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        1 2     

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 182 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  

        1 2     

Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2571 journals]   [SJR: 1.221]   [H-I: 75]
  • Detection of Equid herpesvirus type 2 and 5 DNA in uterine flushings of
           mares with reproductive disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Maria Luisa Marenzoni , Monica Sforna , Valentina Stefanetti , Patrizia Casagrande Proietti , Luca Brignone , Andrea Del Sero , Fabio Falcioni , Simona Orvieto , Cristina Tamantini , Alessandra Tiburzi , Silvia Valentini , Mauro Coletti , Peter J. Timoney , Fabrizio Passamonti
      In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the potential pathogenic significance of equine gammaherpesviruses in the horse. In humans, cattle and mice, gammaherpesviruses have already been associated with uterine infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of gammaherpesviruses in uterine flushings of mares with reproductive problems and to evaluate if there was a possible statistical association with clinical and laboratory findings in these cases. A total of 80 uterine flushings were collected from 61 mares with different reproductive problems and these were tested for equine herpesviruses (EHV) 1-5 by PCR. In the case of each mare in the study, the age, history of infertility, presence of anatomical defects in the reproductive tract, presence of systemic or local disease at time of sampling, phase in the oestrous cycle, post-partum interval, nature of uterine lavage performed (low versus large volume lavage), cytological and bacteriological examination results from the uterine flushing, and PCR herpesvirus results were recorded. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify possible statistical associations and risk factors. Nine out of 61 mares (14.7%) had EHV-5 DNA in their uterine flushings. Co-infections with EHV-1 and EHV-2 were present in two cases. Of all the variables analyzed, only the cytological examination findings were associated with EHV-5 PCR positive results, both on univariate and multivariable analysis, especially in cases with an inflammation score of 3. It is postulated that presence of EHV-5 infection in the non-pregnant uterus may have a role to play in reproductive dysfunction and have a negative consequence on the pregnant uterus. Additional studies involving both healthy mares and mares with reproductive problems need to be performed, however, to elucidate whatever role equine gammaherpesviruses may play in the reproductive tract. This would be very worthwhile, since reproductive problems can have a significant impact on the equine breeding industry. Gaining a greater understanding of its causes could lead to new approaches for prevention and treatment.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • GP5 expression in Marc-145 cells inhibits porcine reproductive and
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jiming Gao , Pengchao Ji , Maodong Zhang , Xiangpeng Wang , Na Li , Chengbao Wang , Shuqi Xiao , Yang Mu , Qin Zhao , Taofeng Du , Yani Sun , Julian A. Hiscox , Gaiping Zhang , En-Min Zhou
      The major neutralizing epitope of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is mainly located on virus glycoprotein 5 (GP5). Immunization with exogenous GP5 or exposure to native GP5 by means of DNA immunization can provide some degree of immune protection to PRRSV infection in pigs. However, during PRRSV infection in pigs, the production of neutralization antibodies induced by GP5 is delayed or suppressed. This suggests that the synthesis of GP5 is late than some PRRSV proteins or other PRRSV proteins interfering with the function of GP5 in inducing host responses during virus infection. Here, to exclude the impacts of the other PRRSV proteins and determine the role of GP5 in the replication of PRRSV in vitro, a Marc-145 cell line stably expressing GP5 (Marc-145-GP5Flag) was constructed. Cell proliferation and cell apoptosis measurements indicated that the expression of GP5 in Marc-145 cells did not disturb the cells’ viability. Following infection with different PRRSV strains PRRSV replication in Marc-145-GP5Flag cells was inhibited significantly. Type I interferon assay results showed that beta interferon (IFN-β) in the Marc-145-GP5Flag cells were increased at mRNA and protein levels. When siRNA was introduced into the cells to knock down IFN-β mRNA, PRRSV infectivity of these cells was recovered. These data suggest that early GP5 expression is not favorable for further infection by PRRSV, because it not only stimulates production of neutralization antibodies in pigs, but also induces IFN-β production in host cells. Therefore, GP5 is an important protein in the induction of self-protection responses from the host.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • Whole genomic analysis of porcine G10P[5] rotavirus strain P343 provides
           evidence for bovine-to-porcine interspecies transmission
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Satoshi Komoto , Yaowapa Pongsuwanna , Tomihiko Ide , Mitsutaka Wakuda , Ratigorn Guntapong , Francis Ekow Dennis , Kei Haga , Yoshiki Fujii , Kazuhiko Katayama , Koki Taniguchi
      Porcine group A rotavirus (RVA) strain P343 (RVA/Pig-tc/THA/P343/1991/G10P[5]) was suggested to have VP7 and VP4 genes of bovine origin. In order to obtain precise information on the exact origin and evolution of this unusual porcine strain, the remaining nine genes (VP6, VP1-3, and NSP1-5) of strain P343 were sequenced and analyzed in the present study. On whole genomic analysis, strain P343 was found to have a bovine RVA-like genotype constellation (G10-P[5]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3) different from those of typical porcine RVA strains. Furthermore, on phylogenetic analysis, each of the 11 genes of strain P343 appeared to be of bovine origin. Therefore, strain P343 was suggested to be a bovine RVA strain that was transmitted to pigs.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • Genetic characterization of hepadnaviruses associated with
           histopathological changes in the liver of duck and goose embryos
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Marina Biđin , Marina Tišljar , Zdenko Biđin , Ivana Lojkić , Darko Majnarić
      Avian hepadnaviruses are aetiological agents of hepatitis B, that has been identified primarily in ducks, and more recently in various avian species. In this paper, 16 hepadnaviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the field samples from dead embryos of commercially reared domestic duck and goose. Based on the molecular analysis of the S-protein gene sequences and phylogenetic Neighbour-joining tree, identified viruses were clustered in the same genetic group, indicating no host-related diversity. Both duck and goose-origin hepadnaviruses were grouped within the cluster consisting of Western-country” and Chinese” duck hepatitis B (DHBV) isolates, showing more evolutionary distances with other known avian hepadnaviruses. Histopathologically, the lesions observed in the liver tissue from hepadnavirus positive duck and goose embryos varied from low to mild degree of perivascular mononuclear cells and mixtocellular infiltrations, followed by mild vacuolar changes. Small focal necrotic changes in the liver parenchyma, and bile ductular proliferation were also found in examined liver samples. Generally, the microscopic findings resemble those described in experimentally infected ducks, while this was the first description of hepadnavirus associated lesions in domestic goose. Although hepadnaviruses are considered to have a very narrow host range, this study showed that domestic ducks and geese are susceptible to infection with genetically almost identical hepadnaviruses, that were likely to produce similar microsopic changes in the liver of both duck and goose embryos. The impact of naturally occurred hepadnavirus infection and possible synergistic interactions with other infectious or non-infectious agents on embryo viability needs futher investigation.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • Linear epitope recognition antibodies strongly respond to the C-terminal
           domain of HP-PRRSV GP5
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Xinglong Wang , Li Qui , Yu Dang , Sha Xiao , Shuxia Zhang , Zengqi Yang
      A total of 155 peptides derived from the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) glycoprotein 5 (GP5) were printed on a chip to reveal the antigen reaction characteristics of the protein. The reactions of these peptides to HP-PRRSV-specific pig serum were scanned and quantified using fluorescence intensity via the PepSlide® Analyzer software. The intensity plots showed different reactions in the different sectors of GP5. The highest reaction intensity value reached 3894.5, with a peptide sequence of IVEKGGKVEVEGHLI. Seventeen peptides that showed relatively high reaction levels with HP-PRRSV-specific pig serum were selected as epitope candidates. Furthermore, the antigenic character was predicted using a software and was compared with the peptide scan results. In contrast to the software prediction, the HP-PRRSV-specific antibodies strongly responded to the C-terminal domain of GP5. The acquired data may be useful for understanding the antigenic characteristics of HP-PRRSV GP5.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • Enzootic genotype S of H9N2 avian influenza viruses donates internal genes
           to emerging zoonotic influenza viruses in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Min Gu , Hongzhi Chen , Qunhui Li , Junqing Huang , Mingjun Zhao , Xiaobing Gu , Kaijun Jiang , Xiaoquan Wang , Daxin Peng , Xiufan Liu
      Avian influenza viruses of subtype H9N2 are widely prevalent in poultry in many Asian countries, and the segmented nature of the viral genome results in multiple distinct genotypes via reassortment. In this study, genetic evolution of H9N2 viruses circulating in eastern China during 2007-2013 was analyzed. The results showed that the diversity of the gene constellations generated six distinct genotypes, in which a novel genotype (S) bearing the backbone of A/chicken/Shanghai/F/98-like viruses by acquiring A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97-like polymerase basic subunit 2 and matrix genes has gradually established its ecological niche and been consistently prevalent in chicken flocks in eastern China since its first detection in 2007. Furthermore, genotype S possessed the peculiarity to donate most of its gene segments to other emerging influenza A viruses in China, including the novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2, the 2013 novel H7N7, H7N9 and the latest reassortant H10N8 viruses, with potential threat to poultry industry and human health.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • Koolpinyah and Yata viruses: two newly recognised ephemeroviruses from
           tropical regions of Australia and Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Kim R. Blasdell , Steven G. Widen , Sinéad M. Diviney , Cadhla Firth , Thomas G. Wood , Hilda Guzman , Edward C. Holmes , Robert B. Tesh , Nikos Vasilakis , Peter J. Walker
      Koolpinyah virus (KOOLV) isolated from healthy Australian cattle and Yata virus (YATV) isolated from a pool of Mansonia uniformis mosquitoes in the Central African Republic have been tentatively identified as rhabdoviruses. KOOLV was shown previously to be related antigenically to kotonkon virus, an ephemerovirus that has caused an ephemeral fever-like illness in cattle in Nigeria, but YATV failed to react antigenically with any other virus tested. Here we report the complete genome sequences of KOOLV (16133 nt) and YATV (14479 nt). Each has a complex genome organisation, with multiple genes, including a second non-structural glycoprotein (GNS) gene and a viroporin (α1) gene, between the G and L genes as is characteristic of ephemeroviruses. Based on an analysis of genome organisation, sequence identity and cross-neutralisation, we demonstrate that both KOOLV and YATV should be classified as two new species in the genus Ephemerovirus.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • Multiple amino acid substitutions involved in the adaptation of H6N1 avian
           influenza virus in mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhijun Yu , Kaihui Cheng , Yue Xin , Weiyang Sun , Xue Li , Jing Huang , Kun Zhang , Songtao Yang , Tiecheng Wang , Xuexing Zheng , Hualei Wang , Yuping Hua , Hongliang Chai , Chuan Qin , Jun Qian , Yuwei Gao , Xianzhu Xia
      H6N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are one of the most abundantly detected avian influenza virus subtype, and a human H6N1 infection case has been reported in 2013. H6N1 AIVs may pose a potential human risk, however, the factors that promote the replication of H6N1 viruses in mammals remain poorly understood. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a H6N1 virus (A/Mallard/SanJiang/275/2007) to identify adaptive changes that confer enhanced virulence to H6N1 viruses in mammals. After eight sequential passages in mice, the mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of the variants were reduced >1000-fold compared to the parental virus. We found that the variants displayed the greatest enhancement of replication in vitro and in vivo, and also were capable of replicating in the brains of infected mice. These observations suggest that enhanced growth characteristics and modified cell tropism may contribute to increased virulence of H6N1 AIVs in mice. Sequencing of the variants revealed amino acid changes in the PB2 (E627K), PA (T97I), and HA (N394T) proteins. Our results suggest that these mutations involved in the enhancement of the ability of H6N1 virus to efficient replicate and cause severe disease in mammals.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • Pestiviral Erns blocks TLR-3-dependent IFN synthesis by LL37 complexed RNA
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Christoph Zürcher , Kay-Sara Sauter , Matthias Schweizer
      The ribonuclease activity of the soluble glycoprotein Erns of pestiviruses represents a unique mechanism to circumvent the host's innate immune system by blocking interferon type-I synthesis in response to extracellularly added single- (ss) and double-stranded (ds) RNA. However, the reason why pestiviruses encode a ribonuclease in addition to the abundant serum RNases remained elusive. Here, we show that the 5′ UTR and NS5B regions of various strains of the RNA genome of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are resistant to serum RNases and are potent TLR-3 agonists. Inhibitory activity of Erns was restricted to cleavable RNA products, and did not extend to the synthetic TLR-7/8 agonist R-848. RNA complexed with the antimicrobial peptide LL37 was protected from degradation by Erns in vitro but was fully inhibited by Erns in its ability to induce IFN in cell cultures, suggesting that the viral protein is mainly active in cleaving RNA in an intracellular compartment. We propose that secreted Erns represents a potent IFN antagonist, which degrades viral RNA that is resistant to the ubiquitous host RNases in the extracellular space. Thus, the viral RNase prevents its own pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) to inadvertently activate the IFN response that might break innate immunotolerance required for persistent pestivirus infections.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • Effects of the nuclear localization of the Npro protein of classical swine
           fever virus on its virulence in pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yongfeng Li , Liang Shen , Yuan Sun , Xiao Wang , Chao Li , Junhua Huang , Jianing Chen , Lianfeng Li , Bibo Zhao , Yuzi Luo , Su Li , Hua-Ji Qiu
      The Npro protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. However, it is unknown whether the nuclear localization of Npro correlates with the virulence of CSFV in the host. Previously, we showed that the Npro protein fused with interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was present only in the cytoplasm. Here, we generated and evaluated a recombinant CSFV vSM-IRF3 harboring the IRF3 gene inserted into the Npro gene of the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain. Compared to the even nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-Npro fusion expressed by the recombinant CSFV EGFP-CSFV, vSM-IRF3 expressed an IRF3-Npro fusion protein that only was localized in the cytoplasm. vSM-IRF3 was markedly attenuated in vitro and in vivo, and the inoculated pigs were completely protected from lethal CSFV challenge, whereas the parental virus as well as EGFP-CSFV exhibited a typical virulent phenotype. Taken together, the nuclear localization of Npro plays a significant role in the CSFV replication and virulence.


      PubDate: 2014-10-17T10:00:47Z
       
  • Author's response: Critique of paper on ‘Effects of tetracycline and
           zinc on selection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
           sequence type 398 in pigs’
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Arshnee Moodley , Søren Saxmose Nielsen , Luca Guardabassi



      PubDate: 2014-10-10T19:07:51Z
       
  • Repeated isolation of Salmonella enterica Goverdhan, a very rare serovar,
           from Danish poultry surveillance samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Karl Pedersen , Gitte Sørensen , Istvan Szabo , Herbert Hächler , Simon Le Hello
      We report here the appearance of a very rare serovar of Salmonella, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Goverdhan, in routine Salmonella surveillance samples from Danish poultry production. S. Goverdhan was found on nine occasions: in one broiler breeder farm in October 2010, four broiler farms and one broiler breeder farm in June–September 2012, two broiler breeder flocks simultaneously in June 2013, and one layer flock in July 2013. The five isolates from 2012 and the three isolates from 2013 had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, whereas the profile of the isolate from 2010 deviated in a single band. It is the first time this serovar has been described in samples from poultry. The origin of the bacterium is still unknown, but it is suggested that it may have been a pseudo-outbreak caused by contaminated sampling material.


      PubDate: 2014-10-10T19:07:51Z
       
  • The confirmation of the DNA uptake signal sequence needed for genetic
           manipulation in Haemophilus parasuis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Luhua Zhang , Ying Li , Ke Dai , Yiping Wen , Xintian Wen , Rui Wu , Xiaobo Huang , Sanjie Cao



      PubDate: 2014-10-10T19:07:51Z
       
  • Alternative sampling strategies for passive classical and African swine
           fever surveillance in wild boar–Extension towards African swine
           fever virus antibody detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Sandra Blome , Katja V. Goller , Anja Petrov , Carolin Dräger , Jana Pietschmann , Martin Beer



      PubDate: 2014-10-06T18:56:08Z
       
  • Evaluation of biofilm formation using milk in a flow cell model and
           microarray characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine
           mastitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): G.G.M. Snel , M. Malvisi , R. Pilla , R. Piccinini
      It was hypothesised that biofilm could play an important role in the establishment of chronic S. aureus bovine mastitis. The in vitro evaluation of biofilm formation can be performed either in closed/static or in flow-based systems. Efforts have been made to characterize the biofilm-forming ability of S. aureus mastitis isolates, however most authors used static systems and matrices other than UHT milk. It is not clear whether such results could be extrapolated to the mammary gland environment. Therefore the present study aimed to investigate the biofilm-forming ability of S. aureus strains from subclinical bovine mastitis using the static method and a flow-based one. One hundred and twelve strains were tested by the classic tissue culture plate assay (TCP) and 30 out of them were also tested by a dynamic semi-quantitative assay using commercial UHT milk as culture medium (Milk Flow Culture, MFC) or tryptic soy broth as control medium (TS Flow Culture, TSFC). Only 6 (20%) strains formed biofilm in milk under flow conditions, while 36.6% were considered biofilm-producers in TCP, and 93.3% produced biofilm in TSFC. No agreement was found between TCP, MFC and TSFC results. The association between strain genetic profile, determined by microarray, and biofilm-forming ability in milk was evaluated. Biofilm formation in MFC was significantly associated with the presence of those genes commonly found in bovine-associated strains, assigned to clonal complexes typically detected in mastitis. Based on our results, biofilm-forming potential of bovine strains should be critically analysed and tested applying conditions similar to mammary environment.


      PubDate: 2014-10-06T18:56:08Z
       
  • Andrographolide interferes quorum sensing to reduce cell damage caused by
           avian pathogenic Escherichia coli
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Xun Guo , Li-Yan Zhang , Shuai-Cheng Wu , Fang Xia , Yun-Xing Fu , Yong-Li Wu , Chun-Qing Leng , Peng-Fei Yi , Hai-Qing Shen , Xu-Bin Wei , Ben-Dong Fu
      Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induce septicemia in chickens by invading type II pneumocytes to breach the blood–air barrier. The virulence of APEC can be regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Andrographolide is a QS inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Therefore, we investigate whether andrographolide inhibits the injury of chicken type II pneumocytes by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli O78 (APEC-O78) by disrupting the bacterial QS system. The results showed that sub-MIC of andrographolide significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), F-actin cytoskeleton polymerization, and the degree of the adherence to chicken type II pneumocytes induced by APEC-O78. Further, we found that andrographolide significantly decreased the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity and the expression of virulence factors of APEC-O78. These results suggest that andrographolide reduce the pathogenicity of APEC-O78 in chicken type II pneumocytes by interfering QS and decreasing virulence. These results provide new evidence for colibacillosis prevention methods in chickens.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-10-06T18:56:08Z
       
  • Experimental nasal colonization of piglets with methicillin-susceptible
           and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Koen M. Verstappen , Birgitta Duim , Arie van Nes , Susan Snijders , Willem J.B. van Wamel , Jaap A. Wagenaar
      Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type (ST)398 is widely spread among livestock. People in contact with livestock have a higher risk of testing positive for MRSA. Several experimental settings have been described to study in vivo colonization of MRSA in pigs, each having its own limitations. The aim of this study was to develop a nose-colonization model in pigs to quantitatively study the colonization of MRSA and the co-colonization of MSSA and MRSA. Two experiments were performed: in the first experiment piglets received an intranasal inoculation with MRSA ST398, spa-type t011, and in the second experiment piglets received an intranasal inoculation with two MSSA strains (ST398, spa-type t011 and t034) and two MRSA strains (also ST398, spa-type t011 and t034) to investigate co-colonization. Colonization was quantitatively monitored for two weeks in both experiments. Nasal colonization was successfully established in all piglets with stable numbers of S. aureus between 104-106 CFU. MSSA and MRSA were able to co-colonize.


      PubDate: 2014-10-06T18:56:08Z
       
  • Lethal nephrotropism of an H10N1 avian influenza virus stands out as an
           atypical pathotype
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Francesco Bonfante , Alice Fusaro , Claudia Zanardello , Livia Victoria Patrono , Roberta De Nardi , Silvia Maniero , Calogero Terregino
      A nephrotropic H10N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 1.9 and a haemagglutinin monobasic amino acid cleavage site motif, was genetically and phenotypically characterized. Specific pathogen free chickens of 3 or 6 weeks of age were challenged with a 106 EID50/0.1mL dose by either oro-nasal or intravenous route, to study the distribution, tissue tropism and virulence of the virus. Direct transmission was tested by introducing sentinel birds on day 4 post infection. Virus shedding and viremia were investigated by means of type A influenza real-time RT-PCR. Dead birds were necropsied and selected organs were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry, and to detect and re-isolate the virus. Serological analyses were carried out to evaluate seroconversion, three weeks from challenge. The oro-nasal challenge of the 6-week-old birds elicited 47% mortality as a result of viremia and massive replication of the virus in the kidneys. Unexpectedly, among birds of 3 weeks of age the same challenge caused 5% mortality and few clinical signs. Surprisingly the intravenous administration of the virus in the 3-week-old birds recorded an IVPI of 2.4. A full genome characterization of the virus could not identify any molecular determinant underlying the observed phenotype. Our findings describe the complex pathobiology of an AIV of the H10 subtype that stands out for its peculiar pathogenicity and tissue tropism in chickens.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Authors’ response: Recognition sequence for DNA uptake in
           Haemophilus parasuis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Anna Bigas , M. Elena Garrido , Ana M. Pérez de Rozas , Ignacio Badiola , Jordi Barbé , Montserrat Llagostera



      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Identification and molecular characterization of novel and divergent
           HoBi-like pestiviruses from naturally infected cattle in India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): N. Mishra , K. Rajukumar , A. Pateriya , M. Kumar , P. Dubey , S.P. Behera , A. Verma , P. Bhardwaj , D.D. Kulkarni , D. Vijaykrishna , N.D. Reddy
      HoBi-like pestiviruses have been sporadically reported from naturally infected cattle in South America, Asia and Europe. While the closely related bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2 have been reported from cattle in India, the prevalence and diversity of HoBi-like viruses have not yet been studied. Here we report the genetic diversity and molecular characteristics of HoBi-like viruses, through systematic surveillance in cattle (n=1049) from 21 dairy farms across India during 2012--2013. On the basis of real-time RT-PCR, virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing results, of the 20 pestivirus positive cattle, HoBi-like viruses were identified in 19 cattle from four farms in three states and BVDV-1b in one cattle. Phylogenetic analysis of 5′-UTR and Npro region identified the circulation of two lineages of HoBi-like viruses in India, that were distinct to those circulating globally, highlighting the independent evolution of at least three lineages of HoBi-like viruses globally. Antigenic differences were also evident between the two Indian lineages. In addition to revealing that HoBi-like virus may be more widespread in Indian cattle than previously reported, this study shows greater genetic divergence of HoBi-like viruses indicating a need for continued pestivirus surveillance in cattle.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Identification of the clpB and bipA genes and an evaluation of their
           expression as related to intracellular survival for the bacterial pathogen
           Piscirickettsia salmonis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): A. Isla , D. Haussmann , T. Vera , G. Kausel , J. Figueroa
      Piscirickettsia salmonis is the pathogen responsible for salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), a disease that affects a wide variety of marine cultivated fish species and causes economic losses for the aquaculture industry worldwide. Many in vitro studies have reported on the capacity of this microorganism to replicate in the interior of cytoplasmic vesicles from varied fish cell lines. However, the mechanisms used by this bacteria to survive, replicate, and propagate in cell lines, especially in macrophages and monocytes, are unknown. A number of studies have described the diverse proteins in pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnetii, and Francisella tularensis which allow these to evade the cellular immune response and replicate in the interior of macrophages in different hosts. Some of these proteins are the virulence factor BipA/TypA and the heat shock protein ClpB, both of which have been widely characterized. The results of the current study present the complete coding sequence of the genes clpB and bipA from the P. salmonis genome. Moreover, the experimental results suggest that during the infectious process of the SHK-1 cellular line in P. salmonis, the pathogen significantly increases the expression of proteins ClpB and BipA. This would permit the pathogen to adapt to the hostile conditions produced by the macrophage and thus evade mechanisms of cellular degradation while facilitating replication in the interior of this salmon cell line.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from Hanwoo (Bos
           taurus coreanae) in South Korea by sequencing analysis targeting hsp65,
           rpoB and 16S rRNA genes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Bo-Ram Kim , Jae Myung Kim , Byoung-Jun Kim , Yunho Jang , Soyoon Ryoo , Yoon-Hoh Kook , Bum-Joon Kim
      Combinatorial molecular taxonomic approaches targeting 3 genes, 16S rRNA (1.2–1.3kbp), hsp65 (603-bp), and rpoB genes (711-bp) were applied to 43 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains isolated from a Korean native cattle from bronchial lymph nodes and lung, Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) in South Korea. Of 43 NTM isolates, Mycobacterium avium complex strains (MAC) were isolated with the highest frequency (31 strains, 72.1%). Contrary to other reports, M. intracellulare strains (23 strains, 53.5%) of MACs were more prevalent than M. avium strains (8 strains, 18.6%). Further separation of isolated M. intracellulare into genotype level by hsp65 analysis showed that isolates of the HG-1 genotype (60.9%, 14/23 isolates), known to be specific to Korean patients, was more prevalent than the HG-2 type (17.4%, 4/23 strains), which include the type strain, M. intracellulare ATCC 13950T. Compared to NTM infections of Korean human patients, the pronounced difference found in this study is that no M. abscessus infections in Hanwoo were found. In conclusion, our data showed that the isolated species frequency of NTMs, particularly MACs from Hanwoo, was very comparable to that obtained from Korean human infection, suggesting that humans and Korean native cattle may share common environmental sources for NTM infections.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Natural competence in Histophilus somni strain 2336
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Nehal Shah , Aloka B. Bandara , Indra Sandal , Thomas J. Inzana
      Histophilus somni is an etiologic agent of shipping fever pneumonia, myocarditis, and other systemic diseases of bovines. Virulence factors that have been identified in H. somni include biofilm formation, lipooligosaccharide phase variation, immunoglobulin binding proteins, survival in phagocytic cells, and many others. However, to identify the genes responsible for virulence, an efficient mutagenesis system is needed. Mutagenesis of H. somni using allelic exchange is difficult, likely due to its tight restriction modification system. Mutagenesis by natural transformation in Haemophilus influenzae is well established and shows a strong bias for fragments containing specific uptake signal sequences (USS) within the genome. We hypothesized that natural transformation may also be possible in H. somni strain 2336 because its genome is over-represented with H. influenzae USS (5′-AAGTGCGGT-3′) and contains most of the genes necessary for competence. H. somni strain 2336 was successfully transformed and mutated with genomic linear DNA from an H. somni mutant (738Δlob2a), which contains a kanamycin-resistance (KanR) gene and the USS within lob2A. Although most of the competence genes found in H. influenzae were present in H. somni, comD and the 5′ portion of comE were absent, which may account for the low transformation efficiency. The transformation efficiency of strain 2336 was greatest during mid-log growth phase and when cyclic adenosine monophosphate was added to the transformation medium. However, mutants were not isolated when strain 2336 was transformed with genomic DNA containing the same KanR gene from H. somni luxS or uspE mutants, which lack the USS in these specific genes. Shuttle vector pNS3K was also naturally transformed into strain 2336, though at a lower efficiency. However, natural transformation with either H. somni linear DNA (2336Δlob2A) or pNS3K was unsuccessful with H. somni commensal strain 129Pt and several other disease isolates.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Development of antibodies to and PCR detection of Ehrlichia spp. in dogs
           following natural tick exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Lindsay A. Starkey , Anne W. Barrett , Ramaswamy Chandrashekar , Brett A. Stillman , Phyllis Tyrrell , Brendon Thatcher , Melissa J. Beall , Jeff M. Gruntmeir , James H. Meinkoth , Susan E. Little
      Dogs exposed to ticks in the southern US may become infected with multiple species of Ehrlichia. To better define infection risk, blood samples collected from 10 dogs infested with ticks via a natural infestation model were evaluated by blood smear examination, PCR, patient-side ELISAs (SNAP® 4Dx® and SNAP® 4Dx® Plus), IFA, and peptide based ELISA for evidence of infection with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and/or E. ewingii. Although morulae were rarely identified in blood smears, every dog (10/10) became infected with Ehrlichia spp. as evidenced by nested PCR detection of E. chaffeensis (7/10) and E. ewingii DNA (10/10); real-time PCR detection of E. chaffeensis (0/10) and E. ewingii (9/10); seroconversion on two different patient-side ELISAs (4/10 or 10/10); seroconversion on IFA to E. canis (10/10, maximum inverse titer=128–4096, GMTMAX =548.7) and E. chaffeensis (10/10, maximum inverse titer=1024–32,768, GMTMAX =4096); and seroconversion on peptide specific ELISA to E. chaffeensis VLPT (7/10) and E. ewingii p28 (9/10). Rickettsemia with E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii, as determined by nested PCR, persisted in dogs for an average of 3.2 or 30.5 days, respectively. Ehrlichia canis was not detected in any dog by any method, and no dogs developed signs of clinical disease. Our data suggest that in areas where ticks are common, dogs are at high risk of infection with Ehrlichia spp., particularly E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis, and can serve as a sentinel for monitoring for the presence of these zoonotic pathogens.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Alternative sampling strategies for passive classical and African swine
           fever surveillance in wild boar
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Anja Petrov , Ulrich Schotte , Jana Pietschmann , Carolin Dräger , Martin Beer , Helena Anheyer-Behmenburg , Katja V Goller , Sandra Blome
      In view of the fact that African swine fever (ASF) was recently introduced into the wild boar population of the European Union and that classical swine fever (CSF) keeps reoccurring, targeted surveillance is of utmost importance for early detection. Introduction of both diseases is usually accompanied by an increased occurrence of animals found dead. Thus, fallen wild boar are the main target for passive surveillance. However, encouraging reporting by hunters and sampling of these animals is difficult. Partly, these problems could be solved by providing a pragmatic sampling approach. For this reason, we assessed the applicability of three different dry/semi-dry blood swabs, namely a cotton swab, a flocked swab, and a forensic livestock swab, for molecular swine fever diagnosis. After nucleic acid extraction using manual and automated systems, routine quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) were carried out. Results obtained from swabs or their fragments were compared to results generated from EDTA blood. It was shown that reliable detection of both pathogens was possible by qPCR. Shifts in genome copy numbers were observed, but they did not change the qualitative results. In general, all swabs were suitable, but the forensic swab showed slight advantages, especially in terms of cutting and further storage. Robustness of the method was confirmed by the fact that different extraction methods and protocols as well as storage at room temperature did not have an influence on the final outcome. Taken together, swab samples could be recommended as a pragmatic approach to sample fallen wild boar.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Application of real-time PCR to detect Aleutian Mink Disease Virus on
           environmental farm sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Alberto Prieto , José Manuel Díaz-Cao , Ricardo Fernández-Antonio , Rosario Panadero , Pablo Díaz , Ceferino López , Patrocinio Morrondo , Pablo Díez-Baños , Gonzalo Fernández
      The Aleutian Mink Virus (AMDV) causes the Aleutian Mink Disease (AMD) or Mink Plasmacytosis, a disease responsible of high economic losses for industry worldwide. Despite there is evidence of the environmental persistence of the virus, there is not literature on the detection of this virus in environmental samples in farms and this fact would have great importance in the control programs of the disease. In order to detect contamination caused by AMDV on farms, several environmental samples were taken and examined using qPCR. 93.9% of samples taken from farms confirmed to be infected tested positive. The virus was also detected on a farm which, despite having no previous positive results, was sharing personnel with an infected farm. All samples taken from AMD-free farms tested negative, including a farm where an eradication procedure by stamping out had been performed during the preceding months. Higher contamination levels were observed in samples from those surfaces in direct contact with animals. These results are the first demonstration of environmental contamination in farms, hitherto suggested by epidemiological evidences, caused by AMDV on surfaces, furniture and equipments inside mink farms. qPCR is an useful tool for evaluating the spread of AMDV into the environment, and it may have important applications within the disease control programs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Identification of Coxiella burnetii genotypes in Croatia using multi-locus
           VNTR analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Ivana Račić , Silvio Špičić , Ana Galov , Sanja Duvnjak , Maja Zdelar-Tuk , Anja Vujnović , Boris Habrun , Željko Cvetnić
      Although Q fever affects humans and animals in Croatia, we are unaware of genotyping studies of Croatian strains of the causative pathogen Coxiella burnetii, which would greatly assist monitoring and control efforts. Here 3261 human and animal samples were screened for C. burnetii DNA by conventional PCR, and 335 (10.3%) were positive. Of these positive samples, 82 were genotyped at 17 loci using the relatively new method of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). We identified 13 C. burnetii genotypes not previously reported anywhere in the world. Two of these 13 genotypes are typical of the continental part of Croatia and share more similarity with genotypes outside Croatia than with genotypes within the country. The remaining 11 novel genotypes are typical of the coastal part of Croatia and show more similarity to one another than to genotypes outside the country. Our findings shed new light on the phylogeny of C. burnetii strains and may help establish MLVA as a standard technique for Coxiella genotyping.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Molecular and serological detection of tick-borne pathogens in donkeys
           (Equus asinus) in Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Fabrizia Veronesi , Giulia Morganti , Silvia Ravagnan , Fulvio Laus , Andrea Spaterna , Manuela Diaferia , Annabella Moretti , Daniela Piergili Fioretti , Gioia Capelli
      Donkeys, owing to the frequent outdoor activity, are exposed to a high risk of infection with tick-borne pathogens. This work aimed to detect exposure to Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. of donkeys reared in Central Italy. For this purpose 122 adult donkeys were selected within 11 herds and submitted to blood collection. IgG antibodies to T. equi, B. caballi, A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected by IFAT. Conventional PCRs targeting the genes MSP2 and the flagellin were used for the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. respectively and a Real Time PCR Sybr Green was used to detect Babesia/Theileria spp…. The species identity was determined by amplicons sequencing. Forty eight (39.3%) and 58 (47.5%) animals tested positive for T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively; nine animals (7.4%) were found positive for antibodies against A. phagocytophilum whereas negative results were obtained for B. burgdorferi s.l. Twenty-six (21.3%) animals showed antibodies for both T. equi and B. caballi. Twenty-three (18.8%) donkeys were positive to Babesia/Theileria spp. PCR assay. Out of 21 sequenced amplicons, 20 were identified as T. equi, belonging to three main groups designated A, B and D and one as B. caballi group A. Neither A. phagocytophilum nor B. burgdorferi PCR results were positive. The study showed a high exposure of donkeys to tick-borne pathogens and provides information on the genetic identity of the T. equi strains circulating in Central Italy.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Infection dynamics and acute phase response of an Actinobacillus
           pleuropneumoniae field isolate of moderate virulence in pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Jaime Gómez-Laguna , Armando Islas , Dennis Muñoz , Álvaro Ruiz , Aura Villamil , Librado Carrasco , Manuel Quezada
      Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP), causes significant economic losses associated mainly with growth stunting of animals. Although serotypes can be distinguished according to their virulence, most of the studies are focused in A. pleuropneumoniae infections with virulent serotypes. There is little information regarding the role of acute phase proteins (APPs) and proinflammatory cytokines in infections with isolates of mild or moderate virulence. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the kinetics of infection with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 6 (Ap6) field isolate of moderate virulence and the changes in the serum concentration of specific antibodies and different APPs and proinflammatory cytokines. Control animals showed no clinical signs or lesions throughout the study. Infected animals showed increased rectal temperature, respiratory distress and depression from 24hpi, and typical gross and microscopic lesions of PCP from 6hpi onwards. Ap6 was isolated from nasal swabs of four out of five inoculated animals at 24hpi, and from nasal swabs, tonsil and lung samples from all inoculated animals at 72hpi. Specific antibodies against Ap6 or changes in the serum concentration of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α were not detected throughout the study. The serum concentration of IL-6 increased from 6hpi as well as serum A amyloid, C-reactive protein and haptoglobin from 24hpi onwards. Our results highlight the onset of the acute phase response after the infection with a field isolate of A. pleuropneumoniae of moderate virulence from 24hpi onwards which may be of interest in the study of the pathogenesis of this disease.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Bovine tuberculosis surveillance in cattle and free-ranging wildlife in EU
           Member States in 2013: A survey-based review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): J. Rivière , K. Carabin , Y. Le Strat , P. Hendrikx , B. Dufour
      Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with animal health, zoonotic and economic impacts. Most of the TB data for the European Union (EU) concern the epidemiological situation, but comprehensive descriptions of the way in which surveillance is conducted in each country are rare, despite being essential for cross-Europe comparisons. A European survey was conducted in the 28 Member States and in three other neighboring countries (Norway, Macedonia and Switzerland), to review TB surveillance in cattle and wildlife. EU legislation currently requires TB surveillance solely in cattle. Considerable differences between the surveillance systems of the 26 responding countries were observed, according to the official TB-freedom status of the country and the local prevalence of TB. These differences related principally to the combination of surveillance components (routine screening test in herd and/or movement testing and/or slaughterhouse surveillance), the tests used and their interpretation, and the definition of an infected herd or animal. For wildlife TB surveillance, only 8 on 21 respondent countries have declared to have implemented passive and/or active surveillance, with marked differences concerning the species and the geographical scale of the surveillance. The choice of the combination of surveillance components depends on the national or regional epidemiological situation, the species involved in TB epidemiology and epidemiological risk factors, although various surveillance systems have been recorded for countries with similar epidemiological status. Assessments of the cost-effectiveness of each surveillance system would be useful, to confirm the advantages of implementing one or more components.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Anne Nordstoga , Kjell Handeland , Tone Bjordal Johansen , Lena Iversen , Dolores Gavier-Widén , Roland Mattsson , Kjersti Wik-Larssen , Jan Egil Afset , Rune Næverdal , Arve Lund
      We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n =10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating Bacillus spp. improve the
           survival, growth and robustness of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798)
           postlarvae
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Joseph Leopoldo Q. Laranja , Gladys L. Ludevese-Pascual , Edgar C. Amar , Patrick Sorgeloos , Peter Bossier , Peter De Schryver
      Low larval survival resulting from suboptimal culture conditions and luminous vibriosis poses a major problem for the larviculture of penaeid shrimp. In this study, a poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating mixed bacterial culture (mBC; 48.5% PHB on cell dry weight) and two PHB accumulating bacterial isolates, Bacillus sp. JL47 (54.7% PHB on cell dry weight) and Bacillus sp. JL1 (45.5% PHB on cell dry weight), were obtained from a Philippine shrimp culture pond and investigated for their capacity to improve growth, survival and robustness of Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL). Shrimp PL1 and shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB containing bacterial cultures in the feed for 30 days followed by, respectively, a challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and exposure to a lethal dose of ammonia. Prior to the pathogenic challenge or ammonia stress, growth and survival were higher for shrimp receiving the PHB accumulating bacteria as compared to shrimp receiving diets without bacterial additions. After exposure to the pathogenic challenge the shrimp fed PHB accumulating bacteria showed a higher survival as compared to non-treated shrimp, suggesting an increase in robustness for the shrimp. Similar effects were observed when shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB accumulating bacterial cultures during a challenge with pathogenic V. campbellii through the water. The survival of shrimp exposed to lethal ammonia stress showed no significant difference between PHB accumulating bacteria-fed shrimp and non-PHB treated shrimp. The data illustrate that bacilli capable of accumulating PHB can provide beneficial effects to P. monodon post-larvae during culture in terms of growth performance, survival and resistance against pathogenic infection and ammonia stress. Further investigations are required to verify the PHB effect of the bacterial cultures on the shrimp.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Assessment of the pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis type 2 infection in
           piglets for understanding streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome,
           meningitis, and sequelae
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Yuhai Bi , Jing Li , Limin Yang , Shuang Zhang , Yun Li , Xiaojuan Jia , Lei Sun , Yanbo Yin , Chuan Qin , Beinan Wang , George Fu Gao , Wenjun Liu
      Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2) is an zoonotic pathogen that had caused outbreaks in 1998 and 2005 in China. It is still not very clear how the disease progresses into the streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS) or meningitis, as well as the sequelae from the survivals. The present study used piglets as infection model to systematically investigate the pathogenesis of the infection caused by the SS2 strain 05ZYH33. The infected piglets showed joint swelling, lameness, and crouch at beginning, then developed into septic-like shock syndrome (SLSS) or prostration syndrome, at last the survivals showed physical activity impairment. The morbidity and mortality were 100% (71% for SLSS, 29% for prostration syndrome) and 29%, respectively. The pigs exhibiting SLSS had deep invasive infections in tissues and organs, and displayed more severe bacteremia and cytokine secretion in the bloodstream and organs than pigs with prostration syndrome. Moreover, the polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR2 genes varied between the pigs affected with SLSS and prostration syndrome. Several lines of evidence indicated that SS2 infection progression into SLSS or relatively lighter prostration syndrome in pigs is closely related to the degrees of bacteremia and cytokine storm, which may be inherently determined by the diversity of innate immunity-associated genes. Furthermore, brain lesions, such as venous thrombosis, may directly contribute to the sequelae in human cases, were identified in the pigs. These results might help us to further understand the pathogenesis of SS2 in humans.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli ΔtonB mutants are safe and
           protective live-attenuated vaccine candidates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Karen M. Holden , Glenn F. Browning , Amir H. Noormohammadi , Philip Markham , Marc S. Marenda
      Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause colibacillosis, a serious respiratory disease in poultry. Most APEC strains possess TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters for the siderophores salmochelin and aerobactin, which both contribute to their capacity to cause disease. To assess the potential of iron transport deficient mutants as vaccine candidates, the tonB gene was deleted in the APEC wild type strain E956 and a Δfur (ferric uptake repressor) mutant of E956. The growth of the ΔtonB and ΔtonB/Δfur mutants was impaired in iron-restricted conditions, but not in iron-replete media. Day old chicks were exposed to aerosols of the mutants to assess their efficacy as live attenuated vaccines. At day 18, the birds were challenged with aerosols of the virulent parent strain E956. Both mutants conferred protection against colibacillosis; weight gains and lesion scores were significantly different between the vaccinated groups and an unvaccinated challenged control group. Thus mutation of iron uptake systems can be used as a platform technology to generate protective live attenuated vaccines against extraintestinal E. coli infections, and potentially a range of Gram negative pathogens of importance in veterinary medicine.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Flagellin typing of Bordetella bronchiseptica strains originating from
           different host species
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Bernadett Khayer , Tibor Magyar , Enikő Wehmann
      Bordetella bronchiseptica is a widespread Gram-negative pathogen occurring in different mammal species. It is known to play a role in the aetiology of infectious atrophic rhinitis of swine, canine kennel cough, respiratory syndromes of cats, rabbits and guinea pigs, and sporadic human cases have also been reported. In this study, 93 B. bronchiseptica strains were examined from a broad range of host species and different geographical regions using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products of flaA to reveal the possible host-specificity of the flagellin. Eight types (A–H) of flaA were identified, including five newly described ones (D–H). All but one of the 22 B. bronchiseptica strains from swine showed type B fragment pattern. The eighteen Hungarian isolates of canine origin were uniform (type A) while in other countries type B and D were also present in dogs. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 36 representative strains of flaA types revealed four clusters. These clusters correlated with flaA PCR-RFLP types and host species, especially in pigs and dogs. The revealed diversity of the strains isolated from human cases indicated possible zoonotic transmissions from various animal sources.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp
           (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by
           enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of
           shrimp-associated vibrios
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Yufeng Niu , Tom Defoirdt , Kartik Baruah , Tom Van de Wiele , Shuanglin Dong , Peter Bossier
      Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Cell culture isolation and sequence analysis of genetically diverse US
           porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains including a novel strain with a
           large deletion in the spike gene
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Tomoichiro Oka , Linda J. Saif , Douglas Marthaler , Malak A. Esseili , Tea Meulia , Chun-Ming Lin , Anastasia N. Vlasova , Kwonil Jung , Yan Zhang , Qiuhong Wang
      The highly contagious and deadly porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the US in April 2013. Since then the virus has spread rapidly nationwide and to Canada and Mexico causing high mortality among nursing piglets and significant economic losses. Currently there are no efficacious preventive measures or therapeutic tools to control PEDV in the US. The isolation of PEDV in cell culture is the first step toward the development of an attenuated vaccine, to study the biology of PEDV and to develop in vitro PEDV immunoassays, inactivation assays and screen for PEDV antivirals. In this study, nine of 88 US PEDV strains were isolated successfully on Vero cells with supplemental trypsin and subjected to genomic sequence analysis. They differed genetically mainly in the N-terminal S protein region as follows: (1) strains (n =7) similar to the highly virulent US PEDV strains; (2) one similar to the reportedly US S INDEL PEDV strain; and (3) one novel strain most closely related to highly virulent US PEDV strains, but with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. Representative strains of these three genetic groups were passaged serially and grew to titers of ∼5–6log10 plaque forming units/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation in cell culture of an S INDEL PEDV strain and a PEDV strain with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. We also designed primer sets to detect these genetically diverse US PEDV strains.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8) in domestic poultry and its
           relationship with migratory birds in South Korea during 2014
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Jipseol Jeong , Hyun-Mi Kang , Eun-Kyoung Lee , Byung-Min Song , Yong-Kuk Kwon , Hye-Ryoung Kim , Kang-Seuk Choi , Ji-Ye Kim , Hyun-Jeong Lee , Oun-Kyong Moon , Wooseog Jeong , Jida Choi , Jong-Ho Baek , Yi-Seok Joo , Yong Ho Park , Hee-Soo Lee , Youn-Jeong Lee
      Highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were introduced into South Korea during 2014, thereby caused outbreaks in wild birds and poultry farms. During the 2014 outbreak, H5N8 HPAIVs were isolated from 38 wild birds and 200 poultry farms (up to May 8, 2014). To better understand the introduction of these viruses and their relationships with wild birds and poultry farm, we analyzed the genetic sequences and available epidemiological data related to the viruses. Genetic analysis of 37 viruses isolated from wild birds and poultry farms showed that all of the isolates belonged to clade 2.3.4.6 of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, but comprised two distinct groups. During the initial stage of the outbreak, identical isolates from each group were found in wild birds and poultry farms near Donglim Reservoir, which is a resting site for migratory birds, thereby indicating that two types of H5N8 HPAIVs were introduced into the lake at the same time. Interestingly, the one group of H5N8 HPAIV predominated around Donglim Reservoir, and the predominant virus was dispersed by wild birds among the migratory bird habitats in the western region of South Korea as time passed, and it was also detected in nearby poultry farms. Furthermore, compared with the results of the annual AIV surveillance of captured wild birds, which has been performed since 2008, more HPAIVs were isolated and H5 sero-prevalence was also detected during the 2014 outbreak. Overall, our results strongly suggest that migratory birds played a key role in the introduction and spread of viruses during the initial stage of the 2014 outbreak.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Relationships of bovine ephemeral fever epizootics to population immunity
           and virus variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Lu-Jen Ting , Ming-Shiuh Lee , Shu-Hwae Lee , Hsiang-Jung Tsai , Fan Lee
      Bovine ephemeral fever is an arthropod-borne bovine viral disease caused by infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus which belongs to genus Ephemerovirus within the family Rhabdoviridae. In this study, serological data and virological information about the disease and the virus, spanning from 2001 to 2013, were employed to analyze the relationships of bovine ephemeral fever epizootics to population immunity and virus variation. National and regional surveillance data indicated that 2 of the 3 major epizootics and 87% regional outbreaks were associated with lower neutralizing antibody titers and immunity coverage, reflecting the importance of population immunity for the control of bovine ephemeral fever. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison demonstrated that Taiwanese bovine ephemeral fever viruses were >96.0% and >97.6% similar to the East Asian isolates in nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. These analyses supported that the Taiwanese viruses shared the same gene pool with the strains of the other East Asian countries, mainly Japan.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Mustaghfira Wafa Shinwari , Edward J. Annand , Luke Driver , David Warrilow , Bruce Harrower , Richard J.N. Allcock , Dennis Pukallus , Jennifer Harper , John Bingham , Nina Kung , Ibrahim S. Diallo
      In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus ovis-based immunomodulator against equine
           herpesvirus type 1 and Streptococcus equi equi infections in horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Ellen Ons , Leen Van Brussel , Stephen Lane , Vickie King , Ann Cullinane , Rachel Kenna , Pamela Lyons , Toni-Ann Hammond , Jeremy Salt , Rudiger Raue
      The efficacy of Zylexis®, an immunomodulator in horses based on inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO), was assessed using an equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) challenge model in the presence of a natural infection with Streptococcus equi equi (S. equi). Eleven horses were treated with iPPVO and twelve were kept as controls. Six horses were challenged with EHV-1 and commingled with the horses on study. Animals were dosed on Days −2, 0 (just before commingling) and Day 7. On Day 11 significantly less nasal discharge, enlarged lymph nodes, EHV-1 shedding and lower rectal temperatures were observed in the iPPVO-treated group. In addition, iPPVO-treated horses showed significantly fewer enlarged lymph nodes on Days 17 and 19, significantly less lower jaw swelling on Day 3 and significantly lower rectal temperatures on Days 12 and 13. Dyspnoea, depression and anorexia were only recorded for the control group. Following challenge seven out of 11 horses in the iPPVO treated group shed EHV-1 but on Days 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 quantitative virus detection in this group was significantly lower as compared to the controls. All animals shed S. equi but the percentage of animals with positive bacterial detection was lower in the iPPVO group than in the control group from Day 14 through Day 28. This difference was significant on Day 24. No injection site reactions or adverse events were observed. In conclusion, Zylexis administration is safe and reduced clinical signs and shedding related to both EHV-1 and S. equi infections.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Replication kinetics and shedding of very virulent Marek's disease virus
           and vaccinal Rispens/CVI988 virus during single and mixed infections
           varying in order and interval between infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Tanzila Islam , Stephen W. Walkden-Brown , Katrin G. Renz , A.F.M. Fakhrul Islam , Sithara Ralapanawe
      Vaccination is thought to contribute to an evolution in virulence of the Marek's disease virus (MDV) as vaccines prevent disease but not infection. We investigated the effects of co-infections at various intervals between Rispens/CVI988 vaccine virus (Rispens) and very virulent MDV (vvMDV) on the replication and shedding of each virus. The experiment used 600 ISA Brown layer chickens in 24 isolators with all treatments replicated in two isolators. Chickens were vaccinated with Rispens and/or challenged with the vvMDV isolate 02LAR on days 0, 5, or 10 post hatching providing vaccination to challenge intervals (VCI) of −10, −5, 0, 5 or 10 days with the negative values indicating challenge prior to vaccination. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), feathers and isolator exhaust dust were sampled between 7 and 56 days post infection (dpi) and subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to differentiate the two viruses. Overall Rispens significantly reduced the viral load of vvMDV in PBL and feather cells and shedding in dust. Similarly vvMDV significantly reduced the viral load of Rispens in PBL and feather cells but not in dust. VCI significantly influenced these relationships having strong positive and negative associations with load of vvMDV and Rispens respectively. Differences between the two viruses and their effects on each other were greatest in PBL and feathers, and least in dust. This study expands our understanding of the interaction between pathogenic and vaccinal viruses following vaccination with imperfect vaccines and has implications for selection of appropriate samples to test for vaccination success.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Transcriptome analysis of CNS immediately before and after the detection
           of PrPSc in SSBP/1 sheep scrapie
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Anton G. Gossner , John Hopkins
      Sheep scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), progressive and fatal neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) linked to the accumulation of misfolded prion protein, PrPSc. New Zealand Cheviot sheep, homozygous for the VRQ genotype of the PRNP gene are most susceptible with an incubation period of 193 days with SSBP/1 scrapie. However, the earliest time point that PrPSc can be detected in the CNS is 125 days (D125). The aim of this study was to quantify changes to the transcriptome of the thalamus and obex (medulla) at times immediately before (D75) and after (D125) PrPSc was detected. Affymetrix gene arrays were used to quantify gene expression in the thalamus and Illumina DGE-tag profiling for obex. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to help describe the biological processes of scrapie pathology. Neurological disease and Cancer were common Bio Functions in each tissue at D75; inflammation and cell death were major processes at D125. Several neurological receptors were significantly increased at D75 (e.g. CHRNA6, GRM1, HCN2), which might be clues to the molecular basis of psychiatric changes associated with TSEs. No genes were significantly differentially expressed at both D75 and D125 and there was no progression of events from earlier to later time points. This implies that there is no simple linear progression of pathological or molecular events. There seems to be a step-change between D75 and D125, correlating with the detection of PrPSc, resulting in the involvement of different pathological processes in later TSE disease.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • IFC - Aims & Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4




      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Mutations of 3c and spike protein genes correlate with the occurrence of
           feline infectious peritonitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 10 October 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Barbara Regina Bank-Wolf , Iris Stallkamp , Svenja Wiese , Andreas Moritz , Gergely Tekes , Heinz-Jürgen Thiel
      The genes encoding accessory proteins 3a, 3b, 3c, 7a and 7b, the S2 domain of the spike (S) protein gene and the membrane (M) protein gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) samples were amplified, cloned and sequenced. For this faeces and/or ascites samples from 19 cats suffering from feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) as well as from 20 FECV-infected healthy cats were used. Sequence comparisons revealed that 3c genes of animals with FIP were heavily affected by nucleotide deletions and point mutations compared to animals infected with FECV; these alterations resulted either in early termination or destruction of the translation initiation codon. Two ascites-derived samples of cats with FIP which displayed no alterations of ORF3c harboured mutations in the S2 domain of the S protein gene which resulted in amino acid exchanges or deletions. Moreover, changes in 3c were often accompanied by mutations in S2. In contrast, in samples obtained from faeces of healthy cats, the ORF3c was never affected by such mutations. Similarly ORF3c from faecal samples of the cats with FIP was mostly intact and showed only in a few cases the same mutations found in the respective ascites samples. The genes encoding 3a, 3b, 7a and 7b displayed no mutations linked to the feline coronavirus (FCoV) biotype. The M protein gene was found to be conserved between FECV and FIPV samples. Our findings suggest that mutations of 3c and spike protein genes correlate with the occurrence of FIP.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Pathogenesis in lambs and sequence analysis of putative virulence genes of
           Brazilian orf virus isolates
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Mathias Martins , Juliana F. Cargnelutti , Rudi Weiblen , Eduardo F. Flores
      The parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) is the agent of contagious ecthyma, an ubiquitous mucocutaneous disease of sheep and goats that may present variable clinical presentations. We herein studied the pathogenesis of ORFV infection in lambs and analyzed three putative virulence genes of four Brazilian ORFV isolates. Lambs inoculated in the labial commissures with each ORFV isolate (n=4, viral titer 105.6 TCID50/ml) developed classical orf lesions, characterized by a progressive course of erythema/macules, vesicles, pustules and proliferative scabs. Lesions lasted an average of 22.9 days (18–26) and virus shedding was detected for approximately 24.6 days (18–30). Two isolates (SV269/11 and SV820/10) produced more severe, long-lasting lesions resulting in highest clinical scores. Lambs inoculated with isolate SV581/11 developed lesions markedly milder (lower clinical scores [p<0.05]) and more limited than the other groups. Virus shedding by SV581/11 group, however, lasted similarly or even longer than the other groups. Sequence analysis of three virulence genes (VEGF, VIR and IL-10v) revealed amino acid deletions and mutations in VEGF and IL-10v genes of SV581/11 and SV252/11, the isolate(s) producing milder lesions. Additionally, the VEGF gene of isolate SV581/11 presented the lowest amino acid identity with the other isolates and with ORFV standard strain OV-IA82. Thus, these results demonstrate that ORFV isolates may display differential virulence in lambs and these differences might be associated with genetic changes in putative virulence genes.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Pathogenicity study in sheep using reverse-genetics-based reassortant
           bluetongue viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Cristina C. Celma , Bishnupriya Bhattacharya , Michael Eschbaumer , Kerstin Wernike , Martin Beer , Polly Roy
      Bluetongue (BT) disease, caused by the non-enveloped Bluetongue virus (BTV) belonging to the Reoviridae family, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of wild and domestic ruminants. Currently, 26 different serotypes of BTV are recognized in the world, of which BTV-8 has been found to exhibit one of the most virulent manifestations of BT disease in livestock. In recent years incursions of BTV-8 in Europe have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality not only in sheep but also in cattle. The molecular and genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenesis is not known. To understand the genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenicity we generated reassortant viruses by replacing the 3 most variable genes, S2, S6 and S10 of a recent isolate of BTV-8, in different combinations into the backbone of an attenuated strain of BTV-1. The growth profiles of these reassortant viruses were then analyzed in two different ovine cell lines derived from different organs, kidney and thymus. Distinct patterns for each reassortant virus in these two cell lines were observed. To determine the pathogenicity of these reassortant viruses, groups of BTV-susceptible sheep were infected with each of these viruses. The data suggested that the clinical manifestations of these two different serotypes, BTV-1 and BTV-8, were slightly distinct and BTV-1, when comprising all 3 genome segments of BTV-8, behaved differently to BTV-1. Our results also suggested that the molecular basis of BT disease is highly complex.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) load in serum on average daily
           weight gain during the postweaning period
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): S. López-Soria , M. Sibila , M. Nofrarías , M. Calsamiglia , E.G. Manzanilla , H. Ramírez-Mendoza , A. Mínguez , J.M. Serrano , O. Marín , F. Joisel , C. Charreyre , J. Segalés
      Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous virus that mainly affects nursery and fattening pigs causing systemic disease (PCV2-SD) or subclinical infection. A characteristic sign in both presentations is reduction of average daily weight gain (ADWG). The present study aimed to assess the relationship between PCV2 load in serum and ADWG from 3 (weaning) to 21 weeks of age (slaughter) (ADWG 3-21). Thus, three different boar lines were used to inseminate sows from two PCV2-SD affected farms. One or two pigs per sow were selected (60, 61 and 51 piglets from Pietrain, Pietrain x Large White and Duroc x Large White boar lines, respectively). Pigs were bled at 3, 9, 15 and 21 weeks of age and weighted at 3 and 21 weeks. Area under the curve of the viral load at all sampling times (AUCqPCR 3-21) was calculated for each animal according to standard and real time quantitative PCR results; this variable was categorized as “negative or low” (<104.3 PCV2 genome copies/ml of serum), “medium” (≥104.3 to ≤105.3) and “high” (>105.3). Data regarding sex, PCV2 antibody titre at weaning and sow parity was also collected. A generalized linear model was performed, obtaining that paternal genetic line and AUCqPCR 3-21 were related to ADWG 3-21. ADWG 3-21 (mean±typical error) for “negative or low”, “medium” and “high” AUCqPCR 3-21 was 672±9, 650±12 and 603±16g/day, respectively, showing significant differences among them. This study describes different ADWG performances in 3 pig populations that suffered from different degrees of PCV2 viraemia.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T18:41:59Z
       
  • First finding of subgroup-E avian leukosis virus from wild ducks in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ruijun Hao , Chunyan Han , Lanlan Liu , Xiangwei Zeng
      To analyze the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALV-E) in wild ducks in China, we collected 276 wild ducks, including 12 species, from four provinces of China. The PCR detection for ALV-E identified four samples as positive samples and the detection rate was 1.45%. The env sequences of ALV-E were cloned and sequenced. In gp85, genes of the four ALV-E strains showed a high homology(98.1-99.5%) with ev-1, ev-3, and SD0501 and more than 90% homology with other subgroup-A and subgroup-B avian leukosis viruses. However, they showed a slightly lower identity with subgroup-J (NX0101 and HPRS103), from 47.5 to 48.1%. Simultaneously, a further comparison with ALV-E representative isolates indicated that the amino acid substitutions of the four wild duck strains were distributed throughout the gp85. In total, these results suggested that the subgroup-E avian leukosis virus has been found in wild ducks in China.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Effects of tetracycline and zinc on selection of methicillin-resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 in pigs (Moodley et al.,
           2011)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): David G.S. Burch
      Although this paper was published some time ago, its importance is only recently coming to light as zinc oxide's use as a therapeutic substance for the treatment and control of post-weaning diarrhoea caused primarily by Escherichia coli, is being called into question in Europe. One of the main negative aspects of this paper was the conclusion that that feed supplemented with tetracycline or zinc increases the numbers of MRSA ST398 in the nasal cavity of pigs and that they significantly select for such higher counts. It is the purpose of this critique to demonstrate that by using a poor trial method with only a single replicate and small treatment group numbers of only four pigs (two infected with MRSA and two not), by ignoring the MRSA counts on day 0 before treatment started and manipulating the statistics, to increase the low power of the original analysis, has led to the drawing of misleading conclusions regarding the co-selection effect on MRSA by zinc oxide and underestimating the major numerical impact of tetracycline. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship analysis supports the finding that zinc oxide is unlikely to have any direct co-selector effect on MRSA in the nasal cavity.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
 
 
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