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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 218 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GISAP : Biology, Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Acadêmica : Ciência Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover Animals
  [SJR: 0.63]   [H-I: 10]   [10 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [198 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 65: Understanding Adolescents’ Categorisation
           of Animal Species

    • Authors: Melanie Connor, Alistair Lawrence
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Categorisations are a means of investigating cognitive maps. The present study, for the first time, investigates adolescents’ spontaneous categorisation of 34 animal species. Furthermore, explicit evaluations of 16 selected animals in terms of their perceived utility and likeability were analysed. 105 British adolescents, 54% female, mean age 14.5 (SD = 1.6) participated in the study. Results of multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques indicate 3-dimensional data representation regardless of gender or age. Property fittings show that affect and perceived utility of animals explain two of the MDS dimensions, and hence partly explain adolescents’ categorisation. Additionally, hierarchical cluster analyses show a differentiation between farm animals, birds, pet animals, and wild animals possibly explaining MDS dimension 3. The results suggest that utility perceptions predominantly underlie adolescents’ categorisations and become even more dominant in older adolescents, which potentially has an influence on attitudes to animals with implications for animal welfare, conservation, and education.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7090065
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 66: Understanding Animal Detection of Precursor
           Earthquake Sounds

    • Authors: Michael Garstang, Michael Kelley
      First page: 66
      Abstract: We use recent research to provide an explanation of how animals might detect earthquakes before they occur. While the intrinsic value of such warnings is immense, we show that the complexity of the process may result in inconsistent responses of animals to the possible precursor signal. Using the results of our research, we describe a logical but complex sequence of geophysical events triggered by precursor earthquake crustal movements that ultimately result in a sound signal detectable by animals. The sound heard by animals occurs only when metal or other surfaces (glass) respond to vibrations produced by electric currents induced by distortions of the earth’s electric fields caused by the crustal movements. A combination of existing measurement systems combined with more careful monitoring of animal response could nevertheless be of value, particularly in remote locations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7090066
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 67: Characteristics and Outcomes of Dogs Admitted
           into Queensland RSPCA Shelters

    • Authors: Megan Hemy, Jacquie Rand, John Morton, Mandy Paterson
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Over 200,000 stray and surrendered dogs are admitted to shelters and municipal facilities in Australia each year, and approximately 20% are euthanized. Contemporary, comprehensive data on the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters are required to reduce shelter admissions and euthanasia. However, there are currently limited up-to-date data published on dog admission into shelters. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted to describe the characteristics and outcomes of the dog population entering Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland (RSPCA-QLD) shelters in 2014 (n = 11,967). The majority of dog admissions were strays from the public (24%) or from municipal councils (34%). Just over a quarter of admissions were puppies, 18% of adults (>6 months) were desexed, and the majority of admissions were crossbred dogs (92%). The majority of owner surrenders (86%) were due to human-related reasons. Most dogs were reclaimed (32%) or adopted (43%) and aggression was the most common reason for euthanasia of adult dogs (45%). Low-cost or free desexing and identification programs targeted to areas and breeds contributing to high intake, and increased support services for owners at risk of surrendering their dog, should be trialed to determine their cost effectiveness in reducing shelter admissions and euthanasia.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7090067
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 68: The Use of a Virtual Online Debating Platform
           to Facilitate Student Discussion of Potentially Polarising Topics

    • Authors: Paul McGreevy, Vicky Tzioumis, Chris Degeling, Jane Johnson, Robert Brown, Mike Sands, Melissa Starling, Clive Phillips
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The merits of students exchanging views through the so-called human continuum exercise (HCE) are well established. The current article describes the creation of the virtual human continuum (VHC), an online platform that facilitates the same teaching exercise. It also reports feedback on the VHC from veterinary science students (n = 38). First-year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students at the University of Sydney, Australia, trialed the platform and provided feedback. Most students agreed or strongly agreed that the VHC offered: a non-threatening environment for discussing emotive and challenging issues; and an opportunity to see how other people form ideas. It also made them think about how to express their ideas and make arguments; and left them feeling more comfortable about expressing their views using it than they would discussing ideas face-to-face (98%, 84%, 79% and 76%, respectively). All respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the VHC encouraged them to consider other opinions. These data suggest that the transition of the HCE to an online platform facilitates dialogue on difficult ethical issues in a supportive environment.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7090068
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 69: Survey of Veterinarians Using a Novel Physical
           Compression Squeeze Procedure in the Management of Neonatal Maladjustment
           Syndrome in Foals

    • Authors: Monica Aleman, Kalie Weich, John Madigan
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Horses are a precocious species that must accomplish several milestones that are critical to survival in the immediate post-birth period for their survival. One essential milestone is the successful transition from the intrauterine unconsciousness to an extrauterine state of consciousness or awareness. This transition involves a complex withdrawal of consciousness inhibitors and an increase in neuroactivating factors that support awareness. This process involves neuroactive hormones as well as inputs related to factors such as cold, visual, olfactory, and auditory stimuli. One factor not previously considered in this birth transition is a yet unreported direct neural reflex response to labor-induced physical compression of the fetus in the birth canal (squeezing). Neonatal maladjustment syndrome (NMS) is a disorder of the newborn foal characterized by altered behavior, low affinity for the mare, poor awareness of the environment, failure to bond to the mother, abnormal sucking, and other neurologically-based abnormalities. This syndrome has been associated with altered events during birth, and was believed to be caused exclusively by hypoxia and ischemia. However, recent findings revealed an association of the NMS syndrome with the persistence of high concentrations of in utero neuromodulating hormones (neurosteroids) in the postnatal period. Anecdotal evidence demonstrated that a novel physical compression (squeeze) method that applies 20 min of sustained pressure to the thorax of some neonatal foals with this syndrome might rapidly hasten recovery. This survey provides information about outcomes and time frames to recovery comparing neonatal foals that were given this squeeze treatment to foals treated with routine medical therapy alone. Results revealed that the squeeze procedure, when applied for 20 min, resulted in a faster full recovery of some foals diagnosed with NMS. The adjunctive use of a non-invasive squeeze method may improve animal welfare by hastening recovery and foal–mare interactions that minimize health problems. This would also avoid or reduce costs arising from hospitalization associated with veterinary and nursing care that sometimes leads owners to elect for euthanasia.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7090069
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 70: The Road to Hell Is Paved with Good Intentions:
           Why Harm–Benefit Analysis and Its Emphasis on Practical Benefit
           Jeopardizes the Credibility of Research

    • Authors: Herwig Grimm, Matthias Eggel, Anna Deplazes-Zemp, Nikola Biller-Andorno
      First page: 70
      Abstract: It is our concern that European Union Directive 2010/63/EU with its current project evaluation of animal research in the form of a harm–benefit analysis may lead to an erosion of the credibility of research. The HBA assesses whether the inflicted harm on animals is outweighed by potential prospective benefits. Recent literature on prospective benefit analysis prioritizes “societal benefits” that have a foreseeable, positive impact on humans, animals, or the environment over benefit in the form of knowledge. In this study, we will argue that whether practical benefits are realized is (a) impossible to predict and (b) exceeds the scope and responsibility of researchers. Furthermore, we believe that the emphasis on practical benefits has the drawback of driving researchers into speculation on the societal benefit of their research and, therefore, into promising too much, thereby leading to a loss of trust and credibility. Thus, the concepts of benefit and benefit assessment in the HBA require a re-evaluation in a spirit that embraces the value of knowledge in our society. The generation of scientific knowledge has been utilised to great benefit for humans, animals, and the environment. The HBA, as it currently stands, tends to turn this idea upside down and implies that research is of value only if the resulting findings bring about immediate societal benefit.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7090070
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 71: Penile Injuries in Immunocastrated and Entire
           Male Pigs of One Fattening Farm

    • Authors: Simon Reiter, Susanne Zöls, Mathias Ritzmann, Volker Stefanski, Ulrike Weiler
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Penile injuries in boars have been discussed as a relevant welfare problem in pork production with entire males (EM). The incidence of penile injuries with immunocastrated boars has not been described so far. Thus, it was the aim of this study to systematically compare frequency and severity of penile injuries in EM and IC. Incidence and size of penile injuries (wounds, scars, hematomas) were evaluated in 192 IC and 215 EM from one farm after slaughter (120 kg live weight; four batches (BA) in at least weekly intervals over five weeks). 75.8% EM and 48.4% IC showed injuries at the pars libra of the penis. Scars were observed in 71.2% EM and 44.8% IC. Scars/animal were significantly influenced by treatment (IC vs. EM), B and treatment x B and increased with age in EM (BA1: 2.61 ± 3.05; BA4: 3.59 ± 3.47), but not in IC (BA1: 2.00 ± 3.02; BA4: 1.22 ± 1.91). Wounds were obvious in 17.2% EM and 8.3% IC. Wounds/animal were only influenced significantly by treatment and were lower in IC than in EM. Thus, it is concluded that immunocastration reduces the frequency and severity of penile injuries in IC when compared to EM of same age and weight.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7090071
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 72: Tech-Savvy Beef Cattle' How Heifers Respond
           to Moving Virtual Fence Lines

    • Authors: Dana Campbell, Jim Lea, William Farrer, Sally Haynes, Caroline Lee
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Global Positioning System (GPS)-based virtual fences offer the potential to improve the management of grazing animals. Prototype collar devices utilising patented virtual fencing algorithms were placed on six Angus heifers in a 6.15 hectare paddock. After a “no fence” period, sequential, shifting virtual fences restricted the animals to 40%, 60%, and 80% of the paddock area widthways and 50% lengthways across 22 days. Audio cues signaled the virtual boundary, and were paired with electrical stimuli if the animals continued forward into the boundary. Within approximately 48 h, the cattle learned the 40% fence and were henceforth restricted to the subsequent inclusion zones a minimum of 96.70% (±standard error 0.01%) of the time. Over time, the animals increasingly stayed within the inclusion zones using audio cues alone, and on average, approached the new fence within 4.25 h. The animals were thus attentive to the audio cue, not the fence location. The time spent standing and lying and the number of steps were similar between inclusion zones (all p ≥ 0.42). More lying bouts occurred at the 80% and lengthways inclusion zones relative to “no fence” (p = 0.04). Further research should test different cattle groups in variable paddock settings and measure physiological welfare responses to the virtual fencing stimuli.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7090072
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 56: Welfare Status of Working Horses and Owners′
           Perceptions of Their Animals

    • Authors: Daniela Luna, Rodrigo Vásquez, Manuel Rojas, Tamara Tadich
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Appropriate interventions to improve working equine welfare should be proposed according to scientific evidence that arises from different geo-cultural contexts. This study aims to assess and compare the welfare status of working horses in two administrative regions of Chile and to determine how owners perceive their horses. Horses’ welfare status was assessed through direct indicators (direct observation and clinical examination) and indirect indicators (an interview with the owner). Owners′ perceptions of their horses were determined through a discourse analysis of their statements. In total, 100 horses and 100 owners were assessed. Results showed a low prevalence of health problems and negative behavior responses among horses in the two regions evaluated. Significant associations were found between inadequate body condition and the absence of deworming, and between hoof abnormalities and a low frequency of shoeing. Between regions, significant differences were found in the presence of lesions and the person responsible for horseshoeing. In regards to the owners′ appreciations, two differing perceptions of working horses were found: a predominantly affective perception and a perception of the animal as a working instrument. Although the instrumental perception was more frequent in the Araucania region, the affective perception was widely shared by both owner populations. The results reveal a good welfare status in working horses and suggest that both affective and instrumental perceptions of these animals can coexist.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7080056
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 57: Direct Observation of Dog Density and
           Composition during Street Counts as a Resource Efficient Method of
           Measuring Variation in Roaming Dog Populations over Time and between

    • Authors: Elly Hiby, Lex Hiby
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Dog population management is conducted in many countries to address the public health risks from roaming dogs and threats to their welfare. To assess its effectiveness, we need to monitor indicators from both the human and dog populations that are quick and easy to collect, precise and meaningful to intervention managers, donors and local citizens. We propose that the most appropriate indicators from the roaming dog population are population density and composition, based on counting dogs along standard routes using a standard survey protocol. Smart phone apps are used to navigate and record dogs along standard routes. Density expressed as dogs seen per km predicts the number of dogs residents will encounter as they commute to work or school and is therefore more meaningful than total population size. Composition in terms of gender, age and reproductive activity is measured alongside welfare, in terms of body and skin condition. The implementation of this method in seven locations reveals significant difference in roaming dog density between locations and reduction in density within one location subject to intervention. This method provides a resource efficient and reliable measure of roaming dog density, composition and welfare for the assessment of intervention impact.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7080057
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 58: Erratum: Caroline Good; et al.; A Cultural
           Conscience for Conservation. Animals 2017, 7, 52

    • Authors: Caroline Good, Dawn Burnham, David Macdonald
      First page: 58
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7080058
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 59: Stated Preferences for Dog Characteristics and
           Sources of Acquisition

    • Authors: Courtney Bir, Nicole Widmar, Candace Croney
      First page: 59
      Abstract: People’s preferences for where they acquire dogs and the characteristics they focus on may provide insight into their perceptions of socially responsible pet ownership, as acquiring a dog is the first step in dog ownership. An online survey of 1523 U.S. residents was used to aid understanding of public perceptions of dog acquisition. Likert-scale questions allowed respondents to assign a level of agreement, within the given scale, to ten statements related to dog acquisition. A significantly higher percentage of women (39.6%) than men (31.7%) agreed that the only responsible way to acquire a dog is through a shelter/rescue. More women (71.3%) than men (66.4%), as well as those with a higher household income (71%), identified source as important. Best-worst methodology was used to elicit perceptions regarding the most/least ethical ways to acquire a dog. Three subgroups were identified, one of which had an overwhelmingly large preference share (96%) for adoption. The second group had more evenly distributed preference shares amongst the various dog acquisition methods, while the third indicated a preference for “homeless” pets. Additional investigation of the values/beliefs underlying the preferences of these groups is necessary to design appropriately tailored companion animal-focused communication strategies for these different groups.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7080059
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 60: Operational Details of the Five Domains Model
           and Its Key Applications to the Assessment and Management of Animal

    • Authors: David Mellor
      First page: 60
      Abstract: In accord with contemporary animal welfare science understanding, the Five Domains Model has a significant focus on subjective experiences, known as affects, which collectively contribute to an animal’s overall welfare state. Operationally, the focus of the Model is on the presence or absence of various internal physical/functional states and external circumstances that give rise to welfare-relevant negative and/or positive mental experiences, i.e., affects. The internal states and external circumstances of animals are evaluated systematically by referring to each of the first four domains of the Model, designated “Nutrition”, “Environment”, “Health” and “Behaviour”. Then affects, considered carefully and cautiously to be generated by factors in these domains, are accumulated into the fifth domain, designated “Mental State”. The scientific foundations of this operational procedure, published in detail elsewhere, are described briefly here, and then seven key ways the Model may be applied to the assessment and management of animal welfare are considered. These applications have the following beneficial objectives—they (1) specify key general foci for animal welfare management; (2) highlight the foundations of specific welfare management objectives; (3) identify previously unrecognised features of poor and good welfare; (4) enable monitoring of responses to specific welfare-focused remedial interventions and/or maintenance activities; (5) facilitate qualitative grading of particular features of welfare compromise and/or enhancement; (6) enable both prospective and retrospective animal welfare assessments to be conducted; and, (7) provide adjunct information to support consideration of quality of life evaluations in the context of end-of-life decisions. However, also noted is the importance of not overstating what utilisation of the Model can achieve.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7080060
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 61: Optimum Drug Combinations for the Sedation of
           Growing Boars Prior to Castration

    • Authors: Heidi Lehmann, Dominique Blache, Eleanor Drynan, Pema Tshewang, David Blignaut, Gabrielle Musk
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Juvenile male pigs were sedated for castration. Eight five-month old boars were sedated twice (two weeks apart) with a combination of detomidine (0.1 mg/kg), midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) and either butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) (Group MDB, n = 8) or morphine (0.2 mg/kg) (Group MDM, n = 8) intramuscularly. The boars were positioned in lateral recumbency and lidocaine (200 mg total) was injected into the testicle and scrotal skin. Castration of a single testicle was performed on two occasions. Sedation and reaction (to positioning and surgery) scores, pulse rate, respiratory rate, haemoglobin oxygen saturation, body temperature, arterial blood gas parameters and the times to immobility and then recovery were recorded. Atipamezole was administered if spontaneous recovery was not evident within 60 min of sedative administration. Data were compared with either a paired-sample t-test or a Wilcoxon-Signed Rank Test. There was no difference in sedation score, body temperature, respiratory rate and haemoglobin oxygen saturation between MDB and MDM. Mild hypoxaemia was noted in both groups. There was less reaction to castration after MDB. The pulse rate was higher after MDM sedation. The times to immobility and then recovery were similar. The combination of MDB provided more reliable sedation than MDM. MDB may be useful for sedation for short procedures in pigs, though oxygen supplementation is recommended to avoid hypoxaemia.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7080061
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 62: Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injury during
           Racing on New Zealand Racetracks 2005–2011

    • Authors: Charlotte Bolwell, Chris Rogers, Erica Gee, Wayne McIlwraith
      First page: 62
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of veterinary events that resulted in a horse failing to finish a race and identify risk factors for musculoskeletal injury (MSI) during a race. Data were obtained on Thoroughbred flat race starts in New Zealand between 1 August 2005 and 31 July 2011 (six racing seasons). Stipendiary Steward’s reports were key-word searched to identify veterinary events that prevented a horse from finishing a race. Race data were used calculate the incidence of veterinary events per 1000 horse starts and Poisson regression was used to investigate risk factors for MSI. There were 188,616 race starts and 177 reported veterinary events. The incidence of MSI on race day was 0.72 per 1000 starts, whilst the incidence of respiratory events was 0.21 per 1000 starts. The rate of MSI was significantly lower on ‘dead’ and ‘slow’ tracks compared with ‘good’ tracks and significantly greater in longer races (≥1671 m) compared with races of ≤1200 m. The rate of MSI during flat races in New Zealand appears lower than that reported worldwide, which may be due to the management and training of horses in New Zealand or differences in case definitions used in comparable studies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7080062
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 63: Veterinary and Equine Science Students’
           Interpretation of Horse Behaviour

    • Authors: Gabriella Gronqvist, Chris Rogers, Erica Gee, Audrey Martinez, Charlotte Bolwell
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Many veterinary and undergraduate equine science students have little previous horse handling experience and a poor understanding of horse behaviour; yet horses are one of the most unsafe animals with which veterinary students must work. It is essential for veterinary and equine students to learn how to interpret horse behaviour in order to understand demeanour and levels of arousal, and to optimise their own safety and the horses’ welfare. The study utilised a qualitative research approach to investigate veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students’ interpretation of expressive behaviours shown by horses. The students (N = 127) were shown six short video clips and asked to select the most applicable terms, from a pre-determined list, to describe the behavioural expression of each individual horse. A wide variation of terms were selected by students and in some situations of distress, or situations that may be dangerous or lead to compromised welfare, apparently contradictory terms were also selected (happy or playful) by students with less experience with horses. Future studies should consider the use of Qualitative Behavioural Analysis (QBA) and free-choice profiling to investigate the range of terms used by students to describe the expressive demeanour and arousal levels of horses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7080063
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 64: American Citizens’ Views of an Ideal Pig

    • Authors: Patrycia Sato, Maria Hötzel, Marina von Keyserlingk
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Food animal production practices are often cited as having negative animal welfare consequences. The U.S. swine industry has not been exempt from such criticisms. Little is known, however, about how lay citizens who are not actively engaged in agricultural discussions, think about swine production. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the views of people not affiliated with the swine industry on what they perceived to be the ideal pig/pork farm, and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: “What do you consider to be an ideal pig/pork farm and why are these characteristics important to you'”. Generally respondents considered animal welfare (e.g., space, freedom to move, and humane treatment), respondents considered the business operation role important for pork production (e.g., profitability, compliance with sanitary, environmental rules and regulations, and workers′ rights), and naturalness (e.g., natural feeding, behaviours and life) important for pork production. Concerns relating to pigs’ quality of life included space to move, feeding, contact with outdoors or nature, absence of pain, suffering and mistreatment. Perspectives were also raised regarding the ideal farm as a profitable business operation, clean, and with optimal sanitary conditions. Respondents also emphasized naturalness, frequently stating that pigs should have access to the outdoors, and rejected the use of hormones, antibiotics, and other chemicals for the purposes of increasing production. In summary, the findings of this study suggest that the U.S. swine industry should strive to adopt animal management practices that resonate with societal values, such as ensuring humane treatment, and the failure to do so could risk the sustainability of the swine industry.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7080064
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 8 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 48: Factors that Influence Intake to One Municipal
           Animal Control Facility in Florida: A Qualitative Study

    • Authors: Terry Spencer, Linda Behar-Horenstein, Joe Aufmuth, Nancy Hardt, Jennifer Applebaum, Amber Emanuel, Natalie Isaza
      First page: 48
      Abstract: This qualitative study identified a study area by visualizing one year of animal intake from a municipal animal shelter on geographic information systems (GIS) maps to select an area of high stray-dog intake to investigate. Researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with residents of the selected study area to elucidate why there were high numbers of stray dogs coming from this location. Using grounded theory, three themes emerged from the interviews: concerns, attitudes, and disparities. The residents expressed concerns about animal welfare, personal safety, money, and health. They held various attitudes toward domestic animals in the community, including viewing them as pets, pests, or useful commodities (products). Residents expressed acceptance as well as some anger and fear about the situation in their community. Interviewees revealed they faced multiple socioeconomic disparities related to poverty. Pet abandonment can result when pet owners must prioritize human needs over animal needs, leading to increased shelter intake of stray dogs. Community-specific strategies for reducing local animal shelter intake should address the issue of pet abandonment by simultaneously targeting veterinary needs of animals, socioeconomic needs of residents, and respecting attitude differences between residents and shelter professionals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7070048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 49: A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus)
           Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    • Authors: Jessica Walker, Stephanie Bruce, Arnja Dale
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7070049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 50: Surrendered and Stray Dogs in
           Australia—Estimation of Numbers Entering Municipal Pounds, Shelters and
           Rescue Groups and Their Outcomes

    • Authors: Diana Chua, Jacquie Rand, John Morton
      First page: 50
      Abstract: There is no national system for monitoring numbers of dogs entering municipal council pounds and shelters in Australia, or their outcomes. This limits understanding of the surrendered and stray dog issue, and prevents the evaluation of management strategies. We aimed to estimate these in 2012–2013. Dog intake and outcome data were collected for municipal councils and animal welfare organizations using annual reports, publications, primary peer-reviewed journal articles, websites and direct correspondence. More comprehensive data were obtained for New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Australian Capital Territory, whereas it was necessary to impute some or all data for Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and Tasmania, as data were incomplete/unavailable. A refined methodology was developed to address the numerous limitations of the available data. An estimated national total of 211,655 dog admissions (9.3 admissions/1000 residents) occurred in 2012–2013. Of these admissions, the numbers where the dog was reclaimed, rehomed or euthanized were estimated as 4.4, 2.9 and 1.9/1000 residents, respectively. Differences in outcomes were evident between states, and between municipal councils, welfare organizations and rescue groups. This study emphasizes the need for an ongoing standardized monitoring system with appropriate data routinely collected from all municipal councils, animal welfare organizations and rescue groups in Australia. Such a system would only require data that are easily collected by all relevant organizations and could be implemented at relatively low cost. This could facilitate ongoing evaluation of the magnitude of the surrendered and stray dog problem, and allow assessment of strategies aiming to reduce numbers of admissions and euthanasia.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7070050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 51: A Note on Suckling Behavior and Laterality in
           Nursing Humpback Whale Calves from Underwater Observations

    • Authors: Ann Zoidis, Kate Lomac-MacNair
      First page: 51
      Abstract: We investigated nursing behavior on the Hawaiian breeding grounds for first year humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calves. We observed and video-documented underwater events with nursing behavior from five different whale groups. The observed nursing events include behaviors where a calf positions itself at a 30–45° angle to the midline of the mother’s body, with its mouth touching her mammary slit (i.e., suckling position). On two occasions, milk in the water column was recorded in close proximity to a mother/calf pair, and on one occasion, milk was recorded 2.5 min after suckling observed. Nursing events, where the calf was located in the suckling position, were found to be short in duration with a mean of 30.6 s (range 15.0–55.0, standard deviation (SD) = 16.9). All observations of the calf in the suckling position (n = 5, 100%) were with the calf located on the right side of the mother, suggesting a potential for right side laterality preference in the context of nursing behavior. Our study provides insight into mother/calf behaviors from a unique underwater vantage. Results supplement previous accounts of humpback whale nursing in Hawaiian waters, validate mother/calf positioning, document milk in the water column, and introduce the potential for laterality in nursing behavior for humpback whale calves.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7070051
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 52: A Cultural Conscience for Conservation

    • Authors: Caroline Good, Dawn Burnham, David Macdonald
      First page: 52
      Abstract: On 2 July 2015, the killing of a lion nicknamed “Cecil” prompted the largest global reaction in the history of wildlife conservation. In response to this, it is propitious to consider the ways in which this moment can be developed into a financial movement to transform the conservation of species such as the lion that hold cultural significance and sentiment but whose numbers in the wild are dwindling dangerously. This provocative piece explores how a species royalty could be used effectively by drawing revenue from the heavy symbolic use of charismatic animals in affluent economies. This would, in turn, reduce strain on limited government funds in threatened animals’ native homelands. Three potential areas of lucrative animal symbolism—fashion, sports mascots, and national animals—provide examples of the kind of revenue that could be created from a species royalty. These examples also demonstrate how this royalty could prove to be a desirable means by which both corporations and consumers could positively develop their desired selves while simultaneously contributing to a relevant and urgent cause. These examples intend to ignite a multi-disciplinary conversation on the global cultural economy’s use of endangered species symbols. An overhaul in perspective and practice is needed because time is running out for much of the wildlife and their ecosystems that embellish products and embody anthropocentric business identities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7070052
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 53: Estimating the Availability of Potential Homes
           for Unwanted Horses in the United States

    • Authors: Emily Weiss, Emily Dolan, Heather Mohan-Gibbons, Shannon Gramann, Margaret Slater
      First page: 53
      Abstract: There are approximately 200,000 unwanted horses annually in the United States. This study aimed to better understand the potential homes for horses that need to be re-homed. Using an independent survey company through an Omnibus telephone (land and cell) survey, we interviewed a nationally projectable sample of 3036 adults (using both landline and cellular phone numbers) to learn of their interest and capacity to adopt a horse. Potential adopters with interest in horses with medical and/or behavioral problems and self-assessed perceived capacity to adopt, constituted 0.92% of the total sample. Extrapolating the results of this survey using U.S. Census data, suggests there could be an estimated 1.25 million households who have both the self-reported and perceived resources and desire to house an unwanted horse. This number exceeds the estimated number of unwanted horses living each year in the United States. This study points to opportunities and need to increase communication and support between individuals and organizations that have unwanted horses to facilitate re-homing with people in their community willing to adopt them.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7070053
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 54: Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range
           Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability

    • Authors: Peta Taylor, Paul Hemsworth, Peter Groves, Sabine Gebhardt-Henrich, Jean-Loup Rault
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total of 7.9 ± 1.0 min/day). Seasonal differences were only marginally explained by weather conditions and may reflect the reduction in range exposure between seasons (number of days, hours per day, and time of day). Specific times of the day (p < 0.01) and pop-holes were favoured (p < 0.05). We provide evidence of relationships between ranging and external factors that may explain ranging preferences.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7070054
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 55: Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range
           Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation

    • Authors: Peta Taylor, Paul Hemsworth, Peter Groves, Sabine Gebhardt-Henrich, Jean-Loup Rault
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for <15% of all range visits and included chickens that used the range only once (6 to 12% of tagged chickens), and high ranging chickens (3 to 9% of tagged chickens) that accounted for 33 to 50% of all range visits. Males spent longer on the range than females in winter (p < 0.05). Identifying the causes of inter-individual variation in ranging behaviour may help optimise ranging opportunities in free-range systems and is important to elucidate the potential welfare implications of ranging.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7070055
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 7 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 41: Equine Welfare during Exercise: An Evaluation
           of Breathing, Breathlessness and Bridles

    • Authors: David Mellor, Ngaio Beausoleil
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses. In addition, we investigate the influence of management factors such as rein and bit use and of respiratory pathology on the likelihood and intensity of equine breathlessness occurring during exercise. In ridden horses, rein use that reduces the jowl angle, sometimes markedly, and conditions that partially obstruct the nasopharynx and/or larynx, impair airflow in the upper respiratory tract and lead to increased flow resistance. The associated upper airway pressure changes, transmitted to the lower airways, may have pathophysiological sequelae in the alveolae, which, in their turn, may increase airflow resistance in the lower airways and impede respiratory gas exchange. Other sequelae include decreases in respiratory minute volume and worsening of the hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and acidaemia commonly observed in healthy horses during strenuous exercise. These and other factors are implicated in the potential for ridden horses to experience three forms of breathlessness—”unpleasant respiratory effort”, “air hunger” and “chest tightness”—which arise when there is a mismatch between a heightened ventilatory drive and the adequacy of the respiratory response. It is not known to what extent, if at all, such mismatches would occur in strenuously exercising horses unhampered by low jowl angles or by pathophysiological changes at any level of the respiratory tract. However, different combinations of the three types of breathlessness seem much more likely to occur when pathophysiological conditions significantly reduce maximal athletic performance. Finally, most horses exhibit clear behavioural evidence of aversion to a bit in their mouths, varying from the bit being a mild irritant to very painful. This in itself is a significant animal welfare issue that should be addressed. A further major point is the potential for bits to disrupt the maintenance of negative pressure in the oropharynx, which apparently acts to prevent the soft palate from rising and obstructing the nasopharynx. The untoward respiratory outcomes and poor athletic performance due to this and other obstructions are well established, and suggest the potential for affected animals to experience significant intensities of breathlessness. Bitless bridle use may reduce or eliminate such effects. However, direct comparisons of the cardiorespiratory dynamics and the extent of any respiratory pathophysiology in horses wearing bitted and bitless bridles have not been conducted. Such studies would be helpful in confirming, or otherwise, the claimed potential benefits of bitless bridle use.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7060041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 42: Salmonid Jumping and Playing: Potential
           Cultural and Welfare Implications

    • Authors: Robert Fagen
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Salmonids of several species and other fishes can jump into the air from the water. This behavior has been used in net pen culture applications to control parasitic sea lice. The reasons that salmonids jump remain a topic for speculation. Research on these behaviors has focused on Atlantic salmon in net pen culture in Northwest Europe. Jumping in salmonids is a heterogeneous behavioral category with diverse functional outcomes. Additional research is needed from broad perspectives spanning indigenous and institutional science, cultural wisdom, and ethological direct observation. In theory and in practice, it is interesting that some salmonid jumping behavior may be a form of play.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7060042
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 43: A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred
           Dogs in Italy

    • Authors: Debora Groppetti, Alessandro Pecile, Clara Palestrini, Stefano Marelli, Patrizia Boracchi
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001) and litter size (p < 0.05) increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001). Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001), and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001). These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7060043
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 44: Long Term Physiologic and Behavioural Effects
           of Housing Density and Environmental Resource Provision for Adult Male and
           Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    • Authors: Christopher Pinelli, Francesco Leri, Patricia Turner
      First page: 44
      Abstract: There is considerable interest in refining laboratory rodent environments to promote animal well-being, as well as research reproducibility. Few studies have evaluated the long term impact of enhancing rodent environments with resources and additional cagemates. To that end, male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were housed singly (n = 8/sex), in pairs (n = 16/sex), or in groups of four (n = 16/sex) for five months. Single and paired rats were housed in standard cages with a nylon chew toy, while group-housed rats were kept in double-wide cages with two PVC shelters and a nylon chew toy and were provided with food enrichment three times weekly. Animal behaviour, tests of anxiety (open field, elevated plus maze, and thermal nociception), and aspects of animal physiology (fecal corticoid levels, body weight, weekly food consumption, organ weights, and cerebral stress signaling peptide and receptor mRNA levels) were measured. Significant differences were noted, primarily in behavioural data, with sustained positive social interactions and engagement with environmental resources noted throughout the study. These results suggest that modest enhancements in the environment of both male and female SD rats may be beneficial to their well-being, while introducing minimal variation in other aspects of behavioural or physiologic responses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7060044
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 45: Exploring the Role of Farm Animals in Providing
           Care at Care Farms

    • Authors: Jan Hassink, Simone De Bruin, Bente Berget, Marjolein Elings
      First page: 45
      Abstract: We explore the role of farm animals in providing care to different types of participants at care farms (e.g., youngsters with behavioural problems, people with severe mental problems and people with dementia). Care farms provide alternative and promising settings where people can interact with animals compared to a therapeutic healthcare setting. We performed a literature review, conducted focus group meetings and carried out secondary data-analysis of qualitative studies involving care farmers and different types of participants. We found that farm animals are important to many participants and have a large number of potential benefits. They can (i) provide meaningful day occupation; (ii) generate valued relationships; (iii) help people master tasks; (iv) provide opportunities for reciprocity; (v) can distract people from them problems; (vi) provide relaxation; (vii) facilitate customized care; (viii) facilitate relationships with other people; (ix) stimulate healthy behavior; (x) contribute to a welcoming environment; (xi) make it possible to experience basic elements of life; and (xii) provide opportunities for reflection and feedback. This shows the multi-facetted importance of interacting with animals on care farms. In this study the types of activities with animals and their value to different types of participants varied. Farm animals are an important element of the care farm environment that can address the care needs of different types of participants.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7060045
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 46: Trap-Neuter-Return Activities in Urban Stray
           Cat Colonies in Australia

    • Authors: Kuan Tan, Jacquie Rand, John Morton
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Trap, neuter and return (TNR) describes a non-lethal approach to the control of urban stray cat populations. Currently, in Australia, lethal control is common, with over 85% of cats entering some municipal pounds euthanized. No research has been published describing TNR activities in Australia. Adults involved with TNR in Australia were invited to participate. Data from 53 respondents were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Most respondents were females 36 to 65 years of age, and slightly more participated in TNR as individuals than as part of an organization. Respondents generally self-funded at least some of their TNR activities. The median number of colonies per respondent was 1.5 (range 1 to over 100). Median colony size declined from 11.5 to 6.5 cats under TNR over a median of 2.2 years, and the median percent reduction was 31%; this was achieved by rehoming cats and kittens and reducing reproduction. A median of 69% of cats in each colony were desexed at the time of reporting. Most respondents fed cats once or twice daily, and at least 28% of respondents microchipped cats. Prophylactic healthcare was provided to adult cats and kittens, commonly for intestinal parasites (at least 49%), and fleas (at least 46%); vaccinations were less common. Time-consuming activities for respondents were feeding (median 4 h/week) and locating resources (median 1.1 h/week). These findings indicate that TNR, when involving high desexing rates within colonies, adoption of kittens and friendly adults, and ongoing oversight by volunteer caretakers, can reduce cat numbers over time, improve health and welfare of cats and kittens, and is largely funded by private individuals and organizations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7060046
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 47: ExNOTic: Should We Be Keeping Exotic Pets'

    • Authors: Rachel Grant, V. Montrose, Alison Wills
      First page: 47
      Abstract: There has been a recent trend towards keeping non-traditional companion animals, also known as exotic pets. These pets include parrots, reptiles, amphibians and rabbits, as well as small species of rodent such as degus and guinea pigs. Many of these exotic pet species are not domesticated, and often have special requirements in captivity, which many owners do not have the facilities or knowledge to provide. Keeping animals in settings to which they are poorly adapted is a threat to their welfare. Additionally, owner satisfaction with the animal may be poor due to a misalignment of expectations, which further impacts on welfare, as it may lead to repeated rehoming or neglect. We investigate a range of commonly kept exotic species in terms of their suitability as companion animals from the point of view of animal welfare and owner satisfaction, and make recommendations on the suitability of various species as pets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7060047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 6 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 33: How Are Service Dogs for Adults with Post
           Traumatic Stress Disorder Integrated with Rehabilitation in Denmark' A
           Case Study

    • Authors: Chalotte Glintborg, Tia Hansen
      First page: 33
      Abstract: A severe mental illness like Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is known to have psychosocial consequences that can lead to a decreased quality of life. Research in Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) has revealed that the presence of a dog can have a positive effect on health, e.g., increase quality of life and lessen depression and anxiety. However, canine companionship is not a catch-all solution. Previous research has revealed methodological limitations that prohibit any clear conclusions, as well as a sparsity of critical reflection in anecdotal reports and case studies, which means that more research is needed to contextualize the findings. There has been an increasing interest in animal-assisted intervention in Denmark in recent years. Previously, authorities could only grant service dogs to adults with physical disabilities, but now this has been extended to adults with mental illnesses. Therefore, it has become important to explore how these service dogs are incorporated into rehabilitation practices in mental health, and how rehabilitation professionals react to the use of service dogs. This paper is a case study of a person who suffers from PTSD. This study examines how the person describes the significance of having a dog during her rehabilitation process, and how this is integrated with existing rehabilitation. The case study has been developed based on a semi-structured interview. A Thematic Content analysis was used to reveal dominant patterns and categories. This study revealed a lack of communication and collaboration between public administration (social service), service dog providers, health rehabilitation services, and providers of psychological treatment. It also revealed limited access for the dog to public services, limited success in incorporating the dog into goal-directed treatment and rehabilitation procedures, a strongly felt emotional support from the dog, and a perceived stigma by having the dog wearing a vest with he words “mentally ill” printed on it.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7050033
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 34: Pregnant Sheep in a Farm Environment Did Not
           Develop Anaemia

    • Authors: Gabrielle Musk, Amanda James, Matthew Kemp, Sara Ritchie, Andrew Ritchie, Michael Laurence
      First page: 34
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to document the haematological profile of pregnant ewes throughout gestation. Sheep were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group): non-pregnant, singleton, or twin pregnancy. Blood samples were collected every 14 days from day 55 of gestation for haemoglobin concentration; packed cell volume; total protein; and albumin concentration. On days 55 and 125 of gestation blood was collected for trace element estimation: soluble copper and zinc; glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx); and methylmalonic acid (MMA). Pooled faecal samples were collected on days 55, 97, and 139 of gestation. Pasture cuts were collected on days 97 and 153 of gestation. The haematology and protein concentrations were not different between groups throughout the study. Copper concentration increased in all animals during the study (p < 0.0001). Zinc concentration was lowest in the singleton and twin pregnant sheep on day 55 of gestation (p = 0.04). GSHPx was not different between groups during the study. MMA decreased in all animals during the study (p < 0.0001), but was not different between groups. Faecal samples were consistently negative for strongyle and nematode eggs, and coccidian oocysts. The pasture was good quality. Pregnant sheep in a farm environment with normal trace element status, no parasites, and an adequate diet, did not develop anaemia (PCV < 0.27).
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7050034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 35: Family Dog-Assisted Adapted Physical Activity:
           A Case Study

    • Authors: Amanda Tepfer, Samantha Ross, Megan MacDonald, Monique Udell, Craig Ruaux, Wendy Baltzer
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this case study was to examine the individual effects of an adapted physical activity, animal-assisted intervention (APA-AAI) with the family dog on motor skills, physical activity, and quality of life of a child with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: This study used an A-B-A single-subject design. The assessment phase (phase A) occurred pre- and post-intervention. This consisted of standardized assessments of motor skills, quality of life questionnaires, physical activity (measured using the GT3X+ accelerometer) and the human-animal bond. The intervention (phase B) lasted 8 weeks and consisted of adapted physical activities performed with the family dog once a week for 60 min in a lab setting. In addition, the participant had at-home daily activities to complete with the family dog. Results: Visual analysis was used to analyze the data. Motor skill performance, physical activity, quality of life and human animal interaction gains were observed in each case. Conclusions: These preliminary results provided initial evidence that the family-dog can play a role in healthy lifestyles through APA-AAI in children with CP.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7050035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 36: Exploration Feeding and Higher Space Allocation
           Improve Welfare of Growing-Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Herman Vermeer, Nienke Dirx-Kuijken, Marc Bracke
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Lack of environmental enrichment and high stocking densities in growing-finishing pigs can lead to adverse social behaviors directed to pen mates, resulting in skin lesions, lameness, and tail biting. The objective of the study was to improve animal welfare and prevent biting behavior in an experiment with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design on exploration feeding, stocking density, and sex. We kept 550 pigs in 69 pens from 63 days to 171 days of life. Pigs were supplemented with or without exploration feeding, kept in groups of seven (1.0 m2/pig) or nine animals (0.8 m2/pig) and separated per sex. Exploration feeding provided small amounts of feed periodically on the solid floor. Skin lesion scores were significantly lower in pens with exploration feeding (p = 0.028, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 for front, middle, and hind body), in pens with high compared to low space allowance (p = 0.005, p = 0.006, p < 0.001 for front, middle and hind body), and in pens with females compared to males (p < 0.001, p = 0.005, p < 0.001 for front, middle and hind body). Males with exploration feeding had fewer front skin lesions than females with exploration feeding (p = 0.022). Pigs with 1.0 m2 compared to 0.8 m2 per pig had a higher daily gain of 27 g per pig per day (p = 0.04) and males compared to females had a higher daily gain of 39 g per pig per day (p = 0.01). These results indicate that exploration feeding might contribute to the development of a more welfare-friendly pig husbandry with intact tails in the near future.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7050036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 37: Practices for Alleviating Heat Stress of Dairy
           Cows in Humid Continental Climates: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Sébastien Fournel, Véronique Ouellet, Édith Charbonneau
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Heat stress negatively affects the health and performance of dairy cows, resulting in considerable economic losses for the industry. In future years, climate change will exacerbate these losses by making the climate warmer. Physical modification of the environment is considered to be the primary means of reducing adverse effects of hot weather conditions. At present, to reduce stressful heat exposure and to cool cows, dairy farms rely on shade screens and various forms of forced convection and evaporative cooling that may include fans and misters, feed-line sprinklers, and tunnel- or cross-ventilated buildings. However, these systems have been mainly tested in subtropical areas and thus their efficiency in humid continental climates, such as in the province of Québec, Canada, is unclear. Therefore, this study reviewed the available cooling applications and assessed their potential for northern regions. Thermal stress indices such as the temperature-humidity index (THI) were used to evaluate the different cooling strategies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7050037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 38: Intake Procedures in Colorado Animal Shelters

    • Authors: Anna Fagre, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Rebecca Ruch-Gallie
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to describe intake procedures in Colorado animal shelters, compare infectious disease screening protocols in shelters taking in animals from out-of-state to shelters only accepting animals from Colorado, and analyze perceived risk of diseases in Colorado by responding shelter personnel. A questionnaire was designed and administered to shelter personnel across the state of Colorado via the survey tool SurveyMonkey© ( or a mailed hard copy. Information collected concerned general shelter characteristics and intake procedures performed in various circumstances as reported by responding shelter personnel. Only 12.5% (5/40) of respondents reported providing core vaccines to all animals upon intake at their shelter, with young age (65.0%; 26/40), pregnancy (55.0%; 22/40), and mild existing illness (40.0%; 16/40) being cited as the top reasons for not administering core vaccines. A significantly larger proportion of shelters taking animals in from around the U.S. screened for Dirofilaria immitis than shelters taking in animals only from within the state of Colorado (p = 0.001), though a majority of respondents considered cats and dogs to be at risk of heartworm and endoparasitic infection in the state of Colorado. Based on the results of this questionnaire, relatively few shelters test dogs and cats for infectious diseases and some of those utilize tests for diagnostic purposes rather than routine screening. Additionally, vaccination protocols in several shelters are not consistent with The Association of Shelter Veterinarians Guidelines for Standards of Care in Animal Shelters. This study provides important information on intake procedures in Colorado animal shelters and highlights the importance of educating shelter staff on varying risk of infection based on the history and origin of the animal being taken in.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7050038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 39: Behavioural Profiles of Brown and Sloth Bears
           in Captivity

    • Authors: Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Yiannis Christodoulides, Giulio Curone, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Massimo Faustini, Mariangela Albertini, Richard Preziosi, Silvia Michela Mazzola
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Three brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) individuals and two sloth bear (Melursus ursinus inornatus) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress. Behavioural profiles were created using data obtained through behavioural observations (coding) and keeper questionnaires (rating). The behavioural observations indicated a number of stereotypic behaviours in sloth bears but not in brown bears. The uniformity of zone usage was calculated to investigate if the enclosure size and features were adequate for use, and a social aspect of otherwise solitary animals was also identified. The behavioural profiles generated through coding and rating were compared to determine the reliability between these two methods in Ursids. Profiles were not compared between individuals since this study is not a comparison between different personality types but rather an effort (one of the few ones existing in literature) to select a valid and reproducible methodology capable of assessing personality in bears.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7050039
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 40: A Decade of Progress toward Ending the
           Intensive Confinement of Farm Animals in the United States

    • Authors: Sara Shields, Paul Shapiro, Andrew Rowan
      First page: 40
      Abstract: In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2) that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates. Investigations have become an important tool for demonstrating widespread inhumane practices, building public support and convincing the retail sector to publish meaningful animal welfare policies. While federal legislation protecting animals on the farm stalled, there has been steady state-by-state progress, and this is complemented by major brands such as McDonald’s and Walmart pledging to purchase only from suppliers using cage-free and crate-free animal housing systems. The evolution of societal expectations regarding animals has helped propel the recent wave of progress and may also be driven, in part, by the work of animal protection organizations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7050040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 27: Environmental Enrichment in Kennelled Pit Bull
           Terriers (Canis lupus familiaris)

    • Authors: Jenna Kiddie, Anna Bodymore, Alex Dittrich
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Although social enrichment can be considered beneficial in helping dogs cope with the kennel environment, when taking individual needs into account, it places a large demand on the carers and may not be appropriate in under-resourced kennels. Some kennels are also designed in such a way that there is too much social interaction, in that individuals cannot choose to distance themselves from conspecifics. This study therefore aimed to assess the effects of easily accessible enrichment on the behaviour of kennelled Pit Bull Terrier type dogs rescued from a dog-fighting ring in the Philippines. Thirty-six dogs were allocated to one of three treatment groups following a matched-subject design: (i) cardboard bed provision; (ii) coconut provision; and (iii) visual contact with dogs housed in adjacent cages obstructed with cardboard partitions. Behavioural diversity and the duration and frequency of individual behaviours were analysed using linear mixed-effect models. Yawning frequencies and time spent lying down and sitting decreased during treatment. No particular treatment was more influential in these behavioural changes. In conclusion, enrichment, regardless of type, affected the dogs’ behaviour, with some effects depending on the sex of the dogs. Therefore, it is possible to cheaply and sustainably enrich the lives of dogs living in highly constrained environments, however, further research is required to refine the methods used.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7040027
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 28: Stakeholder Perceptions of Welfare Issues and
           Indicators for Extensively Managed Sheep in Australia

    • Authors: Amanda Doughty, Grahame Coleman, Geoff Hinch, Rebecca Doyle
      First page: 28
      Abstract: An online survey was designed to form the basis of a framework for the welfare assessment of extensively managed sheep in Australia. The survey focused on welfare compromise and useful welfare indicators. A total of 952 people completed the survey in its entirety, representing four stakeholder groups: Public (53.6%), Producer (27.4%), Scientist (9.9%), and Service provider (9.1%). Animal welfare was considered to be important by all participating groups in this survey (average score of 3.78/4). Respondents felt the welfare of grazing sheep was generally adequate but improvement was desired (2.98/5), with female members of the public rating sheep welfare significantly worse than other respondents (p < 0.05). Environmental issues were considered to pose the greatest risk to welfare (3.87/5), followed by heat stress (3.79), lameness (3.57) and husbandry practices (3.37). Key indicators recognised by all respondents were those associated with pain and fear (3.98/5), nutrition (4.23), mortality/management (4.27), food on offer (4.41) and number of illness/injures in a flock (4.33). There were gender and stakeholder differences in the perceived importance of both welfare issues and indicators with women and the public consistently rating issues (all p < 0.01) and indicators (all p < 0.05) to be of greater significance than other respondents. These results highlight the importance of including all stakeholders and an even balance of genders when developing a welfare framework that can address both practical and societal concerns.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7040028
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 29: Does a 4–6 Week Shoeing Interval Promote
           Optimal Foot Balance in the Working Equine'

    • Authors: Kirsty Leśniak, Jane Williams, Kerry Kuznik, Peter Douglas
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Variation in equine hoof conformation between farriery interventions lacks research, despite associations with distal limb injuries. This study aimed to determine linear and angular hoof variations pre- and post-farriery within a four to six week shoeing/trimming interval. Seventeen hoof and distal limb measurements were drawn from lateral and anterior digital photographs from 26 horses pre- and post-farriery. Most lateral view variables changed significantly. Reductions of the dorsal wall, and weight bearing and coronary band lengths resulted in an increased vertical orientation of the hoof. The increased dorsal hoof wall angle, heel angle, and heel height illustrated this further, improving dorsopalmar alignment. Mediolateral measurements of coronary band and weight bearing lengths reduced, whilst medial and lateral wall lengths from the 2D images increased, indicating an increased vertical hoof alignment. Additionally, dorsopalmar balance improved. However, the results demonstrated that a four to six week interval is sufficient for a palmer shift in the centre of pressure, increasing the loading on acutely inclined heels, altering DIP angulation, and increasing the load on susceptible structures (e.g., DDFT). Mediolateral variable asymmetries suit the lateral hoof landing and unrollment pattern of the foot during landing. The results support regular (four to six week) farriery intervals for the optimal prevention of excess loading of palmar limb structures, reducing long-term injury risks through cumulative, excessive loading.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7040029
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 30: Was Jack the Ripper a Slaughterman'
           Human-Animal Violence and the World’s Most Infamous Serial Killer

    • Authors: Andrew Knight, Katherine Watson
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of “Jack the Ripper”. His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife—and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs—led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several aspects of incisional technique highly inconsistent with professional surgical training. Related discrepancies are also apparent in the language used within the only letter from Jack considered to be probably authentic. The techniques he used to dispatch his victims and retrieve their organs were, however, highly consistent with techniques used within the slaughterhouses of the day. East London in the 1880s had a large number of small-scale slaughterhouses, within which conditions for both animals and workers were exceedingly harsh. Modern sociological research has highlighted the clear links between the infliction of violence on animals and that inflicted on humans, as well as increased risks of violent crimes in communities surrounding slaughterhouses. Conditions within modern slaughterhouses are more humane in some ways but more desensitising in others. The implications for modern animal slaughtering, and our social reliance on slaughterhouses, are explored.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7040030
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 31: Green Care: A Review of the Benefits and
           Potential of Animal-Assisted Care Farming Globally and in Rural America

    • Authors: Brianna Artz, Doris Bitler Davis
      First page: 31
      Abstract: The term Green Care includes therapeutic, social or educational interventions involving farming; farm animals; gardening or general contact with nature. Although Green Care can occur in any setting in which there is interaction with plants or animals, this review focuses on therapeutic practices occurring on farms. The efficacy of care farming is discussed and the broad utilization of care farming and farm care communities in Europe is reviewed. Though evidence from care farms in the United States is included in this review, the empirical evidence which could determine its efficacy is lacking. For example, the empirical evidence supporting or refuting the efficacy of therapeutic horseback riding in adults is minimal, while there is little non-equine care farming literature with children. The health care systems in Europe are also much different than those in the United States. In order for insurance companies to cover Green Care techniques in the United States, extensive research is necessary. This paper proposes community-based ways that Green Care methods can be utilized without insurance in the United States. Though Green Care can certainly be provided in urban areas, this paper focuses on ways rural areas can utilize existing farms to benefit the mental and physical health of their communities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7040031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 32: Prepartum Lying Behavior of Holstein Dairy Cows
           Housed on Pasture through Parturition

    • Authors: Christa Rice, Nicole Eberhart, Peter Krawczel
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Utilizing pasture-based systems may increase cow comfort during late gestation and calving as it lacks the constraints of confinement housing. The objective of this study was to quantify lying behavior and activity of Holstein dairy cows housed on pasture during the 6 d before calving. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows were moved to pasture 3 weeks before their projected calving date. Data loggers were attached 14 d prior to projected calving date. Behavior was evaluated 6 d before calving for all cows (n = 16) and 6 h prior to calving for a subset of cows (n = 6) with known calving times. Data loggers recorded at 1-min intervals to determine lying time (h/d and %/h), lying bouts (n/d and n/h), lying bout duration (min/bout), and steps (n/d and n/h). A repeated measures analysis of variance with contrasts was performed to determine if lying behaviors and activity differed between baseline and day or hour of interest. Lying time was greater 6 d prior to calving compared to the day of and before calving. Cows had longer lying bouts 6 d prior to calving compared to day of calving. Cows spent less time lying in the hour before calving compared to 6 h prior to parturition. The lack of change in behavior and activity during the 7 d prior to calving may indicate that pasture provided an adequate environment for cows during the prepartum period but did not impact cow welfare in the hours leading up to calving.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7040032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 13: Addendum: Sommavilla, R. et al. Season,
           Transport Duration and Trailer Compartment Effects on Blood Stress
           Indicators in Pigs: Relationship to Environmental, Behavioral and Other
           Physiological Factors, and Pork Quality Traits. Animals 2017, 7, 8

    • Authors: Roberta Sommavilla, Luigi Faucitano, Harold Gonyou, Yolande Seddon, Renée Bergeron, Tina Widowski, Trever Crowe, Laurie Connor, Marina Scheeren, Sébastien Goumon, Jennifer Brown
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The authors would like to add that “Sébastien Goumon was supported by Grant No MZERO0716 from the Czech Ministry of Agriculture” in the Acknowledgement Section of their paper published in Animals [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 14: Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial
           Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle †

    • Authors: Frank Mitloehner, Jeff Dailey, Julie Morrow, John McGlone
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Fine particulate matter with less than 2.5 microns diameter (PM2.5) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM2.5 in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2813 crossbred steers housed in 14 adjacent pens at a large-scale commercial West Texas feedlot. Treatments were conventional feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1200 (CON) or feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1830 (ALT), the latter feeding time coincided with dusk. A mobile behavior lab was used to quantify behaviors of steers that were associated with generation of PM2.5 (e.g., fighting, mounting of peers, and increased locomotion). PM2.5 samplers measured respirable particles with a mass median diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) every 15 min over a period of 7 d in April and May. Simultaneously, the ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, air pressure, and solar radiation were measured with a weather station. Elevated downwind PM2.5 concentrations were measured at dusk, when cattle that were fed according to the ALT vs. the CON feeding schedule, demonstrated less PM2.5-generating behaviors (p < 0.05). At dusk, steers on ALT vs. CON feeding schedules ate or were waiting to eat (standing in second row behind feeding cattle) at much greater rates (p < 0.05). Upwind PM2.5 concentrations were similar between the treatments. Downwind PM2.5 concentrations averaged over 24 h were lower from ALT compared with CON pens (0.072 vs. 0.115 mg/m3, p < 0.01). However, dry matter intake (DMI) was less (p < 0.05), and average daily gain (ADG) tended to be less (p < 0.1) in cattle that were fed according to the ALT vs. the CON feeding schedules, whereas feed efficiency (aka gain to feed, G:F) was not affected. Although ALT feeding may pose a challenge in feed delivery and labor scheduling, cattle exhibited fewer PM2.5-generating behaviors and reduced generation of PM2.5 when feed delivery times matched the natural desires of cattle to eat in a crepuscular pattern.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 15: The Effect of Lupinus albus on Growth
           Performance, Body Composition and Satiety Hormones of Male Pigs Immunized
           against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor

    • Authors: Karen Moore, Bruce Mullan, Jae Kim, Frank Dunshea
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Two hundred and ninety four pigs were used with the aim to develop a dietary management strategy using Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) and entire male pigs in the late finishing stage. From day (d) 0 to 28, IC males fed the control diet grew faster (p = 0.009) than entire males fed the control diet but there was no difference in growth rate between sexes for pigs fed albus lupins for 14 days pre-slaughter (Albus 14) or pigs fed albus lupins for 28 days pre-slaughter (Albus 28). From d 15 to 28, IC males receiving the Albus 14 diet grew more slowly (p < 0.001) than entire males receiving the Albus 14 diet. From d 15 to 28 (p < 0.001), IC males fed the control diet ate more feed than entire males fed the control diet, although there was no difference between sexes in feed intake of the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diet. Immunocastrates had a lower backfat when fed either Albus 14 or Albus 28 compared to the control diet, although there was no difference between diets for entire males. There was also a trend for pigs on the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diets to have a higher lean deposition (p = 0.055) and a lower fat deposition (p = 0.056) compared to the pigs on the control diet. Pigs fed the Albus 28 diet had a lower plasma ghrelin concentration compared to pigs fed the Albus 14 or the control diet (p = 0.002). Pigs fed the Albus 28 diet had a higher peptide YY concentration than those fed the control or albus 14 diet (p = 0.004). The inclusion of albus lupins at 20% in the diets of IC male pigs for either 14 or 28 days pre-slaughter was successful in reducing feed intake, body fat and backfat to similar levels of entire males. However, the growth rate of the IC male pigs was impacted more than would be desirable.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 16: Dairy Cows Produce Less Milk and Modify Their
           Behaviour during the Transition between Tie-Stall to Free-Stall

    • Authors: Jan Broucek, Michal Uhrincat, Stefan Mihina, Miloslav Soch, Andrea Mrekajova, Anton Hanus
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Transfer of cattle to an unknown barn may result in a reduction in its welfare. Housing and management practices can result in signs of stress that include a long-term suppression of milk efficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of moving cows from the stanchion-stall housing to free-stall housing on their behaviour and production. The Holstein cows were moved into the new facility with free-stall housing from the old barn with stanchion-stall housing. Cows lay down up to ten hours (596.3 ± 282.7 min) after removing. The cows in their second lactation and open cows tended to lie sooner after removing than cows in their first lactation and pregnant cows. The times of total lying and rumination were increasing from the first day to the tenth day after removing (23.76 ± 7.20 kg vs. 30.97 ± 7.26 kg, p < 0.001). Cows produced 23.3% less milk at the first day following the transfer than at the last day prior to moving (p < 0.001). Loss of milk was gradually reduced and maximum production was achieved on the 14th day. The difference was found in milk losses due to the shift between cows on the first and second lactation (p < 0.01). The results of this study suggest that removing from the tie-stall barn with a pipeline milking system into the barn with free-stall housing and a milking parlour caused a decline in the cows’ milk production. However, when the cows are moved to a better environment, they rapidly adapt to the change.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 17: Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An
           Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm
           Animal Welfare

    • Authors: Rory Sullivan, Nicky Amos, Heleen van de Weerd
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test). However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 18: Factors Which Influence Owners When Deciding to
           Use Chemotherapy in Terminally Ill Pets

    • Authors: Jane Williams, Catherine Phillips, Hollie Byrd
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Chemotherapy is a commonly integrated treatment option within human and animal oncology regimes. Limited research has investigated pet owners’ treatment decision-making in animals diagnosed with malignant neoplasia. Dog and cat owners were asked to complete an online questionnaire to elucidate factors which are key to the decision making process. Seventy-eight respondents completed the questionnaire in full. Fifty-eight percent of pet owners would not elect to treat pets with chemotherapy due to the negative impact of the associated side effects. Seventytwo percent of respondents over estimated pet survival time post chemotherapy, indicating a general perception that it would lead to remission or a cure. Vomiting was considered an acceptable side effect but inappetence, weight loss and depression were considered unacceptable. Owners did expect animals’ to be less active, sleep more and play less, but common side effects were not rated as acceptable despite the potential benefits of chemotherapy. Based on the results, veterinary teams involved with oncology consultations should establish if clients have prior experience of cancer treatments and their expectations of survival time. Quality of life assessments should also be implemented during initial oncology consultations and conducted regularly during chemotherapy courses to inform client decision making and to safe guard animal welfare.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030018
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 19: Statistical Evaluations of Variations in Dairy
           Cows’ Milk Yields as a Precursor of Earthquakes

    • Authors: Hiroyuki Yamauchi, Masashi Hayakawa, Tomokazu Asano, Nobuyo Ohtani, Mitsuaki Ohta
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Previous studies have provided quantitative data regarding unusual animal behavior prior to earthquakes; however, few studies include long-term, observational data. Our previous study revealed that the milk yields of dairy cows decreased prior to an extremely large earthquake. To clarify whether the milk yields decrease prior to earthquakes, we examined the relationship between earthquakes of various magnitudes and daily milk yields. The observation period was one year. In the results, cross-correlation analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between earthquake occurrence and milk yields approximately three weeks beforehand. Approximately a week and a half beforehand, a positive correlation was revealed, and the correlation gradually receded to zero as the day of the earthquake approached. Future studies that use data from a longer observation period are needed because this study only considered ten earthquakes and therefore does not have strong statistical power. Additionally, we compared the milk yields with the subionospheric very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) propagation data indicating ionospheric perturbations. The results showed that anomalies of VLF/LF propagation data emerged prior to all of the earthquakes following decreases in milk yields; the milk yields decreased earlier than propagation anomalies. We mention how ultralow frequency magnetic fields are a stimulus that could reduce milk yields. This study suggests that dairy cow milk yields decrease prior to earthquakes, and that they might respond to stimuli emerging earlier than ionospheric perturbations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030019
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 20: Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat
           Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption

    • Authors: Ihab Erian, Clive Phillips
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds’ welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents’ self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public’s knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030020
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 21: Individual Ranging Behaviour Patterns in
           Commercial Free-Range Layers as Observed through RFID Tracking

    • Authors: Hannah Larsen, Greg Cronin, Sabine Gebhardt-Henrich, Carolynn Smith, Paul Hemsworth, Jean-Loup Rault
      First page: 21
      Abstract: In this exploratory study, we tracked free-range laying hens on two commercial flocks with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology with the aim to examine individual hen variation in range use. Three distinct outdoor zones were identified at increasing distances from the shed; the veranda [0–2.4 m], close range [2.4–11.4 m], and far range [>11.4 m]. Hens’ movements between these areas were tracked using radio frequency identification technology. Most of the hens in both flocks (68.6% in Flock A, and 82.2% in Flock B) accessed the range every day during the study. Of the hens that accessed the range, most hens accessed all three zones (73.7% in Flock A, and 84.5% in Flock B). Hens spent half of their time outdoors in the veranda area. Within-individual consistency of range use (daily duration and frequency) varied considerably, and hens which were more consistent in their daily range use spent more time on the range overall (p < 0.001). Understanding variation within and between individuals in ranging behaviour may help elucidate the implications of ranging for laying hens.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030021
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 22: Of Fur, Feather, and Fin: Human’s Use and
           Concern for Non-Human Species

    • Authors: Elizabeth Byrd, Nicole Widmar, Joan Fulton
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The public’s concern for animal welfare is evolving and it is important to consider factors that are related to concern for animals and their use by humans. An online survey of 825 U.S. residents was conducted. Relationships between approval of animal uses and stated concern for animal welfare were examined. More than 90% of respondents reported that using animals for egg production, service or therapy, pets, and milk production was acceptable to them. Respondents who were younger or reported being female less frequently found most uses acceptable than older or male respondents. Half of respondents reported concern for the welfare of bison while 40% or more stated concern for the welfare of elk, beef cattle, and dairy cattle. Respondents who stated they were concerned for the welfare of dairy cattle less frequently reported accepting using animals for meat production, livestock shows, and hunting. Thus, self-reported concern for animal species and acceptance of the use of animals were related in some instances. A better understanding of the factors related to acceptance of animal uses and concern for animal welfare will help animal-related industries and wildlife agencies develop practices that are consistent with public attitudes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030022
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 23: The Need for Formal Evidence Synthesis in Food
           Policy: A Case Study of Willingness-to-Pay

    • Authors: Beth Clark, Lynn Frewer, Luca Panzone, Gavin Stewart
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Meta-analysis is increasingly utilised in the understanding of consumer behaviour, including in relation to farm animal welfare. However, the issue of publication bias has received little attention. As willingness-to-pay (WTP) is widely used in policy, it is important to explore publication bias. This research aimed to evaluate publication bias in WTP, specifically public WTP for farm animal welfare. A systematic review of four databases yielded 54 studies for random effects meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed by the Egger test, rank test, contour-enhanced funnel plots, and the Vevea and Hedges weight-function model. Results consistently indicated the presence of publication bias, highlighting an overestimation of WTP for farm animal welfare. Stakeholders should be wary of WTP estimates that have not been critically evaluated for publication bias.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030023
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 24: Conscientious Objection to Animal
           Experimentation in Italian Universities

    • Authors: Ilaria Baldelli, Alma Massaro, Susanna Penco, Anna Bassi, Sara Patuzzo, Rosagemma Ciliberti
      First page: 24
      Abstract: In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as “animal CO”. However, little monitoring on the faculties’ compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies. The results of this investigation revealed that less than half of Italian academic faculties comply with their duty to inform on animal CO. Non-compliance may substantially affect the right of students to make ethical choices in the field of animal ethics and undermines the fundamental right to express their own freedom of thought. The Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, ethics committees and animal welfare bodies should cooperate to make faculties respect this law. Further research is needed to better understand the reasons for the current trend, as well as to promote the enforcement of Law 413/1993 with particular regard to information on animal CO.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030024
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 25: Land Use for Edible Protein of Animal
           Origin—A Review

    • Authors: Gerhard Flachowsky, Ulrich Meyer, Karl-Heinz Südekum
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F’s). Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions. Therefore, this study´s objective was to calculate some examples of the land use (arable land and grassland) for production of edible animal protein taking into consideration important animal species/categories, levels of plant and animal yields, the latter estimated with and without co-products from agriculture, and the food/biofuel industry in animal feeding. There are large differences between animal species/categories and their potential to produce edible protein depending on many influencing variables. The highest amounts per kilogram body weight are produced by growing broiler chicken followed by laying hens and dairy cows; the lowest yields in edible protein and the highest land need were observed for beef cattle. This review clearly indicates that the production of food of animal origin is a very complex process, and selective considerations, i.e., focusing on single factors, do not provide an assessment that reflects the complexity of the subject.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030025
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 26: A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the
           Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future

    • Authors: Danielle Maia de Souza, Ruaraidh Petre, Fawn Jackson, Monica Hadarits, Sarah Pogue, Cameron Carlyle, Edward Bork, Tim McAllister
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7030026
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 6: The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the
           Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast
           and East Asia

    • Authors: Michelle Sinclair, Sarah Zito, Clive Phillips
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers) were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a ‘western’ international organization. This study demonstrates the differences in attitudes of the major livestock stakeholders towards their animals’ welfare during transport and slaughter, which advocacy organisations can use to tailor strategies more effectively to improve animal welfare. The results suggest that animal welfare initiatives are more likely to engage their target audience when tailored to specific stakeholder groups.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7020006
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 7: Current Perspectives on Therapy Dog Welfare in
           Animal-Assisted Interventions

    • Authors: Lisa Glenk
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Research into the effects of animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) has primarily addressed human health outcomes. In contrast, only few publications deal with the therapy dog experience of AAIs. This paper provides an overview on potential welfare threats that therapy dogs may encounter and presents the results of a review of available studies on welfare indicators for therapy dogs during AAIs. Previous investigations used physiological and behavioral welfare indicators and dog handler surveys to identify work-related stress. Research outcomes are discussed in the light of strengths and weaknesses of the methods used. Study results suggest that frequency and duration of AAI sessions, novelty of the environment, controllability, age and familiarity of recipients modulate animal welfare indicators. However, this review reveals that currently, clear conclusions on how the well-being of dogs is influenced by the performance in AAIs are lacking due to the heterogeneity of programs, recipient and session characteristics, small dog sample sizes and methodological limitations. This paper further aimed to identify unresolved difficulties in previous research to pave the way for future investigations supporting the applicability of scientific findings in practice.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7020007
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 8: Season, Transport Duration and Trailer
           Compartment Effects on Blood Stress Indicators in Pigs: Relationship to
           Environmental, Behavioral and Other Physiological Factors, and Pork
           Quality Traits

    • Authors: Roberta Sommavilla, Luigi Faucitano, Harold Gonyou, Yolande Seddon, Renée Bergeron, Tina Widowski, Trever Crowe, Laurie Connor, Marina Scheeren, Sébastien Goumon, Jennifer Brown
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the season, travel duration and trailer compartment location on blood creatine-kinase (CK), lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT), behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Blood CK was greater in pigs transported in summer (p = 0.02), after 18 h transportation (p < 0.001) and in pigs located in C4, C5 and C10 (p = 0.002). In winter, the concentration of blood lactate was higher (p = 0.04) in pigs transported for 6 h in C5. Pigs located in C10 showed higher (p = 0.01) concentration of cortisol than those transported for 18h in C4 in summer. The highest correlations were between blood cortisol and GTT (r = 0.53; p < 0.001), and between blood CK and GTT (r = 0.41; p < 0.001), truck temperature (r = 0.42; p < 0.001), and pHu in the longissimus muscle (r = 0.41; p < 0.001). In conclusion, although increased blood cortisol and CK levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to moderate correlations with environmental and other animal welfare indicators suggest that blood stress parameters can only be used as a complementary measurement in the assessment of the pigs’ response to transport stress.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7020008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 9: Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo
           (Bubalus bubalis)

    • Authors: Sara Albarella, Francesca Ciotola, Emanuele D’Anza, Angelo Coletta, Luigi Zicarelli, Vincenzo Peretti
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital malformations most frequently reported in literature or signaled by breeders to the Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production of the University Federico II (Naples, Italy) in river buffalo are: musculoskeletal defects (transverse hemimelia, arthrogryposis, umbilical hernia) and disorders of sexual development. In conclusion this review put in evidence that river buffalo have a great variety of malformations due to genetic causes, and TH and omphalocele are the most frequent and that several cases are still not reported, leading to an underestimation of the real weight of genetic diseases in this species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7020009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 10: Relationship between Deck Level, Body Surface
           Temperature and Carcass Damages in Italian Heavy Pigs after Short Journeys
           at Different Unloading Environmental Conditions

    • Authors: Agnese Arduini, Veronica Redaelli, Fabio Luzi, Stefania Dall’Olio, Vincenzo Pace, Leonardo Nanni Costa
      First page: 10
      Abstract: In order to evaluate the relationships between deck level, body surface temperature and carcass damages after a short journey (30 min), 10 deliveries of Italian heavy pigs, including a total of 1400 animals from one farm, were examined. Within 5 min after the arrival at the abattoir, the vehicles were unloaded. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were recorded and a Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was calculated. After unloading, maximum temperatures of dorsal and ocular regions were measured by a thermal camera on groups of pigs from each of the unloaded decks. After dehairing, quarters and whole carcasses were evaluated subjectively by a trained operator for skin damage using a four-point scale. On the basis of THI at unloading, deliveries were grouped into three classes. Data of body surface temperature and skin damage score were analysed in a model including THI class, deck level and their interaction. Regardless of pig location in the truck, the maximum temperature of the dorsal and ocular regions increased with increasing THI class. Within each THI class, the highest and lowest body surface temperatures were found in pigs located on the middle and upper decks, respectively. Only THI class was found to affect the skin damage score (p < 0.05), which increased on quarters and whole carcasses with increasing THI class. The results of this study on short-distance transport of Italian heavy pigs highlighted the need to control and ameliorate the environmental conditions in the trucks, even at relatively low temperature and THI, in order to improve welfare and reduce loss of carcass value.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7020010
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 11: Religion and Animal Welfare—An Islamic

    • Authors: Sira Rahman
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Islam is a comprehensive religion guiding the lives of its followers through sets of rules governing the personal, social, and public aspects through the verses of the Holy Qur’an and Hadiths, the compilation of the traditions of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), the two main documents that serve as guidelines. Islam is explicit with regard to using animals for human purposes and there is a rich tradition of the Prophet Mohammad’s (pbuh) concern for animals to be found in the Hadith and Sunna. Islam has also laid down rules for humane slaughter. In many countries animals are killed without pre-stunning. Regardless of pre-stunning, such meat should not be treated as halāl or at least be considered as Makrooh (detestable or abominable), because the animals have been beaten or treated without compassion during production, handling, transport, and slaughter. Many Muslims and Islamic religious leaders are not aware of the cruelty that is routinely inflicted on animals during transport, pre-slaughter, and slaughter in many Islamic countries. There is an urgent need to sensitize all Muslims to the teachings of animal welfare in the Qur’an and the Hadiths. A campaign is needed to apprise religious leaders of the current cruelty that occurs during transport and slaughter.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7020011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 12: Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices,
           and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals:
           Implications for Welfare Research

    • Authors: Rebecca Nordquist, Franz van der Staay, Frank van Eerdenburg, Francisca Velkers, Lisa Fijn, Saskia Arndt
      First page: 12
      Abstract: A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7020012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 79: Association between Lameness and Indicators of
           Dairy Cow Welfare Based on Locomotion Scoring, Body and Hock Condition,
           Leg Hygiene and Lying Behavior

    • Authors: Mohammed B. Sadiq, Siti Ramanoon, Wan Shaik Mossadeq, Rozaihan Mansor, Sharifah Syed-Hussain
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Dairy cow welfare is an important consideration for optimal production in the dairy industry. Lameness affects the welfare of dairy herds by limiting productivity. Whilst the application of LS systems helps in identifying lame cows, the technique meets with certain constraints, ranging from the detection of mild gait changes to on-farm practical applications. Recent studies have shown that certain animal-based measures considered in welfare assessment, such as body condition, hock condition and leg hygiene, are associated with lameness in dairy cows. Furthermore, behavioural changes inherent in lame cows, especially the comfort in resting and lying down, have been shown to be vital indicators of cow welfare. Highlighting the relationship between lameness and these welfare indicators could assist in better understanding their role, either as risk factors or as consequences of lameness. Nevertheless, since the conditions predisposing a cow to lameness are multifaceted, it is vital to cite the factors that could influence the on-farm practical application of such welfare indicators in lameness studies. This review begins with the welfare consequences of lameness by comparing normal and abnormal gait as well as the use of LS system in detecting lame cows. Animal-based measures related to cow welfare and links with changes in locomotion as employed in lameness research are discussed. Finally, alterations in lying behaviour are also presented as indicators of lameness with the corresponding welfare implication in lame cows.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7110079
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 80: Association between the Prevalence of
           Indigestible Foreign Objects in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Slaughtered
           Cattle and Body Condition Score

    • Authors: Vikhaya Nongcula, Leocadia Zhou, Kenneth Nhundu, Ishmael Jaja
      First page: 80
      Abstract: It is estimated that South Africa’s population will be above 65 million in 2050. Thus, food production needs to triple to alleviate poverty and food insecurity. However, infectious and non-infectious diseases affect livestock productivity, thereby hampering food supply. Non-infectious disease/conditions caused by the consumption of solid waste material are rarely reported. Hence, this study investigates the occurrence and type of indigestible foreign objects (IFOs) in the stomach of slaughtered cattle in two high-throughput abattoirs (n = 4424) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The study revealed that metallic and non-metallic indigestible objects had an overall prevalence of 63% in cattle slaughtered in Queenstown abattoir (QTA, (n = 1906)) and 64.8% at the East London abattoir (ELA, (n = 2518)). Most of the IFOs were found in the rumen (64.2% and 70.8%) and reticulum (28.5% and 20.6%) at QTA and ELA respectively. The leading IFOs in the stomach of cattle at QTA were plastics (27.7%), poly bezoars (10.7%) and ropes (10.7%), while poly bezoars (19.8%), ropes (17.6%) and stones (10.7%) were the main IFOs seen in cattle at ELA. The study showed a statistical significance (p < 0.05) between body condition score and the prevalence of indigestible objects in cattle. The study concluded that litter and waste containing IFOs could pose a threat to livestock health and productivity. The practice of good animal husbandry and efficient solid waste management will mitigate the problem of animals consuming IFOs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7110080
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 81: An Examination of an Iconic Trap-Neuter-Return
           Program: The Newburyport, Massachusetts Case Study

    • Authors: Daniel Spehar, Peter Wolf
      First page: 81
      Abstract: The use of trap-neuter-return (TNR) as a humane alternative to the lethal management of free-roaming cats has been on the rise for several decades in the United States; however a relative paucity of data from TNR programs exists. An iconic community-wide TNR effort; initiated in 1992 and renowned for having eliminated hundreds of free-roaming cats from the Newburyport; Massachusetts waterfront; is cited repeatedly; yet few details appear in the literature. Although the presence of feline population data was quite limited; a detailed narrative emerged from an examination of contemporaneous reports; extant TNR program documents; and stakeholder testimony. Available evidence indicates that an estimated 300 free-roaming cats were essentially unmanaged prior to the commencement of the TNR program; a quick reduction of up to one-third of the cats on the waterfront was attributed to the adoption of sociable cats and kittens; the elimination of the remaining population; over a 17-year period; was ascribed to attrition. These findings illuminate the potential effectiveness of TNR as a management practice; as well as call attention to the need for broad adoption of systematic data collection and assessment protocols.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7110081
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 82: Addressing the Challenges of Conducting
           Observational Studies in Sheep Abattoirs

    • Authors: Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul McGreevy
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The competing needs of maintaining productivity within abattoirs, and maintaining high standards of animal welfare, provide fertile grounds for applied research in animal behavior. However, there are challenges involved in capturing useful behavioral data from the supply chain (from paddock to processing plant). The challenges identified in this report are based on a review of the scientific literature as well as field study observations. This article describes those challenges as they relate to collecting behavioral data on livestock-herding dogs, humans and livestock as they interact in abattoirs, and provides insights and recommendations for others embarking on animal studies in confined spaces, as well as in commercial settings. Direct observation of livestock behavior permits animal-welfare assessments and evaluations of the efficacy of operations in unfamiliar and high-pressure contexts, such as abattoirs. This brief report summarizes the factors that must be considered when undertaking in situ studies in abattoirs. There is merit in passive behavioral data-collection using video-recording equipment. However, the potential for hardware issues and sampling difficulties must be anticipated and addressed. Future research directions and recommendations to avoid such issues are discussed. This information will be highly beneficial to future abattoir studies focusing on efficiency and animal welfare at commercial abattoirs. Furthermore, it may also be relevant to any analyses involving large cohorts of animals in a confined environment.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7110082
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 83: Perceptions of Hunting and Hunters by U.S.

    • Authors: Elizabeth Byrd, John Lee, Nicole Widmar
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Public acceptance of hunting and hunting practices is an important human dimension of wildlife management in the United States. Researchers surveyed 825 U.S. residents in an online questionnaire about their views of hunting, hunters, and hunting practices. Eighty-seven percent of respondents from the national survey agreed that it was acceptable to hunt for food whereas 37% agreed that it was acceptable to hunt for a trophy. Over one-quarter of respondents did not know enough about hunting over bait, trapping, and captive hunts to form an opinion about whether the practice reduced animal welfare. Chi-square tests were used to explore relationships between perceptions of hunters and hunting practices and demographics. Those who knew hunters, participated in hunting-related activities, visited fairs or livestock operations, or were males who had more favorable opinions on hunting. A logistic regression model showed that not knowing a hunter was a statistically significant negative predictor of finding it acceptable to hunt; owning a pet was statistically significant and negative for approving of hunting for a trophy.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7110083
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 84: Calves Use an Automated Brush and a Hanging
           Rope When Pair-Housed

    • Authors: Gosia Zobel, Heather Neave, Harold Henderson, James Webster
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Calf housing often only meets the basic needs of calves, but there is a growing interest in providing enrichments. This study described the behaviour of calves when they were given the opportunity to interact with two commonly available enrichment items. Female and male calves (approximately 11 days old) were pair-housed in 8 identical pens fitted with an automated brush and a hanging rope. Frequency and duration of behaviours were recorded on 3 separate days (from 12:00 until 08:00 the following day. Calves spent equal time using the brush and rope (27.1 min/day), but there was less variation in the use of the brush as opposed to the rope (coefficient of variation, CV: 23 vs. 78%, respectively). Calves had more frequent (94 bouts, CV: 24%) and shorter (17.8 s/bout, CV: 24%) brush use bouts compared to fewer (38 bouts, CV: 43%) and longer (38.3 s/bout, CV: 53%) rope use bouts. There was a diurnal pattern of use for both items. Frequency of play was similar to rope use, but total time playing was 8% of rope and brush use. Variability among calves suggested that individual preference existed; however, the social dynamics of the pair-housed environment were not measured and therefore could have influenced brush and rope use. Multiple enrichment items should be considered when designing improvements to calf housing.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7110084
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 85: Influence of Professional Affiliation on
           Expert’s View on Welfare Measures

    • Authors: Nina Dam Otten, Tine Rousing, Björn Forkman
      First page: 85
      Abstract: The present study seeks to investigate the influence of expert affiliation in the weighing procedures within animal welfare assessments. Experts are often gathered with different backgrounds with differing approaches to animal welfare posing a potential pitfall if affiliation groups are not balanced in numbers of experts. At two time points (2012 and 2016), dairy cattle and swine experts from four different stakeholder groups, namely researchers (RES), production advisors (CONS), practicing veterinarians (VET) and animal welfare control officers (AWC) were asked to weigh eight different welfare criteria: Hunger, Thirst, Resting comfort, Ease of movement, Injuries, Disease, Human-animal bond and Emotional state. A total of 54 dairy cattle experts (RES = 15%, CONS = 22%, VET = 35%, AWC = 28%) and 34 swine experts (RES = 24%, CONS = 35%, AWC = 41%) participated. Between—and within—group differences in the prioritization of criteria were assessed. AWC cattle experts differed consistently from the other cattle expert groups but only significantly for the criteria Hunger (p = 0.04), and tendencies towards significance within the criteria Thirst (p = 0.06). No significant differences were found between expert groups among swine experts. Inter-expert differences were more pronounced for both species. The results highlight the challenges of using expert weightings in aggregated welfare assessment models, as the choice of expert affiliation may play a confounding role in the final aggregation due to different prioritization of criteria.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7110085
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 11 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 73: Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    • Authors: Lori Kogan, Cheryl Kolus, Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the cued behaviors: high-five and targeting. Temperament also correlated with learning, as bolder cats at post assessment demonstrated greater gains in performance scores than shyer ones. Over the course of this study, 79% of cats mastered the ability to touch a target, 27% mastered sitting, 60% mastered spinning, and 31% mastered high-fiving. Aside from the ability to influence the cats’ well-being, clicker training also has the potential to make cats more desirable to adopters.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7100073
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 74: VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data
           Collection System for Veterinary Science

    • Authors: Paul McGreevy, Peter Thomson, Navneet Dhand, David Raubenheimer, Sophie Masters, Caroline Mansfield, Timothy Baldwin, Ricardo Soares Magalhaes, Jacquie Rand, Peter Hill, Anne Peaston, James Gilkerson, Martin Combs, Shane Raidal, Peter Irwin, Peter Irons, Richard Squires, David Brodbelt, Jeremy Hammond
      First page: 74
      Abstract: VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7100074
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 75: Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes
           about Farm Animal Production Systems

    • Authors: Maria Yunes, Marina von Keyserlingk, Maria Hötzel
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle), 82% (poultry), 81% (laying hens), and 60% (swine). A large majority (79%) stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The preference for free-range or cage-free systems was justified based on the following reasons: naturalness, animals’ freedom to move, and ethics. A minority of participants indicated a preference for more restrictive systems, citing reasons associated with food security and food safety, increased productivity and hygiene. Our results suggest that the majority of our participants, preferred farm animal production systems that provide greater freedom of movement, which aligned with their perception that these systems are better for the animal. Our results provide some evidence that the current farm animal housing practices that are associated with restriction of movement, which are gaining traction in Brazil, may not align with societal expectations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7100075
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 76: Objective Measures for the Assessment of
           Post-Operative Pain in Bos indicus Bull Calves Following Castration

    • Authors: Gabrielle C Musk, Stine Jacobsen, Timothy H. Hyndman, Heidi S. Lehmann, S Jonathon Tuke, Teresa Collins, Karina B. Gleerup, Craig B. Johnson, Michael Laurence
      First page: 76
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess pain in Bos indicus bull calves following surgical castration. Forty-two animals were randomised to four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6); castration with pre-operative lidocaine (CL, n = 12); castration with pre-operative meloxicam (CM, n = 12); and, castration alone (C, n = 12). Bodyweight was measured regularly and pedometers provided data on activity and rest from day −7 (7 days prior to surgery) to 13. Blood was collected for the measurement of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and iron on days 0, 3 and 6. Bodyweight and pedometry data were analysed with a mixed effect model. The blood results were analysed with repeated measure one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There was no treatment effect on bodyweight or activity. The duration of rest was greatest in the CM group and lowest in the C group. There was a significant increase in the concentrations of SAA, haptoglobin, and fibrinogen in all of the groups from day 0 to 3. Iron concentrations were not different at the time points it was measured. The results of this study suggest that animals rest for longer periods after the pre-operative administration of meloxicam. The other objective assessments measured in this study were not able to consistently differentiate between treatment groups.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7100076
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 77: Supporting the Development and Adoption of
           Automatic Lameness Detection Systems in Dairy Cattle: Effect of System
           Cost and Performance on Potential Market Shares

    • Authors: Tim Van De Gucht, Stephanie Van Weyenberg, Annelies Van Nuffel, Ludwig Lauwers, Jürgen Vangeyte, Wouter Saeys
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Most automatic lameness detection system prototypes have not yet been commercialized, and are hence not yet adopted in practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to simulate the effect of detection performance (percentage missed lame cows and percentage false alarms) and system cost on the potential market share of three automatic lameness detection systems relative to visual detection: a system attached to the cow, a walkover system, and a camera system. Simulations were done using a utility model derived from survey responses obtained from dairy farmers in Flanders, Belgium. Overall, systems attached to the cow had the largest market potential, but were still not competitive with visual detection. Increasing the detection performance or lowering the system cost led to higher market shares for automatic systems at the expense of visual detection. The willingness to pay for extra performance was €2.57 per % less missed lame cows, €1.65 per % less false alerts, and €12.7 for lame leg indication, respectively. The presented results could be exploited by system designers to determine the effect of adjustments to the technology on a system’s potential adoption rate.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7100077
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 78: Environmental Impact and Relative Invasiveness
           of Free-Roaming Domestic Carnivores—a North American Survey of
           Governmental Agencies

    • Authors: Ana Lepe, Valerie Kaplan, Alirio Arreaza, Robert Szpanderfer, David Bristol, M. Sinclair
      First page: 78
      Abstract: A survey of the United States and Canadian governmental agencies investigated the environmental impact and relative invasiveness of free-roaming domestic non-native carnivores—dogs, cats, and ferrets. Agencies represented wildlife, fish, game, natural or environmental resources, parks and recreation, veterinary and human health, animal control, and agriculture. Respondents were asked to document the number and frequency of sightings of unconfined animals, evidence for environmental harm, and the resulting “degree of concern” in their respective jurisdictions. Results confirmed the existence of feral (breeding) cats and dogs, documenting high levels of concern regarding the impact of these animals on both continental and surrounding insular habitats. Except for occasional strays, no free-roaming or feral ferrets were reported; nor were there reports of ferrets impacting native wildlife, including ground-nesting birds, or sensitive species. This is the first study to report the relative impact of free-roaming domestic carnivores. Dogs and cats meet the current definition of “invasive” species, whereas ferrets do not. Differences in how each species impacts the North American environment highlights the complex interaction between non-native species and their environment. Public attitudes and perceptions regarding these species may be a factor in their control and agency management priorities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7100078
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 10 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 3: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Animals in 2016

    • Authors: Animals Editorial Office
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The editors of Animals would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...]
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7010003
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 4: Whip Rule Breaches in a Major Australian Racing
           Jurisdiction: Welfare and Regulatory Implications

    • Authors: Jennifer Hood, Carolyn McDonald, Bethany Wilson, Phil McManus, Paul McGreevy
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Whip use in horseracing is increasingly being questioned on ethical, animal welfare, social sustainability, and legal grounds. Despite this, there is weak evidence for whip use and its regulation by Stewards in Australia. To help address this, we characterised whip rule breaches recorded by Stewards using Stewards Reports and Race Diaries from 2013 and 2016 in New SouthWales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). There were more recorded breaches at Metropolitan (M) than Country (C) or Provincial (P) locations, and by riders of horses that finished first, second, or third than by riders of horses that finished in other positions. The most commonly recorded breaches were forehand whip use on more than five occasions before the 100-metre (m) mark (44%), and whip use that raises the jockey’s arm above shoulder height (24%). It is recommended that racing compliance data be analysed annually to inform the evidence-base for policy, education, and regulatory change, and ensure the welfare of racehorses and racing integrity.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7010004
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
  • Animals, Vol. 7, Pages 5: Effects of the Truck Suspension System on Animal
           Welfare, Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Pigs

    • Authors: Filipe Dalla Costa, Letícia Lopes, Osmar Dalla Costa
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of two types of commercial suspension (leaf-spring (LS) vs. air suspension (AS)) installed on two similar double-decked trucks on blood cortisol and lactate concentration, lairage behavior, carcass skin lesions and pork quality traits of 120 crossbred pigs. The suspension type neither influenced pig behaviour in lairage nor blood cortisol and lactate concentrations (p > 0.10). However, when compared with the AS suspension system, the use of LS increased the number of skin lesions in the back and thigh (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively) and produced thigh with lower pHu (p < 0.001) and yellower colour (higher b* value; p = 0.03), and paler back muscles (subjective colour; p < 0.05), with a tendency to lower pH (p = 0.06). Therefore, the use air suspension system can improve carcass and meat quality traits of pigs transported to slaughter.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2017-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani7010005
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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