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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 216 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • Whole genome SNP analysis of bovine B. anthracis strains from Switzerland
           reflects strict regional separation of Simmental and Swiss Brown breeds in
           the past
    • Authors: Sylviane Derzelle; Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet; Joachim Frey
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Sylviane Derzelle, Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet, Joachim Frey
      Bacillus anthracis is an evolutionarily young species that presents an extremely low genetic diversity due to its slow mode of propagation, determined by short replication phases and long sporulation periods. In our ongoing efforts to elucidate phylogenetic relationships between European B. anthracis isolates, the genomes of five strains from Switzerland belonging to lineages B.Br.CNEVA and A.Br.Aust94 were sequenced. Comparative analysis with additional, available genomes from both lineages, were used to reconstruct the substructure of these populations. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed two phylogeographical different groups among the Swiss B.Br.CNEVA strains (central and eastern Switzerland), that define the oldest most recent common ancestor of the B.Br.CNEVA lineage currently known. Age-old practices of livestock selection, breeding and preservation of unique traits of local breeds in Alpine valleys have likely favored differentiation of regional B. anthracis populations over centuries and the emergence of genetically distinct strains in an otherwise similar environment.

      PubDate: 2016-10-15T00:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
  • Corrigendum to “Isoleucine 61 in PLO is important for the hemolytic
           activity of PLO of Trueperella pyogenes” [Vet. Microbiol. 182 (2016)
    • Authors: Minghui Yan; Yunhao Hu; Jun Bao; Ya Xiao; Yue Zhang; Lingxiao Yang; Junwei Wang; Wenlong Zhang
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Minghui Yan, Yunhao Hu, Jun Bao, Ya Xiao, Yue Zhang, Lingxiao Yang, Junwei Wang, Wenlong Zhang

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T15:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Development of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assay for Mycoplasma
    • Authors: Mostafa Ghanem; Mohamed El-Gazzar
      Pages: 2 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Mostafa Ghanem, Mohamed El-Gazzar
      Mycoplasma iowae (MI) infection is an economically and commercially important disease of turkeys. There are no sequence typing assays available for MI strain identification, the only available molecular tools for this purpose, are DNA fingerprinting assays. In addition to their low reproducibility, fingerprinting assays require isolation of the microorganism in pure culture, which is difficult for avian mycoplasma. Therefore, we propose a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assay as the first genotyping assay for identification of MI. Based on the two available MI genomes on GenBank, 26 loci of housekeeping genes were identified and studied in a diverse sample set. Finally, six genes were selected for the newly developed MLST assay. The final sequence analysis of the six loci (total of 5019bp) (dppC, ulaA, valS, rpoC, leuS, kdpA) allowed the differentiation of 47 MI samples into 23 unique sequence types. Moreover, when only 4 loci were used to type the same set of samples, they resulted in 20 unique sequence types. Analysis of phylogenetic trees and clonal groups generated by MLST displayed a high degree of agreement with geographical and temporal information of the tested samples. MLST is a highly reproducible molecular epidemiology assay that can be used to identify positive clinical cases directly from DNA samples. Therefore, it provides a useful tool allowing for better identification, control and eradication efforts.

      PubDate: 2016-09-01T15:31:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • A longitudinal study of the Mycobacterium avium subspecies
           paratuberculosis infection status in young goats and their mothers
    • Authors: Pascale Mercier; Sandrine Freret; Karine Laroucau; Marie-Pierre Gautier; Isabelle Brémaud; Claire Bertin; Christelle Rossignol; Armel Souriau; Laurence A. Guilloteau
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Pascale Mercier, Sandrine Freret, Karine Laroucau, Marie-Pierre Gautier, Isabelle Brémaud, Claire Bertin, Christelle Rossignol, Armel Souriau, Laurence A. Guilloteau
      The dynamics between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and the immune response of goats naturally exposed to MAP were studied in a herd where the clinical expression of paratuberculosis had been observed. Four generations of goats were observed over a 33-month period: mothers of three different generations (G1, G2, G3) and their daughters, generation 4 (G4). A MAP infection status was defined according to the combined results of an IFN-γ assay, antibody response, faecal culture and post-mortem examination. Goats were defined as non-infected (NI), infected and non-shedder (INS), infected and shedder (IS) or atypical (A). Twenty-nine percent of goats were NI, 66% were infected and either shedding (14%) or not shedding (52%) MAP, and 5% were atypical. IFN-γ responses were detected first, followed by faecal shedding and antibody responses. The results showed that in goats naturally exposed to MAP, IFN-γ responses were regularly detected earlier in non-shedders than in young infected shedder goats and were stronger in shedder than in non-shedder goats. They were also higher in the mother goats than in their daughters. Goats shedding MAP or with positive antibody response at the beginning of their pregnancy are more likely to have an infected daughter positive to an IFN-γ assay by the age of 15 months.

      PubDate: 2016-09-01T15:31:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • A Pasteurella multocida strain affecting nulliparous heifers and calves in
           different ways
    • Authors: Conny Turni; Denise Dayao; Gorka Aduriz; Nekane Cortabarria; Carolina Tejero; Jose C. Ibabe; Reema Singh; Pat Blackall
      Pages: 17 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Conny Turni, Denise Dayao, Gorka Aduriz, Nekane Cortabarria, Carolina Tejero, Jose C. Ibabe, Reema Singh, Pat Blackall
      Pasteurella multocida isolates from dairy cattle on a farm in Spain were associated with pneumonia of calves (six isolates) and mastitis of heifers (five isolates). The objective was to determine if the P. multocida isolates retrieved from both disease scenarios were the same strain or whether more than one strain was present. The isolates were identified by a species-specific polymerase chain (PCR) assay, serotyped by the Heddleston scheme and then typed by a number of molecular genotyping assays including multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The 11 isolates were confirmed as P. multocida but failed to react with any of the 16 Heddleston antisera. The PCR targeting the genes associated with the lipopolysaccharide outer core biosynthesis locus assigned all the isolates to L3–the type that contains Heddleston serovars 3 and 4. The MLST analysis showed all isolates belonging to ST 79 within the clonal complex of ST13. Only one of the isolates showed a slight different profile by the repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR. The conclusion was that the same strain was associated with pneumonia in calves and mastitis in heifers.

      PubDate: 2016-09-05T15:46:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.08.022
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos’: Transplacental transmission
           in dairy cows (Bos taurus)
    • Authors: Aline Girotto-Soares; João Fabio Soares; Alexey Leon Gomel Bogado; César Augusto Barbosa de Macedo; Lígia Mara Sandeski; João Luis Garcia; Odilon Vidotto
      Pages: 22 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Aline Girotto-Soares, João Fabio Soares, Alexey Leon Gomel Bogado, César Augusto Barbosa de Macedo, Lígia Mara Sandeski, João Luis Garcia, Odilon Vidotto
      ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos’ is a haemotropic mycoplasma that can produce various clinical signs in cattle, but abortive potential of the parasite is unknown, as well as the frequency of transplacental transmission in cattle. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of detection of ‘C. M. haemobos’ in aborted fetuses and the blood of dairy cows. Blood samples of 22 dairy cows that aborted and pool tissues (brain, lung, heart and liver) of their respective aborted fetuses were tested by conventional PCR. The occurrence of ‘C. M. haemobos’ DNA in adult animals was 40.9% (9/22) and in the fetuses was 18.2% (4/22). Two fetuses that contained ‘C. M. haemobos’ DNA were derived from cows which were PCR negative. When stratifying by breed, it was observed that Jersey cows had a higher proportion of positive animals (8/11; 72.7%) as compared to Holstein (1/9; 11.1% P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that this parasite can be transferred via the placenta, but it is not certain if the abortions were due to ‘C. M. haemobos’.

      PubDate: 2016-09-15T16:08:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Circulation of multiple genotypes of H1N2 viruses in a swine farm in Italy
           over a two-month period
    • Authors: Maria Serena Beato; Luca Tassoni; Adelaide Milani; Annalisa Salviato; Guido Di Martino; Monica Mion; Lebana Bonfanti; Isabella Monne; Simon James Watson; Alice Fusaro
      Pages: 25 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Maria Serena Beato, Luca Tassoni, Adelaide Milani, Annalisa Salviato, Guido Di Martino, Monica Mion, Lebana Bonfanti, Isabella Monne, Simon James Watson, Alice Fusaro
      In August 2012 repeated respiratory outbreaks caused by swine influenza A virus (swIAV) were registered for a whole year in a breeding farm in northeast Italy that supplied piglets for fattening. The virus, initially characterized in the farm, was a reassortant Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (H1avN1) genotype, containing a haemagglutinin segment derived from the pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) lineage. To control infection, a vaccination program using vaccines against the A(H1N1)pdm09, human-like H1N2 (H1huN2), human-like H3N2 (H3N2), and H1avN1 viruses was implemented in sows in November 2013. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by sampling nasal swabs for two months in 35 to 75 day-old piglets born from vaccinated sows. Complete genome sequencing of eight swIAV-positive nasal swabs collected longitudinally from piglets after the implementation of the vaccination program was conducted to investigate the virus characteristics. Over the two-month period, two different genotypes involving multiple reassortment events were detected. The unexpected circulation of multiple reassortant genotypes in such a short time highlights the complexity of the genetic diversity of swIAV and the need for a better surveillance plan, based on the combination of clinical signs, epidemiological data and whole genome characterization.

      PubDate: 2016-09-10T15:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Molecular and epidemiological population-based integrative analysis of
           human and animal Mycobacterium bovis infections in a low-prevalence
    • Authors: Juan José Palacios; Yurena Navarro; Beatriz Romero; Ana Penedo; Ángela Menéndez González; M. Dolores Pérez Hernández; Ana Fernández-Verdugo; Francisca Copano; Aurora Torreblanca; Emilio Bouza; Lucas Domínguez; Lucía de Juan; Darío García-de-Viedma
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Juan José Palacios, Yurena Navarro, Beatriz Romero, Ana Penedo, Ángela Menéndez González, M. Dolores Pérez Hernández, Ana Fernández-Verdugo, Francisca Copano, Aurora Torreblanca, Emilio Bouza, Lucas Domínguez, Lucía de Juan, Darío García-de-Viedma
      Human Mycobacterium bovis infections are considered to be due to reactivations, when involve elderly people, or to recent transmissions, when exposure is occupational. We determined the cause of M. bovis infections by genotyping M. bovis isolates in a population-based study integrating human and animal databases. Among the 1,586 tuberculosis (TB) cases in Asturias, Northern Spain (1,080,000 inhabitants), 1,567 corresponded to M. tuberculosis and 19 to M. bovis. The number of human isolates sharing genotype with cattle isolates was higher than expected (47%) for a setting with low prevalence of bovine TB and efficient control programs in cattle. The risk of exposure to infected animals was probable/possible in most of these matched cases (77.7%). Recent transmission was the likely explanation of most M. bovis infections in elderly people. A potential human-to-human transmission was found. Our study illustrates a model of collaboration between human and animal health professionals to provide a precise snapshot of the transmission of M. bovis in the human-animal interface.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Whole genomic analysis of bovine group A rotavirus strains A5-10 and A5-13
           provides evidence for close evolutionary relationship with human
    • Authors: Satoshi Komoto; Yaowapa Pongsuwanna; Ratana Tacharoenmuang; Ratigorn Guntapong; Tomihiko Ide; Kyoko Higo-Moriguchi; Takao Tsuji; Tetsushi Yoshikawa; Koki Taniguchi
      Pages: 37 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Satoshi Komoto, Yaowapa Pongsuwanna, Ratana Tacharoenmuang, Ratigorn Guntapong, Tomihiko Ide, Kyoko Higo-Moriguchi, Takao Tsuji, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Koki Taniguchi
      Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) is an important cause of acute diarrhea in calves worldwide. In order to obtain precise information on the origin and evolutionary dynamics of bovine RVA strains, we determined and analyzed the complete nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of six archival bovine RVA strains; four Thai strains (RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A5-10/1988/G8P[1], RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A5-13/1988/G8P[1], RVA/Cow-tc/THA/61A/1989/G10P[5], and RVA/Cow-tc/THA/A44/1989/G10P[11]), one American strain (RVA/Cow-tc/USA/B223/1983/G10P[11]), and one Japanese strain (RVA/Cow-tc/JPN/KK3/1983/G10P[11]). On whole genomic analysis, the 11 gene segments of strains A5-10, A5-13, 61A, A44, B223, and KK3 were found to be considerably genetically diverse, but to share a conserved non-G/P genotype constellation except for the NSP1 gene (I2-R2-C2-M2-(A3/11/13/14)-N2-T6-E2-H3), which is commonly found in RVA strains from artiodactyls such as cattle. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that most genes of the six strains were genetically related to bovine and bovine-like strains. Of note is that the VP1, VP3, and NSP2 genes of strains A5-10 and A5-13 exhibited a closer relationship with the cognate genes of human DS-1-like strains than those of other RVA strains. Furthermore, the VP6 genes of strains A5-10 and A5-13 appeared to be equally related to both human DS-1-like and bovine strains. Thus, strains A5-10 and A5-13 were suggested to be derived from the same evolutionary origin as human DS-1-like strains, and were assumed to be examples of bovine RVA strains that provide direct evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between bovine and human DS-1-like strains. Our findings will provide important insights into the origin of bovine RVA strains, and into evolutionary links between bovine and human RVA strains.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T10:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Corrigendum to “In vivo virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia
           virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss correlates inversely
           with in vitro Mx gene expression” [Vet. Microbiol. 187 (2016) 31–40]
    • Authors: Irene Cano; Bertrand Collet; Clarissa Pereira; Richard Paley; Ronny van Aerle; David Stone; Nick G.H. Taylor
      Pages: 58 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Irene Cano, Bertrand Collet, Clarissa Pereira, Richard Paley, Ronny van Aerle, David Stone, Nick G.H. Taylor

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Differential expression of putative adhesin genes of Actinobacillus suis
           grown in in vivo-like conditions
    • Authors: Adina R. Bujold; Josée Labrie; Mario Jacques; Janet I. MacInnes
      Pages: 60 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Adina R. Bujold, Josée Labrie, Mario Jacques, Janet I. MacInnes
      Actinobacillus suis is an opportunistic pathogen that resides in the tonsils of the soft palate of swine. Unknown stimuli can cause this organism to invade the host, resulting in septicaemia and sequelae including death. To better understand its pathogenesis, the expression of several adhesin genes was evaluated by semi-quantitative real-time PCR in A. suis grown in conditions that mimic the host environment, including different nutrient and oxygen levels, exponential and stationary phases of growth, and in the presence of the stress hormone epinephrine. Fifty micromolar epinephrine did not affect the growth rate or expression of A. suis adhesin genes, but there was a significant growth phase effect for many genes. Most adhesin genes were also differentially expressed during anoxic static growth or aerobic growth, and in this study, all genes were differentially expressed in either exponential or stationary phase. Based on the time*treatment interactions observed in the anoxic study, a model of persistence of A. suis in the host environment in biofilm and planktonic states is proposed. Biofilm dynamics were further studied using wild type and isogenic mutants of the type IVb pilin (Δ flp1), the OmpA outer membrane protein (ΔompA), and the fibronectin-binding (ΔcomE1) genes. Disruption of these adhesin genes affected the early stages of biofilm formation, but in most cases, biofilm formation of the mutant strains was similar to that of the wild type by 24h of incubation. We postulate that other adhesins may have overlapping functions that can compensate for those of the missing adhesins.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Mouse model for the Rift Valley fever virus MP12 strain infection
    • Authors: Yuekun Lang; Jamie Henningson; Dane Jasperson; Yonghai Li; Jinhwa Lee; Jingjiao Ma; Yuhao Li; Nan Cao; Haixia Liu; William Wilson; Juergen Richt; Mark Ruder; Scott McVey; Wenjun Ma
      Pages: 70 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yuekun Lang, Jamie Henningson, Dane Jasperson, Yonghai Li, Jinhwa Lee, Jingjiao Ma, Yuhao Li, Nan Cao, Haixia Liu, William Wilson, Juergen Richt, Mark Ruder, Scott McVey, Wenjun Ma
      Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a Category A pathogen and select agent, is the causative agent of Rift Valley fever. To date, no fully licensed vaccine is available in the U.S. for human or animal use and effective antiviral drugs have not been identified. The RVFV MP12 strain is conditionally licensed for use for veterinary purposes in the U.S. which was excluded from the select agent rule of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The MP12 vaccine strain is commonly used in BSL-2 laboratories that is generally not virulent in mice. To establish a small animal model that can be used in a BSL-2 facility for antiviral drug development, we investigated susceptibility of six mouse strains (129S6/SvEv, STAT-1 KO, 129S1/SvlmJ, C57BL/6J, NZW/LacJ, BALB/c) to the MP12 virus infection via an intranasal inoculation route. Severe weight loss, obvious clinical and neurologic signs, and 50% mortality was observed in the STAT-1 KO mice, whereas the other 5 mouse strains did not display obvious and/or severe disease. Virus replication and histopathological lesions were detected in brain and liver of MP12-infected STAT-1 KO mice that developed the acute-onset hepatitis and delayed-onset encephalitis. In conclusion, the STAT-1 KO mouse strain is susceptible to MP12 virus infection, indicating that it can be used to investigate RVFV antivirals in a BSL-2 environment.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Identification of recombination among VP1 gene of Muscovy duck parvovirus
           from the Mainland of China
    • Authors: Tian-fei Yu; Ming Li
      Pages: 78 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Tian-fei Yu, Ming Li

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Caveolin-1-mediated endocytic pathway is involved in Classical swine fever
           virus Shimen infection of porcine alveolar macrophages
    • Authors: Pengbo Ning; Lifang Gao; Yulu Zhou; Congxia Hu; Zhi Lin; Cunmei Gong; Kangkang Guo; Xianghan Zhang
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Pengbo Ning, Lifang Gao, Yulu Zhou, Congxia Hu, Zhi Lin, Cunmei Gong, Kangkang Guo, Xianghan Zhang
      Macrophages are at the frontline of defense against pathogenic microorganisms. However, very little is known about the cell invasion mechanism of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Shimen strain. To elucidate the infective mechanism of this important pathogen, we screened deep-sequencing data derived from macrophages infected with CSFV Shimen and uninfected macrophages, and identified a role of caveolin-1 (CAV1). Digital gene expression profiling showed that CAV1 was differentially expressed in CSFV Shimen-infected macrophages. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that the transcription and translation of CAV1 were significantly up-regulated in CSFV Shimen-infected macrophages. In addition, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy analysis suggested that CAV1 was temporally colocalized with CSFV E2 throughout the course of the infection. Through the overexpression of recombinant CAV1 or the silencing of CAV1 expression using small interfering RNA in macrophages, we demonstrated that CAV1 expression is beneficial for the replication of CSFV Shimen. However, RNA silencing of CAV1 did not prevent viral replication, which may indicate that CSFV can also enter macrophages by other mechanisms. Our findings suggest that CAV1-mediated endocytosis is advantageous for productive CSFV Shimen infection in macrophages, providing a new insight into the mechanisms of evasion of host immunity for successful viral infection.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Autophagy and apoptosis induced by Chinese giant salamander (Andrias
           davidianus) iridovirus (CGSIV)
    • Authors: Jian Du; Liqing Wang; Yuanxian Wang; Jian Shen; Chuanyin Pan; Yan Meng; Changming Yang; Hong Ji; Wuzi Dong
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jian Du, Liqing Wang, Yuanxian Wang, Jian Shen, Chuanyin Pan, Yan Meng, Changming Yang, Hong Ji, Wuzi Dong
      The outbreak of Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus, CGS) Iridovirus (CGSIV) caused massive death of CGSs. However, some CGSs with low level of CGSIV usually could survive. In our study, major capsid protein (MCP) DNA replicates of CGSIV in shedding skin were employed to assess the relative content of CGSIV in the living CGSs by qPCR. Furthermore, the examinations of autophagy and apoptosis in CGSs in vivo and in the primary renal cells in vitro were performed, respectively. The results showed that the relative contents of CGSIV in the shedding skin could reflect those in liver, spleen, and kidney of the CGSs. In these tissues of the CGSs with low-level replicates of CGSIV, there were not obviously macroscopic lesions. But the irregularly-shaped vesicles perhaps involving in autophagosome were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The LC3B protein displayed uneven distribution by immunohistochemistry and the level mRNA of Atg5 was higher in these tissues than that in the tissues of healthy CGSs using qRT-PCR. Meanwhile,the apoptosis also appeared in these tissues by TUNEL staining and higher level mRNA of type I IFN were detected in these tissues using qRT-PCR. Further, both the expression level of LC3B II protein and Atg5 mRNA increased significantly at 2h after the virus infected the primary renal cells from the health CGSs in vitro. In addition, apoptosis and type I IFN mRNA began to increase significantly at 4h after the virus infected the renal cells. It was suggested that autophagy may be a pivotal role for survival of CGSIV in the CGSs during early infection and the rapid proliferation of CGSIV could be inhibited by innate immune response and apoptosis.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T16:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 oncogene enhances Mitogen-Activated
           Protein Kinases and Akt activation but not EGFR expression in an in vitro
           feline model of viral pathogenesis
    • Authors: Gennaro Altamura; Annunziata Corteggio; Giuseppe Borzacchiello
      Pages: 96 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Gennaro Altamura, Annunziata Corteggio, Giuseppe Borzacchiello
      A possible causative role of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) in the development of feline oral and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) has been recently suggested by demonstrating viral gene expression in vivo and transforming properties by its putative oncogenes E6 and E7 in vitro. The activated molecules MEK (pMEK), ERK (pERK) and Akt (pAkt) are signaling transduction effectors regulating cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis, which are critical steps towards tumour formation. Here, we show by Western blotting (WB) that expression of FcaPV2 E6 in feline epithelial cells enhances pERK, pMEK and pAkt levels compared to control cells. Additionally, we demonstrated by real-time quantitative PCR on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transcripts and WB that activation of these signaling routes is independent from EGFR differential gene expression, total protein levels or phosphorylation, unlike in human papillomavirus associated tumours. This study contributes to define the molecular scenario underlying FcaPV2-triggered pathogenesis of feline SCC.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Feral pigeons: a reservoir of zoonotic Salmonella Enteritidis strains'
    • Authors: Roel Haesendonck; Geertrui Rasschaert; An Martel; Elin Verbrugghe; Marc Heyndrickx; Freddy Haesebrouck; Frank Pasmans
      Pages: 101 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Roel Haesendonck, Geertrui Rasschaert, An Martel, Elin Verbrugghe, Marc Heyndrickx, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans
      Salmonella enterica infections in pigeons are generally associated with pigeon-adapted strains of serovar Typhimurium that are of little public health concern. Here, we isolated Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4), an important human pathogen, from a population of feral pigeons in Brussels, which was further characterized by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. All pigeon isolates belonged to the same pulsotype, which has been present in Belgian pigeons at least since 2001 and is associated with poultry and disease in humans. A high prevalence of 33% of Salmonella Enteritidis in Brussels combined with dense pigeon populations suggest that feral pigeons may constitute a significant, but unrevealed reservoir for contracting salmonellosis in the urban environment.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Induction of Functional Interferon alpha and gamma Responses during Acute
           Infection of Cattle with Non-cytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus
    • Authors: Brenden Van Wyk; Marlene Snider; Erin Scruten; Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk; Scott Napper
      Pages: 104 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Brenden Van Wyk, Marlene Snider, Erin Scruten, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Scott Napper
      As a part of their pathogenic mechanism, many pathogens causing persistent infections, including bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), immunosuppress their hosts, often by limiting the ability to either produce, or respond to, interferon. The objective of this study was to quantify the extent to which an acute infection of cattle with a non-cytopathic strain of BVDV induces interferon responses and to establish the functionality of these responses. Functionality of responses was investigated using a bovine specific peptide array to monitor kinase-mediated signal transduction activity within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at time points corresponding to the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and alpha (IFN-α) responsive phases of acute BVDV infection. Further, with an appreciation of diverse mechanisms and levels at which pathogens modulate host cell defences, patterns of expression of IFN-γ and −α responsive genes were also quantified within PBMCs. Infection of cows with ncpBVDV2-1373 induced significant increases in levels of serum IFN-γ and IFN-α. Within the PBMCs of the infected animals, distinct patterns of kinase-mediated signal transduction activity, in particular with respect to activation of classic IFN-activated signalling pathways, such as Jak-Stat, as well as induced expression of IFN-γ and IFN-α regulated genes, support the functionality of the host interferon response.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T18:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Enteropathogen infections in canine puppies: (Co-)occurrence, clinical
           relevance and risk factors
    • Authors: Mirjam Duijvestijn; Lapo Mughini-Gras; Nancy Schuurman; Wim Schijf; Jaap A. Wagenaar; Herman Egberink
      Pages: 115 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Mirjam Duijvestijn, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Nancy Schuurman, Wim Schijf, Jaap A. Wagenaar, Herman Egberink
      Laboratory confirmation of the causative agent(s) of diarrhoea in puppies may allow for appropriate treatment. The presence of potential pathogens however, does not prove a causal relationship with diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify specific enteropathogens in ≤12 month old puppies with and without acute diarrhoea and to assess their associations with clinical signs, putative risk factors and pathogen co-occurrence. Faecal samples from puppies with (n=113) and without (n=56) acute diarrhoea were collected and screened for Canine Parvovirus (CPV), Canine Coronavirus (CCoV), Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, β-hemolytic Eschericha coli (hEC), Giardia spp., Toxocara spp., Cystoisospora spp., and Cyniclomyces guttulatus. One or more pathogens were detected in 86.5% of diarrhoeic puppies and in 77.8% of asymptomatic puppies. Significant positive associations were found between CPV and CCoV, CPV and Cystoisospora spp., Toxocara spp. and hEC, Giardia spp. and C. guttulatus. Only CPV and CCoV were significantly associated with diarrhoea, hEC with a subset of puppies that had diarrhoea and severe clinical signs. CPV was more prevalent in puppies under 3 months of age. Puppies from high-volume dog breeders were significantly at increased risk for CPV (OR 4.20), CCoV (OR 4.50) and Cystoisospora spp. (OR 3.60). CCoV occurred significantly more often in winter (OR 3.35), and CPV in winter (OR 3.78) and spring (OR 4.72) as compared to summer. We conclude that routine screening for CPV, CCoV and hEC is recommended in puppies with acute diarrhoea, especially if they are under 3 months of age and originate from high-volume dog breeders. Routine screening for other pathogens may lead to less conclusive results.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T10:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Outer membrane vesicles of Gallibacterium anatis induce protective
           immunity in egg-laying hens
    • Authors: Susanne E. Pors; Ida J. Pedersen; Ragnhild Bager Skjerning; Ida C.N. Thøfner; Gry Persson; Anders M. Bojesen
      Pages: 123 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Susanne E. Pors, Ida J. Pedersen, Ragnhild B. Skjerning, Ida C.N. Thøfner, Gry Persson, Anders M. Bojesen
      Gallibacterium anatis causes infections in the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens and induce increased mortality and decreased egg production. New prophylactic measures are needed in order to improve animal welfare and production efficiency,. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have previously shown promising results in protection against infections and we hypothesized that OMVs could serve as an immunogen to protect egg-laying hens against G. anatis. To investigate the immunogenic potential of G. anatis OMVs, two in vivo studies in egg-laying hens were made. The trials assessedthe degree of protection provided by immunization with G. anatis OMV against challenge and the IgY responses in serum after immunization and challenge, respectively. A total of 64 egg-laying hens were included in the trials. OMVs for immunization were produced and purified from a high-producing G. anatis ΔtolR mutant. Challenge was done with G. anatis 12656-12 and evaluated by scoring lesions and bacterial re-isolation rates from peritoneum. Finally, levels of OMV-specific IgY in sera were assayed by ELISA. Immunization with OMVs decreased the lesions scores significantly, while the bacterial re-isolation remained unchanged. Furthermore, a high OMV-specific IgY response was induced by immunization and subsequent challenge of the hens. The results strongly indicate that immunization with G. anatis OMVs provides significant protection against G. anatis challenge and induces specific antibody responses with high titers of OMV-specific IgY in serum. The results therefore show great promise for OMV based vaccines aiming at providing protecting against G. anatis in egg-laying hens.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Involvement of NF-κB in Regulation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
           Exotoxin ApxI-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Porcine
           Alveolar Macrophages
    • Authors: Chiung-Wen Hsu; Siou-Cen Li; Nai-Yun Chang; Zeng-Weng Chen; Jiunn-Wang Liao; Ter-Hsin Chen; Jyh-Perng Wang; Jiunn-Horng Lin; Shih-Ling Hsuan
      Pages: 128 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Chiung-Wen Hsu, Siou-Cen Li, Nai-Yun Chang, Zeng-Weng Chen, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Ter-Hsin Chen, Jyh-Perng Wang, Jiunn-Horng Lin, Shih-Ling Hsuan
      Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a crucial respiratory pathogen that causes fibrinous, hemorrhagic, necrotizing pleuropneumonia in pigs. A. pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (ApxI to IV) are the major virulence factors contributing to A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis. Previously, we demonstrated that ApxI induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) via the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Nonetheless, the role of nuclear factor (NF)-κB—a transcription factor widely implicated in immune and inflammatory responses—in ApxI-elicited cytokine production has yet to be defined. In the present study, we examined the involvement of NF-κB in ApxI-elicited production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in PAMs and investigated the correlation between NF-κB and MAPK (p38 and JNK) pathways in this event. The results of Western blot analysis, confocal microscopy, and a DNA binding activity assay revealed that the classical NF-κB pathway was activated by ApxI, as evidenced by the decreased levels of IκB and subsequent NF-κB translocation and activation in ApxI-stimulated PAMs. Moreover, the blocking of ApxI-induced NF-κB activation significantly attenuated the levels of mRNA and protein secretion of IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α in PAMs. Notably, the attenuation of JNK activation by a specific inhibitor (SP600125) reduced ApxI-induced NF-κB activation, whereas a p38 blocker (SB203580) had no effect on the NF-κB pathway. Further examination revealed that the level of phosphorylation at serine 536 on the NF-κB p65 subunit was dependent on JNK activity. Collectively, this study, for the first time, demonstrates a pivotal role of NF-κB in ApxI-induced IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α production; JNK, but not p38, may positively affect the activation of the classical NF-κB pathway.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Experimental infection of New Zealand Merino sheep with a suspension of
           Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain Telford:
           Kinetics of the immune response, histopathology and Map culture
    • Authors: Venkata S.R. Dukkipati; Anne L. Ridler; Keith G. Thompson; Bryce M. Buddle; Barry A. Hedgespeth; Marian Price-Carter; Douglas J. Begg; Richard J. Whittington; Brigitte Gicquel; Alan Murray
      Pages: 136 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Venkata S.R. Dukkipati, Anne L. Ridler, Keith G. Thompson, Bryce M. Buddle, Barry A. Hedgespeth, Marian Price-Carter, Douglas J. Begg, Richard J. Whittington, Brigitte Gicquel, Alan Murray
      A long-term study was undertaken to monitor immune responses, faecal cultures and clinical disease in sheep experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain Telford. New Zealand Merino lambs (N=56) were challenged with three oral doses of Map suspension. The lambs were weighed and faecal and blood samples obtained at different time-points. At 63 weeks post-challenge, surviving sheep were euthanised and samples of liver, ileo-caecal valve and mesenteric lymph node were collected for histopathology and Map culture. High IFN-γ and antibody responses were evident as early as 8 weeks post-C1 which persisted until the end of the trial. Approximately 92% of the sheep shed Map in faeces at 36 weeks post-challenge, with the prevalence decreasing to around 40% at the end of the trial. Thirteen sheep progressively lost weight and were euthanised between weeks 32 and 58 post-challenge. Nearly 58% of surviving sheep exhibited histo-pathological lesions in at least one of the three tissues sampled, while 42% showed acid-fast bacilli in at least one tissue. A positive Map culture in at least one tissue was obtained from approximately 85% of sheep. These results indicate that the three doses of Map challenge were highly effective in establishing Johne’s disease in NZ Merino lambs.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T10:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • The efficacy of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) immunization with the
           adjuvants Emulsigen® and the monomeric TLR5 ligand FliC in zebu cattle
           against AlHV-1 malignant catarrhal fever induced by experimental virus
    • Authors: Felix Lankester; Ahmed Lugelo; Dirk Werling; Nicholas Mnyambwa; Julius Keyyu; Rudovick Kazwala; Dawn Grant; Sarah Smith; Nevi Parameswaran; Sarah Cleaveland; George Russell; David Haig
      Pages: 144 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Felix Lankester, Ahmed Lugelo, Dirk Werling, Nicholas Mnyambwa, Julius Keyyu, Rudovick Kazwala, Dawn Grant, Sarah Smith, Nevi Parameswaran, Sarah Cleaveland, George Russell, David Haig
      Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal disease of cattle that, in East Africa, follows contact with wildebeest excreting alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1). Recently an attenuated vaccine (atAlHV-1) was tested under experimental challenge on Friesian-Holstein (FH) cattle and gave a vaccine efficacy (VE) of approximately 90%. However testing under field conditions on an East African breed, the shorthorn zebu cross (SZC), gave a VE of 56% suggesting that FH and SZC cattle may respond differently to the vaccine. To investigate, a challenge trial was carried out using SZC. Additionally three adjuvant combinations were tested: (i) Emulsigen®, (ii) bacterial flagellin (FliC) and (iii) Emulsigen® +bacterial flagellin. We report 100% seroconversion in all immunized cattle. The group inoculated with atAlHV-1+Emulsigen® had significantly higher antibody titres than groups inoculated with FliC, the smallest number of animals that became infected and the fewest fatalities, suggesting this was the most effective combination. A larger study is required to more accurately determine the protective effect of this regime in SZC. There was an apparent inhibition of the antibody response in cattle inoculated with atAlHV-1+FliC, suggesting FliC might induce an immune suppressive mechanism. The VE in SZC (50–60%) was less than that in FH (80–90%). We speculate that this might be due to increased risk of disease in vaccinated SZC (suggesting that the vaccine may be less effective at stimulating an appropriate immune response in this breed) and/or increased survival in unvaccinated SZC (suggesting that these cattle may have a degree of prior immunity against infection with AlHV-1).

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T10:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Clinical aspects and weight gain reduction in swine infected with porcine
           circovirus type 2 and torque teno sus virus in Brazil
    • Authors: Ana Claudia de Menezes Cruz; Renato Luiz Silveira; Camila Freze Baez; Rafael Brandão Varella; Tatiana Xavier de Castro
      Pages: 154 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ana Claudia de Menezes Cruz, Renato Luiz Silveira, Camila Freze Baez, Rafael Brandão Varella, Tatiana Xavier de Castro
      Simultaneous Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) and Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) infections have been reported around the world, generally linked to severe infections. In the present study, 257 swine plasma samples from 31 swine herds located in Brazil, were PCR screened for PCV-2 and TTSuV-1/2 and correlated with clinical data. PCV-2 was detected in 25%, followed by 38.1% and 42.4% of TTSuV-1 and TTSuV-2, respectively. Co-infections of two or three viruses were found in 32.3% of samples. PCV-2 was more frequently detected in the growing (p=0.030) and finishing phases (p=0.0005) while TTSuV-2 in the nursery (p=0.009). Only TTSuV-1 was statistically associated to clinical disease (multiple signs), in combination or not with PCV-2 or TTSuV-2 (p=0.015). PCV-2/TTSuV co-infections were more frequently related to weight gain reduction in comparison to mono-infections (p=0.049) and no-infections (p=0.027), and also in animals with (p=.011) or without (p=0.037) clinical signs, being the nursery the most affected phase (p=0.025). Our results uphold the pathogenic potential of TTSuV in naturally infected pigs and the clinical/economical impact of this agent, especially in co-infections. Studies addressing the physiopathological mechanisms of simultaneous infections are needed.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Selective medium for culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.
    • Authors: Beth S. Cook; Jessica G. Beddow; Lucía Manso-Silván; Gareth A. Maglennon; Andrew N. Rycroft
      Pages: 158 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Beth S. Cook, Jessica G. Beddow, Lucía Manso-Silván, Gareth A. Maglennon, Andrew N. Rycroft
      The fastidious porcine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has proven difficult to culture since it was first isolated in 1965. A reliable solid medium has been particularly challenging. Moreover, clinical and pathological samples often contain the fast-growing M. hyorhinis which contaminates and overgrows M. hyopneumoniae in primary culture. The aim of this study was to optimise the culture medium for recovery of M. hyopneumoniae and to devise a medium for selection of M. hyopneumoniae from clinical samples also containing M. hyorhinis. The solid medium devised by Niels Friis was improved by use of Purified agar and incorporation of DEAE-dextran. Addition of glucose or neutralization of acidity in liquid medium with NaOH did not improve the final yield of viable organisms or alter the timing of peak viability. Analysis of the relative susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis strains to four antimicrobials showed that M. hyopneumoniae is less susceptible than M. hyorhinis to kanamycin. This was consistent in all UK and Danish strains tested. A concentration of 2μg/ml of kanamycin selectively inhibited the growth of all M. hyorhinis tested, while M. hyopneumoniae was able to grow. This forms the basis of an effective selective culture medium for M. hyopneumoniae.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Corrigendum to: “In vitro antimicrobial activity of gallium maltolate
           against virulent Rhodococcus equi ” [Veterinary Microbiology 146 (2010)
    • Authors: Michelle Coleman; Kyle Kuskie; Mei Liu; Keith Chaffin; Melissa Libal; Steve Giguère; Lawrence Bernstein; Noah Cohen
      First page: 165
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 195
      Author(s): Michelle Coleman, Kyle Kuskie, Mei Liu, Keith Chaffin, Melissa Libal, Steve Giguère, Lawrence Bernstein, Noah Cohen

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T10:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis in the
           Netherlands, 2013–2015
    • Authors: Jobke van Hout; Annet Heuvelink; Maaike Gonggrijp
      Pages: 5 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Jobke van Hout, Annet Heuvelink, Maaike Gonggrijp
      The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolates from post-mortem samples from pigs in the Netherlands. S. suis isolates originated from diagnostic submissions of pigs sent to the Pathology Department of GD Animal Health, from April 2013 till June 2015. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of in total 15 antimicrobials were assessed by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. MIC50 and MIC90 values were determined and MICs were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate and resistant using CLSI veterinary breakpoints (when available). Emergence of resistance among S. suis (n=1163) derived from clinical submissions of pigs appeared to be limited. Resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, penicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline was 0.3%, 0.5%, 48.1%, 0.6%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 3.0%, and 78.4%, respectively. Cross-resistance between penicillin and ampicillin appeared to be incomplete. MIC values of erythromycin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin and tilmicosin for isolates originating from grower/finisher pigs were significantly more often lower than the MIC values of isolates from suckling/weaned piglets. It has to be kept in mind that these results represent only part of the Dutch pig population and it can be discussed whether this is a representative sample. Interpretation of the MIC results of (clinically relevant) antimicrobials tested for treatment of S. suis infection is strongly hampered by the lack of CLSI-defined veterinary clinical breakpoints that are animal species- and body site-specific. Therefore, and to conduct a clinically reliable monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of veterinary pathogens, more species- and organ-specific veterinary breakpoints are urgently needed.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens
           isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe, 2009–2012: VetPath
    • Authors: Farid El Garch; Anno de Jong; Shabbir Simjee; Hilde Moyaert; Ulrich Klein; Carolin Ludwig; Hervé Marion; Silke Haag-Diergarten; Alexandra Richard-Mazet; Valérie Thomas; Ed Siegwart
      Pages: 11 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Farid El Garch, Anno de Jong, Shabbir Simjee, Hilde Moyaert, Ulrich Klein, Carolin Ludwig, Hervé Marion, Silke Haag-Diergarten, Alexandra Richard-Mazet, Valérie Thomas, Ed Siegwart
      VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme that collects pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 996 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 10 countries during 2009–2012. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MIC values of 16 or 17 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI standards. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. Cattle isolates were generally highly susceptible to most antibiotics, except to tetracycline (3.0–12.0% resistance). Low levels of resistance (0–4.0%) were observed for the macrolide antibiotics. Resistance to spectinomycin varied from 0 to 6.0%. In pig isolates similar observations were made. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <2%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance varied from 1.9 to 5.3%, but tetracycline resistance varied from 20.4% in P. multocida to 88.1% in S. suis. For most antibiotics and pathogens the percentage resistance remained unchanged or only increased numerically as compared to that of the period 2002–2006. In conclusion, absence or low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from livestock. Comparison of all antibiotics and organisms was hampered since for almost half of the antibiotics no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Characterization of quinolone resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae
           recovered from diseased companion animals in Europe
    • Authors: T. Guillard; A. de Jong; A. Limelette; A.L. Lebreil; J. Madoux; C. de Champs
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): T. Guillard, A. de Jong, A. Limelette, A.L. Lebreil, J. Madoux, C. de Champs
      ComPath is a European monitoring programme dedicated to the collection of bacterial pathogens from diseased dogs and cats to determine their antibiotic susceptibility. The objective was to characterize genetic determinants associated with quinolone resistance among 69 enrofloxacin non-wild type strains selected among 604 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in 10EU countries from 2008 to 2010: quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Among them, 17% (12/69) carried at least one PMQR (9/12 qnrB, qnrS or qnrD and 4/12 aac(6′)-Ib-cr) and 83% (57/69) no PMQR. All the Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates chromosomally carried oqxAB . No qepA genes were detected. Eight strains did not carry any mutations in QRDR (4 PMQR-positive and 4 PMQR-negative strains). From the 12 PMQR-positive strains, 4 showed enrofloxacin MICs≤2μg/mL, and 8 MICs≥8μg/mL (resistant). These latter strains carried 1–5 mutations in QRDR, including a ParE I529L mutation. qnrD was found in 2 Proteus mirabilis and the plasmids were similar to pDIJ09-518a previously described. For the 57 non-PMQR strains, 29 strains showed MICs≤2μg/mL (4 with no QRDR mutations, 21 with 1 mutation in GyrA, 4 with 2 mutations in GyrA) and 28 showed enrofloxacin MICs≥8μg/mL carrying at least 2 mutations in QRDR, including a ParE I529L mutation for 2 Escherichia coli strains with a total of 5 QRDR mutations. No GyrB mutations were found. qnr was the major PMQR and qnrD was only detected in Proteus spp. Twelve strains carried at least 4 mutations.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.11.033
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Susceptibility testing of Rhodococcus equi: An interlaboratory test
    • Authors: Anne Riesenberg; Heike Kaspar; Andrea T. Feßler; Christiane Werckenthin; Stefan Schwarz
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Anne Riesenberg, Heike Kaspar, Andrea T. Feßler, Christiane Werckenthin, Stefan Schwarz
      Due to the importance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for veterinary diagnostics, a standardised protocol for AST of Rhodococcus equi by broth microdilution has recently been developed and approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The aim of the present study was to test this protocol in an interlaboratory comparative study for its fitness for use in routine laboratory diagnostics. All of the 18 participating laboratories determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of two R. equi strains against 24 antimicrobial agents. The modal MIC values were determined and the acceptable ranges were set as the modal MIC ±1 dilution step. The R. equi field strain Rh110 showed a slightly better performance than the type strain R. equi ATCC® 25729. For the different antimicrobial agents tested, the percentage of MIC values within the acceptable ranges varied from 75.9 to 100% for R. equi ATCC® 25729, and from 85.2 to 100% for R. equi Rh110. The most homogeneous MIC results (i.e. modal MIC ±1 dilution step) were obtained for oxacillin and vancomycin, while the most divergent results were seen with cefotaxime and ceftiofur. Using a success rate of at least 80% of the strain-specific MICs being within the acceptable ranges as an arbitrary cut-off, only one of the participating laboratories failed to reach this cut-off value for one of the two R. equi strains. Thus, we consider the new protocol fit for use in routine AST of R. equi.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.11.029
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Comparative erythromycin and tylosin susceptibility testing of
           streptococci from bovine mastitis
    • Authors: Monika Entorf; Andrea T. Feßler; Heike Kaspar; Kristina Kadlec; Thomas Peters; Stefan Schwarz
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Monika Entorf, Andrea T. Feßler, Heike Kaspar, Kristina Kadlec, Thomas Peters, Stefan Schwarz
      Tylosin, a 16-membered macrolide, is – besides other indications – used for the treatment of bovine mastitis. So far, there is only limited information available on the tylosin susceptibility of streptococci isolated from mastitis. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate 303 streptococci from bovine mastitis, including 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 102 Streptococcus uberis, for their tylosin and erythromycin susceptibility by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion. Both tests followed the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). For erythromycin, the results were interpreted using the CLSI-approved clinical breakpoints. Moreover, erythromycin-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of macrolide resistance genes and for inducible macrolide resistance. In general, both testing methods showed a good correlation for the three streptococcal species, although for the erythromycin susceptibility testing 11 S. uberis isolates fell into the very major error category. All but one of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored at least one macrolide resistance gene, with the erm(B) gene being most common. Moreover, single isolates of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae proved to be inducibly macrolide-resistant. Since inducible macrolide resistance can easily switch to constitutive resistance, tylosin should not be used for the treatment of infections caused by inducibly resistant streptococci.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with vanA gene isolated for the
           first time from wildlife in Slovakia
    • Authors: Veronika Oravcova; Daniela Hadelova; Ivan Literak
      Pages: 43 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Veronika Oravcova, Daniela Hadelova, Ivan Literak
      Corvids have been identified as an important vector of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in several European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of VRE in wildlife in Slovakia and to characterize vanA-carrying VRE. At the beginning of 2013, we collected 287 fecal samples of common raven (Corvus corax) in Petrovce and 99 fecal samples of rooks (Corvus frugilegus) in Kosice. Samples were cultured selectively on Slanetz–Bartley agar with vancomycin and screened for vanA, other resistance genes, and virulence genes. PCR mapping of Tn1546 carrying vanA gene was performed. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to examine the genotypic diversity of vanA-containing VRE. The mobility of vancomycin resistance traits was tested in vitro, using filter mating experiments. VRE with the vanA gene were found in 4 (1.4%) of 287 raven samples and in one (1%) of 99 rook samples. All 5 isolates belonged to Enterococcus faecium and were multiresistant with resistance to erythromycin encoded by the erm(B) gene, tetracycline (tet(M) and tet(L) genes), and ampicillin (mutations in C-terminal region of pbp5 gene). Isolates from Petrovce also were resistant to chloramphenicol. Virulence genes were not proven. The vanA gene was carried by Tn1546 types E (combined with insertion sequence IS1216) or F5 (IS1251). One isolate from a rook in Kosice belonged to ST (sequence type) 6 and the remaining four from ravens in Petrovce belonged to new ST917 (a single locus variant of ST18). All tested VRE were able to transfer the vancomycin resistance trait. In conclusion, we identified clinically important enterococci with the vanA gene in corvids in Slovakia.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.11.027
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. from crows and their environment in
           metropolitan Washington State, USA: Is there a correlation between VRE
           positive crows and the environment?
    • Authors: Marilyn C. Roberts; David B. No; John M. Marzluff; Jack H. Delap; Robert Turner
      Pages: 48 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Marilyn C. Roberts, David B. No, John M. Marzluff, Jack H. Delap, Robert Turner
      Vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE] have been isolated from municipal, hospital and agricultural wastewater, recreational beaches, wild animals, birds and food animals around the world. In this study, American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) from sewage treatment plants (WWTP), dairy farms, and a large roost in a restored wetland with corresponding environmental samples were cultured for VRE. A total of 245 samples [156 crows, 89 environmental] were collected and screened for acquired vanA, vanB and/or intrinsic vanC1 genes. Samples were enriched overnight in BHI supplemented with 20μg/mL aztreonam, 4μg/mL vancomycin and plated on m-Enterococcus agar media supplemented with 6μg/mL vancomycin. Selected colonies were grown on BHI media supplemented with 18μg/mL vancomycin. Of these, 24.5% of the crow and 55% the environmental/cow samples were VRE positive as defined by Enterococcus spp. able to grow on media supplemented with 18μg/mL vancomycin. A total of 122 VRE isolates, 43 crow and 79 environmental isolates were screened, identified to species level using 16S sequencing and further characterized. Four vanA E. faecium and multiple vanC1 E. gallinarum were identified from crows isolated from three sites. E. faecium vanA and E. gallinarum vanC1 along with other Enterococcus spp. carrying vanA, vanB, vanC1 were isolated from three environments. All enterococci were multidrug resistant. Crows were more likely to carry vanA E. faecium than either the cow feces or wetland waters/soils. Comparing E. gallinarum vanC1 from crows and their environment would be useful in determining whether crows share VRE strains with their environment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Comparative virulotyping of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E.
           coli isolated from broilers, humans on broiler farms and in the general
           population and UTI patients
    • Authors: Angela H.A.M. van Hoek; Janneke E. Stalenhoef; Engeline van Duijkeren; Eelco Franz
      Pages: 55 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Angela H.A.M. van Hoek, Janneke E. Stalenhoef, Engeline van Duijkeren, Eelco Franz
      During the last decade extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli from food-producing animals, especially from broilers, have become a major public health concern because of the potential transmission of these resistant bacteria or their plasmid-encoded resistance genes to humans. The objective of this study was to compare ESC-resistant E. coli isolates from broilers (n=149), humans in contact with these broilers (n=44), humans in the general population (n=63), and patients with a urinary tract infection (UTI) (n=10) with respect to virulence determinants, phylogenetic groups and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)/plasmidic-AmpC (pAmpC) genes. The most prevalent ESBL/pAmpC genes among isolates from broilers and individuals on broiler farms were bla CTX-M-1, bla CMY-2 and bla SHV-12. In isolates from humans in the general population bla CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-14 and bla CTX-M-15 were found most frequently, whereas in UTI isolates bla CTX-M-15 predominated. The marker for enteroaggregative E. coli, aggR, was only identified in a broiler and human isolates from the general population. The extraintestinal virulence genes afa and hlyD were exclusively present in human isolates in the general population and UTI isolates. Multivariate analysis, based on ESBL/pAmpC resistance genes, virulence profiles and phylogenetic groups, revealed that most UTI isolates formed a clearly distinct group. Isolates from broilers and humans associated with broiler farms clustered together. In contrast, isolates from the general population showed some overlap with the former two groups but primarily formed a separate group. These results indicate than transmission occurs between broilers and humans on broiler farms, but also indicate that the role of broilers as a source of foodborne transmission of ESC-resistant E. coli to the general population and subsequently causative agents of human urinary tract infections is likely relatively small.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Detection and characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing
           Escherichia coli from chicken production chains in Nigeria
    • Authors: Olufemi E. Ojo; Stefan Schwarz; Geovana B. Michael
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Olufemi E. Ojo, Stefan Schwarz, Geovana B. Michael
      A total of 405 Escherichia coli from the chicken production chains in Nigeria were investigated for ESBL-production and 4 isolates were identified as ESBL producers. They were characterized by XbaI-PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), phylotyping, sequencing of porin and regulatory genes and of the regulatory region of chromosomal ampC genes. Transformed ESBL gene-carrying plasmids were characterized by S1-nuclease, replicon typing, conjugation, digestion and PCRs for detection of the genetic environment of ESBL genes. Susceptibility testing, PCRs for the resistance genes, integrons, and the DNA microarray were performed with both, the original isolates and the transformants. All ESBL-producing isolates harboured bla CTX-M-15 genes located on non-conjugative plasmids (120–155kb). Three isolates with closely related/indistinguishable XbaI-patterns belonged to phylogroup A, and MLST sequence type ST10 and the fourth to phylogroup D and ST405. Resistance to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides/trimethoprim, quinolones, and tetracyclines were seen in all isolates. Incompatibility group IncFIB bla CTX-M-15-carrying plasmids were detected in the three related isolates which carried also a class 1 integron (aadA2-orfF-dfrA12) and the resistance genes bla OXA-1, bla TEM-1, aac(3′)-IIa, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, sul1, sul2, and tet(A). The IncFIA-IncFIB-IncI1 bla CTX-M-15-carrying plasmid harboured additionally the resistance genes aac(3′)-IIa and tet(B). The bla CTX-M-15 genes were associated with ISEcp1 and Δorf477. ESBL-producing isolates showed elevated MICs to cefoxitin (16–64mg/L) and ertapenem MICs (0.5–2.0mg/L) mainly due to alterations in the porin genes. The virulence genes astA and prfB were detected. Although a low prevalence of ESBL-producing isolates was found, co-located resistance genes on the ESBL gene-carrying plasmids may facilitate the dissemination of them.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.022
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance in indicator Escherichia coli
           isolated from food animals
    • Authors: Anna Lalak; Dariusz Wasyl; Magdalena Zając; Magdalena Skarżyńska; Andrzej Hoszowski; Ilona Samcik; Grzegorz Woźniakowski; Krzysztof Szulowski
      Pages: 69 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Anna Lalak, Dariusz Wasyl, Magdalena Zając, Magdalena Skarżyńska, Andrzej Hoszowski, Ilona Samcik, Grzegorz Woźniakowski, Krzysztof Szulowski
      Resistance to β-lactams is considered one of the major global problems and recently it became the most frequently studied topic in the area of antimicrobial resistance. The study was focused on phenotypic and genetic characterisation of commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli), including those producing cephalosporinases, isolated from gut flora of healthy slaughter animals. E. coli were cultured simultaneously on MacConkey agar (MCA) and cefotaxime supplemented MCA. The isolates were confirmed with ONPG and indol tube tests as well as PCR targeting uspA gene. Microbroth dilution method was applied for determination of Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations and interpreted according to EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values. Cephalosporin resistance phenotypes were defined by E-tests (BioMerieux) and relevant gene amplicons from selected strains were sequenced. A total of 298 E. coli isolates with cephalosporin resistance (ESC) found in 99 ones, were obtained from 318 cloacal or rectal swabs deriving from broilers, layers, turkeys, pigs and cattle. Both extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and ampC-cephalosporinase resistance phenotypes were noted in all tested animal species but cattle. At least one of the analysed genes was identified in 90 out of 99 cephalosporin-resistant isolates: bla TEM (n =44), bla CMY (n =38), bla CTX-M (n =33) and bla SHV (n =12). None of the phenotypes was identified in nine isolates. Sequencing of PCR products showed occurrence of ESBL-genes: bla CTX-M-1/-61, bla SHV-12, bla TEM-1,-52/-92,-135 and ampC-gene bla CMY-2. They were located on numerous and diverse plasmids and resistance transferability was proved by electroporation of bla SHV-12 and bla CTX-M-1/-61 located on X1 plasmids. Detection of cephalosporin resistant E. coli confirms the existence of resistance genes reservoir in farm animals and their possible spread (i.e. via IncX1 plasmids) to other bacteria including human and animal pathogens. The identified genetic background indicates on ecological aspects of selection and dissemination of cephalosporin resistance in E. coli isolated from food-producing animals rather than its potential role for public health threats.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Introduction of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli to Swedish broiler
           population by imported breeding animals
    • Authors: Stefan Börjesson; Thomas Guillard; Annica Landén; Björn Bengtsson; Oskar Nilsson
      Pages: 74 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Stefan Börjesson, Thomas Guillard, Annica Landén, Björn Bengtsson, Oskar Nilsson
      During recent years a rapid increase of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli have been noted in the Swedish broiler population, despite the lack of a known selective pressure. The current study wanted to investigate if imported breeding birds could be a source for the quinolone resistant E. coli. The occurrence of quinolone resistant E. coli was investigated, using selective cultivation with nalidixic acid, in grand-parent birds on arrival to Sweden and their progeny. In addition, sampling in hatcheries and empty cleaned poultry houses was performed. Clonality of isolates was investigated using a 10-loci multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). To identify the genetic basis for the resistance isolates were also analysed for occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants and characterization of chromosomal mutations. E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid occurred in grandparent birds imported to Sweden for breeding purposes. Four predominant MLVA types were identified in isolates from grandparent birds, parent birds and broilers. However, resistant E. coli with identical MLVA patterns were also present in hatcheries and poultry houses suggesting that the environment plays a role in the occurrence. Nalidixic acid resistance was due to a mutation in the gyrA gene and no PMQR could be identified. The occurrence of identical clones in all levels of the production pyramid points to that quinolone resistant E. coli can be introduced through imported breeding birds and spread by vertical transmission to all levels of the broiler production pyramid.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Diversity of class 1 and 2 integrons detected in Escherichia coli isolates
           from diseased and apparently healthy dogs
    • Authors: Amanda K. Siqueira; Geovana B. Michael; Daniela F. Domingos; Mirtis M.G. Ferraz; Márcio G. Ribeiro; Stefan Schwarz; Domingos S. Leite
      Pages: 79 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Amanda K. Siqueira, Geovana B. Michael, Daniela F. Domingos, Mirtis M.G. Ferraz, Márcio G. Ribeiro, Stefan Schwarz, Domingos S. Leite
      Escherichia coli is one of the major pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pyometra in dogs. The aims of this study were to investigate canine E. coli isolates for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons by PCR/sequencing and to characterize these isolates and their integron-carrying plasmids. Isolates were characterized by phylotyping, XbaI-macrorestriction analysis and plasmid transfer experiments. Plasmids were analyzed by S1 nuclease-PFGE, replicon typing, conjugation and restriction analysis. Antimicrobial resistance was investigated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PCR/sequencing. From 158 E. coli of dogs suffering from UTIs (n=51) and pyometra (n=52) or being apparently healthy (n=55), 13 isolates harboured class 1 (n=10) or class 2 integrons (n=3). They were distributed among the phylogenetic groups A (3/13), B1 (6/13), B2 (3/13) and D (1/13). Two isolates showed indistinguishable XbaI-patterns, but differed in the remaining characteristics. Another two isolates (UTI or apparently healthy) displayed different XbaI-patterns, but harboured similar plasmids. Integrons were found on plasmids of incompatibility groups IncF, IncF-IncFIC, IncFIB-IncHI2, IncFIB-IncN, IncFIC or IncHI2 and three of them were conjugative. Resistances to aminoglycosides, sulphonamides and trimethoprim were commonly detected. Class 1 integrons carried the gene cassette arrays dfrA12-orfF-aadA28, ΔdfrA17-aadA5, dfrA29, aadA7, aadA29 or dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1. Class 2 integrons carried the array dfrA1-sat2-aadA30. Two extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (bla CTX-M-2) and one AmpC β-lactamase gene (bla CMY-2) were also detected on plasmids. These findings indicate the potential risk of the dissemination and persistence of E. coli and/or integron-carrying plasmids in companion animals.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integron-associated gene cassettes in
           Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from pigs at slaughter
           and abattoir environment
    • Authors: Graciela Volz Lopes; Geovana Brenner Michael; Marisa Cardoso; Stefan Schwarz
      Pages: 84 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Graciela Volz Lopes, Geovana Brenner Michael, Marisa Cardoso, Stefan Schwarz
      Forty-five multi-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium isolates obtained at five pig abattoirs in Southern Brazil were characterized. Their relatedness was determined by XbaI-macrorestriction analysis. Resistance genes, integrons and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR) were investigated by PCR. Amplicons for the variable part of class 1 integrons and the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) were sequenced. Plasmids were characterized by conjugation assays and replicon typing. Eighteen XbaI-macrorestriction patterns and 19 plasmid profiles were seen. Resistance to ampicillin (bla TEM), chloramphenicol (catA1 and floR), streptomycin (strA-strB), streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA variants), sulphonamides (sul1, sul2, sul3) and tetracyclines [tet(A) and tet(B)] were commonly found. A trimethoprim resistance gene, dfrA8, was identified on a 100-kb plasmid. Single substitutions in the QRDR of GyrA but no PMQR genes were found. Twenty-five isolates carried class 1 integrons with an aadA23 gene cassette or unusual class 1 integrons with a dfrA12-orfF-aadA27 gene cassette array. Both integrons were found on large conjugative plasmids. Salmonella plasmid-located virulence genes spvR, spvA, spvB, rck and pefA were found on an IncFIB resistance plasmid. Hybrid virulence-resistance plasmids or plasmids harbouring class 1 integrons may play a role in the maintenance and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance among S. Typhimurium in this pig production system.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Characterization of canine and feline methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
           pseudintermedius (MRSP) from Thailand
    • Authors: Kristina Kadlec; Sonja Weiß; Sarah Wendlandt; Stefan Schwarz; Walaiporn Tonpitak
      Pages: 93 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Kristina Kadlec, Sonja Weiß, Sarah Wendlandt, Stefan Schwarz, Walaiporn Tonpitak
      Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in small animal practice are very difficult to treat due to multi-resistance. In contrast to other countries, little is known about MRSP from Thailand. In particular, information on feline MRSP isolates in general is rare. In total, 39 MRSP isolates from dogs (n=28) and cats (n=11) from Thailand collected from independent clinical cases were used. Oxacillin resistance and presence of the mecA gene was confirmed. Susceptibility to additional 29 antimicrobial agents was tested according to CLSI recommendations. Antimicrobial resistance genes were detected by PCR assays. Molecular typing comprised spa typing, dru typing and macrorestriction analysis with subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). For selected isolates, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. All isolates were multi-resistant with resistance to at least six classes of antimicrobial agents. In all cases corresponding resistance genes were detected. In addition to mecA, the genes blaZ, cat pC221, aacA/aphD, erm(B), dfrG, tet(M) and tet(K) were identified. Six spa types (t02, t05, t09, t10, t23, t72), eleven dru types (dt8ak, dt10ao, dt10cp, dt10cq, dt11a, dt11bo, dt11cb, dt11cj, dt11v, dt11y, dt11z) and 27 PFGE types (designated as A1-A10, B1-B8, C1-C2, D, E, F, G, H, I, J) were identified. MLST for one isolate of each main PFGE pattern A-J revealed seven types [ST45 (n=3), ST112, ST155, ST282 and the novel types ST432, ST433 (n=2) and ST434]. This study showed that MRSP isolates from clinical cases in individual dogs and cats in Thailand are multi-resistant with similar resistance genes and characteristics as isolates from Europe and North America.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Impact of colistin sulfate treatment of broilers on the presence of
           resistant bacteria and resistance genes in stored or composted manure
    • Authors: Laetitia Le Devendec; Gwenaelle Mourand; Stéphanie Bougeard; Julien Léaustic; Eric Jouy; Alassane Keita; William Couet; Nathalie Rousset; Isabelle Kempf
      Pages: 98 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Laetitia Le Devendec, Gwenaelle Mourand, Stéphanie Bougeard, Julien Léaustic, Eric Jouy, Alassane Keita, William Couet, Nathalie Rousset, Isabelle Kempf
      The application of manure may result in contamination of the environment with antimicrobials, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, resistance genes and plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the administration of colistin and of manure management on (i) the presence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (ii) the prevalence of various antimicrobial resistance genes in feces and in composted or stored manure. One flock of chickens was treated with colistin at the recommended dosage and a second flock was kept as an untreated control. Samples of feces, litter and stored or composted manure from both flocks were collected for isolation and determination of the colistin-susceptibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa and quantification of genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobials. The persistence of plasmids in stored or composted manure from colistin-treated broilers was also evaluated by plasmid capturing experiments. Results revealed that colistin administration to chickens had no apparent impact on the antimicrobial resistance of the dominant Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa populations in the chicken gut. Composting stimulated an apparently limited decrease in genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobial families. Importantly, it was shown that even after six weeks of composting or storage, plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes could still be transferred to a recipient E. coli. In conclusion, composting is insufficient to completely eliminate the risk of spreading antimicrobial resistance through chicken manure.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • In vitro activity of human and animal cathelicidins against
           livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    • Authors: Stefanie Blodkamp; Kristina Kadlec; Thomas Gutsmann; Hassan Y. Naim; Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede; Stefan Schwarz
      Pages: 107 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194
      Author(s): Stefanie Blodkamp, Kristina Kadlec, Thomas Gutsmann, Hassan Y. Naim, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Stefan Schwarz
      Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is an important zoonotic pathogen. An emerging problem in treating S. aureus infections is the increasing resistance against antibiotics. A possible way to overcome this issue is to boost the host immune system and one target are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), especially cathelicidins. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial activity of cathelicidins from different animal species against LA-MRSA and to reveal whether major antimicrobial resistance mechanisms influence the bactericidal activity of these peptides. The MICs of 153 LA-MRSA field isolates for different cathelicidins (LL-37, mCRAMP, CAP18, BMAP-27 and BMAP-28) were analysed. The cathelicidin MICs of S. aureus RN4220 and isogenic transformants, that carried 14 functionally active antimicrobial resistance genes, were determined. These resistance genes have been identified in LA-MRSA and specify the resistance mechanisms active efflux, enzymatic inactivation and modification/protection/replacement of target sites. The data showed that mode MIC values for the cathelicidins did not differ among the LA-MRSA isolates of different animal origin. However, distinct differences were detected between the MIC values for the different cathelicidins. MIC values were lowest for bovine cathelicidins (BMAP-27 and BMAP-28) and highest for the human and mouse cathelicidins (LL-37 and mCRAMP). None of the tested antimicrobial resistance genes affected the antimicrobial activity of the cathelicidins. The findings obtained in this study support the hypothesis that cathelicidins might be a promising target to support the host defense against LA-MRSA, especially since the antimicrobial activity of these peptides is not affected by common staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance genes.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Haemophilus parasuis modulates cellular invasion via TGF-β1 signaling
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Yufeng Li, Yaning Zhang, Yuting Xia, Yijuan Shen, Jiansong Zhang
      TGF-β1 plays an important role during the invasion of some bacteria into cells by regulating the expression of integrins, fibronectin, and other extracellular matrix proteins. We postulated that TGF-β1 levels could affect the invasion of Haemophilus parasuis into PK-15 cells. After infection by H. parasuis, PK-15 cells had elevated levels of TGF-β1 expression. Treatment of PK-15 cells with TGF-β1 prior to infection significantly decreased invasion by H. parasuis. Both TGF-β1 treatment and H. parasuis infection resulted in significant induction of fibronectin (Fn) and α5 integrin. Although pretreatment of PK-15 cells with siRNA fragments targeting Fn and α5 integrin resulted in enhanced H. parasuis invasion, H. parasuis attachment was elevated only on cells treated with the α5 integrin siRNA, there was no corresponding increase in attachment to cells treated with Fn siRNA. Our results firstly demonstrated that expression of TGF-β1, Fn and α5 integrin inhibited invasion of H. parasuis in PK-15 cells.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:35Z
  • Evaluating the association between body weight and the intestinal
           microbiota of weaned piglets via 16S rRNA sequencing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Geon Goo Han, Jun-Yeong Lee, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Jongbin Park, Yo Han Choi, Byung Jo Chae, Eun Bae Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi
      Due to the ban on the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in livestock feeds, understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota and the physiology of the host has become very important for improving livestock performance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intestinal microbiota and body weights of weaned piglets. Lighter (n=9) and heavier (n=9) 9-week-old weaned piglets were selected from approximately one-hundred individuals based on their body weights. Their fecal microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbial richness estimators of the heavier piglets, were significantly higher than those of the lighter piglets. At the phylum level, the microbiota of the heavier group had significantly higher levels of Firmicutes and a higher Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio than that of the lighter group. At the genus level, the levels of several genera, such as Anaerococcus and Lactococcus, were significantly different in the two groups. In particular, the lighter group had significantly higher levels of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Anaerotruncus and Bacteroides, compared with those of the heavier group. Moreover, the levels of bacteria expressing the components of several metabolic pathways were significantly different in the two groups. The microbiota of the heavier group had a significantly higher involvement in three KEGG pathways concerned with xenobiotic degradation than that of the lighter group. These results may provide insights into host-microbe interactions occurring in the piglet intestine and will be useful in establishing a strategy for improving growth performance in the swine industry.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:35Z
  • Chlamydial infections in wildlife − conservation threats and/or
           reservoirs of ‘spill-over’ infections?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Delaney Burnard, Adam Polkinghorne
      Members of the order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular pathogens known to cause disease in both humans and animals. As we learn more about the genetic diversity of this group of pathogens, evidence is growing that these bacteria infect a broader range of animal hosts than previously thought. Over 400 host species are now documented globally with the majority of these being wild animals. Given the impact of chlamydial infections on humans and domesticated animals, the identification of members of the order Chlamydiales in wildlife raises significant questions over a) their impact on animal health and b) the relationships to those strains also found in humans and domestic animals. In some species such as the iconic marsupial, the koala, the conservation impact is known with chlamydial infections associated with debilitating disease, however, in general, little is known about the pathogenic potential of Chlamydiae infecting most wildlife hosts. Accumulating evidence suggests contact with wild animals is a risk factor for infections in domestic animals and/or humans. Beyond the well-recognised zoonotic pathogen, Chlamydia psittaci, a range of studies have now reported traditional pathogens in the family Chlamydiaceae such as Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus in wild animals. The spectre of cross-host transmission ‘spill-over’ and ‘spill-back’ in the epidemiology of infections is of potential concern, however, comprehensive epidemiological studies are lacking for most of these. Accurate evaluation of the significance of chlamydial infections in wildlife is otherwise hampered by i) the cross-sectional nature of most impact studies, ii) a lack of standardised diagnostic approaches, iii) limited study sizes, and iv) biases associated with opportunistic sampling.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:35Z
  • Impact of a potential glycosylation site at neuraminidase amino acid 264
           of influenza A/H9N2 virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Hongxia Shao, Xiaoxiang Zhou, Zhonglei Fan, Zhimin Wan, Kun Qian, Daniel Perez, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
      To determine the role of the potential glycosylation site NA264N, which has been shown to be prevalent in recent Chinese H9N2 isolates, four reverse genetic viruses, rgWS1-NA264N, rgWS1-NA264H, rgBJ-NA264H and rgBJ-NA264N, were rescued. Growth kinetics showed that viruses with NA264H grew faster than viruses with NA264N. Mouse studies revealed that rgBJ-NA264H replicated to a significantly higher titer than rgBJ-NA264N at 3dpi. Notably, in contact chickens, rgBJ-NA264H and rgWS1-NA264H shed significantly more virus than rgBJ-NA264N at 6dpi from the larynx and rgWS1-NA264N at 4dpi from the cloaca, respectively. The present study demonstrates that NA264N affects viral replication of H9N2.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:35Z
  • Kinetics of maternally derived antibodies upon intramuscular vaccination
           against classical swine fever with Suvaxyn® CSF Marker (CP7_E2alf)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Charlotte Schröder, Carolin Dräger, Andrea Aebischer, Lisa Dähnert, Christiane Breidenstein, Svenja Mamerow, Simone Leidenberger, Martin Beer, Sandra Blome
      Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important viral diseases that impact on sustainable pig production world wide. To control the disease in either endemic situations or in case of large, high-impact contingencies, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist since decades. However, until recently, the available live vaccines did not allow a serological marker concept that would be important to circumvent long-term trade restrictions. Recently, a new live attenuated marker vaccine, Suvaxyn® CSF Marker (Zoetis), was licensed by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). To supplement the data that are necessary for the design of appropriate vaccination strategies, a trial was carried out with single “emergency-type” vaccination of two pregnant sows. Focus was laid on the kinetics of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) in the screening assays of their offspring that would be used in case of a CSF outbreaks, i.e. CSFV E2 and Erns antibody ELISA. Neutralization peroxidase linked antibody assays were carried out to allow a rough estimate of protection. Upon vaccination with Suvaxyn® CSF Marker 21days before farrowing, MDAs were measurable in all piglets born to the vaccinated sows. The E2 ELISA reactivities showed an almost linear decrease over 10 weeks after which all piglets were tested negative in the ELISA again. No problems were observed in DIVA assays (Erns antibodies) when heat-inactivated sera were used. The protective effect of MDA needs further investigations as the titers were found to be lower than reported for C-strain vaccines.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:35Z
  • Lambs are an important source of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia
           coli in southern Brazil
    • Authors: Fernando Martins; Beatriz E.C. Guth Roxane M.F. Piazza Waldir Elias
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Fernando H. Martins, Beatriz E.C. Guth, Roxane M.F. Piazza, Waldir P. Elias, Sylvia C. Leão, Juan Marzoa, Ghizlane Dahbi, Azucena Mora, Miguel Blanco, Jorge Blanco, Jacinta S. Pelayo
      Food-producing animals can harbor Escherichia coli strains with potential to cause diseases in humans. In this study, the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was investigated in fecal samples from 130 healthy sheep (92 lambs and 38 adults) raised for meat in southern Brazil. EPEC was detected in 19.2% of the sheep examined, but only lambs were found to be positive. A total of 25 isolates was characterized and designated atypical EPEC (aEPEC) as tested negative for bfpA gene and BFP production. The presence of virulence markers linked to human disease as ehxA, paa, and lpfAO113 was observed in 60%, 24%, and 88% of the isolates, respectively. Of the 11 serotypes identified, eight were described among human pathogenic strains, while three (O1:H8, O11:H21 and O125:H19) were not previously detected in aEPEC. Associations between intimin subtypes and phylogroups were observed, including eae-θ2/A, eae-β1/B1, eae-α2/B2 and eae-γ1/D. Although PFGE typing of 16 aEPEC isolates resulted in 14 unique pulsetypes suggesting a genetic diversity, specific clones were found to be distributed in some flocks. In conclusion, potentially pathogenic aEPEC strains are present in sheep raised for meat, particularly in lambs, which can better contribute to dissemination of these bacteria than adult animals.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-15T00:47:07Z
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 194

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T18:51:20Z
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals and the Environment – ARAE 2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology

      PubDate: 2016-09-15T16:08:34Z
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