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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 216 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • The efficacy of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) immunization with the
           adjuvants Emulsigen® and the monomeric TLR5 ligand FliC in zebu cattle
           against AlHV-1 malignant catarrhal fever induced by experimental virus
           challenge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Felix Lankester, Ahmed Lugelo, Dirk Werling, Nicholas Mnyambwa, Julius Keyyu, Rudovick Kazwala, Dawn Grant, Sarah Smith, Nevi Parameswaran, Sarah Cleaveland, George Russell, David Haig
      Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal disease of cattle that, in East Africa, follows contact with wildebeest excreting alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1). Recently an attenuated vaccine (atAlHV-1) was tested under experimental challenge on Friesian-Holstein (FH) cattle and gave a vaccine efficacy (VE) of approximately 90%. However testing under field conditions on an East African breed, the shorthorn zebu cross (SZC), gave a VE of 56% suggesting that FH and SZC cattle may respond differently to the vaccine. To investigate, a challenge trial was carried out using SZC. Additionally three adjuvant combinations were tested: (i) Emulsigen®, (ii) bacterial flagellin (FliC) and (iii) Emulsigen® +bacterial flagellin. We report 100% seroconversion in all immunized cattle. The group inoculated with atAlHV–1+Emulsigen® had significantly higher antibody titres than groups inoculated with FliC, the smallest number of animals that became infected and the fewest fatalities, suggesting this was the most effective combination. A larger study is required to more accurately determine the protective effect of this regime in SZC. There was an apparent inhibition of the antibody response in cattle inoculated with atAlHV–1+FliC, suggesting FliC might induce an immune suppressive mechanism. The VE in SZC (50-60%) was less than that in FH (80-90%). We speculate that this might be due to increased risk of disease in vaccinated SZC (suggesting that the vaccine may be less effective at stimulating an appropriate immune response in this breed) and/or increased survival in unvaccinated SZC (suggesting that these cattle may have a degree of prior immunity against infection with AlHV-1).

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
       
  • Caveolin-1-mediated endocytic pathway is involved in Classical swine fever
           virus Shimen infection of porcine alveolar macrophages
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Pengbo Ning, Lifang Gao, Yulu Zhou, Congxia Hu, Zhi Lin, Cunmei Gong, Kangkang Guo, Xianghan Zhang
      Macrophages are at the frontline of defense against pathogenic microorganisms. However, very little is known about the cell invasion mechanism of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Shimen strain. To elucidate the infective mechanism of this important pathogen, we screened deep-sequencing data derived from macrophages infected with CSFV Shimen and uninfected macrophages, and identified a role of caveolin-1 (CAV1). Digital gene expression profiling showed that CAV1 was differentially expressed in CSFV Shimen-infected macrophages. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that the transcription and translation of CAV1 were significantly up-regulated in CSFV Shimen-infected macrophages. In addition, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy analysis suggested that CAV1 was temporally colocalized with CSFV E2 throughout the course of the infection. Through the overexpression of recombinant CAV1 or the silencing of CAV1 expression using small interfering RNA in macrophages, we demonstrated that CAV1 expression is beneficial for the replication of CSFV Shimen. However, RNA silencing of CAV1 did not prevent viral replication, which may indicate that CSFV can also enter macrophages by other mechanisms. Our findings suggest that CAV1-mediated endocytosis is advantageous for productive CSFV Shimen infection in macrophages, providing a new insight into the mechanisms of evasion of host immunity for successful viral infection.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
       
  • Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 oncogene enhances Mitogen-Activated
           Protein Kinases and Akt activation but not EGFR expression in an in vitro
           feline model of viral pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Gennaro Altamura, Annunziata Corteggio, Giuseppe Borzacchiello
      A possible causative role of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) in the development of feline oral and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) has been recently suggested by demonstrating viral gene expression in vivo and transforming properties by its putative oncogenes E6 and E7 in vitro. The activated molecules MEK (pMEK), ERK (pERK) and Akt (pAkt) are signaling transduction effectors regulating cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis, which are critical steps towards tumour formation. Here, we show by Western blotting (WB) that expression of FcaPV2 E6 in feline epithelial cells enhances pERK, pMEK and pAkt levels compared to control cells. Additionally, we demonstrated by real-time quantitative PCR on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transcripts and WB that activation of these signaling routes is independent from EGFR differential gene expression, total protein levels or phosphorylation, unlike in human papillomavirus associated tumours. This study contributes to define the molecular scenario underlying FcaPV2-triggered pathogenesis of feline SCC.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
       
  • Induction of Functional Interferon alpha and gamma Responses during Acute
           Infection of Cattle with Non-cytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Brenden Van Wyk, Marlene Snider, Erin Scruten, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Scott Napper
      As a part of their pathogenic mechanism, many pathogens causing persistent infections, including bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), immunosuppress their hosts, often by limiting the ability to either produce, or respond to, interferon. The objective of this study was to quantify the extent to which an acute infection of cattle with a non-cytopathic strain of BVDV induces interferon responses and to establish the functionality of these responses. Functionality of responses was investigated using a bovine specific peptide array to monitor kinase-mediated signal transduction activity within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at time points corresponding to the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and alpha (IFN-α) responsive phases of acute BVDV infection. Further, with an appreciation of diverse mechanisms and levels at which pathogens modulate host cell defences, patterns of expression of IFN-γ and −α responsive genes were also quantified within PBMCs. Infection of cows with ncpBVDV2-1373 induced significant increases in levels of serum IFN-γ and IFN-α. Within the PBMCs of the infected animals, distinct patterns of kinase-mediated signal transduction activity, in particular with respect to activation of classic IFN-activated signalling pathways, such as Jak-Stat, as well as induced expression of IFN-γ and IFN-α regulated genes, support the functionality of the host interferon response.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
       
  • Feral pigeons: a reservoir of zoonotic Salmonella Enteritidis strains'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Roel Haesendonck, Geertrui Rasschaert, An Martel, Elin Verbrugghe, Marc Heyndrickx, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans
      Salmonella enterica infections in pigeons are generally associated with pigeon-adapted strains of serovar Typhimurium that are of little public health concern. Here, we isolated Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4), an important human pathogen, from a population of feral pigeons in Brussels, which was further characterized by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. All pigeon isolates belonged to the same pulsotype, which has been present in Belgian pigeons at least since 2001 and is associated with poultry and disease in humans. A high prevalence of 33% of Salmonella Enteritidis in Brussels combined with dense pigeon populations suggest that feral pigeons may constitute a significant, but unrevealed reservoir for contracting salmonellosis in the urban environment.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
       
  • Experimental infection of New Zealand merino sheep with a suspension of
           Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain Telford:
           Kinetics of the immune response, histopathology and Map culture
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Venkata S.R. Dukkipati, Anne L. Ridler, Keith G. Thompson, Bryce M. Buddle, Barry A. Hedgespeth, Marian Price-Carter, Douglas J. Begg, Richard J. Whittington, Brigitte Gicquel, Alan Murray
      A long-term study was undertaken to monitor immune responses, faecal cultures and clinical disease in sheep experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain Telford. New Zealand Merino lambs (N=56) were challenged with three oral doses of Map suspension. The lambs were weighed and faecal and blood samples obtained at different time-points. At 63 weeks post-challenge, surviving sheep were euthanised and samples of liver, ileo-caecal valve and mesenteric lymph node were collected for histopathology and Map culture. High IFN-γ and antibody responses were evident as early as 8 weeks post-C1 which persisted until the end of the trial. Approximately 92% of the sheep shed Map in faeces at 36 weeks post-challenge, with the prevalence decreasing to around 40% at the end of the trial. Thirteen sheep progressively lost weight and were euthanised between weeks 32 and 58 post-challenge. Nearly 58% of surviving sheep exhibited histo-pathological lesions in at least one of the three tissues sampled, while 42% showed acid-fast bacilli in at least one tissue. A positive Map culture in at least one tissue was obtained from approximately 85% of sheep. These results indicate that the three doses of Map challenge were highly effective in establishing Johne’s disease in NZ Merino lambs.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
       
  • Autophagy and apoptosis induced by Chinese giant salamander (Andrias
           davidianus) iridovirus (CGSIV)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jian Du, Liqing Wang, Yuanxian Wang, Jian Shen, Chuanyin Pan, Yan Meng, Changming Yang, Hong Ji, Wuzi Dong
      The outbreak of Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus, CGS) Iridovirus (CGSIV) caused massive death of CGSs. However, some CGSs with low level of CGSIV usually could survive. In our study, major capsid protein (MCP) DNA replicates of CGSIV in shedding skin were employed to assess the relative content of CGSIV in the living CGSs by qPCR. Furthermore, the examinations of autophagy and apoptosis in CGSs in vivo and in the primary renal cells in vitro were performed, respectively. The results showed that the relative contents of CGSIV in the shedding skin could reflect those in liver, spleen, and kidney of the CGSs. In these tissues of the CGSs with low-level replicates of CGSIV, there were not obviously macroscopic lesions. But the irregularly-shaped vesicles perhaps involving in autophagosome were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The LC3B protein displayed uneven distribution by immunohistochemistry and the level mRNA of Atg5 was higher in these tissues than that in the tissues of healthy CGSs using qRT-PCR. Meanwhile,the apoptosis also appeared in these tissues by TUNEL staining and higher level mRNA of type I IFN were detected in these tissues using qRT-PCR. Further, both the expression level of LC3B II protein and Atg5 mRNA increased significantly at 2h after the virus infected the primary renal cells from the health CGSs in vitro. In addition, apoptosis and type I IFN mRNA began to increase significantly at 4h after the virus infected the renal cells. It was suggested that autophagy may be a pivotal role for survival of CGSIV in the CGSs during early infection and the rapid proliferation of CGSIV could be inhibited by innate immune response and apoptosis.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
       
  • Molecular and epidemiological population-based integrative analysis of
           human and animal Mycobacterium bovis infections in a low-prevalence
           setting
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Juan José Palacios, Yurena Navarro, Beatriz Romero, Ana Penedo, Ángela Menéndez González, M. Dolores Pérez Hernández, Ana Fernández-Verdugo, Francisca Copano, Aurora Torreblanca, Emilio Bouza, Lucas Domínguez, Lucía de Juan, Darío García-de-Viedma
      Human Mycobacterium bovis infections are considered to be due to reactivations, when involve elderly people, or to recent transmissions, when exposure is occupational. We determined the cause of M. bovis infections by genotyping M. bovis isolates in a population-based study integrating human and animal databases. Among the 1,586 tuberculosis (TB) cases in Asturias, Northern Spain (1,080,000 inhabitants), 1,567 corresponded to M. tuberculosis and 19 to M. bovis. The number of human isolates sharing genotype with cattle isolates was higher than expected (47%) for a setting with low prevalence of bovine TB and efficient control programs in cattle. The risk of exposure to infected animals was probable/possible in most of these matched cases (77.7%). Recent transmission was the likely explanation of most M. bovis infections in elderly people. A potential human-to-human transmission was found. Our study illustrates a model of collaboration between human and animal health professionals to provide a precise snapshot of the transmission of M. bovis in the human-animal interface.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
       
  • Enteropathogen infections in canine puppies: (co-)occurrence, clinical
           relevance and risk factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Mirjam Duijvestijn, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Nancy Schuurman, Wim Schijf, Jaap Wagenaar, Herman Egberink
      Laboratory confirmation of the causative agent(s) of diarrhoea in puppies may allow for appropriate treatment. The presence of potential pathogens however, does not prove a causal relationship with diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify specific enteropathogens in ≤12 month old puppies with and without acute diarrhoea and to assess their associations with clinical signs, putative risk factors and pathogen co-occurrence. Faecal samples from puppies with (n=169) and without (n=56) acute diarrhoea were collected and screened for Canine Parvovirus (CPV), Canine Coronavirus (CCoV), Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, β-hemolytic Eschericha coli (hEC), Giardia spp., Toxocara spp., Cystoisospora spp., and Cyniclomyces guttulatus. One or more pathogens were detected in 86.5% of diarrhoeic puppies and in 77.8% of asymptomatic puppies. Significant positive associations were found between CPV and CCoV, CPV and Cystoisospora spp., Toxocara spp. and hEC, Giardia spp. and C. guttulatus. Only CPV and CCoV were significantly associated with diarrhoea, hEC with a subset of puppies that had diarrhoea and severe clinical signs. CPV was more prevalent in puppies under 3 months of age. Puppies from high-volume dog breeders were significantly at increased risk for CPV (OR 4.20), CCoV (OR 4.50) and Cystoisospora spp. (OR 3.60). CCoV occurred significantly more often in winter (OR 3.35), and CPV in winter (OR 3.78) and spring (OR 4.72) as compared to summer. We conclude that routine screening for CPV, CCoV and hEC is recommended in puppies with acute diarrhoea, especially if they are under 3 months of age and originate from high-volume dog breeders. Routine screening for other pathogens may lead to less conclusive results.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
       
  • Differential expression of putative adhesin genes of Actinobacillus suis
           grown in in vivo-like conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Adina R. Bujold, Josée Labrie, Mario Jacques, Janet I. MacInnes
      Actinobacillus suis is an opportunistic pathogen that resides in the tonsils of the soft palate of swine. Unknown stimuli can cause this organism to invade the host, resulting in septicaemia and sequelae including death. To better understand its pathogenesis, the expression of several adhesin genes was evaluated by semi-quantitative real-time PCR in A. suis grown in conditions that mimic the host environment, including different nutrient and oxygen levels, exponential and stationary phases of growth, and in the presence of the stress hormone epinephrine. Fifty micromolar epinephrine did not affect the growth rate or expression of A. suis adhesin genes, but there was a significant growth phase effect for many genes. Most adhesin genes were also differentially expressed during anoxic static growth or aerobic growth, and in this study, all genes were differentially expressed in either exponential or stationary phase. Based on the time*treatment interactions observed in the anoxic study, a model of persistence of A. suis in the host environment in biofilm and planktonic states is proposed. Biofilm dynamics were further studied using wild type and isogenic mutants of the type IVb pilin (Δ flp1), the OmpA outer membrane protein (ΔompA), and the fibronectin-binding (ΔcomE1) genes. Disruption of these adhesin genes affected the early stages of biofilm formation, but in most cases, biofilm formation of the mutant strains was similar to that of the wild type by 24h of incubation. We postulate that other adhesins may have overlapping functions that can compensate for those of the missing adhesins.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
       
  • New perspectives to the enterotoxigenic E. coli F4 porcine infection
           model: Susceptibility genotypes in relation to performance, diarrhoea and
           bacterial shedding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Petra J. Roubos-van den Hil, Ralph Litjens, Anna-Katharina Oudshoorn, Jan Willem Resink, Coen H.M. Smits
      Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), causing post-weaning diarrhoea, is a major problem in weaned piglets. Individual animal responses to ETEC infection show high variability in animal experiments. Two studies were designed to optimize the ETEC F4ac infection model in piglets by combining the genotype susceptibility with performance, diarrhoea incidence and bacterial shedding. The studies were performed with respectively 120 and 80 male piglets that were tested for susceptibility or resistance towards ETEC O149:F4ac by a DNA marker based test. Three different genotypes were observed; resistant (RR), susceptible heterozygote (RS) and susceptible homozygote (SS). Piglets, were orally infected with an inoculum suspension (containing 1.5E8 CFU/ml ETEC F4ac) at day 0, 1 and 2 of the study. Performance, diarrhoea incidence and bacterial shedding were followed for 21days. In the first week after challenge a difference in average daily gain was observed between resistant and susceptible piglets in both studies. For the complete study period no significant differences were observed. Diarrhoea incidence was significantly higher in susceptible pigs compared to the resistant pigs in the first week after challenge. Bacterial shedding was much higher in the susceptible pigs and ETEC excretion lasted longer. ETEC was hardly detected in the faecal material of the resistant pigs. In conclusion, susceptible pigs showed higher diarrhoea incidence and higher numbers of faecal ETEC shedding in the first week after challenge compared to resistant pigs. The DNA marker based test can be used to select pigs that are susceptible for ETEC for inclusion in ETEC infection model, resulting in less animals needed to perform infection studies.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
       
  • Strategies to broaden the cross-protective efficacy of vaccines against
           porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Hiep L.X. Vu, Asit K. Pattnaik, Fernando A. Osorio
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important viral pathogen currently affecting swine production worldwide. Although PRRS vaccines have been commercially available for over 20 years, the available vaccines are considered inadequately effective for control and eradication of the virus. Major obstacles for the development of a highly effective PRRS vaccine include the highly variable nature of the viral genome, the viral ability to subvert the host immune system, and the incomplete understanding of the immune protection against PRRSV infection. This article summarizes the impediments for the development of a highly protective PRRS vaccine and reviews the vaccinology approaches that have been attempted to overcome one of the most formidable challenges, which is the substantial genetic variation among PRRSV isolates, to broaden the antigenic coverage of PRRS vaccines.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
       
  • The battlefield in the war against attaching-and-effacing bacterial
           pathogens: Monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells in action
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Lionel F. Poulin, Mathias Chamaillard
      The recent adoption of a unified nomenclature for the mononuclear phagocyte system has already led to the generation of novel strategies for specifically depleting a single subset of phagocytes in the presence of intact lymphoid structures. Herein, we provide a detailed description of how the various types of tissue phagocyte orchestrate the host’s defense against enteric bacterial infections. From a bench-to-bedside perspective, we expect that this paradigm will accelerate the development of novel adjuvants and vaccines in human and veterinary microbiology.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
       
  • Mouse model for the Rift Valley fever virus MP12 strain infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yuekun Lang, Jamie Henningson, Dane Jasperson, Yonghai Li, Jinhwa Lee, Jingjiao Ma, Yuhao Li, Nan Cao, Haixia Liu, William Wilson, Juergen Richt, Mark Ruder, Scott McVey, Wenjun Ma
      Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a Category A pathogen and select agent, is the causative agent of Rift Valley fever. To date, no fully licensed vaccine is available in the U.S. for human or animal use and effective antiviral drugs have not been identified. The RVFV MP12 strain is conditionally licensed for use for veterinary purposes in the U.S. which was excluded from the select agent rule of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The MP12 vaccine strain is commonly used in BSL-2 laboratories that is generally not virulent in mice. To establish a small animal model that can be used in a BSL-2 facility for antiviral drug development, we investigated susceptibility of six mouse strains (129S6/SvEv, STAT-1 KO, 129S1/SvlmJ, C57BL/6J, NZW/LacJ, BALB/c) to the MP12 virus infection via an intranasal inoculation route. Severe weight loss, obvious clinical and neurologic signs, and 50% mortality was observed in the STAT-1 KO mice, whereas the other 5 mouse strains did not display obvious and/or severe disease. Virus replication and histopathological lesions were detected in brain and liver of MP12-infected STAT-1 KO mice that developed the acute-onset hepatitis and delayed-onset encephalitis. In conclusion, the STAT-1 KO mouse strain is susceptible to MP12 virus infection, indicating that it can be used to investigate RVFV antivirals in a BSL-2 environment.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
       
  • Identification of recombination among VP1 gene of Muscovy duck parvovirus
           from the Mainland of China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Tian-fei Yu, Ming Li


      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
       
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals and the Environment – ARAE 2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology


      PubDate: 2016-09-15T16:08:34Z
       
  • Whole genomic analysis of bovine group A rotavirus strains A5-10 and A5-13
           provides evidence for close evolutionary relationship with human
           rotaviruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Satoshi Komoto, Yaowapa Pongsuwanna, Ratana Tacharoenmuang, Ratigorn Guntapong, Tomihiko Ide, Kyoko Higo-Moriguchi, Takao Tsuji, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Koki Taniguchi
      Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) is an important cause of acute diarrhea in calves worldwide. In order to obtain precise information on the origin and evolutionary dynamics of bovine RVA strains, we determined and analyzed the complete nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of six archival bovine RVA strains; four Thai strains (RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A5-10/1988/G8P[1], RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A5-13/1988/G8P[1], RVA/Cow-tc/THA/61A/1989/G10P[5], and RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A44/1989/G10P[11]), one American strain (RVA/Cow-tc/USA/B223/1983/G10P[11]), and one Japanese strain (RVA/Cow-tc/JPN/KK3/1983/G10P[11]). On whole genomic analysis, the 11 gene segments of strains A5-10, A5-13, 61A, A44, B223, and KK3 were found to be considerably genetically diverse, but to share a conserved non-G/P genotype constellation except for the NSP1 gene (I2-R2-C2-M2-(A3/11/13/14)-N2-T6-E2-H3), which is commonly found in RVA strains from artiodactyls such as cattle. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that most genes of the six strains were genetically related to bovine and bovine-like strains. Of note is that the VP1, VP3, and NSP2 genes of strains A5-10 and A5-13 exhibited a closer relationship with the cognate genes of human DS-1-like strains than those of other RVA strains. Furthermore, the VP6 genes of strains A5-10 and A5-13 appeared to be equally related to both human DS-1-like and bovine strains. Thus, strains A5-10 and A5-13 were suggested to be derived from the same evolutionary origin as human DS-1-like strains, and were assumed to be examples of bovine RVA strains that provide direct evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between bovine and human DS-1-like strains. Our findings will provide important insights into the origin of bovine RVA strains, and into evolutionary links between bovine and human RVA strains.

      PubDate: 2016-09-15T16:08:34Z
       
  • ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos’: Transplacental transmission
           in dairy cows (Bos taurus)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Aline Girotto-Soares, João Fabio Soares, Alexey Leon Gomel Bogado, César Augusto Barbosa de Macedo, Lígia Mara Sandeski, João Luis Garcia, Odilon Vidotto
      ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos’ is a haemotropic mycoplasma that can produce various clinical signs in cattle, but abortive potential of the parasite is unknown, as well as the frequency of transplacental transmission in cattle. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of detection of ‘C. M. haemobos’ in aborted fetuses and the blood of dairy cows. Blood samples of 22 dairy cows that aborted and pool tissues (brain, lung, heart and liver) of their respective aborted fetuses were tested by conventional PCR. The occurrence of ‘C. M. haemobos’ DNA in adult animals was 40.9% (9/22) and in the fetuses was 18.2% (4/22). Two fetuses that contained ‘C. M. haemobos’ DNA were derived from cows which were PCR negative. When stratifying by breed, it was observed that Jersey cows had a higher proportion of positive animals (8/11; 72.7%) as compared to Holstein (1/9; 11.1% P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that this parasite can be transferred via the placenta, but it is not certain if the abortions were due to ‘C. M. haemobos’.

      PubDate: 2016-09-15T16:08:34Z
       
  • Circulation of multiple genotypes of H1N2 viruses in a swine farm in Italy
           over a two-month period
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Maria Serena Beato, Luca Tassoni, Adelaide Milani, Annalisa Salviato, Guido Di Martino, Monica Mion, Lebana Bonfanti, Isabella Monne, Simon James Watson, Alice Fusaro
      In August 2012 repeated respiratory outbreaks caused by swine influenza A virus (swIAV) were registered for a whole year in a breeding farm in northeast Italy that supplied piglets for fattening. The virus, initially characterized in the farm, was a reassortant Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (H1avN1) genotype, containing a haemagglutinin segment derived from the pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) lineage. To control infection, a vaccination program using vaccines against the A(H1N1)pdm09, human-like H1N2 (H1huN2), human-like H3N2 (H3N2), and H1avN1 viruses was implemented in sows in November 2013. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by sampling nasal swabs for two months in 35 to 75 day-old piglets born from vaccinated sows. Complete genome sequencing of eight swIAV-positive nasal swabs collected longitudinally from piglets after the implementation of the vaccination program was conducted to investigate the virus characteristics. Over the two-month period, two different genotypes involving multiple reassortment events were detected. The unexpected circulation of multiple reassortant genotypes in such a short time highlights the complexity of the genetic diversity of swIAV and the need for a better surveillance plan, based on the combination of clinical signs, epidemiological data and whole genome characterization.

      PubDate: 2016-09-10T15:53:06Z
       
  • Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates
           collected from diseased food-producing animals in the GERM-Vet monitoring
           program 2008-2014
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Geovana Brenner Michael, Heike Kaspar, Amanda Keller Siqueira, Eduardo de Freitas Costa, Luís Gustavo Corbellini, Kristina Kadlec, Stefan Schwarz
      The aim of this study was to identify extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli collected from diseased food-producing animals in Germany. A total of 6,849 E. coli isolates, collected from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry in the German national monitoring program GERM-Vet (2008-2014), were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screened for the ESBL phenotype. ESBL genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. The isolates were further characterized by PCR-based phylotyping. The 419/6,849 (6.1%) ESBL-producers identified included 324/2,896 (11.2%) isolates from cattle, 75/1,562 (4.8%) from pigs and 20/2,391 (0.8%) from poultry. The ESBL genes detected were: bla CTX-M-1 (69.9%), bla CTX-M-15 (13.6%), bla CTX-M-14 (11.7%), bla TEM-52 (1.9%), bla SHV-12 (1.4%), bla CTX-M-3 (1.0%), and bla CTX-M-2 (0.5%). The phylogroup A was the dominant phylogroup (57.0%) followed by phylogroups D (23.4%), B1 (17.9%), and B2 (1.7%). Bovine isolates belonged predominantly to the phylogroups A and D, whereas the porcine and avian isolates mainly belonged to A and B1. The majority of the ESBL-producing isolates found in each phylogroup were from animals suffering from gastrointestinal infections. In 399/419 isolates (95.2%), additional resistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics was seen. Multidrug-resistance [resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoro(quinolones), sulphonamides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim] was seen in 369/419 (88.1%) isolates, which may facilitate the co-selection of ESBL genes, when located on the same mobile genetic element as the others resistance genes, and may compromise the therapeutic options.

      PubDate: 2016-09-05T15:46:53Z
       
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193


      PubDate: 2016-09-05T15:46:53Z
       
  • Genome-scale phylodynamics and evolution analysis of global H7N7 influenza
           viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Kaifa Wei, Xiaoping Tang, Yuhan Li
      Previous studies lacked of comprehensive analysis about the evolutionary history and phylogeography of global H7N7 viruses. In this study, it is essential to undertake a genome-scale analysis to investigate the evolutionary processes in a global perspective. There was local phylogenetic divergence among eight trees based on individual segments of 132 strains. We detected four reassortments between four distinct groups of viruses divided by HA gene, suggesting intrasubtype reassortment could accelerate the emergence of highly pathogenic virus. The molecular clock estimated that H7N7 virus evolved at a slower evolutionary rate ranged from 1.03E-03 to 2.81E-03subs/site/year. And we also showed that all gene segments of the virus were under strong purifying selection. A total of 11 positively selected sites were detected by at least two out of three methods. We reconstructed the population dynamics of global H7N7 viruses spanning over a century, revealing that temporal trends of the effective population size were consistent with the major epidemics previously reported. Our study adopt a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the geographic spread of H7N7 viruses, which combined with temporal and spatial information of all sequences. We have confirmed several migration events between different geographic locations supported by higher values of Bayes factor. The diffusion patterns of H7N7 viruses reveal that the virus is more likely to evolve to expand their host ranges even cross the species.

      PubDate: 2016-09-05T15:46:53Z
       
  • A Pasteurella multocida strain affecting nulliparous heifers and calves in
           different ways
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Conny Turni, Denise Dayao, Gorka Aduriz, Nekane Cortabarria, Carolina Tejero, Jose C. Ibabe, Reema Singh, Pat Blackall
      Pasteurella multocida isolates from dairy cattle on a farm in Spain were associated with pneumonia of calves (six isolates) and mastitis of heifers (five isolates). The objective was to determine if the P. multocida isolates retrieved from both disease scenarios were the same strain or whether more than one strain was present. The isolates were identified by a species-specific polymerase chain (PCR) assay, serotyped by the Heddleston scheme and then typed by a number of molecular genotyping assays including multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The 11 isolates were confirmed as P. multocida but failed to react with any of the 16 Heddleston antisera. The PCR targeting the genes associated with the lipopolysaccharide outer core biosynthesis locus assigned all the isolates to L3–the type that contains Heddleston serovars 3 and 4. The MLST analysis showed all isolates belonging to ST 79 within the clonal complex of ST13. Only one of the isolates showed a slight different profile by the repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR. The conclusion was that the same strain was associated with pneumonia in calves and mastitis in heifers.

      PubDate: 2016-09-05T15:46:53Z
       
  • A longitudinal study of the Mycobacterium avium subspecies
           paratuberculosis infection status in young goats and their mothers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Pascale Mercier, Sandrine Freret, Karine Laroucau, Marie-Pierre Gautier, Isabelle Brémaud, Claire Bertin, Christelle Rossignol, Armel Souriau, Laurence A. Guilloteau
      The dynamics between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and the immune response of goats naturally exposed to MAP were studied in a herd where the clinical expression of paratuberculosis had been observed. Four generations of goats were observed over a 33-month period: mothers of three different generations (G1, G2, G3) and their daughters, generation 4 (G4). A MAP infection status was defined according to the combined results of an IFN-γ assay, antibody response, faecal culture and post-mortem examination. Goats were defined as non-infected (NI), infected and non-shedder (INS), infected and shedder (IS) or atypical (A). Twenty-nine percent of goats were NI, 66% were infected and either shedding (14%) or not shedding (52%) MAP, and 5% were atypical. IFN-γ responses were detected first, followed by faecal shedding and antibody responses. The results showed that in goats naturally exposed to MAP, IFN-γ responses were regularly detected earlier in non-shedders than in young infected shedder goats and were stronger in shedder than in non-shedder goats. They were also higher in the mother goats than in their daughters. Goats shedding MAP or with positive antibody response at the beginning of their pregnancy are more likely to have an infected daughter positive to an IFN-γ assay by the age of 15 months.

      PubDate: 2016-09-01T15:31:38Z
       
  • Development of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assay for Mycoplasma
           iowae
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Mostafa Ghanem, Mohamed El-Gazzar
      Mycoplasma iowae (MI) infection is an economically and commercially important disease of turkeys. There are no sequence typing assays available for MI strain identification, the only available molecular tools for this purpose, are DNA fingerprinting assays. In addition to their low reproducibility, fingerprinting assays require isolation of the microorganism in pure culture, which is difficult for avian mycoplasma. Therefore, we propose a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assay as the first genotyping assay for identification of MI. Based on the two available MI genomes on GenBank, 26 loci of housekeeping genes were identified and studied in a diverse sample set. Finally, six genes were selected for the newly developed MLST assay. The final sequence analysis of the six loci (total of 5019bp) (dppC, ulaA, valS, rpoC, leuS, kdpA) allowed the differentiation of 47 MI samples into 23 unique sequence types. Moreover, when only 4 loci were used to type the same set of samples, they resulted in 20 unique sequence types. Analysis of phylogenetic trees and clonal groups generated by MLST displayed a high degree of agreement with geographical and temporal information of the tested samples. MLST is a highly reproducible molecular epidemiology assay that can be used to identify positive clinical cases directly from DNA samples. Therefore, it provides a useful tool allowing for better identification, control and eradication efforts.

      PubDate: 2016-09-01T15:31:38Z
       
  • Streptococcus iniae cpsG alters capsular carbohydrate composition and is a
           cause of serotype switching in vaccinated fish
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Candice Heath, Christine M. Gillen, Panagiotis Chrysanthopoulos, Mark J. Walker, Andrew C. Barnes
      Streptococcus iniae causes septicaemia and meningitis in marine and freshwater fish wherever they are farmed in warm-temperate and tropical regions. Although serotype specific, vaccination with bacterins (killed bacterial cultures) is largely successful and vaccine failure occurs only occasionally through emergence of new capsular serotypes. Previously we showed that mutations in vaccine escapes are restricted to a limited repertoire of genes within the 20-gene capsular polysaccharide (cps) operon. cpsG, a putative UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, has three sequence types based on the insertion or deletion of the three amino acids leucine, serine and lysine in the substrate binding site of the protein. To elucidate the role of cpsG in capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis and capsular composition, we first prepared isogenic knockout and complemented mutants of cpsG by allelic exchange mutagenesis. Deletion of cpsG resulted in changes to colony morphology and cell buoyant density, and also significantly decreased galactose content relative to glucose in the capsular polysaccharide as determined by GC–MS, consistent with epimerase activity of CpsG. There was also a metabolic penalty of cpsG knockout revealed by slower growth in complex media, and reduced proliferation in whole fish blood. Moreover, whilst antibodies raised in fish against the wild type cross-reacted in whole cell and cps ELISA, they did not cross-opsonise the mutant in a peripheral blood neutrophil opsonisation assay, consistent with reported vaccine escape. We have shown here that mutation in cpsG results in altered CPS composition and this in turn results in poor cross-opsonisation that explains some of the historic vaccination failure on fish farms in Australia.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T15:20:53Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Isoleucine 61 in PLO is important for the hemolytic
           activity of PLO of Trueperella pyogenes” [Vet. Microbiol. 182 (2016)
           196–201]
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Minghui Yan, Yunhao Hu, Jun Bao, Ya Xiao, Yue Zhang, Lingxiao Yang, Junwei Wang, Wenlong Zhang


      PubDate: 2016-08-27T15:20:53Z
       
  • Differentially expressed genes after viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus
           infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Jee Youn Hwang, Mun-Gyeong Kwon, Jung Soo Seo, Jung Wan Do, Myoung-Ae Park, Sung-Hee Jung, Sang Jung Ahn
      A strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) during epizootics in South Korean. This strain showed high mortality to olive flounder in in vivo challenge experiment. The complete genomic RNA sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of glycoprotein revealed that this isolate was grouped into genotype IVa of genus Novirhabdovirus. Expression profile of genes in olive flounder was analyzed at day 1 and day3 after infection with this VHSV isolate by using cDNA microarray containing olive flounder 13K cDNA clones. Microarray analysis revealed 785 up-regulated genes and 641 down-regulated genes by at least two-fold in virus-infected fish compared to healthy control groups. Among 785 up-regulated genes, we identified seven immune response-associated genes, including the interferon (IFN)-induced 56-kDa protein (IFI56), suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), cluster of differentiation 83 (CD83), α-globin (HBA), VHSV-induced protein-6 (VHSV6), and cluster of differentiation antigen 9 (CD9). Our results confirm previous reports that even virulent strain of VHSV induces expression of genes involved in protective immunity against VHSV.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T14:54:16Z
       
  • Evolution of African swine fever virus genes related to evasion of host
           immune response
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Magdalena Frączyk, Grzegorz Woźniakowski, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Łukasz Bocian, Edyta Kozak, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Zygmunt Pejsak
      African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable and one of the most complex and devastating infectious disease of pigs, wild boars and other representatives of Suidae family. African swine fever virus (ASFV) developed various molecular mechanisms to evade host immune response including alteration of interferon production by multigene family protein (MGF505-2R), inhibition of NF-κB and nuclear activating factor in T-cells by the A238L protein, or modulation of host defense by CD2v lectin-like protein encoded by EP402R and EP153R genes. The current situation concerning ASF in Poland seems to be stable in comparison to other eastern European countries but up-to-date in total 106 ASF cases in wild boar and 5 outbreaks in pigs were identified. The presented study aimed to reveal and summarize the genetic variability of genes related to inhibition or modulation of infected host response among 67 field ASF isolates collected from wild boar and pigs. The nucleotide sequences derived from the analysed A238L and EP153R regions showed 100% identity. However, minor but remarkable genetic diversity was found within EP402R and MGF505-2R genes suggesting slow molecular evolution of circulating ASFV isolates and the important role of this gene in modulation of interferon I production and hemadsorption phenomenon. The obtained nucleotide sequences of Polish ASFV isolates were closely related to Georgia 2007/1 and Odintsovo 02/14 isolates suggesting their common Caucasian origin. In the case of EP402R and partially in MGF505-2R gene the identified genetic variability was related to spatio-temporal occurrence of particular cases and outbreaks what may facilitate evolution tracing of ASFV isolates. This is the first report indicating identification of genetic variability within the genes related to evasion of host immune system which may be used to trace the direction of ASFV isolates molecular evolution.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T14:54:16Z
       
  • DNA vaccine (P1-2A-3C-pCDNA) co-administered with Bovine IL-18 gives
           protective immune response against Foot and Mouth Disease in cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Sivareddy Kotla, Bahire Sanghratna Vishanath, Dechamma H.J., Ganesh K., Suryanarayana V.V.S., G.R. Reddy
      Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. Presently used tissue culture inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration. DNA vaccines along with appropriate adjutants is one of the approach for the development of alternative vaccine. In the present study, we constructed P1-2A-3CpCDNA (containing P1-2A-3C coding sequences of FMDV Asia-1 Ind 63/72) and bovine IL-18 pCDNA plasmids and evaluated in cattle. Four groups of calves each group containing six calves were vaccinated with 200μg of plasmid DNA vaccine P1-2A-3CpCDNA, P1-2A-3CpCDNA+ bIL-18pCDNA and inactivated vaccine respectively where as fourth group was unvaccinated. P1-2A-3CpCDNA+bIL-18pCDNA vaccinated animals have shown higher levels of neutralizing antibodies and specific T-cell proliferation responses. Higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ cells were observed in these animals. Similarly, IL-18 adjuvanted group has shown increased Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses. All the vaccinated animals were challenged with cattle adapted FMD homologous Asia1 virus two weeks after the booster dose. IL18 co administered DNA vaccine construct has protected four out of six animals challenged with homologous virus.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T14:54:16Z
       
  • Chlamydia pecorum is the endemic intestinal species in cattle while C.
           gallinacea, C. psittaci and C. pneumoniae associate with sporadic systemic
           infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Jing Li, Weina Guo, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, Konrad Sachse, Yi Yang, Guangwu Lu, Jilei Zhang, Lu Luan, Jinfeng You, Ke Huang, Haixiang Qiu, Yaoyao Wang, Min Li, Zhangping Yang, Chengming Wang
      To investigate the prevalence and diversity of bovine Chlamydia spp. in cattle, whole blood from dairy and beef cattle in 11 provinces of China (n=2003) and vaginal swabs, whole blood samples, feces, milk samples from cows in a Yangzhou dairy farm (n=108) were examined using genus- and species-specific PCRs. In cattle from 11 provinces, 2.4% (48/2003) of whole-blood samples were positive for Chlamydia spp., and four Chlamydia species (C. pneumoniae, 41.7%, 20/48; C. psittaci, 22.9%, 11/48; C. gallinacea, 20.8%, 10/48; C. pecorum, 6.3%, 3/48) were identified. In a further study on a Yangzhou dairy farm, 64.8% (70/108) of the cows were positive for Chlamydia spp. C. pecorum was the intestinal endemic species (51/51, 100%), and C. gallinacea was the most frequent species in vaginal swabs (24/27, 88.9%), whole blood buffy coats (5/8, 62.5%) and milk (4/6, 66.7%). C. psittaci and C. pneumoniae were infrequently detected. DNA sequencing of the ompA gene demonstrated the presence of multiple in-herd C. pecorum serovars and single C. gallinacea and C. psittaci serovars which were identical with those of poultry from Yangzhou. This is the first report of C. gallinacea and C. pneumoniae in cattle. Further study is required to address the transmission of Chlamydia spp., in particular of C. gallinacea and C. pneumoniae from their natural hosts, and their potential pathogenic effect on health and production of cattle.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T14:54:16Z
       
  • Surveillance, epidemiological, and virological detection of highly
           pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in duck and poultry from
           Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Wahedul Karim Ansari, Md. Shafiullah Parvej, Mohamed E. El Zowalaty, Sally Jackson, Stephen A. Bustin, Adel K. Ibrahim, Ahmed E. El Zowalaty, Md. Tanvir Rahman, Han Zhang, Mohammad Ferdousur Rahman Khan, Md. Mostakin Ahamed, Md. Fasiur Rahman, Marzia Rahman, K.H.M. Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Sultan Ahmed, Md. Liakot Hossen, Md. Abdul Kafi, Mat Yamage, Nitish C. Debnath, Graba Ahmed, Hossam Ashour, Md. Masudur Rahman, Ayman Norredin, Md. Bahanur Rahman
      Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to pose a global threat. Waterfowl are the main reservoir and are responsible for the spillover of AIVs to other hosts. This study was conducted as part of routine surveillance activities in Bangladesh and it reports on the serological and molecular detection of H5N1 AIV subtype. A total of 2169 cloacal and 2191 oropharyngeal swabs as well as 1725 sera samples were collected from live birds including duck and chicken in different locations in Bangladesh between the years of 2013 and 2014. Samples were tested using virus isolation, serological tests and molecular methods of RT-PCR. Influenza A viruses were detected using reverse transcription PCR targeting the virus matrix (M) gene in 41/4360 (0.94%) samples including both cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples, 31 of which were subtyped as H5N1 using subtype-specific primers. Twenty-one live H5N1 virus isolates were recovered from those 31 samples. Screening of 1,868 blood samples collected from the same birds using H5-specific ELISA identified 545/1603 (34%) positive samples. Disconcertingly, an analysis of 221 serum samples collected from vaccinated layer chicken in four districts revealed that only 18 samples (8.1%) were seropositive for anti H5 antibodies, compared to unvaccinated birds (n=105), where 8 samples (7.6%) were seropositive. Our result indicates that the vaccination program as currently implemented should be reviewed and updated. In addition, surveillance programs are crucial for monitoring the efficacy of the current poultry vaccinations programs, and to monitor the circulating AIV strains and emergence of AIV subtypes in Bangladesh.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T14:54:16Z
       
  • Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis and correlation to
           phenotypic characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Karin Artursson, Robert Söderlund, Lihong Liu, Stefan Monecke, Jenny Schelin
      Reducing the prevalence of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is essential to improve animal health and reduce economic losses for farmers. The clinical outcome of acute mastitis and risk of progression to persistent mastitis can, at least to some extent, be related to genetic variants of the strain causing the infection. In the present study we have used microarrays to investigate the presence of virulence genes in S. aureus isolates from dairy cows with acute clinical mastitis (n=70) and correlated the findings to other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Among the most commonly found virulence factors were genes encoding several hemolysin types, leukocidins D and lukM/lukF-P83, clumping factors A and B, fibrinogen binding protein and fibronectin-binding protein A. Some virulence factors e.g. fibronectin-binding protein B and Staphylococcus aureus surface protein G were less common. Genes coding for several staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were commonly found, especially in one major pulsotype. No beta-lactamase genes were found in any common pulsotype, while present in some rare pulsotypes, indicated to be of human origin. Production of TSST-1, enterotoxins, hemolysins and beta-lactamase could all be positively correlated to presence of the corresponding genes. This study reveals a number of genotypic differences and similarities among common and rare pulsotypes of S. aureus from cases of mastitis in Sweden. The results could help the design of diagnostic tools to guide on-farm interventions according to the expected impact on udder health from a specific S. aureus genotype.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T14:47:19Z
       
  • Unusual outbreak of post-weaning porcine diarrhea caused by single and
           mixed infections of rotavirus groups A, B, C, and H
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Bruna Letícia Domingues Molinari, Flávia Possatti, Elis Lorenzetti, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
      Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of severe diarrhea in humans and animals. Five of the nine RV groups (RVA, RVB, RVC, RVE, and RVH) have been previously detected in pigs; however, in pig herds worldwide, most studies highlight diarrhea outbreaks caused by RVA. In the present study, we describe detection and characterization of RV groups A, B, C, and H in fecal samples from pigs with single and mixed infections during a post-weaning diarrhea outbreak. The outbreak occurred in a single pig herd routinely vaccinated with an inactivated commercial vaccine for neonatal diarrhea control that included the RVA OSU (G5P[7]) strain. RVC (78%) was the most prevalent group found in single (34%) and mixed (44%) infections, followed by RVA (46%), RVB (32%), and RVH (18%). Phylogenetic analysis of three RVA strains allowed the characterization of two distinct G/P genotypes represented by G5P[13] and G9P[23], different from G5P[7] found in vaccines. Regardless of the RV group, mixed infections (54%) were more prevalent than single infections. Detection of RVB or RVH was associated with the presence of other RV groups, suggesting a secondary action of these RV groups in the reported outbreak. The detection of RV groups B, C, and H in the same pig herd suggests that these RVs act as causative agents of diarrhea and should be included in the diagnostic tests of porcine enteric diseases. These data provide new epidemiological information on RV diversity that need to be addressed in future studies for a better understanding and prevention of RV infections.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T14:47:19Z
       
  • The detection of fosfomycin resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae from
           pets and their owners
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Hong Yao, Dongfang Wu, Lei Lei, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Kang Liao
      The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fosfomycin resistance and molecular characteristic of fosfomycin-resistant strains isolated from companion animals and their owners. A total of 171 samples collected from pets and pet owners in a Chinese veterinary teaching hospital were screened for the presence of phenotype and genotype of fosfomycin-resistance by selective media containing fosfomycin and PCR & sequencing. Among 171 samples tested, nineteen isolates were resistant to fosfomycin. Sixteen and three of these fosfomycin-resistant isolates were positive for fosA3 and fosA genes, respectively. The fosA3 gene was detected both in chromosomes and plasmids in bacteria. All of the fosA3 gene-positive isolates except one were CTX-M producers and nearly half (7/16) of them also harbored the rmtB gene. The fosA3 gene-carrying plasmids, which were readily transferrable to recipient E. coli J53 by conjugation, conferred resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Genetic structures were IS26-385bp-fosA3-1810bp-IS26 (n=11) and IS26-385bp-fosA3-588bp-IS26 (n=5). Molecular typing indicated that two fosA3-positive isolates from dogs were genetically identical to the isolates from the pet owners. Our results indicated that active transmission of fosA3-mediated fosfomycin resistance has occurred among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from pets and their owners by both horizontal transfer and clonal expansion.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T14:47:19Z
       
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 192


      PubDate: 2016-08-18T14:47:19Z
       
  • Pathogenicity of virulent infectious bronchitis virus isolate YN on hen
           ovary and oviduct
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Qi Zhong, Yan-xin Hu, Ji-hui Jin, Ye Zhao, Jing Zhao, Guo-zhong Zhang
      Avian infectious bronchitis is an economically important poultry disease caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). IBV isolate YN is a virulent strain, which is genetically similar to most of the prevalent strains in China. In this study, 21-day-old commercial laying hens were infected with IBV strain YN. The damaging effects of the virus on the reproductive organs were evaluated with clinical observations, gross autopsy and histopathological examinations during the 100-day monitoring period post infection. IBV strain YN infection caused a death rate of 40.5%. Microscopic lesions were observed on the ovary post-infection, but were restricted to the acute infection period. The pathological damage to the cystic oviducts were observed throughout the surveillance period. This study provides detailed information on the pathological changes in the hen ovary and oviduct after challenge with IBV strain YN, which could provide a better understanding about the pathogenicity of IBV.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T14:47:19Z
       
  • Chicken IL-7 as a potent adjuvant enhances IBDV VP2 DNA vaccine
           immunogenicity and protective efficacy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Shanshan Huo, Yuzhu Zuo, Nan Li, Xiujin Li, Yonghong Zhang, Liyue Wang, Hao Liu, Jianlou Zhang, Dan Cui, Pingyou He, Jian Xu, Yan Li, Xiutong Zhu, Fei Zhong
      Our previous work has demonstrated that the mammalian interleukin-7 (IL-7) gene can enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine. Whether chicken IL-7 (chIL-7) possesses the ability to enhance the immunogenicity of VP2 DNA vaccine of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) remained unknown. To investigate this, we constructed a VP2 antigenic region (VP2366) gene and chIL-7 gene vectors, co-immunized chicken with these vectors and analyzed the effects of the chIL-7 gene on VP2366 gene immunogenicity. Results showed that co-administrated chIL-7 gene with VP2 DNA vaccine significantly increased specific serum antibody titers against IBDV, and enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ and IL-4 productions. More importantly, chIL-7 gene significantly increased VP2366 gene-induced protection against virulent IBDV infection, indicating that the chIL-7 gene possessed the capacity to enhance VP2366 DNA vaccine immunogenicity, and therefore might function as a novel adjuvant for IBDV VP2 DNA vaccine. Mechanically, chIL-7 could stimulate the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) expressions in vitro and in vivo, which might be involved in chIL-7 enhancement of the immunogenicity of VP2 DNA vaccine.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T14:47:19Z
       
  • Two strains of Mycoplasma synoviae from chicken flocks on the same layer
           farm differ in their ability to produce eggshell apex abnormality
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): S. Catania, F. Gobbo, D. Bilato, L. Gagliazzo, M.L. Moronato, C. Terregino, J.M. Bradbury, A.S. Ramírez
      Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms) is considered to be an economically important poultry pathogen. Although the full economic costs of infection in layer chickens are still under debate, the prevalence of Ms is known to be high in some countries and earlier reports have shown a correlation between infection and Eggshell Apex Abnormality (EAA). This work is a continuation of an earlier study of a clinical case of EAA on a layer hen farm where the presence of two different strains of Ms, based on the sequence of the 5′ end of the vlhA gene, was demonstrated. Both strains could be detected in the trachea but only one (designated strain PASC8) appeared able to colonize the oviduct, while the other (designated TRACH) was not found in the oviduct and has not been related to EAA. The PASC8 partial vlhA gene sequence differs from that of the TRACH in having a 39 nucleotide deletion in the proline rich region and three point mutations in the RIII region. Based on this information an experimental infection was performed in SPF chickens using groups infected with either the PASC8 or the TRACH strain and a non-infected control group. Both Ms strains were detected in the trachea of infected birds, but only the PASC8 strain was found in the oviduct. Furthermore, EAA developed only in the group infected with PASC8 strain. Compared to the control group, both strains produced an adverse impact on egg production: a decrease in the numbers laid and in their average weight (P <0.05) This work demonstrates a difference in oviduct tropism between two Ms strains and a possible relationship to the production of EAA in experimental conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T14:47:19Z
       
  • Role of autophagy in cellular response to infection with Orf virus Jilin
           isolate
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Yungang Lan, Gaili Wang, Deguang Song, Wenqi He, Di Zhang, Houshuang Huang, Jingying Bi, Feng Gao, Kui Zhao
      Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which has been described to be involved in the development of various viral diseases. However, the role of autophagy in Orf virus (ORFV) replication remains unknown. In this study, we provide the first evidence that ORFV infection triggered autophagy in primary ovine fetal turbinate cells (OFTu) based on the appearance of abundant double- and single-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of LC3 fluorescent puncta, the enhancement of LC3-I/-II conversion, and autophagic flux. Moreover, modulation of ORFV-induced autophagy by rapamycin (RAPA), Earle's balanced salts solution (EBSS), chloroquine (CQ) or 3-methyladenime (3-MA) does not affect virus production. In conclusion, these results suggest that autophagy can be induced in host cells by ORFV infection, but which maybe not essential for ORFV replication.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T14:42:32Z
       
  • Impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine
           circovirus-2 infection on the potency of the classical swine fever vaccine
           (LOM strain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Seong-In Lim, Hye-Young Jeoung, Byounghan Kim, Jae-young Song, Jaejo Kim, Ha-Young Kim, In-Soo Cho, Gye-Hyeong Woo, Joong-Bok Lee, Dong-Jun An
      The classical swine fever (CSF) vaccine, which is derived from the LOM strain of the CSF virus (CSFV), induces protective immunity against CSFV infection. However, several factors influence vaccine efficacy. Evidence suggests that infection by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and/or porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) reduces the efficacy of several vaccines. Here, we examined the effect of PRRSV or PCV2 alone or co-infection by PRRSV/PCV2 on the potency of the LOM vaccine in pigs. Neither CSFV antibody levels nor the period during which CSFV antigens were detectable in LOM-vaccinated pigs were negatively affected by infection by PRRSV or PCV2. However, co-infection with PRRSV/PCV2 may affect the replication or activity of the CSF vaccine virus in pigs vaccinated with the LOM strain, although CSFV antibody levels were not negatively affected. Nevertheless, the LOM vaccine afforded complete protection against a virulent strain of CSFV.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T14:42:32Z
       
  • First screening for Brachyspira hampsonii in Swiss pigs applying a new
           high resolution melting assay
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Simone Scherrer, Anna Borgström, Daniel Frei, Max M. Wittenbrink
      A new High Resolution Melting (HRM) assay was developed for the rapid detection of Brachyspira (B.) hampsonii. B. hampsonii occurs in different European countries, however, until today it has not been encountered in Switzerland. Four B. hampsonii reference strains were used to develop the HRM assay: B. hampsonii clade I ATCC BAA2463 and clade II ATCC BAA2464 strain, as well as two isolated strains P280/1 from the UK and the German isolate 5369-1x/12. A conserved region of the nox gene was used to design B. hampsonii-specific primers. The HRM melting curves for the four reference strains showed reproducible difference graphs with distinct differences between the four strains based on a slight variation between the four amplicon sequences. In addition, DNA from 22 B. hampsonii strains representing four genetic B. hampsonii groups was used to validate the method. Melting temperatures in the interval between 73.1 and 74°C were obtained for all B. hampsonii strains and allow differentiating B. hampsonii from other Brachyspira species. In total 897 Swiss porcine fecal Brachyspira isolates, cultured between 2009 and 2015, were analysed by the HRM protocol. B. hampsonii was not detected among these Swiss Brachyspira isolates. In conclusion, the rapid and low-cost HRM approach allows a sensitive and specific identification of B. hampsonii.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:28:41Z
       
  • Virulence type and tissue tropism of Staphylococcus strains originating
           from Hungarian rabbit farms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 193
      Author(s): Zoltán Német, Ervin Albert, Krisztina Nagy, Edit Csuka, Ádám Dán, Ottó Szenci, Katleen Hermans, Gyula Balka, Imre Biksi
      Staphylococcosis has a major economic impact on rabbit farming worldwide. Previous studies described a highly virulent variant, which is disseminated across Europe. Such strains are reported to be capable of inducing uncontrollable outbreaks. The authors describe a survey conducted on 374 Staphylococcus strains isolated from rabbit farms, mostly from Hungary, between 2009 and 2014, from a variety of pathological processes. The virulence type of the strains was determined using a multiplex PCR system. 84.2% of the strains belonged to a previously rarely isolated atypical highly virulent type. Only 6.1% belonged to the typical highly virulent genotype. Even low virulent strains were present at a higher percentage (6.4%). For a small group of strains (3.2%) the detection of the femA gene failed, indicating that these strains probably do not belong to the Staphylococcus aureus species. The results reveal the possibility of the asymptomatic presence of highly virulent strains on rabbit farms. “Non-aureus” Staphylococcus sp. can also have a notable role in the etiology of rabbit staphylococcosis. An association with the lesions and the virulence type was demonstrated. Statistical analysis of data on organotropism showed a significant correlation between septicaemia and the highly virulent genotype.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T20:28:41Z
       
  • Epidemiological survey of enteric viruses in wild boars in the Czech
           Republic: First evidence of close relationship between wild boar and human
           rotavirus A strains
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Romana Moutelíková, Lucie Dufková, Jiří Kamler, Jakub Drimaj, Radim Plhal, Jana Prodělalová
      Population of wild boar is increasing in the whole Europe, the animals migrate close to human habitats which greatly increases the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. The aim of the study was to estimate in population of free-living wild boar in the Czech Republic the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens, namely rotavirus groups A and C (RVA and RVC), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and members of family Coronaviridae (transmissible gastroenteritis virus − TGEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus − PEDV, porcine respiratory coronavirus − PRCV, and porcine hemagglutination encephalomyelitis virus − PHEV) and Picornaviridae,(teschovirus A − PTV, sapelovirus A − PSV, and enterovirus G − EV-G). In our study, stool samples from 203 wild boars culled during hunting season 2014-2015 (from October to January) were examined by RT-PCR. RVA was detected in 2.5% of tested samples. Nucleotide analysis of VP7, VP4, and VP6 genes revealed that four RVA strains belong to G4P[25]I1, G4P[6]I5, G11P[13]I5, and G5P[13]I5 genotypes and phylogenetic analysis suggested close relation to porcine and human RVAs. The prevalence of RVC in wild boar population reached 12.8%, PTV was detected in 20.2%, PSV in 8.9%, and EV-G in 2.5% of samples. During our study no PRRSV or coronaviruses were detected. Our study provides the first evidence of RVC prevalence in wild boars and indicates that wild boars might contribute to the genetic variability of RVA and also serve as an important reservoir of other enteric viruses.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T20:13:02Z
       
  • Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine
           fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Tariq Halasa, Anette Bøtner, Sten Mortensen, Hanne Christensen, Nils Toft, Anette Boklund
      African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd − either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd, a randomly selected herd or in multiple herds simultaneously. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on input parameters. Given the inputs and assumptions of the model, epidemics of ASF in Denmark are predicted to be small, affecting about 14 herds in the worst-case scenario. The duration of an epidemic is predicted to vary from 1 to 76 days. Substantial economic damages are predicted, with median direct costs and export losses of €12 and €349 million, respectively, when epidemics were initiated in multiple herds. Each infectious herd resulted in 0 to 2 new infected herds varying from 0 to 5 new infected herds, depending on the index herd type.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T20:13:02Z
       
  • TolC is important for bacterial survival and oxidative stress response in
           Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis in an acidic environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jen-Jie Lee, Ying-Chen Wu, Chih-Jung Kuo, Shih-Ling Hsuan, Ter-Hsin Chen
      The outer membrane protein TolC, which is one of the key components of several multidrug efflux pumps, is thought to be involved in various independent systems in Enterobacteriaceae. Since the acidic environment of the stomach is an important protection barrier against foodborne pathogen infections in hosts, we evaluated whether TolC played a role in the acid tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis. Comparison of the acid tolerance of the tolC mutant and the parental wild-type strain showed that the absence of TolC limits the ability of Salmonella to sustain life under extreme acidic conditions. Additionally, the mutant exhibited morphological changes during growth in an acidic medium, leading to the conflicting results of cell viability measured by spectrophotometry and colony-forming unit counting. Reverse-transcriptional-PCR analysis indicated that acid-related molecules, apparatus, or enzymes and oxidation-induced factors were significantly affected by the acidic environment in the null-tolC mutant. The elongated cellular morphology was restored by adding antioxidants to the culture medium. Furthermore, we found that increased cellular antioxidative activity provides an overlapping protection against acid killing, demonstrating the complexity of the bacterial acid stress response. Our findings reinforce the multifunctional characteristics of TolC in acid tolerance or oxidative stress resistance and support the correlative protection mechanism between oxygen- and acid-mediated stress responses in Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T20:13:02Z
       
  • The role of Ca2+ mediated signaling pathways on the effect of taurine
           against Streptococcus uberis infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 192
      Author(s): Bin Dai, Jinqiu Zhang, Ming Liu, Jinye Lu, Yuanshu Zhang, Yuanyuan Xu, Jinfeng Miao, Yulong Yin
      To provide insight into the mechanisms of taurine attenuation of pro-inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cell line (EpH4-Ev, purchased by ATCC, USA) after Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis, 0140J) challenge, we infected MECs with S. uberis (2.5×107 cfumL−1, MOI=10) for 3h and quantified changes in TLR-2 and calcium (Ca2+) mediated signaling pathways. The results indicate that S. uberis infection significantly increases the expression of TLR-2, intracellular Ca2+ levels, PLC-γ1 and PKC-α, the activities of transcription factors NF-κB and NFAT, and related cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, IL-2, KC, IL-15, FasL, MCP-1, and LIX) in culture supernatants. Taurine administration downregulated all these indices, the activities of NF-κB and NFAT. Cytokine secretions were similar using special PKC inhibitor Go 6983 and NFAT inhibitor VIVIT. Our data indicate that S. uberis infection induces pro-inflammatory response of MECs through a TLR-2 mediated signaling pathway. In addition, taurine can prevent MEC damage by affecting both PLC-γ1-Ca2+-PKC-α-NF-κB and PLC-γ1-Ca2+-NFATs signaling pathways. This is the first report to demonstrate the mechanisms of taurine attenuated pro-inflammatory response in MECs after S. uberis challenge.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T19:47:54Z
       
  • Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated
           with canine infectious respiratory disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 192
      Author(s): Nicola Decaro, Viviana Mari, Vittorio Larocca, Michele Losurdo, Gianvito Lanave, Maria Stella Lucente, Marialaura Corrente, Cristiana Catella, Stefano Bo, Gabriella Elia, Giorgio Torre, Erika Grandolfo, Vito Martella, Canio Buonavoglia
      A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T19:47:54Z
       
  • Impact of enrofloxacin and florfenicol therapy on the spread of OqxAB gene
           and intestinal microbiota in chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 August 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 192
      Author(s): Yi Chen, Jian Sun, Xiao-Ping Liao, Yang Shao, Liang Li, Liang-Xing Fang, Ya-Hong Liu
      Horizontal transfer of plasmid-encoded multidrug-resistant determinants is a major health problem and has attracted much public attention. We studied the dissemination of the efflux pump gene oqxAB located on transferable plasmid pHXY0908 between Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli in the gut of chickens. After an inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium harboring oqxAB-bearing plasmid pHXY0908, chickens were treated with enrofloxacin and florfenicol. Inoculated, but non-treated chickens were included as a control group. Our results revealed that commensal E. coli isolates from the gut of chickens acquired the oqxAB-bearing plasmid in both treated and non-treated groups. Additionally, in the florfenicol treatment group, the average isolation rate of oqxAB-positive E. coli was significantly higher than that in the non-treated group. PFGE analysis showed that oqxAB-positive E. coli strains belonged to different patterns with one predominating. Moreover, multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed that E. coli ST533 was closely associated with the spread of oqxAB gene. qPCR analysis indicated that antibiotic administration provided selective advantages for sustaining a significantly high level of oqxAB gene from the DNA extracted from the feces. There was also a fluctuation in the intestinal microbiota with antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the oqxAB gene could be readily spread within the intestinal microflora. This could be enhanced by administrated with clinical doses of florfenicol and enrofloxacin, resulting in the enlargement of resistance gene reservoirs. In addition, ST533 E. coli isolates were found to contribute to transfer of the oqxAB gene.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T19:47:54Z
       
  • Factors associated with herd-level PRRSV infection and age-time to
           seroconversion in farrow-to-finish herds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): C. Fablet, C. Marois-Créhan, B. Grasland, G. Simon, N. Rose
      Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd’s PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:21:59Z
       
 
 
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