; acute foci of axonal degeneration and/or linear glial scars; and perivascular, parenchymal, or meningeal accumulations of eosinophils and/or lymphocytes and plasma cells. Of the 43 samples with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans, 19 were PCR positive; however, only 8 were confirmed Parelaphostrongylus by DNA sequencing. Additionally, 1 goat was identified with a protostrongylid that had a 97% identity to both Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and a protostrongylid nematode from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) from Argentina. None of the histologic lesions individually or in combination correlated statistically to positive molecular tests for the nematode. The results indicate that it is possible to extract Parelaphostrongylus DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, but extended fixation presumably can cause DNA crosslinking. Nested PCR provides another diagnostic tool to identify the cause of neurologic disease in camelids and elk with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans. Furthermore, potential novel protostrongylid DNA was detected from a goat with lesions consistent with P. tenuis infection, suggesting that other neurotropic Parelaphostrongylus species may occur locally.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714553427|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714553427
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Field evaluation of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for
           Mycoplasma hyorhinis
    • Authors: Clavijo, M. J; Oliveira, S, Zimmerman, J, Rendahl, A, Rovira, A.
      Pages: 755 - 760
      Abstract: Mycoplasma hyorhinis has emerged as an important cause of systemic disease in nursery pigs. However, this bacterium can also be found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy swine. The current study describes the development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of M. hyorhinis and the evaluation of the assay in both disease diagnosis and disease surveillance using a large number of field samples. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be 12 genome equivalents/μl. The assay was highly specific, detecting all 25 M. hyorhinis isolates tested and none of the 19 nontarget species tested. Assay repeatability was evaluated by testing different matrices spiked with known amounts of M. hyorhinis. Overall, assessment of the repeatability of the assay showed suitable precision within and between runs for all matrices. The coefficient of variation ranged from 10% to 24%. Mycoplasma hyorhinis DNA was detected in 48% of samples (pericardium, pleura, joints, nasal cavity, and lungs) from pigs with systemic disease. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was detected in nasal (92%) and oropharyngeal swabs (66%), as well as in oral fluids (100%). Potential uses of this tool involve the characterization of the prevalence of this pathogen in swine herds as well as bacterial quantification to evaluate intervention efficacy.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714555175|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714555175
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Moraxella spp. isolated from field outbreaks of infectious bovine
           keratoconjunctivitis: a retrospective study of case submissions from 2010
           to 2013
    • Authors: Loy, J. D; Brodersen, B. W.
      Pages: 761 - 768
      Abstract: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), also known as pinkeye, is the most costly eye disease of cattle. The principal etiologic agent of IBK is the Gram-negative bacterium Moraxella bovis. However, there have been reports of IBK outbreaks associated with Moraxella bovoculi. A retrospective study of IBK diagnostic cases submitted from July 1, 2010 through October 31, 2013 was conducted. Included in the study were 1,042 Moraxella isolates from 1,538 swabs of lacrimal secretions collected from 282 herds from 30 U.S. states. Moraxella isolates were identified to the species level and were composed of M. bovoculi (701 isolates), M. bovis (295 isolates), Moraxella ovis (5 isolates), and other Moraxella spp. (41). Minimum inhibitory concentrations required for 90% growth inhibition (MIC90) was calculated for representative isolates. The MIC90 values for both M. bovis and M. bovoculi were as follows: ampicillin and ceftiofur: ≤0.25 µg/ml; clindamycin: 2 µg/ml; danofloxacin and enrofloxacin: ≤0.12 µg/ml; florfenicol: 0.5 µg/ml; gentamicin: 1 µg/ml; neomycin: 4 µg/ml; tulathromycin: 2 µg/ml; and tylosin: 8 µg/ml. The MIC90 values for M. bovoculi included the following: chlortetracycline: ≤0.5 µg/ml; oxytetracycline: 4 µg/ml; penicillin: 0.25 µg/ml; spectinomycin: 32 µg/ml; sulfadimethoxine: >256 µg/ml; tiamulin: 1 µg/ml; and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole: 4 µg/ml. For M. bovis, MIC90 values included the following: chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline: 1 µg/ml; penicillin: ≤0.12 µg/ml; spectinomycin: 16 µg/ml; sulfadimethoxine: ≤256 µg/ml; tiamulin: ≤0.5 µg/ml; and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole: ≤2 µg/ml. The current work describes the frequency of isolation and differences in antimicrobial sensitivity observed among Moraxella isolates from case submissions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714551403|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714551403
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Impact of antigenic diversity on laboratory diagnosis of Avian bornavirus
           infections in birds
    • Authors: Zimmermann, V; Rinder, M, Kaspers, B, Staeheli, P, Rubbenstroth, D.
      Pages: 769 - 777
      Abstract: Avian bornaviruses (ABVs) are a group of genetically diverse viruses within the Bornaviridae family that can infect numerous avian species and represent the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, an often fatal disease that is widely distributed in captive populations of parrots and related species. The current study was designed to assess the antigenic variability of the family Bornaviridae and to determine its impact on ABV diagnosis by employing fluorescent antibody assays. It was shown that polyclonal rabbit sera directed against recombinant bornavirus nucleoprotein, X protein, phosphoprotein, and matrix protein provided sufficient cross-reactivity for the detection of viral antigen from a broad range of bornavirus genotypes grown in cell culture. In contrast, a rabbit anti-glycoprotein serum and 2 monoclonal antibodies directed against nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein proteins reacted more specifically. Antibodies were readily detected in sera from avian patients infected with known ABV genotypes if cells persistently infected with a variety of different bornavirus genotypes were used for analysis. For all sera, calculated antibody titers were highest when the homologous or a closely related target virus was used for the assay. Cross-reactivity with more distantly related genotypes of other phylogenetic groups was usually reduced, resulting in titer reduction of up to 3 log units. The presented results contribute to a better understanding of the antigenic diversity of family Bornaviridae and further emphasize the importance of choosing appropriate diagnostic tools for sensitive detection of ABV infections.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714547258|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714547258
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys (Equus
    • Authors: Ness, S. L; Schares, G, Peters-Kennedy, J, Mittel, L. D, Dubey, J. P, Bowman, D. D, Mohammed, H. O, Divers, T. J.
      Pages: 778 - 782
      Abstract: Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys (Equus asinus) in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and 3 serologic assays for the detection of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospective study of 416 donkeys from 6 privately owned herds across 5 U.S. states (New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Oregon, and Washington) was performed. Donkeys were examined for clinical lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis and evaluated for antibodies against B. bennetti using a fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and 2 immunoblot assays specific for bradyzoite and tachyzoite antigens, respectively. Donkeys were confirmed to be infected with B. bennetti by histology (cases; n = 32) and were compared to those with no clinical signs of besnoitiosis (controls; n = 384). Identifying clinical lesions in 2 or more locations correctly identified infected donkeys 83% of the time. Donkeys with besnoitiosis had significantly higher FAT titers (P < 0.001) and numbers of bradyzoite (P < 0.001) and tachyzoite (P < 0.001) immunoblot bands than control donkeys. The sensitivity and specificity of the serologic assays for detecting besnoitiosis was 88% and 96% for FAT, 81% and 91% for bradyzoite immunoblot, and 91% and 92% for tachyzoite immunoblot, respectively. Fluorescent antibody and immunoblot assays are effective at identifying donkeys with besnoitiosis and provide a more efficient and less invasive diagnostic alternative to histology.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714550180|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714550180
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Comparison of serum, ear notches, and nasal and saliva swabs for Bovine
           viral diarrhea virus antigen detection in colostrum-fed persistently
           infected (PI) calves and non-PI calves
    • Authors: Lanyon, S. R; Sims, S. K, Cockcroft, P. D, Reichel, M. P.
      Pages: 783 - 787
      Abstract: The diagnosis of neonatal and young calves persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) may be complicated by interference from colostrum-derived specific antibodies. Ten calves, with 3 calves identified as PI and 7 as non-PI were used in the current study. All non-PI calves were shown to be seropositive for BVDV-specific antibodies by antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA) on serum. Serum samples, ear notch samples, and nasal and saliva swabs were collected from each calf from birth until 12 weeks of age and tested by ELISA for BVDV-specific antigen and antibodies. Following colostrum ingestion, Ab-ELISA sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios rose by a mean of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64–1.25) and 1.72 (95% CI = 1.55–1.89) in seropositive, non-PI calves and in PI calves, respectively. The mean S/P ratios then declined to approximately 1.1 in non-PI calves and 0.5 in PI calves at between 60 and 80 days of age. In PI calves, testing for antigen in serum and nasal and saliva swabs was subject to interference by colostrum-derived antibodies in calves up to 3 weeks of age. Nasal swabs were less affected than serum and saliva swabs. Ear notches maintained positive ACE corrected optical densities at all sample times, despite a drop in the signal following the ingestion of colostrum.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714550181|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714550181
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Outbreaks of Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus in horses and cattle in
           northeastern Brazil
    • Authors: Cargnelutti, J. F; Olinda, R. G, Maia, L. A, de Aguiar, G. M. N, Neto, E. G. M, Simoes, S. V. D, de Lima, T. G, Dantas, A. F. M, Weiblen, R, Flores, E. F, Riet-Correa, F.
      Pages: 788 - 794
      Abstract: The current article describes outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis (VS) in horses and cattle in Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte states, northeastern Brazil, between June and August 2013. The reported cases affected 15–20 horses and 6 cattle distributed over 6 small farms in 4 municipalities, but additional data indicated the involvement of a large number of animals on several farms. The disease was characterized by blisters; eruptive lesions in coronary bands, lips, mouth, and muzzle; salivation; claudication and loss of condition. Swollen lower limbs and lips, and ulcerated and erosive areas in the lips and muzzle were observed in some horses. A necrotizing vesiculopustular dermatitis and stomatitis was observed histologically. Vesicular stomatitis virus was isolated from the vesicular fluid of a horse lesion and shown to be serologically related to the VS Indiana serogroup (VSIV) by virus neutralization. Convalescent sera of affected horses and cattle, and from healthy contacts, harbored high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the isolated virus (named VSIV-3 2013SaoBento/ParaibaE). Genomic sequences of VSIV subtype 3 (Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus) were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction out of clinical specimens from a cow and a horse from different farms. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the phosphoprotein gene indicated that the 2 isolates were derived from the same virus and clustered them in VSIV-3, along with VS viruses identified in southeastern and northeastern Brazil in the last decades. Thus, the present report demonstrates the circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazil and urges for more effective diagnosis and surveillance.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714553428|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714553428
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis, a Brucella canis-like bacterium,
           from an edematous canine testicle
    • Authors: Reilly, T. J; Calcutt, M. J, Wennerdahl, L. A, Williams, F, Evans, T. J, Ganjam, I. K, Bowman, J. W, Fales, W. H.
      Pages: 795 - 798
      Abstract: Microbiological and histological analysis of a sample from a swollen testicle of a 2-year-old Border Collie dog revealed a mixed infection of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis and the Gram-negative bacterium Aureimonas altamirensis. When subjected to an automated microbial identification system, the latter isolate was provisionally identified as Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, but the organism shared several biochemical features with Brucella canis and exhibited agglutination, albeit weakly, with anti–B. canis antiserum. Unequivocal identification of the organism was only achieved by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, ultimately establishing the identity as A. altamirensis. Since its first description in 2006, this organism has been isolated infrequently from human clinical samples, but, to the authors’ knowledge, has not been reported from a veterinary clinical sample. While of unknown clinical significance with respect to the pathology observed for the polymicrobial infection described herein, it highlights the critical importance to unambiguously identify the microbe for diagnostic, epidemiological, infection control, and public health purposes.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714554440|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714554440
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Diagnostic features in 10 naturally occurring cases of acute fatal canine
    • Authors: Rissi, D. R; Brown, C. A.
      Pages: 799 - 804
      Abstract: The current report describes the diagnostic features in 10 cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis with minimal renal and hepatic changes that may present a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Most affected dogs were less than 6 months of age and had a biochemical profile consistent with hepatorenal dysfunction. Clinical signs consisted of vomiting, depression, icterus, dehydration, diarrhea, and anorexia. All dogs died or were humanely euthanized within 3–7 days after the onset of clinical disease. Necropsy findings included pulmonary edema with hemorrhages, icterus, renal and hepatic pallor and swelling, and gastric edema with hemorrhage. Despite severe azotemia, histological changes in the kidneys were subtle in all dogs, and included mild renal tubular simplification, with single-cell necrosis and attenuation, along with minimal interstitial lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage. Hepatic lesions included scattered hepatocellular single-cell necrosis and hepatocellular dissociation. Prominent extrarenal lesions typically associated with uremia including vascular fibrinoid necrosis in multiple organs, pulmonary mineralization with occasional fibrinosuppurative exudation, and gastric mineralization were also present. Postmortem diagnostic confirmation was based on the detection of leptospiral antigen on fresh renal samples by fluorescent antibody test and on the demonstration of intact spirochetes in sections of kidneys using immunohistochemical staining. Acute fatal canine leptospirosis occurred as a fulminant hepatorenal disease affecting mainly young dogs, and the diagnosis was dependent on the recognition of the subtle renal changes with confirmation via fluorescent antibody testing or immunohistochemical staining.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714553293|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714553293
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Vascular hamartoma in the central nervous system of a foal
    • Authors: Borel, N; Grest, P, Junge, H, Wehrli Eser, M.
      Pages: 805 - 809
      Abstract: Vascular hamartomas are non-neoplastic developmental anomalies of vessels. Cases of cerebral vascular hamartomas have been previously reported in dogs and cats. A 4-week-old Freiberger foal had shown persistent problems with breathing and swallowing since birth, and bilateral laryngeal paralysis was diagnosed. The foal subsequently developed left sided facial nerve paralysis and a secondary corneal ulcer in the left eye. Necropsy revealed a pinkish mass in the obex region of the brain. The mass was further investigated by histology and immunohistochemistry. Histologically, the mass consisted of many thin-walled, blood-filled vascular structures of variable diameter involving the white matter of the obex. The lining cells were immunohistochemically positive for factor VIII (von Willebrand factor) interpreted as endothelial cells. The endothelial lining showed also variable immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin and vimentin. Normal neural parenchyma labeled with antibodies directed against glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase was present between the vascular proliferations. A diagnosis of focal vascular hamartoma in the obex was made. The development of clinical signs is attributed to the compression of the surrounding neural parenchyma.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714548681|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714548681
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Hyperplastic goiter in two adult dairy cows
    • Authors: Ong, C. B; Herdt, T. H, Fitzgerald, S. D.
      Pages: 810 - 814
      Abstract: Iodine excess and resultant hyperplastic goiter are well documented in neonatal ruminants, but little is reported on iodine excess in adult ruminants and associated histological changes of the thyroid gland. Two adult Holstein cows from a Michigan dairy herd that had lost several other animals had nonspecific clinical signs of illness and were submitted for necropsy. Thyroid glands of one of these 2 animals were grossly and markedly enlarged, and histologically, thyroid glands from both animals had regions of cystic nodular hyperplasia and follicular atrophy. Thyroid glands from both animals had markedly elevated iodine concentrations. Investigation into the potential source of excessive iodine on the farm revealed multiple sources of supplemental dietary iodine and probable uneven feed and mineral mixing. Based on the findings of this investigation, adult cattle could be susceptible to excessive doses of iodine. Possibility of previous iodine deficiency before supplementation period, with subsequent development and persistence of thyroid hyperplasia and cystic change, cannot be completely excluded. Current findings suggested that iodine excess in adult cattle can result in nodular hyperplastic goiter. Use of iodized salt in mineral supplements in adult dairy herds is common practice, and accidental excessive iodine supplement may be more common than reported. Recognizing gross and histological thyroid gland changes, consisting of concurrent cystic follicular hyperplasia, atrophy, and fibrosis should raise suspicion of iodine excess and/or prior deficiency in a cattle herd, and ancillary tests such as serum iodine measurements should be part of the diagnostic workup in suspected cases.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714554441|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714554441
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Spirocerca lupi granulomatous pneumonia in two free-ranging maned wolves
           (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil
    • Authors: Blume, G. R; Reis Junior, J. L, Gardiner, C. H, Hoberg, E. P, Pilitt, P. A, Monteiro, R. V, de Sant'Ana, F. J. F.
      Pages: 815 - 817
      Abstract: The current report describes granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in 2 free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Both wolves had multiple, white, 1–1.5 cm in diameter, soft, encapsulated granulomas in the caudal lung lobes, which contained centrally placed parasites on cut sections. Microscopically, there was granulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional sections of spirurid nematodes. Representative complete adult specimens of nematodes derived from these lesions were submitted for parasitological exam and identified as the spirurid S. lupi. To the authors’ knowledge, there have been no published reports of S. lupi in maned wolves.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714554442|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714554442
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Abortion in cattle due to infection with Staphylococcus lugdunensis
    • Authors: Ardigo, P; D'Incau, M, Pongolini, S.
      Pages: 818 - 820
      Abstract: An aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute in Parma, Italy. The serum was negative for Neospora caninum, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis. Fetal tissues and placental cotyledons were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of BHV-1, Bovine herpesvirus 4, BVDV, N. caninum, C. burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Schmallemberg virus, and Leptospira interrogans. All PCR assays were negative. Bacteriological examinations performed on the fetal organs revealed a pure growth of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in all organs cultured. In human beings, S. lugdunensis is responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In veterinary medicine, the pathogenic potential of S. lugdunensis has not been fully investigated. The incidence of S. lugdunensis is regarded as being underreported because it could be easily misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. The current report documents the ability of S. lugdunensis to cause abortion in cattle, indicating the need for accurate diagnostic procedures to identify this emerging and zoonotic pathogen whose incidence is likely underestimated in both human and veterinary medicine.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714550182|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714550182
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Oxidant-induced damage to equine erythrocytes from exposure to Pistacia
           atlantica, Pistacia terebinthus, and Pistacia chinensis
    • Authors: Walter, K. M; Moore, C. E, Bozorgmanesh, R, Magdesian, K. G, Woods, L. W, Puschner, B.
      Pages: 821 - 826
      Abstract: Two horses were referred for methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following 5 acute deaths in their herd from an unidentified toxin source. Horses have a greater risk than other mammalian species of developing methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following ingestion of oxidizing toxins, due to deficiencies in the mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Their susceptibility to oxidative erythrocyte damage is evident in the numerous cases of red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis. The suspected toxins causing A. rubrum toxicosis are tannic acid, gallic acid, and a metabolite of gallic acid, pyrogallol. These compounds can be found in a variety of plants, posing a risk to equine health. In order to quickly identify toxin sources, 2 rapid in vitro assays were developed to screen plant extracts for the ability to induce methemoglobin formation or cause hemolysis in healthy equine donor erythrocytes. The plant extract screening focused on 3 species of the genus Pistacia: P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, and P. chinensis, which were located in the horse pasture. Extracts of the seeds and leaves of each species induced methemoglobin formation and resulted in hemolysis, with seed extracts having greater potency. The in vitro assays used in the current study provide a useful diagnostic method for the rapid identification of oxidizing agents from unidentified sources. There is no effective treatment for oxidative erythrocyte damage in horses, making rapid identification and removal of the source essential for the prevention of poisoning.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714550183|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714550183
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Cholecystic adenocarcinoma and pancreatic insulinomas in a goat
    • Authors: Yau, W; Rissi, D. R.
      Pages: 827 - 831
      Abstract: A 13-year-old female Boer goat with a history of chronic arthritis and recurrent episodes of recumbency, increased serum gamma-glutamyl transferase, and complete inability to stand was submitted for necropsy. Gross changes included the presence of a white, firm, smooth, 6 cm x 4 cm x 3 cm mass that diffusely expanded and partially effaced the gall bladder and infiltrated the adjacent hepatic parenchyma. On cut surface, the mass was pale yellow and had small, irregular, dark yellow areas. Scattered through the pancreas were 2 gray, well-demarcated, soft, homogeneous, 1 cm in diameter nodules that bulged out from the capsular surface. The right femoral head had a locally extensive area of cartilage erosion. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the gall bladder and pancreatic nodules revealed a primary cholecystic adenocarcinoma and multifocal insulinomas, respectively. A metastatic focus from the gall bladder neoplasm was observed infiltrating the right adrenal gland medulla. The goat also had mild pulmonary infestation by Muellerius capillaris. Primary hepatobiliary and pancreatic neoplasia is rare in goats, and to the authors’ knowledge, neither cholecystic adenocarcinoma nor pancreatic insulinomas have been previously reported in this species.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714553294|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714553294
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
  • Flavobacterium columnare: an important contributing factor to fish
           die-offs in southern lakes of Saskatchewan, Canada
    • Authors: Scott, S. J; Bollinger, T. K.
      Pages: 832 - 836
      Abstract: During June and July 2012, Buffalo Pound Lake and Blackstrap Lake in Saskatchewan, Canada were visited biweekly and surveyed for sick and dying fish. During this investigation, 2 fish kills were identified. Buffalo Pound experienced a large die-off of yellow perch (Perca flavascens) in June, while Blackstrap experienced a die-off of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in July. In excess of 50 fish were examined for gross lesions at each lake, and dead and moribund fish consistently had 1 or more of the following lesions: multifocal petechial cutaneous hemorrhage, skin ulceration, or branchial necrosis. Of these, 17 fish were collected for necropsy, and major tissues were submitted for histology. Aerobic bacterial culture was performed on 16 out of 17 fish. In 7 out of 8 (88%) yellow perch, the body wall had multiple areas of pale discoloration that corresponded to erosion and ulceration of the skin. Seven out of 8 (88%) whitefish had severe necrotizing branchiitis, and 8 out of 8 (100%) had severe epicardial parasitism, consistent with Ichthyocotylurus erraticus. Wet mounts of skin and gill lesions demonstrated filamentous bacteria with gliding motility, which often formed haystack-like arrangements. Flavobacterium columnare and Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from skin and gill lesions of all fish. Based on the characteristic appearance and distribution of lesions, mortality was attributed to columnaris disease with secondary infection with A. hydrophila. The current study demonstrates that columnaris disease is an important contributor to fish kills in southern Saskatchewan lakes. However, further research is needed to determine what role environmental factors play in outbreaks of columnaris disease in prairie lakes.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T15:22:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714553591|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714553591
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 6 (2014)
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