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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Record Case Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Record Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Infection of porcine precision cut intestinal slices by transmissible
           gastroenteritis coronavirus demonstrates the importance of the spike
           protein for enterotropism of different virus strains
    • Authors: Tanja Krimmling; Andreas Beineke; Christel Schwegmann-Weßels
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 205
      Author(s): Tanja Krimmling, Andreas Beineke, Christel Schwegmann-Weßels
      TGEV is a coronavirus that is still widely spread in pig farming. On molecular level this virus has been studied in detail. However, studying TGEV infection within the complexity of the porcine intestinal epithelium reveals difficulties due to limiting infection models. Here we established a new ex vivo model to analyze the enterotropism of TGEV in porcine intestinal tissue. Precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were produced and ATP level was measured to proof vitality of the slices. ATP measurements and HE staining revealed living tissue in culture for up to 24h. PCIS were infected with three different TGEV strains. TGEV PUR 46-MAD is a commonly used TGEV strain that is known to be attenuated. TGEV Miller was passaged in piglets several times to reveal high infection. Finally, TGEV GFP is a recombinant strain that obtained its main body from TGEV PUR 46-MAD, but its spike protein from TGEV PUR-C11 that showed high mortality in piglets in vivo. Our results were in complete consensus of these statements. TGEV Miller mildly and TGEV GFP extensively infected the cells in the jejunum based on the amount of positive stained epithelial cells. However, for TGEV PUR 46-MAD no nucleocapsid protein was detected in the epithelial cells of the tissue. This shows that differences in TGEV strains and their infectious potential are highly dependent on their S protein.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T00:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.029
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
  • Down-regulating heat shock protein 27 is involved in porcine epidemic
           diarrhea virus escaping from host antiviral mechanism
    • Authors: Min Sun; Zeyanqiu Yu; Jiale Ma; Zihao Pan; Chengping Lu; Huochun Yao
      Pages: 6 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 205
      Author(s): Min Sun, Zeyanqiu Yu, Jiale Ma, Zihao Pan, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
      Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), is the etiological agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PED), causes high mortality with severe vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration in swine farms. In this study, the PEDV strain 85-7 could be proliferated effectively in MARC-145 cells, and caused a distinct inhibition of the expression of interferon-β (IFN-β, encoded by IFNB1), which suggested that a full understanding how this virus manipulates the host immune responses is critical in the fight against the spread of PEDV. We found that, the infection of PEDV strain 85-7 significantly downregulated HSP27 production in MARC-145 cells, and overexpression of HSP27 (encoded by HSPB1) decreased the virus titer by about 28-fold. Further study revealed that HSP27 could significantly activate the NF-κB phosphorylation, and thus increase the mRNA level of IFNB1 and downstream interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in MARC-145 cells. Indeed, treatment with IFN-β and the ISGs, including murine myxovirus resistance 1 and 2 (Mx1 and Mx2), showed direct anti-PEDV activity. Notably, the antiviral activity and transcription of the antiviral effectors induced by overexpression of HSP27 could be counteracted by the knockdown of IFNB1 via RNA interference, indicating that HSP27 was an upstream regulator of the intracellular antiviral effect against PEDV infection. This study is the first to link HSP27 to PEDV replication via the innate immunity response, which contributed to further clarify the mechanism of PEDV infection and the development of novel antiviral therapies.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T00:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.031
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
  • B cell cross-epitope of Propionibacterium acnes and Actinobacillus
           pleuropneumonia selected by phage display library can efficiently protect
           from Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia infection
    • Authors: Jianfang Liu; Qiuyue Ma; Feng Yang; Rining Zhu; Jingmin Gu; Changjiang Sun; Xin Feng; Chongtao Du; Paul R. Langford; Wenyu Han; Junling Yang; Liancheng Lei
      Pages: 14 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 205
      Author(s): Jianfang Liu, Qiuyue Ma, Feng Yang, Rining Zhu, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Chongtao Du, Paul R. Langford, Wenyu Han, Junling Yang, Liancheng Lei
      Contagious porcine pleuropneumonia (CPP), caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), is a highly transmissible and fatal respiratory illness that causes tremendous economic losses for the pig breeding industry worldwide. Propionibacterium acnes (PA) has a strong cross-reaction with anti-APP1 and anti-APP5 serum and can efficiently prevent APP infection, which was fortuitously found in researching the differential gene between the different APP serotypes. There seems to be some natural cross-protection between PA and APP. To identify the common epitope, the phage display library of a PA whole genome was constructed, whose size is 105. The DNA sequence of the positive clone was determined after three rounds of biopanning, and ten common protein types were identified and the epitope was predicted by computer software. Six peptide epitopes were selected and synthesized for further analysis. Among these epitopes, Ba1, Bb5 and C1 could bind to anti-PA serum and anti-APP1 serum and vice versa. Furthermore, the IgG and IL-4 levels and CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios in the Ba1, Bb5 and C1 groups were significantly higher than that in the control group, indicating that the epitopes could trigger an immune response, which was mainly humoral immunity. Moreover, Ba1 and Bb5 equally protected 80% of mice from a fatal dose of APP1 infection compared with the control group. Mice could resist APP1 and APP5 challenge after being treated with the combination of Ba1 and Bb5, with survival rates of 80% and 90%, respectively. These findings suggest that the PA epitope confers antigenicity and can heterologously resist to the APP infection. This finding provides a novel strategy for preventing APP infection.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.026
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
  • Streptococcus suis serotype 9 strain GZ0565 contains a type VII secretion
           system putative substrate EsxA that contributes to bacterial virulence and
           a vanZ-like gene that confers resistance to teicoplanin and dalbavancin in
           Streptococcus agalactiae
    • Authors: Liying Lai; Jiao Dai; Huanyu Tang; Shouming Zhang; Chunyan Wu; Wancen Qiu; Chengping Lu; Huochun Yao; Hongjie Fan; Zongfu Wu
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 205
      Author(s): Liying Lai, Jiao Dai, Huanyu Tang, Shouming Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Wancen Qiu, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao, Hongjie Fan, Zongfu Wu
      Streptococcus suis (SS), an important pathogen for pigs, is not only considered as a zoonotic agent for humans, but is also recognized as a major reservoir of antimicrobial resistance contributing to the spread of resistance genes to other pathogenic Streptococcus species. In addition to serotype 2 (SS2), serotype 9 (SS9) is another prevalent serotype isolated from diseased pigs. Although many SS strains have been sequenced, the complete genome of a non-SS2 virulent strain has been unavailable to date. Here, we report the complete genome of GZ0565, a virulent strain of SS9, isolated from a pig with meningitis. Comparative genomic analysis revealed five new putative virulence or antimicrobial resistance-associated genes in strain GZ0565 but not in SS2 virulent strains. These five genes encode a putative triacylglycerol lipase, a TipAS antibiotic-recognition domain protein, a putative TetR family transcriptional repressor, a protein containing a LPXTG domain and a G5 domain, and a type VII secretion system (T7SS) putative substrate (EsxA), respectively. Western blot analysis showed that strain GZ0565 can secrete EsxA. We generated an esxA deletion mutant and showed that EsxA contributes to SS virulence in a mouse infection model. Additionally, the antibiotic resistance gene vanZSS was identified and expression of vanZSS conferred resistance to teicoplanin and dalbavancin in Streptococcus agalactiae. We believe this is the first experimental demonstration of the existence of the T7SS putative substrate EsxA and its contribution to bacterial virulence in SS. Together, our results contribute to further understanding of the virulence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of SS.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.030
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
  • A novel avian retrovirus associated with lymphocytoma isolated from a
           local Chinese flock induced significantly reduced growth and immune
           suppression in SPF chickens
    • Authors: Xiaoping Wu; Jinrong Zhao; Yukun Zeng; Yijian Wu; Quanxi Wang; Baocheng Wu; Yifan Huang
      Pages: 34 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 205
      Author(s): Xiaoping Wu, Jinrong Zhao, Yukun Zeng, Yijian Wu, Quanxi Wang, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang
      Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs) are associated with neoplasias, immune suppression and reduced performance in chicken flocks. In the present study, a naturally occurring recombinant strain of ALV (FJ15HT0) was isolated from an infected flock of Chinese “Hetian” chickens, and was subsequently identified as an exogenous ALV by immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA), PCR and following entire proviral DNA nucleotide sequencing. This isolate is revealed as a novel recombinant virus, lacking viral oncogenes, with the gp85 (93.4%) of subgroup B, the U3 (92.1%) and R (95.2%) region of subgroup J, the U5 (93.8%) region and 5′UTR (95.7%) of subgroup C, as well as the gp37 (90.6%) and 3′ (92.2%) of ALV-E. The simulative congenital infection with this isolate in SPF chickens resulted in significant weight loss (P <0.05) and a significant reduction in the humoral immune response to the live NDV vaccine (P <0.05), but not to the inactive AIV-H5 vaccine (P >0.05). Foci of lymphocytomas were observed in tissues of congenitally infected chickens at 11 weeks post-hatch, demonstrating the acute oncogenicity of the isolate.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
  • Multilocus sequence analysis reveals extensive genetic variety within
           Tenacibaculum spp. associated with ulcers in sea-farmed fish in Norway
    • Authors: Anne Berit Olsen; Snorre Gulla; Terje Steinum; Duncan J. Colquhoun; Hanne K. Nilsen; Eric Duchaud
      Pages: 39 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 205
      Author(s): Anne Berit Olsen, Snorre Gulla, Terje Steinum, Duncan J. Colquhoun, Hanne K. Nilsen, Eric Duchaud
      Skin ulcer development in sea-reared salmonids, commonly associated with Tenacibaculum spp., is a significant fish welfare- and economical problem in Norwegian aquaculture. A collection of 89 Tenacibaculum isolates was subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The isolates were retrieved from outbreaks of clinical disease in farms spread along the Norwegian coast line from seven different fish species over a period of 19 years. MLSA analysis reveals considerable genetic diversity, but allows identification of four main clades. One clade encompasses isolates belonging to the species T. dicentrarchi, whereas three clades encompass bacteria that likely represent novel, as yet undescribed species. The study identified T. maritimum in lumpsucker, T. ovolyticum in halibut, and has extended the host and geographic range for T. soleae, isolated from wrasse. The overall lack of clonality and host specificity, with some indication of geographical range restriction argue for local epidemics involving multiple strains. The diversity of Tenacibaculum isolates from fish displaying ulcerative disease may complicate vaccine development.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.028
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus
           isolates collected between 1986 and 2015 from ovine mastitis
    • Authors: Elisa Azara; Maria Giovanna Piras; Antonio Parisi; Sebastiana Tola
      Pages: 53 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 205
      Author(s): Elisa Azara, Maria Giovanna Piras, Antonio Parisi, Sebastiana Tola
      In this research, 330 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, collected in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 1986–2015 from clinical ovine mastitis and used for the preparation of inactivated autogenous vaccines, were analyzed. Susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents was tested by disk diffusion, according to CLSI recommendations. Resistance genes were detected by PCR assays. The most of isolates (85.2%) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, suggesting that did not exist change of resistance over time. Two isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR), one of them (isolate 1496) showed resistance to seven antibiotics including oxacillin and erythromycin. This MRSA harboured SCCmec type IV and the erm(C) gene. Isolates were characterized by spa typing and MLST. Isolates belonged to 29 spa types: t1773 (n=186), t2678 (n=53), t7754 (n=14), t1532 (n=5), t524 (n=5) and t6060 (n=4) were the most frequent spa types found in Sardinia. The majority of ovine isolates (t1773, t7754 and t1532) was grouped in MLST CC130 (n=205) followed by CC133 (n=57). MRSA 1496 was classified as t3896, ST1 and CC1, a clonal complex common in human and also reported in cattle and pig. This study suggests that the CC130/ST700/t1773 is the prevalent S. aureus lineage associated with ovine mastitis in Sardinia.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
  • Identification of Lawsonia intracellularis putative hemolysin protein A
           and characterization of its immunoreactivity
    • Authors: Jehyung Kim; Gayeon Won; Suyeon Park; John Hwa Lee
      Pages: 57 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 205
      Author(s): Jehyung Kim, Gayeon Won, Suyeon Park, John Hwa Lee
      Despite the recent global increase in fatal endemic outbreaks of proliferative enteropathy (PE) caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracelluralis (LI) in the swine industry, development of effective prevention strategies or immunodiagnostic tests has been delayed due to the difficulty of cultivating this pathogen in vitro. Although several genetic analyses have been performed at the level of gene transcription after the complete genome sequence of LI was made available, the mechanism of LI infection and virulence genes remain unidentified. In the present study, we assessed the antigenic features of the LI0004 protein, which we putatively defined as Lawsonia hemolysin A (LhlyA), by employing bioinformatics tools and in vivo and in vitro protein-based molecular assays. The amino acid sequence of LhlyA showed approximately 60% homology to the hemolysin-like proteins of Bilophila wadsworthia and Desulfovibrio piger. Presence of computationally predicted linear antigenic B-cell epitopes on the LhlyA protein was demonstrated by immunoblotting; a band with a molecular mass corresponding to the predicted size of the protein was strongly recognized by sera collected from artificially infected mice. Further, in an in vivo cytotoxicity assay, no splenomegaly was observed in mice inoculated with purified LhlyA. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that the LhlyA protein is a highly immuno-reactive antigen of L. intracellullaris and can potentially be used to develop effective protection strategies against PE.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
  • Evolution of avian encephalomyelitis virus during embryo-adaptation
    • Authors: Rüdiger Hauck; C. Gabriel Sentíes-Cué; Ying Wang; Colin Kern; H.L. Shivaprasad; Huaijun Zhou; Rodrigo A. Gallardo
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Rüdiger Hauck, C. Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, Ying Wang, Colin Kern, H.L. Shivaprasad, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo A. Gallardo
      Wild-type avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) causes neurological signs in young chicks but no disease in pullets after oral or intracutaneous infection. However, if the virus gets embryo-adapted by serial passaging in chicken embryos, it will cause AE after intracutaneous infection in chickens of all ages. Recently, several cases of AE in layer pullets occurring shortly after intracutaneous vaccination were described. The present investigation was initiated to determine if vaccines that had inadvertently been embryo-adapted were responsible for these outbreaks. Virus isolation was done from two vaccines and one field sample. One of the vaccines had been used in one of the flocks before the outbreak. After the first passage, regardless of the inoculum, no embryo was paralyzed, indicating that the vaccines and the field isolate were not embryo-adapted. After seven passages all three strains were fully embryo-adapted causing typical lesions in the embryos. Viral load as determined by RT-qPCR remained constant during the passages. Partial sequences of the VP2 gene of vaccines, the field sample and four other field isolates were nearly identical and highly similar to published sequences from all over the world; only sequences originating from non-vaccinated birds were clearly set apart. Analysis of whole genomes identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that distinguished wild-type and embryo-adapted strains. Sanger sequencing brains and nerves of the five field isolates and of the first, third and fifth passages of the isolates showed that the mutations indicating embryo-adaptation were first observed in the fifth passage.

      PubDate: 2017-04-13T22:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Species level identification of coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp.
           from buffalo using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of
           flight mass spectrometry and cydB real-time quantitative PCR
    • Authors: Lucas J.L. Pizauro; Camila C. de Almeida; Glenn A. Soltes; Durda Slavic; Oswaldo D. Rossi-Junior; Fernando. A. de Ávila; Luiz. F. Zafalon; Janet I. MacInnes
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Lucas J.L. Pizauro, Camila C. de Almeida, Glenn A. Soltes, Durda Slavic, Oswaldo D. Rossi-Junior, Fernando. A. de Ávila, Luiz. F. Zafalon, Janet I. MacInnes
      Incorrect identification of Staphylococcus spp. can have serious clinical and zoonotic repercussions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine if matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and/or cydB real- time quantitative PCR (qPCR) could be used to accurately identify coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) obtained from buffalo milk and milking environment samples. Seventy-five of 84 CoNS isolates could be identified to the species level (score value >1.99) using MALDI-TOF MS. However, as determined by cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase subunit II (cydB) qPCR and by 16S RNA and cydB gene sequencing, 10 S. agnetis strains were wrongly identified as S. hyicus by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, 9 isolates identified by MALDI-TOF only to the genus level (score values between 1.70 and 1.99) could be identified to species by cydB qPCR. Our findings suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable method for rapid identification of S. chromogenes and S. epidermidis (species of interest both in human and veterinary medicine) and may be able to correctly identify other Staphylococcus spp. However, at present not all Staphylococcus spp. found in buffalo milk can be accurately identified by MALDI-TOF MS and for these organisms, the cydB qPCR developed in the current study may provide a reliable alternative method for rapid identification of CoNS species.

      PubDate: 2017-04-13T22:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.036
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Immunogenicity of phospholipase A2 toxins and their role in Streptococcus
           equi pathogenicity
    • Authors: M.R. López-Álvarez; M. Salze; A. Cenier; C. Robinson; R. Paillot; A.S. Waller
      Pages: 15 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): M.R. López-Álvarez, M. Salze, A. Cenier, C. Robinson, R. Paillot, A.S. Waller
      Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, one of the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses worldwide. Phospholipase A2 toxins (PLA2) cleave phospholipid molecules at position sn-2 contributing to the production of leukotrienes that are important inflammatory mediators. Two homologous phospholipases, SlaA and SlaB are encoded by the S. equi genome suggesting that PLA2 toxins may contribute to its pathogenicity. Here we report the immunogenicity and role of PLA2 toxins during natural and experimental infection of horses with S. equi. The levels of anti-PLA2 specific antibodies in serum from horses naturally exposed to S. equi or without exposure were measured by indirect ELISA. Furthermore, the importance of PLA2 was determined during experimental infection of Welsh Mountain ponies with a mutant strain of S. equi lacking slaA and slaB. Our results show that PLA2 toxins are immunogenic, which supports their production during natural S. equi infection, but that these toxins are not essential for the development of strangles in a susceptible natural host.

      PubDate: 2017-04-20T23:01:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Oral fluid versus blood sampling in group-housed sows and finishing pigs:
           Feasibility and performance of antibody detection for porcine reproductive
           and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)
    • Authors: C. Fablet; P. Renson; F. Pol; V. Dorenlor; S. Mahé; F. Eono; E. Eveno; M. Le Dimna; D. Liegard-Vanhecke; S. Eudier; N. Rose; O. Bourry
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): C. Fablet, P. Renson, F. Pol, V. Dorenlor, S. Mahé, F. Eono, E. Eveno, M. Le Dimna, D. Liegard-Vanhecke, S. Eudier, N. Rose, O. Bourry
      The feasibility of using individual and pen-based oral fluid samples to detect PRRSV antibodies in growing-finishing pigs and group-housed sows was investigated. The diagnostic performances of a commercial oral fluid ELISA (OF-ELISA) and a serum ELISA (SER-ELISA) performed on individual or pooled samples from 5 or 10 pigs and sows was evaluated. The performance of the OF-ELISA was also assessed for pen-based oral fluids. Eight hundred and thirty-four pigs and 1598 sows from 42 PRRSV-infected and 3 PRRSV-negative herds were oral fluid sampled and bled. PRRSV antibodies were detected by an OF-ELISA performed at individual, pool (5 or 10 samples) and pen levels. Serum samples were tested by a SER-ELISA at individual and pool levels. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISAs for individual samples were assessed by Bayesian analysis. The relative diagnostic performance for the pools was calculated by taking individual samples as the gold standard. SER-ELISA and individual OF-ELISA results were used as references for estimating OF-ELISA performance for pen-based samples. Individual oral fluid collection was feasible in all kinds of pigs, whereas pen-based samples were unsuccessful in 40% of the group-housed sow pens. High levels of sensitivity comparable to those of the SER-ELISA were found for the OF-ELISA when performed on individual, 5-sample pool or pen-based samples from pigs or sows. The OF-ELISA lacked specificity for individual samples from sows. Pooling 5 individual oral fluid samples or using pen-based samples increased test specificity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-20T23:01:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis menigoencephalitis in a cat
    • Authors: Hiroo Madarame; Miyoko Saito; Kikumi Ogihara; Hideharu Ochiai; Mami Oba; Tsutomu Omatsu; Yuzo Tsuyuki; Tetsuya Mizutani
      Pages: 43 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Hiroo Madarame, Miyoko Saito, Kikumi Ogihara, Hideharu Ochiai, Mami Oba, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Tetsuya Mizutani
      A 33-month old, neutered female Abyssinian cat died. The cat had sudden onset of widespread neurologic signs about half a year after birth. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) group was isolated and identified from the brain of a cat affected with pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis. The central nervous system (CNS) was involved in the disseminated MAH infection. MAH infection should be considered in cats with neurologic signs in regard to zoonotic aspects. Comparatively, this is a first case of MAH infection observed in the brain in either humans or animals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Efficacy of disinfectants and detergents intended for a pig farm
           environment where Salmonella is present
    • Authors: Rebecca J. Gosling; Ian Mawhinney; Kelly Vaughan; Robert H. Davies; Richard P. Smith
      Pages: 46 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Rebecca J. Gosling, Ian Mawhinney, Kelly Vaughan, Robert H. Davies, Richard P. Smith
      Disinfection is a useful component of disease control, although products and chemical groups vary in their activity against different pathogens. This study investigated the ability of fifteen disinfectants to eliminate pig-associated Salmonella. Active compounds of products included chlorocresol, glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde/quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), iodine, peracetic acid and potassium peroxomonosulphate. Six detergents were also tested for their ability to dislodge faecal material, and interactions with specific disinfectants. Eight serovars were screened against all products using dilution tests and a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strain was selected for further testing. The disinfectants were tested using models to replicate boot dip (faecal suspension) and animal housing (surface contamination) disinfection respectively at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Approved Disinfectant General Orders (GO) concentration, half GO and twice GO. Stability over time and ability to eliminate Salmonella in biofilm was also assessed. The most effective products were then field tested. Most products at GO concentration eliminated Salmonella in the faecal suspension model. One glutaraldehyde/QAC and one glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde-based product at GO concentration eliminated Salmonella in the surface contamination model. Chlorocresol-based products were more stable in the faecal suspension model. One chlorocresol and the glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde-based product were most successful in eliminating Salmonella from biofilms. All products tested on farm reduced bacterial log counts; the glutaraldehyde/QAC based product produced the greatest reduction. The type of product and the application concentration can impact on efficacy of farm disinfection; therefore, clearer guidance is needed to ensure the appropriate programmes are used for specific environments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • A molecular survey for selected viral enteropathogens revealed a limited
           role of Canine circovirus in the development of canine acute
    • Authors: Giulia Dowgier; Eleonora Lorusso; Nicola Decaro; Costantina Desario; Viviana Mari; Maria Stella Lucente; Gianvito Lanave; Canio Buonavoglia; Gabriella Elia
      Pages: 54 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Giulia Dowgier, Eleonora Lorusso, Nicola Decaro, Costantina Desario, Viviana Mari, Maria Stella Lucente, Gianvito Lanave, Canio Buonavoglia, Gabriella Elia
      Canine circovirus (CanineCV) is a canine virus, whose pathogenetic role is still uncertain. Based on recent data suggesting its role as entheropathogen, a case-control study was conducted between 2013 and 2016 to investigate the association of CanineCV with gastroenteritis in dogs, alone or in combination with other viral pathogens, including canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). A total of 219 dogs suffering from acute gastroenteritis disorders and 67 controls randomly recruited among healthy dogs or patients presenting without enteric signs were screened by a panel of real-time (RT-)PCR assays for CanineCV, CPV, CCoV and CDV. A high prevalence of viral infections was detected in dogs with gastroenteritis (77.16%), with CPV representing the most frequently detected enteropathogen, followed by CanineCV and CCoV. While CPV and CCoV infections displayed a strong association with occurrence of acute gastroenteritis (p< 0.00001), detection of CanineCV in control dogs (28.35%) occurred with prevalence comparable to that of clinical cases (32.42%), so that its correlation with gastrointestinal disease was not statistically supported (p =0.530988). Different from the clinical cases, where co-infections were frequently observed, all positive samples from the control group contained single infections. Noteworthy, a significant association was calculated between co-infections with CanineCV and occurrence of acute gastroenteritis (p< 0.00001). This study supports the role of CanineCV as a co-pathogen in the development of gastrointestinal disease, mainly acting in synergism with other enteric viruses.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Distribution of Aleutian mink disease virus contamination in the
           environment of infected mink farms
    • Authors: A. Prieto; R. Fernández-Antonio; J.M. Díaz-Cao; G. López; P. Díaz; J.M. Alonso; P. Morrondo; G. Fernández
      Pages: 59 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): A. Prieto, R. Fernández-Antonio, J.M. Díaz-Cao, G. López, P. Díaz, J.M. Alonso, P. Morrondo, G. Fernández
      Control and eradication of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) are a major concern for fur-bearing animal production. Despite notably reducing disease prevalence, current control programs are unable to prevent the reinfection of farms, and environmental AMDV persistence seems to play a major role regarding this issue. In this study 114 samples from different areas and elements of seven infected mink farms were analyzed by qPCR in order to evaluate the environmental distribution of AMDV load. Samples were classified into nine categories, depending on the type of sample and degree of proximity to the animals, the main source of infection. Two different commercial DNA extraction kits were employed in parallel for all samples. qPCR analysis showed 69.3% positive samples with one kit and 81.6% with the other, and significant differences between the two DNA extraction methods were found regarding AMDV DNA recovery. Regarding sample categorization, all categories showed a high percentage of AMDV positive samples (31%–100%). Quantification of positive samples showed a decrease in AMDV load from animal barns to the periphery of the farm. In addition, those elements in direct contact with animals, the street clothes and vehicles of farm workers and personal protective equipment used for sampling showed a high viral load, and statistical analysis revealed significant differences in AMDV load between the first and last categories. These results indicate high environmental contamination of positive farms, which is helpful for future considerations about cleaning and disinfection procedures and biosecurity protocols.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Immune response of Staphylococcus aureus strains in a mouse mastitis model
           is linked to adaptive capacity and genotypic profiles
    • Authors: Elizabet A.L. Pereyra; Sofía C. Sacco; Andrea Duré; Celina Baravalle; María S. Renna; Carolina S. Andreotti; Stefan Monecke; Luis F. Calvinho; Bibiana E. Dallard
      Pages: 64 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Elizabet A.L. Pereyra, Sofía C. Sacco, Andrea Duré, Celina Baravalle, María S. Renna, Carolina S. Andreotti, Stefan Monecke, Luis F. Calvinho, Bibiana E. Dallard
      Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated major pathogens from intramammary infections (IMI) worldwide. The mechanisms by which S. aureus IMI are established and maintained in dairy cows involve both bacterial escape strategies and modulation of the host immune response. Moreover, it was shown that different S. aureus strains have varying effects on the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response in a mouse mastitis model of two S. aureus strains isolated from bovine IMI with different clinical manifestation (persistent-P or non-persistent-NP), phenotypic and genotypic profile. Both strains were capable of establishing an IMI after 264h post inoculation (pi). Strain A (NP) showed a more aggressive behaviour than strain B (P) at early stages of IMI, while strain B multiplied initially at a lower rate but increased its replication capacity from 120h pi to the end of the study (264h pi). Strain A triggered a stronger initial inflammatory response compared with strain B inducing higher gene and protein expression of TLR2, NF-κB activation and higher gene expression of IL-1α at initial stage of IMI (6–12h pi) but inducing extensive mammary tissue damage. Immune cells response was different for each S. aureus strain throughout the course of infection, showing mammary glands inoculated with strain A greater initial immune cells stimulation compared with strain B and then a second immune cells stimulation (from 120 to 264h pi) represented by monocytes-macrophages, T and B lymphocytes, mainly stimulated by strain B, consistent with inflammatory process becoming chronic. Strain-specific pathogenicity observed underscores the importance of pathogen factors in the progression of the infectious process. These results contribute to increase the available information on host-pathogen interaction and point out for the need of further research to expand the knowledge about these interactions for developing new strategies to intervene in the IMI progress.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus 1 related alphaherpesvirus infections
           in free-living and captive cervids in Poland
    • Authors: Jerzy Rola; Magdalena Larska; Wojciech Socha; Jolanta G. Rola; Magdalena Materniak; Renata Urban-Chmiel; Etienne Thiry; Jan F. Żmudziński
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Jerzy Rola, Magdalena Larska, Wojciech Socha, Jolanta G. Rola, Magdalena Materniak, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Etienne Thiry, Jan F. Żmudziński
      To determine the occurrence of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) related alphaherpesvirus infections in cervids, 1194 serum samples of wild ruminants originating from 59 forest districts of Poland were tested with IBR gB ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT) against BoHV-1 and cervid herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1). The seroprevalence differed significantly between free-living and captive cervids (P< 0.001) with a total of 89 out of 498 (17.9%) and 268 out of 696 (38.5%) seropositive animals in each type of population. In free-ranging cervids, the highest seroprevalence was found among red deer (25.6%) and in fallow deer (23.1%), while it was the lowest in roe deer (1.7%). The seroprevalence varied at the district level between 0 and 100% with the mean value of 17.4% (95% CI:10.1–24.0). Additionally, seroprevalence was associated with afforestation (χ2 =7.5; P =0.006) and to some degree with the mean of cattle density in province (χ2 =7.0; P =0.08). The mean antibody titre against CvHV-1 in VNT (161.8; 95%CI: 146.0–177.6) has been significantly higher (P<0.0001) than the mean titre of BoHV-1 antibodies (10.1; 95%CI: 8.9–11.4). The results showed that BoHV-1 related alphaherpesvirus infections are present in population of free-ranging and farmed cervids in Poland. Based on the VNT results and considering the low susceptibility of red deer to BoHV-1, it seems that the dominant alphaherpesvirus circulating in wild ruminants is most likely CvHV-1 and therefore it is rather unlikely that deer in Poland could play any role as a reservoir of BoHV-1 for cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Bovine vaccinia: Inactivated Vaccinia virus vaccine induces protection in
           murine model
    • Authors: Ana Carolina Diniz Matos; Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes; Izabelle Silva Rehfeld; Erica Azevedo Costa; Aristoteles Gomes Costa; Natalia Lopes da Silva; Andrey Pereira Lage; Zélia Inês Portela Lobato
      Pages: 84 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Izabelle Silva Rehfeld, Erica Azevedo Costa, Aristoteles Gomes Costa, Natalia Lopes da Silva, Andrey Pereira Lage, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato
      Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions on the teats of dairy cows and the milkers’ hands. Since 1999, due to the occurrence of many BV outbreaks in dairy farms across all Brazilian regions, there is a need to improve the control and prevention measures of the disease. Vaccination is one of the major tools to prevent viral diseases, and it could be an alternative for BV prevention. The main objective of this study was the development of vaccine formulations against BV using the inactivated VACV strain GP2 as antigen combined with different adjuvants. Potency tests were performed in mice, which were vaccinated with two doses at a 21-day interval, and then challenged with the vaccine homologous virus. VACV strain GP2 inactivated by beta-propiolactone (BPL) in association with adjuvants was effective in inducing a humoral immune response against VACV, as measured by neutralizing antibody (NA) titers, and was variable depending on the adjuvant used in each vaccine formulation. The vaccine formulation containing aluminum hydroxide (AH) associated with saponin as adjuvant induced the production of high NA titers in all vaccinated mice, giving 100% protection in Balb/c murine model after challenge with homologous virus.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • The orrurrence of biofilm in an equine experimental wound model of healing
           by secondary intention
    • Authors: E. Jørgensen; L. Bay; T. Bjarnsholt; L. Bundgaard; M.A. Sørensen; S. Jacobsen
      Pages: 90 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): E. Jørgensen, L. Bay, T. Bjarnsholt, L. Bundgaard, M.A. Sørensen, S. Jacobsen
      In humans, biofilm is a well-known cause of delayed healing and low-grade inflammation of chronic wounds. In horses, biofilm formation in wounds has been studied to a very limited degree. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the occurrence of biofilm in equine experimental wounds healing by secondary intention. Tissue biopsies from non-contaminated, experimental excisional shoulder and limb wounds were obtained on day 1–2, day 7–10 and day 14–15 post-wounding. Limb wounds were either un-bandaged or bandaged to induce exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) formation and thereby impaired healing. Presence of biofilm in tissue biopsies was assessed by peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Bandaged limb wounds developed EGT and displayed delayed healing, while shoulder and un-bandaged limb wounds healed normally. Biofilm was detected in limb wounds only. At day 14–15 biofilm was significantly more prevalent in bandaged limb wounds than in un-bandaged limb wounds (P=0.003). Further, bandaged limb wounds had a statistically significant increase in biofilm burden from day 7–10 to day 14–15 (P=0.009). The finding that biofilm was most prevalent in bandaged limb wounds with EGT formation suggests that biofilm may be linked to delayed wound healing in horses, as has been observed in humans. The inability to clear bacteria could be related to hypoxia and low-grade inflammation in the EGT, but the interaction between biofilm forming bacteria and wound healing in horses needs further elucidation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Genetics and biological property analysis of Korea lineage of influenza A
           H9N2 viruses
    • Authors: Min Kang; Hyung-Kwan Jang
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Min Kang, Hyung-Kwan Jang
      H9N2 influenza viruses have been detected from wild and domestic avian species including chickens and ducks worldwide. Few studies have compared the biological properties of different H9N2 lineages or determined whether certain lineages might pose a higher risk to mammals, especially H9N2 viruses of Korean lineage. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic and biological properties of 22 Korean H9N2 viruses and assess their potential risks to mammals. Their complete genomes were analyzed. Some Korean H9N2 viruses were found to carry mammalian host-specific mutations. Based on genomic diversities, these H9N2 viruses were divided into 12 genotypes. All 22 showed preferential binding to human-like receptor. Two of eight H9N2 viruses were highly lethal to mice, causing 90–100% mortality without prior adaptation and severe respiratory syndromes associated with diffuse lung injury, severe pneumonia, and alveolar damage. These findings suggest that recent Korean H9N2 viruses might have established a stable sublineage with enhanced pathogenicity to mice. Various H9N2 strains pathogenic to mice were endemic in wild bird, poultry farm, and live bird markets, suggesting that Korean H9N2 viruses could evolve to become a threat to humans. The findings emphasize the necessity of careful, continuous, and thorough surveillance paired with risk-assessment for circulating H9N2 influenza viruses.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • A comparative study evaluating the efficacy of IS_MAP04 with IS900 and
           IS_MAP02 as a new diagnostic target for the detection of Mycobacterium
           avium subspecies paratuberculosis from bovine faeces
    • Authors: Marcel de Kruijf; Rodney Govender; Dermot Yearsley; Aidan Coffey; Jim O’Mahony
      Pages: 104 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Marcel de Kruijf, Rodney Govender, Dermot Yearsley, Aidan Coffey, Jim O’Mahony
      The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of IS_MAP04 as a potential new diagnostic quantitative PCR (qPCR) target for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from bovine faeces. IS_MAP04 primers were designed and tested negative against non-MAP strains. The detection limit of IS_MAP04 qPCR was evaluated on different MAP K-10 DNA concentrations and on faecal samples spiked with different MAP K-10 cell dilutions. A collection of 106 faecal samples was analysed and the efficacy of IS_MAP04 was statistically compared with IS900 and IS_MAP02. The detection limits observed for IS_MAP04 and IS900 on MAP DNA was 34 fg and 3.4 fg respectively. The detection limit of MAP from inoculated faecal samples was 102 CFU/g for both IS_MAP04 and IS900 targets and a detection limit of 102 CFU/g was also achieved with a TaqMan qPCR targeting IS_MAP04. The efficacy of IS_MAP04 to detect positive MAP faecal samples was 83.0% compared to 85.8% and 83.9% for IS900 and IS_MAP02 respectively. Strong kappa agreements were observed between IS_MAP04 and IS900 (κ=0.892) and between IS_MAP04 and IS_MAP02 (κ=0.897). As a new molecular target, IS_MAP04 showed that the detection limit was comparable to IS900 to detect MAP from inoculated faecal material. The MAP detection efficacy of IS_MAP04 from naturally infected faecal samples proved to be relatively comparable to IS_MAP02, but yielded efficacy results slightly less than IS900. Moreover, IS_MAP04 could be of significant value when used in duplex or multiplex qPCR assays.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Recombination in JXA1-R vaccine and NADC30-like strain of porcine
           reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses
    • Authors: Jiankui Liu; Xia Zhou; Junqiong Zhai; Chunhua Wei; Ailing Dai; Xiaoyan Yang; Manlin Luo
      Pages: 110 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Jiankui Liu, Xia Zhou, Junqiong Zhai, Chunhua Wei, Ailing Dai, Xiaoyan Yang, Manlin Luo
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) has undergone rapid evolution since its first recognition in 1990s. In the present study, a PRRSV strain named FJXS15 causing high morbidity and mortality was isolated from piglets and sows from a farm participating in vaccination in China. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that FJXS15 was highly similar to the JXA1-R vaccine strain (a live attenuated virus vaccine strain derived from the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXA1) in the ORF1a (nt 901-)−ORF4 (-nt 419) coding regions, as well as to FJZ03 (lineage 1, NADC30-like) in the 5′-UTR, ORF5a−ORF7 coding regions, and 3′-UTR, suggestive of a natural recombination event. Recombination analyses showed that recombination events occurred in two inter-lineage recombination events between Lineages 1 and 8 based on based on classification system (Shi et al., 2010), and two recombination breakpoints at positions 1–1092 and 13771–15537 of the sequence alignment (with reference to the VR-2332 strain). Animal experiments demonstrated that FJXS15-infected animals had more severe histopathological lung lesions than did JXA1-R-infected and control groups. A 25% mortality rate was found in FJXS15-infected piglets, which was similar to that found with other Chinese HP-PRRSV strains. Thus, the recombinant virus is a highly virulent PRRSV. Moreover, this report provides evidence for inter-subgenotypic recombination between the JXA1-R vaccine virus and a circulating Lineage 1 virus.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • A safe and molecular-tagged Brucella canis ghosts confer protection
           against virulent challenge in mice
    • Authors: Jing Qian; Zhaoyang Bu; Xulong Lang; Guangmou Yan; Yanling Yang; Xiuran Wang; Xinglong Wang
      Pages: 121 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Jing Qian, Zhaoyang Bu, Xulong Lang, Guangmou Yan, Yanling Yang, Xiuran Wang, Xinglong Wang
      Canine Brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, is a persistent infectious reproductive disease in dogs. The absence of effective treatment to the intracellular pathogen and the irreversible consequence of infection makes the need of a specific vaccine urgent. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are the empty envelopes of bacteria with no genome content inside, which emerge as a proper vaccine candidate due to its intact outer antigen. It is generally derived from a genetically engineered strain, through the expression of Bacteriophage phiX174 lysis E gene upon induction. In this study, we combined the homologous recombination (HR) and bacterial ghost technologies, generating a genetically stable B. canis ghost strain which bears no drug resistance gene. When the ghost strain grows to OD600 of 0.6, 100% inactivation can be achieved under 42°C in 60h. The resultant BGs showed guaranteed safety and comparable immunogenicity to a live vaccine. The bacterial B0419 protein was depleted during HR process, which is subsequently proved to work as a molecular tag in distinguishing natural infection and BGs immunization through ELISA. Additionally, the BGs also conferred protection against B. canis RM6/66 and B. melitensis 16M. Therefore, the application of current BGs as a vaccine candidate and the corresponding serological diagnostic approach may provide better B. canis prevention strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.027
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Preparation for emergence of an Eastern European porcine reproductive and
           respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in Western Europe: Immunization
           with modified live virus vaccines or a field strain confers partial
    • Authors: P. Renson; C. Fablet; M. Le Dimna; S. Mahé; F. Touzain; Y. Blanchard; F. Paboeuf; N. Rose; O. Bourry
      Pages: 133 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): P. Renson, C. Fablet, M. Le Dimna, S. Mahé, F. Touzain, Y. Blanchard, F. Paboeuf, N. Rose, O. Bourry
      The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes huge economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. In the past several years, highly pathogenic strains that lead to even greater losses have emerged. For the Western European swine industry, one threat is the possible introduction of Eastern European PRRSV strains (example Lena genotype 1.3) which were shown to be more virulent than common Western resident strains under experimental conditions. To prepare for the possible emergence of this strain in Western Europe, we immunized piglets with a Western European PRRSV field strain (Finistere: Fini, genotype 1.1), a new genotype 1 commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (MLV1) or a genotype 2 commercial MLV vaccine (MLV2) to evaluate and compare the level of protection that these strains conferred upon challenge with the Lena strain 4 weeks later. Results show that immunization with Fini, MLV1 or MLV2 strains shortened the Lena-induced hyperthermia. In the Fini group, a positive effect was also demonstrated in growth performance. The level of Lena viremia was reduced for all immunized groups (significantly so for Fini and MLV2). This reduction in Lena viremia was correlated with the level of Lena-specific IFNγ-secreting cells. In conclusion, we showed that a commercial MLV vaccine of genotype 1 or 2, as well as a field strain of genotype 1.1 may provide partial clinical and virological protection upon challenge with the Lena strain. The cross-protection induced by these immunizing strains was not related with the level of genetic similarity to the Lena strain. The slightly higher level of protection established with the field strain is attributed to a better cell-mediated immune response.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.021
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Streptococcus agalactiae in elephants – A comparative study with
           isolates from human and zoo animal and livestock origin
    • Authors: Tobias Eisenberg; Jörg Rau; Uta Westerhüs; Tobias Knauf-Witzens; Ahmad Fawzy; Karen Schlez; Michael Zschöck; Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff; Carsten Heydel; Reinhard Sting; Stefanie P. Glaeser; Dipen Pulami; Mark van der Linden; Christa Ewers
      Pages: 141 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Tobias Eisenberg, Jörg Rau, Uta Westerhüs, Tobias Knauf-Witzens, Ahmad Fawzy, Karen Schlez, Michael Zschöck, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Carsten Heydel, Reinhard Sting, Stefanie P. Glaeser, Dipen Pulami, Mark van der Linden, Christa Ewers
      Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae represents a significant pathogen for humans and animals. However, there are only a few elderly reports on S. agalactiae infections in wild and zoo elephants even though this pathogen has been isolated comparatively frequently in these endangered animal species. Consequently, between 2004 and 2015, we collected S. agalactiae isolates from African and Asian elephants (n=23) living in four different zoos in Germany. These isolates were characterised and compared with isolates from other animal species (n=20 isolates) and humans (n=3). We found that the isolates from elephants can be readily identified by classical biochemistry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Further characterisations for epidemiological issues were achieved using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, capsule typing and molecular fingerprinting (PFGE, RAPD PCR). We could demonstrate that our elephant isolate collection contained at least six different lineages that were representative for their source of origin. Despite generally broad antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae, many showed tetracycline resistance in vitro. S. agalactiae plays an important role in bacterial infections not only in cattle and humans, but also in elephants. Comparative studies were able to differentiate S. agalactiae isolates from elephants into different infectious clusters based on their epidemiological background.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Host cell tropism, genome characterization, and evolutionary features of
           OaPV4, a novel Deltapapillomavirus identified in sheep fibropapilloma
    • Authors: Gessica Tore; Carla Cacciotto; Antonio Giovanni Anfossi; Gian Mario Dore; Elisabetta Antuofermo; Alessandra Scagliarini; Giovanni Pietro Burrai; Salvatore Pau; Maria Teresa Zedda; Gerolamo Masala; Marco Pittau; Alberto Alberti
      Pages: 151 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Gessica Tore, Carla Cacciotto, Antonio Giovanni Anfossi, Gian Mario Dore, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Alessandra Scagliarini, Giovanni Pietro Burrai, Salvatore Pau, Maria Teresa Zedda, Gerolamo Masala, Marco Pittau, Alberto Alberti
      Investigating papillomavirus (PV) diversity is crucial to fully comprehend pathogenicity, genetic features, and evolution of taxa hosted by domestic and wild animal species. This study reports the identification of OaPV4, a novel ovine PV type within Deltapapillomaviruses 3. The study of OaPV4 genomic features combined to in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry investigations allowed extrapolating several general biological features of ovine PVs, such as their cellular tropism, pathogenicity, and evolutionary history. Based on results, ovine PVs can be grouped into a polyphyletic ancient group of viruses, which splits in two main subgroups having peculiar cellular tropism and pathogenicity. Results add up to animal PV diversity and are crucial to future studies aimed to investigate the correlation between animal PV and cutaneous benign and malign proliferations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.024
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Oral vaccination through voluntary consumption of the convict grouper
           Epinephelus septemfasciatus with yeast producing the capsid protein of
           red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus
    • Authors: Seo Young Cho; Hyoung Jin Kim; Nguyen Thi Lan; Hyun-Ja Han; Deok-Chan Lee; Jee Youn Hwang; Mun-Gyeong Kwon; Bo Kyu Kang; Sang Yoon Han; Hyoungjoon Moon; Hyun Ah Kang; Hong-Jin Kim
      Pages: 159 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Seo Young Cho, Hyoung Jin Kim, Nguyen Thi Lan, Hyun-Ja Han, Deok-Chan Lee, Jee Youn Hwang, Mun-Gyeong Kwon, Bo Kyu Kang, Sang Yoon Han, Hyoungjoon Moon, Hyun Ah Kang, Hong-Jin Kim
      Nervous necrosis viruses (NNV) cause serious economic losses in marine fish cultivation. The red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) is the most common species of NNV worldwide. There have been many efforts to develop prophylactic NNV vaccines, and various types of vaccine candidate have been suggested. However, most were designed as injectable vaccines, which are not suitable for large-scale vaccination and cause too much stress to the fish. Oral vaccination through voluntary feeding is an ideal way to provide protective immunity to fish. In the present study, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing RGNNV capsid protein was used as oral vaccine. The recombinant yeast was prepared in freeze-dried form after disruption. Convict groupers were divided into three groups, control, and oral and parenteral vaccination groups, each consisting of 700 fishes. The control group received no treatment, the parenteral group received one intraperitoneal injection of RGNNV virus-like particles, and the oral vaccination group consumed feed containing the lysed recombinant yeast; voluntary intake was allowed four times at one-week intervals. Both vaccination groups produced serum RGNNV neutralizing antibody titers of >103 (log 2, 9.96), sustained for at least 95days post-immunization. In addition, in response to challenge with RGNNV both groups suffered significantly reduced mortality and had reduced brain RGNNV titers. These results indicate that recombinant yeast-based oral fish vaccines have great potential for large-scale vaccination.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.022
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Genetic basis for loss of immuno-reactive O-chain in Salmonella enterica
           serovar Enteritidis veterinary isolates
    • Authors: Istvan Szabo; Marianne Grafe; Nicole Kemper; Ernst Junker; Burkhard Malorny
      Pages: 165 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Istvan Szabo, Marianne Grafe, Nicole Kemper, Ernst Junker, Burkhard Malorny
      Fifty-two rough Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) isolates from broilers and the environment were characterized for their serological and genotypic properties. Under routine diagnostic serotyping methods such isolates lack the immuno-reactivity of the O-chain of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and are referred to as non-typeable. Using a modified slide agglutination method, the isolates could be differentiated into three different serological variants. Twenty-six isolates (50%) were defined as semi-rough, nineteen isolates (37%) as deep-rough, four isolates (8%) as rough and three isolates could not be assigned. Genetically, all semi-rough isolates lacked the wzyB gene encoding the O-antigen polymerase. Two isolates carried a frameshift mutation in wzyB. In 15 of 23 cases deep-rough or rough isolates had a single point mutation, a single – or double-nucleotide insert or deletion in the wbaP gene. The mutational changes lead to expression of truncated (premature) protein, resulting in the loss of the immuno-reactive O-chain. Both rough and smooth S. Enteritidis isolates showed identical or highly similar XbaI-PFGE profiles. Our results indicate that the loss of a functional LPS in S. Enteritidis isolates is caused by a variety of different mutation events within the wzyB (semi-rough) or the wbaP (deep-rough) gene and is not a result of a vertical spread of a specific S. Enteritidis subtype. The defect of the LPS may be a common evolutionary mechanism through which host defence can be escaped.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T00:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.033
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Effects of intravaginal lactic acid bacteria on bovine endometrium:
           Implications in uterine health
    • Authors: Sandra Genís; Àlex Bach; Anna Arís
      Pages: 174 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Sandra Genís, Àlex Bach, Anna Arís
      Infection and inflammation of the endometrium after calving compromise uterine health, contributing to decreased reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Twenty multiparous cows were distributed in two groups and treated intra-vaginally with a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) composed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pedioccocus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus reuteri, or with a sterile carrier (CON) twice per week during 3 wk. At the slaughterhouse, vaginal and endometrial swabs were taken for E. coli and Lactobacillus quantification. Endometriums were collected and cut forming explants that were analyzed for the expression of 10 genes related to innate immunity and infection or submitted to an ex vivo inflammation model. In the ex vivo experiment, explants were infected with E. coli or inflammated by treating them with IL-1β and also E. coli. The secretion of IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 was evaluated by ELISA in the supernatants of the ex vivo cultures. Lactobacillus counts did not differ between endometria of LAB and CON cows, although E. coli vaginal counts tended to be lower in LAB than in CON cows. The expression of B-defensins and MUC1, indicators of infected uterus, was down-regulated in explants of LAB-treated cows. No differences were observed between LAB and CON explants in the ex vivo inflammation experiment. These results indicate that the vaginal application of the LAB combination used herein was unable to reach the endometrium and regulating the innate immunity at uterine level when applied into the vagina; however, it may be capable of modulating the pathogenic environment in the vaginal tract.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T00:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.025
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Characterization of Pasteurella multocida associated with ovine pneumonia
           using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence-associated gene
           profile analysis and comparison with porcine isolates
    • Authors: Andrés García-Alvarez; Ana Isabel Vela; Elvira San Martín; Fernando Chaves; José Francisco Fernández-Garayzábal; Domínguez Lucas; Dolores Cid
      Pages: 180 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Andrés García-Alvarez, Ana Isabel Vela, Elvira San Martín, Fernando Chaves, José Francisco Fernández-Garayzábal, Domínguez Lucas, Dolores Cid
      Pasteurella multocida is a pathogen causing disease in a wide range of hosts including sheep and pigs. Isolates from ovine pneumonia were characterized by MLST (Multi-host and RIRDC databases) and virulence-associated gene (VAG) typing and compared with porcine isolates. Ovine and porcine isolates did not share any STs as determined by both schemes and exhibited different VAG profiles. With the Multi-host database, sixteen STs were identified among 43 sheep isolates with two STs (ST50 and ST19) comprising 53.5% of the isolates, and seven MLST genotypes (ST3, ST11 and ST62 included 75% of the isolates) among the 48 pig isolates. The most frequent VAG profile among sheep isolates was tbpA+/toxA+ (69.8% of isolates) and pfhA+ (62.5%) and hgbB+ (33.3%) among pig isolates. Representative ovine and porcine isolates of those STs identified by the Multi-host scheme were further typed using the RIRDC scheme. Seven STs were identified among the ovine isolates (ST95RIRDC, ST131RIRDC, ST203RIRDC, ST320RIRDC, ST324RIRDC, ST321RIRDC, and ST323RIRDC), with the latter four sequence types being new STs identified in this study, and six STs (ST9RIRDC, ST13RIRDC, ST27RIRDC, ST50RIRDC, and ST74RIRDC and a new sequence type ST322RIRDC) among the porcine isolates. STs identified among ovine isolates have been detected exclusively in small ruminants, suggesting an adaptation to these hosts, while the genotypes identified among pig isolates have been previously identified in multiple hosts and therefore they are not restricted to pigs. The differences in genotypes and VAG profiles between ovine and pig isolates suggest they could represent different subpopulations of P. multocida.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T00:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and
           Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Europe
    • Authors: Ulrich Klein; Anno de Jong; Hilde Moyaert; Farid El Garch; Rocio Leon; Alexandra Richard-Mazet; Markus Rose; Dominiek Maes; Andrew Pridmore; Jill R. Thomson; Roger D. Ayling
      Pages: 188 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204
      Author(s): Ulrich Klein, Anno de Jong, Hilde Moyaert, Farid El Garch, Rocio Leon, Alexandra Richard-Mazet, Markus Rose, Dominiek Maes, Andrew Pridmore, Jill R. Thomson, Roger D. Ayling
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm. MIC50/MIC90 values were 0.031/0.5, 0.031/0.5, 0.062/0.25, ≤0.001/0.004, 0.031/0.125, 0.25/0.5 and 0.062/0.25mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, spiramycin, tulathromycin, tylosin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline respectively against M. hyopneumoniae and 0.25/4, 1/4, 4/16, >64/ >64, 32/ >64, 2/4 and 4/64mg/L, respectively against M. bovis. MIC50/MIC90 values for tiamulin and valnemulin against M. hyopneumoniae were 0.016/0.062 and ≤0.001/ ≤0.001mg/L respectively. The MIC50/MIC90 values of danofloxacin and gamithromycin for M. bovis were 0.25/1 and >64/ >64mg/L respectively. The highest MIC90 values for M. hyopneumoniae were found in the UK at 1.0mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and florfenicol. In contrast, for M. bovis the lowest MIC90 value was 1.0mg/L, but ranged to >64mg/L. Specific laboratory standards and clinical breakpoints for veterinary Mycoplasma species are required as no independently validated clinical breakpoints are specified for veterinary Mycoplasma species, which makes data interpretation and correlation to in vivo efficacy difficult.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
  • Molecular characterization of feline panleukopenia virus isolated from
           mink and its pathogenesis in mink
    • Authors: Diao Fei-fei; Zhao Yong-feng; Wang Jian-li; Wei Xue-hua; Cui Kai; Liu Chuan-yi; Guo Shou-yu; Shijin Jiang; Xie Zhi-jing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Diao Fei-fei, Zhao Yong-feng, Wang Jian-li, Wei Xue-hua, Cui Kai, Liu Chuan-yi, Guo Shou-yu, Shijin Jiang, Xie Zhi-jing
      Six feline panleukopenia viruses (FPV) were detected in the intestine samples from the 176 mink collected in China during 2015 to 2016, named MEV-SD1, MEV-SD2, MEV-SD3, MEV-SD4, MEV-SD5 and MEV-SD6. The VP2 genes of the isolates shared 98.9%–100% identity with the reference sequences. The substitution of residue V300A in VP2 protein differentiates the isolates from the reference MEVs, and A300 is a characteristic of FPV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the VP2 genes indicated that the six isolates were clustered into the same branch of all the reference strains of FPV. The NS1 genes of the isolates shared 98.2%–100% identity with the reference sequences. The NS1 genes of the six isolates and the three reference FPVs formed one unique evolutionary branch. To clarify the pathogenicity of the isolates, experiments were performed on healthy mink, using MEV-SD1. As a result, the morbidity of experimental animals was 100% and the mortality was as high as 38.9%. It was implied that the FPV infection caused a high morbidity and mortality in mink and the inoculation dose had an effect on pathogenicity of MEV-SD1 in mink.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T09:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.017
  • Linear DNA vaccine prepared by large-scale PCR provides protective
           immunity against H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice
    • Authors: Fei Wang; Quanjiao Chen; Shuntang Li; Chenyao Zhang; Shanshan Li; Min Liu; Kun Mei; Chunhua Li; Lixin Ma; Xiaolan Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Fei Wang, Quanjiao Chen, Shuntang Li, Chenyao Zhang, Shanshan Li, Min Liu, Kun Mei, Chunhua Li, Lixin Ma, Xiaolan Yu
      Linear DNA vaccines provide effective vaccination. However, their application is limited by high cost and small scale of the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generally used to obtain sufficient amounts of DNA effective against epidemic diseases. In this study, a two-step, large-scale PCR was established using a low-cost DNA polymerase, RKOD, expressed in Pichia pastoris. Two linear DNA vaccines encoding influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) 1, LEC-HA, and PTO-LEC-HA (with phosphorothioate-modified primers), were produced by the two-step PCR. Protective effects of the vaccines were evaluated in a mouse model. BALB/c mice were immunized three times with the vaccines or a control DNA fragment. All immunized animals were challenged by intranasal administration of a lethal dose of influenza H1N1 virus 2 weeks after the last immunization. Sera of the immunized animals were tested for the presence of HA-specific antibodies, and the total IFN-γ responses induced by linear DNA vaccines were measured. The results showed that the DNA vaccines but not the control DNA induced strong antibody and IFN-γ responses. Additionally, the PTO-LEC-HA vaccine effectively protected the mice against the lethal homologous mouse-adapted virus, with a survival rate of 100% versus 70% in the LEC-HA-vaccinated group, showing that the PTO-LEC-HA vaccine was more effective than LEC-HA. In conclusion, the results indicated that the linear H1N1 HA-coding DNA vaccines induced significant immune responses and protected mice against a lethal virus challenge. Thus, the low-cost, two-step, large-scale PCR can be considered a potential tool for rapid manufacturing of linear DNA vaccines against emerging infectious diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T09:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.015
  • A Spike-specific Whole-porcine Antibody Isolated from a Porcine B cell
           That Neutralizes both Genogroup 1 and 2 PEDV strains
    • Authors: Fang Fu; Lin Li; Lingling Shan; Beibei Yang; Hongyan Shi; Jiaoer Zhang; Hongfeng Wang; Li Feng; Pinghuang Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Fang Fu, Lin Li, Lingling Shan, Beibei Yang, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Hongfeng Wang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
      Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), caused by an alpha coronavirus, is a highly contagious disease and causes high morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. Isolating PEDV neutralizing antibodies from porcine B cells is critical to elucidate the development of PEDV neutralizing antibodies and the protective mechanism of PEDV infection. Here, we described the isolation of a PEDV-neutralizing antibody from the B cell of a vaccinated pig. The antibody, named PC10, was demonstrated to target the conformational epitope of PEDV spike protein, specifically bind to the infected cells of PEDV genogroup 1 and 2 strains, and potently neutralize PEDV infection. PC10 neutralized PEDV infection through interfering with the viral life stages after cellular attachment instead of blocking the attachment of PEDV to cells. These results suggest that PC10 could be a promising candidate for passive protection and inform PEDV vaccine design because of its specificity and substantial neutralization potency.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T09:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.013
  • A large-scale serological survey of Akabane virus infection in cattle,
           yak, sheep and goats in China
    • Authors: Jidong Wang; Kim R. Blasdell; Hong Yin; Peter J. Walker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jidong Wang, Kim R. Blasdell, Hong Yin, Peter J. Walker
      Akabane virus (AKAV) is a member of the Simbu serogroup, classified in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae. AKAV infection can cause abortion, stillbirth, and congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in cattle and sheep. The distribution and prevalence of AKAV infection in China is still unknown. A total of 2731 sera collected from 2006 to 2014 in 24 provinces of China from cattle, sheep, goats and yak were examined by serum neutralization test. The overall seroprevalence rates for AKAV antibodies were 21.3% in cattle (471/2215) and 12.0% (17/142) in sheep or goats, and 0% in yak (0/374). The results indicated widespread AKAV infection in China among cattle and sheep but yak appear to have a low risk of infection. Using a selection of 50 AKAV-positive and 25 AKAV-negative cattle sera, neutralisation tests were also conducted to detect antibodies to several other Simbu serogroup bunyaviruses and closely related Leanyer virus. Although inconclusive, the data suggest that both Aino virus and Peaton virus, which have been reported previously in Japan and Korea, may also be present in cattle in China.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T09:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.014
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 204

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T09:37:12Z
  • Brucella lipopolysaccharide reinforced Salmonella delivering Brucella
           immunogens protects mice against virulent challenge
    • Authors: Jonathan Lalsiamthara; John Hwa Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John Hwa Lee
      Intracellular pathogen Salmonella exhibits natural infection broadly analogous to Brucella, this phenomenon makes Salmonella a pragmatic choice for an anti-Brucella vaccine delivery platform. In this study we developed and formulated a combination of four attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium live vector strains secreting heterologous Brucella antigens (rBs), namely lumazine synthase, proline racemase subunit A, lipoprotein outer membrane protein-19, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase. With an aim to develop a cross-protecting vaccine, Brucella pan-species conserved rBs were selected. The present study compared the efficacy of smooth and rough variants of Salmonella delivery vector and also evaluated the inclusion of purified Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the formulation. Immunization of SPF-BALB/c mice with the vaccine combinations significantly (P≤0.05) reduced splenic wild-type Brucella abortus 544 colonization as compared to non-immunized mice as well as Salmonella only immunized mice. Increased induction of Brucella specific-IgG, sIgA production, and antigen-specific splenocyte proliferative responses were observed in the mice immunized with the formulations as compared to naïve or vector only immunized mice. Modulatory effects of rB and LPS on production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, and interferon-γ were detected in splenocytes of mice immunized with the formulation. Rough Salmonella variant in combination with LPS could further enhance the efficacy of the delivery when applied intraperitoneally. Taken together, it is compelling that Brucella LPS-augmented Salmonella vector delivering immunogenic Brucella proteins may be more suitable than the current non-ideal live Brucella abortus vaccine. The vaccine system also provides a basis for the development of cross-protecting vaccine capable of preventing multispecies brucellosis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T09:30:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.012
  • Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and
           Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops
    • Authors: P.A.M. Overgaau; K.H.A.van Avermaete; C.A.R.M. Mertens; M. Meijer; N.J. Schoemaker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): P.A.M. Overgaau, K.H.A.van Avermaete, C.A.R.M. Mertens, M. Meijer, N.J. Schoemaker
      Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop. All animals were investigated for fur mite using a flea comb, a magnifying glass and white paper. From the fur of 3.8% (8/213) of the rabbits and 16.8% (30/179) of the guinea pigs, T. mentagrophytes was isolated. From 1 guinea pig (0,6%) Chrysosporium keratinophilum was isolated. Dermatophyte-positive rabbits and guinea pigs originated from 5.6% (5/90) and 27.3% (24/88) of the investigated pet shops, respectively. Fur mites were not found. Pet shops can play an important role in preventing transmission of zoonotic ringworm infections (dermatophytosis) and educating their customers. Specific preventive measures such as routine screening examinations and (prophylactic) treatment of rabbits and guinea pigs are recommended next to regular hygiene when handling animals.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T09:30:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.008
  • Pathogenicity of three genetically diverse strains of PRRSV Type 1 in
           specific pathogen free pigs
    • Authors: Tomasz Stadejek; Lars Erik Larsen; Katarzyna Podgórska; Anette Bøtner; Sara Botti; Izabella Dolka; Michał Fabisiak; Peter MH Heegaard; Charlotte Hjulsager; Tomasz Huć; Lise K. Kvisgaard; Rafał Sapierzyński; Jens Nielsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Tomasz Stadejek, Lars Erik Larsen, Katarzyna Podgórska, Anette Bøtner, Sara Botti, Izabella Dolka, Michał Fabisiak, Peter MH Heegaard, Charlotte Hjulsager, Tomasz Huć, Lise K. Kvisgaard, Rafał Sapierzyński, Jens Nielsen
      Studies from Eastern European countries proved that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Type 1 (PRRSV-1) harbours high genetic diversity and that genetically divergent subtypes 2-4 circulate in this area.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T09:30:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.011
  • Pathology and genetic findings in a rare case of Mycobacterium caprae
           infection in a sow.
    • Authors: Amato Benedetta; Capucchio Maria Teresa; Biasibetti Elena; Mangano Elena; Boniotti Maria Beatrice; Pacciarini Maria Lodovica; Sergio Migliore; Vitale Maria; Fiasconaro Michele; Di Marco Lo Presti Vincenzo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Amato Benedetta, Capucchio Maria Teresa, Biasibetti Elena, Mangano Elena, Boniotti Maria Beatrice, Pacciarini Maria Lodovica, Sergio Migliore, Vitale Maria, Fiasconaro Michele, Di Marco Lo Presti Vincenzo
      Bovine tuberculosis, a reemerging zoonosis in diverse ecological scenarios, has been reported in the autochthonous Nebrodi black pig breed population used for meat production in Italy. During a routine abattoir inspection in 2013, 24 of 299 carcasses (8%) of Nebrodi black pigs presented tuberculosis-like lesions at pathologic examination. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 23 animals and M. caprae from a 3-year-old sow. The sow showed severe diffuse lesions involving the visceral organs, right coxofemoral joint, and mammary glands. Isolation of M. caprae from mammary glands is uncommon, with only one other case involving a sow reported so far; however, Mycobacteria infection of the mammary glands may be transmitted from lactating sows to piglets, contributing to the spread and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in swine. Genotyping analysis showed M. caprae spoligotype SB0866 and profile 4,1,5,4,4,11,4,2,4,3,8,7 MIRU-VNTR (mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats). The worldwide prevalence of this spoligotype is very low. The finding of severe, diffuse tuberculous lesions strongly suggests that Nebrodi black pigs are susceptible for Mycobacterium spp. and that they might act as a distributor for these microorganisms. Since natural ecosystems with multiple contacts among different livestock species and wild animals are very common in Mediterranean regions, current surveillance and eradication plans for bovine tuberculosis will need to be extended to other potential reservoir species in regions where extensive and traditional breeding systems are operated.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.010
  • Evaluation of the involvement of mice (Mus musculus) in the epidemiology
           of porcine proliferative enteropathy
    • Authors: Michelle de P. Gabardo; José Paulo H. Sato; Amanda Gabriele de S. Daniel; Mariana R. Andrade; Carlos Eduardo R. Pereira; Talita P. Rezende; Luísa V. Arantes Otoni; Lucas Avelino Rezende; Roberto M.C. Guedes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Michelle de P. Gabardo, José Paulo H. Sato, Amanda Gabriele de S. Daniel, Mariana R. Andrade, Carlos Eduardo R. Pereira, Talita P. Rezende, Luísa V. Arantes Otoni, Lucas Avelino Rezende, Roberto M.C. Guedes
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal-oral transmission of L. intracellularis between mice and pigs. The study was divided into two parts. The first part aimed to determine whether mice could be infected by feces from pigs that are experimentally infected with L. intracellularis. Thirty-four Swiss mice received L. intracellularis PCR-positive feces from experimentally infected pigs (M1) for four consecutive days. Twelve other mice received swine negative feces (M2). Pools of mice feces were collected on alternating days post-exposure (dpe). The second part of the study aimed to test whether pigs could be infected when exposed to L. intracellularis PCR-positive feces from experimentally infected mice. Twelve 5-week-old pigs received feed mixed with L. intracellularis PCR-positive mice feces (P1), while the other two pigs received PCR-negative mice feces (P2) for four consecutive days. In the first study, the amount of L. intracellularis provided to M1 boxes per day was between 106 and 108. Mice shed, an average of 104 bacterial units every collection day. Three mice from M1 were positive for L. intracellularis by immunohistochemistry (IHC) at the end of the study. In the second part of the study, pigs in P1 received an average of 105 bacterial units per day. Ten pigs were infected by L. intracellularis based on positive qPCR and/or immunohistochemistry and serology results. These pigs shed an average of 104 L. intracellularis/g of feces. Mice and pigs experimentally infected with L. intracellularis can infect each other, therefore, rodents should be considered players in the epidemiology of this disease in pig farms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.009
  • Isolation and characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum with
           different nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide requirements
    • Authors: Ok-Mi Jeong; Min-Su Kang; Byung-Woo Jeon; Byung-Kook Choi; Yong-Kuk Kwon; So-Youn Yoon; Patrick J. Blackall; Hee-Soo Lee; Suk-Chan Jung; Jae-Hong Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ok-Mi Jeong, Min-Su Kang, Byung-Woo Jeon, Byung-Kook Choi, Yong-Kuk Kwon, So-Youn Yoon, Patrick J. Blackall, Hee-Soo Lee, Suk-Chan Jung, Jae-Hong Kim
      Twenty field isolates of Avibacterium paragallinarum were obtained from chickens in South Korea during 2011–2015. The isolates were identified by a HPG-2 PCR assay specific for A. paragallinarum and by biochemical tests. Growth requirements, Page serovars, carbohydrate fermentation patterns, and antimicrobial susceptibility were also examined. Most isolates (16/20) showed the typical requirement for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and an enriched CO2 atmosphere for growth. One isolate needed increased levels of NAD and serum for good growth. Three isolates showed NAD-independent growth on blood agar under aerobic conditions. In terms of carbohydrate fermentation patterns, three biochemical biovars were recognized; these varied with respect to acid production from maltose and D-xylose. The 16 typical NAD-dependent isolates were serovar A while the variants, both NAD-independent isolates and the isolate with increased NAD dependency were non-typeable. All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin. High rates of resistance, including intermediate resistance, to lincomycin (100%), cloxacillin (75%), and erythromycin (70%) were observed. The four variant strains (the three NAD-independent isolates and the isolate showing unusual growth requirements) were more resistant to antibiotics than the typical NAD-dependent strains. The finding of NAD-independent forms of A. paragallinarum extends the known distribution of this form, previously only reported in South Africa, Mexico and Peru. There is clearly a need for increased caution in the diagnosis and, possibly, the control of infectious coryza.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.005
  • PA-X protein decreases replication and pathogenicity of swine influenza
           virus in cultured cells and mouse models
    • Authors: Xiao-Qian Gong; Ying-Feng Sun; Bao-Yang Ruan; Xiao-Min Liu; Qi Wang; Hai-Ming Yang; Shuai-Yong Wang; Peng Zhang; Xiu-Hui Wang; Tong-Ling Shan; Wu Tong; Yan-Jun Zhou; Guo-Xin Li; Hao Zheng; Guang-Zhi Tong; Hai Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Xiao-Qian Gong, Ying-Feng Sun, Bao-Yang Ruan, Xiao-Min Liu, Qi Wang, Hai-Ming Yang, Shuai-Yong Wang, Peng Zhang, Xiu-Hui Wang, Tong-Ling Shan, Wu Tong, Yan-Jun Zhou, Guo-Xin Li, Hao Zheng, Guang-Zhi Tong, Hai Yu
      Swine influenza viruses have been circulating in pigs throughout world and might be potential threats to human health. PA-X protein is a newly discovered protein produced from the PA gene by ribosomal frameshifting and the effects of PA-X on the 1918 H1N1, the pandemic 2009 H1N1, the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the avian H9N2 influenza viruses have been reported. However, the role of PA-X in the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus is still unknown. In this study, we rescued the H1N1 wild-type (WT) classical swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (H1N1)) and H1N1 PA-X deficient virus containing mutations at the frameshift motif, and compared their replication properties and pathogenicity of swine influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that the expression of PA-X inhibits virus replication and polymerase activity in cultured cells and decreases virulence in mouse models. Therefore, our study demonstrates that PA-X protein acts as a negative virulence regulator for classical H1N1 swine influenza virus and decreases virulence by inhibiting viral replication and polymerase activity, deepening our understanding of the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T00:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.004
  • Immunogenicity of T7 bacteriophage nanoparticles displaying G-H loop of
           foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)
    • Authors: Hai Xu; Xi Bao; Yu Lu; Yamei Liu; Bihua Deng; Yiwei Wang; Yue Xu; Jibo Hou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Hai Xu, Xi Bao, Yu Lu, Yamei Liu, Bihua Deng, Yiwei Wang, Yue Xu, Jibo Hou
      Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes severe economic losses worldwide. The G-H loop of the FMDV VP1 structural protein is the major neutralizing antigenic site. However, a fully protective G-H loop peptide vaccine requires the addition of promiscuous Th sites from a source outside VP1. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of T7 bacteriophage based nanoparticles displaying a genetically fused G-H loop peptide (T7-GH) as a FMDV vaccine candidate. Recombinant T7-GH phage was constructed by inserting the G-H loop coding region into the T7 Select 415-1b vector. Purified T7-GH phage nanoparticles were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and Dot-ELISA. Pigs seronegative for FMDV exposure were immunized with T7-GH nanoparticles along with the adjuvant Montanide ISA206, and two commercially available FMDV vaccines (InactVac and PepVac). Humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against virulent homologous virus challenge were assessed following single dose immunization. Pigs immunized T7-GH developed comparable anti-VP1 antibody titers to PepVac, although lower LPBE titers than was induced by InactVac. Antigen specific lymphocyte proliferation was detected in T7-GH group similar to that of PepVac group, however, weaker than InactVac group. Pigs immunized with T7-GH developed a neutralizing antibody response stronger than PepVac, but weaker than InactVac. Furthermore, 80% (4/5) of T7-GH immunized pigs were protected from challenge with virulent homologous virus. These findings demonstrate that the T7-GH phage nanoparticles were effective in eliciting antigen specific immune responses in pigs, highlighting the value of such an approach in the research and development of FMDV vaccines.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T00:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.023
  • Efficacy of E2 glycoprotein fused to porcine CD154 as a novel chimeric
           subunit vaccine to prevent classical swine fever virus vertical
           transmission in pregnant sows
    • Authors: Sara Muñoz-González; Yusmel Sordo; Marta Pérez-Simó; Marisela Suarez; Albert Canturri; Maria Pilar Rodriguez; María Teresa Frías-Lepoureau; Mariano Domingo; Mario Pablo Estrada; Llilianne Ganges
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Sara Muñoz-González, Yusmel Sordo, Marta Pérez-Simó, Marisela Suarez, Albert Canturri, Maria Pilar Rodriguez, María Teresa Frías-Lepoureau, Mariano Domingo, Mario Pablo Estrada, Llilianne Ganges
      Here we evaluated the effect of double vaccination with a novel subunit marker vaccine candidate based in the CSFV E2 glycoprotein fused to the porcine CD154 to prevent CSFV vertical transmission. A lentivirus-based gene delivery system was used to obtain a stable recombinant HEK 293 cell line for the expression of E2 fused to porcine CD154 molecule. Six pregnant sows were distributed in two groups and at 64days of gestation animals numbered 1–4 (group 1) were vaccinated via intramuscular inoculation with 50μg of E2-CD154 subunit vaccine. Animals from group 2 (numbered 5 and 6, control animals) were injected with PBS. Seventeen days later sows from group 1 were boosted with the same vaccine dose. Twenty-seven days after the first immunization, the sows were challenged with a virulent CSFV Margarita strain and clinical signs were registered. Samples were collected during the experiment and at necropsy to evaluate immune response and virological protection. Between 14 and 18days after challenge, the sows were euthanized, the foetuses were obtained and samples of sera and tissues were collected. E2-CD154 vaccinated animals remained clinically healthy until the end of the study; also, no adverse reaction was shown after vaccination. An effective boost effect in the neutralizing antibody response after the second immunization and viral challenge was observed and support the virological protection detected in these animals after vaccination. Protection against CSFV vertical transmission was found in the 100% of serums samples from foetus of vaccinated sows. Only two out of 208 samples (0.96%) were positive with Ct value about 36 corresponding to one tonsil and one thymus, which may be non-infective viral particles. Besides, its DIVA potential and protection from vertical transmission, the novel CSFV E2 bound to CD154 subunit vaccine, is a promising alternative to the live-attenuated vaccine for developing countries.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.003
  • Survey for selected pathogens in wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from Guam,
           Marianna Islands, USA
    • Authors: Christopher A. Cleveland; Anthony Denicola; J.P. Dubey; Dolores E. Hill; Roy D. Berghaus; Michael J. Yabsley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Christopher A. Cleveland, Anthony Denicola, J.P. Dubey, Dolores E. Hill, Roy D. Berghaus, Michael J. Yabsley
      Pigs (Sus scrofa) were introduced to Guam in the 1600’s and are now present in high densities throughout the island. Wild pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. Exposure to porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis, and Leptospira interrogans has been documented in domestic swine but data from wild pigs are lacking. The close proximity of humans, domestic animals, and wild pigs, combined with the liberal hunting of wild pigs, results in frequent opportunities for pathogen transmission. From February-March 2015, blood, tissue and ectoparasite samples were collected from 47 wild pigs. Serologic testing found exposure to Brucella spp. (2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11%), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (13%), porcine circovirus type 2 (36%), pseudorabies virus (64%), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (93%), Lawsonia intracellularis (93%), and porcine parvovirus (94%). Eleven (24%) samples had low titers (1:100) to Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava (n=6), Icterohaemorrhagiae (n=6), Pomona (n=2), and Hardjo (n=1). Kidney samples from nine pigs with Leptospira antibodies were negative for Leptospira antigens. Numerous pigs had Metastrongylus lungworms and three had Stephanurus dentatus. Lice (Hematopinus suis) and ticks (Amblyomma breviscutatum) were also detected. No antibodies to Influenza A viruses were detected. In contrast to the previous domestic swine survey, we found evidence of numerous pathogens in wild pigs including new reports of pseudorabies virus, PRRS virus, Brucella, and Leptospira in pigs on Guam. These findings highlight that domestic swine-wild pig interactions should be prevented and precautions are needed when handling wild pigs to minimize the risk of pathogen transmission.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.001
  • Vaccination against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
           (PRRSV) reduces the magnitude and duration of viremia following challenge
           with a virulent heterologous field strain
    • Authors: Jay G. Calvert; Marcia L. Keith; Douglas S. Pearce; M. Corinne Lenz; Vickie L. King; Yvette A. Diamondidis; Robert G. Ankenbauer; Nathalie C. Martinon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jay G. Calvert, Marcia L. Keith, Douglas S. Pearce, M. Corinne Lenz, Vickie L. King, Yvette A. Diamondidis, Robert G. Ankenbauer, Nathalie C. Martinon
      Forty PRRS-negative, three week-old weaned pigs were randomized into two groups in separate rooms and inoculated with a modified live PRRS vaccine (Fostera® PRRS) or control (PBS). Four weeks after vaccination pigs were rehoused in a single room and challenged intranasally and intramuscularly with virulent PRRSV strain NADC20. Timed serum samples were collected and titrated for PRRS virus and anti-PRRS virus antibodies. The study concluded when ≥80% of the pigs in the control group were determined to be virus negative (27days post-challenge). Mean duration of viremia was significantly lower (p =0.0327) for vaccinated pigs compared to non-vaccinated pigs. A significant reduction (p ≤0.0053) in mean post-challenge viremia titer was seen in vaccinates compared to non-vaccinates from days 8 through 22 post-challenge. At the individual pig level, no pigs in the vaccinated group had detectible PRRSV in serum at the end of the study (27days post-challenge), while 15% of non-vaccinated pigs remained positive for virus.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T00:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.037
  • Dissemination of erm(B) and its associated multidrug-resistance genomic
           islands in Campylobacter from 2013–2015
    • Authors: Dejun Liu; Fengru Deng; Yanan Gao; Hong Yao; Zhangqi Shen; Congming Wu; Yang Wang; Jianzhong Shen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Dejun Liu, Fengru Deng, Yanan Gao, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Congming Wu, Yang Wang, Jianzhong Shen
      A total of 1372 Campylobacter isolates (1107 Campylobacter coli and 265 Campylobacter jejuni) were obtained from 3462 samples collected from slaughterhouses and farms in three representative regions of China (Shandong, Guangdong, and Shanghai) over three successive years (2013–2015). Of these, 84 (84/1372, 6.1%) were erm(B)-positive, and all 84 positive isolates were identified as C. coli (83 chicken isolates and one swine isolate). The prevalence of erm(B) in Campylobacter isolates was compared amongst the different regions and between the three years investigated. The rates of erm(B)-positive Campylobacter in Guangdong increased remarkably over the experimental period (3.8% to 22.8%), while their higher rates observed in Shanghai (4.4%) and Shandong (2.4%) occurred in 2015 and 2014. Further, 72 erm(B)-positive isolates were associated with the type V and VI multidrug-resistance genomic islands (MDRGIs), which have previously only been identified in human Campylobacter isolates, while one isolate of chicken origin contained the type II MDRGI, which has previously been detected in swine isolates. Expansion of the erm(B) in Campylobacter with similar PFGE and MLST type from chicken isolates from Shanghai and Guangdong to human isolates identified previously in Shanghai was also observed. The findings in this study confirmed previously observed trend of dissemination of erm(B) and MDRGIs in zoonotic Campylobacter isolates and provide new insights into the prevalence of erm(B)-positive Campylobacter isolates in chickens and swine from three representative regions of China over a consecutive 3-year period.

      PubDate: 2017-04-13T22:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.022
  • Secondary Haemophilus parasuis infection enhances highly pathogenic
           porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV)
           infection-mediated inflammatory responses
    • Authors: Jiangnan Li; Shengnan Wang; Changyao Li; Chunlai Wang; Yonggang Liu; Gang Wang; Xijun He; Liang Hu; Yuanyuan Liu; Mengmeng Cui; Caihong Bi; Zengyu Shao; Xiaojie Wang; Tao Xiong; Xuehui Cai; Li Huang; Changjiang Weng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jiangnan Li, Shengnan Wang, Changyao Li, Chunlai Wang, Yonggang Liu, Gang Wang, Xijun He, Liang Hu, Yuanyuan Liu, Mengmeng Cui, Caihong Bi, Zengyu Shao, Xiaojie Wang, Tao Xiong, Xuehui Cai, Li Huang, Changjiang Weng
      Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) infection often predisposes pigs to secondary bacterial infection, which induces robust inflammatory responses. However, whether the secondary bacterial infection synergizes HP-PRRSV infection and enhances inflammatory responses is not fully understood. Here, we characterized HP-PRRSV infection-mediated secondary bacterial infection and robust inflammatory responses. HP-PRRSV infection induced higher levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and TNF-α) in the sera in piglets and bacteria loads of 11 bacterial species in the lung were increased after HP-PRRSV infection, including Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Haemophilus parasuis and Escherichia coli. Concurrent infection with HP-PRRSV and H. parasuis model showed that inflammatory cytokines expression and secretion in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were increased in comparison with PAMs infected with HP-PRRSV or H. parasuis alone. Additionally, we found that H. parasuis RNA plays an important role for the robust inflammatory response enhancement in PRRSV-infected PAMs. Taken together, our findings suggest that bacterial RNA transfection enhanced HP-PRRSV-mediated inflammatory responses in HP-PRRSV and H. parasuis (HPS) concurrent infection, which provide an important clue for comprehensive understanding of HP-PRRSV and bacterial coinfection-mediated pathology.

      PubDate: 2017-04-13T22:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.035
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