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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 194 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover   Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.425]   [H-I: 84]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Occurrence of C. botulinum in healthy cattle and their environment
           following poultry botulism outbreaks in mixed farms.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): R. Souillard, C.Le Maréchal, F. Hollebecque, S. Rouxel, A. Barbé, E. Houard, D. Léon, T. Poëzévara, P. Fach, C. Woudstra, F. Mahé, M. Chemaly, S.Le Bouquin
      Ten cattle farms located in an area with a recent history of poultry botulism outbreaks were investigated to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic C. botulinum in healthy cattle. Environmental samples in the 10 cattle farms and bovine fecal contents in farms with a confirmed environmental contamination were collected. Detection of C. botulinum toxin genes C, D, C/D, D/C and E was performed using real-time PCR. 4.9% (7/143) of the environmental samples collected in the 10 investigated cattle farms were positive for C. botulinum type C/D. Theses samples (boot-swabs in stalls and on pasture and water of a stream) were collected in 3 different farms. One cow dung sample and 3 out of 64 fecal contents samples collected in a single farm were also positive for C. botulinum type C/D. This study demonstrates that cattle are probably indirectly contaminated via poultry botulism in the area and that they can be intermittent carrier of C. botulinum type C/D after poultry botulism outbreaks in mixed farms.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:03:32Z
       
  • Genetic variability of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) field isolates from
           vaccinated and non-vaccinated pig herds in Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Gerald Reiner, Regina Hofmeister, Hermann Willems
      Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) is responsible for a wide range of associated diseases (PCVD) affecting swine production worldwide. Highly efficient commercial vaccines induce protective immunity, but PCV2 is still circulating in vaccinated farms. Thus, and because of the viruś high mutation rate, recent findings provide concerns about PCV2 strains capable to escape vaccination. Based on 2156 samples from individual pigs of 315 herds from Germany we describe a high effectivity of vaccination between 2008 and the third quarter of 2011. In this period virus load dropped continuously and at the end of this period it hardly reached the limit of quantification. Thereafter, virus loads re-increased, although most of the herds were still vaccinated. Sixtytwo randomly selected samples from vaccinated (n = 28) and non-vaccinated (n = 26) herds between 2008 and 2012 were completely sequenced. As compared to the PCV2b reference sequence 259 polymorphisms were detected. Polymorhisms were analysed for associations to vaccination status, genotype (PCV2a/PCV2b), and virus load. PCV2a sequences were significantly repelled by PCV2b. One SNP at position 1182 (g.1182G>T)), involved in capsid epitope formation, was significantly associated with the PCV2 genotype (2a/2b). Moreover, this SNP was affected by vaccination, with effects on allele frequencies and viral load, independent from the PCV2 genotype (2a/2b). We conclude that there is indeed evidence for a selectional impact of vaccination on the PCV2 sequence, especially on nucleotides involved in epitope formation. Such variation might be responsible for the observed re-increase of PCV2-loads in samples from the end of 2011 in Germany.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:03:32Z
       
  • The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle that develop bovine
           respiratory disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Devin B. Holman, Tim McAllister, Ed Topp, André-Denis G. Wright, Trevor W. Alexander
      Bovine respiratory disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiota of healthy cattle and cattle treated for BRD in a commercial feedlot setting using a high-density 16S rRNA microarray (Phylochip). Samples were taken from both groups of animals (n=5) at feedlot entry (day 0) and ≥ 60 days after placement. Cattle diagnosed with BRD had significantly less bacterial diversity and fewer OTUs in their nasopharynx at both sampling times. The predominant phyla in both groups were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was lower in cattle treated for BRD. At the family-level there was a greater relative abundance (P < 0.05) of Micrococcaceae (day 0 only), Lachnospiraceae (≥60 days), Lactobacillaceae (day 0), and Bacillaceae (day 0) in healthy cattle compared to BRD-affected cattle. The community structure of the BRD-affected and healthy cattle were also significantly different from each other at both sampling times as measured using unweighted UniFrac distances. All entry samples of cattle diagnosed with BRD had 16S rRNA gene sequences representative of the BRD-associated bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, although 3/5 healthy cattle were also positive for M. haemolytica at this time point. The results also indicate that the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota is relatively unstable during the first 60 days in the feedlot.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:03:32Z
       
  • Coxiella burnetii DNA detected in domestic ruminants and wildlife from
           Portugal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Aminata Cumbassá, Maria J. Barahona, Mónica V. Cunha, Beatriz Azórin, Carlos Fonseca, Luís Miguel Rosalino, Jeroen Tilburg, Ferry Hagen, Ana S. Santos, Ana Botelho
      Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever or Coxiellosis, a zoonosis mainly affecting domestic ruminants. Information on the population structure and epidemiology of C. burnetii in animals is scarce in Portugal. Evidence of C. burnetti infection was sought in domestic, wild and captive animals based on the detection of bacterial DNA. Tissue samples from 152 domestic animals (cattle=24, goats=51, sheep=76 and swine=1), 55 wild carnivores (Egyptian mongoose=45, red fox=4, common genet=3, weasel=2 and European badger=1) and 22 zoo animals (antelopes=15, impala=1; rhinoceros=1, deer=2, zebras=2 and giraffe=1) were screened by nested-touchdown PCR. Cloacae swabs from 19 griffon vultures were also analysed. Among the domestic ruminants, goats presented the highest prevalence of infection (23.53%), followed by cattle, (20.83%) and sheep (10.53%). C. burnetii DNA was also detected in five Egyptian mongooses and two antelopes and one giraffe. Using a 6-locus multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA-6) six complete genotypes, T, I and CM and the first reported CN, CO and CP, were identified, respectively, in small ruminants and Egyptian mongooses. Clustering analysis of genotypes exposed four distinct groups, according to detection source, enlightening an apparent association between C. burnetii genotype and host.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:03:32Z
       
  • Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of serotypes Ia, III and V from human
           and cow are able to infect tilapia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ming Chen, Rui Wang, Fu-Guang Luo, Yan Huang, Wan-Wen Liang, Ting Huang, Ai-Ying Lei, Xi Gan, Li-Ping Li
      Recent studies have shown that group B streptococcus (GBS) may be infectious across hosts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pathogenicity of clinical GBS isolates with serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow to tilapia and the evolutionary relationship among these GBS strains of different sources. A total of 27 clinical GBS isolates from human (n=10), cow (n=2) and tilapia (n=15) were analyzed using serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among them, 15 isolates were tested for their pathogenicity to tilapia. The results showed that five human GBS strains (2 serotype III, 2 serotype Ia and 1 serotype V) infected tilapia with mortality rate ranging from 56.67% to 100%, while the other five human GBS strains tested were unable to infect tilapia. In addition, two cow GBS strains C001and C003 of serotype III infected tilapia. However, they had significantly lower pathogenicity than the five human strains. Furthermore, human GBS strains H005 and H008, which had very strong ability to infect tilapia, had the same PFGE pattern. MLST analysis showed that the five human and the two cow GBS strains that were able to infect tilapia belonged to clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103. The study for the first time confirmed that human or cow GBS clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103 containing strains with serotypes Ia, III and V could infect tilapia and induce clinical signs under experimental conditions.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T21:03:32Z
       
  • Anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis genotypes in experimentally
           infected white-tailed Deer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Tyler C. Thacker, Mitchell V. Palmer, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tod P. Stuber, W. Ray Waters
      Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (WTD). Natural infection of WTD with M. bovis is most closely mimicked by instilling inoculum into palatine tonsillar crypts. One hundred fifty days after intratonsillar inoculation, M. bovis was cultured from 30 tissues originating from 14 deer. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on the original inoculum, single colonies subcultured from the original inoculum, and M. bovis isolated from each culture positive tissue. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified by comparing the derived sequences to the reference strain AF2122/97. Results indicate that the majority of the SNPs that were identified were homogeneous between the inoculum and the isolates from the tissues. The majority of individual tissues had different WGS genotypes from each other, suggesting that dissemination of M. bovis beyond the initial site of infection may require few mycobacteria representing a bottleneck.


      PubDate: 2015-07-27T09:34:00Z
       
  • Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus in the United Kingdom and the
           Republic of Ireland: 2011–2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Barnabas King, Thomas O’Shea Brown, Rachael Tarlinton, Janet M. Daly
      Since its identification in late 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) spread rapidly across Europe. Using archived samples from domestic ruminants collected between October 2011 and June 2013, the seroprevalence in the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (IE) was estimated using a serum neutralisation test. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in seroprevalence between sheep and cows suggesting that neither species is significantly more at risk of SBV infection in the UK. A single 2011 sample tested positive; the sample was taken in November from a cow in Wiltshire. There was a steady increase in overall seroprevalence during the first three quarters of 2012, which then more than doubled in quarter 4 (October–December), which may reflect a peak of vector activity. By the end of June 2013, overall seroprevalence was around 72%. However, although seroprevalence was over 50% in Wales and southern and central counties of England, it was below 50% in all other areas of the UK and IE. This suggests that there were still substantial numbers of animals at risk of infection in the latter half of 2013.


      PubDate: 2015-07-27T09:34:00Z
       
  • Genetic Diversity of Mycoplasma arginini Isolates Based on Multilocus
           Sequence Typing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Olusola M. Olaogun, Anna Kanci, Stuart R. Barber, Kelly A. Tivendale, Philip F. Markham, Marc S. Marenda, Glenn F. Browning
      The contribution of Mycoplasma arginini to mycoplasmosis in small ruminants remains unclear because it is recovered from both healthy and diseased animals. In order to gain a better understanding of any relationships between isolates from different sites and different geographical locations, we developed a method for genotyping M. arginini using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A MLST scheme based on five housekeeping genes was used to characterize M. arginini isolates from flocks of sheep and goats. A high level of genetic variability was detected between strains and within herds.


      PubDate: 2015-07-27T09:34:00Z
       
  • Are licensed canine parvovirus (CPV2 and CPV2b) vaccines able to elicit
           protection against CPV2c subtype in puppies': a systematic review of
           controlled clinical trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Beatriz Hernández-Blanco, Ferrán Catala-López
      Severe gastroenteritis caused by canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) is a serious life-threatening disease in puppies less than 4-months of age. The emergence of new variants has provoked some concern about the cross-protection elicited by licensed canine parvovirus modified-live type 2 (CPV2) and type 2b (CPV2b) vaccines against the most recent subtype CPV2c. A systematic review was carried out to assess the efficacy of commercial vaccines. We conducted a literature search of Pub Med/MEDLINE from January 1990 to May 2014. This was supplemented by hand-searching of related citations and searches in Google/Google Scholar. Controlled clinical trials in which vaccinated puppies were challenged with CPV2c virus were evaluated. Reporting of outcome measures and results for vaccine efficacy were critically appraised through a variety of clinical signs, serological tests, virus shedding and the ability to overcome maternally derived antibodies (MDA) titres. Six controlled clinical trials were included in the review. In most cases, the results of the selected studies reported benefits in terms of clinical signs, serological tests and virus shedding. However, MDA interference was not considered or evaluated in 5 of the selected trials. No accurate definitions of baseline healthy status and/or clinical outcomes were provided. Methods of randomization, allocation concealment and blinding were usually poorly reported. As a result of the limited number of included studies matching the inclusion criteria, the small sample sizes, short follow-up and the methodological limitations observed, it was not possible to reach a final conclusion regarding the cross-protection of licensed CPV2 and CPV2b vaccines against the subtype 2c in puppies. Further and specifically designed trials are required in order to elucidate whether cross-protection is acquired from licensed CPV vaccines.


      PubDate: 2015-07-27T09:34:00Z
       
  • Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): A. Rodolakis, K. Laroucau
      Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease.


      PubDate: 2015-07-23T09:21:15Z
       
  • Corrigendum to ‘Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring
           florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus
           pleuropneumoniae’ [Veterinary Microbiology 178 (2015) 279–282]
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Janine T. Bossé, Yanwen Li, Tom G. Atherton, Stephanie Walker, Susanna M. Williamson, Jon Rogers, Roy R. Chaudhuri, Lucy A. Weinert, Matthew T.G. Holden, Duncan J. Maskell, Alexander W. Tucker, Brendan W. Wren, Andrew N. Rycroft, Paul R. Langford



      PubDate: 2015-07-23T09:21:15Z
       
  • Virulence, persistence and dissemination of Mycoplasma bovis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Sibylle Bürki, Joachim Frey, Paola Pilo
      Bovine mycoplasmosis due to Mycoplasma bovis causes several important bovine diseases such as pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis, genital disorders or keratoconjunctivitis. Variable surface lipoproteins, adhesion, invasion of host cells, modulation of the host immune system, biofilm formation and the release of secondary metabolites like hydrogen peroxide, as well as synergistic infections with other bacterial or viral pathogens are among the more significantly studied characteristics of the bacterium. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the virulence of M. bovis and additionally, factors contributing to the dissemination and persistence of this pathogen in the bovine host will be discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna
           pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Antonio E. Garmendia, Wellington Lopez, Nastassja Ortega, Marycris J. Chamorro
      Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cría mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P'. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Vaccination schedules in small ruminant farms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): D. Lacasta, L.M. Ferrer, J.J. Ramos, J.M. González, A. Ortín, G.C. Fthenakis
      Development and implementation of health management plans is the cornerstone of profitable farms; prevention of microbial diseases by means of vaccination is an integral part of such a plan. In every production type and management system in small ruminants, microbial diseases have a major significance, hence their proper control must be based in good health management practices, including use of effective and safe vaccines. Development of various types of vaccines is evolving very quickly in recent years and the improvement of new type of vaccines offers prospects. The article reviews and discusses vaccination programs and latest advances in development of vaccines against diseases that cause major economic losses in small ruminants. Specifically, vaccination schedules for the following diseases are reviewed: bacterial abortion (abortion associated with Brucella melitensis, Campylobacter spp., Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella abortus ovis or Salmonella brandenburg), caseous lymphadenitis, clostridial diseases, colibacillosis, contagious echtyma, epididymitis caused by Brucella ovis, footrot, mammary diseases (contagious agalactia, mastitis), paratuberculosis and respiratory diseases (respiratory disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica or other Pasteurellaceae).


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Mucosally Administered Lactobacillus Surface-Displayed Influenza Antigens
           (sM2 and HA2) with Cholera Toxin Subunit A1 (CTA1) Induce Broadly
           Protective Immune Responses against Divergent Influenza Subtypes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Rui Li, Mohammed Y.E. Chowdhury, Jae-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Prabuddha Pathinayake, Wan-Seo Koo, Min-Eun Park, Ji-Eun Yoon, Jong-Bok Roh, Seung-Pyo Hong, Moon-Hee Sung, Jong-Soo Lee, Chul-Joong Kim
      The development of a universal influenza vaccine that provides broad cross protection against existing and unforeseen influenza viruses is a critical challenge. In this study, we constructed and expressed conserved sM2 and HA2 influenza antigens with cholera toxin subunit A1 (CTA1) on the surface of Lactobacillus casei (pgsA-CTA1sM2HA2/L. casei). Oral and nasal administrations of recombinant L. casei into mice resulted in high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and their isotypes (IgG1 & IgG2a) as well as mucosal IgA. The mucosal administration of pgsA-CTA1sM2HA2/L. casei may also significantly increase the levels of sM2- or HA2-specific cell-mediated immunity because increased release of both IFN-γ and IL-4 was observed. The recombinant pgsA-CTA1sM2HA2/L. casei provided better protection of BALB/c mice against 10 times the 50% mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of homologous A/EM/Korea/W149/06(H5N1) or A/Aquatic bird /Korea/W81/2005 (H5N2) and heterologous A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1), or A/Chicken/Korea/116/2004(H9N2) or A/Philippines/2/08(H3N2) viruses, compared with L. casei harboring sM2HA2 and also the protection was maintained up to seven months after administration. These results indicate that recombinant L. casei expressing the highly conserved sM2, HA2 of influenza and CTA1 as a mucosal adjuvant could be a potential mucosal vaccine candidate or tool to protect against divergent influenza viruses for human and animal.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Presence of leptospires on genital tract of mares with reproductive
           problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Camila Hamond, Cristiane P. Pestana, Cláudio Marcos Rocha-de-Souza, Luis Eduardo R. Cunha, Felipe Z. Brandão, Marco Alberto Medeiros, Walter Lilenbaum
      Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance, and has a worldwide distribution. Equine leptospirosis is commonly manifested by recurrent uveitis, reproductive disorders, as abortions, embryonic absorption, stillbirth and the birth of weak foals. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Leptospira sp or its DNA in genital tract of mares with reproductive problems. A total of 38 mares with reproductive problems were studied. All the mares were sampled for blood (for serology), urine (for culturing and qPCR), vaginal fluid-VF and endometrial biopsy-EB (for culturing, qPCR and indirect immunofluorescence). PCRs products were sequenced for secY gene. Seventeen (44.7%) serum samples were reactive, predominantly against serogroups Australis (76.4%) and Pomona (23.6%). No positive culture was obtained, but DNA was detected by qPCR on urine samples (26.3%), VF (44.7%) and EB (18.4%) collected 2 months or longer following diagnosis of early fetal death and endometritis. Leptospira cell aggregations were visible by indirect immunofluorescence on 57.1% (4/7) EBs and 17.6% (3/17) VFs. A total of 18 amplicons showed interpretable sequences. Out of those 18 amplicons, 15 presented 100% of identity with the species L. interrogans (sv Bratislava and Pomona), while three were L. borgpertersenii. This study suggests the presence of leptospires in the uterus of mares with reproductive problems. Moreover, serology was shown not to be indicated for the diagnosis of presumptive Leptospira infection in early gestation. The most common agent of the genital infection in those mares was L. interrogans, most probably sg Australis.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Characterisation of the Equine adenovirus 2 genome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Carla Giles, Thiru Vanniasinkam, Mary Barton, Timothy J. Mahony
      Equine adenovirus 2 (EAdV-2) is one of two serotypes of adenoviruses known to infect equines. Initial studies did not associate EAdV-2 infections with any specific clinical syndromes, although more recent evidence suggests that EAdV-2 may be associated with clinical and subclinical gastrointestinal infections of foals and adults respectively. In contrast, Equine adenovirus 1 is well recognised as a pathogen associated with upper respiratory tract infections of horses. In this study the complete genome sequence of EAdV-2 is reported. As expected, genes common to the adenoviruses were identified. Phylogenetic reconstructions using selected EAdV-2 genes confirmed the classification of this virus within the Mastadenovirus genus, and supported the hypothesis that EAdV-2 and EAdV-1 have evolved from separate lineages within the adenoviruses. One spliced open reading frame was identified that encoded for a polypeptide with high similarity to the pIX and E1b_55K adenovirus homologues and was designated pIX_E1b_55K. In addition to this fused version of E1b_55K, a separate E1b_55K encoding gene was also identified. These polypeptides do not appear to have evolved from a gene duplication event as the fused and unfused E1b_55K were most similar to E1b_55K homologues from the Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus genera respectively. The results of this study suggest that EAdV-2 has an unusual evolutionary history that warrants further investigation.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Activation of persistent Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in
           mares with subclinical endometritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): M.R. Petersen, B. Skive, M. Christoffersen, K. Lu, J.M. Nielsen, M.H.T. Troedsson, A.M. Bojesen
      Endometritis in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) may be underdiagnosed due to traditional diagnostic methods lacking sensitivity and specificity. We serendipitously identified a bacterial growth medium (bActivate) that appeared capable of inducing growth of dormant S. zooepidemicus, which subsequently allowed detection by standard diagnostics. To assess the effect of bActivate we compared its ability to activate dormant S. zooepidemicus in a group of potentially infected subfertile mares with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All mares had to test negative for S. zooepidemicus on a low-volume uterine lavage, be negative on endometrial cytology and without clinical signs of endometritis to be included in the investigation. The mares were instilled with bActivate or PBS in the uterus. Growth of S. zooepidemicus was induced by bActivate in 64% (16/25) and PBS in 8% (1/12) of the mares, respectively (p <0.002). In vitro studies supported that some strains of S. zooepidemicus were able to form persister cells tolerating 32-times of the minimal inhibitory concentration of penicillin compared to normal growing cells. Persister cells had not acquired penicillin resistance, but seemed to tolerate the antimicrobial due to dormancy. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of controlled growth induction of dormant bacteria from a subclinical infection. Moreover we demonstrated how endometritis can origin from a reservoir of dormant bacteria residing within the endometrium, and not only as an ascending infection. Further studies should aim at determining the prevalence of dormant S. zooepidemicus, impact of activation on diagnostic and treatment efficacy, uterine health and mare fertility.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Phenotypic features and phylogenetic background of extraintestinal
           hemolytic Escherichia coli responsible of mortality in puppies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Sara Turchetto, Martina Ustulin, Carlo Vittorio Citterio, Claudia Zanardello, Marta Vascellari, Denis Vio, Gabriella Conedera, Nicola Maria Ferro Milone, Monia Cocchi
      A 10-day-old litter of five puppies of Bracco Italiano dog breed showed weakness and diarrhea and, 2 days later, four of them died. At the same time, the bitch showed high hyperthermia (40°C) and endometritis. The necropsy of a puppy revealed a severe lobar pneumonia accompanied with a bilateral nephrosis. No gross lesions were detected in other organs. Histopathology of the lung revealed severe multifocal fibrino-suppurative necrotizing bronchiolar-alveolitis associated with rod-shaped bacterial aggregates and diffuse interstitial lymphocytic infiltration. The kidney showed severe multifocal necrosis of the tubular epithelium and diffuse severe congestion of the parenchyma. A pure culture of hemolytic Escherichia coli carrying the Cnf-1 gene was identified, from both the puppy organs and bitch's milk. Moreover, phylo-typing assigned them to the phylogroup B2. Two weeks later, fecal samples from the bitch and the survived puppy were collected for a second microbiological analysis, identifying two hemolytic E. coli strains, Cnf positive and Cdt negative and Cnf and Cdt negative, respectively. Some E. coli pathogenic strains may cause enteric or extraintestinal disease. In dogs and cats, strains of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) produce specific virulent factors such as hemolysis and cytotoxin necrotizing factors (Cnf). In this episode, we hypothesize that the bitch's milk could be the main source of ExPEC infection causing high puppies mortality. The role of the bitch as a carrier could not be excluded: stressful conditions, such as pregnancy and delivery, would change the host–pathogen dynamics possibly increasing the release of the infectious burden.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates associated with
           starling–livestock interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): James C. Carlson, Doreene R. Hyatt, Kevin Bentler, Anna M. Mangan, Michael Russell, Antoinette J. Piaggio, George M. Linz
      Bird–livestock interactions have been implicated as potential sources for bacteria within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO). In this study we characterized XbaI-digested genomic DNA from Salmonella enterica using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The PFGE analysis was conducted using 182 S. enterica isolates collected from a single CAFO between 2009 and 2012. Samples collected in 2012 were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The analysis was limited to S. enterica serotypes, with at least 10 isolates, known to occur in both European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and cattle (Bos taurus) within this CAFO. A total of five different serotypes were screened; S. Anatum, S. Kentucky, S. Meleagridis, S. Montevideo, S. Muenchen. These samples were recovered from five different sample types; starling gastrointestinal tracts (GI), starling external wash, cattle feces, cattle feed and cattle water troughs. Indistinguishable S. enterica PFGE profiles were recovered from isolates originating in all sample types. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was also associated with indistinguishable S. enterica isolates recovered from all samples types. These data suggests that AMR S. enterica is transmitted between cattle and starlings and that shared feed sources are likely contributing to infections within both species. Moreover we isolated indistinguishable PFGE profiles across all years of data collection, suggesting long-term environmental persistence may be mediated by starling visits to CAFO.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • IFAT and ELISA phase I/phase II as tools for the identification of Q fever
           chronic milk shedders in cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Laura Lucchese, Katia Capello, Antonio Barberio, Federica Zuliani, Arjan Stegeman, Letizia Ceglie, Eulalia Guerrini, Stefano Marangon, Alda Natale
      Q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. In cattle the bacterial shedding can persist without symptoms for several months and the shedders identification is a critical issue in the control of the infection at herd level. Following the example of the human protocols for the assessment of Q fever infection status, the aim of this study was the evaluation of the antibody response dynamics to phase I and phase II antigens in C. burnetii shedder dairy cows by means of a phase-specific serology, to verify the suitability of the investigated tools in recognising milk shedders. A total of 99 cows were monitored during time and classified on the basis of serological and PCR results in five groups identifying different shedding patterns. The 297 sera collected in three sampling times were tested by means of ELISA IgG for differential phase I and phase II antibodies detection, while a selection of 107 sera were tested by means of phase specific IgM and IgG IFAT. Both ELISA IgG and IFAT IgG highlighted a low reactivity in non-shedder seropositive animals compared to chronic milk shedder animals. ELISA IgG seemed to perform better than IFAT IgG–IgM, showing significant serological differences among groups that allowed recognising specific serological group patterns, in particular for chronic and occasional milk shedders. These results supported the hypothesis that an animal classification based on phase patterns is reasonable, although it needs to be further investigated.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Characterisation of Dichelobacter nodosus and detection of Fusobacterium
           necrophorum and Treponema spp. in sheep with different clinical
           manifestations of footrot
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Sara Frosth, Ulrika König, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Märit Pringle, Anna Aspán
      The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of Dichelobacter nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Treponema spp. in sheep with different clinical manifestations of footrot compared to healthy sheep both at flock and individual level. The second aim was to characterise D. nodosus with respect to virulence, presence of intA gene and the serogroups. Swab samples (n =1000) from footrot-affected (n =10) and healthy flocks (n =10) were analysed for the presence of D. nodosus, F. necrophorum and Treponema spp. by real-time PCR and culturing (D. nodosus only). Dichelobacter nodosus isolates (n =78) and positive swabs (n =474) were analysed by real-time PCR for the aprV2/B2 and the intA genes and by PCR for the fimA gene (isolates only). D. nodosus was more commonly found in flocks affected with footrot than in clinically healthy flocks. A significant association was found between feet with severe footrot lesions and the aprV2 gene and between feet with moderate or no lesions and the aprB2 gene, respectively. F. necrophorum was more commonly found in flocks with footrot lesions than in flocks without lesions. No significant association was found between sheep flocks affected with footrot and findings of Treponema spp. or the intA gene. Benign D. nodosus of six different serogroups was detected in twelve flocks and virulent D. nodosus of serogroup G in one. In conclusion, D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were more commonly found in feet with footrot than in healthy feet. The majority of D. nodosus detected was benign, while virulent D. nodosus was only detected in a single flock.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • A naturally occurring prfA truncation in a Listeria monocytogenes field
           strain contributes to reduced replication and cell-to-cell spread
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Sebastian Rupp, Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet, Vidhya Jagannathan, Claudia Guldimann, Cord Drögemüller, Christiane Pfarrer, Beatriz Vidondo, Torsten Seuberlich, Joachim Frey, Anna Oevermann
      Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is an environmental bacterium that may become an intracellular pathogen upon ingestion to cause gastroenteritis, septicaemia, abortions, and/or fatal infections of the central nervous system. We here describe a L. monocytogenes field strain (JF5171) isolated from a bovine placenta in the context of abortion, which exhibited attenuation in bovine brain-slice cultures. The whole genome of strain JF5171 was sequenced, and the invasion, replication, and intercellular spread of JF5171 were further analyzed by quantification of colony forming units and immunofluorescence studies. Phospholipase and hemolysis activity of JF5171 were also quantified along with transcription levels of actA, hly and prfA. The data obtained were compared to those of the widely used L. monocytogenes reference strain, EGD-e. JF5171 exhibited reduced replication and lower levels of phospholipase and hemolysis activity. Invasion and cell-to-cell spread was strongly decreased compared to EGD-e, and actin polymerization was absent. A frame shift deletion was identified in the JF5171 coding region of the major regulator for virulence, prfA. This resulted in a truncated C-terminus sequence (WEN* vs. WGKLN*). In addition, a point mutation resulted in a lysine to arginine substitution at amino acid position 197. Complementation with prfA from EGD-e and with (EGD-e) prfA-K197N increased the replication and spread efficiency of JF5171. In contrast, complementation with the truncated version of prfA had no effect. Taken together, these results suggest that the truncated C-terminus of prfA considerably contributes to the strongly attenuated phenotype observed in vitro.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica transmission
           associated with starling–livestock interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): James C. Carlson, Doreene R. Hyatt, Jeremy W. Ellis, David R. Pipkin, Anna M. Mangan, Michael Russell, Denise S. Bolte, Richard M. Engeman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, George M. Linz
      Bird–livestock interactions have been implicated as potential sources for bacteria within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO). European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in particular are known to contaminate cattle feed and water with Salmonella enterica through their fecal waste. We propose that fecal waste is not the only mechanisms through which starlings introduce S. enterica to CAFO. The goal of this study was to assess if starlings can mechanically move S. enterica. We define mechanical movement as the transportation of media containing S. enterica, on the exterior of starlings within CAFO. We collected 100 starlings and obtained external wash and gastrointestinal tract (GI) samples. We also collected 100 samples from animal pens. Within each pen we collected one cattle fecal, feed, and water trough sample. Isolates from all S. enterica positive samples were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All sample types, including 17% of external starling wash samples, contained S. enterica. All sample types had at least one antimicrobial resistant (AMR) isolate and starling GI samples harbored multidrug resistant S. enterica. The serotypes isolated from the starling external wash samples were all found in the farm environment and 11.8% (2/17) of isolates from positive starling external wash samples were resistant to at least one class of antibiotics. This study provides evidence of a potential mechanism of wildlife introduced microbial contamination in CAFO. Mechanical movement of microbiological hazards, by starlings, should be considered a potential source of bacteria that is of concern to veterinary, environmental and public health.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Outbreak investigation identifies a single Listeria monocytogenes strain
           in sheep with different clinical manifestations, soil and water
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): M. Dreyer, A. Thomann, S. Böttcher, J. Frey, A. Oevermann
      Listeria (L.) monocytogenes causes orally acquired infections and is of major importance in ruminants. Little is known about L. monocytogenes transmission between farm environment and ruminants. In order to determine potential sources of infection, we investigated the distribution of L. monocytogenes genetic subtypes in a sheep farm during a listeriosis outbreak by applying four subtyping methods (MALDI-TOF-MS, MLST, MLVA and PFGE). L. monocytogenes was isolated from a lamb with septicemia and from the brainstem of three sheep with encephalitis. Samples from the farm environment were screened for the presence of L. monocytogenes during the listeriosis outbreak, four weeks and eight months after. L. monocytogenes was found only in soil and water tank swabs during the outbreak. Four weeks later, following thorough cleaning of the barn, as well as eight months later, L. monocytogenes was absent in environmental samples. All environmental and clinical L. monocytogenes isolates were found to be the same strain. Our results show that the outbreak involving two different clinical syndromes was caused by a single L. monocytogenes strain and that soil and water tanks were potential infection sources during this outbreak. However, silage cannot be completely ruled out as the bales fed prior to the outbreak were not available for analysis. Faeces samples were negative, suggesting that sheep did not act as amplification hosts contributing to environmental contamination. In conclusion, farm management appears to be a crucial factor for the limitation of a listeriosis outbreak.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • The role of the environment in transmission of Dichelobacter nodosus
           between ewes and their lambs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Mohd Muzafar, Leo A. Calvo-Bado, Laura E. Green, Edward M. Smith, Claire L. Russell, Rose Grogono-Thomas, Elizabeth M.H. Wellington
      Dichelobacter nodosus (D. nodosus) is the essential causative agent of footrot in sheep. The current study investigated when D. nodosus was detectable on newborn lambs and possible routes of transmission. Specific qPCR was used to detect and quantify the load of D. nodosus in foot swabs of lambs at birth and 5–13h post-partum, and their mothers 5–13h post-partum; and in samples of bedding, pasture, soil and faeces. D. nodosus was not detected on the feet of newborn lambs swabbed at birth, but was detected 5–13h after birth, once they had stood on bedding containing naturally occurring D. nodosus. Multiple genotypes identified by cloning and sequencing a marker gene, pgrA, and by multi locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of community DNA from swabs on individual feet indicated a mixed population of D. nodosus was present on the feet of both ewes and lambs. There was high variation in pgrA tandem repeat number (between 3 and 21 repeats), and multiple MLVA types. The overall similarity index between the populations on ewes and lambs was 0.45, indicating moderate overlap. Mother offspring pairs shared some alleles but not all, suggesting lambs were infected from sources(s) other than just their mother's feet. We hypothesise that D. nodosus is transferred to the feet of lambs via bedding containing naturally occurring populations of D. nodosus, probably as a result of transfer from the feet of the group of housed ewes. The results support the hypothesis that the environment plays a key role in the transmission of D. nodosus between ewes and lambs.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Structural characterisation of the virulence-associated protein VapG from
           the horse pathogen Rhodococcus equi
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Tebekeme Okoko, Elena V. Blagova, Jean L. Whittingham, Lynn G. Dover, Anthony J. Wilkinson
      Virulence and host range in Rhodococcus equi depends on the variable pathogenicity island of their virulence plasmids. Notable gene products are a family of small secreted virulence-associated proteins (Vaps) that are critical to intramacrophagic proliferation. Equine-adapted strains, which cause severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals, produce a cell-associated VapA that is necessary for virulence, alongside five other secreted homologues. In the absence of biochemical insight, attention has turned to the structures of these proteins to develop a functional hypothesis. Recent studies have described crystal structures for VapD and a truncate of the VapA orthologue of porcine-adapted strains, VapB. Here, we crystallised the full-length VapG and determined its structure by molecular replacement. Electron density corresponding to the N-terminal domain was not visible suggesting that it is disordered. The protein core adopted a compact elliptical, anti-parallel β-barrel fold with β1–β2–β3–β8–β5–β6–β7–β4 topology decorated by a single peripheral α-helix unique to this family. The high glycine content of the protein allows close packing of secondary structural elements. Topologically, the surface has no indentations that indicate a nexus for molecular interactions. The distribution of polar and apolar groups on the surface of VapG is markedly uneven. One-third of the surface is dominated by exposed apolar side-chains, with no ionisable and only four polar side-chains exposed, giving rise to an expansive flat hydrophobic surface. Other surface regions are more polar, especially on or near the α-helix and a belt around the centre of the β-barrel. Possible functional significance of these recent structures is discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • A two-component regulatory system modulates twitching motility in
           Dichelobacter nodosus
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Ruth M. Kennan, Carrie J. Lovitt, Xiaoyan Han, Dane Parker, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B. Whitchurch, Julian I. Rood
      Dichelobacter nodosus is the essential causative agent of footrot in sheep and type IV fimbriae-mediated twitching motility has been shown to be essential for virulence. We have identified a two-component signal transduction system (TwmSR) that shows similarity to chemosensory systems from other bacteria. Insertional inactivation of the gene encoding the response regulator, TwmR, led to a twitching motility defect, with the mutant having a reduced rate of twitching motility when compared to the wild-type and a mutant complemented with the wild-type twmR gene. The reduced rate of twitching motility was not a consequence of a reduced growth rate or decreased production of surface located fimbriae, but video microscopy indicated that it appeared to result from an overall loss of twitching directionality. These results suggest that a chemotactic response to environmental factors may play an important role in the D. nodosus-mediated disease process.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium
           perfringens infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Francisco A. Uzal, Bruce A. McClane, Jackie K. Cheung, James Theoret, Jorge P. Garcia, Robert J. Moore, Julian I. Rood
      The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2




      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Ben Adler, Joachim Frey



      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Interplay between iron homeostasis and virulence: Fur and RyhB as major
           regulators of bacterial pathogenicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Gaëlle Porcheron, Charles M. Dozois
      In bacteria–host interactions, competition for iron is critical for the outcome of the infection. As a result of its redox properties, this metal is essential for the growth and proliferation of most living organisms, including pathogenic bacteria. This metal is also potentially toxic, making the precise maintenance of iron homeostasis necessary for survival. Iron acquisition and storage control is mediated in most bacteria by the global ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and iron-responsive small regulatory non-coding RNAs (RyhB in the model organism Escherichia coli). While the role of these regulators in iron homeostasis is well documented in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, many recent studies also demonstrate that these regulators are involved in the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. By sensing iron availability in the environment, Fur and RyhB are able to regulate, either directly or indirectly via other transcriptional regulators or modulation of intracellular iron concentration, many virulence determinants of pathogenic bacteria. Iron is thus both a nutritional and regulatory element, allowing bacteria to adapt to various host environments by adjusting expression of virulence factors. In this review, we present evidences that Fur and RyhB are the major regulators of this adaptation, as they are involved in diverse functions ranging from iron homeostasis to regulation of virulence by mediating key pathogen responses such as invasion of eukaryotic cells, toxin production, motility, quorum sensing, stress resistance or biofilm formation. Therefore, Fur and RyhB play a major role in regulating an adaptative response during bacterial infections, making them important targets in the fight against pathogenic bacteria.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • A new bovine conjunctiva model shows that Listeria monocytogenes invasion
           is associated with lysozyme resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 179, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Jessica Warren, A. Rhys Owen, Amy Glanvill, Asher Francis, Grazieli Maboni, Rodrigo J. Nova, Wendela Wapenaar, Catherine Rees, Sabine Tötemeyer
      Listerial keratoconjunctivitis (‘silage eye’) is a wide spread problem in ruminants causing economic losses to farmers and impacts negatively on animal welfare. It results from direct entry of Listeria monocytogenes into the eye, often following consumption of contaminated silage. An isolation protocol for bovine conjunctival swabbing was developed and used to sample both infected and healthy eyes bovine eyes (n =46). L. monocytogenes was only isolated from one healthy eye sample, and suggests that this organism can be present without causing disease. To initiate a study of this disease, an infection model was developed using isolated conjunctiva explants obtained from cattle eyes post slaughter. Conjunctiva were cultured and infected for 20h with a range of L. monocytogenes isolates (n =11), including the healthy bovine eye isolate and also strains isolated from other bovine sources, such as milk or clinical infections. Two L. monocytogenes isolates (one from a healthy eye and one from a cattle abortion) were markedly less able to invade conjunctiva explants, but one of those was able to efficiently infect Caco2 cells indicating that it was fully virulent. These two isolates were also significantly more sensitive to lysozyme compared to most other isolates tested, suggesting that lysozyme resistance is an important factor when infecting bovine conjunctiva. In conclusion, we present the first bovine conjunctiva explant model for infection studies and demonstrate that clinical L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of bovine keratoconjunctivitis are able to infect these tissues.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T08:23:33Z
       
  • Canine parvoviruses in New Zealand form a monophyletic group distinct from
           the viruses circulating in other parts of the world
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): S.A. Ohneiser , S.F. Hills , N.J. Cave , D. Passmore , M. Dunowska
      Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is a well-recognized cause of acute haemorrhagic enteritis in dogs worldwide. The aim of the current study was to identify which CPV-2 subtypes circulate among dogs in New Zealand, and to investigate the evolutionary patterns of contemporary CPV-2 viruses. Faecal samples were collected from 79 dogs with suspected CPV-2 infection over the period of 13 months, and tested for the presence of CPV-2 DNA by PCR. Of 70 positive samples, 69 were subtyped as CPV-2a and one as CPV-2. A majority of CPV-2 positive samples were collected from unvaccinated or not-fully vaccinated puppies ≤6 months of age. The haplotype network produced from New Zealand CPV-2 sequences showed no structure when assessed based on location, vaccination status or age of the animals sampled. International haplotype network indicated that, unlike CPV-2 from other countries, the population of CPV-2 in New Zealand appeared to be monophyletic.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • HoBi-like pestivirus experimental infection in pregnant ewes: Reproductive
           disorders and generation of persistently infected lambs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Nicola Decaro , Michele Losurdo , Vittorio Larocca , Maria Stella Lucente , Viviana Mari , Katia Varello , Giovanni Patruno , Michele Camero , Marina Sciarra , Leonardo Occhiogrosso , Maria Tempesta , Barbara Iulini , Canio Buonavoglia
      In order to evaluate sheep as experimental model to test the efficacy of HoBi-like pestivirus vaccines for cattle, 10 sheep at different stages of pregnancy (30 or 50 days) were experimentally infected with the Italian prototype isolate Italy-1/10-1. Irrespective of the stage of pregnancy, virus inoculation resulted in reproductive failures, consisting of abortion, stillbirths or birth of weak or persistently infected (PI) lambs. Aborted fetuses, stillborn and dead lambs displayed extensive histopathological changes, consisting of hemorrhages, congestion and mononuclear infiltration in major organs. Pestiviral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry in most tissues with remarkable signals in lungs and kidneys. PI lambs were constantly viremic, shed the virus through the nasal secretions and feces and, in all cases but one, did not have detectable HoBi-like pestivirus antibodies before the assumption of colostrum. The single seropositive infected lamb showed low-titer viremia and viral shedding that ceased only several weeks after the 3-month observation period. The study proves that sheep are susceptible to the reproduction failures caused by HoBi-like pestivirus infection and can serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of the fetal protection induced by homologous experimental vaccines.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Evolutionary dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/ME-SA/Ind2001
           lineage
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Saravanan Subramaniam , Jajati K. Mohapatra , Gaurav K. Sharma , Jitendra K. Biswal , Rajeev Ranjan , Manoranjan Rout , Biswajit Das , Bana B. Dash , Aniket Sanyal , Bramhadev Pattnaik
      Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O Ind2001 lineage within the Middle East–South Asia topotype is the major cause of recent FMD incidences in India. A sub-lineage of Ind2001 caused severe outbreaks in the southern region of the country during 2013 and also reported for the first time from Libya. In this study, we conducted a detailed evolutionary analysis of Ind2001 lineage. Phylogenetic analysis of Ind2001 lineage based on maximum likelihood method revealed two major splits and three sub-lineages. The mean nucleotide substitution rate for this lineage was calculated to be 6.338×10−3 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y), which is similar to those of PanAsian sub-lineages. Evolutionary time scale analysis indicated that the Ind2001 lineage might have originated in 1989. The sub-lineage Ind2001d that caused 2013 outbreaks seems to be relatively more divergent genetically from other Ind2001 sub-lineages. Seven codons in the VP1 region of Ind2001 were found to be under positive selection. Four out of 24 recent Ind2001 strains tested in 2D-MNT had antigenic relationship value of <0.3 with the serotype O vaccine strain indicating intra-epidemic antigenic diversity. Amino acid substitutions found in these minor variants with reference to antigenic diversity have been discussed. The dominance of antigenically homologous strains indicates absence of vaccine immunity in the majority of the affected hosts. Taken together, the evolution of Ind2001 lineage deviates from the strict molecular clock and a typical lineage evolutionary dynamics characterized by periodic emergence and re-emergence of Ind2001 and PanAsia lineage have been observed in respect of serotype O.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Phylogenetic analysis and genetic diversity of 3′ region of rtxA
           gene from geographically diverse strains of Moraxella bovis, Moraxella
           bovoculi and Moraxella ovis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Luana D’Avila Farias , Grazieli Maboni , Letícia Beatriz Matter , Charles Fernando Capinos Scherer , Felipe Libardoni , Agueda Castagna de Vargas
      The cytotoxin A (MbxA) is one of the main virulence factors of Moraxella bovis involved in the pathogenesis of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Moraxella ovis and Moraxella bovoculi, suspected to be associated with infectious keratitis in sheep and cattle respectively, also have a gene that encodes the cytotoxin A (movA and mbvA, respectively). The aim of this study was to determine the molecular sequence of the 3’ region of the cytotoxin gene of Moraxella spp. strains isolated from clinical cases to establish phylogenetic and evolutionary comparisons. PCR amplification, nucleotide sequencing (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence prediction were performed, followed by the sequences comparison, identity level calculation and selective pressure analysis. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on nt and aa sequences clearly differentiate M. bovis (n =15), M. bovoculi (n =11) and M. ovis (n =7) and their respective reference strains. An alignment of 843nt revealed high similarity within bacterial species (MbxA =99.9% nt and aa; MbvA =99.3% nt and 98.8% aa; MovA =99.5% nt and 99.3% aa). The similarity of partial sequences (nt 1807–2649) of MbxA in relation to MbvA and MovA ranged from 76.3 to 78.5%; similarity between MbvA and MovA ranged from 95.7 to 97.5%. A negative selection on mbvA and movA sequences was revealed by the molecular evolution analysis. The phylogenetic analysis of movA and mbvA allowed different strains of Moraxella spp. to be grouped according to the period of isolation. Sequence analysis of cytotoxin may provide insights into genetic and evolutionary relationships and into the genetic/molecular basis of Moraxella spp.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against intracellular Rhodococcus equi
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Steeve Giguère , Londa J. Berghaus , Elise A. Lee
      Studies with facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens have shown that evaluation of the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial agents against intracellular bacteria is more closely associated with in vivo efficacy than traditional in vitro susceptibility testing. The objective of this study was to determine the relative activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against intracellular Rhodococcus equi. Equine monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with virulent R. equi and exposed to erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, rifampin, ceftiofur, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, vancomycin, imipenem, or doxycycline at concentrations achievable in plasma at clinically recommended dosages in foals. The number of intracellular R. equi was determined 48h after infection by counting colony forming units (CFUs). The number of R. equi CFUs in untreated control wells were significantly higher than those of monolayers treated with antimicrobial agents. Numbers of R. equi were significantly lower in monolayers treated with enrofloxacin followed by those treated with gentamicin, and vancomycin, when compared to monolayers treated with other antimicrobial agents. Numbers of R. equi in monolayers treated with doxycycline were significantly higher than those of monolayers treated with other antimicrobial agents. Differences in R. equi CFUs between monolayers treated with other antimicrobial agents were not statistically significant. Enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and vancomycin are the most active drugs in equine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with R. equi. Additional studies will be needed to determine if these findings correlate with in vivo efficacy.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with low
           within-herd prevalence of intra-mammary infections in dairy cows:
           Genotyping of isolates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): M. Luini , P. Cremonesi , G. Magro , V. Bianchini , G. Minozzi , B. Castiglioni , R. Piccinini
      Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common mastitis-causing pathogens worldwide. In the last decade, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA) infections have been described in several species, included the bovines. Hence, this paper investigates the diffusion of MRSA within Italian dairy herds; the strains were further characterized using a DNA microarray, which detects 330 different sequences, including the methicillin-resistance genes mecA and mecC and SCCmec typing. The analysis of overall patterns allows the assignment to Clonal Complexes (CC). Overall 163 S. aureus isolates, collected from quarter milk samples in 61 herds, were tested. MRSA strains were further processed using spa typing. Fifteen strains (9.2%), isolated in 9 herds (14.75%), carried mecA, but none harboured mecC. MRSA detection was significantly associated (P <0.011) with a within-herd prevalence of S. aureus intra-mammary infections (IMI) ≤5%. Ten MRSA strains were assigned to CC398, the remaining ones to CC97 (n =2), CC1 (n =2) or CC8 (n =1). In 3 herds, MRSA and MSSA co-existed: CC97-MRSA with CC398-MSSA, CC1-MRSA with CC8-MSSA and CC398-MRSA with CC126-MSSA. The results of spa typing showed an overall similar profile of the strains belonging to the same CC: t127-CC1, t1730-CC97, t899 in 8 out of 10 CC398. In the remaining 2 isolates a new spa type, t14644, was identified. The single CC8 was a t3092. The SCCmec cassettes were classified as type IV, type V or type IV/V composite. All or most strains harboured the genes encoding the β-lactamase operon and the tetracycline resistance. Streptogramin resistance gene was related to CC398. Enterotoxin and leukocidin genes were carried only by CC1, CC8 and CC97-MRSA. The persistence of MRSA clones characterized by broader host range, in epidemiologically unrelated areas and in dairy herds with low prevalence of S. aureus IMI, might enhance the risk for adaptation to human species.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Epidemiology of canine distemper and canine parvovirus in domestic dogs in
           urban and rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): G. Acosta-Jamett , D. Surot , M. Cortés , V. Marambio , C. Valenzuela , A. Vallverdu , M.P. Ward
      To assess whether the seroprevalence of canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) in domestic dogs is higher in urban versus rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile and risk factors for exposure, a serosurvey and questionnaire survey at three, urban-rural paired sites was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Overall, 1161 households were interviewed of which 71% were located in urban areas. A total of 501 blood samples were analysed. The overall CDV and CPV seroprevalences were 61% (CI 90%: 58–70%) and 47% (CI 90%: 40–49%), and 89% (CI 90%: 85–92%) and 72% (CI 90%: 68–76%) in urban and rural areas, respectively. The higher seroprevalence in domestic dogs in urban areas suggests that urban domestic dogs might be a maintenance host for both CDV and CPV in this region. Due to the presence of endangered wild canids populations in areas close to these domestic populations, surveillance and control of these pathogens in urban dog populations is needed a priority.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Treatment of experimental pythiosis with essential oils of Origanum
           vulgare and Mentha piperita singly, in association and in combination with
           immunotherapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Anelise O.S. Fonseca , Daniela I.B. Pereira , Sônia A. Botton , Luciana Pötter , Elisa S.V. Sallis , Sérgio F.V. Júnior , Fernando S.M. Filho , Cristina Gomes Zambrano , Beatriz P. Maroneze , Julia S.S. Valente , Cristiane T. Baptista , Caroline Q. Braga , Vanessa Dal Ben , Mario C.A. Meireles
      This study investigated the in vivo antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita both singly, associated and in combination with immunotherapy to treat experimental pythiosis. The disease was reproduced in 18 rabbits divided into six groups (n =3): group 1, control; group 2, treated with essential oil of Mentha piperita; group 3, treated with essential oil of Origanum vulgare; group 4, treated with commercial immunotherapic; group 5, treated with a association of oils of M. piperita and O. vulgare and group 6, treated with a combination of both oils plus immunotherapy. Essential oils were added in a topical cream base formula, and lesions were treated daily for 45 days. The animals in groups 4 and 6 received a dose of immunotherapeutic agent every 14 days. The results revealed that the evolution of lesions in groups 5 and 6 did not differ from one another but differed from the other groups. The lesions of group 5 increased 3.16 times every measurement, while those of group 6 increased 1.83 times, indicating that the smallest growth of the lesions occurred when the combination of therapies were used. A rabbit from group 5 showed clinical cure at day 20 of treatment. This research is the pioneer in the treatment of experimental pythiosis using essential oils from medicinal plants and a combination of therapies. This study demonstrated that the use of essential oils can be a viable alternative treatment to cutaneous pythiosis, particularly when used in association or combination with immunotherapy.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Genetic and antigenic characterization of Bungowannah virus, a novel
           pestivirus
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): P.D. Kirkland , M.J. Frost , K.R. King , D.S. Finlaison , C.L. Hornitzky , X. Gu , M. Richter , I. Reimann , M. Dauber , H. Schirrmeier , M. Beer , J.F. Ridpath
      Bungowannah virus, a possible new species within the genus Pestivirus, has been associated with a disease syndrome in pigs characterized by myocarditis with a high incidence of stillbirths. The current analysis of the whole-genome and antigenic properties of this virus confirms its unique identity, and further suggests that this virus is both genetically and antigenically remote from previously recognized pestiviruses. There was no evidence of reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are generally considered to be pan-reactive with other viruses in the genus, and there was little cross reactivity with polyclonal sera. Subsequently, a set of novel mAbs has been generated which allow detection of Bungowannah virus. The combined data provide convincing evidence that Bungowannah virus is a member of the genus Pestivirus and should be officially recognized as a novel virus species.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Co-prevalance of PMQR and 16S rRNA methylase genes in clinical Escherichia
           coli isolates with high diversity of CTX-M from diseased farmed pigeons
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Ling Yang , Lei Yang , Dian-Hong Lü , Wen-Hui Zhang , Si-Qi Ren , Ya-Hong Liu , Zhen-Ling Zeng , Hong-Xia Jiang
      In the present study, we determined the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Escherichia coli isolated from diseased farmed pigeons in China. A total of 71 E. coli isolates were collected from three pigeon farms from 2011 to 2012 and screened for the presence of the ESBL genes. The ESBLs producers were further tested for the presence of PMQR-encoding genes as well as the 16S rRNA methylase gene using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Co-transfer of plasmids encoding for ESBLs, PMQR determinants and/or 16S rRNA methylase gene was performed by conjugation into E. coli. The genetic relatedness and plasmid replicon type were determined. A total of 41 ESBLs producers were identified. Only CTX-M type ESBLs were detected, with the most common CTX-M types being CTX-M-65 (n =17), CTX-M-27 (n =11), CTX-M-55 (n =10). Thirty-eight CTX-M-positive isolates were found to harbor at least one PMQR gene, with aac(6′)-Ib-cr (n =32) and oqxAB (n =21) being the most prevalent. The rmtB was the only prevalent 16S rRNA methylase gene detected in 24 (58.1%) CTX-M-positive isolates. Although most of the CTX-M producers had distinct pulsotypes, clonal transmission in the same farm was observed. bla CTX-M genes were carried by IncF alone or in combination with IncK plasmids with three different sizes, including 76.8Kb (n =20), 194Kb (n =5), 104.5Kb (n =2). PFGE profiles of CTX-M-positive E. coli isolates indicated potential horizontal spread of these multidrug resistant strains along with those CTX-M encoding genes. Our findings highlight the importance of pigeons as a reservoir of multiple antimicrobial resistance genes.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Bovine anaplasmosis in Turkey: First laboratory confirmed clinical cases
           caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Munir Aktas , Sezayi Özübek
      Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that affect the health of humans and other animals. Clinical cases of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine Anaplasma species was determined in cattle. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 10 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of tick-borne fever. In addition, blood samples were collected from 123 apparently healthy cattle from the same area. DNA was screened by reverse line blot assay for the presence of the hypervariable V1 region of the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia species. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies of A. phagocytophilum were observed in neutrophils of 6 sick animals. Parasitemia ranged from 0.2 to 1.6% in individual slides. Reverse line blot showed 45.1% (60/133) of the sampled cattle to be positive for one or more of five Anaplasma species. The frequency of single infections was 20.3% (27/133), while mixed infections were found in 24.8% (33/133) of samples with six different combinations of species and a maximum of four pathogens detected. A. phagocytophilum was the most prevalent (41/133, 30.8%) followed by Anaplasma marginale (25/133, 18.8%), Anaplasma centrale (24/133, 18%), Ehrlichia sp. strain Omatjenne (18/133, 13.5%) and Anaplasma bovis (1/133, 0.7%). This is the first report of A. bovis in a cow from Turkey. This is also the first report of clinical cases caused by A. phagocytophilum in cattle from the country. Therefore, A. phagocytophilum should be taken into account as differential diagnosis in cases of high fever and anorexia in pastured animals.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Capsid, membrane and NS3 are the major viral proteins involved in
           autophagy induced by Japanese encephalitis virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Xiujin Wang , Lei Hou , Jige Du , Lei Zhou , Xinna Ge , Xin Guo , Hanchun Yang
      Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important zoonotic pathogen causing viral encephalitis in human and reproductive failure in pigs. In the present study, we first examined the autophagy induced by JEV infection in host cells, and then analyzed the JEV proteins involving in autophagy induction, and further investigated the relationship between viral protein and immunity-related GTPases M (IRGM). Our results showed that JEV infection could induce autophagy in host cells and autophagy promoted the replication of JEV in vitro; the cells transfected with individual plasmid that was expressing C, M and NS3 had a significantly higher conversion of LC3-I/II, and enhanced LC3 signals with the fluorescence punctuates accumulation which was completely co-localized with LC3 and increased number of autophagosomes-like vesicles, suggesting that C, M and NS3 are the major viral proteins involving in autophagy induction upon JEV infection; the virus titer in the cells treated by the siRNA specific for IRGM had a significant decrease, and the NS3 signals in the cells transfected with the plasmid that was expressing NS3 were completely co-localized with the IRGM signals, suggesting that the NS3 of JEV could target IRGM which may play a role in the replication of JEV. Our findings help to understand the role of autophagy in JEV and other flaviviruses infections.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates of animal and environmental
           origins from an integrated poultry production chain
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Frédérique Pasquali , Alex Lucchi , Simonetta Braggio , Davide Giovanardi , Achille Franchini , Maurizio Stonfer , Gerardo Manfreda
      Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens, but when an imbalance in the gut microbiota occurs, E. coli may overgrow and cause extraintestinal infections. The aims of this study were to assess the distribution and spread of E. coli isolates with specific phylogenetic groups and antimicrobial resistance characters among asymptomatic breeder flocks and their broiler progenies with early symptoms of colibacillosis. Broiler flocks were treated with lincospectin during the first week of life and sampled at one, 21 and 42 days. The majority of the 363 E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A (53.17%), followed by groups D (23.14%), B1 (19.28%) and B2 (4.41%). In broilers, group A was the most represented in birds of 21 and 42 days of age whereas group B1 was the most represented phylogroup in one-day old chicks. More than 90.00% of the isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Along the life-time of broilers, no differences were found on the occurrence of resistant isolates except for the number of E. coli with elevated MIC to spectinomycin, which increased significantly after the lincospectin treatment. According to XbaI-macrorestriction analysis, a high genetic diversity among E. coli isolates was underlined. Four antimicrobial resistant E. coli isolates of phylogroups A, B1 and D collected from breeders showed similar PFGE patterns to five isolates collected from the respective broiler progenies suggesting a potential spread of these isolates from breeders to broilers.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit
           farms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): K.P. Dalton , I. Nicieza , D. de Llano , J. Gullón , M. Inza , M. Petralanda , Z. Arroita , F. Parra
      Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of a genogroup GVI feline
           norovirus
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Tomomi Takano , Hajime Kusuhara , Akira Kuroishi , Midori Takashina , Tomoyoshi Doki , Takamichi Nishinaka , Tsutomu Hohdatsu
      Norovirus (NoV) has been classified into 6 genogroups, GI-GVI. In the present study, we identified novel feline NoV (FNoV) M49-1 strain. The C-terminal of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the FNoV M49-1 strain was highly homologous with GIV FNoV and GIV lion norovirus, whereas VP1 was highly homologous with GVI canine NoV (CNoV). Based on the results of the Simplot analysis, the FNoV M49-1 strain may have been produced by recombination between GIV.2 FNoV and GVI.1 CNoV. In addition, specific pathogen-free cats inoculated with FNoV gene-positive-fecal samples developed diarrhea symptoms, and the viral gene was detected in their feces and blood.


      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 178, Issues 3–4




      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:43:53Z
       
  • Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and
           chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2015
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Janine T Bossé , Yanwen Li , Tom G Atherton , Stephanie Walker , Susanna M Williamson , Jon Rogers , Roy R Chaudhuri , Lucy A Weinert , Matthew TG Holden , Duncan J Maskell , Alexander W Tucker , Brendan W Wren , Andrew N Rycroft , Paul R Langford
      The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally.


      PubDate: 2015-06-06T14:48:56Z
       
 
 
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