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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 221 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal  
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Orally administered live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium protects mice
           against lethal infection with H1N1 influenza virus
    • Authors: Nitin Machindra Kamble; Irshad Ahmed Hajam; John Hwa Lee
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Nitin Machindra Kamble, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
      Pre-stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) by agonists has been shown to increase protection against influenza virus infection. In this study, we evaluated the protective response generated against influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8; H1N1) virus by oral and nasal administration of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, JOL911 strain, in mice. Oral and nasal inoculation of JOL911 significantly increased the mRNA copy number of TLR-2, TLR4 and TLR5, and downstream type I interferon (IFN) molecules, IFN-α and IFN-β, both in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in lung tissue. Similarly, the mRNA copy number of interferon-inducible genes (ISGs), Mx and ISG15, were significantly increased in both the orally and the nasally inoculated mice. Post PR8 virus lethal challenge, the nasal JOL911 and the PBS control group mice showed significant loss of body weight with 70% and 100% mortality, respectively, compared to only 30% mortality in the oral JOL911 group mice. Post sub-lethal challenge, the significant reduction in PR8 virus copy number in lung tissue was observed in oral [on day 4 and 6 post-challenge (dpc)] and nasal (on 4dpc) than the PBS control group mice. The lethal and sub-lethal challenge showed that the generated stimulated innate resistance (StIR) in JOL911 inoculated mice conferred resistance to acute and initial influenza infection but might not be sufficient to prevent the PR8 virus invasion and replication in the lung. Overall, the present study indicates that oral administration of attenuated S. Typhimurium can pre-stimulate multiple TLR pathways in mice to provide immediate early StIR against a lethal H1N1 virus challenge.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Putative vaccine breakthrough event associated with heterotypic rotavirus
           infection in newborn calves, Turkey, 2015
    • Authors: Ilke Karayel; Enikő Fehér; Szilvia Marton; Nüvit Coskun; Krisztián Bányai; Feray Alkan
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Ilke Karayel, Enikő Fehér, Szilvia Marton, Nüvit Coskun, Krisztián Bányai, Feray Alkan
      Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are regarded as major enteric pathogens of large ruminants, including cattle. Rotavirus vaccines administered to pregnant cows are commonly used to provide passive immunity that protects newborn calves from the clinical disease. In this study we report the detection of RVA from calves with severe diarrhea in a herd regularly vaccinated to prevent enteric infections including RVA. Diarrheic disease was observed in newborn calves aged 4–15days, with high morbidity and mortality rates, but no diarrhea was seen in adult animals. Rotavirus antigen was detected by enzyme-immunoassay in the intestinal content or the fecal samples of all examined animals. Besides RVA, bovine coronavirus and bovine enteric calicivirus were detected in some samples. Selected RVA strains were characterized by whole genome sequencing. Two strains, RVA/Cow-wt/TUR/Amasya-1/2015/G8P[5] and RVA/Cow-wt/TUR/Amasya-2/2015/G8P[5] were genotyped as G8-P[5]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3 and showed >99% nucleotide sequence identity among themselves. This genomic constellation is fairly common among bovine RVA strains; however, phylogenetic analysis of the G8 VP7 gene showed close genetic relationship to some European human RVA strains (up to 98.4% nt identity). Our findings is the first indication regarding the circulation of G8 RVA strains in Turkey. Given that the administered RVA vaccines contained type G6 and G10 VP7 antigens some concerns raised with regard to the level of heterotypic protection elicited by the vaccine strains against circulating bovine G8 RVA strains. Enhancement of surveillance of circulating RVA strains in calves across Turkey is needed to support ongoing vaccination programs.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Seroprevalence for 2117-like vesiviruses in Italian household dogs
    • Authors: Barbara Di Martino; Federica Di Profio; Livia Bodnar; Irene Melegari; Vittorio Sarchese; Ivano Massirio; Giulia Dowgier; Gianvito Lanave; Fulvio Marsilio; Krisztián Bányai; Canio Buonavoglia; Vito Martella
      Pages: 14 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Barbara Di Martino, Federica Di Profio, Livia Bodnar, Irene Melegari, Vittorio Sarchese, Ivano Massirio, Giulia Dowgier, Gianvito Lanave, Fulvio Marsilio, Krisztián Bányai, Canio Buonavoglia, Vito Martella
      In 2003, a novel calicivirus, the vesivirus (VeV) strain 2117, was identified incidentally as a contaminant in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell cultures by a German pharmaceutical company. Similar contaminations have been documented in three additional episodes, in bio-reactors used for production of recombinant drugs. More, recently 2117-like VeVs have also been identified at high prevalence in the stools from asymptomatic kennel dogs and only sporadically in diarrhoeic and healthy household dogs. In this study, antibodies for 2117-like viruses were detected in 21.5% of sera from household dogs, indicating that they are common viruses in the canine host.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 to
           and from vaccinated pigs in a one-to-one model
    • Authors: E. Pileri; E. Gibert; G.E. Martín-Valls; M. Nofrarias; S. López-Soria; M. Martín; I. Díaz; L. Darwich; E. Mateu
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): E. Pileri, E. Gibert, G.E. Martín-Valls, M. Nofrarias, S. López-Soria, M. Martín, I. Díaz, L. Darwich, E. Mateu
      The present study examined transmission by contact of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) 1 in a one-to-one model to vaccinated and unvaccinated pigs and from vaccinated infected pigs to other vaccinated pigs. The experiment started by randomly assigning weaned pigs to groups V (n=24) and U (n=26). V pigs were vaccinated with a commercial live attenuated PRRSV vaccine and the U animals were kept as unvaccinated controls. Twenty-eight days later, 6U pigs were separated and allocated in individual boxes. The remaining 20U pigs were intranasally inoculated with PRRSV isolate 3267 (from now on designated as seeder (S) pigs) and 48h later were distributed in boxes where they were commingled with either V or U pigs in 1:1 groups (first contact phase), resulting in 6S:U and 14S:V pairs. As soon as a V pig was detected to be viremic because of contact with a S, the infected V (from now on designated as Vinf) was transferred (<24h after detection) to a new pen where it was comingled with a new V pig (designated as V2) in a second contact phase. For the first contact phase, pigs were maintained 21days at maximum and for the second contact phase the maximum exposure period was 14days. Two V pigs tested positive for the vaccine virus (>99.5% similarity) when they were relocated with the corresponding V2 pigs and they were removed; thus, only 12Vinf were finally considered. All V pigs (12/12) exposed to S animals became infected although the first detection of viremia occurred at 13.6±3.6days, one week later than in U (p<0.05). Also, duration of viremia was shorter for Vinf compared to U, (5.5±4.3days versus 12.5±2.7days). The Vinf group showed remarkable individual variability: eight animals had a viremic period of 5 or less days (3.0±1.4) while the remaining four had a longer viremic period of more than one week (10.8±2.9). This situation was not observed in U. In the second contact phase, transmission from Vinf to V2 pigs occurred in 7/8 cases (87.5%). The mean duration of viremia for V2 was 4.8±3.4 and two different patterns were again observed: two animals had viremias of 9–10days and the rest averaged 3.0±1.4days (range: 2–5days). Vaccinated groups Vinf and V2 had a significantly lower PRRSV shedding in oral fluids for at least the first 9days after the onset of the viremia compared to U, and shedding for V2 was even significantly lower (p<0.05) than shedding for Vinf. Our experimental design reproduced the worst-case scenario for evaluating the effect of vaccination and, under such conditions; it was still efficacious in slowering PRRSV transmission and decreasing the global viral load and particularly oral shedding.

      PubDate: 2017-01-18T22:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Identification of a novel host-specific IgG protease in Streptococcus
           phocae subsp. phocae
    • Authors: Viktoria Rungelrath; Jan Christian Wohlsein; Ursula Siebert; Jeffrey Stott; Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff; Ulrich von Pawel-Rammingen; Peter Valentin-Weigand; Christoph G. Baums; Jana Seele
      Pages: 42 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Viktoria Rungelrath, Jan Christian Wohlsein, Ursula Siebert, Jeffrey Stott, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Ulrich von Pawel-Rammingen, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Christoph G. Baums, Jana Seele
      Streptococcus (S.) phocae subsp. phocae causes bronchopneumonia and septicemia in a variety of marine mammals. Especially in harbor seals infected with phocine distemper virus it plays an important role as an opportunistic pathogen. This study was initiated by the detection of IgG cleavage products in Western blot analysis after incubation of bacterial supernatant with harbor seal serum. Hence, the objectives of this study were the identification and characterization of a secreted IgG cleaving protease in S. phocae subsp. phocae isolated from marine mammals. To further identify the responsible factor of IgG cleavage a protease inhibitor profile was generated. Inhibition of the IgG cleaving activity by iodoacetamide and Z-LVG-CHN2 indicated that a cysteine protease is involved. Moreover, an anti-IdeS antibody directed against the IgG endopeptidase IdeS of S. pyogenes showed cross reactivity with the putative IgG protease of S. phocae subsp. phocae. The IgG cleaving factor of S. phocae subsp. phocae was identified through an inverse PCR approach and designated IdeP (Immunoglobulin G degrading enzyme of S. phocae subsp. phocae) in analogy to the cysteine protease IdeS. Notably, recombinant (r) IdeP is a host and substrate specific protease as it cleaves IgG from grey and harbor seals but not IgG from harbor porpoises or non-marine mammals. The identification of IdeP represents the first description of a protein in S. phocae subsp. phocae involved in immune evasion. Furthermore, the fact that IdeP cleaves solely IgG of certain marine mammals reflects functional adaption of S. phocae subsp. phocae to grey and harbor seals as its main hosts.

      PubDate: 2017-01-18T22:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Greece during 2015–16, implementation of
           emergency immunization and genetic differentiation between field isolates
           and vaccine virus strains
    • Authors: Eirini I. Agianniotaki; Konstantia E. Tasioudi; Serafeim C. Chaintoutis; Peristera Iliadou; Olga Mangana-Vougiouka; Aikaterini Kirtzalidou; Thomas Alexandropoulos; Achilleas Sachpatzidis; Evangelia Plevraki; Chrysostomos I. Dovas; Eleni Chondrokouki
      Pages: 78 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Eirini I. Agianniotaki, Konstantia E. Tasioudi, Serafeim C. Chaintoutis, Peristera Iliadou, Olga Mangana-Vougiouka, Aikaterini Kirtzalidou, Thomas Alexandropoulos, Achilleas Sachpatzidis, Evangelia Plevraki, Chrysostomos I. Dovas, Eleni Chondrokouki
      The objective of this study is to present epizootiological data from the lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in Greece during 2015–16, following the implementation of emergency vaccination and total stamping-out, along with laboratory data regarding the genetic differentiation between field isolates and live attenuated vaccine virus strains. Descriptive geographical chronology analysis was conducted to present the progressive shift of the outbreaks westwards, and at the same time, the absence of further outbreaks in previously affected regional units where high vaccination coverage was achieved. Isolation and molecular characterization of LSDV from the first recorded case in Greece (Evros/GR/15 isolate) was performed. The two live attenuated LSD vaccine viruses, currently used for emergency immunization in Greece, were sequenced and compared to the Evros/GR/15 isolate, in 3 genomic regions (GPCR gene, RPO30 gene, and partial LSDV126/LSDV127 genes). Sequence comparisons revealed prominent differences between the Evros/GR/15 isolate and the vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in the classification of the Evros/GR/15 isolate in the same clade with all field LSDV isolates, whereas vaccine strains were grouped in a distinct cluster within the LSDV clade. Additional samples from animals presenting skin nodules (N=13) were characterized by sequencing in the 3 aforementioned genomic regions. Among them, in 5 animals that were vaccinated, the attenuated vaccine virus was identified. A PCR-RFLP method targeting the LSDV127 gene was developed and proved to be able to discriminate between the characterized field and vaccine strains. The findings of the present study substantiate the importance of timely and intensive vaccinations for the control of LSDV epizootic and the genetic differences between the Evros/GR/15 isolate and the vaccine strains. This provides the basis for the development of PCR-based DIVA assays, which would be of major importance for effective disease surveillance and stamping-out during LSD vaccination campaigns.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.037
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Novel poly-uridine insertion in the 3′UTR and E2 amino acid
           substitutions in a low virulent classical swine fever virus
    • Authors: Liani Coronado; Matthias Liniger; Sara Muñoz-González; Alexander Postel; Lester Josue Pérez; Marta Pérez-Simó; Carmen Laura Perera; Maria Teresa Frías- Lepoureau; Rosa Rosell; Adam Grundhoff; Daniela Indenbirken; Malik Alawi; Nicole Fischer; Paul Becher; Nicolas Ruggli; Llilianne Ganges
      Pages: 103 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Liani Coronado, Matthias Liniger, Sara Muñoz-González, Alexander Postel, Lester Josue Pérez, Marta Pérez-Simó, Carmen Laura Perera, Maria Teresa Frías- Lepoureau, Rosa Rosell, Adam Grundhoff, Daniela Indenbirken, Malik Alawi, Nicole Fischer, Paul Becher, Nicolas Ruggli, Llilianne Ganges
      In this study, we compared the virulence in weaner pigs of the Pinar del Rio isolate and the virulent Margarita strain. The latter caused the Cuban classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak of 1993. Our results showed that the Pinar del Rio virus isolated during an endemic phase is clearly of low virulence. We analysed the complete nucleotide sequence of the Pinar del Rio virus isolated after persistence in newborn piglets, as well as the genome sequence of the inoculum. The consensus genome sequence of the Pinar del Rio virus remained completely unchanged after 28days of persistent infection in swine. More importantly, a unique poly-uridine tract was discovered in the 3′UTR of the Pinar del Rio virus, which was not found in the Margarita virus or any other known CSFV sequences. Based on RNA secondary structure prediction, the poly-uridine tract results in a long single-stranded intervening sequence (SS) between the stem-loops I and II of the 3′UTR, without major changes in the stem- loop structures when compared to the Margarita virus. The possible implications of this novel insertion on persistence and attenuation remain to be investigated. In addition, comparison of the amino acid sequence of the viral proteins Erns, E1, E2 and p7 of the Margarita and Pinar del Rio viruses showed that all non-conservative amino acid substitutions acquired by the Pinar del Rio isolate clustered in E2, with two of them being located within the B/C domain. Immunisation and cross-neutralisation experiments in pigs and rabbits suggest differences between these two viruses, which may be attributable to the amino acid differences observed in E2. Altogether, these data provide fresh insights into viral molecular features which might be associated with the attenuation and adaptation of CSFV for persistence in the field.

      PubDate: 2017-02-01T20:13:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Kinetics of single and dual infection of pigs with swine influenza virus
           and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
    • Authors: Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól; Arkadiusz Dors; Krzysztof Kwit; Andrzej Kowalczyk; Ewelina Stasiak; Zygmunt Pejsak
      Pages: 113 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Ewelina Stasiak, Zygmunt Pejsak
      Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a common problem in modern pork production worldwide. Pathogens that are amongst other pathogens frequently involved in PRDC etiology are swine influenza virus (SIV) and A. pleuropneumoniae. The effect of dual infection with mentioned pathogens has not been investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of single and dual infection of pigs with SIV and A. pleuropneumoniae with regard to clinical course, pathogens shedding, lung lesions and early immune response. The most severe symptoms were observed in co-inoculated piglets. The AUC value for SIV shedding was lower in pigs single inoculated with SIV as compared to co-inoculated animals. In contrast, no significant differences were found between A. pleuropneumoniae shedding in single or dual inoculated pigs. Three out of 5 co-inoculated piglets euthanized at 10 dpi were positive against serotype 2 A. pleuropneumonie. All piglets inoculated with SIV developed specific HI antibodies at 10 dpi. In pigs dual inoculated the specific humoral response against SIV was observed earlier, at 7 dpi. The SIV-like lung lesions were more severe in co-inoculated pigs. In the groups inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae (single or dual) the acute phase protein response was generally stronger than in SIV-single infected group. Co-infection with SIV and A. pleuropneumoniae potentiated the severity of lung lesions caused by SIV and enhanced virus replication in the lung and nasal SIV shedding. Enhanced SIV replication contributed to a more severe clinical course of the disease as well as earlier and higher magnitude immune response (acute phase proteins, HI antibodies) compared to single inoculated pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-02-01T20:13:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Efficacy evaluation of the C-strain-based vaccines against the subgenotype
           2.1d classical swine fever virus emerging in China
    • Authors: Yuzi Luo; Shengwei Ji; Jian-Lin Lei; Guang-Tao Xiang; Yan Liu; Yao Gao; Xing-Yu Meng; Guanglai Zheng; En-Yu Zhang; Yimin Wang; Ming-Liang Du; Yongfeng Li; Su Li; Xi-Jun He; Yuan Sun; Hua-Ji Qiu
      Pages: 154 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Yuzi Luo, Shengwei Ji, Jian-Lin Lei, Guang-Tao Xiang, Yan Liu, Yao Gao, Xing-Yu Meng, Guanglai Zheng, En-Yu Zhang, Yimin Wang, Ming-Liang Du, Yongfeng Li, Su Li, Xi-Jun He, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
      Classical swine fever (CSF) is a devastating infectious disease of pigs caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The disease has been controlled following extensive vaccination with the lapinized attenuated vaccine C-strain for decades in China. However, frequent CSF outbreaks occurred recently in a large number of C-strain-vaccinated pig farms in China and a new subgenotype 2.1d of CSFV has been reported to be responsible for the outbreaks. Here we analyzed the molecular variations and antigenic differences among the C-strain-based commercial vaccines of different origins from different manufacturers in China, and reevaluated the vaccines against the emerging subgenotype 2.1d strain of CSFV. The results showed that the C-strain adapted to the continuous ST cell line (CST) contain a unique M290K variation on the E2 protein, compared to those of primary BT cells (CBT) or rabbit origin (CRT) and the traditional C-strain sequences available in the GenBank database. Serum neutralization test revealed the antigenic differences between CST and CBT or CRT. Notably, the neutralizing titers of porcine anti-C-strain sera against the CSFV isolate of subgenotype 2.1d were significantly lower than those against C-strain or Shimen strain. The C-strain-vaccinated, subgenotype 2.1d HLJZZ2014 strain-challenged pigs did not show any clinical signs and all survived. However, these pigs displayed mild pathological and histological lesions, and the CSFV viral RNA was detected in the various tissue and blood samples. Taken together, the C-strain-based vaccines of different origins showed molecular variations and antigenic differences, and could provide clinical but not pathological and virological protection against the subgenotype 2.1d CSFV emerging in China. Further investigation is needed to comprehensively assess the efficacy of C-strain of different doses against the subgenotype 2.1d CSFV.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Association of Ehrlichia canis, Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and Anaplasma
           platys and severe anemia in dogs in Thailand
    • Authors: Gunn Kaewmongkol; Nicha Lukkana; Sarawut Yangtara; Sarawan Kaewmongkol; Naris Thengchaisri; Theerapol Sirinarumitr; Sathaporn Jittapalapong; Stanley G. Fenwick
      Pages: 195 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Gunn Kaewmongkol, Nicha Lukkana, Sarawut Yangtara, Sarawan Kaewmongkol, Naris Thengchaisri, Theerapol Sirinarumitr, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Stanley G. Fenwick
      Canine tick-borne bacteria; Ehrlichia canis, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and Anaplasma spp., are organisms transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. However, only a few clinical studies evaluating dogs infected with these organisms and anemia condition have been published. In this study, the potential tick-borne bacteria linked to anemia were investigated in eighty-one blood samples selected from anemic dogs using a broad range nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA gene. Positive results were shown in 12/81 blood specimens (14.81%). Nucleotide sequences from the PCR products were analyzed using BLAST and resulted in identification of Ehrlichia canis (8), Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum (1) and Anaplasma platys (3). Two other PCR assays were used to detect and identify the positive results of these pathogens including a specific PCR for Ehrlichia canis (gp36) and a specific nested-PCR for hemoplasma species (16S rRNA) and the phylogenetic analyses of E. canis and canine hemoplasmas were performed using these two loci. These specific PCRs revealed co-infection of E. canis and Mycoplasma haemocanis in two cases. These two male dogs had presented with jaundice, severe hemolytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, mild azotemia and hepatitis. Ehrlichia canis was detected in a significantly greater number of severe anemia cases (PCV<15%) than moderate or mild anemia cases (PCV 16–29%) (P<0.05) and these severe anemia cases were 7-fold more at risk of having E. canis infections (odds ratio: 7.11, p=0.020). However, no statistical differences were detected between E. canis detection and degrees of thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. From the results of this study, we conclude that the severity of anemia is associated with E. canis infections rather than the severity of thrombocytopenia.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Mucosal vaccination of conserved sM2, HA2 and cholera toxin subunit A1
           (CTA1) fusion protein with poly gamma-glutamate/chitosan nanoparticles (PC
           NPs) induces protection against divergent influenza subtypes
    • Authors: Mohammed Y.E. Chowdhury; Tae-Hwan Kim; Md Bashir Uddin; Jae-Hoon Kim; C.Y. Hewawaduge; Zannatul Ferdowshi; Moon-Hee Sung; Chul-Joong Kim; Jong-Soo Lee
      Pages: 240 - 251
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Mohammed Y.E. Chowdhury, Tae-Hwan Kim, Md Bashir Uddin, Jae-Hoon Kim, C.Y. Hewawaduge, Zannatul Ferdowshi, Moon-Hee Sung, Chul-Joong Kim, Jong-Soo Lee
      To develop a safe and effective mucosal vaccine that broad cross protection against seasonal or emerging influenza A viruses, we generated a mucosal influenza vaccine system combining the highly conserved matrix protein-2 (sM2), fusion peptide of hemagglutinin (HA2), the well-known mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin subunit A1 (CTA1) and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-chitosan nanoparticles (PC NPs), which are safe, natural materials that are able to target the mucosal membrane as a mucosal adjuvant. The mucosal administration of sM2HA2CTA1/PC NPs could induce a high degree of systemic immunity (IgG and IgA) at the site of inoculation as well as at remote locations and also significantly increase the levels of sM2- or HA2-specific cell-mediated immune response. In challenge tests in BALB/c mice with 10 MLD50 of A/EM/Korea/W149/06(H5N1), A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1), A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W81/2005(H5N2), A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W44/2005 (H7N3) or A/Chicken/Korea/116/2004(H9N2) viruses, the recombinant sM2HA2CTA1/PC NPs provided cross protection against divergent lethal influenza subtypes and also the protection was maintained up to six months after vaccination. Thus, sM2HA2CTA1/PC NPs could be a promising strategy for a universal influenza vaccine.

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T19:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
       
  • Antimicrobial resistance at the interface of human and veterinary medicine
    • Authors: Robin Köck; Lothar Kreienbrock; Engeline van Duijkeren; Stefan Schwarz
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 200
      Author(s): Robin Köck, Lothar Kreienbrock, Engeline van Duijkeren, Stefan Schwarz


      PubDate: 2017-02-13T19:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2017)
       
  • MRSA colonization and infection among persons with occupational livestock
           exposure in Europe: Prevalence, preventive options and evidence
    • Authors: Tobias Goerge; Marthe Barbara Lorenz; Sarah van Alen; Nils-Olaf Hübner; Karsten Becker; Robin Köck
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 200
      Author(s): Tobias Goerge, Marthe Barbara Lorenz, Sarah van Alen, Nils-Olaf Hübner, Karsten Becker, Robin Köck
      Colonization with livestock-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus (LA-MRSA) among persons occupationally exposed to pigs, cattle or poultry is very frequent. In Europe, LA-MRSA mostly belong to the clonal lineage CC398. Since colonized persons have an increased risk of developing MRSA infections, defining the burden of work-related infection caused by LA-MRSA CC398 is of interest to exposed personnel, insurance companies and infection control staff. This review summarizes data on the types of occupation-related infections caused by LA-MRSA CC398, the incidence of such infections as well as potential preventive strategies. We identified twelve case reports on infections among livestock-exposed persons. Overall, there is a lack of data describing the incidence of occupation-related infections due to MRSA CC398. Currently, no specific guidance towards the prevention of LA-MRSA CC398 colonization of persons with routine exposure exists. In vitro, MRSA CC398 strains are susceptible (>95%) to mupirocin. Single reports have described effective decolonization of persons carrying LA-MRSA CC398, but long-term success rates are low in case of continuous livestock contact. Overall, the occupational health risk due to LA-MRSA CC398 is not well understood. Currently, prevention of human LA-MRSA CC398 infection is mostly based on the recommendation to perform screening and decolonization therapies prior to elective medical interventions in order to avoid nosocomial infections, but there is no conclusive evidence to perform specific measures aiming to forestall community-acquired infections.

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T19:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2017)
       
  • Occurrence of a lethal ranavirus in hybrid mandarin (Siniperca
           scherzeri×Siniperca chuatsi) in Guangdong, South China
    • Authors: Chuanfu Dong; Zhimei wang; Shaoping Weng; Jianguo He
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Chuanfu Dong, Zhimei wang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He
      A novel ranavirus with features similar to largemouth bass virus (LMBV) was isolated and then characterized from a natural mass mortality of adult hybrid mandarin (Siniperca scherzeri × Siniperca chuatsi). The isolated LMBV-like iridovirus was designated as mandarin ranavirus (MRV)-GD1301. The results of artificial infection showed that MRV-GD1301 was highly virulent to hybrid mandarin juveniles, and 100% mortality was observed within 5days after infection via intraperitoneal injection. Moribund fishes typically have abnormally swollen abdomens with extremely severe ascites and exhibit exophthalmia. The characteristic clinical signs have been rarely recorded in other LMBV-associated fish diseases and other viral diseases in mandarin aquaculture. In contrast to the high lethality in hybrid mandarin, MRV-GD1301 showed avirulence to koi Cyprinus carpio, a susceptible fish species to LMBV-like koi ranavirus (KIRV) found recently in India. Our findings suggest that MRV is an emerging causative agent of mass mortality in mandarin species.

      PubDate: 2017-02-20T20:03:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.006
       
  • The Use of Animals as a Surveillance Tool for Monitoring Environmental
           Health Hazards, Human Health Hazards and Bioterrorism
    • Authors: Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo; Boon Huan Tan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo, Boon Huan Tan
      This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments.

      PubDate: 2017-02-20T20:03:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.007
       
  • Sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based surveys of group-housed animals
    • Authors: Marisa L. Rotolo; Yaxuan Sun; Chong Wang; Luis Giménez-Lirola; David H. Baum; Phillip C. Gauger; Karen M. Harmon; Marlin Hoogland; Rodger Main; Jeffrey J. Zimmerman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Marisa L. Rotolo, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, Luis Giménez-Lirola, David H. Baum, Phillip C. Gauger, Karen M. Harmon, Marlin Hoogland, Rodger Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman
      Formulas and software for calculating sample size for surveys based on individual animal samples are readily available. However, sample size formulas are not available for oral fluids and other aggregate samples that are increasingly used in production settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveys in commercial swine farms. Oral fluid samples were collected in 9 weekly samplings from all pens in 3 barns on one production site beginning shortly after placement of weaned pigs. Samples (n=972) were tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-rtPCR) and the binary results analyzed using a piecewise exponential survival model for interval-censored, time-to-event data with misclassification. Thereafter, simulation studies were used to study the barn-level probability of PRRSV detection as a function of sample size, sample allocation (simple random sampling vs fixed spatial sampling), assay diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and pen-level prevalence. These studies provided estimates of the probability of detection by sample size and within-barn prevalence. Detection using fixed spatial sampling was as good as, or better than, simple random sampling. Sampling multiple barns on a site increased the probability of detection with the number of barns sampled. These results are relevant to PRRSV control or elimination projects at the herd, regional, or national levels, but the results are also broadly applicable to contagious pathogens of swine for which oral fluid tests of equivalent performance are available.

      PubDate: 2017-02-20T20:03:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.004
       
  • Determinants of virulence and of resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and
           spectinomycin in clinical Escherichia coli from broiler chickens in
           Québec, Canada
    • Authors: Gabhan Chalmers; Ashley C. Cormier; Marie Nadeau; Geneviève Côté; Richard J. Reid-Smith; Patrick Boerlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Gabhan Chalmers, Ashley C. Cormier, Marie Nadeau, Geneviève Côté, Richard J. Reid-Smith, Patrick Boerlin
      Antimicrobials are frequently used for the prevention of avian colibacillosis, with gentamicin used for this purpose in Québec until 2003. Ceftiofur was also used similarly, but voluntarily withdrawn in 2005 due to increasing resistance. Spectinomycin-lincomycin was employed as a replacement, but ceftiofur use was partially reinstated in 2007 until its definitive ban by the poultry industry in 2014. Gentamicin resistance frequency increased during the past decade in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Québec, despite this antimicrobial no longer being used. Since this increase coincided with the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin, co-selection of gentamicin resistance through spectinomycin was suspected. Therefore, relationships between spectinomycin, gentamicin, and ceftiofur resistance determinants were investigated here. The distribution of 13 avian pathogenic E. coli virulence-associated genes and their association with spectinomycin resistance were also assessed. A sample of 586 E. coli isolates from chickens with colibacillosis in Québec between 2009 and 2013 was used. The major genes identified for resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin were bla CMY, aac(3)-VI, and aadA, respectively. The aadA and aac(3)-VI genes were strongly associated and shown to be located on a modified class 1 integron. The aadA and bla CMY genes were negatively associated, but when present together, were generally located on the same plasmids. No statistical positive association was observed between aadA and virulence genes, and virulence genes were only rarely detected on plasmids encoding spectinomycin resistance. Thus, the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin may likely select for gentamicin but not ceftiofur resistance, nor for any of the virulence-associated genes investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-02-20T20:03:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.005
       
  • Genetic Engineering Alveolar Macrophages for Host Resistance to PRRSV
    • Authors: Randall S. Prather; Kristin M. Whitworth; Susan K. Schommer; Kevin D. Wells
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Randall S. Prather, Kristin M. Whitworth, Susan K. Schommer, Kevin D. Wells
      Standard strategies for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has not been effective, as vaccines have not reduced the prevalence of disease and many producers depopulate after an outbreak. Another method of control would be to prevent the virus from infecting the pig. The virus was thought to infect alveolar macrophages by interaction with a variety of cell surface molecules. One popular model had PRRSV first interacting with heparin sulfate followed by binding to sialoadhesin and then being internalized into an endosome. Within the endosome, PRRSV was thought to interact with CD163 to uncoat the virus so the viral genome could be released into the cytosol and infect the cell. Other candidate receptors have included vimentin, CD151 and CD209. By using genetic engineering, it is possible to test the importance of individual entry mediators by knocking them out. Pigs engineered by knockout of sialoadhesin were still susceptible to infection, while CD163 knockout resulted in pigs that were resistant to infection. Genetic engineering is not only a valuable tool to determine the role of specific proteins in infection by PRRSV (in this case), but also provides a means to create animals resistant to disease. Genetic engineering of alveolar macrophages can also illuminate the role of other proteins in response to infection. We suggest that strategies to prevent infection be pursued to reduce the reservoir of virus.

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T19:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.036
       
  • Next-generation sequencing as a tool for the study of PRRSV macro- and
           micro- molecular epidemiology
    • Authors: M. Cortey; I. Díaz; G.E. Martín-Valls; E. Mateu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): M. Cortey, I. Díaz, G.E. Martín-Valls, E. Mateu
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T19:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.002
       
  • Comparison of Asian porcine high fever disease isolates of porcine
           reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to United States isolates for
           
    • Authors: Susan L. Brockmeier; Crystal L. Loving; Mitchel V. Palmer; Allyn Spear; Tracy L. Nicholson; Kay S. Faaberg; Kelly M. Lager
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Susan L. Brockmeier, Crystal L. Loving, Mitchel V. Palmer, Allyn Spear, Tracy L. Nicholson, Kay S. Faaberg, Kelly M. Lager
      Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggest that disease severity was associated with both the virulence of the PRRSV isolates and secondary bacterial infections. Previous reports have indicated that U.S. isolates of PRRSV predispose to secondary bacterial infections as well, but the severity of disease that occurred in Asia in pigs infected with these HP-PRRSV strains has not been reported in the U.S. The objectives of this research were to compare the pathogenesis of Asian and U.S. PRRSV isolates with regard to their ability to cause disease and predispose to secondary bacterial infections in swine. To address these objectives groups of pigs were infected with 1 of 2 Asian HP-PRRSV strains (rJXwn06 or rSRV07) or 1 of 2 U.S. PRRSV strains (SDSU73 or VR-2332) alone or in combination with Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Actinobacillus suis. Pigs infected with rJXwn06 exhibited the most severe clinical disease while the pigs infected with rSRV07 and SDSU73 exhibited moderate clinical disease, and pigs infected with VR-2332 exhibited minimal clinical signs. The frequency of secondary bacterial pneumonia was associated with the clinical severity induced by the PRRSV strains evaluated. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum were often lower for pigs coinfected with virus and bacteria compared to pigs infected with PRRSV alone indicating an alteration in the immune response in coinfected pigs. Combined our results demonstrate that severity of disease appears to be dependent on virulence of the PRRSV strain, and development of secondary bacterial infection.

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T19:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.003
       
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 200


      PubDate: 2017-02-13T19:32:13Z
       
  • A proteomic analysis of the iron response of Photobacteriumdamselae subsp.
           damselae reveals metabolic adaptations to iron levels changes and novel
           potential virulence factors
    • Authors: Beatriz Puentes; Miguel Balado; José Bermúdez-Crespo; Carlos R. Osorio; Manuel L. Lemos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Beatriz Puentes, Miguel Balado, José Bermúdez-Crespo, Carlos R. Osorio, Manuel L. Lemos
      Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (Pdd) is a marine bacterium that can infect numerous species of marine fish as well as other species including humans. Low iron availability is one of the signs that bacterial pathogens can detect in order to begin colonizing their host, and the reduction of iron levels is a nonspecific host defense strategy that prevents bacterial proliferation. In this work a proteomic approach was used to study the gene expression adaptations of a Pdd strain in response to iron availability. A comparative analysis of induced proteins in both high- and low-iron conditions showed profound cellular metabolic adaptations that result, for instance, in amino acid requirement. It also provided important information about the changes that occur in the energetic metabolism induced by the surrounding iron levels, allowing for the identification of novel potential virulence factors. Among others, genes involved in the synthesis and transport of a vibrioferrin-like siderophore were identifiedfor the first time. In addition to plasmid pPHDD1-encoded Dly and HlyA hemolysins,a pPHDD1-borne operon, which may encode a transferrin receptor, was also found. This operon identification suggests that this virulence plasmid could encode so-far unknown additional virulence factors other than hemolysins.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.040
       
  • Detection of Novel Oxazolidinone and Phenicol resistance gene optrA in
           Enterococcal isolates from Food Animals and Animal Carcasses
    • Authors: Migma Dorji Tamang; Dong Chan Moon; Su-Ran Kim; Hee Young Kang; Kichan Lee; Hyang-Mi Nam; Geum-Chan Jang; Hee-Soo Lee; Suk-Chan Jung; Suk-Kyung Lim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Migma Dorji Tamang, Dong Chan Moon, Su-Ran Kim, Hee Young Kang, Kichan Lee, Hyang-Mi Nam, Geum-Chan Jang, Hee-Soo Lee, Suk-Chan Jung, Suk-Kyung Lim
      Altogether 7720 Enterococcus faecalis and 3939 E. faecium isolated from food animals and animal carcasses during 2003–2014 in Korea were investigated to determine if linezolid-resistant (LR) enterococci (≥8μg/ml) are present. Overall, 12 E. faecalis and 27 E. faecium recovered from chickens (n =32), pigs (n =6), and cattle (n =1) were resistant to linezolid and were further characterized using molecular methods Most LR isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol (97.44%) and florfenicol (92.31%). Molecular analysis showed no mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA and in the ribosomal protein L3. The optrA gene was found in 89.74% of the LR enterococci, including 12 E. faecalis and 23 E. faecium isolates. Among them, 30 optrA-positive isolates co-carried phenicol exporter gene fexA. Seven LR E. faecium isolates had Asn130Lys mutations in the ribosomal protein L4, of which six also carried optrA gene. None of the isolates carried the mutliresistance gene cfr. Transfer of optrA gene was observed in 16 of the 35 optrA-positive isolates by conjugation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the vast majority of Enterococcus strains carrying optrA gene were genetically heterogeneous. Multi-locus sequence typing revealed eight novel Sequence types among E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of optrA gene in isolates from cattle and animal carcasses. This is also the first report of optrA gene in Korea. Active surveillance of optrA in enterococci is urgently warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.035
       
  • Genetic, antigenic, and pathogenic characteristics of avian infectious
           bronchitis viruses genotypically related to 793/B in China
    • Authors: Zongxi Han; Wenjun Zhao; Yuqiu Chen; Qianqian Xu; Junfeng Sun; Tingting Zhang; Yan Zhao; Shuling Liang; Mengying Gao; Qiuling Wang; Xiangang Kong; Shengwang Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Zongxi Han, Wenjun Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Qianqian Xu, Junfeng Sun, Tingting Zhang, Yan Zhao, Shuling Liang, Mengying Gao, Qiuling Wang, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
      In this study, 20 infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, which were genotypicallyrelated to 793/B, as assessed by an S1 gene comparison and a complete genomic sequence analysis, were isolated and identified from 2009 to 2014 in China. Phylogenetic analysis, network tree, similarity plot analysis, Recombination Detection Program 4(RDP4) and sequence comparison revealed that 12 of the 20 isolates were likely the reisolated vaccine virus. One isolate, ck/CH/LSD/110857, was shown to have originated from recombination events between H120- and 4/91-like vaccine strains that did not result in changes of antigenicity and pathogenicity. The remaining seven IBV isolates were shown to have originated from recombination events between a 4/91-like vaccine strain and aGX-LY9-like virus, which were responsible for the emergence of a novel serotype. A vaccination-challenge test found that vaccination with the 4/91 vaccine strain did not provide protection against challenge with the recombinant viruses. In addition, the results showed that the recombination events between the vaccine and field strains resulted in altered genetics, serotype, antigenicity, and pathogenicity compared with those of their deduced parental viruses. The results are important not only because this virus is of economic importance to poultry industry, but also because it is important for elucidating the origin and evolution of other coronaviruses.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.039
       
  • A cross-sectional study of oral antibacterial treatment patterns in
           relation to specific diarrhoeal pathogens in weaner pigs
    • Authors: Vibeke F. Jensen; Sven-Erik L. Jorsal; Nils Toft
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Vibeke F. Jensen, Sven-Erik L. Jorsal, Nils Toft
      According to international guidelines, the use of antibacterials should be evidence based and prudent. This register-based, cross-sectional study investigates the potential effect of laboratory findings on the patterns of antibacterial oral (batch) medication of weaner pigs, and the level of compliance with national guidelines for antibacterial use. The study population includes 1,736 weaner herds (≈65% of all Danish weaner pigs) that were subject to laboratory analysis from the National Veterinary Institute on Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E.coli (F4 and F18) in 2014. Antibacterial prescription data were obtained from the national database, VetStat. These showed that antibacterial prescriptions for use in weaner pigs was 8.6% lower in spring 2015 compared to spring 2014. The antibacterial use per pig tended (p=0.08) to decrease more in herds with negative laboratory results compared to herds with a moderate or massive occurrence of either of the pathogens. Irrespective of the laboratory findings on diarrhoeal pathogens, tetracyclines were the most frequently used antibacterials by a substantial margin, both 3 months prior to and 2-5 months after laboratory analysis. According to the national guidelines, tetracyclines are the second or third-choice antibacterial for treatment of diarrhoeal pathogens, due to resistance and co-resistance patterns. Compliance with the guidelines increased in 14% of the herds, mostly following identification of B. pilosicoli within the herd. Between 10% and 20% of the herds did not use batch treatment, despite the presence of moderate–massive amounts of the pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.038
       
  • Occurrence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis infections in fattening pigs and
           association with clinical signs and pathological lesions of Enzootic
           Pneumonia
    • Authors: Adrian Luehrs; Salome Siegenthaler; Niels Grützner; Elisabeth grosse Beilage; Peter Kuhnert; Heiko Nathues
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Adrian Luehrs, Salome Siegenthaler, Niels Grützner, Elisabeth grosse Beilage, Peter Kuhnert, Heiko Nathues
      Respiratory disorders in fattening pigs are of major concern worldwide. Particularly Enzootic Pneumonia remains a problem for the pig industry. This chronic respiratory disease is primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). However, more recently it was hypothesised that M. hyorhinis can also cause similar lung lesions. To investigate the relevance of M. hyorhinis as a cause of pneumonia in fattening pigs 10 farms in Switzerland (considered free of Enzootic Pneumonia) and 20 farms in Germany (regarded as endemic for Enzootic Pneumonia) with a history of chronic and/or recurrent respiratory diseases were included in the study. During a one-time farm visit the coughing index was determined in the batch of oldest fattening pigs in each farm before submission to slaughter. In total, 1375 lungs from these pigs were collected at the abattoir and individually scored for lesions. Furthermore, 600 lungs with, if present, indicative lesions for Enzootic Pneumonia (purple to grey areas of tissue consolidation in the cranio-ventral lung lobes) were tested for mycoplasma species by culture and by real-time PCR for the presence of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. In total, 15.7% of the selected lungs were tested positive for M. hyorhinis by real-time PCR. The prevalence of M. hyorhinis was 10% in Switzerland and 18.5% in Germany and differed significantly between these two countries (p=0.007). M. hyorhinis was detected significantly more often in pneumonic lungs (p=0.004) but no significant association was found between M. hyorhinis and the coughing index or the M. hyopneumoniae status of the pig. M. hyopneumoniae was detected in 0% and 78.5% of the selected lungs in Switzerland and Germany, respectively. We found no evidence that M. hyorhinis alone can lead to similar lung lesions as seen by an infection with M. hyopneumoniae in fattening pigs. In addition, a simultaneous infection with both M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae did not aggravate the observed lung lesions. Moreover, the presence of M. hyorhinis showed no clinical effect in terms of coughing at least at the end of the fattening phase. However, different levels of virulence of M. hyorhinis isolates as well as interactions with viral pathogens like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were reported in the literature and need to be further investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.001
       
  • Impact of environmental bacterial communities on fish health in marine
           recirculating aquaculture systems
    • Authors: Shuxia Xue; Wei Xu; Junli Wei; Jinsheng Sun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Shuxia Xue, Wei Xu, Junli Wei, Jinsheng Sun
      Marine cultured fish diseases caused by bacteria in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) greatly threaten fish aquaculture. To date, the dynamics of bacterial populations in RAS and their impacts to fish health remain largely unknown. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the water from two different marine RASs were analyzed using pyrosequencing technique. Fish disease syndromes and mortality had been reported from one RAS (RAS-d) while the fish in the other RAS remained healthy (RAS-h). The diversity of bacteria in each RAS and the abundance of each bacterium were identified based on sequencing the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. A total number of 107,476 effective sequences were obtained from the pyrosequencing results. 640 and 844 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in RAS-d and RAS-h, respectively. In order level, tags annotation showed that Vibrionales and Flavobacteriales were the predominant strains in RAS-d with a relative abundance 50.5% and 36.5%, respectively. In contrast, the bacterial community in RAS-h contained 35.8% Vibrionales, 17.3% Alteromonadales, 10.7% Rhodobacterales, 7.43% Kordiimonadales, and 6.26% Oceanospirillales. In addition, the Vibrionaceae in the RAS-d represented 6.98% of the population which was significantly higher than that in RAS-h (0.40%). More potential pathogenic bacteria in fish, such as Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio rotiferianus were also found in the bacterial population in RAS-d. The results also showed that the bacteria community in RAS-h was more diverse and balanced than in RAS-d. These findings of this study suggested a potential correlation between fish diseases and environmental bacterial populations.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.034
       
  • Evaluation of hydrophobic chitosan-based particulate formulations of
           porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine candidate T
           cell antigens
    • Authors: Helen Mokhtar; Lucia Biffar; Satyanarayana Somavarapu; Jean-Pierre Frossard; Sarah McGowan; Miriam Pedrera; Rebecca Strong; Jane C. Edwards; Margarita Garcia-Durán; Maria Jose Rodriguez; Graham R. Stewart; Falko Steinbach; Simon P. Graham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C. Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R. Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P. Graham
      PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells. To assess their vaccine potential, peptides representing M and NSP5 were encapsulated in hydrophobically-modified chitosan particles adjuvanted by incorporation of a synthetic multi-TLR2/TLR7 agonist and coated with a model B cell PRRSV antigen. For comparison, empty particles and adjuvanted particles encapsulating inactivated PRRSV-1 were prepared. Vaccination with the particulate formulations induced antigen-specific antibody responses, which were most pronounced following booster immunisation. M and NSP5-specific CD4, but not CD8, T cell IFN-γ reactivity was measurable following the booster immunisation in a proportion of animals vaccinated with peptide-loaded particles. Upon challenge, CD4 and CD8 T cell reactivity was detected in all groups, with the greatest responses being detected in the peptide vaccinated group but with limited evidence of an enhanced control of viraemia. Analysis of the lungs during the resolution of infection showed significant M/NSP5 specific IFN-γ responses from CD8 rather than CD4 T cells. Vaccine primed CD8 T cell responses may therefore be required for protection and future work should focus on enhancing the cross-presentation M/NSP5 to CD8 T cells.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.037
       
  • Pyrithione inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
           replication through interfering with NF-κB and heparanase
    • Authors: Chunhe Guo; Zhenbang Zhu; Xiaoying Wang; Yaosheng Chen; Xiaohong Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Chunhe Guo, Zhenbang Zhu, Xiaoying Wang, Yaosheng Chen, Xiaohong Liu
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a continuous threat to the pig industry, causing high economic losses worldwide. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Consequently, there is a need to develop new antiviral strategies. Pyrithione (PT), a zinc ionophore, is used as an antibacterial and antifungal agent, and evidence has shown that PT inhibits the replication of various RNA viruses. However, there is no data regarding its effects against PRRSV infection until now. In this study, we showed that PT strongly inhibited PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells. Similar inhibitory effects were also found in porcine alveolar macrophages, the major target cell type of PRRSV infection in pigs in vivo. PT also attenuated virus-induced apoptosis during the late phase of infection. In addition, we provided evidence that PT caused a rapid import of extracellular zinc ions into cells, and imported Zn2+ was responsible for its antiviral property. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of PT against PRRSV and found that PT inhibited NF-κB and heparanase, producing the increased heparan sulfate expression to block the release of virus and cytokines, thus decreasing viral replication. These findings suggest that PT has the potential to the development of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against PRRSV infection.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.033
       
  • Pathogenicity and Transmission of Triple Reassortant H3N2 Swine Influenza
           A Viruses is Attenuated Following Turkey Embryo Propagation
    • Authors: Shobana Raghunath; Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam Jagadeeswaran Deventhiran Rahul Tevatia Tanya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Shobana Raghunath, Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam, Jagadeeswaran Deventhiran, Rahul Tevatia, Tanya Leroith
      Genetic lineages of swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) have recently been established in turkeys in the United States. To identify molecular determinants that are involved in virulence and transmission of SIVs to turkeys, we sequentially passaged two triple reassortant H3N2 SIV isolates from Minnesota in ten day old specific-pathogen free (SPF) turkey embryos and tested them in seven-day old turkey poults. We found that SIV replication in turkey embryos led to minimal mutations in and around the receptor binding and antigenic sites of the HA molecule, while other gene segments were unchanged. The predominant changes associated with turkey embryo passage were A223V, V226A and T248I mutations in the receptor-binding and glycosylation sites of the HA molecule. Furthermore, turkey embryo propagation altered receptor specificity in SIV strain 07-1145. Embryo passaged 07-1145 virus showed a decrease in α2, 6 sialic acid receptor binding compared to the wild type virus. Intranasal infection of wild type SIVs in one-week-old turkey poults resulted in persistent diarrhea and all the infected birds seroconverted at ten days post infection. The 07-1145 wild type virus also transmitted to age matched in-contact birds introduced one-day post infection. Turkeys infected with embryo passaged viruses displayed no clinical signs and were not transmitted to in-contact poults. Our results suggest that turkey embryo propagation attenuates recent TR SIVs for infectivity and transmission in one week old turkeys. Our findings will have important implications in identifying molecular determinants that control the transmission and virulence of TR SIVs in turkeys and other species.

      PubDate: 2017-02-01T20:13:05Z
       
  • Genetic and serological diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates
           from salmonids in United Kingdom
    • Authors: Thao P.H. Ngo; Kerry L. Bartie; Kim D. Thompson; David W. Verner-Jeffreys; Rowena Hoare; Alexandra Adams
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Thao P.H. Ngo, Kerry L. Bartie, Kim D. Thompson, David W. Verner-Jeffreys, Rowena Hoare, Alexandra Adams
      Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the most important bacterial pathogens affecting cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and is increasingly causing problems in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hatcheries. Little is known about the heterogeneity of F. psychrophilum isolates on UK salmonid farms. A total of 315 F. psychrophilum isolates, 293 of which were collected within the UK, were characterised using four genotyping methods and a serotyping scheme. A high strain diversity was identified among the isolates with 54 pulsotypes, ten (GTG)5-PCR types, two 16S rRNA allele lineages, seven plasmid profiles and three serotypes. Seven PFGE groups and 27 singletons were formed at a band similarity of 80%. PFGE group P (n=75) was found to be numerically predominant in eight sites within the UK. Two major PFGE clusters and 13 outliers were found at the band similarity of 40%. The predominant profiles observed within the F. psychrophilum isolates examined were PFGE cluster II − (GTG)5-PCR type r1–16S rRNA lineage II − serotype Th (n=138) or serotype Fd (n=81). Co-existence of genetically and serologically heterogeneous isolates within each farm was detected, confounding the ability to control RTFS outbreaks. The occurrence over time (up to 11 years) of F. psychrophilum pulsotypes in three representative sites (Scot I, Scot III and Scot V) within Scotland was examined, potentially providing important epidemiological data for farm management and the development of site-specific vaccines.

      PubDate: 2017-02-01T20:13:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.032
       
  • Use of signature-tagged mutagenesis to identify genes associated with
           colonization of sheep by E. coli O157:H7
    • Authors: Nancy A. Cornick; Josh Pitzer; Amy F. Helgerson; Melissa L. Madsen; Kathy T. Kurth; Qianjun Xiao; F. Chris Minion
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Nancy A. Cornick, Josh Pitzer, Amy F. Helgerson, Melissa L. Madsen, Kathy T. Kurth, Qianjun Xiao, F. Chris Minion
      Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the United States due to contaminated foods are a public health issue and a continuing problem. The major reservoir for these organisms is the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants where they are a member of the resident microbiota. Several factors that contribute to the colonization of cattle have been identified, but a systematic screen of genes that might contribute to the colonization and persistence phenotype in mature ruminants has not been reported. Using a sheep model of persistence, signature tagged mutagenesis (STM) was used to screen 1326 mutants for a persistence-negative phenotype of E. coli O157:H7. We identified 9 genes by STM that appeared to be required for colonization and/or survival in sheep. Three of the genes had functions associated with central metabolism (thiK, ftrA and nrdB), one was involved with LPS formation (wbdP), one encodes a non-LEE encoded effector protein (nleB) and one was a methyltransferase encoded on a prophage (Z2389). The remaining three genes did not have homology with any known genes. Six sheep given ΔwbdP and 2 sheep each were given mutants (ΔthiK (Z1745), ΔftrA (Z2164) and Z2389). The ΔwbdP mutant was recovered from the feces of 4/6 sheep at 6 days pi with a mean number of 1.42 log10 CFU/g feces compared to 4.6 log10 CFU/g feces for the wild type strain. This difference was significant (P <0.001) over the time course of the experiment (days 6–23). Both ΔthiK and ΔftrA mutants were recovered from 1 of 2 sheep at 9 days PI by enrichment procedures (<50 CFU/g feces) whereas mutant Z2389 was not recovered from either animal past 2 days pi. The roles of all of these gene products require further study to determine how the persistence phenotype of a given strain of E. coli O157:H7 interacts with host factors.

      PubDate: 2017-02-01T20:13:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.031
       
  • The oral microbiota of domestic cats harbors a wide variety of
           Staphylococcus species with zoonotic potential
    • Authors: Ciro César Rossi; Ingrid da Silva Dias; Igor Mansur Muniz; Walter Lilenbaum; Marcia Giambiagi-deMarval
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ciro César Rossi, Ingrid da Silva Dias, Igor Mansur Muniz, Walter Lilenbaum, Marcia Giambiagi-deMarval
      This study aimed to characterize the species, antimicrobial resistance and dispersion of CRISPR systems in staphylococci isolated from the oropharynx of domestic cats in Brazil. Staphylococcus strains (n=75) were identified by MALDI-TOF and sequencing of rpoB and tuf genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by disk diffusion method and PCR to investigate the presence of antimicrobial-resistance genes usually present in mobile genetic elements (plasmids), in addition to plasmid extraction. CRISPR − genetic arrangements that give the bacteria the ability to resist the entry of exogenous DNA − were investigated by the presence of the essential protein Cas1 gene. A great diversity of Staphylococcus species (n=13) was identified. The presence of understudied species, like S. nepalensis and S. pettenkoferi reveals that more than one identification method may be necessary to achieve conclusive results. At least 56% of the strains contain plamids, being 99% resistant to at least one of the eight tested antimicrobials and 12% multidrug resistant. CRISPR were rare among the studied strains, consistent with their putative role as gene reservoirs. Moreover, herein we describe for the first time their existence in Staphylococcus lentus, to which the system must confer additional adaptive advantage. Prevalence of resistance among staphylococci against antimicrobials used in veterinary and human clinical practice and the zoonotic risk highlight the need of better antimicrobial management practices, as staphylococci may transfer resistance genes among themselves, including to virulent species, like S. aureus.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.029
       
  • Identification of the ferric iron utilization gene B739_1208 and its role
           in the virulence of R. anatipestifer CH-1
    • Authors: MengYi Wang; PengYun Zhang; DeKang Zhu; MingShu Wang; RenYong Jia; Shun Chen; KunFeng Sun; Qiao Yang; Ying Wu; XiaoYue Chen; Francis Biville; AnChun Cheng; MaFeng Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): MengYi Wang, PengYun Zhang, DeKang Zhu, MingShu Wang, RenYong Jia, Shun Chen, KunFeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, XiaoYue Chen, Francis Biville, AnChun Cheng, MaFeng Liu
      Riemerella anatipestifer is an important bacterial pathogen in ducks and causes heavy economic losses in the duck industry. However, the pathogensis of this bacterium is poorly understood. In this study, a putative outer membrane hemin receptor gene B739_1208 in R. anatipestifer CH-1 was deleted to determine the relationship between iron uptake and virulence. The R. anatipestifer CH-1ΔB739_1208 mutants grew significantly more slowly than the wild-type bacteria in TSB liquid medium. Further characterization revealed that the R. anatipestifer CH-1ΔB739_1208 mutants were deficient in iron uptake. Animal experiments indicated that the median lethal dose of the wild-type RA-CH-1 in ducklings was 3.89×108, whereas the median lethal dose of the R. anatipestifer CH-1ΔB739_1208 mutant in ducklings was 5.68×109. The median lethal dose of the complementation strain in ducklings was 9.84×108. Additional analysis indicated that bacterial loads in the blood, liver, and brain tissues in the R. anatipestifer CH-1ΔB739_1208-infected ducklings were significantly decreased compared to those in the wild-type R. anatipestifer CH-1 infected ducklings. In a duck co-infection model with R. anatipestifer CH-1 and R. anatipestifer CH-1ΔB739_1208, the R. anatipestifer CH-1B739_1208 mutant was outcompeted by the wild-type R. anatipestifer CH-1 in the blood(P< 0.002), livers(P< 0.001) and brains(P< 0.001) of infected ducks, indicating that B739_1208 gene expression provided a competitive advantage in these organs. Our results demonstrate that the B739_1208 gene is a virulence factor in R. anatipestifer CH-1.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.027
       
  • Characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic mink influenza viruses in
           eastern China
    • Authors: Wenming Jiang; Suchun Wang; Chuanmei Zhang; Jinping Li; Guangyu Hou; Cheng Peng; Jiming Chen; Hu Shan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Wenming Jiang, Suchun Wang, Chuanmei Zhang, Jinping Li, Guangyu Hou, Cheng Peng, Jiming Chen, Hu Shan
      Members of the H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses pose a great threat to both poultry and humans with severe consequences for both industry and public health sectors. Here, we isolated and characterized two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in deceased mink from eastern China. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the G15 and XB15 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1b and 2.3.2.1e, respectively. Both of these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens. They were also shown to exhibit moderate to high pathogenicity in mice without pre-adaptation. Further, the mink influenza viruses had severe antigenic drift with corresponding Re-6 vaccine and current vaccines may fail to confer protection against these H5N1 viruses in poultry.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.028
       
  • Characterization of pig-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
           aureus
    • Authors: Jun Li; Nansong Jiang; Yuebin Ke; Andrea T. Feßler; Yang Wang; Stefan Schwarz; Congming Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jun Li, Nansong Jiang, Yuebin Ke, Andrea T. Feßler, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu
      Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) have been reported in various countries worldwide. However, although China is one of the biggest pig and pork producers, large-scale studies on pig-associated LA-MRSA from China are scarce. The aims of this study were to analyze 2,420 non-duplicate samples collected from pigs at swine farms and slaughterhouses in different regions in China during 2014 for the prevalence of pig-associated MRSA and to determine the antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of the respective isolates. MRSA isolates were identified in 270 (11.2%) samples. The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and screening for resistance genes. All MRSA isolates belonged to the clonal complex 9 and spa type t899, but showed variable PFGE patterns. All isolates were non-susceptible to oxacillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, ciprofloxacin, and valnemulin. High rates of resistance were also observed for tetracycline (99.6%), erythromycin (97.0%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (97.0%), and gentamicin (80.4%). Three linezolid-non-susceptible isolates containing the multi-resistance gene cfr and nine rifampicin-non-susceptible isolates with mutations in rpoB were detected. Resistance to β-lactams was exclusively associated with mecA, while phenicol resistance was mainly attributable to fexA, except in the three cfr-positive isolates. The pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance gene lsa(E) was identified in all MRSA isolates, and no other pleuromutilin resistance genes, except cfr in three isolates, genes were detected. Pigs are the most important hosts of LA-MRSA in China. Screening for pig-associated MRSA is necessary to monitor changes in epidemiology and characteristics of these important pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.017
       
  • Molecular investigation into the presence of a Coxiella sp. in
           Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in Australia
    • Authors: Charlotte L. Oskam; Alexander W. Gofton; Telleasha L. Greay; Rongchang Yang; Stephen Doggett; Una M. Ryan; Peter J. Irwin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Charlotte L. Oskam, Alexander W. Gofton, Telleasha L. Greay, Rongchang Yang, Stephen Doggett, Una M. Ryan, Peter J. Irwin
      Q fever is an infectious disease with a global distribution caused by the intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii, which has been detected in a large number of tick species worldwide, including the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Recent reports of a high seroprevalance of C. burnetii in Australian dogs, along with the identification of additional Coxiella species within R. sanguineus ticks, has prompted an investigation into the presence and identification of Coxiella species in R. sanguineus ticks in Australia. Using a combination of C. burnetii species-specific IS1111a transposase gene and Coxiella genus-specific 16S rRNA PCR assays, a Coxiella sp. was identified in 100% (n=199) of R. sanguineus ticks analysed, and C. burnetii was not detected in any R. sanguineus ticks studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the Coxiella sequences were closely related to Coxiella sp. identified previously in R. sanguineus and R. turanicus ticks overseas. This study illustrates the value of using genus specific PCR assays to detect previously unreported bacterial species. Furthermore, the presence of an additional Coxiella sp. in Australia requires further investigation into its potential for contributing to serological cross-reactions during Q fever testing.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.021
       
  • Evaluation of associations between genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subsp.
           paratuberculsis and presence of intestinal lesions characteristic of
           paratuberculosis
    • Authors: Petra Möbius; Elisabeth Liebler-Tenorio; Martin Hölzer; Heike Köhler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Petra Möbius, Elisabeth Liebler-Tenorio, Martin Hölzer, Heike Köhler
      Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis affecting ruminants worldwide. Depending on the MAP-Type (MAP-C or MAP-S, cattle or sheep type), strains differ in virulence and host preference. There is not yet any strong evidence indicating that individual field strains of the same MAP-subgroup exhibit differences in virulence. The aim of this study was to evaluate a potential association between the genotype of individual field strains belonging to the MAP-C group and the presence of macroscopic intestinal lesions characteristic of paratuberculosis in the infected animals. 88 MAP-C isolates were sampled from clinically healthy cows at slaughter. Cows were grouped as A (n=46) with, and B (n=42) without macroscopic intestinal lesions. Sampled cows from both the A and B groups came from different farms and had a similar age distribution. MAP isolates were characterized by MIRU-VNTR and IS900-RFLP analysis. Resulting genotypes were examined for an association with the presence of macroscopic intestinal lesions characteristic of paratuberculosis. MAP isolates from groups A and B exhibited similar strain diversity: 20 and 18 combined genotypes, altogether 32 genotypes. Six of these genotypes were detected in both groups. Although no association was found between individual combined genotypes and presence of macroscopic intestinal lesions, IS900-RFLP-(BstEII)-Type-C1 (the most common type worldwide) was found more often in group A (p<0.01). The data give only weak indication for the existence of differences in virulence among MAP-cattle type isolates. Differences in the development and severity of lesions may rather depend on unknown host factors or inoculation dose. Virulence properties of IS900-RFLP-(BstEII)-Type-C1 isolates should be examined in more detail.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.026
       
  • Pro-apoptotic effect of a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae putative type I signal
           peptidase on PK(15) swine cells
    • Authors: Jéssica A. Paes; Veridiana G. Virginio; Martin Cancela; Fernanda M.A. Leal; Thiago J. Borges; Natália Jaeger; Cristina Bonorino; Irene S. Schrank; Henrique B. Ferreira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jéssica A. Paes, Veridiana G. Virginio, Martin Cancela, Fernanda M.A. Leal, Thiago J. Borges, Natália Jaeger, Cristina Bonorino, Irene S. Schrank, Henrique B. Ferreira
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an economically significant swine pathogen that causes porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). Important processes for swine infection by M. hyopneumoniae depend on cell surface proteins, many of which are secreted by secretion pathways not completely elucidated so far. A putative type I signal peptidase (SPase I), a possible component of a putative Sec-dependent pathway, was annotated as a product of the sipS gene in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome. This M. hyopneumoniae putative SPase I (MhSPase I) displays only 14% and 23% of sequence identity/similarity to Escherichia coli bona fide SPase I, and, in complementation assays performed with a conditional E. coli SPase I mutant, only a partial restoration of growth was achieved with the heterologous expression of a recombinant MhSPase I (rMhSPase I). Considering the putative surface location of MhSPase I and its previously demonstrated capacity to induce a strong humoral response, we then assessed its potential to elicit a cellular and possible immunomodulatory response. In assays for immunogenicity assessment, rMhSPase I unexpectedly showed a cytotoxic effect on murine splenocytes. This cytotoxic effect was further confirmed using the swine epithelial PK(15) cell line in MTT and annexin V-flow cytometry assays, which showed that rMhSPase I induces apoptosis in a dose dependent-way. It was also demonstrated that this pro-apoptotic effect of rMhSPase I involves activation of a caspase-3 cascade. The potential relevance of the rMhSPase I pro-apoptotic effect for M. hyopneumoniae-host interactions in the context of PEP is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.024
       
  • A novel chimeric protein composed of recombinant Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
           antigens as a vaccine candidate evaluated in mice
    • Authors: Natasha Rodrigues de Oliveira; Sérgio Jorge; Charles Klazer Gomes; Caroline Rizzi; Violetta Dias Pacce; Thais Farias Collares; Leonardo Garcia Monte; Odir Antônio Dellagostin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Natasha Rodrigues de Oliveira, Sérgio Jorge, Charles Klazer Gomes, Caroline Rizzi, Violetta Dias Pacce, Thais Farias Collares, Leonardo Garcia Monte, Odir Antônio Dellagostin
      Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) is caused by the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic bacteria, and it represents a significant respiratory disease that is responsible for major economic losses within the pig industry throughout the world. The bacterins that are currently commercially available have been proven to offer only partial protection against M. hyopneumoniae, and the development of more efficient vaccines is required. Several recombinant antigens have been evaluated via different immunization strategies and have been found to be highly immunogenic. This work describes the construction and immunological characterization of a multi-antigen chimera composed of four M. hyopneumoniae antigens: P97R1, P46, P95, and P42. Immunogenic regions of each antigen were selected and combined to encode a single polypeptide. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the chimeric protein was recognized by specific antibodies against each subunit, as well as by convalescent pig sera. The immunogenic properties of the chimera were then evaluated in a mice model through two recombinant vaccines that were formulated as follows: (1) purified chimeric protein plus adjuvant or (2) recombinant Escherichia coli bacterin. The immune response induced in BALB/c mice immunized with each formulation was characterized in terms of total IgG levels, IgG1, and IgG2a isotypes against each antigen present in the chimera. The results of the study indicated that novel chimeric protein is a potential candidate for the future development of a more effective vaccine against EP.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.023
       
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome type 1 viruses induce
           hypoplasia of erythroid cells and myeloid cell hyperplasia in the bone
           marrow of experimentally infected piglets independently of the viral load
           and virulence
    • Authors: Shyrley Paola Amarilla; Jaime Gómez-Laguna; Librado Carrasco; Irene M. Rodríguez-Gómez; José M.Caridad y Ocerín; Simon P. Graham; Jean-Pierre Frossard; Falko Steinbach; Francisco J. Salguero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Shyrley Paola Amarilla, Jaime Gómez-Laguna, Librado Carrasco, Irene M. Rodríguez-Gómez, José M.Caridad y Ocerín, Simon P. Graham, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Falko Steinbach, Francisco J. Salguero
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) present a wide phenotypic and genetic diversity. Experimental infections have demonstrated viral replication, including highly pathogenic strains (HP-PRRSV), in primary lymphoid organs such as the thymus. However, studies of the bone marrow are scarce but necessary to help elucidate the immunobiology of PRRSV strains of differing virulence. In this study, whereas viral RNA was detected within the bone marrow of animals experimentally infected with both low virulent Lelystad (LV) and 215-06 PRRSV-1 strains and with the highly virulent SU1-bel strain, PRRSV positive cells were only occasionally detected in one SU1-bel infected animal. PRRSV RNA levels were associated to circulating virus with the highest levels detected in LV-infected pigs. At 3 dpi, a decrease in the proportion of haematopoietic tissue and number of erythroid cells in all infected groups was associated with an increase in TUNEL or cleaved caspase 3 labelling and higher counts of myeloid cells compared to control. The expression of IL-1α and IL-6 was elevated at the beginning of the infection in all infected animals. The expression of TNF-α was increased at the end of the study in all infected groups with respect to control. Different PRRSV-1 strains induced, presummably by indirect mechanisms and independently of viral load and strain virulence, moderate and sustained hypoplasia of erythroid cells and myeloid cell hyperplasia at early stages of infection. These changes were paralleled by a peak in the local expression of IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α in all infected groups.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.040
       
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01 impairs enzymes of the phosphotransfer
           network in the gills of Rhamdia quelen
    • Authors: Matheus D. Baldissera; Carine F. Souza; Roberto C.V. Santos; Lenita M. Stefani; Karen Luise S. Moreira; Marcelo L. da Veiga; Maria Izabel U.M. da Rocha; Bernardo Baldisserotto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Matheus D. Baldissera, Carine F. Souza, Roberto C.V. Santos, Lenita M. Stefani, Karen Luise S. Moreira, Marcelo L. da Veiga, Maria Izabel U.M. da Rocha, Bernardo Baldisserotto
      Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for gills bioenergetics, since this tissue plays an important role in the respiratory energy metabolism. The effects of bacterial infection on gills remain poorly understood, limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether experimental infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01 alters the enzymes of the phosphoryltransfer network (adenylate kinase (AK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK)) in gills of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The animals were divided into two groups with six fish each: uninfected (negative control) and infected (positive control). On day 7 post-infection (PI), animals were euthanized and the gills collected. AK, PK, and cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activities in gills decreased in infected compared to uninfected animals. Also, severe gill damage and destruction in the primary and secondary lamellae was observed in the infected animals. Therefore, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that experimental infection by P. aeruginosa inhibits key enzymes linked to the production and utilization of metabolic energy in silver catfish, and consequently, impairs cellular energy homeostasis, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-01-26T11:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.016
       
  • Attenuation of an Original US Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain PC22A
           via Serial Cell Culture Passage
    • Authors: Chun-Ming Lin; Yixuan Hou; Douglas G. Marthaler; Xiang Gao; Xinsheng Liu; Lanlan Zheng; Linda J. Saif; Qiuhong Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Chun-Ming Lin, Yixuan Hou, Douglas G. Marthaler, Xiang Gao, Xinsheng Liu, Lanlan Zheng, Linda J. Saif, Qiuhong Wang
      Although porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has caused huge economic losses in the pork industry worldwide, an effective live, attenuated vaccine is lacking. In this study, an original US, highly virulent PED virus (PEDV) strain PC22A was serially passaged in Vero CCL81 and Vero BI cells. The virus growth kinetics in cell culture, virulence in neonatal pigs and the whole genomic sequences of selected passages were examined. Increased virus titers and sizes of syncytia were observed at the 65th passage level (P65) and P120, respectively. Based on the severity of clinical signs, histopathological lesions and the distribution of PEDV antigens in the gut, the virulence of P100 and above, but not P95C13 (CCL81), was markedly reduced in 4-day-old, caesarian-derived, colostrum-deprived piglets. Subsequently, the attenuation of P120 and P160 was confirmed in 4-day-old, conventional suckling piglets. Compared with P120, P160 replicated less efficiently in the intestine of pigs and induced a lower rate of protection after challenge. Sequence analysis revealed that the virulent viruses [P3 and P95C13 (CCL81)] had one, one, sixteen (including an early termination of nine amino acids) and two amino acid differences in non-structure protein 1 (nsp1), nsp4, spike and membrane proteins, respectively, from the fully attenuated P160. However, the overall pattern of attenuation-related genetic changes in PC22A differed from those of the other four pairs of PEDV wild type strains and their attenuated derivatives. These results suggest that PEDV attenuation can occur through multiple molecular mechanisms. The knowledge provides insights into potential molecular mechanisms of PEDV attenuation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-18T22:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.015
       
  • Rabbit hepatitis E virus is an opportunistic pathogen in
           specific-pathogen-free rabbits with the capability of cross-species
           transmission
    • Authors: Baoyuan Liu; Yani Sun; Taofeng Du; Yiyang Chen; Xinjie Wang; Baicheng Huang; Huixia Li; Yuchen Nan; Shuqi Xiao; Gaiping Zhang; Julian A. Hiscox; En-Min Zhou; Qin Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Baoyuan Liu, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Xinjie Wang, Baicheng Huang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, Shuqi Xiao, Gaiping Zhang, Julian A. Hiscox, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
      Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in rabbits, a recently identified natural reservoir. In this study, anti-HEV antibodies and viral RNA were detected in rabbits sourced from a specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbit vendor in Shaanxi Province, China. BLAST results of partial HEV ORF2 genes cloned here indicated that two viral strains circulated in the rabbits. Sequence determination of the complete genome (7,302bp) of one strain and a partial ORF1 gene (1,537bp) of the other strain showed that they shared 90% identity with one another and 78%–94% identity with other known rabbit HEVs. In addition, inoculation with rabbit HEV from SPF rabbits studied here resulted in infection of SPF pigs; this cross-species transmission was evidenced by seroconversion, viremia and faecal virus shedding. These results suggest that to prevent spread of this zoonotic pathogen, rabbits should be tested routinely for HEV RNA in SPF vendor facilities.

      PubDate: 2017-01-18T22:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.029
       
  • Japanese encephalitis virus infection, diagnosis and control in domestic
           animals
    • Authors: Karen L. Mansfield; Luis M. Hernández-Triana; Ashley C. Banyard; Anthony R. Fooks; Nicholas Johnson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Karen L. Mansfield, Luis M. Hernández-Triana, Ashley C. Banyard, Anthony R. Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
      Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others. The impact of JEV infection is particularly apparent in pigs. Although infection in adult swine does not result in symptomatic disease, it is considered a significant reproductive problem causing abortion, still-birth and birth defects. Infected piglets can display fatal neurological disease. Equines are also infected, resulting in non-specific signs including pyrexia, but occasionally leading to overt neurological disease that in extreme cases can lead to death. Veterinary vaccination is available for both pigs and horses. This review of JEV disease in livestock considers the current diagnostic techniques available for detection of the virus. Options for disease control and prevention within the veterinary sector are discussed. Such measures are critical in breaking the link to zoonotic transmission into the human population where humans are dead-end hosts.

      PubDate: 2017-01-18T22:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.014
       
  • Fermented rapeseed meal is effective in controlling Salmonella enterica
           serovar Typhimurium infection and improving growth performance in broiler
           chicks
    • Authors: Amin Ashayerizadeh; Behrouz Dastar; Mahmoud Shams Shargh; Alireza Sadeghi Mahoonak; Saeed Zerehdaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Amin Ashayerizadeh, Behrouz Dastar, Mahmoud Shams Shargh, Alireza Sadeghi Mahoonak, Saeed Zerehdaran
      The aim of present experiment was to assess the effects of fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) colonization and growth performance in broiler chicks. Two hundred forty day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were divided into six experimental treatments with four replicates and 10 birds per each. The treatments were including two positive and negative controls which birds received a basal corn-soybean diet as well as four others which birds received the diets that rapeseed meal (RSM) or FRSM was replaced with soybean meal at 50 and 100% levels. All chicks except the negative control birds were challenged orally with 105 CFU of S. Typhimurium at 3days of age. Results showed that birds were fed FRSM had significantly greater lactic acid bacteria populations and lesser S. Typhimurium colonization in ileal and cecal sections compared to others (P< 0.05). The less percentage of liver and bursa of fabricius was belonged to negative control group. At 10day, feeding chicks with diet containing FRSM, but not RSM, significantly decreased the organ invasion by S. Typhimurium (P< 0.05). Heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was significantly lesser in chicks were fed FRSM compared to those fed RSM or positive control (P< 0.05). Birds were fed FRSM had significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion ratio compared to those birds were fed RSM (P< 0.05). The findings of present experiment concerning positive effects of feeding FRSM on reducing S. Typhimurium and improving growth performance show that this processed protein source can be considered as a nutritional effective strategy to control Salmonella contamination in broiler chicks.

      PubDate: 2017-01-18T22:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.007
       
  • A novel pulmonary polyomavirus in alpacas (Vicugna pacos)
    • Authors: Florante N. Dela Cruz; Linlin Li; Eric Delwart; P. Pesavento
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Florante N. Dela Cruz, Linlin Li, Eric Delwart, P. Pesavento
      Viral metagenomic analysis detected a novel polyomavirus in a 6-month old female alpaca (Vicugna pacos) euthanized after a diagnosis of disseminated lymphosarcoma. The viral genome was fully sequenced, found to be similar to other polyomaviruses in gene architecture and provisionally named Alpaca polyomavirus or AlPyV. Viral nucleic acid was detected by PCR in venous blood, spleen, thymus, and lung. AlPyV phylogenetically clustered in the “Wuki” group of PyVs, which includes WU and KI polyomaviruses, commonly found in human respiratory samples. In an ISH analysis of 17 alpaca necropsies, 7 had detectable virus within the lung. In animals without pneumonia, probe hybridization was restricted to the nuclei of scattered individual bronchiolar epithelial cells. Three of the ISH positive alpacas had interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin, and in these animals there was viral nucleic acid detected in bronchiolar epithelium, type II pneumocytes, and alveolar macrophages. The pattern of AlPyV distribution is consistent with a persistent respiratory virus that has a possible role in respiratory disease.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.005
       
  • Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus 2 in diarrheic
           dogs in Colombia, South America. A possible new CPV-2a is emerging'
    • Authors: Yeison Duque-García; Manuela Echeverri-Zuluaga; Juanita Trejos-Suarez; Julian Ruiz-Saenz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yeison Duque-García, Manuela Echeverri-Zuluaga, Juanita Trejos-Suarez, Julian Ruiz-Saenz
      Since its identification in 1978, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) has been considered a pathogen of great importance in the canine population because it causes severe enteritis with high mortality in pups. CPV-2 is a virus belonging to family Parvoviridae. Currently, there are three described antigenic variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c). CPV-2c is an emerging virus that is seen as a global health hazard. The objective of this work was to confirm the presence of CPV-2 in dogs with acute gastroenteritis compatible with parvovirus and to molecularly characterize the antigenic variants circulating in two regions of Colombia. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with fecal samples collected from 71 dogs in two regions of Colombia that showed signs of acute diarrhea. The samples were processed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP), sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 70.42% of the individuals were confirmed positive for CPV-2. Significant differences were found in the presentation of CPV-2 between the evaluated regions. Molecular and phylogenetically, we confirmed the presence of the antigenic variants CPV-2a/2b and we found the presence of two conserved substitutions, Asn428Asp and Ala514Ser in the VP2 protein showing the presence of a possible new CPV-2a variant circulating in Colombia. This study demonstrates the importance of the CPV 2a/2b in the region and highlights the importance of performing molecular studies for the early detection of new antigenic variants of CPV-2.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.039
       
  • The Genetic Characteristics and Evolution of Tembusu Virus
    • Authors: Wenwen Lei; Xiaofang Guo; Shihong Fu; Yun Feng; Xiaoyan Tao; Xiaoyan Gao; Jingdong Song; Zhonghua Yang; Hongning Zhou; Guodong Liang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Wenwen Lei, Xiaofang Guo, Shihong Fu, Yun Feng, Xiaoyan Tao, Xiaoyan Gao, Jingdong Song, Zhonghua Yang, Hongning Zhou, Guodong Liang
      Background Since the turn of the 21st century, there have been several epidemic outbreaks of poultry diseases caused by Tembusu virus (TMUV). Although multiple mosquito and poultry-derived strains of TMUV have been isolated, no data exist about their comparative study, origin, evolution, and dissemination. Methodology Parallel virology was used to investigate the phenotypes of duck and mosquito-derived isolates of TMUV. Molecular biology and bioinformatics methods were employed to investigate the genetic characteristics and evolution of TMUV. Principal Findings The plaque diameter of duck-derived isolates of TMUV was larger than that of mosquito-derived isolates. The cytopathic effect (CPE) in mammalian cells occurred more rapidly induced by duck-derived isolates than by mosquito-derived isolates. Furthermore, duck-derived isolates required less time to reach maximum titer, and exhibited higher viral titer. These findings suggested that poultry-derived TMUV isolates were more invasive and had greater expansion capability than the mosquito-derived isolates in mammalian cells. Variations in amino acid loci in TMUV E gene sequence revealed two mutated amino acid loci in strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, and Chinese mainland compared with the prototypical strain of the virus (MM1775). Furthermore, TMUV isolates from the Chinese mainland had six common variations in the E gene loci that differed from the Southeast Asian strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that TMUV did not exhibit a species barrier in avian species and consisted of two lineages: the Southeast Asian and the Chinese mainland lineages. Molecular traceability studies revealed that the recent common evolutionary ancestor of TMUV might have appeared before 1934 and that Malaysia, Thailand and Shandong Province of China represent the three main sources related to TMUV spread. Conclusions The current broad distribution of TMUV strains in Southeast Asia and Chinese mainland exhibited longer-range diffusion and larger-scale propagation. Therefore, in addition to China, other Asian and European countries linked to Asia have used improved measures to detect and monitor TMUV related diseases to prevent epidemics in poultry.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.003
       
  • Identification of a novel species of papillomavirus in giraffe lesions
           using nanopore sequencing
    • Authors: Bert Vanmechelen; Mads Frost Bertelsen; Annabel Rector; Joost J. Van den Oord; Lies Laenen; Valentijn Vergote; Piet Maes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Bert Vanmechelen, Mads Frost Bertelsen, Annabel Rector, Joost J. Van den Oord, Lies Laenen, Valentijn Vergote, Piet Maes
      Papillomaviridae form a large family of viruses that are known to infect a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, birds and fish. Infections usually give rise to minor skin lesions but can in some cases lead to the development of malignant neoplasia. In this study, we identified a novel species of papillomavirus (PV), isolated from warts of four giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). The sequence of the L1 gene was determined and found to be identical for all isolates. Using nanopore sequencing, the full sequence of the PV genome could be determined. The coding region of the genome was found to contain seven open reading frames (ORF), encoding the early proteins E1, E2 and E5-E7 as well as the late proteins L1 and L2. In addition to these ORFs, a region located within the E2 gene is thought, based on sequence similarities to other papillomaviruses, to encode an E4 protein, although no start codon could be identified. Based on the sequence of the L1 gene, this novel PV was found to be most similar to Capreolus capreolus papillomavirus 1 (CcaPV1), with 67.96% nucleotide identity. We therefore suggest that the virus identified here is given the name Giraffa camelopardalis papillomavirus 1 (GcPV1) and is classified as a novel species within the genus Deltapapillomavirus, in line with the current guidelines for the nomenclature and classification of PVs.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.035
       
 
 
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