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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 209 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Are vaccine strain, type or administration protocol risk factors for
           canine parvovirus vaccine failure'
    • Authors: K.D. Altman; M. Kelman; M.P. Ward
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 210
      Author(s): K.D. Altman, M. Kelman, M.P. Ward
      Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious and worldwide cause of serious and often fatal disease in dogs, despite the widespread availability of vaccines. Which vaccine-related factors are associated with vaccination failure is largely unknown, and there are no reports from Australia. In this study – the first national population-level CPV study of its kind ever conducted – we analysed data on 594 cases of apparent CPV vaccination failure reported from an Australian national surveillance system to determine whether vaccine strain, type or administration protocol are risk factors for vaccination failures. The strain of CPV used in vaccine manufacture was not significantly associated with vaccination failure in clinical practice. The vaccine type (killed versus attenuated vaccine) for puppies diagnosed with CPV was associated with a lower mean age at time of vaccination (P=0.0495). The age at administration of the last CPV vaccination a puppy received prior to presenting with disease was a significant (P=0.0334) risk factor for vaccination failure, irrespective of whether the vaccine was marketed for a 10-week or 12-week or greater vaccination finish protocol. There was also a strong negative correlation between age at last vaccination prior to disease and vaccination failure (P<0.0001): the later a puppy received this last vaccination, the lower the risk of vaccination failure. This supports the hypothesis that the use of final vaccination in puppies at less than 16 weeks of age predisposes to vaccination failure and warrants a final age for vaccination recommendation to be at least 16 weeks for all canine parvovirus vaccines, especially in outbreak situations. The large number of cases identified in this study confirms that CPV vaccination failure is occurring in Australia. Veterinarians should consider CPV as a differential diagnosis in cases with appropriate clinical presentation, regardless of the reported vaccination status of the dog.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T22:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2017)
       
  • Pathogenicity of Pekin duck- and goose-origin parvoviruses in Pekin
           ducklings
    • Authors: Kang Ning; Minghang Wang; Shenghua Qu; Junfeng Lv; Lixin Yang; Dabing Zhang
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Kang Ning, Minghang Wang, Shenghua Qu, Junfeng Lv, Lixin Yang, Dabing Zhang
      Goose parvovirus (GPV) usually affects goslings and Muscovy ducks but not Pekin ducks. Earlier works showed that a variant GPV can cause short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) in Pekin ducks. Here, we investigated the pathogenicity of a variant GPV of Pekin duck-origin (JS1) and a classical GPV of goose-origin (H) in Pekin ducklings. Following intramuscular infection at two days of age, both JS1 and H strains influenced weight gain and development of beaks and bones of wings and legs, and caused microscopic lesions of internal organs of ducks. However, the clinical signs typical of SBDS could only be replicated with the JS1 isolate. The findings suggest that both variant and classical GPVs are pathogenic for Pekin ducklings, while the former is more virulent than the latter. Using a quantitative real-time PCR assay, high levels of viral load were detected from bloods, internal organs, leg muscles, and ileac contents in JS1- and H-infected ducks from 6hours to 35days postinfection (DPI). Using a GPV VP3-based ELISA, antibodies in sera of JS1- and H-infected ducks were detectable at 1 DPI and then persistently rose during the subsequent five weeks. These results suggest that both variant and classical GPVs can infect Pekin ducklings. The present work contributes to the understanding of pathogenicity of GPV to Pekin ducks and may provide clues to pathogenesis of GPV-related SBDS.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T22:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2017)
       
  • Identification of B-cell linear epitopes in domains 1–3 of pyolysin of
           Trueperella pyogenes using polyclonal antibodies
    • Authors: Lingxiao Yang; Yue Zhang; Haili Wang; Bo Ma; Li Xu; Junwei Wang; Wenlong Zhang
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Lingxiao Yang, Yue Zhang, Haili Wang, Bo Ma, Li Xu, Junwei Wang, Wenlong Zhang
      Trueperella pyogenes is an important opportunistic pathogen. Pyolysin (PLO) makes important contributions to the pathogenicity of T. pyogenes. However, the structure and function of PLO has not been well documented. In the current study, epitopes in domain 1–3 of PLO have been mapped using rabbit anti-recombinant PLO (rPLO) polyclonal antibodies, and then the results were re-checked by using mouse and chicken anti-rPLO polyclonal antibodies, respectively. The results indicated that the region of aa 281–393 in PLO could not elicit antibodies against linear epitopes. A total of six B cell linear epitopes have been found in domain 1 of PLO. Two of the six epitopes (EP1 and EP2) were used to immunize mice and chicken. Chicken anti-EP1 and anti-EP2 serum and mouse anti-EP2 serum could react with rPLO and corresponding epitope polypeptide in western blot assay; however, only mouse anti-EP2 serum shows weak anti-hemolysis effect in the rPLO and sheep red blood system. Our results provide some new information to the research field of PLO structure and function.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T22:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2017)
       
  • Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of
           antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs
    • Authors: Ana Herrero-Fresno; Camilla Zachariasen; Nanna Nørholm; Anders Holm; Lasse Engbo Christiansen; John Elmerdahl Olsen
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Ana Herrero-Fresno, Camilla Zachariasen, Nanna Nørholm, Anders Holm, Lasse Engbo Christiansen, John Elmerdahl Olsen
      A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered from swine feces. The work encompassed two studies: 1) OTC 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to nursery pigs for 3 and 10days, respectively, under controlled experimental conditions, and 2) 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg OTC were given to a higher number of pigs for 6, 3 and 2days, respectively, under field conditions. Statistical modeling was applied to analyze trends in the proportion of TET-R coliforms. In the experimental study, no statistical difference in proportion of TET-R coliforms was observed between treatments at the end of the trial (day 18) and compared to day 0. In the field study, treatment had a significant effect on the proportion of TET-R bacteria two days after the end of treatment (2dAT) with the regimes “low dose-six days” and “medium dose-three days” yielding the highest and lowest proportions of TET-R strains, respectively. No indication of co-selection for ampicillin- and sulphonamide -R bacteria was observed for any treatment at 2dAT. By the end of the nursery period, the proportion of TET-R bacteria was not significantly different between treatments and compared to day 0. Our results suggest that similar resistance levels might be obtained by using different treatment regimes regardless of the combinations of oral dose-duration of treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Fibronectin-/fibrinogen-binding protein (FBPS) is not a critical virulence
           factor for the Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain ZY05719
    • Authors: Quan Li; Yang Fu; Yanan He; Yuhang Zhang; Yunyun Qian; Yanfei Yu; Huochun Yao; Chengping Lu; Wei Zhang
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Quan Li, Yang Fu, Yanan He, Yuhang Zhang, Yunyun Qian, Yanfei Yu, Huochun Yao, Chengping Lu, Wei Zhang
      Fibronectin-/fibrinogen-binding protein (FBPS) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an atypical anchorless microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) for which the role in bacterial infection are not clearly established. To investigate the biological functions of FBPS, an fbps knockout mutant was constructed in SS2 strain ZY05719 to explore the phenotypic changes between the wild-type and mutant strains. Cell morphology analyses combined with the basic growth curves showed that deletion of fbps does not significantly influence neither the thickness of the capsule of SS2 nor the cell growth characteristic. In addition to three previously identified host components fibronectin (FN), factor H (FH) and fibrinogen (FG), we also found that both laminin (LN) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) could bind specifically to FBPS. Furthermore, we confirmed that FBPS play an important role in adherence of SS2 to host cells. The in vitro assays demonstrated that an inactivation of fbps does not inhibit the intracellular survival of SS2 in RAW246.7 macrophages, attenuate the ability of invasion of host cells or the growth ability in pig blood. Additionally, the fbps mutation failed to decrease the virulence of SS2 in both BALB/c mice and zebrafish. Finally, immunization with recombinant FBPS showed no significant difference from the control groups in terms of murine viability after SS2 challenge. Taken together, we concluded that FBPS is not a critical virulence factor for the SS2 strain ZY05719.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:18:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of the effect of a porcine reproductive and respiratory
           syndrome (PRRS) modified-live virus vaccine on sow reproductive
           performance in endemic PRRS farms
    • Authors: Jiwoon Jeong; Seeun Kim; Kee Hwan Park; Ikjae Kang; Su-Jin Park; Changhoon Park; Chanhee Chae
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Jiwoon Jeong, Seeun Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Ikjae Kang, Su-Jin Park, Changhoon Park, Chanhee Chae
      The efficacy of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified-live virus vaccine in reproductive performance was evaluated under field conditions. Three PRRS endemic farms were selected based on their history of PRRS-associated reproductive failures. On each farm, a total of 40 sows were randomly allocated to either vaccinated (n =20) or unvaccinated (n =20) groups. Sows were vaccinated six weeks prior to breeding. Clinical data showed a significant improvement in reproductive performance in vaccinated sows. Sows in the vaccinated groups had a significantly (P< 0.05) reduced number of stillborn piglets in all 3 farms. Sows in the vaccinated groups also had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of live-born piglets in one of the farms. Sows in the vaccinated groups had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of weaned piglets in two of the farms. Premature farrowing, one of the late gestation symptoms of PRRS, was also reduced due to vaccination as suggested by the increase in gestation length and the reduction in the number of stillborn piglets. No adverse systemic or local side effects relative to vaccination were observed during the entire gestation. No vaccine strain was detected in the vaccinated sows from all three farms at 70 and 114days post vaccination and in live-born piglets at the time of farrowing. Vaccination of sows with this PRRS vaccine was effective in improving reproductive performance in endemic PRRS farms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:18:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Necrotic enteritis locus 1 diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase
           (cyclic-di-GMP) gene mutation attenuates virulence in an avian necrotic
           enteritis isolate of Clostridium perfringens
    • Authors: Valeria R. Parreira; Shivani Ojha; Dion Lepp; Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari; Hongzhuan Zhou; Leonardo Susta; Jianhua Gong; John F. Prescott
      Pages: 69 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Valeria R. Parreira, Shivani Ojha, Dion Lepp, Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Hongzhuan Zhou, Leonardo Susta, Jianhua Gong, John F. Prescott
      Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by netB-positive strains of Clostridium perfringens is an important disease of intensively-reared broiler chickens. It is widely controlled by antibiotic use, but this practice that has come under increasing scrutiny and alternative approaches are required. As part of the search for alternative approaches over the last decade, advances have been made in understanding its pathogenesis but much remains to be understood and applied to the control of NE. The objective of this work was to assess the effect on virulence of mutation of the cyclic-di-GMP signaling genes present on the large pathogenicity locus (NELoc-1) in the tcp-encoding conjugative virulence plasmid, pNetB. For this purpose, the diguanylate cyclase (dgc) and phosphodiesterase (pde) genes were individually insertionally inactivated and the two mutants were subsequently complemented with their respective genes. Southern blotting showed that a single gene insertion was present. Mutation of either gene resulted in almost total attenuation of the mutants to cause NE in experimentally-infected broiler chickens, which was fully restored in each case by complementation of the respective mutated gene. Production of NetB-associated cytotoxicity for Leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) cells was unaffected in mutants. We conclude that the cyclic-di-GMP signaling system is important in controlling virulence in a NE C. perfringens strain and might be a target for control of the disease.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T22:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to “Antimicrobials used for surgical prophylaxis by companion
           animal veterinarians in Australia” [Vet. Microbiol. 203C (2017)
           301–307]
    • Authors: Laura Y. Hardefeldt; Glenn F. Browning; Karin Thursky; James R. Gilkerson; Helen Billman-Jacobe; Mark A. Stevenson; Kirsten E. Bailey
      Pages: 74 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Laura Y. Hardefeldt, Glenn F. Browning, Karin Thursky, James R. Gilkerson, Helen Billman-Jacobe, Mark A. Stevenson, Kirsten E. Bailey


      PubDate: 2017-07-30T12:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus does not replicate in porcine
           monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but activates the transcription of type
           I interferon and chemokine
    • Authors: Xiuqing Wang; Martha Ohnstad; April Nelsen; Eric Nelson
      Pages: 77 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Xiuqing Wang, Martha Ohnstad, April Nelsen, Eric Nelson
      Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) belongs to the alphacoronavirus of the Coronaviridae. It is the major etiological agent of the recent outbreaks of piglet diarrhea and death in the US. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding the role of dendritic cells in PEDV infection. Here, we observed that PEDV did not replicate in monocyte-derived dendritic cells as evidenced by the decrease of viral gene transcript copies in infected cells by qRT-PCR and the absence of viral proteins by immunofluorescence staining as well as the absence of virus particles in infected cells by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, PEDV did not compromise cell viability at 48, 72, and 96h after infection at either a MOI of 2.5 or 5. Interestingly, an increased transcription of type I interferon including interferon-α and β was observed in infected cells compared to mock infected cells. Surprisingly, we did not detect any interferon-β in the supernatants of infected cells. A slight increase in interferon-α protein production in the supernatants of PEDV-infected cells was observed compared to mock infected cells. We also observed a markedly increased transcription of interferon inducible protein −10 (IP-10). Overall, PEDV does not replicate in porcine Mo-DC, but activates the transcription of type I interferon and chemokine IP-10.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T12:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • The matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus inhibits host-directed
           transcription of target genes via interaction with the TFIIH subunit p8
    • Authors: Wei Pan; Deguang Song; Wenqi He; Huijun Lu; Yungang Lan; Juanzhen Tong; Feng Gao; Kui Zhao
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Wei Pan, Deguang Song, Wenqi He, Huijun Lu, Yungang Lan, Juanzhen Tong, Feng Gao, Kui Zhao
      In response to viral infection, the host innate antiviral response is elicited to limit viral replication. Many viruses have evolved various strategies to circumvent the host antiviral response. It has been reported that matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can inhibit host gene expression to evade the host innate immune response. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that VSV M protein inhibited transcription of a reporter gene transfected into BSR-T7/5 cells. To further investigate the underlying mechanism, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed to search for host proteins that interact with the M protein. The subunit of transcription/repair factor TFIIH, p8, was identified as an M binding partner, and the interaction was validated with a GST pull-down assay and laser confocal microscopy. Through a mutagenesis analysis, we found that the p8-M interaction was impaired when I96, E156, R159 and R160 residues on M were replaced with Ala. These mutants reduced the inhibitory effect on transcription of the reporter gene. Furthermore, the transcription inhibition mediated by M was impaired when co-expressed with p8. These results indicate that the p8-M interaction plays an important role in inhibiting transcription of host genes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T12:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Spontaneous listeriosis in grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), but not
           
    • Authors: Kirsten Hülskötter; Daniel Schmidtke; Marko Dubicanac; Ute Siesenop; Elke Zimmermann; Ingo Gerhauser; Wolfgang Baumgärtner; Vanessa Herder
      Pages: 94 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Kirsten Hülskötter, Daniel Schmidtke, Marko Dubicanac, Ute Siesenop, Elke Zimmermann, Ingo Gerhauser, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Vanessa Herder
      Listeriosis is a zoonotic infection with the gram positive, facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria (L.) monocytogenes. Infections mainly occur in ruminants, but also in other species, including humans. Case fatality rate usually is high. The incidence of listeriosis in captive non-human primates is very low. We report the first spontaneous, fatal, and likely food-born outbreak of listeriosis in a population of captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Conspicuously, none of the closely related Goodman’s mouse lemurs (Microcebus lehilahytsara) in the same facility were affected.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T12:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Variations in glycoprotein B contribute to immunogenic difference between
           PRV variant JS-2012 and Bartha-K61
    • Authors: Zhi-qing Yu; Wu Tong; Hao Zheng; Li-wei Li; Guo-xin Li; Fei Gao; Tao Wang; Chao Liang; Chao Ye; Ji-qiang Wu; Qinfeng Huang; Guang-zhi Tong
      Pages: 97 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Zhi-qing Yu, Wu Tong, Hao Zheng, Li-wei Li, Guo-xin Li, Fei Gao, Tao Wang, Chao Liang, Chao Ye, Ji-qiang Wu, Qinfeng Huang, Guang-zhi Tong
      A newly emerged pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has been identified in many Bartha-K61-vaccinated pig farms. This variant has caused great economic losses to the swine industry in China since 2011. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the gB gene of the emerging PRV variant JS-2012 had multiple variations compared with the vaccine strain Bartha-K61. In the study, a specific CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with homologous recombination was used to construct two recombinant viruses, BJB (Bartha-K61+JS-2012gB) and JBJ (JS-2012-ΔgE/gI+Bartha-K61gB), by interchanging the full-length gB genes between Bartha-K61 and JS-2012-ΔgE/gI. The two recombinant viruses showed similar characteristics in growth kinetics in vitro and similar pathogenicity in mice, as compared to their parental strains. Immunization of mice with inactivated BJB or JBJ followed by challenge of JS-2012 showed that BJB could increase protective efficacy to 80%, compared to only 40% protection by the parental Bartha-K61 strain. JBJ had a decreased protective efficacy of 65%, as compared to 90% protection by its parental JS-2012-ΔgE/gI strain. Exchange of the gB gene markedly altered the immunogenicity of the recombinant PRV. These data suggest that variations in gB might play an important role in the virulence of the reemergent PRV variant in China. Our results demonstrate the importance of gB in protective immunity and suggest that the recombinant virus BJB could be a promising vaccine candidate for eradication of the PRV variant.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T12:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.019
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Fine mapping and conservation analysis of linear B-cell epitopes of peste
           des petits ruminants virus hemagglutinin protein
    • Authors: Ruisong Yu; Rui Zhu; Weixiang Gao; Ming Zhang; Shijuan Dong; Bingqing Chen; Li Yu; Chunfang Xie; Fengying Jiang; Zhen Li
      Pages: 110 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Ruisong Yu, Rui Zhu, Weixiang Gao, Ming Zhang, Shijuan Dong, Bingqing Chen, Li Yu, Chunfang Xie, Fengying Jiang, Zhen Li
      Hemagglutinin protein (H), one of the two glycoproteins of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), binds to its receptor on the host cell and acts as a major antigen that induces and confers highly protective immunity in the host. In order to delineate the epitopes on H protein, fine epitope mapping and conservation analysis of linear B-cell epitopes (BCEs) on PPRV H has been undertaken using biosynthetic peptides and rabbit anti-PPRV H sera. Thirteen linear BCEs were identified and their corresponding minimal motifs were located on the H protein of PPRV China/Tibet/Geg/07-30. Conservation analysis indicated that two of the 13 minimal motifs were conserved among 52 PPRV strains. Nine of the 13 peptides containing the minimal motifs were recognized using anti-PPRV serum from a goat immunized with PPRV vaccine strain Nigeria 75/1. Identified epitopes and their motifs improve our understanding of the antigenic characteristics of PPRV H and provide a basis for the development of epitope-based diagnostic assays and multiple epitopes vaccine.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T12:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica,
           Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from the lower
           respiratory tract of healthy feedlot cattle and those diagnosed with
           bovine respiratory disease
    • Authors: Edouard Timsit; Jennyka Hallewell; Calvin Booker; Nicolas Tison; Samat Amat; Trevor W. Alexander
      Pages: 118 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Edouard Timsit, Jennyka Hallewell, Calvin Booker, Nicolas Tison, Samat Amat, Trevor W. Alexander
      Current information on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of bacterial respiratory pathogens is crucial to guide antimicrobial choice for control and treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). The objectives were to describe the prevalence of three BRD-associated bacteria (Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni) in the lower airways of feedlot cattle, and to analyze AMR in these bacteria. Cattle with (n=210) and without (n=107) BRD were sampled by trans-tracheal aspiration at four feedlots (Nov. 15–Jan. 16). These cattle had received 2.5mg/kg of tulathromycin on arrival at the feedlot for BRD control and two in-feed pulses of chlortetracycline (5g/animal/day for 5days) within the first 21days on feed to prevent histophilosis. Bacteria were detected by culture and AMR was tested by microdilution. Pasteurella multocida was the most frequent bacterium isolated in cattle with BRD (54.8%), followed by M. haemolytica (30.5%) and H. somni (22.9%). Compared to those with BRD, healthy cattle were less likely to be positive for P. multocida (OR=0.27), M. haemolytica (OR=0.32), or H. somni (OR=0.25). There were high levels of resistance (>70%) against tulathromycin and oxytetracycline in M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolates and high levels of resistance against oxytetracycline (67%) and penicillin (52%) in H. somni isolates. None or few isolates were resistant to florfenicol, enrofloxacin and ceftiofur. The high prevalence of resistance against tulathromycin and oxytetracycline suggests that these antimicrobials should not be repeatedly used for both control and treatment of BRD and/or histophilosis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-09T03:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Neuropathological survey reveals underestimation of the prevalence of
           neuroinfectious diseases in cattle in Switzerland
    • Authors: Laura Truchet; Julia Walland; Daniel Wüthrich; Céline L. Boujon; Horst Posthaus; Rémy Bruggmann; Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula; Anna Oevermann; Torsten Seuberlich
      Pages: 137 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Laura Truchet, Julia Walland, Daniel Wüthrich, Céline L. Boujon, Horst Posthaus, Rémy Bruggmann, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Anna Oevermann, Torsten Seuberlich
      Neuroinfectious diseases in livestock represent a severe threat to animal health, but their prevalence is not well documented and the etiology of disease often remains unidentified. The aims of this study were to generate baseline data on the prevalence of neuroinfectious diseases in cattle in Switzerland by neuropathological survey, and to identify disease-associated pathogens. The survey was performed over a 1-year period using a representative number of brainstem samples (n=1816) from fallen cattle. In total, 4% (n=73) of the animals had significant lesions, the most frequent types of which were indicative of viral (n=27) and bacterial (n=31) etiologies. Follow-up diagnostics by immunohistochemistry, PCR protocols and next-generation sequencing identified infection with Listeria monocytogenes (n=6), ovine herpesvirus 2 (n=7), bovine astrovirus CH13 (n=2), bovine herpesvirus 6 (n=6), bovine retrovirus CH15 (n=2), posavirus 1 (n=2), and porcine astroviruses (n=2). A retrospective questionnaire-based investigation indicated that animals’ owners observed clinical signs of neurological disease in about one-third of cases with lesions, which was estimated to correspond to approximately 85 cases per year in the adult fallen cattle population in Switzerland. This estimate stands in sharp contrast to the number of cases reported to the authorities and reveals a gap in disease surveillance. Systematic neuropathological examination and follow-up molecular testing of neurologically diseased cattle could significantly enhance the efficiency of disease detection for the purposes of estimating the prevalence of endemic diseases, identifying new or re-emerging pathogens, and providing “early warnings” of disease outbreaks.

      PubDate: 2017-08-09T03:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.027
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of lapine rotavirus, astrovirus, and hepatitis E virus in
           Canadian domestic rabbit populations
    • Authors: XiaoTing Xie; Joanna Bil; Emily Shantz; Jutta Hammermueller; Eva Nagy; Patricia V. Turner
      Pages: 146 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): XiaoTing Xie, Joanna Bil, Emily Shantz, Jutta Hammermueller, Eva Nagy, Patricia V. Turner
      Lapine rotavirus and astrovirus have been associated with disease in rabbits, and there is strong evidence of zoonotic transmission of lapine hepatitis E virus (HEV). Outbreaks of enteritis are common on commercial meat farms, resulting in poor welfare, high rabbit mortality, and significant financial losses for rabbit producers. Currently, none of these viruses are routinely tested by diagnostic laboratories. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of rotavirus, astrovirus, and HEV RNA in 205 pooled and individual fecal samples from healthy Canadian laboratory, companion, shelter and commercial meat rabbit populations. Viral RNA were extracted and amplified via RT-PCR using virus-specific primers. Positive samples from the first cohort of samples tested were sequenced and aligned to previously identified viruses to confirm the products. Almost 45% (13/29) of the surveyed commercial rabbit farms were astrovirus-positive. Three commercial meat rabbit samples were positive for rotavirus, and either astrovirus or HEV RNA was also detected. Three companion rabbit samples also tested positive for lapine HEV. Samples from specific pathogen-free laboratory animals were negative for all viruses. Sequencing results showed highest identity to rotavirus A strain 30–96, lapine astrovirus strain 2208 and lapine HEV strain CMC-1. These results permit a better understanding of the prevalence of rotavirus, astrovirus, and hepatitis E virus in Canadian domestic rabbit populations, and continued screening for viruses may help to reduce risk of zoonotic agent transmission as well as providing a better understanding of potential causative agents of rabbit enteritis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-09T03:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.015
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • A novel recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
           with significant variation in cell adaption and pathogenicity
    • Authors: Qiaoya Zhang; Juan Bai; Hefei Hou; Zhongbao Song; Yongxiang Zhao; Ping Jiang
      Pages: 150 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Qiaoya Zhang, Juan Bai, Hefei Hou, Zhongbao Song, Yongxiang Zhao, Ping Jiang
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen that causes huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, a type 2 PRRSV strain was isolated from primary porcine alveolar macrophage cells and designated as GD1404. Interestingly, this strain was unable to grow in MARC-145 cells. Analysis of the full-length genome sequence revealed that strain GD1404 was an inter-subgenotype recombinant of strains QYYZ and JXA1. The C-terminus of the GP2 protein of strain GD1404 had an amino acid deletion. Also, the ORF5a protein had 51 codons, five more than most other highly pathogenic (HP-PRRSV) strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on ORF5 gene sequences showed that strain GD1404 and five others isolated in China formed a new subgenotype represented by strain QYYZ. Challenge experiments with piglets showed that the GD1404 and HP-PRRSV BB0907 strains caused similar rates of mortality and interstitial pneumonia. However, strain GD1404 infection resulted in lower viremia and viral loads in the lungs, as compared with strain BB0907. The results of this study provide evidence of the circulation of type 2 PRRSV QYYZ-like strains in China with variations in cell adaption and pathogenic abilities.

      PubDate: 2017-08-09T03:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.028
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • High abundance and diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
           (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in faeces and tonsils of pigs at
           slaughter
    • Authors: I. Van Damme; C. Garcia-Graells; W. Biasino; T. Gowda; N. Botteldoorn; L. De Zutter
      Pages: 190 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): I. Van Damme, C. Garcia-Graells, W. Biasino, T. Gowda, N. Botteldoorn, L. De Zutter
      This cross-sectional study investigates the abundance of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) in the faeces and tonsils of 96 pigs during slaughter. Moreover, different isolates from a selected number of pigs were tested to study the diversity of bla ESBL genes within E. coli isolates from one pig. Cefotaxime-resistant bacteria (based on enumeration results on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1mg/L cefotaxime) were found in the faeces of 77 pigs (80%; 95% CI: 70–87%) and the tonsils of 91 pigs (95%; 95% CI: 88%–98%). Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (based on enumeration results on Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide agar supplemented with 1mg/L cefotaxime) were detected in 72 faecal samples (75%; 95% CI: 64–83%) and 45 tonsil samples (47%; 95% CI: 35–59%), in numbers up to 5.5 and 5.6log10 CFU/g, respectively. On average, around 1/10,000 E. coli in both faeces and tonsils were cefotaxime-resistant, though large variations were observed between pigs. Within one sample, CREC isolates with up to five different combinations of ESBL genes were observed. In three out of 16 faecal samples and six out of 14 tonsil samples, only one ESBL gene profile was found. The high numbers of CREC that are occasionally found in the faeces and tonsils of pigs during slaughter may represent an important source of contamination of carcasses and subsequently pork.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T22:00:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Improving safety of a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine
           against enteric septicemia of catfish and evaluation of efficacy
    • Authors: Seong Won Nho; Hossam Abdelhamed; Attila Karsi; Mark L. Lawrence
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Seong Won Nho, Hossam Abdelhamed, Attila Karsi, Mark L. Lawrence
      Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen causing enteric septicemia of channel catfish (ESC). Our recent work indicated that tricarboxylic acid cycle and one-carbon metabolism are critical pathways for E. ictaluri virulence. Although single and double gene deletions in these pathways resulted in safe and efficacious vaccines for use in catfish fingerlings, vaccine trials in catfish fry showed safety concerns. Therefore, we aimed to improve the safety of these mutants by constructing two triple mutant combinations. ESC-NDKL1 (ΔgcvPΔsdhCΔfrdA) was constructed by introducing an in-frame deletion of frdA in a gcvP-sdh mutant. ESC-NDKL2 (ΔgcvPΔsdhCΔmdh) was constructed in a similar manner. ESC-NDKL1 strain was a better vaccine candidate compared to ESC-NDKL2, providing better safety and efficacy in catfish fry and catfish fingerlings. Field trials in earthen ponds under three vaccination conditions showed that survival was significantly higher in catfish vaccinated with ESC-NDKL1 by immersion at the fry stage, oral vaccination in ponds, and fry immersion-pond oral combination (86.74%, 81.67%, and 95.22%, respectively) compared to sham-vaccinated (42.75%), and Aquavac-ESC fry immersion vaccinated (61.51%) catfish. Our findings indicate that ESC-NDKL1 is a good candidate for further development as a vaccine for ESC.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T11:55:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.004
       
  • Complete genetic analysis of a Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolate
           accompanying four plasmids carrying mcr-1, ESBL and other resistance genes
           in China
    • Authors: Juan Wang; Xianglei Li; Juan Li; Daniel Hurley; Xue Bai; Zhongyi Yu; Yu Cao; Ellen Wall; Séamus Fanning; Li Bai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Juan Wang, Xianglei Li, Juan Li, Daniel Hurley, Xue Bai, Zhongyi Yu, Yu Cao, Ellen Wall, Séamus Fanning, Li Bai
      One mcr-1-carrying Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana strain D90, was identified from 1,320 Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry slaughterhouse in 2012 in China. The objective of this study was to verify the transferability of the mcr-1 gene and also completely characterize the sequence of the strain at the whole-genome level. Broth matting assays were carried out to detect the transferability and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of S. enterica serovar Indiana D90 was performed using the PacBio RS II system. Open reading frames were assigned using Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) and analysed by BLASTn and BLASTp. Salmonella Pathogenisity Islands (SPIs) were annotated by SPIFinder platform. The complete genome sequence of S. enterica serovar Indiana D90 contained a circular 4,779,514-bp chromosome and four plasmids. Genome analysis and sequencing revealed that 24 multi-drug resistance (MDR) genes were located on plasmids. The largest plasmid pD90-1, was found to be of an IncHI2/HI2A/Q1/N type that encoded a bla CTX-M-65 gene along with 20 additional antimicrobial resistance genes. A 60.5-kbp IncI2 plasmid pD90-2 contained a nikA-nikB-mcr-1 genetic structure, that can be successfully transferred to E. coli and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium at low transfer rates. Interestingly, comparative sequence analysis revealed the plasmids pD90-1 and pD90-2 showed considerable nucleotide similarity to pHNSHP45-2 and pHNSHP45, respectively. Moreover, the genome and the plasmid pD90-2 also showed high similarity to one carbapenem resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana strain, C629 and its plasmid pC629, respectively. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of one mcr-1-carrying MDR S. enterica serovar Indiana strain.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T11:55:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.024
       
  • Age Susceptibility of Caesarian Derived Colostrum Deprived Pigs to
           Mycoplasma hyorhinis challenge
    • Authors: Brian Martinson; F.C. Minion; Jeremy Kroll; Joseph Hermann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Brian Martinson, F.C. Minion, Jeremy Kroll, Joseph Hermann
      Mycoplasma hyorhinis (MHR) is a major cause of lameness, arthritis, and polyserositis among growing pigs. Reduced performance and culling due to MHR infection result in economic losses in swine production. We have previously developed an MHR challenge model in seven week-old CDCD pigs using cell-associated challenge material which results in both severe pericarditis and lameness. In this study we sequentially challenged CDCD pigs at seven, ten, thirteen, and sixteen weeks of age. Lameness was observed in >60% of the animals in the first three age groups but only 33% in the oldest age group. The number of animals with arthritis declined from 100% at seven weeks, to 56% at ten weeks and approximately 25% at both thirteen and sixteen weeks of age. Pericarditis was observed in 87% of the seven week challenge group, 28% in the ten week challenge group, 8% in the thirteen week challenge group and 4% in the sixteen week challenge group. All challenged groups showed a reduced average daily gain (ADG) compared to their age-matched non-challenged control groups. The largest disparity in ADG (1.2 lbs/day difference) was noted at thirteen weeks of age. Results of this study demonstrate that these animals were susceptible to MHR-associated lameness through sixteen weeks of age while susceptibility to MHR-associated polyserositis appeared to peak at seven weeks of age.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T11:55:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.005
       
  • Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes shedding in domestic ruminants
           and characterization of potentially pathogenic strains
    • Authors: Ana Hurtado; Medelin Ocejo; Beatriz Oporto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ana Hurtado, Medelin Ocejo, Beatriz Oporto
      Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes are important human pathogens that can be isolated from the faeces of ruminants, and constitute potential sources of human infection via contamination of food and water or contact (direct or indirect) between humans and animals. A cross-sectional survey including 301 herds was carried out to estimate the prevalence of cattle herds (beef and dairy) and sheep flocks positive for these zoonotic organisms in ruminants in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). The proportion of herds where Salmonella shedding was detected was 5.8% for beef cattle, 3.7% for dairy cattle and 6.1% for sheep flocks. Apart from a multi-drug resistant (ASuT) monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium (4,[5],12:i:-) isolated from a beef cattle herd, the remaining 11 serotypes of S. enterica identified were not among the common causes of non-typhoidal salmonellosis in humans. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 42.3% of beef cattle herds, 46.3% of dairy cattle herds, and a significantly lower proportion of sheep flocks (23.5%). Presence of other animal species in the farm and geographical location were associated with herd risk of L. monocytogenes shedding. A total of 66.7% of the isolates of L. monocytogenes harboured the virulence gene, llsX, as determined by real-time PCR. In conclusion, ruminant herds in the Basque Country did not seem to pose a high risk for Salmonella serotypes commonly associated to human clinical cases of salmonellosis entering the food chain. Conversely, potentially pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains were widespread in ruminant farms, mostly in cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T22:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.003
       
  • Testing cathelicidin susceptibility of bacterial mastitis isolates:
           technical challenges and data output for clinical isolates
    • Authors: Melissa N. Langer; Stefanie Blodkamp; Martin Bayerbach; Andrea T. Feßler; Nicole de Buhr; Thomas Gutsmann; Lothar Kreienbrock; Stefan Schwarz; Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Melissa N. Langer, Stefanie Blodkamp, Martin Bayerbach, Andrea T. Feßler, Nicole de Buhr, Thomas Gutsmann, Lothar Kreienbrock, Stefan Schwarz, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
      Bovine mastitis caused by bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Escherichia (E.) coli, is a major economic problem in dairy industry. In order to limit presence of multi-resistant bacteria in bovine mastitis, alternatives for the treatment with antibiotics are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently been discussed as a potential new strategy against bacterial infections. They are key players in the innate immune system, as they can directly act against microorganisms or modulate the immune system. The aim of our study was to test S. aureus and E. coli mastitis isolates for their susceptibility to the bovine cathelicidins, BMAP-27 and BMAP-28. Susceptibility testing was performed in analogy to the broth microdilution criteria described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) to determine MICs of 50 clinical S. aureus and 50 clinical E. coli isolates for BMAP-27 and BMAP-28. Based on the repetitive testing of four well selected reference strains, the homogeneity of MIC variances for each peptide as well as the effect of temperature, oxygen level and plastic polymers on MIC testing was determined. Statistical analysis revealed not only strong peptide-specific variances, but also strain-specific variances in the technical procedure. Finally, using this technique susceptibility testing of the field isolates revealed statistically significant peptide-specific differences in the MICs: While BMAP-27 showed lower MICs for E. coli, BMAP-28 showed lower MICs for S. aureus. However, these results clearly illustrate the need of susceptibility testing of AMPs on several unrelated strains and not only on one selected test organism.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T22:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.022
       
  • MLVA-16 typing of Brucella suis biovar 2 strains circulating in Europe
    • Authors: A.C. Ferreira; M.I. Corrêa de Sá; R. Dias; R. Tenreiro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): A.C. Ferreira, M.I. Corrêa de Sá, R. Dias, R. Tenreiro
      Swine brucellosis due to Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in Europe, associated with increase of extensive swine farms and high density of infected wild boars. Since knowledge of predominant circulating strains is a prerequisite for any epidemiological study, accurate molecular typing procedures were applied to a collection of 176 B. suis isolates. By using suis-ladder multiplex PCR and PCR-RFLP analysis of omp2a, omp2b and omp31 genes, five haplotypes were identified among 160 biovar 2 isolates, with haplotypes 2d and 2e restricted to Portugal and Spain and haplotypes 2a, 2b and 2c widespread in Europe (except Portugal). MLVA based on 16 genetic markers (MLVA-16) revealed 126 genotypes, with 101 singletons, and grouped biovar 2 isolates in two clusters according to their geographic origins and haplotypes, defining the Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and the Central-European clonal lineages. In order to get insights on the evolutionary associations between B. suis lineages and their host species, an extended analysis was performed using a subset of 11 markers and publicly available data for 350 additional strains. This MLVA-11 analysis revealed a high genetic divergence amongst the 526 B. suis strains based on their hosts and highlighted the close relationship between strains from swine, wild boars and hares. Beyond corroborating the existence of Iberian and Central European biovar 2 clonal lineages and pointing to the evolution of biovar 2 Iberian clonal lineage from Central-European one by an allopatric speciation event, an ongoing colonization of Iberian Peninsula with specific MLVA-11 genotypes is also highlighted.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T22:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.001
       
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208


      PubDate: 2017-09-11T22:44:49Z
       
  • miR-194b-3p partially inhibits Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus
           adherence to PK15 cells
    • Authors: Bin Tang; Huihuang Liang; Pengpeng Zhao; Zigong Wei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Bin Tang, Huihuang Liang, Pengpeng Zhao, Zigong Wei
      MicroRNAs are increasingly reported implicated in the host cell response to bacterial pathogens. In order to investigate whether miR-194b-3p regulates the adherence of Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus (SeZ) to porcine kidney cell line PK15, the miR-194b-3p agomir and antagomir were transfected into PK15 cells respectively and the adherence rate of SeZ to each was determined. Adherence rate of SeZ C55138 was significantly decreased when miR-194b-3p agomir was transfected in PK15, while that of miR-194b-3p antagomir evaluated. These results confirmed that miR-194b-3p markedly inhibit the adherence of SeZ C55138 to PK15 cells. In addition, miR-194b-3p indeed regulated the expression level of CD44 in PK15 cells by targeting CD44 3′ UTR, and this interaction was involved in adhesion process. This study contributes to understanding the mechanism of the crosstalk between SeZ and PK15 cells.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T22:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.023
       
  • Clonal distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
           pseudintermedius isolates from skin infection of dogs in Korea
    • Authors: Jung-Hun Kang; Tae-Ho Chung; Cheol-Yong Hwang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jung-Hun Kang, Tae-Ho Chung, Cheol-Yong Hwang
      Bacterial infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is challenging in a small animal practice. Zoonotic transmission may occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic profiles of MRSP isolated from bacterial infections of canine skin in Korea and to compare their molecular lineages with dominant strains from other countries. Sixty MRSP isolates were obtained from the lesions of canine pyoderma and otitis externa. Their genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing and direct-repeat unit (dru) typing. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements were characterized by multiplex PCR. Thirty-nine different sequence types (STs) were detected. Among them, 21 STs were identified as internationally new sequence types. Fourteen dru types (dts) were detected, and the major types were dt11a and dt11y. spa typing characterised 21 isolates (35%, 21/60), including spa types t02 (n=8), t05 (n=5), t06 (n=6), and t15 (n=2). SCCmec V was present in 27 (45%) isolates, with the remaining 33 being non-typeable. Two clonal complexes, CC568 and CC677, were revealed by MLST; this result differed from the dominant STs detected in MRSP isolates from Europe, North America, and other Asian countries. SCCmec type V was the major type, and 33 (55%) isolates were non-typeable by conventional classifying method. This is the first report about the clonal lineage of MRSP isolated from Korea. MRSP isolated from dogs in Korea displays independent lineage from other countries. Surveillance is needed to confirm cross-national disseminating patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T22:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.017
       
  • Enhanced protection against FMDV in cattle after prime- boost vaccination
           based on mucosal and inactivated FMD vaccine
    • Authors: Manar E. Khalifa; Ayman H. El-Deeb; Sayed M. Zeidan; Hussein A. Hussein; Hany I. Abu-El-Naga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Manar E. Khalifa, Ayman H. El-Deeb, Sayed M. Zeidan, Hussein A. Hussein, Hany I. Abu-El-Naga
      Improved immunization and control strategies and platforms are greatly needed for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and mucosal vaccines propose an effective strategy for the control FMDV by blocking viral entry. In this study, several immunization strategies, using two FMDV vaccine formulations, including Montanide ISA 206 oil-based FMD inactivated vaccine and Montanide IMS 1313 VG N PR-based concentrated semi-purified FMD mucosal vaccine, were applied. Results of intranasal immunization with the prepared FMD mucosal vaccine, given once or twice, induced IgA levels in both nasal and salivary secretions besides a high response of lymphocyte proliferation with protection levels reaching 20% and 40%, respectively, in a challenge trial in cattle. Immunization with Montanide 206 inactivated FMD vaccine was capable of inducing 80% protection whereas prime-boost strategy based on the administration of mucosal vaccine followed by inactivated vaccine appeared to be the most potent strategy by achieving 100% protection against an FMDV challenge. Indeed, the study reports the efficacy of the prepared IMS 1313 FMD mucosal vaccine and the possible use of this vaccine in the context of different vaccination strategies to control FMDV.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T22:00:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.014
       
  • Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci
           in healthy humans is associated with occupational pig contact in a
           dose-response manner
    • Authors: Ling Li; Zhiyao Chen; Dan Guo; Shunming Li; Jingya Huang; Xiaolin Wang; Zhenjiang Yao; Sidong Chen; Xiaohua Ye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ling Li, Zhiyao Chen, Dan Guo, Shunming Li, Jingya Huang, Xiaolin Wang, Zhenjiang Yao, Sidong Chen, Xiaohua Ye
      This study aimed to explore the association between occupational pig contact and human methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) carriage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of pig exposed participants and controls in Guangdong, China, using a multi-stage sampling design. Participants provided a nasal swab for MRCoNS analysis and resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The dose-response relation was examined using log binomial regression or Poisson regression models. The adjusted prevalence of MRCoNS carriage in pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.32-2.11) higher than in controls. The adjusted average number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS isolates from pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.46-1.91) higher than those from controls. Notably, we found the frequency and duration of occupational pig contact was associated with increased prevalence and increased number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS in a dose-response manner. When examining these relations by MRCoNS species, there was still evidence of similar exposure-response relations. Additionally, the proportion of tetracycline-resistant and tet(M)-containing MRCoNS isolates was significantly higher in pig exposed participants than in controls. These findings suggested a potential transmission of MRCoNS from livestock to humans by occupational livestock contact, and the presence of phenotypic and genotypic tetracycline resistance may aid in the differentiation of animal origins of MRCoNS isolates.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T22:00:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.012
       
  • A molecular survey of small ruminant hemotropic mycoplasmosis in Turkey,
           including first laboratory confirmed clinical cases caused by Mycoplasma
           ovis
    • Authors: Munir Aktas; Sezayi Ozubek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Munir Aktas, Sezayi Ozubek
      Hemotropic mycoplasmas are emerging zoonotic pathogens that cause mild to severe hemolytic anemia. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from six sheep exhibiting clinical symptoms typical of hemolytic anemia. Coccoid and ring-shaped M. ovis were found on the surface of erythrocytes of infected sheep. Parasitemia ranged from 0.7% to 3.7% in individual smears. Clinical cases caused by Mycoplasma ovis were evaluated, and prevalence, based on DNA screening for the 16S rRNA gene of hemoplasmas in apparently healthy sheep (n=328) and goats (n=272) from the same area, was 11.3% (CI 8.1-15.2) and 6.2% (CI 3.7-9.8), respectively, a significant difference between species (p< 0.05). Sequences of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene shared 99% identity with the corresponding published sequences for M. ovis and Mycoplasma wenyonii. The overall M. ovis prevalence in healthy animals was 9% (CI 6.8-11.6) with no significant differences in infection rate between young and adults (p> 0.05). The proportion of hemoplasma-positive small ruminants was higher with tick infestation (p< 0.05). The presence of tick-borne Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. was also significantly associated with ovine hemoplasma infection (p< 0.05) in the healthy sample. This is the first report of M. wenyonii in sheep. M. ovis should be considered in differential diagnosis in cases of high fever and anorexia in pastured sheep and goats.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T22:00:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.011
       
  • The response of red deer to oral administration of heat-inactivated
           Mycobacterium bovis and challenge with a field strain
    • Authors: Jobin Thomas; María Ángeles Risalde; Miriam Serrano; Iker Sevilla; Mariví Geijo; José Antonio Ortíz; Miguel Fuertes; José Francisco Ruíz-Fons; José de la Fuente; Lucas Domínguez; Ramón Juste; Joseba Garrido; Christian Gortázar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jobin Thomas, María Ángeles Risalde, Miriam Serrano, Iker Sevilla, Mariví Geijo, José Antonio Ortíz, Miguel Fuertes, José Francisco Ruíz-Fons, José de la Fuente, Lucas Domínguez, Ramón Juste, Joseba Garrido, Christian Gortázar
      Deer species (family Cervidae) are often part of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex maintenance host community, and tuberculosis (TB) control in deer, including vaccination, is consequently an area of ongoing research. However, most research into deer vaccination against TB is focused on using the live bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG). Oral inactivated vaccines represent an interesting alternative to either oral or parenteral BCG, since neither diagnostic cross-reactions nor vaccine strain survival are likely to occur. In order to describe the red deer response to heat-inactivated M. bovis (IV) as compared to BCG and to unvaccinated controls (n=5/group), we ran an experiment with five month-old vaccinated red deer, which were challenged with a virulent M. bovis strain 70days later and necropsied at 60days post-challenge. A reduction in the IV group infection burden was discovered. There were significant differences between the IV group and the control group (53% lesion reduction) as regards to the TB lesion scores, but not between other pairs. Complement component 3 plasma levels increased after challenge, and there were no differences between groups. The plasma cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-10 and IL-12) levels did not change after vaccination, but IL-1β, TNFα and IL-10 did so following the challenge. The IL-1β level increased in all the groups while TNFα levels had a distinct response pattern in the IV group and IL-10 had a distinct response pattern in control group. The results showed that oral vaccination with IV reduces the TB lesion score in red deer challenged with a M. bovis field strain without interfering with the in vivo diagnosis of infection in this species.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T22:00:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.007
       
  • Increased microbiome diversity at the time of infection is associated with
           improved growth rates of pigs after co-infection with porcine reproductive
           and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2
           (PCV2)
    • Authors: Rebecca A. Ober; James B. Thissen; Crystal J. Jaing; Ada G. Cino-Ozuna; Raymond R.R. Rowland; Megan C. Niederwerder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Rebecca A. Ober, James B. Thissen, Crystal J. Jaing, Ada G. Cino-Ozuna, Raymond R.R. Rowland, Megan C. Niederwerder
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are two of the most important pathogens affecting the swine industry worldwide. Co-infections are common on a global scale, resulting in pork production losses through reducing weight gain and causing respiratory disease in growing pigs. Our initial work demonstrated that the fecal microbiome was associated with clinical outcome of pigs 70days post-infection (dpi) with PRRSV and PCV2. However, it remained uncertain if microbiome characteristics could predispose response to viral infection. The purpose of this study was to determine if microbiome characteristics present at the time of virus exposure were associated with outcome after co-infection. Using the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, we profiled the microbiome in feces prior to infection from pigs identified retrospectively as having high or low growth rates after co-infection. High growth rate pigs had less severe interstitial pneumonia, reduced virus replication, and a significant increase in average daily weight gain throughout the study. At the level of the fecal microbiome, high growth rate pigs had increased microbial diversity on both a family and species level. Shifts in the microbiome composition of high growth rate pigs included reduced Methanobacteriaceae species, increased Ruminococcaceae species, and increased Streptococcaceae species when compared to low growth rate pigs. The results indicate that both microbiome diversity and composition at the time of virus exposure may play a role in the subsequent response of pigs to PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection.

      PubDate: 2017-08-19T04:39:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.023
       
  • Efficacy of oral BCG vaccination in protecting free-ranging cattle from
           natural infection by Mycobacterium bovis
    • Authors: Graham Nugent; Ivor J. Yockney; Jackie Whitford; Frank E. Aldwell; Bryce M. Buddle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Graham Nugent, Ivor J. Yockney, Jackie Whitford, Frank E. Aldwell, Bryce M. Buddle
      Vaccination of cattle against bovine tuberculosis could be a valuable control strategy, particularly in countries faced with intractable ongoing infection from a disease reservoir in wildlife. A field vaccination trial was undertaken in New Zealand. The trial included 1286 effectively free-ranging cattle stocked at low densities in a remote 7600ha area, with 55% of them vaccinated using Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Danish strain 1311). Vaccine was administered orally in all but 34 cases (where it was injected). After inclusion, cattle were exposed to natural sources of M. bovis infection in cattle and wildlife, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Cattle were slaughtered at 3-5 years of age and were inspected for tuberculous lesions, with mycobacteriological culture of key tissues from almost all animals. The prevalence of M. bovis infection was 4.8% among oral BCG vaccinates, significantly lower than the 11.9% in non-vaccinates. Vaccination appeared to both reduce the incidence of detectable infection, and to slow disease progression. Based on apparent annual incidence, the protective efficacy of oral BCG vaccine was 67.4% for preventing infection, and was higher in cattle slaughtered soon after vaccination. Skin-test reactivity to tuberculin was high in vaccinates re-tested 70days after vaccination but not in non-vaccinates, although reactor animals had minimal response in gamma-interferon blood tests. In re-tests conducted more than 12 months after vaccination, skin-test reactivity among vaccinates was much lower. These results indicate that oral BCG vaccination could be an effective tool for greatly reducing detectable infection in cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-08-09T03:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.029
       
  • Development of Improved Enzyme-based and Lateral Flow Immunoassays for
           Rapid and Accurate Serodiagnosis of Canine Brucellosis
    • Authors: María E. Cortina; Analía Novak; Luciano J. Melli; Sebastián Elena; Natalia Corbera; Juan E. Romero; Ana M. Nicola; Juan E. Ugalde; Diego J. Comerci; Andrés E. Ciocchini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): María E. Cortina, Analía Novak, Luciano J. Melli, Sebastián Elena, Natalia Corbera, Juan E. Romero, Ana M. Nicola, Juan E. Ugalde, Diego J. Comerci, Andrés E. Ciocchini
      Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella canis is the etiological agent of canine brucellosis, a disease that can lead to sterility in bitches and dogs causing important economic losses in breeding kennels. Early and accurate diagnosis of canine brucellosis is central to control the disease and lower the risk of transmission to humans. Here, we develop and validate enzyme and lateral flow immunoassays for improved serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis using as antigen the B. canis rough lipopolysaccharide (rLPS). The method used to obtain the rLPS allowed us to produce more homogeneous batches of the antigen that facilitated the standardization of the assays. To validate the assays, 284 serum samples obtained from naturally infected dogs and healthy animals were analyzed. For the B. canis-iELISA and B. canis-LFIA the diagnostic sensitivity was of 98.6%, and the specificity 99.5% and 100%, respectively. We propose the implementation of the B. canis-LFIA as a screening test in combination with the highly accurate laboratory g-iELISA. The B. canis-LFIA is a rapid, accurate and easy to use test, characteristics that make it ideal for the serological surveillance of canine brucellosis in the field or veterinary laboratories. Finally, a blind study including 1,040 serum samples obtained from urban dogs showed a prevalence higher than 5% highlighting the need of new diagnostic tools for a more effective control of the disease in dogs and therefore to reduce the risk of transmission of this zoonotic pathogen to humans.

      PubDate: 2017-08-09T03:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.005
       
  • "Spatio-temporal variations and genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. in
           cattle from the North of Tunisia"
    • Authors: Hanène Belkahia; Mourad Ben Said; Narjesse El Mabrouk; Mariem Saidani; Chayma Cherni; Mariem Ben Hassen; Ali Bouattour; Lilia Messadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Hanène Belkahia, Mourad Ben Said, Narjesse El Mabrouk, Mariem Saidani, Chayma Cherni, Mariem Ben Hassen, Ali Bouattour, Lilia Messadi
      In cattle, anaplasmosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale, A. phagocytophilum, and A. bovis. To date, no information concerning the seasonal dynamics of single and/or mixed infections by different Anaplasma species in bovines are available in Tunisia. In this work, a total of 1035 blood bovine samples were collected in spring (n=367), summer (n=248), autumn (n=244) and winter (n=176) from five different governorates belonging to three bioclimatic zones from the North of Tunisia. Molecular survey of A. marginale, A. centrale and A. bovis in cattle showed that average prevalence rates were 4.7% (minimum 4.1% in autumn and maximum 5.6% in summer), 7% (minimum 3.9% in winter and maximum 10.7% in autumn) and 4.9% (minimum 2.7% in spring and maximum 7.3% in summer), respectively. A. phagocytophilum was not detected in all investigated cattle. Seasonal variations of Anaplasma spp. infection and co-infection rates in overall and/or according to each bioclimatic area were recorded. Molecular characterization of A. marginale msp4 gene indicated a high sequence homology of revealed strains with A. marginale sequences from African countries. Alignment of 16S rRNA A. centrale sequences showed that Tunisian strains were identical to the vaccine strain from several sub-Saharan African and European countries. The comparison of the 16S rRNA sequences of A. bovis variants showed a perfect homology between Tunisian variants isolated from cattle, goats and sheep. These present data are essential to estimate the risk of bovine anaplasmosis in order to develop integrated control policies against multi-species pathogen communities, infecting humans and different animal species, in the country.

      PubDate: 2017-08-09T03:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.004
       
  • Incidence of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in Asian elephants in
           India
    • Authors: Nagendra N. Barman; Bhaskar Choudhury; Vishnu Kumar; Monika Koul; Sophia M. Gogoi; Elina Khatoon; A. Chakroborty; P. Basumatary; B. Barua; T. Rahman; S.K. Das; Sachin Kumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Nagendra N. Barman, Bhaskar Choudhury, Vishnu Kumar, Monika Koul, Sophia M. Gogoi, Elina Khatoon, A. Chakroborty, P. Basumatary, B. Barua, T. Rahman, S.K. Das, Sachin Kumar
      Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) are the cause of acute hemorrhagic disease in endangered Asian and African elephants. In the present study, we report the incidence of EEHV infection and associated mortality in the captive elephant of Assam, India. Our result showed the gross morphology and histopathological changes of EEHV infection in the elephant. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase, helicase, and GPCR genes from the infected tissue samples suggested the presence of EEHV1A virus.

      PubDate: 2017-08-09T03:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.001
       
  • Disparity in the nasopharyngeal microbiota between healthy cattle on feed,
           at entry processing and with respiratory disease
    • Authors: Mohamed Zeineldin; James Lowe; Maria de Godoy; Nidia Maradiaga; Chelsey Ramirez; Mohamed Ghanem; Yassein Abd El-Raof; Brian Aldridge
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Mohamed Zeineldin, James Lowe, Maria de Godoy, Nidia Maradiaga, Chelsey Ramirez, Mohamed Ghanem, Yassein Abd El-Raof, Brian Aldridge
      Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most serious causes of health and economic problems in the beef production industry, especially in recently weaned, intensely raised and newly transported feedlot cattle. While the importance of upper airway structure and function in the susceptibility of the lower respiratory tract to colonization with potential pathogens is well established, the role of the mucosal microbiota in respirtatory health is less well defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle at entry into a commercial feedlot, during initial management processing, and to compare the dynamics of change in these microbial communities between clinically healthy calves and those that develop BRD within the first month after entry. Deep nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from randomly selected healthy calves (n=66) during initial handling and processing at the feedlot, and again at the initial diagnosis of BRD (n=22). Clinically healthy pen matched controls calves (n=10) were sampled at the same time as the BRD affected animals. Genomic DNA was extracted from each sample, and the 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable region was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Across all the samples, the predominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. While the predominant genera were Moraxella, Mycoplasma and Acinetobacter. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial taxa between healthy and BRD affected calves. Discriminant analysis revealed that the nasopharyngeal microbiota in feedlot calves at entry and in BRD affected calves were distinct from pen matched healthy calves. While the temporal dynamics of this shift were not examined in this study, it is possible that the observed changes in mucosal microbiota are linked to the increased susceptibility of calves to BRD during the first month after entry in to the feedlot. Additional studies are needed to examine the trajectory of change in nasopharyngeal microbial communities from entry to disease onset, and to explore the impact of other factors such as diet transition, commingling, vaccination and housing on the nasopharyngeal microbiota of growing cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.006
       
  • Infection dynamics and genetic variability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in
           self-replacement gilts
    • Authors: Karine L. Takeuti; David E.S.N. de Barcellos; Caroline P. de Andrade; Laura L. de Almeida; Maria Pieters
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Karine L. Takeuti, David E.S.N. de Barcellos, Caroline P. de Andrade, Laura L. de Almeida, Maria Pieters
      The aim of this study was to assess the longitudinal pattern of M. hyopneumoniae detection in self-replacement gilts at various farms and to characterize the genetic diversity among samples. A total of 298 gilts from three M. hyopneumoniae positive farms were selected at 150days of age (doa). Giltswere tested for M. hyopneumoniae antibodies by ELISA, once in serum at 150 doa and for M. hyopneumoniae detection in laryngeal swabs by real time PCR two or three times. Also, 425 piglets were tested for M. hyopneumoniae detection in laryngeal swabs. A total of 103 samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats Analysis. Multiple comparison tests were performed and adjusted using Bonferroni correction to compare prevalences of positive gilts by ELISA and real time PCR. Moderate to high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in gilts was detected at 150 doa, which decreased over time, and different detection patterns were observed among farms. Dam-to-piglet transmission of M. hyopneumoniae was not detected. The characterization of M. hyopneumoniae showed 17 different variants in all farms, with two identical variants detected in two of the farms. ELISA testing showed high prevalence of seropositive gilts at 150 doa in all farms. Results of this study showed that circulation of M. hyopneumoniae in self-replacement gilts varied among farms, even under similar production and management conditions. In addition, the molecular variability of M. hyopneumoniae detected within farms suggests that in cases of minimal replacement gilt introduction bacterial diversity maybe farm specific.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.007
       
  • Detection of rat hepatitis E virus in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)
           and Black rats (R. rattus) from 11 European countries
    • Authors: René Ryll; Samuel Bernstein; Elisa Heuser; Mathias Schlegel; Paul Dremsek; Maxi Zumpe; Sandro Wolf; Michel Pépin; Daniel Bajomi; Gabi Müller; Ann-Charlotte Heiberg; Carina Spahr; Johannes Lang; Martin H. Groschup; Hermann Ansorge; Jona Freise; Sebastian Guenther; Kristof Baert; Francisco Ruiz-Fonscisco; Jiri Pikula; Nataša Knap; Ιoannis Tsakmakidis; Chrysostomos Dovas; Stefania Zanet; Christian Imholt; Gerald Heckel; Reimar Johne; Rainer G. Ulrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): René Ryll, Samuel Bernstein, Elisa Heuser, Mathias Schlegel, Paul Dremsek, Maxi Zumpe, Sandro Wolf, Michel Pépin, Daniel Bajomi, Gabi Müller, Ann-Charlotte Heiberg, Carina Spahr, Johannes Lang, Martin H. Groschup, Hermann Ansorge, Jona Freise, Sebastian Guenther, Kristof Baert, Francisco Ruiz-Fonscisco, Jiri Pikula, Nataša Knap, Ιoannis Tsakmakidis, Chrysostomos Dovas, Stefania Zanet, Christian Imholt, Gerald Heckel, Reimar Johne, Rainer G. Ulrich
      Rat hepatitis E virus (ratHEV) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. It was initially detected in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany, and subsequently in rats from Vietnam, the USA, Indonesia, China, Denmark and France. Here, we report on a molecular survey of Norway and Black rats from 12 European countries for ratHEV and human pathogenic hepeviruses. RatHEV-specific real-time and conventional RT-PCR investigations revealed the presence of ratHEV in 63 of 508 (12.4%) rats at the majority of sites in 11 of 12 countries. In contrast, a real-time RT-PCR specific for human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1-4 and a nested broad-spectrum (NBS) RT-PCR with subsequent sequence determination did not detect any infections with these genotypes. Only in a single Norway rat from Belgium a rabbit HEV-like genotype 3 sequence was detected. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a clustering of all other novel Norway and Black rat-derived sequences with ratHEV sequences from Europe, the USA and a Black rat-derived sequence from Indonesia within the proposed ratHEV genotype 1. No difference in infection status was detected related to age, sex, rat species or density of human settlements and zoological gardens. In conclusion, our investigation shows a broad geographical distribution of ratHEV in Norway and Black rats from Europe and its presence in all settlement types investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.001
       
  • Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O22:H8 isolated from cattle
           reduces E. coli O157:H7 adherence in vitro and in vivo
    • Authors: L. Martorelli; A. Albanese; D. Vilte; R. Cantet; A. Bentancor; G. Zolezzi; I. Chinen; C. Ibarra; M. Rivas; E.C. Mercado; A. Cataldi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): L. Martorelli, A. Albanese, D. Vilte, R. Cantet, A. Bentancor, G. Zolezzi, I. Chinen, C. Ibarra, M. Rivas, E.C. Mercado, A. Cataldi
      Problem addressed Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a group of bacteria responsible for food-associated diseases. Clinical features include a wide range of symptoms such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition. Objective Our group has observed that animals naturally colonized with STEC strains of unknown serotype were not efficiently colonized with E. coli O157:H7 after experimental infection. In order to assess the basis of the interference, three STEC strains were isolated from STEC persistently-colonized healthy cattle from a dairy farm in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods and Results The three isolated strains are E. coli O22:H8 and carry the stx1 and stx2d genes. The activatable activity of Stx2d was demonstrated in vitro. The three strains carry the adhesins iha, ehaA and lpf O113. E. coli O22:H8 formed stronger biofilms in abiotic surface than E. coli O157:H7 (eae+, stx2+) and displayed a more adherent phenotype in vitro towards HeLa cells. Furthermore, when both serotypes were cultured together O22:H8 could reduce O157:H7 adherence in vitro. When calves were intragastrically pre-challenged with 108 CFU of a mixture of the three STEC strains and two days later challenged with the same dose of the strain E. coli O157:H7 438/99, the shedding of the pathogen was significantly reduced. Conclusions These results suggest that E. coli O22:H8, a serotype rarely associated with human illness, might compete with O157:H7 at the bovine recto-anal junction, making non-O157 carrying-calves less susceptible to O157:H7 colonization and shedding of the bacteria to the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.021
       
 
 
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