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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 193 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover   Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
  [SJR: 0.677]   [H-I: 53]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [814 journals]
  • Thank you to reviewers
    • Pages: 128 - 129
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715576479
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and
           quantification of Edwardsiella tarda, Edwardsiella piscicida, and
           Edwardsiella piscicida-like species in catfish tissues and pond water
    • Authors: Reichley, S. R; Ware, C, Greenway, T. E, Wise, D. J, Griffin, M. J.
      Pages: 130 - 139
      Abstract: Researchers have proposed the adoption of 3 distinct genetic taxa among bacteria previously classified as Edwardsiella tarda; namely E. tarda, E. piscicida, and a taxon presently termed E. piscicida–like. Individual real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed, based on published primers, for E. tarda, E. piscicida, and E. piscicida–like sp. to provide rapid quantitative confirmatory tests for these phenotypically ambiguous bacteria. The qPCR assays were shown to be repeatable and reproducible, with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. Each assay showed a linear dynamic range covering 8 orders of magnitude and a sensitivity limit of 5 copies of target DNA in a 15-µL reaction. In addition, each assay was found specific to their respective targets with no observed amplification from nontarget organisms, including the closely related E. ictaluri and E. hoshinae. Under the conditions used in this study, the 3 assays had a quantifiable limit ranging from 103 (E. piscicida) to 102 (E. piscicida–like and E. tarda) colony forming units in kidney tissue biopsies (approximately 25 mg), pond water samples (35 mL), and broth culture (20 μL). In experimental challenges, the assays were able to detect their respective targets in both clinically and subclinically infected channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings. In addition to quantifying target bacteria from various substrates, the assays provide rapid identification, differentiation, and confirmation of the phenotypically indistinguishable E. tarda, E. piscicida, and E. piscicida–like sp., a valuable tool for diagnostic assessments.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714566672
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and
           foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse
           transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction
    • Authors: Grau, F. R; Schroeder, M. E, Mulhern, E. L, McIntosh, M. T, Bounpheng, M. A.
      Pages: 140 - 149
      Abstract: African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2–3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715574768
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Discrepancy in the diagnosis of avian Borna disease virus infection of
           Psittaciformes by protein analysis of feather calami and enzyme-linked
           immunosorbent assay of plasma antibodies
    • Authors: McHugh, J. M; de Kloet, S. R.
      Pages: 150 - 158
      Abstract: The present study compares diagnosis of avian Borna disease virus (ABV) infection of psittacine birds by Western blot of bornaviral proteins in dried feather stems with the detection of anti-bornaviral protein antibodies to bornaviral proteins in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The detection of ABV proteins P40 and P24 in feather calami by Western blotting was possible even after storage of the dried feathers for several years at ambient temperature. Serological identification of anti-bornaviral antibodies may fail (e.g., in young birds, hatched from infected parents), whereas bornaviral P40 and P24 proteins were detected in feather stems. This failure can last at least 10 months after the birds are hatched. In some older birds (>5 years), ABV protein was only detectable in the brain, but not in some peripheral tissues, suggesting that the immune system had succeeded in removing the infecting ABV from tissues outside the brain. These results show that a combination of feather stem analysis for the presence of bornaviral proteins by Western blot combined with serological detection of anti-bornaviral antibodies by ELISA is the most reliable procedure for the detection of a bornaviral infection.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715571358
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Evaluation of three 5' exonuclease-based real-time polymerase chain
           reaction assays for detection of pathogenic Leptospira species in canine
    • Authors: Fink, J. M; Moore, G. E, Landau, R, Vemulapalli, R.
      Pages: 159 - 166
      Abstract: Leptospirosis is caused by several pathogenic Leptospira species, and is an important infectious disease of dogs. Early detection of infection is crucial for an effective antibiotic treatment of the disease. Though different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have been developed for detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp., thorough evaluation of the performance of these assays using dog urine samples has not been carried out. In the current study, the performance of 3 real-time PCR (qPCR) assays was assessed, 1 targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and the other 2 targeting the lipL32 gene, a gene for the LipL32 outer membrane protein. With DNA extracted from laboratory-cultured pathogenic Leptospira spp., all 3 qPCR assays showed 100% specificity and had identical lower limits of detection. Compared to a conventional, gel-based PCR assay, all 3 qPCR assays were 100-fold more sensitive. There was a 100% agreement in the results of the 3 assays when tested on urine samples collected aseptically from 30 dogs suspected for leptospirosis. However, when tested on 30 urine samples that were collected by the free-catch method, the 16S rRNA–based assay falsely detected 13.3% of the samples as positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified DNA fragments showed that the assay resulted in false positives because of unrelated bacteria. All urine samples collected from 100 apparently healthy dogs at a local animal shelter tested negative for pathogenic Leptospira spp. These results highlight the importance of sample-specific validation of PCR-based diagnostic assays and the application of appropriately validated assays for more reliable pathogen detection.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715571360
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Coxiella burnetii total immunoglobulin G, phase I and phase II
           immunoglobulin G antibodies, and bacterial shedding in young dams in
           persistently infected dairy herds
    • Authors: Serrano-Perez, B; Almeria, S, Tutusaus, J, Jado, I, Anda, P, Monleon, E, Badiola, J, Garcia-Ispierto, I, Lopez-Gatius, F.
      Pages: 167 - 176
      Abstract: The current study examines Coxiella burnetii infection patterns in young dairy dams around the calving period in persistently infected high-producing dairy herds. Infection patterns were determined in terms of total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and phase-specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacterial shedding by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). On days 171–177 of gestation, at parturition, and on days 15–21 and 91–97 postpartum, 7 first-parity cows and 7 second-parity cows were sampled for serology and qPCR. Total phase-specific I (PhI) and II (PhII) IgG antibodies were detected in 2 animals at days 171–177 of gestation. Four additional animals underwent seroconversion on days 91–97 postpartum. Three of 6 seropositive dams according to total IgG, showed a PhI+/PhII+ profile, whereas dams that seroconverted exhibited a PhI–/PhII+ (2/6) or PhI+/PhII– (1/6) profile. An indirect fluorescent antibody test for PhI and PhII immunoglobulin M (IgM) was performed on plasma samples from the shedding dams, confirming seropositivity in a first-parity dam that seroconverted, and detecting a sudden spike of PhI-IgM antibodies in 1 further dam. No relationship was detected in young C. burnetii–infected animals between total IgG, PhI and/or PhII antibodies, and bacterial shedding throughout the study period. The highest bacterial load measured by qPCR was recorded in a second-parity dam. This animal presented abnormal peripheral blood counts, which would be an indication of severe peripheral blood alterations in some infected cattle. This study suggests that young shedder cows are mostly seronegative in early stages of infection.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715571993
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Acute phase proteins in healthy goats: Establishment of reference
    • Authors: Heller, M. C; Johns, J. L.
      Pages: 177 - 181
      Abstract: Acute inflammatory processes can trigger increased production of acute phase proteins (APPs) that can be useful biomarkers of inflammation. APPs are diverse and include proteins involved in coagulation, opsonization, iron regulation, and limitation of tissue injury. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein have been proposed as useful APPs in goats. APPs can differ markedly by species, therefore species-specific reference intervals and studies are necessary. The objective of this study was to determine species-specific reference intervals for 4 APPs in goats. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein were measured in in 54 clinically normal adult goats. APPs were measured using goat-specific commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance to compare sexes and breeding status. Reference Value Advisor was used to calculate reference limits according to the IFCC-CLSI guidelines. Only 1 APP was found to vary in healthy animals; serum haptoglobin was increased in lactating animals and decreased in pregnant does in their second trimester when compared with open, nonlactating does. No sex-based differences were seen for any of the APPs measured. We report normal reference intervals for 4 serum APPs that may be useful as disease markers. Haptoglobin should be interpreted with caution in animals with unknown pregnancy status. Further studies are needed to determine whether these APPs are useful biomarkers in goat disease states.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715575750
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Validation and application of a canine-specific automated high-sensitivity
           C-reactive protein assay
    • Authors: Hillstrom, A; Hagman, R, Soder, J, Haggstrom, J, Ljungvall, I, Kjelgaard-Hansen, M.
      Pages: 182 - 190
      Abstract: Measurement of low concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) in dogs has previously been performed with nonautomated assays. The aim of this study was to validate an automated high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) assay, developed by modifying a routinely used canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP test (cCRP). Imprecision, linearity under dilution, limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined for the hsCRP test, as well as the presence of prozone effect and interferences. The imprecision, measured as intra-assay variation, was ≤2.7%. The assay was acceptably linear under dilution. An analytically relevant prozone effect was present for samples with CRP concentration >150 mg/L, and there were mild interferences from hemolysis and lipemia. The LOB, LOD, and LOQ were 0.10 mg/L, 0.22 mg/L, and 0.50 mg/L, respectively. A method comparison study with a canine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed, showing poor agreement between the hsCRP test and the ELISA. An additional aim of the study was to apply the hsCRP test to clinical research samples. Serum samples from 7 dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy were collected pre- and postoperatively, and CRP was measured with both the cCRP and hsCRP assay. The expected postoperative increase in CRP was detected earlier with the hsCRP test, compared with the cCRP test. The hsCRP assay was further applied on samples from 6 lean and 9 overweight dogs. There was no significant difference in CRP concentration between the groups (P = 0.06). In conclusion, the hsCRP test had acceptable analytical performance, and the assay was successfully applied to clinical research samples.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715575751
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by
           a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase
           chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis
    • Authors: Kongklieng, A; Intapan, P. M, Boonmars, T, Thanchomnang, T, Janwan, P, Sanpool, O, Lulitanond, V, Taweethavonsawat, P, Chungpivat, S, Maleewong, W.
      Pages: 191 - 195
      Abstract: A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714567935
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Liposarcoma in animals: Literature review and case report in a domestic
           pig (Sus scrofa)
    • Authors: Doria-Torra, G; Martinez, J, Domingo, M, Vidana, B, Isidoro-Ayza, M, Casanova, M. I, Vidal, E.
      Pages: 196 - 202
      Abstract: Liposarcomas are malignant tumors of adipocytes. The current report describes a liposarcoma in a 2.5-year-old, mixed-breed commercial sow that was detected during meat inspection. On gross examination, a firm, whitish, multinodular, 20 cm x10 cm mass was observed in the perirenal area along with smaller nodules multifocally scattered within the renal parenchyma. Histological examination revealed an anaplastic sarcoma with clear intracytoplasmic lipidic vacuoles that were positive for Sudan black staining. Most of the cells were also positive for S100 and vimentin immunohistochemistry. Based on these results, a diagnosis of a perirenal liposarcoma was established. To the authors’ knowledge, no previous reports of liposarcomas in pigs have been published. This report also includes a review of the literature published on animal liposarcomas.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714567190
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Mycobacterium bovis infection in a horse with granulomatous enterocolitis
    • Authors: Sarradell, J. E; Alvarez, J, Biscia, M, Zumarraga, M, Wunschmann, A, Armien, A. G, Perez, A. M.
      Pages: 203 - 205
      Abstract: A 2-year-old dappled Percheron horse had a wasting condition that did not respond to antibiotic treatments and ultimately resulted in death. Thickening of the wall of the large colon and enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes were observed at postmortem examination, along with the presence of pinpoint whitish foci in the liver. Microscopic examination of affected tissues revealed diffuse chronic granulomatous enterocolitis, granulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis, and multifocal granulomatous hepatitis. The DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded intestinal and lymph node samples was analyzed using both a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and PCR–restriction endonuclease analysis and demonstrated the presence of Mycobacterium bovis.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715571359
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Occurrence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydiales species in abortions of
           domestic ruminants and in wild ruminants in Hungary, Central Europe
    • Authors: Kreizinger, Z; Szeredi, L, Bacsadi, A, Nemes, C, Sugar, L, Varga, T, Sulyok, K. M, Szigeti, A, Acs, K, Tobias, E, Borel, N, Gyuranecz, M.
      Pages: 206 - 210
      Abstract: Coxiella burnetii and certain members of the Chlamydiales order are zoonotic, intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria, with abortigenic potential in ruminants. These pathogens have a broad host range and worldwide geographical distribution. The current study aimed to reveal the importance of C. burnetii and Chlamydiales spp. in abortions in domestic ruminants and their occurrence in wild ruminants with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, histology, and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). From the 111 abortion cases of domestic ruminants examined, C. burnetii was detected in 33 placenta samples (cattle, n = 22; sheep, n = 10; goat, n = 1), and members of the Chlamydiales order were detected in 32 placenta samples (cattle, n = 14; sheep, n = 16; goat, n = 2) using qPCR. Coinfection with both C. burnetii and Chlamydiales spp. were identified in 12 cases (cattle, n = 3; sheep, n = 8; goat, n = 1) out of the qPCR-positive samples. The presence of the relevant antigen was confirmed by IHC in 20 cases (C. burnetii, n = 2, in sheep; Chlamydiaceae, n = 17, in sheep [n = 15] and goat [n = 2]; and both pathogens in 1 sheep). Coxiella burnetii was identified in 2.2% (2/91) of the wild ruminants, but the samples were negative by IHC. Uncultured Chlamydiales spp. were detected in 4.4% (4/91) of the placenta samples by qPCR. In conclusion, Q fever is widespread among domestic ruminants in Hungary, and, in several cases, C. burnetii was implicated as the primary cause of abortions. Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia spp., and uncultured Chlamydiales spp. were present only sporadically in samples from cattle and wild ruminants.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714563566
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: The
           sensitivities of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detecting
           vaccinated sows of unknown disease status using serum and colostrum, and
    • Authors: Jenvey, C. J; Reichel, M. P, Cockcroft, P. D.
      Pages: 211 - 216
      Abstract: Due to relatively high concentrations of immunoglobulins, colostrum has the potential to improve the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for diseases in pigs when compared with serum. It is possible that colostrum could improve the sensitivity of the antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared with serum. Colostrum is also essential for piglets, providing protection against infections in the first few weeks and months of life. The sensitivity of 2 commercially available ELISAs, one for the detection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and the second for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies, when used with sow colostrum in comparison with serum was investigated. The correlation of maternal E. rhusiopathiae– and M. hyopneumoniae–specific antibody levels with specific-antibody serum levels in the piglet was also determined. The sensitivity was defined as the proportion of vaccinated sows that were correctly identified as vaccinated at a given cutoff point. The true disease status of the sows with regard to the 2 infections was unknown. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 20 sows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous, and blood samples were also collected from the piglets of each sow, 48–72 hr post-farrowing. The sensitivities of both ELISAs were significantly improved when using colostrum compared with serum. Sow serum and colostrum optical density (OD) values were significantly correlated. The mean sow OD values for serum for E. rhusiopathiae and M. hyopneumoniae and colostrum for E. rhusiopathiae were significantly correlated with piglet serum OD levels. If the improved sensitivity of colostrum can be demonstrated in infected animals, this will increase the ability of the test to identify infected animals using both individual and pooled colostrum. Testing serum and/or colostrum using ELISA can be useful predictors of piglet disease–specific OD values.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714568111
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Development and use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the
           detection of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in snakes
    • Authors: Allender, M. C; Bunick, D, Dzhaman, E, Burrus, L, Maddox, C.
      Pages: 217 - 220
      Abstract: Fungal pathogens threatening the conservation of wildlife are becoming increasingly common. Since 2008, free-ranging snakes across North America have been experiencing a marked increase in the prevalence of snake fungal disease associated with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Diagnosis has historically relied on histology, microbiology, and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). More sensitive methods are needed to adequately characterize the epidemiology. The current study describes the development of a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for detecting a segment of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region between the 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. The assay was able to detect as few as 1.05 x 101 gene copies per reaction. An additional 4 positive cases were detected when comparing a conventional PCR (n = 3) and the qPCR (n = 7) when used on swab samples from 47 eastern massasauga rattlesnakes. The newly developed assay is a sensitive and specific tool for surveillance and monitoring in the conservation of free-ranging snakes.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715573983
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Multiple oral carcinomas associated with a novel papillomavirus in a dog
    • Authors: Munday, J. S; Tucker, R. S, Kiupel, M, Harvey, C. J.
      Pages: 221 - 225
      Abstract: Papillomaviruses (PVs) are well recognized to cause human oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, there is currently little evidence that PVs similarly cause oral cancer in dogs. In the present case, a dog developed an invasive SCC and multiple in situ carcinomas within the mouth. Cell changes consistent with PV infection were prominent within the neoplasms and the surrounding gingiva. Immunohistochemical staining revealed PV antigens and intense p16CDKN2A protein (p16) immunostaining within the invasive SCC. Papillomaviral DNA sequences were amplified from the invasive and in situ carcinomas. Sequencing revealed that the DNA was from a novel PV that appears most closely related to canine PV-2 and -7. To the authors’ knowledge, multiple carcinomas have not been previously reported in the mouth of a dog. Additionally, the current study describes PV cytopathology in a canine oral SCC. Whether the PV infection influenced neoplasm development cannot be definitively determined in this case. However, the presence of p16 immunostaining and the development of multiple oral carcinomas support a role of the PV in tumorigenesis in this dog.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714567191
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the
           northwestern region of the United States
    • Authors: Allen, A. J; Stanton, J. B, Evermann, J. F, Fry, L. M, Ackerman, M. G, Barrington, G. M.
      Pages: 226 - 230
      Abstract: In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715571627
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • An evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization
           time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of Staphylococcus
           pseudintermedius isolates from canine infections
    • Authors: Silva, M. B; Ferreira, F. A, Garcia, L. N. N, Silva-Carvalho, M. C, Botelho, L. A. B, Figueiredo, A. M. S, Vieira-da-Motta, O.
      Pages: 231 - 235
      Abstract: It has been proposed, based on taxonomic and molecular studies, that all canine isolates belonging to Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) should be renamed Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, isolates of SIG and other coagulase-positive staphylococci share many phenotypic characteristics, which could lead to misidentification. The accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identifying S. pseudintermedius isolates obtained from canine infections was evaluated, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification as the gold standard. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was compared with conventional biochemical tests. A central problem was the incorrect identification of S. pseudintermedius isolates as S. intermedius by either MALDI-TOF MS or biochemical identification. From the 49 S. pseudintermedius isolates identified by the molecular method, only 21 could be assigned to this species by the biochemical approach and only 12 by MALDI-TOF MS. The 6 S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by all 3 techniques. However, using biochemical tests, 9 S. pseudintermedius were mistakenly classified as S. aureus, indicating a reduced specificity relative to the MALDI-TOF MS system. Analysis with the MALDI-TOF MS platform allowed rapid and accurate identification of the 49 isolates to the S. intermedius group but the approach was very limited in identifying S. pseudintermedius isolates, as only 12 of 49 isolates were correctly identified, a sensitivity of 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.13–0.39).
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715573297
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle
           aspiration of the pancreas
    • Authors: Cordner, A. P; Sharkey, L. C, Armstrong, P. J, McAteer, K. D.
      Pages: 236 - 240
      Abstract: The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715574862
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Capillaria hepatica infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) on Diego
           Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory
    • Authors: Berentsen, A. R; Vogt, S, Guzman, A. N, Vice, D. S, Pitt, W. C, Shiels, A. B, Spraker, T. R.
      Pages: 241 - 244
      Abstract: Rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most damaging invasive species worldwide. The accidental introduction of rats has caused significant detriment to native flora and fauna, crops, structures, and human livelihoods. Rats are vectors of disease and carriers of various zoonotic parasites. Capillaria hepatica (syn. Callodium hepaticum) is a parasitic nematode found primarily in rodents but is known to infect over 140 mammal species, including human beings and several species of domestic animals. In this case study, the presence of C. hepatica infection in black rats on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory, is reported. Liver samples from 20 black rats (Rattus rattus) were collected during a concurrent population density estimation study. Histology revealed 15 (75%) of the rats sampled had a current or previous infection with C. hepatica. In addition, a larval cestode compatible in size and shape with Cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis of cats, was found in 3 (15%) of the rats sampled. The high prevalence of C. hepatica infection in rats on Diego Garcia has implications for human health given the high population density of rats found on the island.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715573298
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red
           tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease
    • Authors: Hellebuyck, T; Pasmans, F, Ducatelle, R, Saey, V, Martel, A.
      Pages: 245 - 248
      Abstract: A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease–affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638714562825
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
  • Development and validation of a novel hydrolysis probe real-time
           polymerase chain reaction for agamid adenovirus 1 in the central bearded
           dragon (Pogona vitticeps)
    • Authors: Fredholm, D. V; Coleman, J. K, Childress, A. L, Wellehan, J. F. X.
      Pages: 249 - 253
      Abstract: Agamid adenovirus 1 (AgAdv-1) is a significant cause of disease in bearded dragons (Pogona sp.). Clinical manifestations of AgAdv-1 infection are variable and often nonspecific; the manifestations range from lethargy, weight loss, and inappetence, to severe enteritis, hepatitis, and sudden death. Currently, diagnosis of AgAdv-1 infection is achieved through a single published method: standard nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing. Standard nPCR with sequencing provides reliable sensitivity, specificity, and validation of PCR products. However, this process is comparatively expensive, laborious, and slow. Probe hybridization, as used in a TaqMan assay, represents the best option for validating PCR products aside from the time-consuming process of sequencing. This study developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using a TaqMan probe–based assay, targeting a highly conserved region of the AgAdv-1 genome. Standard curves were generated, detection results were compared with the gold standard conventional PCR and sequencing assay, and limits of detection were determined. Additionally, the qPCR assay was run on samples known to be positive for AgAdv-1 and samples known to be positive for other adenoviruses. Based on the results of these evaluations, this assay allows for a less expensive, rapid, quantitative detection of AgAdv-1 in bearded dragons.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T14:16:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/1040638715576564
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2015)
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