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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 260 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Veterinaria Eurasia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Erciyes University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Gaceta de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
GISAP : Biology, Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
In Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kocatepe Veteriner Dergisi     Open Access  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Acadêmica : Ciência Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Cientifica : Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, UCV     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Medical Mycology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.973
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1369-3786 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2709
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [413 journals]
  • A decade of ISHAM Working Groups

    • First page: 1
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myy018
       
  • New insights in dermatophyte research

    • Authors: Gräser Y; Monod M, Bouchara J, et al.
      First page: 2
      Abstract: AbstractDermatophyte research has renewed interest because of changing human floras with changing socioeconomic conditions, and because of severe chronic infections in patients with congenital immune disorders. Main taxonomic traits at the generic level have changed considerably, and now fine-tuning at the species level with state-of-the-art technology has become urgent. Research on virulence factors focuses on secreted proteases now has support in genome data. It is speculated that most protease families are used for degrading hard keratin during nitrogen recycling in the environment, while others, such as Sub6 may have emerged as a result of ancestral gene duplication, and are likely to have specific roles during infection. Virulence may differ between mating partners of the same species and concepts of zoo- and anthropophily may require revision in some recently redefined species. Many of these questions benefit from international cooperation and exchange of materials. The aim of the ISHAM Working Group Dermatophytes aims to stimulate and coordinate international networking on these fungi.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx141
       
  • Malassezia ecology, pathophysiology, and treatment

    • Authors: Theelen B; Cafarchia C, Gaitanis G, et al.
      First page: 10
      Abstract: AbstractMalassezia are lipid dependent basidiomycetous yeasts that inhabit the skin and mucosa of humans and other warm-blooded animals, and are a major component of the skin microbiome. They occur as skin commensals, but are also associated with various skin disorders and bloodstream infections. The genus currently comprises 17 species and has recently been assigned its own class, Malasseziomycetes. Importantly, multiple Malassezia species and/or genotypes may cause unique or similar pathologies and vary in their antifungal susceptibility. In addition to culture-based approaches, culture-independent methods have added to our understanding of Malassezia presence and abundance and their relationship to pathogenicity. Moreover, these novel approaches have suggested a much wider-spread presence, including other human body parts and even other ecosystems, but their role in these arenas requires further clarification. With recent successful transformation and genetic engineering of Malassezia, the role of specific genes in pathogenesis can now be studied. We suggest that characterizing the metabolic impact of Malassezia communities rather than species identification is key in elucidation of pathophysiological associations. Finally, the increasing availability of genome sequences may provide key information aiding faster diagnostics, and understanding of the biochemical mechanisms for Malassezia skin adaptation and the design of future drugs.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx134
       
  • Candida vaginitis: virulence, host response and vaccine prospects

    • Authors: De Bernardis F; Graziani S, Tirelli F, et al.
      First page: 26
      Abstract: AbstractVulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection affecting a large proportion of women with some of them affected by recurrent often intractable forms of the disease. Thus, there is an increasing interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in animal models of vaginal candidiasis, the components of the host-fungus interaction at the mucosal level.The evidence of an immune response in the vaginal compartment was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Aspartyl-proteinase (Sap2), which is an important immunodominant antigens and virulence factors of C.albicans acting in mucosal infections, was assembled with virosomes and a vaccine PEV7 was obtained. The results obtained in the mouse model and in the clinical trial conducted by Pevion on women have evidenced that the vaccine PEV7, intravaginally administered, has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at mucosal level.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx139
       
  • Black yeasts in the omics era: Achievements and challenges

    • Authors: Moreno L; Vicente V, de Hoog S.
      First page: 32
      Abstract: AbstractBlack yeasts (BY) comprise a group of polyextremotolerant fungi, mainly belonging to the order Chaetothyriales, which are capable of colonizing a wide range of extreme environments. The tolerance to hostile habitats can be explained by their intrinsic ability to survive under acidic, alkaline, and toxic conditions, high temperature, low nutrient availability, and osmotic and mechanical stress. Occasionally, some species can cause human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic subcutaneous infection, as well as disseminated or cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Three years after the release of the first black yeast genome, the number of projects for sequencing these organisms has significantly increased. Over 37 genomes of important opportunistic and saprobic black yeasts and relatives are now available in different databases. The whole-genome sequencing, as well as the analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs and the determination of protein expression profiles generated an unprecedented amount of data, requiring the development of a curated repository to provide easy accesses to this information. In the present article, we review various aspects of the impact of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics on black yeast studies. We discuss recent key findings achieved by the use of these technologies and further directions for medical mycology in this area. An important vehicle is the Working Groups on Black Yeasts and Chromoblastomycosis, under the umbrella of ISHAM, which unite the clinicians and a highly diverse population of fundamental scientists to exchange data for joint publications.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx129
       
  • Developing collaborative works for faster progress on fungal respiratory
           infections in cystic fibrosis

    • Authors: Schwarz C; Vandeputte P, Rougeron A, et al.
      First page: 42
      Abstract: AbstractCystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease. Therefore, the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) has launched a working group on Fungal respiratory infections in Cystic Fibrosis (Fri-CF) in October 2006, which was subsequently approved by the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM). Meetings of this working group, comprising both clinicians and mycologists involved in the follow-up of CF patients, as well as basic scientists interested in the fungal species involved, provided the opportunity to initiate collaborative works aimed to improve our knowledge on these infections to assist clinicians in patient management. The current review highlights the outcomes of some of these collaborative works in clinical surveillance, pathogenesis and treatment, giving special emphasis to standardization of culture procedures, improvement of species identification methods including the development of nonculture-based diagnostic methods, microbiome studies and identification of new biological markers, and the description of genotyping studies aiming to differentiate transient carriage and chronic colonization of the airways. The review also reports on the breakthrough in sequencing the genomes of the main Scedosporium species as basis for a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of these fungi, and discusses treatment options of infections caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms, such as Scedosporium and Lomentospora species and members of the Rasamsonia argillacea species complex.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx106
       
  • Diagnosis of aspergillosis by PCR: Clinical considerations and technical
           tips

    • Authors: Barnes R; White P, Morton C, et al.
      First page: 60
      Abstract: AbstractStandardization of Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols has progressed, and analytical validity of blood-based assays has been formally established. It remains necessary to consider how the tests can be used in practice to maximize clinical utility. To determine the optimal diagnostic strategies and influence on patient management, several factors require consideration, including the patient population, incidence of invasive aspergillosis (and other fungal disease), and the local antifungal prescribing policy. Technical issues such as specimen type, ease of sampling, frequency of testing, access to testing centers, and time to reporting will also influence the use of PCR in clinical practice. Interpretation of all diagnostic tests is dependent on the clinical context and molecular assays are no exception, but with the proposal to incorporate Aspergillus PCR into the second revision of the consensus guidelines for defining invasive fungal disease the acceptance and understanding of molecular tests should improve.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx091
       
  • Aspergillus terreus: Novel lessons learned on amphotericin B resistance

    • Authors: Posch W; Blatzer M, Wilflingseder D, et al.
      First page: 73
      Abstract: AbstractThe polyene antifungal amphotericin B (AmB) exerts a powerful and broad activity against a vast array of fungi and in general displays a remarkably low rate of antimicrobial resistance. Aspergillus terreus holds an exceptional position among the Aspergilli due to its intrinsic AmB resistance, in vivo and in vitro. Until now, the underlying mechanisms of polyene resistance were not well understood. This review will highlight the molecular basis of A. terreus and AmB resistance recently gained and will display novel data on the mode of action of AmB. A main focus is set on fundamental stress response pathways covering the heat shock proteins (Hsp) 90/Hsp70 axis, as well as reactive oxygen species detoxifying enzymes in response to AmB. The effect on main cellular functions such as fungal respiration will be addressed in detail and resistance mechanisms will be highlighted. Based on these novel findings we will discuss new molecular targets for alternative options in the treatment of invasive infections due to A. terreus.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx119
       
  • Triazole resistance surveillance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    • Authors: Resendiz Sharpe A; Lagrou K, Meis J, et al.
      First page: 83
      Abstract: AbstractTriazole resistance is an increasing concern in the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Resistance can develop through exposure to azole compounds during azole therapy or in the environment. Resistance mutations are commonly found in the Cyp51A-gene, although other known and unknown resistance mechanisms may be present. Surveillance studies show triazole resistance in six continents, although the presence of resistance remains unknown in many countries. In most countries, resistance mutations associated with the environment dominate, but it remains unclear if these resistance traits predominately migrate or arise locally. Patients with triazole-resistant aspergillus disease may fail to antifungal therapy, but only a limited number of cohort studies have been performed that show conflicting results. Treatment failure might be due to diagnostic delay or due to the limited number of alternative treatment options. The ISHAM/ECMM Aspergillus Resistance Surveillance working group was set up to facilitate surveillance studies and stimulate international collaborations. Important aims are to determine the resistance epidemiology in countries where this information is currently lacking, to gain more insight in the clinical implications of triazole resistance through a registry and to unify nomenclature through consensus definitions.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx144
       
  • Challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis

    • Authors: Skiada A; Lass-Floerl C, Klimko N, et al.
      First page: 93
      Abstract: AbstractThe diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis are challenging. The incidence of the disease seems to be increasing. Hematological malignancies are the most common underlying disease in countries with high income and uncontrolled diabetes in developing countries. Clinical approach to diagnosis lacks sensitivity and specificity. Radiologically, multiple (≥10) nodules and pleural effusion are reportedly associated with pulmonary mucormycosis. Another finding on computerized tomography (CT) scan, which seems to indicate the presence of mucormycosis, is the reverse halo sign. Microscopy (direct and on histopathology) and culture are the cornerstones of diagnosis. Molecular assays can be used either for detection or identification of mucormycetes, and they can be recommended as valuable add-on tools that complement conventional diagnostic procedures. Successful management of mucormycosis is based on a multimodal approach, including reversal or discontinuation of underlying predisposing factors, early administration of active antifungal agents at optimal doses, complete removal of all infected tissues, and use of various adjunctive therapies. Our armamentarium of antifungals is slightly enriched by the addition of two newer azoles (posaconazole and isavuconazole) to liposomal amphotericin B, which remains the drug of choice for the initial antifungal treatment, according to the recently published guidelines by ECIL-6, as well as those published by ECMM/ESCMID. Despite the efforts for better understanding of the pathogenesis, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of mucormycosis, the mortality rate of the disease remains high.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx101
       
  • Scedosporium and Lomentospora: an updated overview of underrated
           opportunists

    • Authors: Ramirez-Garcia A; Pellon A, Rementeria A, et al.
      First page: 102
      Abstract: AbstractSpecies of Scedosporium and Lomentospora are considered as emerging opportunists, affecting immunosuppressed and otherwise debilitated patients, although classically they are known from causing trauma-associated infections in healthy individuals. Clinical manifestations range from local infection to pulmonary colonization and severe invasive disease, in which mortality rates may be over 80%. These unacceptably high rates are due to the clinical status of patients, diagnostic difficulties, and to intrinsic antifungal resistance of these fungi. In consequence, several consortia have been founded to increase research efforts on these orphan fungi. The current review presents recent findings and summarizes the most relevant points, including the Scedosporium/Lomentospora taxonomy, environmental distribution, epidemiology, pathology, virulence factors, immunology, diagnostic methods, and therapeutic strategies.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx113
       
  • Sporotrichosis between 1898 and 2017: The evolution of knowledge on a
           changeable disease and on emerging etiological agents.

    • Authors: Lopes-Bezerra L; Mora-Montes H, Zhang Y, et al.
      First page: 126
      Abstract: AbstractThe description of cryptic species with different pathogenic potentials has changed the perspectives on sporotrichosis. Sporothrix schenckii causes a benign chronic subcutaneous mycosis, Sporothrix brasiliensis is highly virulent, and Sporothrix globosa mainly causes fixed cutaneous lesions. Furthermore, S. brasiliensis is the prevalent species related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. Sources of infection, transmission, and distribution patterns also differ between species, and variability differs between species because of different degrees of clonality. The present review article will cover several aspects of the biology of clinically relevant agents of sporotrichosis, including epidemiological aspects of emerging species. Genomic information of Sporothrix spp. is also discussed. The cell wall is an essential structure for cell viability, interaction with the environment, and the host immune cells and contains several macromolecules involved in virulence. Due to its importance, aspects of glycosylation and cell wall polysaccharides are reviewed. Recent genome data and bioinformatics analyses helped to identify specific enzymes of the biosynthetic glycosylation routes, with no homologs in mammalian cells, which can be putative targets for development of antifungal drugs. A diversity of molecular techniques is available for the recognition of the clinically relevant species of Sporothrix. Furthermore, antigens identified as diagnostic markers and putative vaccine candidates are described. Cell-mediated immunity plays a key role in controlling infection, but Sporothrix species differ in their interaction with the host. The adaptive branch of the immune response is essential for appropriate control of infection.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx103
       
  • Fusarium metavorans sp. nov.: The frequent opportunist ‘FSSC6’

    • Authors: Al-Hatmi A; Ahmed S, van Diepeningen A, et al.
      First page: 144
      Abstract: AbstractThe Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with superficial and life-threatening infections in humans. Here we formally introduce Fusarium metavorans sp. nov., widely known as FSSC6 (Fusarium solani species complex lineage 6), one of the most frequent agents of human opportunistic infections. The species is described with multilocus molecular data including sequences of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), portions of the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (TEF1), and the partial RNA polymerase II gene (rPB2). A phylogenetic approach was used to evaluate species delimitation. Topologies of the trees were concordant. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the FSSC consists of three major clades encompassing a large number of phylogenetic species; Fusarium metavorans corresponds to phylogenetic species 6 within FSSC clade 3. The species has a global distribution and a wide ecological amplitude, also including strains from soil and agents of opportunistic plant disease; it was also isolated from the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplophora glabripennis.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx107
       
  • Closing the mycetoma knowledge gap

    • Authors: van de Sande W; Fahal A, Ahmed S, et al.
      First page: 153
      Abstract: AbstractOn 28th May 2016, mycetoma was recognized as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. This was the result of a 4-year journey starting in February 2013 with a meeting of global mycetoma experts. Knowledge gaps were identified and included the incidence, prevalence, and mapping of mycetoma; the mode of transmission; the development of methods for early diagnosis; and better treatment. In this review, we review the road to recognition, the ISHAM working group meeting in Argentina, and we address the progress made in closing the knowledge gaps since 2013. Progress included adding another 9000 patients to the literature, which allowed us to update the prevalence map on mycetoma. Furthermore, based on molecular phylogeny, species names were corrected and four novel mycetoma causative agents were identified. By mapping mycetoma causative agents an association with Acacia trees was found. For early diagnosis, three different isothermal amplification techniques were developed, and novel antigens were discovered. To develop better treatment strategies for mycetoma patients, in vitro susceptibility tests for the coelomycete agents of black grain mycetoma were developed, and the first randomized clinical trial for eumycetoma started early 2017.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx061
       
  • Fungal infections in animals: a patchwork of different situations

    • Authors: Seyedmousavi S; Bosco S, de Hoog S, et al.
      First page: 165
      Abstract: AbstractThe importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed. Opportunistic mycoses are responsible for a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, such as aspergillosis, mucormycosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis and infections caused by melanized fungi. The amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis and the Bat White-nose syndrome are due to obligatory fungal pathogens. Zoonotic agents are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. The list of zoonotic fungal agents is limited but some species, like Microsporum canis and Sporothrix brasiliensis from cats, have a strong public health impact. Mycotoxins are defined as the chemicals of fungal origin being toxic for warm-blooded vertebrates. Intoxications by aflatoxins and ochratoxins represent a threat for both human and animal health. Resistance to antifungals can occur in different animal species that receive these drugs, although the true epidemiology of resistance in animals is unknown, and options to treat infections caused by resistant infections are limited.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myx104
       
 
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