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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 194 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover   Animals
  [SJR: 0.362]   [H-I: 5]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [140 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 455-478: Consistent Individual Behavioral
           Variation: The Difference between Temperament, Personality and Behavioral
           Syndromes

    • Authors: Jill MacKay, Marie Haskell
      First page: 455
      Abstract: Ethologists use a variety of terminology such as “personality”, “temperament” and “behavioral syndromes” almost interchangeably to discuss the phenomenon of individuals within a population of animals consistently varying from one another in their behavioral responses to stimuli. This interchangeable usage of terminology has contributed to confusion within the field of animal behavior and limits the study of the phenomenon. Here we use a rapid, non-exhaustive and repeatable search strategy literature review to investigate where there were unique distinctions between these three terms and where there was an overlap in their usage. We identified three main areas of confusion in terminology: historical usage which is not updated; a lack of precision between different fields of study; and a lack of precision between different levels of variation. We propose a framework with which to understand and define the terms based on the levels of variation ethologists are interested in. Consistent individual animal behavioral variation relates to the different structures of variation of between-individual/between-population and between and across contexts. By formalizing this framework we provide clarity between the three terms which can be easily defined and understood.
      PubDate: 2015-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030366
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 479-494: Farm Management in Organic and
           Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil
           and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    • Authors: Shirley Kuhnen, Rudinei Stibuski, Luciana Honorato, Luiz Filho
      First page: 479
      Abstract: Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day−1). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability.
      PubDate: 2015-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030367
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 495-511: Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems
           May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I—Dust

    • Authors: Bruce David, Randi Moe, Virginie Michel, Vonne Lund, Cecilie Mejdell
      First page: 495
      Abstract: The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban.
      PubDate: 2015-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030368
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 512-535: Digital Dermatitis in Dairy Cows: A Review
           of Risk Factors and Potential Sources of Between-Animal Variation in
           Susceptibility

    • Authors: Maeve Palmer, Niamh O'Connell
      First page: 512
      Abstract: Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease that primarily affects the skin on the heels of cattle. It is a major cause of lameness in dairy cows and a significant problem for the dairy industry in many countries, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. A wide range of infection levels has been found on infected farms, prompting investigations into both farm level and animal level risk factors for DD occurrence. There also appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to the disease. The identification of factors affecting individual variation in susceptibility to DD might allow changes in breeding policies or herd management which could be used to reduce DD prevalence. Factors mentioned in the literature as possibly influencing individual variation in susceptibility to DD include physical factors such as hoof conformation and properties of the skin, physiological factors such as the efficacy of the immune response, and behavioural factors such as standing half in cubicles. Further work is required to determine the influence of these factors, identify the genetic basis of variation, clarify the level of heritability of DD susceptibility and to determine how this is correlated with production and health traits currently used in breeding programmes.
      PubDate: 2015-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030369
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 536-544: A High Percentage of Beef Bull Pictures in
           Semen Catalogues Have Feet and Lower Legs that Are Not Visible

    • Authors: Marcy Franks, Temple Grandin
      First page: 536
      Abstract: A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned), Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull’s birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). As age increased the feet and legs were more likely to be visible in the bull’s picture. This may possibly be due to greater availability of both photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030370
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 545-560: Effects of Oxytocin Administration on the
           Response of Piglets to Weaning

    • Authors: Jean-Loup Rault, Frank Dunshea, John Pluske
      First page: 545
      Abstract: Weaning is often an abrupt and stressful process. We studied the effects of administering oxytocin, subcutaneously or intranasally, on the ability of pigs to cope with weaning. On a commercial farm 144, 30 day-old pigs from 24 litters were used. On the day of weaning, one male and one female in each litter were administered one of three treatments: intranasal oxytocin (24 International Unit), subcutaneous oxytocin (10 International Unit per kg of body weight), or handled as a control. The pigs were placed in one of eight weaner pens, split by sex and with an equal representation of treatments. Data included body weight and growth, physiology (neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio, plasma cortisol, C-reactive protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α concentrations), and behavior (feeding, drinking, social behavior). Both oxytocin treatments tended to result in higher levels of mild aggression within groups (p = 0.08), specifically between oxytocin-administered and control pigs (subcutaneous to control p = 0.03; intranasal to control p = 0.10). Subcutaneously-administered pigs tended to frequent the feeder more often than intranasally-administered pigs (p < 0.10), with the latter having slightly lower body weight 38 days post-weaning (p = 0.03). However, acute oxytocin administration did not result in any noticeable physiological changes 4 or 28 h post-weaning. Hence, the use of a single administration of oxytocin prior to weaning in pigs is not recommended, at least not in the conditions studied here.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030371
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 561-575: A Critical Review of Horse-Related Risk: A
           Research Agenda for Safer Mounts, Riders and Equestrian Cultures

    • Authors: Kirrilly Thompson, Paul McGreevy, Phil McManus
      First page: 561
      Abstract: While the importance of improving horse-related safety seems self-evident, no comprehensive study into understanding or reducing horse-related risk has been undertaken. In this paper, we discuss four dimensions of horse-related risk: the risk itself, the horse, the rider and the culture in which equestrian activities takes place. We identify how the ways in which risk is constructed in each dimension affects the applicability of four basic risk management options of avoidance, transference, mitigation and acceptance. We find the acceptance and avoidance of horse-related risk is generally high, most likely due to a common construction of horses as irrevocably unpredictable, fearful and dangerous. The transference of risk management is also high, especially in the use of protective technologies such as helmets. Of concern, the strategy least utilised is risk mitigation. We highlight the potential benefit in developing mitigation strategies directed at: (a) improving the predictability of horses (to and by humans), and (b) improving riders’ competence in the physical skills that make them more resilient to injury and falls. We conclude with the presentation of a multidisciplinary agenda for research that could reduce accident, injury and death to horse-riders around the world.
      PubDate: 2015-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030372
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 576-591: Helmet Use Amongst Equestrians: Harnessing
           Social and Attitudinal Factors Revealed in Online Forums

    • Authors: Laura Haigh, Kirrilly Thompson
      First page: 576
      Abstract: Equestrian activities pose significant head injury risks to participants. Yet, helmet use is not mandatory in Australia outside of selected competitions. Awareness of technical countermeasures and the dangers of equestrian activities has not resulted in widespread adoption of simple precautionary behaviors like helmet use. Until the use of helmets whilst riding horses is legislated in Australia, there is an urgent need to improve voluntary use. To design effective injury prevention interventions, the factors affecting helmet use must first be understood. To add to current understandings of these factors, we examined the ways horse riders discussed helmet use by analyzing 103 posts on two helmet use related threads from two different Australian equestrian forums. We found evidence of social influence on helmet use behaviors as well as three attitudes that contributed towards stated helmet use that we termed: “I Can Control Risk”, “It Does Not Feel Right” and “Accidents Happen”. Whilst we confirm barriers identified in previous literature, we also identify their ability to support helmet use. This suggests challenging but potentially useful complexity in the relationship between risk perception, protective knowledge, attitudes, decision-making and behavior. Whilst this complexity is largely due to the involvement of interspecies relationships through which safety, risk and trust are distributed; our findings about harnessing the potential of barriers could be extended to other high risk activities.
      PubDate: 2015-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030373
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 592-609: Inroads into Equestrian Safety:
           Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near
           Misses on Australian Roads

    • Authors: Kirrilly Thompson, Chelsea Matthews
      First page: 592
      Abstract: Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030374
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 610-623: Inclusion of Oat in Feeding Can Increase
           the Potential Probiotic Bifidobacteria in Sow Milk

    • Authors: Rabin Gyawali, Radiah Minor, Barry Donovan, Salam Ibrahim
      First page: 610
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of feeding oat on the population of bifidobacteria and (ii) evaluate their probiotic potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing sows’ gestation and lactation feed with 15% oat (prebiotic source) on the levels of probiotic population in milk. We found that dietary inclusion of oat during lactation and gestation resulted in increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to lactobacilli in sow milk. Furthermore bifidobacteria within the sow milk samples were further evaluated for probiotic potential based on aggregating properties, and acid- and bile-tolerance after exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 2.5) and bile salts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% and 2.0%). All isolates survived under the condition of low pH and bile 2.0%. Autoaggregation ability ranged from 17.5% to 73%. These isolates also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7. Together our results suggest that inclusion of oat in feeding system may lead to increases bifidobacteria in sow milk and these isolates may have good probiotic potential for their young.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030375
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 624-642: An Insufferable Business: Ethics, Nonhuman
           Animals and Biomedical Experiments

    • Authors: Kay Peggs
      First page: 624
      Abstract: Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to extricate the vested financial interests from the human health benefits. But such a determination would not address the fundamental issues that should be at the heart of human actions in respect of the nonhuman animals who are used in experiments. The paper concludes with such an address by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits, and the implementation of a more inclusive ethic that is informed by universal concern about the suffering of and compassion for all oppressed beings.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030376
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 643-661: Predictions of Daily Milk and Fat Yields,
           Major Groups of Fatty Acids, and C18:1 cis-9 from Single Milking Data
           without a Milking Interval

    • Authors: Valérie Arnould, Romain Reding, Jeanne Bormann, Nicolas Gengler, Hélène Soyeurt
      First page: 643
      Abstract: Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem has been investigated in numerous studies. In addition, published equations take into account milking intervals (MI), and these are often not available and/or are unreliable in practice. The first objective of this study was to propose models in which the MI was replaced by a combination of data easily recorded by dairy farmers. The second objective was to further investigate the fatty acids (FA) present in milk. Equations to predict daily yield from AM or PM data were based on a calibration database containing 79,971 records related to 51 traits [milk yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat content (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day); levels of seven different FAs or FA groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/dL milk), and the corresponding FA yields for these seven FA types/groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day)]. These equations were validated using two distinct external datasets. The results obtained from the proposed models were compared to previously published results for models which included a MI effect. The corresponding correlation values ranged from 96.4% to 97.6% when the daily yields were estimated from the AM milkings and ranged from 96.9% to 98.3% when the daily yields were estimated from the PM milkings. The simplicity of these proposed models should facilitate their use by breeding and milk recording organizations.
      PubDate: 2015-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5030377
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 151-160: Does the Naked Neck Meat Type Chicken
           Yield Lower Methionine Requirement Data?

    • Authors: Daulat Khan, Christian Wecke, Frank Liebert
      Pages: 151 - 160
      Abstract: Methionine (Met) requirement studies with homozygous (Na/Na) and heterozygous (Na/na) naked neck meat type chicken utilized 144 birds of average weight (50% each genotype and sex) within two N balance experiments involving both the starter (d10–20) and grower period (d25–35). The birds were randomly allotted to five experimental diets with graded protein supply and Met as the limiting amino acid. The proportion of native feed protein sources (soy protein concentrate, maize, wheat, fishmeal and wheat gluten) was kept constant to ensure a uniform protein quality in all diets. The Met requirement depending on genotype, sex, age period and growth performance (protein deposition) was estimated using a non-linear modeling procedure of N utilization in monogastric animals. On average, 0.47% (Na/Na) and 0.45% (Na/na) dietary Met was established as adequate in the starter diet, as well as 0.37% (Na/Na) and 0.36% (Na/na) Met in the grower diet for both of the sexes. In conclusion, the Met requirement of the naked neck chicken is not significantly different from its normally-feathered counterparts. In addition, the low feather production was not reflected by reduced requirement for Met in naked neck birds. However, these conclusions are valid only at the given Met:Cys ratio (1:1) in the experimental diets.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020151
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 161-172: The Use of a Shelter Software a to Track
           Frequency and Selected Risk Factors for Feline Upper Respiratory Infection
           

    • Authors: Ann Kommedal, Denae Wagner, Kate Hurley
      Pages: 161 - 172
      Abstract: Objective—Feline upper respiratory infection (URI) is a common, multi-factorial infectious disease syndrome endemic to many animal shelters. Although a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in shelter cats, URI is seldom formally monitored in shelter cat populations. Without monitoring, effective control and prevention of this often endemic disease is difficult. We looked at an integrated case management software system a for animal care organizations, widely used in shelters across the United States. Shelter staff routinely enter information regarding individual animals and disease status, but do not commonly use the software system to track frequency of disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if the software system a can be used to track URI frequency and selected risk factors in a population, and to evaluate the quality and completeness of the data as currently collected in a shelter. Design (type of study)—Descriptive Survey. Animals (or Sample)—317 cats in an animal shelter. Procedures—Reports from the software system a containing data regarding daily inventory, daily intake, animal identification, location, age, vaccination status, URI diagnosis and URI duration were evaluated. The reports were compared to data collected manually by an observer (Ann Therese Kommedal) to assess discrepancies, completeness, timeliness, availability and accuracy. Data were collected 6 days a week over a 4 week period. Results—Comparisons between the software system a reports and manually collected reports showed that 93% of inventory reports were complete and of these 99% were accurate. Fifty-two percent of the vaccination reports were complete, of which 97% were accurate. The accuracy of the software system’s age reports was 76%. Two-hundred and twenty-three cats were assigned a positive or negative URI diagnosis by the observer. The predictive value of the URI status in the software system a was below 60% both for positive and negative URI diagnosis. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—data currently collected and entered into the software systems in the study shelter, was not useful for tracking URI frequency and risk factors, due to issues with both data quality and capture. However, the potential exists to increase the practicality and usefulness of this shelter software system to monitor URI and other diseases. Relevant data points, i.e., health status at intake and outcome, vaccination date and status, as well as age, should be made mandatory to facilitate more useful data collection and reporting.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020161
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 173-192: Challenges of Managing Animals in
           Disasters in the U.S.

    • Authors: Sebastian Heath, Robert Linnabary
      Pages: 173 - 192
      Abstract: Common to many of the repeated issues surrounding animals in disasters in the U.S. is a pre-existing weak animal health infrastructure that is under constant pressure resulting from pet overpopulation. Unless this root cause is addressed, communities remain vulnerable to similar issues with animals they and others have faced in past disasters. In the US the plight of animals in disasters is frequently viewed primarily as a response issue and frequently handled by groups that are not integrated with the affected community’s emergency management. In contrast, animals, their owners, and communities would greatly benefit from integrating animal issues into an overall emergency management strategy for the community. There is no other factor contributing as much to human evacuation failure in disasters that is under the control of emergency management when a threat is imminent as pet ownership. Emergency managers can take advantage of the bond people have with their animals to instill appropriate behavior amongst pet owners in disasters.
      PubDate: 2015-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020173
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 193-205: 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions
           from Manure Management in South Africa

    • Authors: Mokhele Moeletsi, Mphethe Tongwane
      Pages: 193 - 205
      Abstract: Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc.) were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal), sows (25.23 kg/year/animal) and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal). Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent). Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent) and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements.
      PubDate: 2015-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020193
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 206-213: Behavioral Response of Invertebrates to
           Experimental Simulation of Pre-Seismic Chemical Changes

    • Authors: Rachel Grant, Hilary Conlan
      Pages: 206 - 213
      Abstract: Unusual behavior before earthquakes has been reported for millennia but no plausible mechanism has been identified. One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface. Aquatic and fossorial animals could be irritated by H2O2 and move down the concentration gradient. Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms. Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H2O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected. It is possible that earthworm swarming behavior, reported frequently before earthquakes, is caused by electric field shifts or another unknown mechanism, whereas zooplankton may be affected by increasing levels of H2O2.
      PubDate: 2015-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020206
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 214-225: The Efficiency of an Integrated Program
           Using Falconry to Deter Gulls from Landfills

    • Authors: Ericka Thiériot, Martin Patenaude-Monette, Pierre Molina, Jean-François Giroux
      Pages: 214 - 225
      Abstract: Gulls are commonly attracted to landfills, and managers are often required to implement cost-effective and socially accepted deterrence programs. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive program that integrated the use of trained birds of prey, pyrotechnics, and playback of gull distress calls at a landfill located close to a large ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) colony near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. We used long-term survey data on bird use of the landfill, conducted behavioral observations of gulls during one season and tracked birds fitted with GPS data loggers. We also carried out observations at another landfill located farther from the colony, where less refuse was brought and where a limited culling program was conducted. The integrated program based on falconry resulted in a 98% decrease in the annual total number of gulls counted each day between 1995 and 2014. A separate study indicated that the local breeding population of ring-billed gulls increased and then declined during this period but remained relatively large. In 2010, there was an average (±SE) of 59 ± 15 gulls/day using the site with falconry and only 0.4% ± 0.2% of these birds were feeding. At the other site, there was an average of 347 ± 55 gulls/day and 13% ± 3% were feeding. Twenty-two gulls tracked from the colony made 41 trips towards the landfills: twenty-five percent of the trips that passed by the site with falconry resulted in a stopover that lasted 22 ± 7 min compared to 85% at the other landfill lasting 63 ± 15 min. We concluded that the integrated program using falconry, which we consider more socially acceptable than selective culling, was effective in reducing the number of gulls at the landfill.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020214
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 226-244: Characteristics of Trailer Thermal
           Environment during Commercial Swine Transport Managed under U.S. Industry
           Guidelines

    • Authors: Yijie Xiong, Angela Green, Richard Gates
      Pages: 226 - 244
      Abstract: Transport is a critical factor in modern pork production and can seriously affect swine welfare. While previous research has explored thermal conditions during transport, the impact of extreme weather conditions on the trailer thermal environment under industry practices has not been well documented; and the critical factors impacting microclimate are not well understood. To assess the trailer microclimate during transport events, an instrumentation system was designed and installed at the central ceiling level, pig level and floor-level in each of six zones inside a commercial swine trailer. Transport environmental data from 34 monitoring trips (approximately 1–4 h in duration each) were collected from May, 2012, to February, 2013, with trailer management corresponding to the National Pork Board Transport Quality Assurance (TQA) guidelines in 31 of these trips. According to the TQA guidelines, for outdoor temperature ranging from 5 °C (40 °F) to 27 °C (80 °F), acceptable thermal conditions were observed based on the criteria that no more than 10% of the trip duration was above 35 °C (95 °F) or below 0 °C (32 °F). Recommended bedding, boarding and water application were sufficient in this range. Measurements support relaxing boarding guidelines for moderate outdoor conditions, as this did not result in less desirable conditions. Pigs experienced extended undesirable thermal conditions for outdoor temperatures above 27 °C (80 °F) or below 5 °C (40 °F), meriting a recommendation for further assessment of bedding, boarding and water application guidelines for extreme outdoor temperatures. An Emergency Livestock Weather Safety Index (LWSI) condition was observed inside the trailer when outdoor temperature exceeded 10 °C (50 °F); although the validity of LWSI to indicate heat stress for pigs during transport is not well established. Extreme pig surface temperatures in the rear and middle zones of the trailer were more frequently experienced than in the front zones, and the few observations of pigs dead or down upon arrival were noted in these zones. Observations indicate that arranging boarding placement may alter the ventilation patterns inside the trailer.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020226
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 245-258: The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed
           Cats

    • Authors: Adriana de Oliveira, César Terçariol, Gelson Genaro
      Pages: 245 - 258
      Abstract: The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics, research laboratories, shelters and domestic homes.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020245
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 259-269: The Mississippi State University College
           of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    • Authors: Philip Bushby, Kimberly Woodruff, Jake Shivley
      Pages: 259 - 269
      Abstract: The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020259
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 270-275: Bleeding Diathesis in Fawn Hooded
           Rats—Possible Implications for Invasive Procedures and Refinement
           Strategies

    • Authors: Manon Schaap, Hugo van Oostom, Saskia Arndt, Ludo Hellebrekers
      Pages: 270 - 275
      Abstract: The Fawn hooded (FH) rat is commonly used in biomedical research. It is widely acknowledged that the FH rat has a bleeding disorder; leading to abundant bleedings. Although this bleeding disorder is investigated to model the storage pool defect; its impact on commonly performed invasive laboratory procedures has not yet been described. Our research group experienced clinically significant consequences of this bleeding disorder following invasive procedures (including intraperitoneal injections and neurocranial surgery) in the Rjlbm: FH stock. The clinical consequences of the surgical and anesthetic protocols applied; are described including the subsequent procedural refinements applied to minimize the impact of this disorder. It is strongly recommended to take the bleeding diathesis into account when performing invasive procedures in FH rats and to apply the suggested refinement of procedures.
      PubDate: 2015-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020270
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 276-314: Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes
           for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    • Authors: Sarah Zito, Mandy Paterson, Dianne Vankan, John Morton, Pauleen Bennett, Clive Phillips
      Pages: 276 - 314
      Abstract: The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.
      PubDate: 2015-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020276
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 315-331: A Critical Look at Biomedical
           Journals’ Policies on Animal Research by Use of a Novel Tool: The
           EXEMPLAR Scale

    • Authors: Ana Martins, Nuno Franco
      Pages: 315 - 331
      Abstract: Animal research is not only regulated by legislation but also by self-regulatory mechanisms within the scientific community, which include biomedical journals’ policies on animal use. For editorial policies to meaningfully impact attitudes and practice, they must not only be put into effect by editors and reviewers, but also be set to high standards. We present a novel tool to classify journals’ policies on animal use—the EXEMPLAR scale—as well as an analysis by this scale of 170 journals publishing studies on animal models of three human diseases: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Type-1 Diabetes and Tuberculosis. Results show a much greater focus of editorial policies on regulatory compliance than on other domains, suggesting a transfer of journals’ responsibilities to scientists, institutions and regulators. Scores were not found to vary with journals’ impact factor, country of origin or antiquity, but were, however, significantly higher for open access journals, which may be a result of their greater exposure and consequent higher public scrutiny.
      PubDate: 2015-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020315
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 332-348: Problems Associated with the Microchip
           Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    • Authors: Emily Lancaster, Jacquie Rand, Sheila Collecott, Mandy Paterson
      Pages: 332 - 348
      Abstract: A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020332
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 349-360: Adaptation of Piglets Using Different
           Methods of Stress Prevention

    • Authors: Vitaly Bekenev, Arlene Garcia, Vyacheslav Hasnulin
      Pages: 349 - 360
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability and growth rate of piglets after weaning, the content of lipids in the blood and liver, antioxidant activity (AOA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) when various additives are used in feed. The experiments were performed on two crosses of piglets obtained from Large White breed sows and Landrace breed boars. Twenty to 28 animals were randomly assigned per group. The following additives were tested: the benzodiazepine phenazepam, the neuroleptic aminazine, vitamins E and C, and the extract Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae). Different doses and combinations of the additives against ultraviolet irradiation were used. The addition of these substances improved the growth rate and viability of piglets. AOA increased under the influence of all factors studied, especially with the addition of extract of Eleutherococcus in feed in combination with aminazine and UV-irradiation (p < 0.01). However, the addition of Eleutherococcus extract and aminazine intensified LPO (p < 0.01), but use of UV irradiation helped to decrease LPO values (p < 0.01). Feeding a mixture of additives per pig per day of 3 mL of Eleutherococcus extract, 80 mg of 25% tocopherol, and 500 mg of ascorbic acid increased survival rate, average daily gain, and live weight at the end of the experiment. Thus, the use of prophylactic antistress and sedative drugs during weaning helps AOA normalize LPO of red blood cells; enhance post weaning growth of the pigs by 4.8% to 24.6% and increases piglet survival rate by 5% to 5.1%.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020349
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 361-394: The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation
           Strategies on Animal Welfare

    • Authors: Sara Shields, Geoffrey Orme-Evans
      Pages: 361 - 394
      Abstract: The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020361
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 395-406: The First Shared Online Curriculum
           Resources for Veterinary Undergraduate Learning and Teaching in Animal
           Welfare and Ethics in Australia and New Zealand

    • Authors: Jane Johnson, Teresa Collins, Christopher Degeling, Anne Fawcett, Andrew Fisher, Rafael Freire, Susan Hazel, Jennifer Hood, Janice Lloyd, Clive Phillips, Kevin Stafford, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul McGreevy
      First page: 395
      Abstract: The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE) in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called ‘Human Continuum’ discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum.
      PubDate: 2015-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020362
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 407-425: Effect of Provision of Feed and Water
           during Transport on the Welfare of Weaned Pigs

    • Authors: Arlene Garcia, Glenna Pirner, Guilherme Picinin, Matthew May, Kimberly Guay, Brittany Backus, Mhairi Sutherland, John McGlone
      First page: 407
      Abstract: Transportation is a complex stressor made up of factors including weaning itself and withdrawal from feed and water. Therefore, transportation has the potential to negatively impact the health and welfare of weaned pigs. Pigs were transported for 32 h and measures of performance, physiology, and behavior were taken to assess piglet welfare. Treatment groups included pigs not weaned or transported (CON), weaned pigs provided with feed and water (WEAN+), weaned pigs not provided with feed and water (WEAN−), weaned and transported pigs provided with feed and water (TRANS+), and weaned and transported pigs not provided with feed and water (TRANS−). Body weight loss was different among treatments (p < 0.01). CON pigs had a 6.5% ± 0.45% gain in body weight after 32 h. WEAN+, WEAN−, TRANS+, and TRANS− groups all had a loss in body weight of 5.9% ± 0.45%, 7.8% ± 0.45%, 6.5% ± 0.45% and 9.1% ± 0.46%, respectively. The N:L was greater in all weaned pigs at 8 h compared to CON pigs (p < 0.01). WEAN− and transported pigs had significantly higher N:L than CON pigs from 8 h through 16 h, however, all treatment groups were similar to CON pigs after 16 h irrespective of provision of feed and water. Blood glucose levels were lower in transported and/or weaned pigs than CON pigs after 16 h irrespective of the provision of feed and water. TRANS+ females had higher creatine kinase (CK) levels than males (p < 0.05). After a 16 h transport period, TRANS− pigs had higher total plasma protein (TP) levels than all other treatment groups (p < 0.05). Significant changes in behavior were observed during and after transportation, which could also be indicative of stress. Overall, transportation and weaning had a negative effect on performance, physiology and behavior (both during and post-weaning) of pigs, especially when feed and water was not provided. Transporting pigs without feed and water for more than 24 h was a welfare concern as indicated by changes in body weight and physiology measures of stress.
      PubDate: 2015-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020363
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 426-441: Epidemiology of Dog and Cat Abandonment in
           Spain (2008–2013)

    • Authors: Jaume Fatjó, Jonathan Bowen, Elena García, Paula Calvo, Silvia Rueda, Silvia Amblás, Jaume Lalanza
      First page: 426
      Abstract: Millions of pets are abandoned worldwide every year, which is an important animal welfare and financial problem. This paper was divided into three studies. Our first two studies were designed as a national survey of animal shelters to profile the population of stray dogs and cats, as well as to gather information on both relinquishment and adoption. The aim of our third study was to test the impact of identification on the recovery of dogs entering animal shelters. Studies one and two indicate that more than 100,000 dogs and more than 30,000 cats enter animal shelters annually in Spain. We observed a seasonal effect in the number of admissions in cats. Two-thirds of dogs and cats entering shelters were found as strays, while the rest were relinquished directly to the shelter. Most pets admitted to animal shelters were adult, non-purebred, and without a microchip, with the majority of dogs being medium sized. Adult dogs spent significantly more time in shelters than puppies. While most animals were either adopted or recovered by their owner, a considerable percentage remained at the shelter or was euthanized. The identification of dogs with a microchip increased by 3-fold the likelihood of them being returned to the owner.
      PubDate: 2015-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020364
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 442-454: Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting
           Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin
           Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs

    • Authors: Leslie McKnight, Ryan Eyre, Margaret Gooding, Gary Davenport, Anna Shoveller
      First page: 442
      Abstract: There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5020365
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 27-40: Selecting a Conservation Surrogate Species
           for Small Fragmented Habitats Using Ecological Niche Modelling

    • Authors: K. Nekaris, Andrew Arnell, Magdalena Svensson
      Pages: 27 - 40
      Abstract: Flagship species are traditionally large, charismatic animals used to rally conservation efforts. Accepted flagship definitions suggest they need only fulfil a strategic role, unlike umbrella species that are used to shelter cohabitant taxa. The criteria used to select both flagship and umbrella species may not stand up in the face of dramatic forest loss, where remaining fragments may only contain species that do not suit either set of criteria. The Cinderella species concept covers aesthetically pleasing and overlooked species that fulfil the criteria of flagships or umbrellas. Such species are also more likely to occur in fragmented habitats. We tested Cinderella criteria on mammals in the fragmented forests of the Sri Lankan Wet Zone. We selected taxa that fulfilled both strategic and ecological roles. We created a shortlist of ten species, and from a survey of local perceptions highlighted two finalists. We tested these for umbrella characteristics against the original shortlist, utilizing Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modelling, and analysed distribution overlap using ArcGIS. The criteria highlighted Loris tardigradus tardigradus and Prionailurus viverrinus as finalists, with the former having highest flagship potential. We suggest Cinderella species can be effective conservation surrogates especially in habitats where traditional flagship species have been extirpated.
      PubDate: 2015-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 41-42: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Animals in
           2014

    • Authors: Animals Office
      Pages: 41 - 42
      Abstract: The editors of Animals would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...]
      PubDate: 2015-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010041
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 43-55: Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review
           of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary
           Focus on Limitations

    • Authors: Gregory Aldrich, Kadri Koppel
      Pages: 43 - 55
      Abstract: The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals’ perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research.
      PubDate: 2015-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010043
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 56-70: Evaluating the Age-Dependent Potential for
           Protein Deposition in Naked Neck Meat Type Chicken

    • Authors: Daulat Khan, Christian Wecke, Ahmad Sharifi, Frank Liebert
      Pages: 56 - 70
      Abstract: The introduction of the naked neck gene (Na) into modern meat type chicken is known to be helpful in increasing the tolerance for a high ambient temperature (AT) by reducing the feather coverage which allows for a higher level of heat dissipation compared to normally feathered (na/na) birds. In addition, reduced feather coverage could affect requirements for sulfur containing amino acids. As a prerequisite for further modeling of individual amino acid requirements, the daily N maintenance requirement (NMR) and the threshold value of daily N retention (NRmaxT) were determined. This was carried out using graded dietary protein supply and exponential modeling between N intake (NI) and N excretion (NEX) or N deposition (ND), respectively. Studies with homozygous (Na/Na) and heterozygous (Na/na) naked neck meat type chicken utilized 144 birds of average weight (50% of each genotype and sex) within two N balance experiments during both the starter (days 10–20) and the grower period (days 25–35). Birds were randomly allotted to five diets with graded dietary protein supply but constant protein quality. The observed estimates depending on genotype, sex and age varied for NMR and NRmaxT from 224 to 395 and 2881 to 4049 mg N/BWkg0.67/day, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010056
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 71-88: Modification of the Feline-Ality™
           Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in
           Their New Homes

    • Authors: Emily Weiss, Shannon Gramann, Natasha Drain, Emily Dolan, Margaret Slater
      Pages: 71 - 88
      Abstract: It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was developed to provide adopters with an accurate assessment of an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. However, the original Feline-ality™ required a three-day hold time to collect cat behaviors on a data card, which was challenging for some shelters. This research involved creating a survey to determine in-home feline behavior post adoption and explored the predictive ability of the in-shelter assessment without the data card. Our results show that the original Feline-ality™ assessment and our modified version were predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Our modified version also decreased hold time for cats to one day. Shelters interested in increasing cat adoptions, decreasing length of stay and improving the adoption experience can now implement the modified version for future feline adoption success.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010071
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 89-100: Maintenance Energy Requirements of
           Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    • Authors: Leo Fiems, Johan De Boever, José Vanacker, Sam De Campeneere
      Pages: 89 - 100
      Abstract: Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.
      PubDate: 2015-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010089
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 101-109: The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health
           of the Domestic Cat

    • Authors: Fernando Mata
      Pages: 101 - 109
      Abstract: In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. Teeth type (p < 0.001) and diet (p < 0.001) were found to be significant, however, age was not (p > 0.05). Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p < 0.01), age × diet (p < 0.01), teeth × diet (p < 0.001), and teeth × age × diet (p < 0.001). The probability of poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010101
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 110-125: The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food
           Sensory Characteristics and Palatability

    • Authors: Kadri Koppel, Mariana Monti, Michael Gibson, Sajid Alavi, Brizio Donfrancesco, Aulus Carciofi
      Pages: 110 - 125
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010110
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 126-137: Assessing Food Preferences in Dogs and
           Cats: A Review of the Current Methods

    • Authors: Christelle Tobie, Franck Péron, Claire Larose
      Pages: 126 - 137
      Abstract: Food is a major aspect of pet care; therefore, ensuring that pet foods are not only healthful but attractive to companion animals and their owners is essential. The petfood market remains active and requires ongoing evaluation of the adaptation and efficiency of the new products. Palatability—foods’ characteristics enticing animals and leading them to consumption—is therefore a key element to look at. Based on the type of information needed, different pet populations (expert or naïve) can be tested to access their preference and acceptance for different food products. Classical techniques are the one-bowl and two-bowl tests, but complementary (i.e., operant conditioning) and novel (i.e., exploratory behavior) approaches are available to gather more information on the evaluation of petfood palatability.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010126
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 5, Pages 138-150: A Critical Analysis of the British
           Horseracing Authority’s Review of the Use of the Whip in Horseracing
           

    • Authors: Bidda Jones, Jed Goodfellow, James Yeates, Paul McGreevy
      Pages: 138 - 150
      Abstract: There is increasing controversy about the use of the whip as a performance aid in Thoroughbred horseracing and its impact on horse welfare. This paper offers a critical analysis of the British Horseracing Authority’s (BHA) 2011 Report Responsible Regulation: A Review of the Use of the Whip in Horseracing. It examines the BHA’s process of consultation and use of science and public opinion research through the application of current scientific literature and legal analysis. This analysis suggests that the BHA’s findings on the welfare impact and justification for whip use are insufficiently defended by the report. These findings indicate that the report is an inadequate basis from which to draw any definitive conclusions on the impact of whips on racehorse welfare. Further review is needed, undertaken by an independent scientific body, to advance this debate.
      PubDate: 2015-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani5010138
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015)
       
 
 
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