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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 212 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GISAP : Biology, Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • An ISMap02-like insertion sequence in Mycobacterium spp. interferes with
           specific detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    • Authors: Hong-Tae Park; Hyun-Eui Park; Young-Hoon Jung; Han Sang Yoo
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Hong-Tae Park, Hyun-Eui Park, Young-Hoon Jung, Han Sang Yoo
      Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a causative agent of Johne’s disease or paratuberculosis (PTB), which is a chronic debilitating disease in ruminants, that is characterized by incurable enteritis and persistent diarrhea. ISMap02 is one of the major targets of PCR because it is present in multicopies (six copies) and known to be specific to MAP. However, in the present study, non-MAP mycobacteria were shown to be positive by ISMap02 targeting PCR. Two bacterial isolates (Sample ID: BO-038 and BO-042) were cultured from bovine fecal samples that produced positive results in three of two ISMap02 targeting PCR analyses with negative results in IS900 real-time PCR. Species identification using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hsp65 gene partial sequencing revealed that strains BO-038 and BO-042 were M. virginiense and M. nonchromogenicum, respectively, which both belong to the M. terrae complex (MTC). Moreover, the two isolates shared a novel insertion sequence (IS) with high similarity to some parts of nucleotide sequences of ISMap02, and IS was presumed to be identical to that present in M. heraklionense. Both the novel IS and ISMap02 were characterized as IS1182 family members, and several sequences similar to ISMap02 were identified by BLAST analysis. In addition, the DDE transposase of the novel IS showed great similarity in the N-terminal portion with the IS5/1182 DDE transposase of other mycobacteria. These results suggest that ISMap02 has a conserved region with similarity to other ISs, and that the diagnostic value of the primer sets targeting that region should be re-addressed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Emergence of novel canine parvovirus type 2 and its pathogenesis in
           raccoon dogs
    • Authors: Yu Jia-yu; Zhu Qian; Diao Fei-fei; Teng Chuan-jie; Peng Hui; Shang Yuan-yuan; Zhao Yong-feng; Wang Jian-li; Shijin Jiang; Xie Zhi-jing
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Yu Jia-yu, Zhu Qian, Diao Fei-fei, Teng Chuan-jie, Peng Hui, Shang Yuan-yuan, Zhao Yong-feng, Wang Jian-li, Shijin Jiang, Xie Zhi-jing
      Three parvoviruses were isolated from the raccoon dogs experiencing severe enteritis, named RDPV-DP1, RDPV-DP2 and RDPV-DP3, respectively. The VP2 genes of the 3 isolates showed 99.9% identity at the nucleotide level, and shared 99.1%-99.5% identity with the reference CPVs. The RDPVs resembled original CPV-2, but with four mutations. The RDPVs displayed S297A of VP2 protein as CPV-2a or CPV-2b prevalent throughout most of the world. Residue N375D was found in the 3 isolates, resembling CPV-2a/2b/2c. And the 3 isolates had a natural mutation of VP2 residue V562L, which is adjacent to residue 564 and 568 and might be involved in host range. Interestingly, VP2 S27T was firstly found in the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of VP2 genes revealed that the RDPVs were clustered into one small evolutionary branch and shared the identical branch with 7 CPV-2 isolates from raccoon dogs and one CPV-2 isolate from fox, not with CPV vaccine viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of NS1 genes demonstrated that the RDPVs shared the identical branch with the reference CPV-2a/2b/2c. Experimental infection showed that RDPV infection caused a high morbidity in raccoon dogs. It implied that the RDPV was virulent to raccoon dogs and continued to evolve in China.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Induction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
           (PRRSV)-specific regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) in the lungs and
           tracheobronchial lymph nodes of PRRSV-infected pigs
    • Authors: Teerawut Nedumpun; Chaitawat Sirisereewan; Chanoknun Thanmuan; Pong Techapongtada; Rinlapas Puntarotairung; Sarun Naraprasertkul; Roongroje Thanawongnuwech; Sanipa Suradhat
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Teerawut Nedumpun, Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Chanoknun Thanmuan, Pong Techapongtada, Rinlapas Puntarotairung, Sarun Naraprasertkul, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
      Regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) residing within the tissues, are known to possess immunosuppressive properties which contribute to immunomodulation within the organs. PRRSV infection usually weakens lung defense mechanisms, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Induction of circulatory Treg is one of the reported mechanisms involved in PRRSV-induced immunomodulation. However, whether PRRSV can induce tissue-infiltrating Treg in the lungs and lymph nodes is still unclear. To investigate the effect of PRRSV on induction of porcine Treg in the tissues, we isolated mononuclear cells from the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and identified the existence of Treg by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that PRRSV could induce Treg proliferation in the cultured mononuclear cells derived from lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, regardless of the pig’s PRRSV infective status. Furthermore, PRRSV-infected pigs exhibited higher numbers of total tissue-infiltrating Treg and PRRSV-specific Treg in the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes than the PRRSV-negative pigs. To determine if the lung Treg could produce an inhibitory cytokine, the numbers of IL-10-producing Treg were determined. Significantly higher numbers of IL-10-producing Treg in the lungs of PRRSV-infected pigs were observed. Altogether, our findings indicate the potent effect of PRRSV on induction of Treg in the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the infected pigs. The findings expand our understanding in PRRSV immunopathogenesis within the target organs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Longitudinal study of Escherichia coli plasmid resistance to
           extended-spectrum cephalosporins in free-range broilers
    • Authors: Sandrine Baron; Laetitia Le Devendec; Fabrice Touzain; Eric Jouy; Pierrick Lucas; Claire de Boisséson; Emeline Larvor; Isabelle Kempf
      Pages: 20 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Sandrine Baron, Laetitia Le Devendec, Fabrice Touzain, Eric Jouy, Pierrick Lucas, Claire de Boisséson, Emeline Larvor, Isabelle Kempf
      Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) is mostly borne by conjugative plasmids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics and diversity of ESC resistance plasmids in Escherichia coli from different free-range broiler flocks in France, and their persistence in flocks during rearing. Two hatcheries were selected. Faecal samples from 11 flocks were collected from before their arrival on the broiler production farm up to their slaughter at the end of the rearing period. A selection of 25 E. coli isolates obtained at different times from different flocks but all harbouring an ESC resistance gene was characterised. The plasmids coding for ESC resistance were sequenced using Mi-seq Illumina technology or the ion proton system (Ion Torrent). Ten IncI1 ST12 plasmids carried the bla CMY-2 gene, and most of them had no other resistance genes. All bla CMY-2 plasmids were obtained from day-old to 7-day-old chicks from four flocks hatched at the same hatchery and sent to three different farms. Sequence comparisons showed identity percentages higher than 99%. Fifteen IncI1 ST3 plasmids were obtained from day-old to 77-day-old broilers from seven flocks on six farms. These plasmids harboured the bla CTX-M-1 gene, and most also had the tet(A) and sul2 genes, with sequence identity higher than 99%. For both types of plasmid, very high identity percentages were also obtained with published sequences of plasmids isolated from broilers in other countries or from other animal species. Thus, unlike the IncI1 ST12 bla CMY-2 plasmids, the epidemic nature of the IncI1 ST3 bla CTX-M-1 plasmids in the French poultry production makes it difficult to determine the origin of a contamination which may persist for weeks in a flock.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of selected phenotypic features among Campylobacter sp. strains
           of animal origin
    • Authors: Agnieszka Sałamaszyńska-Guz; Ilona Stefańska; Paweł Bącal; Marian Binek
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Agnieszka Sałamaszyńska-Guz, Ilona Stefańska, Paweł Bącal, Marian Binek
      A total of 43 Campylobacter isolates from poultry, cattle and pigs were investigated for their ability to form biofilm. The studied strains were also screened for motility, adhesion and invasion of Caco-2 cells as well as extracellular DNase activity. The relation between biofilm formation and selected phenotypes was examined. Biofilm formation by the tested strains was found as irrespective from their motility and not associated with colonization abilities of human Caco-2 cells. Results of our study show that Campylobacter isolates from various animal sources are able to form biofilm and invade human Caco-2 cells in vitro.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Pathogenicity and teratogenicity of Schmallenberg virus and Akabane virus
           in experimentally infected chicken embryos
    • Authors: Áine B. Collins; John F. Mee; Peter D. Kirkland
      Pages: 31 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Áine B. Collins, John F. Mee, Peter D. Kirkland
      Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and Akabane virus (AKAV) are teratogenic Simbu serogroup Orthobunyaviruses. Embryonated chicken egg models (ECE) have been used to study the pathogenicity and teratogenicity of Simbu viruses previously, however to date no such studies have been reported for SBV. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate if ECE are susceptible to experimental SBV infection, and to evaluate the pathogenicity and teratogenicity of SBV and AKAV in ECE models. Two studies were conducted. In Study A, SBV (106.4 TCID50) was inoculated into the yolk-sac of 6-day-old and 8-day-old ECEs. In Study B, SBV and AKAV were inoculated into 7-day-old ECEs at a range of doses (102.0–106.0 TCID50). ECE were incubated at 37 °C until day 19, when they were submitted for pathological and virological examination. SBV infection in ECE at 6, 7 and 8 days of incubation resulted in stunted growth and musculoskeletal malformations (arthrogryposis, skeletal muscle atrophy, contracted toes, distorted and twisted legs). Mortality was greater in embryos inoculated with SBV (31%) compared to AKAV (19%), (P < 0.01), suggesting that SBV was more embryo-lethal. However, embryos infected with AKAV had a significantly higher prevalence of stunted growth (P < 0.05) and musculoskeletal malformations (P < 0.01), suggesting that AKAV was more teratogenic in this model. These studies demonstrate for the first time that the ECE model is a suitable in vivo small animal model to study SBV. Furthermore, these results are consistent with the clinico-pathological findings of natural SBV and AKAV infection in ruminants.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • The membrane transporter PotE is required for virulence in avian
           pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)
    • Authors: Priscila Regina Guerra; Ana Herrero-Fresno; Susanne Elisabeth Pors; Shahana Ahmed; Dan Wang; Ida Thøfner; Fabio Antenucci; John Elmerdahl Olsen
      Pages: 38 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Priscila Regina Guerra, Ana Herrero-Fresno, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Shahana Ahmed, Dan Wang, Ida Thøfner, Fabio Antenucci, John Elmerdahl Olsen
      Over the last few years, polyamines have been described as key-signal of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, we investigated whether the knockout of genes related to polyamine biosynthesis and putrescine transport affected the virulence of an avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain. One-week-old White Leghorn chickens were infected intratracheally with mutants in polyamine biosynthesis (ΔspeB/C and ΔspeD/E) and transport genes (ΔpotE) of a well-characterized APEC strain of ST117 (O83: H4). All polyamine mutants and the wild-type strain were able to infect chicken; however, we observed significantly fewer lesions in the lungs of the chickens infected with the polyamine mutants in comparison with chicken infected with the wild-type. Results derived from histology of infected lungs detected significantly fewer lesions in the lung of birds infected within particular the putrescine transport mutant (ΔpotE). A decrease in colonization levels was observed in the liver and spleen of birds infected with the putrescine biosynthesis mutant ΔspeB/C, and likewise, a decrease of the colonization levels of all organs from birds infected with the ΔpotE was detected. Together, our data demonstrate that the deletion of polyamine genes, and in particular the PotE membrane protein, attenuates the virulence of APEC during infection of chickens.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Identification of Arcanobacterium phocae isolated from fur animals by
           phenotypic properties, by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and by detection of
           phocaelysin encoding gene phl as probable novel target
    • Authors: Mazen Alssahen; Osama Sammra; Jörn-Peter Wickhorst; Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan; Christoph Lämmler; Mirja Raunio Saarnisto; Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff; Markus Timke; Andrè Becker; Amir Abdulmawjood
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Mazen Alssahen, Osama Sammra, Jörn-Peter Wickhorst, Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan, Christoph Lämmler, Mirja Raunio Saarnisto, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Markus Timke, Andrè Becker, Amir Abdulmawjood
      In the present study 12 Arcanobacterium phocae strains isolated from fur animals in Finland, including foxes, minks and Finnraccoons, could successfully be identified phenotypically, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and genotypically by sequencing 16S rDNA and phocaelysin (PHL) encoding gene phl. The PHL of all 12 A. phocae strains in the present study and reference strains A. phocae DSM 10002T and A. phocae DSM 10003 displayed, as typical members of the cholesterol dependent cytolysin-group of toxins, the variant undecapeptide sequence EATGLAWDPWW which appeared to be most closely related to arcanolysin of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and pyolysin of Trueperella pyogenes. In addition, gene phl could be determined with a newly designed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. The detection of mass spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the LAMP assay based on gene phl might help to reliably identify A. phocae in future and also elucidate the role this species plays in infections of fur animals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Staphylococcus aureus in two municipal abattoirs in Nigeria: Risk
           perception, spread and public health implications
    • Authors: Ismail A. Odetokun; Britta Ballhausen; Victoria O. Adetunji; Ibraheem Ghali-Mohammed; Mukaila T. Adelowo; Shakirat A. Adetunji; Alexandra Fetsch
      Pages: 52 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Ismail A. Odetokun, Britta Ballhausen, Victoria O. Adetunji, Ibraheem Ghali-Mohammed, Mukaila T. Adelowo, Shakirat A. Adetunji, Alexandra Fetsch
      Staphylococcus aureus is a zoonotic pathogen of significant public health concern. Information on the prevalence and risk factors facilitating bacterial colonization and spread under abattoir settings in Nigeria are scarce. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine prevalence of S. aureus as well as risk factors on knowledge and practices facilitating pathogen carriage among workers and slaughter animals in two municipal abattoirs of Ilorin and Ibadan, Nigeria. Swab samples (n = 1671) from nostrils of cattle, goats, pigs and abattoir workers, and from meat tables and abattoir walls were collected for detection of S. aureus. A questionnaire was administered to 275 workers to elucidate risk factors of pathogen carriage applying a logistic regression model. S. aureus prevalence was 6.5%. In total, MSSA and MRSA were detected at a frequency of 5.4% and 1.1%. Molecular analysis of the isolates revealed 19 different spa types, including a novel spa type (t16751). Gender, marital status, occupation and abattoir location were factors influencing worker’s practices in relation to pathogen carriage and spread in the abattoir setting. This present study detected not only low MSSA and MRSA prevalence, in both abattoirs but also low risk perception and hygiene practices employed by abattoir workers. Good practices among workers at Nigerian abattoirs are needed to mitigate S. aureus carriage. Further studies expounding the antibiotic resistance and relationships of MSSA and MRSA strains detected in this study are needed to complement understanding of the spread of S. aureus in the abattoir food chain.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Semen as a source of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in dairy herds
    • Authors: Vera Haapala; Tarja Pohjanvirta; Nella Vähänikkilä; Jani Halkilahti; Henri Simonen; Sinikka Pelkonen; Timo Soveri; Heli Simojoki; Tiina Autio
      Pages: 60 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 216
      Author(s): Vera Haapala, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Nella Vähänikkilä, Jani Halkilahti, Henri Simonen, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio
      Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds. Epidemiological analysis did not reveal an infection source other than semen. In both farms the primary clinical cases were M. bovis mastitis in cows inseminated with the semen of the same bull four weeks before the onset of the disease. One semen straw derived from the semen tank on the farm and other semen lots of this bull were positive for M. bovis. In contrast, semen samples were negative from other bulls that had been used for insemination in previous or later oestrus to those cows with M. bovis mastitis. Furthermore, cgMLST of M. bovis isolates supported the epidemiological results. To our knowledge this is the first study describing the introduction of M. bovis infection into a naive dairy herd via processed semen. The antibiotics used in semen extenders should be re-evaluated in order to provide farms with M. bovis-free semen or tested M. bovis-free semen should be available.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • First findings of Duck circovirus in migrating wild ducks in China
    • Authors: Xinxin Niu; Lanlan Liu; Chunyan Han; Jing Li; Xiangwei Zeng
      Pages: 67 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Xinxin Niu, Lanlan Liu, Chunyan Han, Jing Li, Xiangwei Zeng
      To probe the epidemiology of duck circovirus (DuCV) in migrating wild ducks in China, 189 samples collected from 11 species of wild ducks from 2013 to 2016 were analyzed by PCR. Four positive samples were obtained from Mallard (2), Green-winged Teal (1), and Falcated Duck (1), and the positive rate was 2.12%. The homologous alignment of the complete genome shows that the homology of the wild duck strains is 81.6 to 95.1% to each other and 81.4 to 100% to the 32 strains from other origins. Amino acids alignment revealed that the mutable ORF2 gene has six major variable regions and many random mutation points. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four sequences belong to two genotypes: wd2013017, wd2013046 and AY228555 (representative strain of genotype 1) belong to genotype 1, while wd2014012, wd2015028 and AY394721 (representative strain of genotype 2) belong to genotype 2. The results indicate that both genotypes of DuCV are distributed and common in migrating wild ducks. Further analysis shows that duck circovirus infection is mainly concentrated in the eastern coastal cities of China, which are part of the East Asian-Australian flyway. This suggests that wild ducks with circovirus may be an important factor in the epidemic and spread of DuCV.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Antimicrobial Resistance, Multilocus Sequence Types and Virulence Profiles
           of ESBL producing and non-ESBL producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli
           isolated from Cats and Dogs in Switzerland
    • Authors: Anna Lena Zogg; Katrin Zurfluh; Sarah Schmitt; Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen; Roger Stephan
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Anna Lena Zogg, Katrin Zurfluh, Sarah Schmitt, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Roger Stephan
      Among 64 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolated from 13 cats and 51 dogs, 35 were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 29 were non-ESBL producers. Forty-six (71.9%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Among the ESBL producers, bla CTX-M-15 (n=17/48.6% of the bla ESBLs), bla CTX-M-1 (n=10/28.6%), bla CTX-M-55 (n=4/11.4%), bla CTX-M-14 (n=3/8.6%), and bla CTX-M-27 (n=1/2.9%) were identified. The plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB and the azithromycin resistance gene mph(A) were detected in 17 (26.6% of all isolates), one (1.6%) and in 13 (20.3%) respectively. The most frequent phylogenetic groups were C (n=19) and B2 (n=15). Twenty-six different sequence types (STs) were identified, with two being novel. The most frequent STs were ST410 (n=16/25%), ST131, and ST73 (both n=5/7.8%), and ST361 (n=4/6.3%). Ten (15.6%) of the STs have been associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) in humans, suggesting zoonotic potential. Among seven virulence-associated genes, fyuA was the most prevalent. The overall aggregate virulence factor (VF) score was highest for isolates belonging to phylogenetic group B2 (median aggregate VF score 6, mean score 5,5, range 3-7), and lowest for isolates belonging to phylogenetic group C (0/ 0.5/0-3). The most frequent ST in this study, ST410, harboured the lowest number of VF (0/0,3/0-2). VF scores were higher in NDR (4/3.8/3-4) than in MDR (1/1,9/0-7), and higher in non-ESBL producing isolates (3/3/0-7) than in ESBL producers (1/1,7/0-7). Our data advance our knowledge of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of UPEC in companion animals and their potential for infection, zoonotic transmission and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
           type 1 (PRRSV-1) strongly modulates cellular innate and adaptive immune
           subsets upon experimental infection
    • Authors: Luca Ferrari; Elena Canelli; Elena De Angelis; Alessia Catella; Giulia Ferrarini; Giulia Ogno; Luca Bonati; Roberto Nardini; Paolo Borghetti; Paolo Martelli
      Pages: 85 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Luca Ferrari, Elena Canelli, Elena De Angelis, Alessia Catella, Giulia Ferrarini, Giulia Ogno, Luca Bonati, Roberto Nardini, Paolo Borghetti, Paolo Martelli
      Highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV isolates have been discovered within both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 genotypes and investigated in recent years especially for their ability to cause extremely severe disease in conventional pig herds. The exacerbation of general and respiratory clinical signs has been attributed not only to an efficient replication (virulence) but also to the ability to dysregulate viral recognition and induce mechanisms of immune evasion or immune enhancement of humoral and cellular anti-viral responses differently from non-HP PRRSV isolates in terms of intensity and temporal onset. Thus, the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HP PRRSV is a major concern for the study of virus biology and development of efficacious vaccines. The present study aims at addressing the modulation of relevant immune cell subsets by flow cytometry in the blood of 4-week-old pigs experimentally infected with the recently discovered PR40/2014 HP PRRSV-1.1 strain phenotypically characterized in Canelli et al. (2017) compared to pigs infected with a non-HP PRRSV isolate (PR11/2014) and uninfected controls. PR40 infected animals showed an early and marked reduction of pro-inflammatory CD172α+ CD14+CD16+ and CD14+CD163+ monocytes and TCRγδ+ CD8α + /CD8α- lymphocytes when pigs were most infected, possibly due to a recruitment sustaining an acute inflammatory response in target tissues. The prolonged increased CD3+CD16+ NKT cell levels may sustain peripheral inflammation and/or the anti-viral response. The late reduction (potential depletion) of γ/δ T lymphocytes and CD3+CD4+CD8α- naïve Th lymphocytes paralleled with the delayed increase of CD3+CD4+CD8α+ memory and CD3+CD4-CD8α/β+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In addition, PR40 infection showed an early depletion of activated CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes and Tregs together with an intense and lasting depletion of CD21+ B lymphocytes. Overall, these features demonstrate that the more severe clinical signs observed upon infection with the HP PR40 strain are sustained by remarkable changes in the peripheral blood distribution of immune cells and provide further insights into the immune regulation/immunopathogenesis induced by PRRSV-1 subtype 1 European isolates.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • High diversity of genes and plasmids encoding resistance to
           third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in clinical Escherichia
           coli from commercial poultry flocks in Italy
    • Authors: Giulia Niero; Valeria Bortolaia; Michele Vanni; Luigi Intorre; Luca Guardabassi; Alessandra Piccirillo
      Pages: 93 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Giulia Niero, Valeria Bortolaia, Michele Vanni, Luigi Intorre, Luca Guardabassi, Alessandra Piccirillo
      The aim was to investigate occurrence and diversity of plasmid-mediated resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) and quinolones in clinical Escherichia coli from 200 industrial poultry farms across Italy. E. coli was isolated from colibacillosis lesions in turkeys (n = 109), broilers (n = 98) and layers (n = 22) between 2008 and 2012. 3GC-resistant isolates were screened for extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC), while all isolates were tested for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. ESBL/AmpC - and PMQR-positive isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and their plasmids were characterised by replicon typing, multilocus sequence typing, restriction fragment length polymorphism and conjugation. EBSL/AmpC genes (bla CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-14, bla CTX-M-2, bla SHV-12 and bla CMY-2) were detected in 7%, 9% and 4% of isolates from turkeys, broilers and layers, respectively. We identified seven ESBL/AmpC-encoding plasmid types, usually conjugative (78%), with a marked prevalence of IncI1/pST3 plasmids carrying bla CTX-M-1. PMQR occurred less frequently among isolates from turkeys (0.9%) compared to those from broilers (5%) and layers (4%). The PMQR genes qnrS, qnrB19 and oqxA/B were located on three plasmid types and two non-typeable plasmids, mostly (85%) conjugative. ESBL/AmpC- and PMQR-positive isolates were genetically unrelated and 64% of them were additionally resistant to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides and tetracyclines. Our data show that 3GC- and quinolone-resistant clinical E. coli in Italian poultry production represent a highly diverse population often resistant to most antimicrobials available for poultry. These findings underline the crucial need to develop new strategies for prevention and control of colibacillosis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Bartonella-mongoose-grenada-Vet-Microbiol-text-rev.doc February 6, 2018
           8:30 am Bartonella henselae in small Indian mongooses (Herpestes
           auropunctatus) from Grenada, West Indies
    • Authors: David A. Jaffe; Bruno B. Chomel; Rickie W. Kasten; Edward B. Breitschwerdt; Ricardo G. Maggi; Ashleigh McLeish; Ulrike Zieger
      Pages: 119 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): David A. Jaffe, Bruno B. Chomel, Rickie W. Kasten, Edward B. Breitschwerdt, Ricardo G. Maggi, Ashleigh McLeish, Ulrike Zieger
      Many mammals are established hosts for the vector borne bacterial genus, Bartonella. Small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) have only been reported as a possible host for Bartonella henselae in southern Japan. Confirming Bartonella presence in mongooses from other regions in the world may support their role as potential reservoirs of this human pathogen. Specifically, documenting Bartonella in Caribbean mongooses would identify a potential source of zoonotic risk with mongoose-human contact in the New World. Using serological and molecular techniques, we investigated B. henselae DNA and specific antibody prevalence in 171 mongooses from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Almost a third (32.3%, 54/167) of the tested mongooses were B. henselae seropositive and extracted DNA from 18/51 (35.3%) blood pellets (n=51) were PCR positive for the citrate synthase (gltA) and/or the β subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) genes. All sequences were identical to B. henselae genotype I, as previously reported from Japan. This study confirms the role of small Indian mongooses as a natural reservoir of B. henselae in the New World.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Cleavage site of Newcastle disease virus determines viral fitness in
           persistent infection cells
    • Authors: Haijin Liu; Renata Servan de Almeida; Patricia Gil; Emmanuel Albina
      Pages: 123 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Haijin Liu, Renata Servan de Almeida, Patricia Gil, Emmanuel Albina
      Newcastle disease, caused by the virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), poses a risk for the poultry industry. The virulence of NDV is mainly determined by the cleavage site of F protein. Lentogenic NDV can become velogenic after passages in chicken brain and air sac, because the proportion of virulent-related strains gradually increases. In contrast, this proportion remains unchanged if NDV is passaged via chicken embryos. This information suggests that environmental conditions rather than mutation affect NDV fitness in quasispecies. However, it is unknown how the environment selects virulent-related strains from a viral population. In this study, velogenic and lentogenic NDV marked by green or red fluorescence were used to establish persistent infection (PI) in BHK-21 cells. Monitoring viruses by different methods, we found that, without competition, persistently infected cells harbored lentogenic and velogenic NDV strains similarly in terms of viral release, viral spread and the period of persistent viral infection. In contrast, under competitive co-infection, velogenic NDV became dominant in quasispecies from the fifth passage of PI cells, which resulted in the progressive disappearance of the lentogenic NDV strain. This domination was concomitant with a short-term reduction in the superinfection exclusion and supernatant interference in PI cells resulting in a velogenic virus rebound. We concluded that virulent-related F protein cleavage site facilitates the spread and replication of NDV in conditions under which cells do not secret trypsin-like proteases and do not inhibit free virus infection, resulting in a gradual increase in virulent strains in quasispecies with the number of passages.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Modulation of type I interferon signaling by African swine fever virus
           (ASFV) of different virulence L60 and NHV in macrophage host cells
    • Authors: Raquel Portugal; Alexandre Leitão; Carlos Martins
      Pages: 132 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Raquel Portugal, Alexandre Leitão, Carlos Martins
      ASFV causes an important disease of domestic swine and wild boar. Currently no vaccine is available, highlighting the necessity to understand ASFV modulation of innate immune responses in natural host cells. With this aim, macrophage cultures enriched in SWC9 and CD163 differentiation markers were infected in parallel with high virulent ASFV/L60 and low virulent ASFV/NHV, the latter lacking MGF 360 and 505/530 genes associated with type I interferon (IFN I) control. IFN I production and signaling were studied after completion of the viral cycles. None of the viruses increased IFN I production in host cells, and accordingly, didn't cause activation of the central mediator of the pathway IRF3. However, upon stimulation by poly:IC treatment during infections, L60 and NHV similarly inhibited IFN I production. This didn't seem to depend on IRF3 modulation since its activation levels were not significantly decreased in L60 infection and were even increased in NHV's, in comparison to stimulated mock infections. The infections didn't evidently activate JAK-STAT pathway mediators STAT1 and STAT2, but did increase expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), to higher levels in NHV than L60 infection. Interestingly, in presence of IFN-α, L60 but not NHV was able to decrease significantly the expression of some of the ISGs tested. Overall, both L60 and NHV were able to inhibit IFN I production in macrophages, through a mechanism not dependent on IRF3 modulation. The high virulent isolate showed however a more effective control of the downstream ISGs expression pathway.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Qac genes and biocide tolerance in clinical veterinary
           methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus
           and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
    • Authors: Kate A. Worthing; Alan Marcus; Sam Abraham; Darren J. Trott; Jacqueline M. Norris
      Pages: 153 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Kate A. Worthing, Alan Marcus, Sam Abraham, Darren J. Trott, Jacqueline M. Norris
      Qac genes are associated with increased tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds and other cationic biocides such as chlorhexidine. This study aimed to determine whether qac genes and increased biocide tolerance were present in 125 clinical methicillin-resistant and susceptible veterinary staphylococci. A total of 125 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP and MSSP) from three archived Australian veterinary staphylococci collections underwent whole genome sequencing, multilocus sequence typing and qac gene screening. Two MRSA isolates (12%) harboured qacA/B genes; both isolates were ST8 from horses. QacJ, qacG and smr genes were identified in 28/90 (31%) MRSP and 1/18 (6%) MSSP isolates. ST71 MRSP was significantly more likely to harbour qac genes than other MRSP clones (p < 0.05). A random subset of 31 isolates underwent minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) testing against F10SCTM (benzalkonium chloride and biguanide), and HexaconTM (chlorhexidine gluconate), with and without the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an in vitro substitute for organic matter contamination. Qac genes were not associated with increased phenotypic biocide tolerance but biocide efficacy was significantly affected by the presence of BSA. In the absence of BSA, all MBC values were well below the recommended usage concentration. When BSA was present, regardless of qac gene presence, 50% of MRSA and 43% of MRSP had an F10SCTM MBC above the recommended concentration for general disinfection. Qac genes did not confer increased in vitro biocide tolerance to veterinary staphylococci. Organic matter contamination must be minimized to ensure the efficacy of biocides against MRSA and MRSP.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 216 (2018)
       
  • Role of the stress-associated chemicals norepinephrine, epinephrine and
           substance P in dispersal of Mannheimia haemolytica from biofilms
    • Authors: Deepti K. Pillai; Elva Cha; Derek Mosier
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): Deepti K. Pillai, Elva Cha, Derek Mosier
      Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major problem for the cattle industry that is triggered by various environmental stressors, pathogens and host responses. Mannheimia hemolytica, an important bacterial component of BRD, are present within the nasopharayngeal region of normal calves as commensal biofilm communities. However, following stress there are changes in the nasopharyngeal microenvironment that triggers the transition of the commensal M. haemolytica into a pulmonary pathogen. The factors responsible for this transition in- vivo are unknown. In this study we developed an in-vitro biofilm model and investigated the effect of three stress- related compounds: norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and substance P (SP) on M. haemolytica biofilms. Biofilm formation was demonstrated for 3 bovine nasal isolates of M. haemolytica by growing them in basal culture media, basal media with additional glucose, and basal media with a reduced pH. Increased glucose enhanced biofilm biomass for 2/3 isolates, but acidic media did not increase biofilm biomass when compared to biofilm biomass in basal media. When the biofilm was exposed to NE, E and SP, there was a dispersal of the biofilm which was most effective with E, followed by NE, and SP being the least effective. Using high – throughput scanning electron microscopy and confocal-imaging we confirmed our experimental data that treatment with NE, E and SP cause dispersion of M.haemolytica from biofilms.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T08:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.025
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • Guinea pig infection with the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi
    • Authors: Angela I. Bordin; Leticia T. Gressler; Ellen Ruth C. Alexander; Preeti Sule; Jeffrey D. Cirillo; John F. Edwards; Noah D. Cohen
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): Angela I. Bordin, Leticia T. Gressler, Ellen Ruth C. Alexander, Preeti Sule, Jeffrey D. Cirillo, John F. Edwards, Noah D. Cohen
      Rhodococcus equi is an opportunistic, intracellular pathogen that causes pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised people. Currently, there is no experimental model of R. equi pneumonia other than intra-bronchial experimental infection of foals with R. equi, which is labor-intensive and costly. This study’s objective was to develop a guinea pig (GP) model of R. equi pneumonia that would facilitate development of novel approaches for controlling and preventing this disease. Guinea pigs were infected with either 101, 102, 103, or 104 colony forming units (CFUs) of a virulent strain of R. equi using a Madison aerosol chamber, or 106 or 107 CFUs of this strain intratracheally. Animals were monitored daily for clinical signs of pneumonia, and were euthanized and necropsied on days 1, 3, 7, or 35 post-infection (PI). Lung homogenates were plated onto selective agar to determine bacterial load. No clinical signs of disease were observed regardless of the inoculum dose or infection method. No bacteria were recovered from GPs euthanized at 35 days PI. Histology and immunostaining of T-cells, B-cells, and macrophages in lungs showed that inflammatory responses in infected GPs were similarly unremarkable irrespective of dose or route of infection. Guinea pigs appear to be resistant to pulmonary infection with virulent R. equi even at doses that reliably produce clinical pneumonia in foals.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T08:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • Putative virulence factors and clonal relationship of O174 Shiga
           toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from human, food and animal
           sources
    • Authors: Cecilia Cundon; Claudia Carolina Carbonari; Gisela Zolezzi; Marta Rivas; Adriana Bentancor
      Pages: 29 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): Cecilia Cundon, Claudia Carolina Carbonari, Gisela Zolezzi, Marta Rivas, Adriana Bentancor
      Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is th etiological agent of gastrointestinal diseases as haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor. There are two types, Stx1 and Stx2, and several subtypes. Other virulence factors are involved in pathogenesis. While O157:H7 is the predominant serotype, at present non-O157 STEC strains are increasingly recognized as foodborne pathogens worldwide. In Argentina, STEC O174 stands out as an emerging pathogen and is one of the four most prevalent non-O157 STEC serogroups. The aim of this study was to characterize 41 O174:[H21, H28] STEC strains isolated from animals, food, and humans. Isolates were characterized by stx genotyping, adhesion factors (afaC, eae, iha, lpf O113, saa, and toxB), additional toxins (cdtV, ehxA, subA) and clonal relationship by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among 30 O174:H21 strains, the most prevalent stx subtype was stx 2c (56.7%), and among 11 O174:H28 strains, the most prevalent was stx 2a (90.9%). Regarding virulence factors, all strains were positive for afaC gene and negative for eae and toxB genes. In O174:H21, the frequency of additional factors was lpf O113 (96.6%), iha (83.3%), ehxA and saa (10%), and subA (3.3%), meanwhile in O174:H28 strains the frequency was iha and subA (100%), lpf O113 (90.9%), ehxA and saa (90.9%), and cdtV (9.09%). By Xbal-PFGE, 29 patterns were established with 64.01% similarity and three clusters were detected. Given the fact that the O174 serogroup is a local emergent, it is important to study the virulence profiles to understand its potential pathogenicity.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T08:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • Seroprevalence of horses to Coxiella burnetii in an Q fever endemic area
    • Authors: Isabelle Desjardins; Aurélien Joulié; Sophie Pradier; Sylvie Lecollinet; Cécile Beck; Laurence Vial; Philippe Dufour; Patrick Gasqui; Loïc Legrand; Sophie Edouard; Karim Sidi-Boumedine; Elodie Rousset; Elsa Jourdain; Agnès Leblond
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): Isabelle Desjardins, Aurélien Joulié, Sophie Pradier, Sylvie Lecollinet, Cécile Beck, Laurence Vial, Philippe Dufour, Patrick Gasqui, Loïc Legrand, Sophie Edouard, Karim Sidi-Boumedine, Elodie Rousset, Elsa Jourdain, Agnès Leblond
      Coxiella burnetii can infect many animal species, but its circulation dynamics in and through horses is still unclear. This study evaluated horse exposure in an area known to be endemic for ruminants and humans. We assessed antibody prevalence in horse serum by ELISA, and screened by qPCR horse blood, ticks found on horses and dust from stables. Horse seroprevalence was 4% (n = 335, 37 stables) in 2015 and 12% (n = 294, 39 stables) in 2016. Of 199 horses sampled both years, 13 seroconverted, eight remained seropositive, and one seroreverted. Seropositive horses were located close to reported human cases, yet none displayed Q fever-compatible syndromes. Coxiella DNA was detected in almost 40% of collected ticks (n = 59/148 in 2015; n = 103/305 in 2016), occasionally in dust (n = 3/46 in 2015; n = 1/14 in 2016) but never in horse blood. Further studies should be implemented to evaluate if horses may be relevant indicators of zoonotic risk in urban and suburban endemic areas.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • Seroprevalence and risk factors for selected respiratory and reproductive
           tract pathogen exposure in European bison (Bison bonasus) in Poland
    • Authors: Michał. K. Krzysiak; Artur Jabłoński; Wojciech Iwaniak; Monika Krajewska; Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska; Magdalena Larska
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): Michał. K. Krzysiak, Artur Jabłoński, Wojciech Iwaniak, Monika Krajewska, Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Magdalena Larska
      After the complete extinction from the wild of European bison (Bison bonasus) at the beginning of the twentieth century, the worldwide species population was restored to approximately 5500 individuals, with the species however remaining endangered. Despite numerous studies on the ecology and genetics of European bison, the threats of infectious diseases have been largely unexamined. The aim of this study was to screen the exposure of the world’s largest population of European bison to the pathogens, which may influence the condition and development of the endangered species. A total of 240 free-ranging and captive European bison from eight main Polish populations sampled were tested for the presence of specific antibodies against ten different viruses, bacteria or protozoan. The samples were collected from chemically immobilized, selectively culled or found dead animals. Based on serology, the exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), Mycoplasma and Brucella spp. was determined as rather accidental. Using gamma-interferon assay followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis subs. caprae detection in tissues, diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis was made for 6 out of 78 (7.7%) bison from one captive herd. The highest seroprevalence was found for bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAdV-3) −60.2% and bovine parainfluenza type 3 (PIV-3) −34.0%, while the antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. were found in 10.4%, 10.4% and 8.7% of samples, respectively. In the multivariable statistical analysis using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMS), the risk factors for PIV-3 seropositivity included population type (free-living/captive), age and health status (apparently healthy/eliminated due to the poor condition). Higher risk of BAdV-3 seropositive result was observed in free-living female European bison. The high BAdV-3 and PIV-3 seroprevalences may suggest involvement of these pathogens in the most frequently observed respiratory disorders in European bison. Moreover, this is the first study demonstrating BAdV-3 exposure in the species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) infection in grower pigs from a Thai farm
           suffering from porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC)
    • Authors: Roongtham Kedkovid; Yonlayong Woonwong; Jirapat Arunorat; Chaitawat Sirisereewan; Nattaphong Sangpratum; Mongkol Lumyai; Sawang Kesdangsakonwut; Komkrich Teankum; Suphattra Jittimanee; Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
      Pages: 71 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): Roongtham Kedkovid, Yonlayong Woonwong, Jirapat Arunorat, Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Nattaphong Sangpratum, Mongkol Lumyai, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Komkrich Teankum, Suphattra Jittimanee, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
      Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging virus with unknown pathogenesis. The major objective of this study was to investigate the presence of PCV3 in pigs from a farm in Thailand suffering from porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Initially, a Thai PCV3 strain (PCV3/Thailand/PB01/17) was identified from a pig originated from a farm with PRDC problem during grower period and whole genome analysis showed that the Thai PCV3 shared highest nucleotide identity of 99.60% with the South Korean strain PCV3/KU-1602. The presence of PCV3 infection in PRDC-affected pigs was then investigated in this farm. Serum samples from clinically healthy pigs and pigs showing PRDC-related clinical signs during 5–18 weeks were used in PCV3 detection by PCR. The results showed that the PRDC-affected pigs exhibited higher prevalence of PCV3 infection and higher PCV3 titers comparing with the clinically healthy pigs. These results confirmed the presence of PCV3 in a Thai farm with PRDC problem. The pathogenesis of PCV3 on PRDC should be clarified in further studies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • Diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated
           from Austrian ruminants and New World camelids
    • Authors: B. Schauer; R. Krametter-Frötscher; F. Knauer; R. Ehricht; S. Monecke; A.T. Feßler; S. Schwarz; T. Grunert; J. Spergser; I. Loncaric
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): B. Schauer, R. Krametter-Frötscher, F. Knauer, R. Ehricht, S. Monecke, A.T. Feßler, S. Schwarz, T. Grunert, J. Spergser, I. Loncaric
      The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian ruminants and New World camelids that were treated at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna. Between April 2014 and January 2017, 723 nasal swabs originating from ruminants and New World camelids were examined. MRSA isolates were characterized by mecA/mecA1/mecC PCRs and by DNA microarray analysis. They were genotyped by spa typing, dru typing, MLST and MLVA. Glycopolymer fingerprinting by FTIR spectroscopy was also performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by agar disk diffusion. Twelve MRSA isolates were mecA-positive, whereas three were mecC-positive. The MRSA isolates carried five different SCCmec elements, and belonged to three sequence types (ST45, ST130, ST398). The MRSA isolates displayed seven different resistance phenotypes. The present study describes for the first time mecC-carrying MRSA isolates originating from domesticated animals in Austria. More systematic studies are needed to unravel the role of ruminants and New World camelids as reservoirs for MRSA as a potential risk for zooanthropogenic transmission.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • Lack of association between Leptospira spp. serovars Hardjobovis and
           
    • Authors: K.K. Patel; L. Howe; N. Haack; C. Heuer; G.W. Asher; P.R. Wilson
      Pages: 83 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): K.K. Patel, L. Howe, N. Haack, C. Heuer, G.W. Asher, P.R. Wilson
      This paper investigates Leptospira borgpeterseni serovar Hardjobovis and L. interrogans serovar Pomona as potential causes of sub-optimum pregnancy rates and mid-term abortion in farmed red deer. Rising two-year-old (R2, n = 22,130) and mixed-age (MA, n = 36,223) hinds from 87 and 71 herds, respectively, throughout New Zealand were ultrasound scanned early in gestation (Scan-1) and a sub-sample re-scanned (Scan-2) 55–89 days later and mid-term daily abortion rate calculated. A sub-sample of sera from pregnant and non-pregnant hinds at both scans, both with (case herds) and without aborted hinds was tested for Leptospira using the microscopic agglutination test with titre cut-point ≥1:48 as positive. At Scan-1, 44.3% of 661 and 4.6% of 647 hinds were sero-positive for Hardjobovis and Pomona, respectively. The geometric mean titre (GMT) for Pomona was higher in pregnant than non-pregnant MA hinds (p = 0.015) but not in R2 hinds. At Scan-2 in case herds, 40.3% of 2242 and 7.1% of 2243 hinds were sero-positive for Hardjobovis and Pomona, respectively. There was no association between Hardjobovis or Pomona serology and non-pregnancy (Scan-1) or mid-term abortion (Scan-2) at animal or herd level. In case herds, GMT was higher in non-aborted than aborted hinds for Hardjobovis (p = 0.018) in MA herds and for Pomona in R2 herds (p = 0.006). No uteri from hinds not pregnant or aborting at either scan, or not rearing a calf to weaning, and fetuses as available, were positive on PCR. Evidence is insufficient to confirm that Leptospira Hardjobovis and Pomona play a significant role in sup-optimum early pregnancy or mid-term abortion rates in deer.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • New host species for Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira interrogans
           serovar Copenhageni
    • Authors: Valeria Carolina Colombo; Ignacio Gamietea; Sylvia Grune Loffler; Bibiana Fel Brihuega; Pablo Martin Beldomenico
      Pages: 90 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): Valeria Carolina Colombo, Ignacio Gamietea, Sylvia Grune Loffler, Bibiana Fel Brihuega, Pablo Martin Beldomenico
      We investigated the presence of infection by Leptospira spp. in an assembly of Sigmodontinae rodents from the Paraná Delta, Argentina. Rodents were captured in places with natural grassland, implanted forest, with and without raising cattle and in sites prone and not prone to flooding. The DNA was amplified from cultured isolates by PCR and Leptospira spp. strains were genotyped using Multiple – Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). We isolated Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni from Oligoryzomys nigripes, Leptospira borgpetersenii from Scapteromys aquaticus and Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae from Akodon azarae. The zoonotic Leptospira isolated and genotyped from O. nigripes and S. aquaticus are the first reports from these species. The geographic range of these rodent species include, in addition to Argentina, the countries of Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil, suggesting that these rodents might be involved in the transmission of spirochetes in other regions. Human and animal health care professionals should be alert to the potential occurrence of leptospirosis in areas where these rodent species are present.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • Genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from ruminant
           listeriosis from different geographical regions in the U.S.
    • Authors: Abbey J. Steckler; Maria X. Cardenas-Alvarez; Megan K. Townsend Ramsett; Neil Dyer; Teresa M. Bergholz
      Pages: 93 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 215
      Author(s): Abbey J. Steckler, Maria X. Cardenas-Alvarez, Megan K. Townsend Ramsett, Neil Dyer, Teresa M. Bergholz
      Listeria monocytogenes infections are an important disease of ruminants worldwide, causing encephalitis, septicemia, and abortions. Ruminant listeriosis can also pose a food safety risk due to the potential for L. monocytogenes to enter the food supply via the farm environment. Data on the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes from ruminant clinical cases in the United States is limited. Our goal was to assess the genetic diversity of clinical listeriosis isolates from ruminants in the Upper Great Plains states, a population not well-studied, and compare this population to isolates from ruminants in New York State. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was used to classify and compare the genetic diversity of the isolates from the two regions. Loci sequences were compared to all known sequence types using the Pasteur Institute L. monocytogenes MLST database. Four novel sequence types (ST) were identified among the Upper Great Plains isolates, and four new STs were classified in the New York collection. Five STs were found to be common across the 2 geographical regions; ST 1, 7, 191, and 204. Strains of ST 7 were most frequently isolated (7/46 isolates). Strains of ST 91 were all associated with fetal infections from the Upper Great Plains. Our results demonstrate that while there are some subtypes commonly found between the two geographic regions, there are also subtypes distinct to each region.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 215 (2018)
       
  • Increase of zinc resistance in German human derived livestock-associated
           MRSA between 2000 and 2014
    • Authors: Sarah van Alen; Ursula Kaspar; Evgeny A. Idelevich; Robin Köck; Karsten Becker
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 214
      Author(s): Sarah van Alen, Ursula Kaspar, Evgeny A. Idelevich, Robin Köck, Karsten Becker
      Problem addressed Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA), particularly of the clonal complex (CC) 398, emerged as zoonotic pathogens predominantly among humans with direct or indirect livestock contact, but also in healthcare settings. The factors contributing to the success of LA-MRSA are only poorly understood. Objective During the past years, the use of heavy metal compounds as feed-supplements was found to influence the co-selection of LA-MRSA in pig herds. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of zinc resistance among MRSA CC398 isolated from patients of a German university hospital located in a pig farming-dense area. Methods and approach In comparison to concurrent healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), LA-MRSA CC398 comprising isolates from their first appearance in 2000 to recent isolates from 2014 were included. Results Among MRSA CC398, the overall resistance rate towards zinc chloride was 57% compared to only 3% among concurrently isolated HA-MRSA. Zinc resistance correlated with the presence of the czrC gene in 100% of the MRSA CC398 and in 67% of the HA-MRSA. Conclusions The zinc resistance rate in MRSA CC398 significantly increased from 2009 to 2014 with a maximum in 2014. Alarmingly, zinc resistance has become a frequent phenotype of human LA-MRSA in Germany potentially facilitating co-selection of antibiotic resistance genes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.032
      Issue No: Vol. 214 (2018)
       
  • Genotypes of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from domestic animals
           and wildlife in Canada in 1985–2015
    • Authors: Olga Andrievskaia; Claude Turcotte; Gloria Berlie-Surujballi; Hannah Battaion; Dara Lloyd
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 214
      Author(s): Olga Andrievskaia, Claude Turcotte, Gloria Berlie-Surujballi, Hannah Battaion, Dara Lloyd
      Two internationally recognised and standardised genotyping methods, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit and variable number tandem repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR) and spoligotyping, were applied to characterise genetic variations among 137 Mycobacterium bovis isolates recovered from Canadian domestic and wild animals during 1985–2015. Spoligotyping generated seven types that were discriminated further into12 MIRU-VNTR types. The discriminatory power indexes were estimated as 0.71 and 0.77 for spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing approaches, respectively. In total, 6 prominent clusters of isolates were observed by the genotyping schemes. Four genotype clusters were exclusively observed in farmed animals. Three of these four clusters were affiliated with localised tuberculosis outbreaks, and each cluster corresponded to a single specific spoligotype (SB0140, SB0673, and SB1069) and a MIRU-VNTR profile. The fourth genotype cluster, with spoligotype SB0265 which segregated into two MIRU-VNTR types, was associated with bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in several farms across Canada during 1990–2002. Two genotype clusters of M. bovis stains were associated with wildlife reservoirs: a spoligotype SB0130 with 3 unique MIRU-VNTR profiles were observed in wood bison in Wood Buffalo National Park, and unique spoligotypes SB1070 and 1071 represented by four MIRU-VNTR profiles were recovered from cervidae species in and around the Riding Mountain National Park of Manitoba. Genotyping data confirmed M. bovis transmission between wildlife and livestock in Manitoba in 1990–2008. Overall, notwithstanding the low level of genetic diversity of Canadian M. bovis strains, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing were useful tools in monitoring transmission of endemic strains and defining new introductions to Canada. The majority of genotypes were most likely introduced into domestic animals through live animal trade, and subsequently eliminated as a result of bovine tuberculosis outbreak investigation and eradication activities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 214 (2018)
       
  • Efficacy evaluation of two commercial modified-live virus vaccines against
           a novel recombinant type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
           virus
    • Authors: Ying-Feng Sun; Lei Zhou; Ting Bian; Xiang-Xue Tian; Wei-Ke Ren; Chao Lu; Li Zhang; Xiu-Li Li; Mao-Sheng Cui; Han-Chun Yang; Hai Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ying-Feng Sun, Lei Zhou, Ting Bian, Xiang-Xue Tian, Wei-Ke Ren, Chao Lu, Li Zhang, Xiu-Li Li, Mao-Sheng Cui, Han-Chun Yang, Hai Yu
      NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causing clinical disease outbreaks has been recently reported in China. The recombination occurring among PRRSV strains could lead to the emergence of novel and more virulent viruses. In our previous study, a novel recombinant type 2 PRRSV (TJnh1501) between NADC30-like and modified-live virus (MLV)-like derived from the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV was shown to have higher pathogenicity than NADC30-like PRRSV. It remains unknown whether the emergence of the novel recombinant PRRSV strain can lead to variable protection efficacy of the MLV vaccines. In this paper, two typical commercial MLV vaccines were used to evaluate their efficacy to block TJnh1501 infection and onset of clinical symptoms. Our results showed that both MLV vaccines could shorten the period of fever and reduce viral loads in sera, but were not able to reduce the clinical signs and lung lesions indicating that the two commercial MLV vaccines provide limited cross-protection efficacy against the novel recombinant type 2 PRRSV infection. This study gives valuable suggestions for the use of MLV vaccines to control PRRSV infection in the field.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.016
       
  • Characterization and functional analysis of PnuC that is involved in the
           
    • Authors: Quan Li; Yuhang Zhang; Du Dechao; Yu Yanfei; Wei Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Quan Li, Yuhang Zhang, Du Dechao, Yu Yanfei, Wei Zhang
      Streptococcus suis, an important swine pathogen and a major zoonotic agent, is responsible for severe financial losses in the global swine industry. Although a multitude of virulence factors have been reported, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections remains poorly understood. In our previous work, we identified a potential virulence-associated protein, named PnuC, unique to virulent strains of S. suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2). To investigate the functions of PnuC, the pnuC gene deletion mutant (ΔpnuC) was constructed in S. suis 2 strain ZY05719 to assess the phenotypic changes between ΔpnuC and the parental strain. The mutant strain ΔpnuC exhibited highly sensitive to H2O2 stress and reduced the growth ability under vigorous shaking, suggesting that PnuC contributes to the oxidative stress tolerance. Additionally, zebrafish infection model showed that the virulence of pnuC+ strains were significantly higher than pnuC- strains. Mouse infection experiments demonstrated that the abilities of ΔpnuC to colonize the tissues were significantly attenuated compared with the parental strain. Furthermore, the pnuC mutation decreased the virulence of S. suis 2 in both BALB/c mice and zebrafish infection models. Taken together, these results indicated for the first time that PnuC is involved in the oxidative stress tolerance and virulence of S. suis 2 during infection.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.013
       
  • Mutual antagonism between Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida
           when forming a biofilm on bovine bronchial epithelial cells in vitro
    • Authors: Ismail Boukahil; Charles J. Czuprynski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ismail Boukahil, Charles J. Czuprynski
      Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are two bacterial species implicated in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) that is costly to the beef and dairy cattle industries. Both bacterial species are thought to occupy a similar niche as commensals in the upper respiratory tract. Many bacteria are thought to exist as biofilms in their hosts, perhaps in close proximity with other bacterial species. We previously showed that M. haemolytica forms biofilm on bovine respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. We are interested in the possibility that M. haemolytica and P. multocida co-exist as biofilms in the upper respiratory tract of cattle. In this study, we begin to explore this possibility by assessing the ability of M. haemolytica and P. multocida to form a biofilm on bovine respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. We found that M. haemolytica and P. multocida are separately able to form biofilms on bovine respiratory epithelial cells, but mutually inhibit one another when incubated together as a biofilm. Both the biofilm matrix (crystal violet stain) and bacterial numbers (CFU and PCR) were reduced when M. haemolytica and P. multocida were incubated together on fixed epithelial cells. This inhibition does not appear to result from a soluble factor, as neither conditioned medium nor separation of the two species by a transwell filter membrane reproduced the effect. We infer that when located in close proximity on the epithelial surface, M. haemolytica and P. multocida mutually regulate one another.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.015
       
  • 23S rRNA and L22 ribosomal protein are involved in the acquisition of
           macrolide and lincosamide resistance in Mycoplasma capricolum subsp.
           Capricolum
    • Authors: Miranda Prats-van der Ham; Juan Tatay-Dualde; Ángel Gómez-Martín; Juan Carlos Corrales; Antonio Contreras; Antonio Sánchez; Christian de la Fe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Juan Tatay-Dualde, Ángel Gómez-Martín, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Antonio Sánchez, Christian de la Fe
      Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) is one of the causative agents of contagious agalactia, and antimicrobial treatment is the most commonly applied measure to treat outbreaks of this disease. Macrolides and lincosamides bind specifically to nucleotides at domains II and V of the 23S rRNA. Furthermore, rplD and rplV genes encode ribosomal proteins L4 and L22, which are also implicated in the macrolide binding site. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between mutations in these genes and the acquisition of macrolide and lincosamide resistance in Mcc. For this purpose, in vitro selected resistant mutants and field isolates were studied. This study demonstrates the appearance of DNA point mutations at the 23S rRNA encoding genes (A2058G, A2059G and A2062C) and rplV gene (Ala89Asp) in association to high minimum inhibitory concentration values. Hence, it proves the importance of alterations in 23S rRNA domain V and ribosomal protein L22 as molecular mechanisms responsible for the acquisition of macrolide and lincosamide resistance in both field isolates and in vitro selected mutants. Furthermore, these mutations enable us to provide an interpretative breakpoint of antimicrobial resistance for Mcc at MIC 0.8 µg/ml.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.014
       
  • Characterization of quinolone resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae
           isolated from companion animals in Europe (ComPath II study)
    • Authors: Anno de Jong; Anaëlle Muggeo; Farid El Garch; Hilde Moyaert; Christophe de Champs; Thomas Guillard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Anno de Jong, Anaëlle Muggeo, Farid El Garch, Hilde Moyaert, Christophe de Champs, Thomas Guillard
      ComPath is an ongoing European programme dedicated to monitor antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens from diseased dogs and cats. The objective was to characterize determinants associated with quinolone resistance among 160 enrofloxacin non-wild type strains (100 Escherichia coli, 45 Proteus mirabilis, 14 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 Enterobacter cloacae) selected among 843 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in 12 European countries (2013–2014). These strains with non-wild type MICs of ≥ 0.25 mg/L, for P. mirabilis ≥ 0.5 mg/L, were screened for PMQR determinants (qnr, oqxAB, qepA and aac(6’)-Ib-cr), and for QRDR mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE genes. Among them, 20% (32/160) carried at least one PMQR (18/32 qnrB, qnrS or qnrD, 10/32 aac(6’)-Ib-cr and 13/32 oqxAB), and 80% (128/160) no PMQR. qnrB was detected in 3 E. coli, 2 K. pneumoniae and 1 E. cloacae strains; qnrS in 6 E. coli and 1 P. mirabilis and aac(6’)-Ib-cr in 4 E. coli, 5 K. pneumoniae and 1 E. cloacae strains. All qnrD1 were detected in P. mirabilis. oqxAB was detected in 12/14 K. pneumoniae and 1 E. cloacae. No qepA genes were detected. From the 32 PMQR-positive strains, 10 showed enrofloxacin MICs ≤ 2 mg/L and 22 MICs ≥ 8 mg/L, the latter carrying 1-4 mutations in QRDR. For the 128 non-PMQR strains, 37 showed enrofloxacin MICs ≤ 2 mg/L with 0-2 QRDR mutations, and 91 MICs ≥ 4 mg/L carrying 1-4 QRDR mutations. In conclusion, qnr was the major PMQR and qnrD only detected in Proteeae. Mutations in QRDR play a markedly greater role in mediating fluoroquinolone resistance than PMQR.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.002
       
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci recovered from healthy cattle,
           pigs and chickens in nine EU countries (EASSA Study) to critically
           important antibiotics
    • Authors: Anno de Jong; Shabbir Simjee; Farid El Garch; Hilde Moyaert; Markus Rose; Myriam Youala; Magdalena Dry
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Anno de Jong, Shabbir Simjee, Farid El Garch, Hilde Moyaert, Markus Rose, Myriam Youala, Magdalena Dry
      The European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) program collects zoonotic and commensal bacteria from food-producing animals at slaughter and tracks their susceptibility to medically important antibiotics. Results of commensal enterococci species (2013-2014) are presented here. Intestinal content from cattle, pigs and chickens were randomly sampled (5-6 countries/host; ≥4 abattoirs/country; 1 sample/animal/farm) for isolation of enterococci, MICs of 9 antibiotics were assessed by CLSI agar dilution in a central laboratory. Clinical breakpoints (CLSI) and epidemiological cut-off values (EUCAST) were applied for data interpretation. In total 960 Enterococcus faecium and 779 Enterococcus faecalis strains were recovered. Seven porcine E. faecium/faecalis strains of Spanish origin were resistant to linezolid. One avian E. faecalis and one porcine E. faecium strain were non-wild type (MICs 8 mg/L) to daptomycin. Clinical vancomycin resistance was absent; 2 poultry E. faecium and 1 bovine E. faecalis strains were non-wild type, all with MICs of 8 mg/L. None of the strains tested were clinically resistant to tigecycline. Little clinical resistance to ampicillin or gentamicin was observed. Clinical resistance of E. faecium to quinupristin/dalfopristin was slightly higher (2.2-12.0%) but 61.9-83.2% of the strains were classified as non-wild type. Very high percentages resistance to tetracycline (67.4-78.3%) and to erythromycin (27.1-57.0%) were noted for both E. faecium and E. faecalis in pigs and chickens compared to cattle (5.2-30.4 and 9.0-10.4%, respectively). Similar non-wild type results were observed for E. hirae (n=557), E. durans (n=218) and E. casseliflavus (n=55) including percentage non-wild type for daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline being absent and for vancomycin low. For these species percentage non-wild type to erythromycin was lower as compared to E. faecalis/faecium. This pan-EU survey shows high variability in antibiotic susceptibility of commensal enterococci from healthy food animals. Clinical resistance to critically important antibiotics for human medicine was absent or low, except for erythromycin.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.010
       
  • F14:A-:B- and IncX4 Inc groupcfr-positive plasmids circulating in
           Escherichia coli of animal origin in Northeast China
    • Authors: Xiumei Wang; Yao Zhu; Xin Hua; Fuguang Chen; Changzhen Wang; Yanhe Zhang; Siguo Liu; Wanjiang Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Xiumei Wang, Yao Zhu, Xin Hua, Fuguang Chen, Changzhen Wang, Yanhe Zhang, Siguo Liu, Wanjiang Zhang
      The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the cfr gene in Escherichia coli isolates from domestic animals in Northeast China and to characterize the cfr-containing plasmids. Between June 2015 and April 2016, 370 E. coli isolates were collected from pigs, chickens, and dairy cows in Northeast China. Among these, 111 were florfenicol resistant, including 109 isolates carrying the floR gene and 6 positives for cfr. The prevalence of cfr in E. coli isolates from the four northeast provinces in China was 1.6% (6/370), which was higher than that previously reported (0.08% and 0.5%). All six cfr-containing E. coli isolates were highly resistant to florfenicol (100%), cefotaxime (100%), and fosfomycin (100%). Complete sequence analysis of two cfr-carrying plasmids revealed high homology of the IncX4-type pEC14cfr plasmid with two other cfr-harboring plasmids, pSD11 and pGXEC6, found in swine E. coli isolates from southern China. pEC14cfr-like plasmids have been isolated in five provinces in southern and northern China. The isolation sites were up to 2700 kilometers apart, implying that pEC14cfr-like plasmids are likely to be national epidemic cfr-carrying plasmids that mediate the dissemination of cfr in China. Moreover, the genetic structure (IS26-IS26-cfr-rec-pre/mob-ramA-IS26) of the second cfr-carrying plasmid, IncF14:A-:B- pEC295cfr, represents a novel genetic environment for cfr identified for the first time in the present study. Sequence homology analysis indicated that the cfr-carrying element was most likely introduced into a cfr-negative pEC12 plasmid backbone, which evolved into the cfr-carrying vector, pEC295cfr. Moreover, isolation of the IncF14:A-:B- pEC295cfr plasmid harboring cfr suggests that IncFII plasmids maybe have become additional effective vehicles for cfr dissemination. These results highlight the importance of surveying the prevalence of IncX4 and IncFII plasmids in gram-negative bacteria, especially in swine E. coli isolates.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.003
       
  • Factors Associated with the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) Status in Cattle
           Herds in Northwest Germany
    • Authors: Silke Amelung; Maria Hartmann; Ludwig Haas; Lothar Kreienbrock
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Silke Amelung, Maria Hartmann, Ludwig Haas, Lothar Kreienbrock
      In Germany, all calves are tested for the presence of bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease virus (BVDV) virus since January 1, 2011. The basis for this compulsory investigation is the BVDV Federal Regulation (BVDVV), which demands testing of calves before the age of six months and according to the new regulation of June 2016 within four weeks or before entering another stock. In 2012, a questionnaire was sent to 7,250 Lower Saxony cattle farmers to identify potential factors associated with the presence of BVDV. Completed questionnaires were received from 2,542 farms for further analysis. For BVD status determination of these farms, the diagnostic results of 425,911 ear notch samples of calves as part of the BVD eradication period from June 2010 to December 2013 were used. For the analysis of the completed questionnaires, a univariable analysis was performed by the chi-square or Wilcoxon test for each variable studied. In addition, a multivariable logistic model was performed. Four potential risk factors remained after a backward selection in the final logistic regression model: the dairy production compared to the suckling and other types of production, the herd size, the purchase of animals and the location in western region in comparison with the central and eastern regions. In summary, according to the results of this study, the farm with the highest probability of a BVDV infection in Lower Saxony is a large dairy farm that purchases cattle and is located in a cattle-dense region. When the complete eradication of the virus will be achieved, the results of the present study may help to conduct a risk-oriented monitoring programme.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T13:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.018
       
  • Effective surveillance for early classical swine fever virus detection
           will utilize both virus and antibody detection capabilities
    • Authors: Yaowalak Panyasing; Roongtham Kedkovid; Roongroje Thanawongnuwech; Apisit Kittawornrat; Ju Ji; Luis Giménez-Lirola; Jeffrey Zimmerman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yaowalak Panyasing, Roongtham Kedkovid, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Apisit Kittawornrat, Ju Ji, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Jeffrey Zimmerman
      Early recognition and rapid elimination of infected animals is key to controlling incursions of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In this study, the diagnostic characteristics of 10 CSFV assays were evaluated using individual serum (n = 601) and/or oral fluid (n = 1,417) samples collected from -14 to 28 days post inoculation (DPI). Serum samples were assayed by virus isolation (VI), 2 commercial antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), virus neutralization (VN), and 3 antibody ELISAs. Both serum and oral fluid samples were tested with 3 commercial real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays. One or more serum samples was positive by VI from DPIs 3 to 21 and by antigen-capture ELISAs from DPIs 6 to 17. VN-positive serum samples were observed at DPIs ≥ 7 and by antibody ELISAs at DPIs ≥ 10. CSFV RNA was detected in serum samples from DPIs 2 to 28 and in oral fluid samples from DPIs 4 to 28. Significant differences in assay performance were detected, but most importantly, no single combination of sample and assay was able to dependably identify CSFV-inoculated pigs throughout the 4-week course of the study. The results show that effective surveillance for CSFV, especially low virulence strains, will require the use of PCR-based assays for the detection of early infections (< 14 days) and antibody-based assays, thereafter.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.020
       
  • First four Oral Rabies Vaccination campaigns of the red foxes in Greece:
           evaluating factors and assessment
    • Authors: Dimos P. Papatheodorou; Konstantia E. Tasioudi; Laskarina-Maria Korou; Vasileios Georgiou; Peristera Iliadou; Gerasimos Markantonatos; Aikaterini Kirtzalidou; Myrsini Tzani; Eleni Chondrokouki; Olga Mangana-Vougiouka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Dimos P. Papatheodorou, Konstantia E. Tasioudi, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Vasileios Georgiou, Peristera Iliadou, Gerasimos Markantonatos, Aikaterini Kirtzalidou, Myrsini Tzani, Eleni Chondrokouki, Olga Mangana-Vougiouka


      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.015
       
  • Genomic investigation of Danish Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bulk
           tank milk and dairy cows with clinical mastitis
    • Authors: Troels Ronco; Ilka C. Klaas; Marc Stegger; Line Svennesen; Lærke B. Astrup; Michael Farre; Karl Pedersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Troels Ronco, Ilka C. Klaas, Marc Stegger, Line Svennesen, Lærke B. Astrup, Michael Farre, Karl Pedersen
      Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy cows. Various subtypes, virulence genes and pathogenicity islands have been associated with isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis. So far, no Danish cattle associated S. aureus isolates have been whole-genome sequenced and further analyzed. Thus, the main objective was to investigate the population structure and genomic content of isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis, using whole-genome sequencing. This may reveal the origin of strains that cause clinical mastitis. S. aureus isolates from bulk tank milk (n = 94) and clinical mastitis (n = 63) were collected from 91 and 24 different farms, respectively and whole-genome sequenced. The genomic content was analyzed and a phylogenetic tree based on single nucleotide polymorphisms was constructed. In general, the isolates from both bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis were of similar genetic background. This suggests that dairy cows are natural carriers of the S. aureus subtypes that cause clinical mastitis if the right conditions are present and that a broad range of subtypes cause mastitis. A phylogenetic cluster that mostly consisted of ST151 isolates carried three pathogenicity islands that were primarily found in this group. The prevalence of resistance genes was generally low. However, the first ST398 methicillin resistant S. aureus isolate from a Danish dairy cow with clinical mastitis was detected.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T08:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.003
       
  • Bta-miR-2411 attenuates bovine viral diarrhea virus replication via
           directly suppressing Pelota protein in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells
    • Authors: Huijun Shi; Qiang Fu; Shengnan Li; Xinyan Hu; Ruixin Tian; Gang Yao; Hongqiong Zhao; Jinquan Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Huijun Shi, Qiang Fu, Shengnan Li, Xinyan Hu, Ruixin Tian, Gang Yao, Hongqiong Zhao, Jinquan Wang
      MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ∼22 nt noncoding RNAs that control the translation initiation and stability of target genes in a sequence-specific manner and, thus, play important regulatory roles in animals and plants. Homologs of Dom34, called Pelota or PELO, are broadly conserved in eukaryotes and archaea. Biochemical and genetic studies indicate that eukaryotic Dom34/Pelota plays an important role in cell division, differentiation of germline stem cells, and stem cell self-renewal by controlling the expression of specific genes at the translational level. Additionally, it is reported that Pelota is specifically required for high efficiency synthesis of proteins in numerous viruses. In earlier studies, we found the Bos taurus bta-miR-2411 (shortly miR-2411 herein) was significantly upregulated by more than 2.1 times in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain NADL-infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells after 8 h post-infection (pi) compared to normal MDBK cells without BVDV infection. Moreover, miR-2411 overexpression significantly reduced the BVDV E1 mRNA level and viral titer. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of miR-2411 attenuating on viral replication remain unclear. Here, we report that miR-2411 as a novel microRNA regulates BVDV NADL replication via directly targeting the Pelota gene in MDBK cells. We investigated whether the potential target sequences of miR-2411, located in the Pelota 3′UTR, and miR-2411 agomir transfection attenuated Pelota mRNA and protein levels. Indeed, upon miR-2411 overexpression, BVDV NADL replication was prevented. Importantly, BVDV NADL replication levels were reversed to normal levels as a result of the Pelota rescuing experiment even though miR-2411 was existent. Overall, we profiled the unique role of miR-2411 in regulating BVDV NADL replication and provided a novel strategy for generalized inhibition of viral infection.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T08:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.002
       
  • Potential for the cross-species transmission of swine Torque Teno Viruses
    • Authors: Gagandeep Singh; Sheela Ramamoorthy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Gagandeep Singh, Sheela Ramamoorthy
      Torque teno viruses [TTVs] are negative sense, single-stranded, DNA viruses, which are distributed globally in several mammalian hosts such as humans, apes, sheep and swine in a species-specific manner. While the pathogenic potential of TTVs is under debate, recent experimental studies in gnotobiotic pigs indicate that swine TTVs, TTSuV1 in particular, can act as a primary or co-infecting pathogen. Hence, determining whether TTSuV1 can infect other mammals would eventually further our understanding of viral pathogenesis, especially in coinfections. In this study, we tested sera from horses, cattle, sheep, dogs and elk for the presence of TTSuV1 DNA using a panel of TTSuV1-specific primers, and assessed the extent of sero-conversion to TTSuV1 in the selected species. We found that TTSuV1 DNA was detected in 46.7% of equines, 70% of canine, 100% of bovine, 40% of ovine and 93.3% of elk samples. However, significant TTSuV1 specific antibody responses were detected only in the bovine, ovine and equine samples but not the canine or elk samples, indicating that these animals could support the replication of TTSuV1. This combined serological and molecular epidemiological profile of TTSuV1 infection in five different species indicates the host range of species-specific TTVs could be wider than initially believed. Further studies are required to understand the health risks to these animal species from TTSuV-1 infection.

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T08:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.12.017
       
  • Induction of innate host responses characterized by production of
           interleukin (IL)-1β and recruitment of macrophages to the respiratory
           tract of chickens following infection with infectious bronchitis virus
           (IBV)
    • Authors: Aruna Amarasinghe; Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader; Zahraa Almatrouk; Frank van der Meer; Susan C. Cork; Susantha Gomis; Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Aruna Amarasinghe, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Zahraa Almatrouk, Frank van der Meer, Susan C. Cork, Susantha Gomis, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
      Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection is a major cause of economic losses for the poultry industry. Due to limitations in current control measures, alternative approaches, based on through understanding of the host responses are required. As one of the key component of the avian immune system, the innate immune system has a crucial role in limiting virus replication at the initial stage of the infection. As parts of the innate host response, macrophages and cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, are critical components as shown in other host-virus infection models. Since information on the importance of macrophages and IL-1β in IBV infection in chickens is limited, our objective was to determine the association of IL-1β, originating from avian macrophages and IBV infection in the trachea and lung. Following experimental IBV infection in 6 days old chickens, we found increased production of IL-1β and increased recruitment of macrophages in the respiratory tract. Towards the end of the study (5 and 7 days following the IBV infection), the recruited macrophages appear to be a significant source IL-1β. However, only the recruitment of macrophages in the lung correlated with IBV genome loads in this tissue. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that recruitment of macrophages and the production of IL-1β originating from macrophages, as well as other sources, occur following IBV infection in the respiratory tract suggesting potential roles of these mediators in the host responses to IBV infection. However, further studies are warranted to elucidate whether macrophages and IL-1β are the causes of reduced IBV genome loads in the respiratory tract and also to investigate whether immune mediators that were not measured in the current study were involved in reducing IBV genome load in the respiratory tract towards the end of the study.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T08:23:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.01.001
       
  • Characterization of a genetically distinct subpopulation of Staphylococcus
           haemolyticus isolated from milk of cows with intramammary infections
    • Authors: Anna Wanecka; Jarosław Król; Jan Twardoń; Jacek Mrowiec; Jacek Bania; Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal; Anna Tobiasz
      Pages: 28 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 214
      Author(s): Anna Wanecka, Jarosław Król, Jan Twardoń, Jacek Mrowiec, Jacek Bania, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Anna Tobiasz
      The aim of this paper is to describe a novel subpopulation of Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolated from intramammary gland infections (IMI) in cattle. In total, eight isolates originating from milk samples from two unrelated dairy farms were examined phenotypically (using the ID 32 STAPH system) and genotypically. These isolates had almost identical sequences of each of the housekeeping genes examined (dnaJ, rpoB and sodA) but these sequences displayed similarity of only ∼92.5%, 95.0% and 96.8%, respectively, with known S. haemolyticus sequences. The atypical isolates could also be distinguished biochemically by the positive β-galactosidase test (with 2-naphthyl-β-d-galactopyranoside as the substrate). All the isolates were identified as S. haemolyticus upon MALDI-TOF analysis but half of them, that achieved scores 1.7–1.999 (not reliable species identification), required expanding the commercial database for secure identification. Our study has shown that IMI in cattle may be caused by two distinct subpopulations of S. haemolyticus, differing clearly by some genotypic and phenotypic properties. The first of these subpopulations seems to be common to many hosts (including humans), whereas the second (possibly at the subspecies rank) is, so far, found only in cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:19:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 214 (2017)
       
  • Duck hepatitis A virus structural proteins expressed in insect cells
           self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in
           ducklings
    • Authors: Anping Wang; Lingling Gu; Wu shuang; Shanyuan Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Anping Wang, Lingling Gu, Wu shuang, Shanyuan Zhu
      Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a non-enveloped ssRNA virus, can cause a highly contagious disease in young ducklings. The three capsid proteins of VP0, VP1 and VP3 are translated within a single large open reading frame (ORF) and hydrolyzed by protease 3CD. However, little is known on whether the recombinant viral structural proteins (VPs) expressed in insect cells could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) and whether these VLPs could induce protective immunity in young ducklings. To address these issues, the structural polyprotein precursor gene P1 and the protease gene 3CD were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures and immunogenicity. The recombinant proteins expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analysis. Electron microscopy showed that the recombinant proteins spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells. Western blot analysis of the purified VLPs revealed that the VLPs were composed with the three structural proteins. In addition, vaccination with the VLPs induced high humoral immune response and provided strong protection. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of duck viral hepatitis.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T07:59:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.12.020
       
  • Molecular typing and genetic relatedness of 72 clinical Candida albicans
           isolates from poultry
    • Authors: Liu Jianchai; Liu Huanzhang; Yan Jinkun; Liu Na; Zhang Heping; Zhao Chengrui; Liu Yanwei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Liu Jianchai, Liu Huanzhang, Yan Jinkun, Liu Na, Zhang Heping, Zhao Chengrui, Liu Yanwei
      Candida albicans is the most prevalent opportunistic fungus of humans and animals. While most studies focus on human isolates, they rarely focus on poultry isolates. In this study, C. albicans strains were recovered from poultry in the southern Hebei Province (China) and identified. Molecular typing and analyses were performed to understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness of the strains. The fungi were isolated from live birds with presumed candidiasis or their corpses. The isolates were identified based on morphology, differential medium culture, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequencing. The identified C. albicans strains were analyzed by ABC genotyping and multilocus sequence typing. Clonal groups were identified using the eBURST (version 3.0) software, and an UPGMA phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA (version 6.06) software. Overall, 72 isolates were divided into three genotypes (A, B, and C), 48 novel sequence types (STs), five groups with 10 singletons, and four clades. Results indicated that candidiasis is common in poultry in the southern Hebei Province, and that the genetic composition of the C. albicans poultry population from the area is relatively complicated. Based on the eBURST analysis for the STs in this study and others, we suggest that C. albicans poultry isolates were relatively independent but not completely separated from human isolates. The strains with the same or closely related genotypes but recovered from both birds and humans could have transferred and evolved between the two types of host.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T17:12:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.030
       
  • Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
           (PRRSV)-specific IgM-IgA in oral fluid samples reveals PRRSV infection in
           the presence of maternal antibody
    • Authors: Marisa L. Rotolo; Luis Giménez-Lirola; Ju Ji; Ronaldo Magtoto; Yuly A. Henao-Díaz; Chong Wang; David H. Baum; Karen M. Harmon; Rodger G. Main; Jeffrey J. Zimmerman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman
      The ontogeny of PRRSV antibody in oral fluids has been described using isotype-specific ELISAs. Mirroring the serum response, IgM appears in oral fluid by 7days post inoculation (DPI), IgA after 7 DPI, and IgG by 9 to 10 DPI. Commercial PRRSV ELISAs target the detection of IgG because the higher concentration of IgG relative to other isotypes provides the best diagnostic discrimination. Oral fluids are increasingly used for PRRSV surveillance in commercial herds, but in younger pigs, a positive ELISA result may be due either to maternal antibody or to antibody produced by the pigs in response to infection. To address this issue, a combined IgM-IgA PRRSV oral fluid ELISA was developed and evaluated for its capacity to detect pig-derived PRRSV antibody in the presence of maternal antibody. Two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1 (modified-live PRRS vaccinated pigs), testing of individual pig oral fluid samples by isotype-specific ELISAs demonstrated that the combined IgM-IgA PRRSV ELISA provided better discrimination than individual IgM or IgA ELISAs. In Study 2 (field data), testing of pen-based oral fluid samples confirmed the findings in Study 1 and established that the IgM-IgA ELISA was able to detect antibody produced by pigs in response to wild-type PRRSV infection, despite the presence of maternal IgG. Overall, the combined PRRSV IgM-IgA oral fluid ELISA described in this study is a potential tool for PRRSV surveillance, particularly in populations of growing pigs originating from PRRSV-positive or vaccinated breeding herds.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T17:12:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.011
       
 
 
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