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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 178 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [6 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
     Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [740 journals]   [SJR: 0.627]   [H-I: 51]
  • Hematology as a diagnostic tool in bovine medicine
    • Authors: Roland, L; Drillich, M, Iwersen, M.
      Pages: 592 - 598
      Abstract: The objective of the current review is to provide the reader with an overview of the bovine hematological profile. Sample collection, bovine reference ranges, and cattle-specific characteristics of erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet parameters are reviewed. Furthermore, diseases associated with abnormalities in the complete blood cell count of cattle are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714546490|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714546490
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles
           (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally
           infected with West Nile virus
    • Authors: Wunschmann, A; Timurkaan, N, Armien, A. G, Bueno Padilla, I, Glaser, A, Redig, P. T.
      Pages: 599 - 609
      Abstract: Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus–associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714539960|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714539960
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle
           (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with
           0.45% sodium chloride
    • Authors: Tsai, C.-Y; Yu, J.-F, Wang, Y.-W, Fan, P.-C, Cheng, T.-Y, Wang, L.-C.
      Pages: 610 - 615
      Abstract: Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714542868|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714542868
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Reference intervals for acute phase protein and serum protein
           electrophoresis values in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)
    • Authors: Isaza, R; Wiedner, E, Hiser, S, Cray, C.
      Pages: 616 - 621
      Abstract: Acute phase protein (APP) immunoassays and serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) are assays for evaluating the inflammatory response and have use as diagnostic tools in a variety of species. Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation that are highly conserved across different species while SPEP separates and quantifies serum protein fractions based on their physical properties. In the current study, serum samples from 35 clinically healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were analyzed using automated assays for C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin and SPEP. Robust methods were used to generate reference intervals for the APPs: C-reactive protein (1.3–12.8 mg/l), serum amyloid A (0–47.5 mg/l), and haptoglobin (0–1.10 mg/ml). In addition, SPEP was performed on these samples to establish reference intervals for each protein fraction. A combination of APPs and SPEP measurements are valuable adjunctive diagnostic tools in elephant health care.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714543923|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714543923
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Assessment of a fluorescent antibody test for the detection of antibodies
           against epizootic bovine abortion
    • Authors: Blanchard, M. T; Anderson, M. L, Hoar, B. R, Pires, A. F. A, Blanchard, P. C, Yeargan, B. V, Teglas, M. B, Belshaw, M, Stott, J. L.
      Pages: 622 - 630
      Abstract: The current study was directed at developing and validating an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) capable of detecting antibodies specific for the agent of epizootic bovine abortion (aoEBA). Sensitivity and specificity was determined by comparing antibody titers from 114 fetuses infected with aoEBA with 68 fetuses diagnosed with alternate infectious etiologies. Data established specificity at 100% and sensitivity at 94.7% when cutoff criteria for a positive test were assigned at a titer of ≥1,000. Potential cross-reactivity was noted in samples from 3 fetuses with antibody titers of 10 or100; all were infected with Gram-positive organisms. The remaining 65 fetuses infected with microbes other than aoEBA, and an additional 12 negative reference sera, did not have detectable titers. The IFAT-based serology assay is rapid, reproducible, and unaffected by fluid color or opacity. Total fetal immunoglobulin (Ig)G was also evaluated as an aid for diagnosing EBA. Significantly higher concentrations of IgG were identified in fetuses infected with aoEBA as compared to those with alternate infectious etiologies. The presence of IgG is a sensitive indicator of EBA and increases the specificity of FAT-based serologic diagnosis when titers are 10 or 100. Taken together, serology and IgG analyses suggest that the incidence of EBA may be underestimated.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714545506|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714545506
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Investigation of polymerase chain reaction assays to improve detection of
           bacterial involvement in bovine respiratory disease
    • Authors: Bell, C. J; Blackburn, P, Elliott, M, Patterson, T. I. A. P, Ellison, S, Lahuerta-Marin, A, Ball, H. J.
      Pages: 631 - 634
      Abstract: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) causes severe economic losses to the cattle farming industry worldwide. The major bacterial organisms contributing to the BRD complex are Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, and Trueperella pyogenes. The postmortem detection of these organisms in pneumonic lung tissue is generally conducted using standard culture-based techniques where the presence of therapeutic antibiotics in the tissue can inhibit bacterial isolation. In the current study, conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to assess the prevalence of these 5 organisms in grossly pneumonic lung samples from 150 animals submitted for postmortem examination, and the results were compared with those obtained using culture techniques. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected in 51 cases (34%) by PCR and in 33 cases (22%) by culture, H. somni was detected in 35 cases (23.3%) by PCR and in 6 cases (4%) by culture, Myc. bovis was detected in 53 cases (35.3%) by PCR and in 29 cases (19.3%) by culture, P. multocida was detected in 50 cases (33.3%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, and T. pyogenes was detected in 42 cases (28%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, with all differences being statistically significant. The PCR assays indicated positive results for 111 cases (74%) whereas 82 cases (54.6%) were culture positive. The PCR assays have demonstrated a significantly higher rate of detection of all 5 organisms in cases of pneumonia in cattle in Northern Ireland than was detected by current standard procedures.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714540166|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714540166
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass
           spectrometry for rapid identification of Brachyspira species isolated from
           swine, including the newly described "Brachyspira hampsonii"
    • Authors: Warneke, H. L; Kinyon, J. M, Bower, L. P, Burrough, E. R, Frana, T. S.
      Pages: 635 - 639
      Abstract: The Brachyspira species traditionally associated with swine dysentery and other diarrheal diseases in pigs are Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and, to a lesser extent, Brachyspira murdochii. "Brachyspira hampsonii" is a recently proposed novel species that causes clinical disease similar to that caused by B. hyodysenteriae. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems are increasingly available in veterinary diagnostic laboratories, are less expensive, and are faster than traditional microbiological and molecular methods for identification. Thirty-three isolates associated with Brachyspira species of importance to swine were added to an existing MALDI-TOF MS database library. In total, species included in the library were: B. hyodysenteriae, "B. hampsonii" clades I and II, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira intermedia, B. murdochii, and B. pilosicoli. A comparison between MALDI-TOF MS and nox sequencing was completed on 176 field isolates. Of the 176 field isolates, 174 (98.9%) matched species identification by both methods. Thirty field isolates were identified by both methods as "B. hampsonii". Twenty-seven of the 30 (90%) "B. hampsonii" field isolates matched clade designation in both assays. The nox sequencing identified 26 as "B. hampsonii" clade I and 4 as clade II. Comparatively, MALDI-TOF MS identified 25 of the 30 as "B. hampsonii" clade I and 5 as clade II. The current study indicates MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable tool for the identification of swine Brachyspira species; however, final clade designation for "B. hampsonii" may still require molecular techniques.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714541114|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714541114
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Analytical confirmation of Xanthium strumarium poisoning in cattle
    • Authors: Botha, C. J; Lessing, D, Rosemann, M, van Wilpe, E, Williams, J. H.
      Pages: 640 - 645
      Abstract: Xanthium strumarium, commonly referred to as "cocklebur," rarely causes poisoning in cattle. When mature, this robust, annual weed bears numerous oval, brownish, spiny burs. Only the seeds in the burs and young seedlings (cotyledonary leaves) contain the toxic principle, carboxyatractyloside. In the Frankfort district of the Free State Province of South Africa, a herd of 150 Bonsmara cows were allowed to graze on the banks of a small river, where mature cocklebur was growing. Four cows died while grazing in this relatively small area. Clinical signs ranged from recumbency, apparent blindness, and hypersensitivity to convulsive seizures. During necropsy, burs completely matted with ingesta were located in the rumen content. The most distinctive microscopic lesions were severe, bridging centrilobular to midzonal hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. Ultrastructurally, periacinar hepatocytes were necrotic, and novel electron-dense cytoplasmic needle-like crystals were observed, often in close association with peroxisomes. Carboxyatractyloside concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Carboxyatractyloside was present in rumen contents at 2.5 mg/kg; in burs removed from the rumen at 0.17 mg/kg; in liver at 66 ng/g, and was below the limit of quantitation in the kidney sample, estimated at approximately 0.8 ng/g. Based on the presence of the plants on the riverbank, the history of exposure, the clinical findings, the presence of burs in the rumen, and the microscopic and ultrastructural lesions, X. strumarium poisoning in the herd of cattle was confirmed and was supported by LC-HRMS.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714542867|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714542867
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Production of a monoclonal antibody against serum immunoglobulin M of
           South American camelids and assessment of its suitability in two
    • Authors: Friedrich, A; Ledesma, M, Landone, I, Ferrari, A, Leoni, J.
      Pages: 646 - 650
      Abstract: A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced against immunoglobulin M (IgM) of South American camelids. A single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed to measure IgM in serum samples. Isotype and specificity of the mAb were assessed. The performance of the SRID assay was preliminarily evaluated in terms of working range, plate stability over a 4-week period, and initial intra- and interassay variation. The concentration of IgM was determined in 55 samples by SRID assay and ELISA, and results were not significantly different by t-test (0.64 ± 0.19 mg/ml for the SRID assay, and 0.58 ± 0.24 mg/ml for ELISA; P = 0.1489). The mAb was shown to be stable over the 4-week evaluation period, and the SRID assay was reproducible when tested in triplicate for intra-assay variability and in quadruplicate for interassay variability, with a percentage coefficient of variation of less than or equal to 5%. Also, the SRID assay proved to be sensitive enough to measure IgM levels in undiluted serum samples, and had a good correlation with ELISA. The current study is intended to submit a preliminary report of a mAb against IgM of South American camelids, and suggest the future potential of the mAb developed for diagnostic application, including use in the SRID assay.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714543675|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714543675
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Variable-number tandem repeats genotyping used to aid and inform
           management strategies for a bovine Johne's disease incursion in tropical
           and subtropical Australia
    • Authors: Oakey, J; Gavey, L, Singh, S. V, Platell, J, Waltisbuhl, D.
      Pages: 651 - 657
      Abstract: The application of variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates to assist in investigating incidents of bovine Johne’s disease in a low-prevalence region of Australia is described in the current study. Isolates from a response to detection of bovine Johne’s disease in Queensland were compared with strains from national and international sources. The tandem application of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) and multilocus short sequence repeats (MLSSR) genotyping identified 2 strains, 1 that infected cattle on multiple properties with trace-forward histories from a common infected property, and 1 genotypically different strain recovered from a single property. The former strain showed an identical genotype to an isolate from India. Neither strain showed a genotypic link to regions of Australia with a higher prevalence of the disease. Genotyping has indicated incursions from 2 independent sources. This intelligence has informed investigations into potential routes of entry and the soundness of ongoing control measures, and supported strategy and policy decisions regarding management of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis incursions for Queensland.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714547257|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714547257
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Acute enteral manganese intoxication with hepatic failure due to ingestion
           of a joint supplement overdose
    • Authors: Borchers, A; Epstein, S. E, Gindiciosi, B, Cartoceti, A, Puschner, B.
      Pages: 658 - 663
      Abstract: Manganese is a ubiquitous, essential trace element and a common ingredient of joint supplement tablets. Little information is known about the inherent toxic potential if ingested at higher doses. A 5-year-old female spayed Pug dog presented for evaluation of vomiting and ataxia after accidental ingestion of approximately 100 joint supplement tablets. The dog developed acute hepatic failure and was euthanized 6 days after presentation due to progression of the disease. Necropsy showed severe acute hepatic necrosis. Liver and kidney samples were submitted for toxicology analysis, results of which showed severely elevated manganese concentrations in the liver and kidneys.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714544316|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714544316
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Presumed primary intraocular chondrosarcoma in cats
    • Authors: Beckwith-Cohen, B; Teixeira, L. B. C, Dubielzig, R. R.
      Pages: 664 - 668
      Abstract: Following unilateral enucleation, 4 Domestic Shorthair cats with an average age of 12.5 years (range: 9–16 years) were histologically diagnosed with a presumed primary intraocular chondrosarcoma at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (Madison, Wisconsin). Medical records and follow-up were available for 3 of the 4 cats. Clinically, only 1 eye was affected in each cat; a mass lesion was noted in 2 cats, and a neoplasm was suspected in the other 2 cats. Grossly, 3 tumors presented as coalescing, poorly demarcated, white, friable masses filling the vitreous and intraocular chambers; 1 tumor presented as a solitary, well-demarcated, tan mass involving the iris and ciliary body. Histologically, all 4 neoplasms were composed of haphazardly arranged plump neoplastic spindle cells surrounded by irregular islands and thick trabeculae of abundant, variably basophilic, and Alcian blue–positive chondromatous matrix. None of the cats presented histologically or clinically with signs suggestive of feline posttraumatic ocular sarcoma. Two cats are still alive and healthy 6 months and 3 years following enucleation. One cat died 6 months following enucleation; however, this cat suffered from poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and the cause of death is undetermined. No other tumors or skeletal lesions were identified that could suggest a metastatic tumor to the eye. The origin of primary intraocular chondrosarcoma is unclear, but is presumed to be ocular multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Four cases of intraocular chondrosarcoma in cats not associated with the posttraumatic sarcoma complex of intraocular tumors are described.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714542961|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714542961
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Necrotizing gastritis associated with Clostridium septicum in a rabbit
    • Authors: Garcia, J. P; Moore, J, Loukopoulos, P, Diab, S. S, Uzal, F. A.
      Pages: 669 - 673
      Abstract: Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of histotoxic infections, including malignant edema and braxy (necrotizing abomasitis) in several animal species. The carcass of a 2-year–old, female New Zealand white rabbit with a history of acute depression and obtundation followed by death was received at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (San Bernardino, California) for necropsy and diagnostic workup. No gross lesions were detected at necropsy. Microscopically, there was moderate to severe, multifocal fibrinonecrotizing, transmural gastritis with numerous intralesional Gram-positive, sporulated rods, and disseminated thrombosis of the brain, lungs, heart, and liver, with occasional intravascular rods. The rods observed within the gastric wall and thrombi in the stomach and lung were positive for C. septicum by immunohistochemical staining. However, this microorganism was not isolated from stomach content. Clostridium septicum should be included in the list of possible etiologies of gastritis in rabbits.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714547255|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714547255
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Hybanthus calceolaria poisoning in cattle
    • Authors: Carvalho, F. K. L; Nascimento, E. M, Rocha, B. P, Mendonca, F. S, Veschi, J. L. A, Silva, S. M. M. S, Medeiros, R. M. T, Riet-Correa, F.
      Pages: 674 - 677
      Abstract: Hybanthus calceolaria, also known as "papaconha" or "ipepacuanha," is a herbaceous plant found in northeastern Brazil, which is often implicated by farmers as the cause of neurological signs in livestock grazing. Several poisoning outbreaks associated with the ingestion of this plant were observed in cattle in the municipalities of Colônia de Gurguéia in the state of Piauí and Sirinhaém in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The main clinical signs were ataxia, recumbency, and myokymia. No significant lesions were observed during necropsy or on histological examination. The disease was experimentally reproduced by the administration of 2 daily doses of 40 g/kg/body weight of the fresh green plant containing fruits. The plants without fruits were nontoxic, which is in accordance with the farmers’ information, as it was stated that the poisoning only occurs when the plant is fruiting.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714544685|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714544685
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Intranuclear coccidiosis caused by Cyclospora spp. in calves
    • Authors: Yamada, M; Hatama, S, Ishikawa, Y, Kadota, K.
      Pages: 678 - 682
      Abstract: Intranuclear coccidiosis in 3 calves is described. Two calves with no genetic relationship were kept in the same pen, and the third calf was on another farm. The animals suffered from watery diarrhea or severe emaciation. Histologic examination showed epithelial desquamation (cases 1 and 2) or atrophy (case 3) of the jejunal villi. Coccidial meronts or merozoites were present in the nuclei of the majority of villus epithelial cells. There were rare intranuclear macrogametocytes, macrogametes, microgametocytes, microgametes, and oocysts in cases 1 and 2, but these were more easily observed in case 3. Parasite 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from case 1 showed 99.5% sequence identity with Cyclospora sp. Guangzhou 1, which has been found in fecal samples of cattle from China. In addition to the molecular results in one of the cases, the fact that the microgametocytes and oocysts were noticeably smaller in size than those of Eimeria alabamensis in all cases indicates the close association between Cyclospora and the 3 cases described herein.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714542869|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714542869
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Suppurative otitis and ascending meningoencephalitis associated with
           Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae in a captive Parma wallaby
           (Macropus parma) with toxoplasmosis
    • Authors: Giannitti, F; Schapira, A, Anderson, M, Clothier, K.
      Pages: 683 - 688
      Abstract: A 6-year-old female Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) at a zoo in California developed acute ataxia and left-sided circling. Despite intensive care, clinical signs progressed to incoordination and prostration, and the animal was euthanized. At necropsy, the left tympanic cavity was filled with homogeneous suppurative exudate that extended into the cranium expanding the meninges and neuroparenchyma in the lateral and ventral aspect of the caudal ipsilateral brainstem and medulla oblongata. Microscopically, the brainstem showed regional severe suppurative meningoencephalitis with large numbers of neutrophils, fewer macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with fibrin, necrotic cellular debris, hemorrhage, and mineralization, with numerous intralesional Gram-negative bacilli. Bacteroides spp. and Porphyromonas spp. were isolated on anaerobic culture from the meninges, and the bacteria were further characterized by partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae. Bacterial aerobic culture from the meninges yielded very low numbers of mixed flora and Proteus spp., which were considered contaminants. Culture of Mycoplasma spp. from middle ear and meninges was negative. Additionally, Toxoplasma gondii cysts were detected by immunohistochemistry in the heart and brain, and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in serum. The genera Bacteroides and Porphyromonas have been associated with oral disease in marsupials; but not with otitis and meningoencephalitis. The results of the present work highlight the importance of performing anaerobic cultures in the diagnostic investigation of cases of suppurative otitis and meningoencephalitis in macropods.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714543676|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714543676
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Spontaneous fatal Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis in two domestic rabbits
           (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
    • Authors: de Matos, R; Russell, D, Van Alstine, W, Miller, A.
      Pages: 689 - 694
      Abstract: Despite the particular susceptibility of the rabbit to experimental infection with Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) and the high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, reports of natural infection in pet rabbits are rare. The current report describes 2 cases of HHV encephalitis in pet rabbits in North America. Antemortem clinical signs included seizures, ptyalism, and muscle tremors. Results of complete blood cell count and plasma biochemistry panel were unremarkable except for a mild leukocytosis in both cases. Both rabbits died after a short period of hospitalization. Rabbit 1 presented mild optic chiasm hemorrhage on gross examination, while rabbit 2 had no gross lesions. Histologic findings for both cases included lymphocytic and/or lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with necrosis and the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of affected brain tissue using primers specific for Human herpesvirus 1 and 2 confirmed diagnosis of HHV encephalitis for rabbit 1. Immunohistochemical staining (poly- and monoclonal) and PCR analysis using primers specific to HHV-1 confirmed the diagnosis of HHV-1 encephalitis for rabbit 2. The owner of rabbit 2 was suspected to be the source of infection due to close contact during an episode of herpes labialis. Given the high susceptibility of rabbits to experimental HHV-1, high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, and severity of clinical disease in this species, clinician awareness and client education is important for disease prevention. Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for rabbits with neurologic disease.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714545111|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714545111
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Cerebral Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in a captive African pygmy
           falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) in southern California
    • Authors: Burns, R. E; Bicknese, E. J, Qvarnstrom, Y, DeLeon-Carnes, M, Drew, C. P, Gardiner, C. H, Rideout, B. A.
      Pages: 695 - 698
      Abstract: A 10-month-old, female African pygmy falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) hatched and housed at the San Diego Zoo developed neurologic signs and died from a cerebral infection with the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. There was an associated mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. This infection was diagnosed on histology and confirmed by detection of species-specific A. cantonensis DNA in formalin-fixed and frozen brain tissue by a polymerase chain reaction assay. To the authors’ knowledge, this infection has not previously been reported in a bird in the United States and has not been known to be naturally acquired in any species in this region of the world. The source of the infection was not definitively determined but was possibly feeder geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) imported from Southeast Asia where the parasite is endemic.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714544499|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714544499
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Campylobacter jejuni as a cause of canine abortions in the United States
    • Authors: Sahin, O; Burrough, E. R, Pavlovic, N, Frana, T. S, Madson, D. M, Zhang, Q.
      Pages: 699 - 704
      Abstract: Although Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of ruminant abortion with great economic impact, the organism has rarely been implicated in canine pregnancy loss, with only 2 documented cases to date. In the current report, 2 cases of perinatal death in adult female Bulldogs associated with C. jejuni infection of fetoplacental organs are described. Fetuses and placentas were received at the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) from 3 puppies that died soon after the birth (case 1) and from an aborted fetus (case 2). Microscopic examination of tissues was generally unremarkable; however, multifocal hemorrhage and infiltrates of macrophages and neutrophils were observed in placental sections from the first case (case 1), and low to moderate numbers of degenerate neutrophils were apparent within multifocal alveoli in the fetal lung in the second case (case 2). Ancillary diagnostics for common infectious causes of reproductive failure in dogs were negative. However, C. jejuni was isolated from the submitted placentas in high numbers in both cases as well as from the fetal lungs and livers. Genotyping of the abortion isolates indicated that the isolates were distinct from each other as well as from selected canine enteric C. jejuni isolates included herein for comparison. Both abortion strains were sensitive to all 9 antimicrobials tested, except the isolate from case 2, which displayed resistance to tetracycline. These findings provide convincing evidence for the inclusion of C. jejuni culture in routine diagnostic testing for causes of canine pregnancy loss.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714545112|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714545112
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus)
    • Authors: Officer, K; Lan, N. T, Wicker, L, Hoa, N. T, Weegenaar, A, Robinson, J, Ryoji, Y, Loukopoulos, P.
      Pages: 705 - 713
      Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, debilitating, and globally significant viral disease typically affecting cloven-hoofed hosts. The diagnosis of FMD in bears in Vietnam is described. The current study describes a confirmed case of FMD in a bear species, and the clinical signs compatible with FMD in a Malayan sun bear. Thirteen Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and 1 Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) were apparently affected. In August 2011, an adult bear became lethargic, and developed footpad vesicles. Over 15 days, 14 out of 17 bears developed similar signs; the remaining 3 co-housed bears and another 57 resident bears did not. All affected bears developed vesicles on all footpads, and most were lethargic for 24–48 hr. Nasal and oral lesions were noted in 6 and 3 cases, respectively. Within 1 month, all looked normal. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, classified as serotype O, and isolated by virus isolation techniques. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of 3 bear isolates, in a branch distinct from other FMDV type O isolates. The outbreak likely occurred due to indirect contact with livestock, and was facilitated by the high density of captive bears. It showed that Asiatic black bears are capable of contracting FMDV and developing clinical disease, and that the virus spreads easily between bears in close contact.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T16:09:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714547256|hwp:master-id:spvdi;1040638714547256
      Issue No: Vol. 26, No. 5 (2014)
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