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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal  
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3040 journals]
  • Orally administered live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium protects mice
           against lethal infection with H1N1 influenza virus
    • Authors: Nitin Machindra Kamble; Irshad Ahmed Hajam; John Hwa Lee
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Nitin Machindra Kamble, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
      Pre-stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) by agonists has been shown to increase protection against influenza virus infection. In this study, we evaluated the protective response generated against influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8; H1N1) virus by oral and nasal administration of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, JOL911 strain, in mice. Oral and nasal inoculation of JOL911 significantly increased the mRNA copy number of TLR-2, TLR4 and TLR5, and downstream type I interferon (IFN) molecules, IFN-α and IFN-β, both in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in lung tissue. Similarly, the mRNA copy number of interferon-inducible genes (ISGs), Mx and ISG15, were significantly increased in both the orally and the nasally inoculated mice. Post PR8 virus lethal challenge, the nasal JOL911 and the PBS control group mice showed significant loss of body weight with 70% and 100% mortality, respectively, compared to only 30% mortality in the oral JOL911 group mice. Post sub-lethal challenge, the significant reduction in PR8 virus copy number in lung tissue was observed in oral [on day 4 and 6 post-challenge (dpc)] and nasal (on 4dpc) than the PBS control group mice. The lethal and sub-lethal challenge showed that the generated stimulated innate resistance (StIR) in JOL911 inoculated mice conferred resistance to acute and initial influenza infection but might not be sufficient to prevent the PR8 virus invasion and replication in the lung. Overall, the present study indicates that oral administration of attenuated S. Typhimurium can pre-stimulate multiple TLR pathways in mice to provide immediate early StIR against a lethal H1N1 virus challenge.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
  • Putative vaccine breakthrough event associated with heterotypic rotavirus
           infection in newborn calves, Turkey, 2015
    • Authors: Ilke Karayel; Enikő Fehér; Szilvia Marton; Nüvit Coskun; Krisztián Bányai; Feray Alkan
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201
      Author(s): Ilke Karayel, Enikő Fehér, Szilvia Marton, Nüvit Coskun, Krisztián Bányai, Feray Alkan
      Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are regarded as major enteric pathogens of large ruminants, including cattle. Rotavirus vaccines administered to pregnant cows are commonly used to provide passive immunity that protects newborn calves from the clinical disease. In this study we report the detection of RVA from calves with severe diarrhea in a herd regularly vaccinated to prevent enteric infections including RVA. Diarrheic disease was observed in newborn calves aged 4–15days, with high morbidity and mortality rates, but no diarrhea was seen in adult animals. Rotavirus antigen was detected by enzyme-immunoassay in the intestinal content or the fecal samples of all examined animals. Besides RVA, bovine coronavirus and bovine enteric calicivirus were detected in some samples. Selected RVA strains were characterized by whole genome sequencing. Two strains, RVA/Cow-wt/TUR/Amasya-1/2015/G8P[5] and RVA/Cow-wt/TUR/Amasya-2/2015/G8P[5] were genotyped as G8-P[5]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3 and showed >99% nucleotide sequence identity among themselves. This genomic constellation is fairly common among bovine RVA strains; however, phylogenetic analysis of the G8 VP7 gene showed close genetic relationship to some European human RVA strains (up to 98.4% nt identity). Our findings is the first indication regarding the circulation of G8 RVA strains in Turkey. Given that the administered RVA vaccines contained type G6 and G10 VP7 antigens some concerns raised with regard to the level of heterotypic protection elicited by the vaccine strains against circulating bovine G8 RVA strains. Enhancement of surveillance of circulating RVA strains in calves across Turkey is needed to support ongoing vaccination programs.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
  • Seroprevalence for 2117-like vesiviruses in Italian household dogs
    • Authors: Barbara Di Martino; Federica Di Profio; Livia Bodnar; Irene Melegari; Vittorio Sarchese; Ivano Massirio; Giulia Dowgier; Gianvito Lanave; Fulvio Marsilio; Krisztián Bányai; Canio Buonavoglia; Vito Martella
      Pages: 14 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Barbara Di Martino, Federica Di Profio, Livia Bodnar, Irene Melegari, Vittorio Sarchese, Ivano Massirio, Giulia Dowgier, Gianvito Lanave, Fulvio Marsilio, Krisztián Bányai, Canio Buonavoglia, Vito Martella
      In 2003, a novel calicivirus, the vesivirus (VeV) strain 2117, was identified incidentally as a contaminant in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell cultures by a German pharmaceutical company. Similar contaminations have been documented in three additional episodes, in bio-reactors used for production of recombinant drugs. More, recently 2117-like VeVs have also been identified at high prevalence in the stools from asymptomatic kennel dogs and only sporadically in diarrhoeic and healthy household dogs. In this study, antibodies for 2117-like viruses were detected in 21.5% of sera from household dogs, indicating that they are common viruses in the canine host.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2017)
  • Mycoplasma bovis escapes bovine neutrophil extracellular traps
    • Authors: Satoshi Gondaira; Hidetoshi Higuchi; Koji Nishi; Hidetomo Iwano; Hajime Nagahata
      Pages: 68 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Satoshi Gondaira, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Koji Nishi, Hidetomo Iwano, Hajime Nagahata
      Mycoplasma bovis is a significant pathogen in bovine infections including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis and otitis media, and is the cause of large economic losses in beef and dairy farms. During infection with M. bovis, recruited neutrophils are not sufficient to eradicate M. bovis from the infection site. The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is one of the innate immune responses of neutrophils but the effect of M. bovis on NET formation by bovine neutrophils has not yet been clarified. The objective of our research was to examine the effect of M. bovis on NET formation and the killing activity of bovine neutrophils. We showed that NETs were not detected following stimulation of neutrophils by M. bovis alone or with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetat (PMA). Reactive oxygen species production is essential for NET formation but the levels in neutrophils stimulated with M. bovis at multiplicity of infections of 10, 100, and 1000 were similar to those of unstimulated cells. NET formation induced by PMA stimulated neutrophils disappeared following the addition of M. bovis but this phenomenon was not observed when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added. M. bovis colony forming units were significantly decreased by the addition of EDTA in the presence of NETs. Our results suggested that M. bovis infection alone did not induce NETs and that M. bovis nucleases, as hypothesis-based, contributed to resistance against the killing activity of NETs.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • In vitro characterization of the novel H3N1 reassortant influenza viruses
           from quail
    • Authors: Aunyaratana Thontiravong; Wikanda Tunterak; Kanisak Oraveerakul; Alongkorn Amonsin
      Pages: 74 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Aunyaratana Thontiravong, Wikanda Tunterak, Kanisak Oraveerakul, Alongkorn Amonsin
      Quail is considered as an intermediate host for generation of the novel reassortant influenza A viruses (IAVs). In this study, we evaluated the replication ability of the three novel H3N1 reassortant viruses recovered from pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) and duck H3N2 (dkH3N2) co-infected quail generated from our previous study in embryonated chicken eggs, mammalian (MDCK) and human lung derived (A549) cells. Our study demonstrated that all of the reassortant viruses replicated efficiently in avian and mammalian cells, albeit with slightly lower titers than the parental viruses. Of note, all of the reassortant viruses showed enhanced replication in human lung derived A549 cells compared to their parental viruses. Interestingly, among the reassortant viruses tested, a reassortant virus (P(NA,NS)-DK) containing NA and NS genes derived from pH1N1 and the other genes from dkH3N2 exhibited the highest replication ability in all in vitro models, indicating a high level of gene compatibility of this reassortant virus. Our results highlight the potential role of quail as intermediate hosts for the generation of the viable reassortant viruses with ability to replicate efficiently in avian, mammalian, and particularly human lung derived cells. These findings emphasize the need for the continuous IAV surveillance in quail to prevent the risk of the emergence of the novel viable reassortant viruses.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • Exudative epidermitis of piglets caused by non-toxigenic Staphylococcus
    • Authors: Lixin Lu; Kongwang He; Yanxiu Ni; Zhengyu Yu; Aihua Mao
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Lixin Lu, Kongwang He, Yanxiu Ni, Zhengyu Yu, Aihua Mao
      Infections with strains of Staphylococcus sciuri are a potential threat to animal and public health, and a cause for considerable concern. We isolated and identified S. sciuri as a pathogen from an acute outbreak of exudative epidermitis in piglets for further genetic identification using experimental infections. The results of this study showed that S. sciuri strain NJ1306 reproduced exudative epidermitis in experimentally infected 5-day-old piglets. The isolated bacteria also caused sudden death in BALB/c mice following intraperitoneal injection with 5×108 CFU of the isolate. The data indicated that strain NJ1306 of S. sciuri was pathogenic to piglets and mice, and the study provided the first known report of clinical lung lesions and endocarditis in piglets due to S. sciuri.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • Development of a duplex PCR for rapid detection and differentiation of
           Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccine strains and wild type strains
    • Authors: Weifeng Zhu; Chao wu; Chao Kang; Chengzhi Cai; Meilin Jin
      Pages: 108 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Weifeng Zhu, Chao wu, Chao Kang, Chengzhi Cai, Meilin Jin
      The differentiation of vaccine strains from wild type strains is important for disease control. A duplex PCR for rapid detection and differentiation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccine strains and wild type strains was developed based on the DNA polymerase IV gene. This duplex PCR was sensitive and specific. The detection results were coincident with that of a single nucleotide polymorphisms based PCR but the detection process was more rapid. In conclusion, this duplex PCR was a useful tool for Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infections’ differential diagnosis in China.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • Streptococcus suis small RNA rss04 contributes to the induction of
           meningitis by regulating capsule synthesis and by inducing biofilm
           formation in a mouse infection model
    • Authors: Genhui Xiao; Huanyu Tang; Shouming Zhang; Haiyan Ren; Jiao Dai; Liying Lai; Chengping Lu; Huochun Yao; Hongjie Fan; Zongfu Wu
      Pages: 111 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Genhui Xiao, Huanyu Tang, Shouming Zhang, Haiyan Ren, Jiao Dai, Liying Lai, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao, Hongjie Fan, Zongfu Wu
      Streptococcus suis (SS) is an important pathogen for pigs, and it is also considered as a zoonotic agent for humans. Meningitis is one of the most common features of the infection caused by SS, but little is known about the mechanisms of SS meningitis. Recent studies have revealed that small RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of the virulence in several bacteria. In the previous study, we reported that SS sRNA rss04 was up-regulated in pig cerebrospinal fluid and contributes to SS virulence in a zebrafish infection model. Here, we show that rss04 facilitates SS invasion of mouse brain and lung in vivo. Label-free quantitation mass spectrometry analysis revealed that rss04 regulates transcriptional regulator CcpA and several virulence factors including LuxS. Transmission electron microscope and Dot-blot analyses indicated that rss04 represses capsular polysaccharide (CPS) production, which in turn facilitates SS adherence and invasion of mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells bEnd.3 in vitro and activates the mRNA expression of TLR2, CCL2, IL-6 and TNF-α in mouse brain in vivo at 12h post-infection. In addition, rss04 positively regulates SS biofilm formation. Survival analysis of infected mice showed that biofilm state in brain contributes to SS virulence by intracranial subarachnoidal route of infection. Together, our data reveal that SS sRNA rss04 contributes to the induction of meningitis by regulating the CPS synthesis and by inducing biofilm formation, thereby increasing the virulence in a mouse infection model. To our knowledge, rss04 represents the first bacterial sRNA that plays definitive roles in bacterial meningitis.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.034
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • Identification of a novel recombinant virulent avian infectious bronchitis
    • Authors: Haisheng Zhou; Meihong Zhang; Xue Tian; Hongxia Shao; Kun Qian; Jianqiang Ye; Aijian Qin
      Pages: 120 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Haisheng Zhou, Meihong Zhang, Xue Tian, Hongxia Shao, Kun Qian, Jianqiang Ye, Aijian Qin
      The emergence of new infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants is often disastrous in the poultry industry. In this study, an IBV, CK/CH/2010/JT-1, was isolated from an H120- and 4/91-IBV-vaccinated flock in China. Antisera against vaccine strains H120 and 4/91 could not provide effective protection against CK/CH/2010/JT-1 in virus neutralization assays. CK/CH/2010/JT-1 could cause 43.75% mortality with respiratory and severe renal lesions in inoculated chickens. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene showed that CK/CH/2010/JT-1 and 31 other isolates could be grouped as a new genotypic cluster. Recombination analysis revealed that three recombination events could be found in the genome of CK/CH/2010/JT-1 at positions 24709-365, 17160-19811 and 21136-21770. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed that CK/CH/2010/JT-1 originated from multiple template switches among QX-like, CK/CH/LSC/99I-, tl/CH/LDT3/03- and 4/91-type IBVs. All of these data demonstrated that CK/CH/2010/JT-1 is a new recombinant genotype IBV with high virulence. Our findings suggest that the surveillance of new genotype strains of IBV is very important for developing more effective anti-IBV strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.038
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • Transmissible gastroenteritis virus does not suppress IFN-β induction but
           is sensitive to IFN in IPEC-J2 cells
    • Authors: Liqi Zhu; Xing Yang; Chunxiao Mou; Qian Yang
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Liqi Zhu, Xing Yang, Chunxiao Mou, Qian Yang
      Coronaviruses tend to efficiently evade innate immune sensing. Alpha-coronaviruses interfere with the type I interferon (IFN) response in various ways, ensuring the limited activation of IFN responses. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an Alphacoronavirus genera virus, is an important pathogen that mainly infects piglet, but little is known about the activation of the host immune response. We show that TGEV induces a delayed activation of the IFN response in intestinal epithelial cells. Briefly, IFN-β expression induced by TGEV infection is delayed with respect to that induced by poly(I:C) transfection. In addition, some of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were up-regulated in the early infection stage without obvious expression of IFN-β. Moreover, we show that activation of IFN responses induced by poly(I:C) could inhibit viral replication in the early infection stage, but failed in the late infection stage in IPEC-J2 cells. Finally, the activation of IFN responses induced by TGEV infection cannot inhibit viral replication. Taken together, this study provides a preliminary analysis of an interaction between TGEV and IFN-β responses of intestinal epithelial cells.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.031
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • IFC - Aims & Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
  • Classical swine fever vaccines—State-of-the-art
    • Authors: Sandra Blome; Claudia Moß; Ilona Reimann; Patricia König; Martin Beer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Sandra Blome, Claudia Moß, Ilona Reimann, Patricia König, Martin Beer
      Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. These vaccines have usually outstanding efficacy and safety but lack differentiability of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA or marker strategy). In contrast, the first generation of E2 subunit marker vaccines shows constraints in efficacy, application, and production. To overcome these limitations, new generations of marker vaccines are developed. A wide range of approaches have been tried including recombinant vaccines, recombinant inactivated vaccines or subunit vaccines, vector vaccines, and DNA/RNA vaccines. During the last years, especially attenuated deletion vaccines or chimeric constructs have shown potential. At present, especially two new constructs have been intensively tested, the adenovirus-delivered, Semliki Forest virus replicon-vectored marker vaccine candidate “rAdV-SFV-E2” and the pestivirus chimera “CP7_E2alf”. The later was recently licensed by the European Medicines Agency. Under field conditions, all marker vaccines have to be accompanied by a potent test system. Particularly this point shows still weaknesses and it is important to embed vaccination in a well-established vaccination strategy and a suitable diagnostic workflow. In summary, conventional vaccines are a standard in terms of efficacy. However, only vaccines with DIVA will allow improved eradication strategies e.g. also under emergency vaccination conditions in free regions. To answer this demand, new generations of marker vaccines have been developed and add now to the tool box of CSF control.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.001
  • Vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus: A continuous challenge
    • Authors: Brian Jordan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Brian Jordan
      Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a significant respiratory pathogen of commercial poultry that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue worldwide each year. Even though the poultry industry extensively vaccinates against IBV, emergence of new serotypes and variants continually occur, making control of the disease difficult. Current mass application strategies for IBV vaccines are inefficient and frequently result in vaccination failures. Novel vaccine technology development has been slow, and is hindered by the constraints of large-scale poultry production. Further complicating the situation is the lack of knowledge of IBV protein and host cell interactions, making targeted vaccine intervention strategies near impossible. Taken together, it is easy to see why this disease remains significant in poultry production. This review outlines the current situation as it relates to IBV control, including vaccination, vaccines, and development of immunity, and recent developments in vaccine technology that may provide better protection in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.002
  • The Genetic Characteristics and Evolution of Tembusu Virus
    • Authors: Wenwen Lei; Xiaofang Guo; Shihong Fu; Yun Feng; Xiaoyan Tao; Xiaoyan Gao; Jingdong Song; Zhonghua Yang; Hongning Zhou; Guodong Liang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Wenwen Lei, Xiaofang Guo, Shihong Fu, Yun Feng, Xiaoyan Tao, Xiaoyan Gao, Jingdong Song, Zhonghua Yang, Hongning Zhou, Guodong Liang
      Background Since the turn of the 21st century, there have been several epidemic outbreaks of poultry diseases caused by Tembusu virus (TMUV). Although multiple mosquito and poultry-derived strains of TMUV have been isolated, no data exist about their comparative study, origin, evolution, and dissemination. Methodology Parallel virology was used to investigate the phenotypes of duck and mosquito-derived isolates of TMUV. Molecular biology and bioinformatics methods were employed to investigate the genetic characteristics and evolution of TMUV. Principal Findings The plaque diameter of duck-derived isolates of TMUV was larger than that of mosquito-derived isolates. The cytopathic effect (CPE) in mammalian cells occurred more rapidly induced by duck-derived isolates than by mosquito-derived isolates. Furthermore, duck-derived isolates required less time to reach maximum titer, and exhibited higher viral titer. These findings suggested that poultry-derived TMUV isolates were more invasive and had greater expansion capability than the mosquito-derived isolates in mammalian cells. Variations in amino acid loci in TMUV E gene sequence revealed two mutated amino acid loci in strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, and Chinese mainland compared with the prototypical strain of the virus (MM1775). Furthermore, TMUV isolates from the Chinese mainland had six common variations in the E gene loci that differed from the Southeast Asian strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that TMUV did not exhibit a species barrier in avian species and consisted of two lineages: the Southeast Asian and the Chinese mainland lineages. Molecular traceability studies revealed that the recent common evolutionary ancestor of TMUV might have appeared before 1934 and that Malaysia, Thailand and Shandong Province of China represent the three main sources related to TMUV spread. Conclusions The current broad distribution of TMUV strains in Southeast Asia and Chinese mainland exhibited longer-range diffusion and larger-scale propagation. Therefore, in addition to China, other Asian and European countries linked to Asia have used improved measures to detect and monitor TMUV related diseases to prevent epidemics in poultry.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.003
  • Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus 2 in diarrheic
           dogs in Colombia, South America. A possible new CPV-2a is emerging'
    • Authors: Yeison Duque-García; Manuela Echeverri-Zuluaga; Juanita Trejos-Suarez; Julian Ruiz-Saenz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yeison Duque-García, Manuela Echeverri-Zuluaga, Juanita Trejos-Suarez, Julian Ruiz-Saenz
      Since its identification in 1978, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) has been considered a pathogen of great importance in the canine population because it causes severe enteritis with high mortality in pups. CPV-2 is a virus belonging to family Parvoviridae. Currently, there are three described antigenic variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c). CPV-2c is an emerging virus that is seen as a global health hazard. The objective of this work was to confirm the presence of CPV-2 in dogs with acute gastroenteritis compatible with parvovirus and to molecularly characterize the antigenic variants circulating in two regions of Colombia. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with fecal samples collected from 71 dogs in two regions of Colombia that showed signs of acute diarrhea. The samples were processed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP), sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 70.42% of the individuals were confirmed positive for CPV-2. Significant differences were found in the presentation of CPV-2 between the evaluated regions. Molecular and phylogenetically, we confirmed the presence of the antigenic variants CPV-2a/2b and we found the presence of two conserved substitutions, Asn428Asp and Ala514Ser in the VP2 protein showing the presence of a possible new CPV-2a variant circulating in Colombia. This study demonstrates the importance of the CPV 2a/2b in the region and highlights the importance of performing molecular studies for the early detection of new antigenic variants of CPV-2.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.039
  • New perspective of host microRNAs in the control of PRRSV infection
    • Authors: Fang Liu; Wen-hai Feng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Fang Liu, Wen-hai Feng
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important diseases in pigs, leading to significant economic losses in swine industry worldwide. PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped positive single-stranded RNA virus, which mainly infects cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and have emerged as important regulators of virus–host cell interactions. In the past several years, scientists have been trying to understand the interaction between host miRNAs and PRRSV infection. Here, we focus on discussing the current understanding roles of host miRNAs in PRRSV infection and propose that miRNAs may be an effective executant in controlling PRRSV infection.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.004
  • A novel pulmonary polyomavirus in alpacas (Vicugna pacos)
    • Authors: Florante N. Dela Cruz; Linlin Li; Eric Delwart; P. Pesavento
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Florante N. Dela Cruz, Linlin Li, Eric Delwart, P. Pesavento
      Viral metagenomic analysis detected a novel polyomavirus in a 6-month old female alpaca (Vicugna pacos) euthanized after a diagnosis of disseminated lymphosarcoma. The viral genome was fully sequenced, found to be similar to other polyomaviruses in gene architecture and provisionally named Alpaca polyomavirus or AlPyV. Viral nucleic acid was detected by PCR in venous blood, spleen, thymus, and lung. AlPyV phylogenetically clustered in the “Wuki” group of PyVs, which includes WU and KI polyomaviruses, commonly found in human respiratory samples. In an ISH analysis of 17 alpaca necropsies, 7 had detectable virus within the lung. In animals without pneumonia, probe hybridization was restricted to the nuclei of scattered individual bronchiolar epithelial cells. Three of the ISH positive alpacas had interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin, and in these animals there was viral nucleic acid detected in bronchiolar epithelium, type II pneumocytes, and alveolar macrophages. The pattern of AlPyV distribution is consistent with a persistent respiratory virus that has a possible role in respiratory disease.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T09:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.005
  • Intracellular survival of Clostridium chauvoei in bovine macrophages
    • Authors: Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires; Renato Lima Santos; Tatiane Alves da Paixão; Laura Cristina de Oliveira Bernardes; Auricélio Alves de Macêdo; Luciana Aramuni Gonçalves; Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior; Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires, Renato Lima Santos, Tatiane Alves da Paixão, Laura Cristina de Oliveira Bernardes, Auricélio Alves de Macêdo, Luciana Aramuni Gonçalves, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Clostridium chauvoei is the etiological agent of blackleg, a severe disease of domestic ruminants, causing myonecrosis and serious toxemia with high mortality. Despite the known importance of this agent, studies evaluating its pathogenesis of blackleg are scarce, and many are based on an unproven hypothesis that states that macrophages are responsible for carrying C. chauvoei spores from the intestines to muscles in the early stages of blackleg. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the survival of C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores after phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages and to profile inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcripts of bovine macrophages infected with C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores. Both vegetative cells and spores of C. chauvoei remain viable after internalization by murine and bovine macrophages. Bovine macrophages infected with vegetative cells showed a pro-inflammatory profile, while those infected with spores displayed an anti-inflammatory profile. Together, these results corroborate the classical hypothesis that macrophages may play a role in the early pathogenesis of blackleg. Moreover, this is the first study to evaluate the infection kinetics and cytokine profile of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with a Clostridium species.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T06:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.027
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2016)
  • Induction and suppression of type I interferon responses by mink enteritis
           virus in CRFK cells
    • Authors: Xiaomei Zhang; Jigui Wang; Yaping Mao; Ji Xi; Yongle Yu; Weiquan Liu
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Xiaomei Zhang, Jigui Wang, Yaping Mao, Ji Xi, Yongle Yu, Weiquan Liu
      Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens causing serious disease in mink. Type I interferon (IFN) plays a critical role in antiviral innate immunity and, for successful infection, many viruses have evolved evasive strategies against it. Here, we show that MEV infection does not evoke IFN or interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) responses in feline kidney (CRFK) cells, and that MEV suppresses IFN production in both poly I:C-stimulated and untreated cells. In CRFK cells pre-exposure to IFN, show that infection with, and replication of, MEV remain unaffected. This inhibition appears to be mediated by the MEV nonstructural protein (NS1) with its ORI-binding domain playing a major role.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2016)
  • Subtyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile PCR
           ribotype 078/126 isolates of human and animal origin
    • Authors: Sergio Álvarez-Pérez; José L. Blanco; Celine Harmanus; Ed Kuijper; Marta E. García
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, José L. Blanco, Celine Harmanus, Ed Kuijper, Marta E. García
      The Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype complex 078/126 (RT078/126) is often involved in human disease and is also frequently isolated from diverse animal species. The high genetic relatedness between human and animal RT078/126 isolates found in different regions has encouraged discussion about the zoonotic potential of this lineage. We compared for the first time the genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of human and animal C. difficile RT078/126 isolates from Spain. A collection of 96 isolates (50 of human and 46 of animal origin; 63 and 33 of ribotypes 078 and 126, respectively) was subtyped by an improved amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting method and tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 67 genotypes were distinguished, three of which grouped together isolates of human and animal origin. Furthermore, two main groups of isolates that mostly correlated with PCR ribotypes could be distinguished in the AFLP dendrogram. Human origin was significantly associated with resistance to ertapenem, erythromycin and moxifloxacin; resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin was associated with RT126 and AFLP group 1. Twenty-nine isolates (30.2% of total) displayed heteroresistance to metronidazole. Substantial differences were observed in the susceptibility profiles of isolates belonging to a same genotype. Altogether, these results provide a valuable baseline for future studies on the epidemiology of C. difficile RT078/126.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2016)
  • Carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in dogs: Prevalence,
           associated risk factors and molecular characteristics
    • Authors: Amy L. Wedley; Susan Dawson; Thomas W. Maddox; Karen P. Coyne; Gina L. Pinchbeck; Peter Clegg; Tim Nuttall; Miranda Kirchner; Nicola J. Williams
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Amy L. Wedley, Susan Dawson, Thomas W. Maddox, Karen P. Coyne, Gina L. Pinchbeck, Peter Clegg, Tim Nuttall, Miranda Kirchner, Nicola J. Williams
      Resistance to antimicrobials, in particular that mediated by extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamases are frequently reported in bacteria causing canine disease as well as in commensal bacteria, which could be a potential health risk for humans they come into contact with. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence and investigate the molecular characteristics of ESBL and plasmid encoded AmpC (pAmpC)-producing E. coli in the mainland UK vet-visiting canine population and, using responses from detailed questionnaires identify factors associated with their carriage. Faecal samples were cultured for antimicrobial resistant (AMR), ESBL and pAmpC-producing E. coli. A subset of ESBL and pAmpC-producing isolates were subjected to multi-locus sequence typing and DNA microarray analyses. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to construct models to identify risk factors associated with multidrug resistant (MDR, resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes), fluoroquinolone resistant, ESBL and AmpC-producing E. coli. AMR E.coli were isolated from 44.8% (n=260) of samples, with 1.9% and 7.1% of samples carrying ESBL and pAmpC-producing E. coli, respectively. MDR E. coli were identified in 18.3% of samples. Recent use of antimicrobials and being fed raw poultry were both identified as risk factors in the outcomes investigated. A number of virulence and resistance genes were identified, including genes associated with extra-intestinal and enteropathogenic E. coli genotypes. Considering the close contact that people have with dogs, the high levels of AMR E. coli in canine faeces may be a potential reservoir of AMR bacteria or resistance determinants.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2016)
  • Genetic characterization of ovine herpesvirus 2 strains involved in water
           buffaloes malignant catarrhal fever outbreaks in Southern Italy
    • Authors: Maria Grazia Amoroso; Giorgio Galiero; Giovanna Fusco
      Pages: 31 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Maria Grazia Amoroso, Giorgio Galiero, Giovanna Fusco
      Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) was responsible for two outbreaks of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on two water buffalo farms in Southern Italy. In this study, the presence of this virus in the nasal swabs from sick animals as well as in the organs of dead buffaloes was ascertained by a Real-time PCR assay. Positive samples also underwent a relative quantitative analysis of the viral DNA in them. All the dead animals had the highest relative viral quantities, while buffaloes recovering from the virus had intermediate quantities, and asymptomatic OvHV-2-positive sheep had the lowest relative quantities (as compared with the calibrator). The strains involved in the MCF outbreaks underwent genetic characterization by sequencing segments of their ORF50, ORF75 and Ov9.5 genes. The results showed that the outbreaks were caused by two specific genetic variants of OvHV-2, and that these variants exhibit nucleotide differences at the loci analysed. Sheep living in the surrounding farms, as well as sheep kept with buffaloes, were also investigated as possible transmitters of the virus. In this regard, local strategies for the control of MCF should consider separating reservoir species from susceptible animals.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T08:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2016)
  • Identification of novel virulence-related genes in Aeromonas hydrophila by
           screening transposon mutants in a Tetrahymena infection model
    • Authors: Maoda Pang; Xing Xie; Yuhao Dong; Hechao Du; Nannan Wang; Chengping Lu; Yongjie Liu
      Pages: 36 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Maoda Pang, Xing Xie, Yuhao Dong, Hechao Du, Nannan Wang, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
      Outbreaks of motile Aeromonad septicemia (MAS) in fish caused by sequence type (ST) 251 Aeromonas hydrophila have become a prominent problem for the aquaculture industry. The pathogenesis of A. hydrophila is very complicated, and some virulence factors remain to be identified. In this study, to identify novel virulence-related factors, ST251 A. hydrophila strain NJ-35 was used as the parental strain to construct a mutant library comprising 1030 mutant strains by transposon insertion mutagenesis. Subsequently, 33 virulence-attenuated transposon insertion mutants were identified using Tetrahymena and zebrafish as model hosts in sequence. Thermal asymmetric interlaced (Tail)-PCR and Southern blot analysis identified 21 single transposon insertion sites. Seven of the insertion sites are located in non-coding regions, whereas the other 14 insertion sites are located in genes, including aroA, rmlA, rtxA, chiA and plc. All insertion mutants exhibited attenuated virulence in Tetrahymena and zebrafish. Furthermore, the relationship of two genes, chiA and trkH, to virulence was confirmed by gene inactivation and subsequent restoration assays. This study provides new information about the genetic determinants of A. hydrophila pathogenicity and validates the Aeromonas-Tetrahymena co-culture model for high-throughput screening of A. hydrophila virulence factors.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2016)
  • An inactivated influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from
           respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge
    • Authors: Ben M. Hause; Lucas Huntimer; Shollie Falkenberg; Jamie Henningson; Kelly Lechtenberg; Tom Halbur
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Ben M. Hause, Lucas Huntimer, Shollie Falkenberg, Jamie Henningson, Kelly Lechtenberg, Tom Halbur
      Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we sought to investigate the efficacy of an inactivated IDV vaccine. Vaccinated calves seroconverted with hemagglutination inhibition titers 137–169 following two doses. Non-vaccinated calves challenged with a homologous virus exhibited signs of mild respiratory disease from days four to ten post challenge which was significantly different than negative controls at days five and nine post challenge. Peak viral shedding of approximately 5 TCID50/mL was measured in nasal and tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids four to six days post challenge. Viral titers were significantly (P <0.05) decreased 1.4 TCID50/mL, 3.6 TCID50/mL and 5.0 TCID50/mL, respectively, in the aforementioned samples collected from vaccinated animals compared to non-vaccinated controls at peak shedding. Viral antigen was detected in the respiratory epithelium of the nasal turbinates and trachea by immunohistochemistry from all unvaccinated calves but in significantly fewer vaccinates. Inflammation characterized by neutrophils was observed in the nasal turbinate and trachea but not appreciably in lungs. Together these results support an etiologic role for IDV in BRD and demonstrate that partial protection is afforded by an inactivated vaccine.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.024
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2016)
  • Genome variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the short period
           of the 2010 epidemic in Japan
    • Authors: Tatsuya Nishi; Manabu Yamada; Katsuhiko Fukai; Nobuaki Shimada; Kazuki Morioka; Kazuo Yoshida; Kenichi Sakamoto; Toru Kanno; Makoto Yamakawa
      Pages: 62 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Tatsuya Nishi, Manabu Yamada, Katsuhiko Fukai, Nobuaki Shimada, Kazuki Morioka, Kazuo Yoshida, Kenichi Sakamoto, Toru Kanno, Makoto Yamakawa
      Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and has a high mutation rate, leading to extensive genetic variation. To investigate how FMDV genetically evolves over a short period of an epidemic after initial introduction into an FMD-free area, whole L-fragment sequences of 104 FMDVs isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan, which continued for less than three months were determined and phylogenetically and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of whole L-fragment sequences showed that these isolates were classified into a single group, indicating that FMDV was introduced into Japan in the epidemic via a single introduction. Nucleotide sequences of 104 virus isolates showed more than 99.56% pairwise identity rates without any genetic deletion or insertion, although no sequences were completely identical with each other. These results indicate that genetic substitutions of FMDV occurred gradually and constantly during the epidemic and generation of an extensive mutant virus could have been prevented by rapid eradication strategy. From comparative analysis of variability of each FMDV protein coding region, VP4 and 2C regions showed the highest average identity rates and invariant rates, and were confirmed as highly conserved. In contrast, the protein coding regions VP2 and VP1 were confirmed to be highly variable regions with the lowest average identity rates and invariant rates, respectively. Our data demonstrate the importance of rapid eradication strategy in an FMD epidemic and provide valuable information on the genome variability of FMDV during the short period of an epidemic.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.025
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2016)
  • Effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on porcine nasal cavity dendritic
    • Authors: Yumeng Shen; Weiwei Hu; Yanna Wei; Zhixin Feng; Qian Yang
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): Yumeng Shen, Weiwei Hu, Yanna Wei, Zhixin Feng, Qian Yang
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is the primary etiological agent responsible for swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that cause tremendous economic losses all over the swine industry. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most effective antigen-presenting cells, are widely distributed beneath respiratory epithelium. DCs uptake and present antigens to T cells, to initiate protective immune responses or generate immune-mediated pathology in different infections. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different DCs subpopulations, T cells and SIgA positive cells counts in porcine nasal cavity after long time Mhp infection. We further evaluated the role of porcine DCs in Mhp exposure. Our results showed that the number of SLA-II-DR+SWC3a+DCs, SLA-II-DR+CD11b+ DCs, T cells, SIgA positive cells in nasal cavity were decreased after Mhp 28 days infection in vivo experiment. The antigen presenting ability of DCs were inhibited by Mhp exposure. DCs couldn’t activate T-cell proliferation by down-regulating the antigen presenting molecule CD1a expression and promoting high level of IL-10 production. Further more, the expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ in DCs were decreased, suggesting that DCs favour for Th2 immune response development after Mhp exposure in vitro. Taken together, Mhp infection impairs the immune function which allows the persistence of Mhp and cause predispose pigs to secondary infections. The decline of DCs presentation ability is the reason why dysfunction and persistence in Mhp infection. These findings are benefit for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms of Mhp in pigs.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T06:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
  • Origin and evolution of LX4 genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus in
    • Authors: Wenjun Zhao; Mengying Gao; Qianqian Xu; Yang Xu; Yan Zhao; Yuqiu Chen; Tingting Zhang; Qiuling Wang; Zongxi Han; Huixin Li; Lingfeng Chen; Shuling Liang; Yuhao Shao; Shengwang Liu
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): Wenjun Zhao, Mengying Gao, Qianqian Xu, Yang Xu, Yan Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Tingting Zhang, Qiuling Wang, Zongxi Han, Huixin Li, Lingfeng Chen, Shuling Liang, Yuhao Shao, Shengwang Liu
      We investigated the genomic characteristics of 110 LX4 genotype strains of infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) isolated between 1995 and 2005 in China. The genome of these IBVs varies in size from 27596bp to 27790bp. Most IBV strains have the typical genomic organization of other gamacoronaviruses, however, two strains lacked 3a and 5b genes as a result of a nucleotide change within the start codon in the 3a or 5b genes. Analysis of our 110 viruses revealed that recombination events may be responsible for the emergence of the LX4 genotype with different topologies. Most of these viruses disappeared (before mid-2005) because they were not “fit” to adaptation in chickens. Finally, those of the “fit” viruses (after mid-2005) continued to evolve and have become widespread and predominant in commercial poultry. In addition, few of these viruses experienced recombination with those of the vaccine strains at the 3′ end of the genome.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T06:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
  • Experimental pathogenicity and complete genome characterization of a pig
           origin Pasteurella multocida serogroup F isolate HN07
    • Authors: Zhong Peng; Wan Liang; Yuanguo Wang; Wenjing Liu; Hongfeng Zhang; Teng Yu; Anding Zhang; Huanchun Chen; Bin Wu
      Pages: 23 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): Zhong Peng, Wan Liang, Yuanguo Wang, Wenjing Liu, Hongfeng Zhang, Teng Yu, Anding Zhang, Huanchun Chen, Bin Wu
      Pasteurella multocida serotype F isolates are predominately prevalent in avian hosts, but rarely seen in pigs. However, we isolated several strains of P. multocida serotype F from clinical samples of pigs in China. To understand the pathogenicity of these strains, one of the serotype F isolates designated HN07, was used to challenge experimental chickens, as P. multocida of this serotype is predominately prevalent in avian hosts. However, strain HN07 could not resulted in significant clinical signs in experimental chickens even at an infective dose of ∼109 CFU, suggesting the isolate was avirulent to chickens and therefore raising the possibility that the porcine serotype F isolate is not transmitted by chickens. We then used HN07 to challenge experimental pigs, as this strain was isolated from pigs. As expected, the strain led to the clinical signs and the pathological lesions in experimental pigs that are similar to the pasteurellosis disease. We then determined the complete genome sequence of the pig origin serogroup F isolate HN07 for the first time. Genome comparison between HN07 and the avian serotype F P. multocida Pm70 identified a novel integrative conjugative element (ICE) ICEpmcn07 which was likely to harbor a series of genes responsible for a putative type IV secretion system (T4SS) in HN07. This is the first time that we determined an ICE carrying a T4SS in P. multocida. Besides, comparative analysis also defined a number of virulence-associated genes in HN07 but absent in Pm70 which may have a contribution to the pathogenicity of the strain. This is the first report of the pathogenicity and genome characterization of a pig origin Pasteurella multocida serogroup F isolate. The pathogenic and genomic definition of the pig origin P. multocida serogroup F in our study would have significance on the pathogenesis and genetic diversity and virulence variability of P. multocida.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T06:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.028
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
  • gga-miR-2127 downregulates the translation of chicken p53 and attenuates
           chp53-mediated innate immune response against IBDV infection
    • Authors: Wei Ouyang; Yong-shan Wang; Kai Meng; Qun-xing Pan; Xiao-li Wang; Xing-xia Xia; Yu-mei Zhu; Zhen-wei Bi; Hai-bin Zhang; Kai Luo
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): Wei Ouyang, Yong-shan Wang, Kai Meng, Qun-xing Pan, Xiao-li Wang, Xing-xia Xia, Yu-mei Zhu, Zhen-wei Bi, Hai-bin Zhang, Kai Luo
      Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by the immune suppression of infected birds. The molecular mechanism by which IBD virus (IBDV) suppresses the host immune system remains to be elucidated. The tumor suppressor protein p53 can inhibit the replication of various viruses, but its effect on IBDV remains unknown. This study established an in vitro infection model based on DF-1 cells (chicken embryo fibroblast cell line) to investigate the antiviral effects of chicken p53 (chp53) on IBDV infection. The expression level and activity of chp53 remarkably increased in IBDV-infected DF-1 cells. The overexpression of chp53 inhibited IBDV replication and upregulated the expression of multiple chicken antiviral innate immunity genes (IPS-1, IRF3, PKR, OAS, and Mx), whereas the suppression of chp53 led to the opposite effect. This result indicates that chp53 activates the antiviral innate immune response of chickens to IBDV infection. Bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that gga-miR-2127 targeted the 3′UTR of chp53. qRT-PCR and western blot revealed that gga-miR-2127 overexpression in DF-1 cells not only downregulated the expression levels of chp53 and of the antiviral innate immunity genes in chickens but also promoted IBDV replication. Our results suggest that gga-miR-2127 downregulates chp53 mRNA translation by targeting its 3′UTR and attenuates chp53-mediated antiviral innate immune response against IBDV.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
  • Challenges in the rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHDV2) molecular
           diagnosis of vaccinated rabbits
    • Authors: C.L. Carvalho; E.L. Duarte; M. Monteiro; A. Botelho; T. Albuquerque; M. Fevereiro; A.M. Henriques; S.S. Barros; Margarida Dias Duarte
      Pages: 43 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): C.L. Carvalho, E.L. Duarte, M. Monteiro, A. Botelho, T. Albuquerque, M. Fevereiro, A.M. Henriques, S.S. Barros, Margarida Dias Duarte
      Molecular methods are fundamental tools for the diagnosis of viral infections. While interpretation of results is straightforward for unvaccinated animals, where positivity represents ongoing or past infections, the presence of vaccine virus in the tissues of recently vaccinated animals may mislead diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the interference of RHDV2 vaccination in the results of a RT-qPCR for RHDV2 detection, and possible associations between mean Cq values of five animal groups differing in age, vaccination status and origin (domestic/wild). Viral sequences from vaccinated rabbits that died of RHDV2 infection (n=14) were compared with the sequences from the commercial vaccines used in those animals. Group Cq means were compared through Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. We proved that RHDV2 vaccine-RNA is not detected by the RT-qPCR as early as 15days post-vaccination, an important fact in assisting results interpretation for diagnosis. Cq values of vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected domestic adults showed a statistically significant difference (p <0.05), demonstrating that vaccination-induced immunity reduces viral loads and delays disease progression. Contrarily, in vaccinated young rabbits higher viral loads were registered compared to non-vaccinated kittens. No significant variation (p =0.3824) was observed between viral loads of non-vaccinated domestic and wild RHDV2-victimised rabbits. Although the reduced number of vaccinated young animals analysed hampered a robust statistical analysis, this occurrence suggests that passively acquired maternal antibodies may inhibit the active immune response to vaccination, delaying protection and favouring disease progression. Our finding emphasises the importance of adapting kitten RHDV2 vaccination schedules to circumvent this interference phenomenon.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
  • Identification of a surface epitope specific of virulent strains of
           Haemophilus parasuis
    • Authors: Florencia Correa-Fiz; Nuria Galofre-Mila; Mar Costa-Hurtado; Virginia Aragon
      Pages: 116 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): Florencia Correa-Fiz, Nuria Galofre-Mila, Mar Costa-Hurtado, Virginia Aragon
      Haemophilus parasuis is a bacterium from the Pasteurellaceae family that comprises strains of different degree of virulence. Non-virulent strains are considered components of the upper respiratory tract microbiota, while virulent strains can invade systemic organs and cause fibrinous polyserositis (Glässer’s disease). Genomic comparison of virulent and non-virulent strains led to the identification of a family of genes differentially associated to virulence, the virulence-associated trimeric autotransporters (vtaA). Monoclonal antibody 69C6 reacted with the surface of virulent strains and has allowed now the identification of an epitope in the C terminus of the passenger domain of the VtaAs from virulent strains. Protein modelling indicated that the epitope is probably exposed, although sera from pigs vaccinated with the passenger domain of VtaA9 and from convalescent animals did not react with the 69C6 epitope. Induction of antibodies against the 69C6 epitope by vaccination would allow a response targeting specifically virulent strains of H. parasuis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T08:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
  • CD44 enhances macrophage phagocytosis and plays a protective role in
           Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection
    • Authors: Qiang Fu; Zigong Wei; Pingping Xiao; Yaosheng Chen; Xiaohong Liu
      Pages: 121 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): Qiang Fu, Zigong Wei, Pingping Xiao, Yaosheng Chen, Xiaohong Liu
      Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases in many mammalian species. CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the protective role of CD44 during S. zooepidemicus infection. CD44-deficient mice exhibited reduced macrophage accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space and enhanced bacterial outgrowth and dissemination, which resulted in reduced mouse survival. An in vitro analysis revealed that CD44 can directly bind to S. zooepidemicus. Additionally, S. zooepidemicus interacted with macrophage-associated CD44, as reflected by the reduced uptake of S. zooepidemicus by CD44-deficient macrophages. These data suggest that CD44 contributes to effective antibacterial defense during S. zooepidemicus infection, thereby limiting the accompanying injury and death.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.030
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
  • Colonisation of poultry by Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 is reduced by
           combined administration of Lactobacillus salivarius 59 and Enterococcus
           faecium PXN-33
    • Authors: Alun Carter; Martin Adams; Roberto M. La Ragione; Martin J. Woodward
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Alun Carter, Martin Adams, Roberto M. La Ragione, Martin J. Woodward
      Salmonella Enteritidis remains a significant issue within the poultry industry and one potential solution is to use probiotic bacteria to prevent Salmonella colonisation through competitive exclusion (CE). We demonstrate that combined administration of Lactobacillus salivarius 59 and Enterococcus faecium PXN33 were effective competitive excluders of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 in poultry. Two models were developed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic where birds received Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 by a) oral gavage and b) sentinel bird to bird transmission. A statistically significant (p<0.001) 2 log reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 colonisation was observed in the ileum, caecum and colon at day 43 using combined administration of the two probiotic bacteria. However, no Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 colonisation reduction was observed when either probiotic was administered individually. In the sentinel bird model the combined probiotic administered at days 12 and 20 was more effective than one-off or double administrations at age 1 and 12 days. In vitro cell free culture supernatant studies suggest the mechanism of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 inhibition was due to a reduction in pH by the probiotic bacteria. Our current study provides further evidence that probiotics can significantly reduce pathogenic bacterial colonisation in poultry and that mixed preparation of probiotics provide superior performance when compared to individual bacterial preparations.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.029
  • Induction of spotty liver disease in layer hens by infection with
           Campylobacter hepaticus
    • Authors: Thi Thu Hao Van; Eltaher Elshagmani; Mian-Chee Gor; Arif Anwar; Peter C. Scott; Robert J. Moore
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Thi Thu Hao Van, Eltaher Elshagmani, Mian-Chee Gor, Arif Anwar, Peter C. Scott, Robert J. Moore
      Spotty liver disease (SLD) in chickens can present with variable impacts on mortality and production, ranging from sporadic mortalities of individual birds and no notable impact on production to severe reduction in egg output and increased mortality in layer flocks of greater than 1% per day. It was first described over 60 years ago and there have been sporadic reports of the disease throughout the intervening decades, particularly in the US, UK and Germany. Recently it has become of increasing concern as outbreaks of the disease have occurred more frequently, particularly in the Australian poultry industry. An understanding of the causes of the disease has proven elusive. However, recent studies of SLD have strongly implicated a novel Campylobacter species, Campylobacter hepaticus, as the causative agent. Here we demonstrate that C. hepaticus is highly invasive in LMH cells, an immortalised chicken hepatoma cell line, and can induce disease when orally delivered to mature layer birds. Challenged birds developed liver lesions, typical of those seen in field clinical cases, within 5days of challenge. The bacterium used to challenge the birds could be recovered from the diseased liver and from bile, thus demonstrating that C. hepaticus is the causative agent of chicken SLD.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.033
  • Effect of enrofloxacin on Haemophilus parasuis infection, disease and
           immune response
    • Authors: Nubia Macedo; Maxim C.J. Cheeran; Albert Rovira; Andrew Holtcamp; Montserrat Torremorell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Nubia Macedo, Maxim C.J. Cheeran, Albert Rovira, Andrew Holtcamp, Montserrat Torremorell
      Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glasser’s disease, is a pathogen that colonizes the upper respiratory tract (URT) of pigs, invades the bloodstream and causes polyserositis. Because antimicrobials are highly effective against H. parasuis, we hypothesized that they could have a detrimental effect on the establishment of an immune response if given at the time of URT colonization. In this study, we characterized clinical outcomes and antibody and IFN-γ responses to H. parasuis in pigs treated with enrofloxacin before or after low dose inoculation with a pathogenic H. parasuis strain. Pigs that were only inoculated with the agent (EXP group) and pigs that were treated with enrofloxacin and then inoculated (ABT/EXP group) developed signs of disease starting at 4days post inoculation (DPI), presented a significant increase in serum IgG and were protected against a subsequent homologous challenge. In contrast, pigs treated with antibiotic after inoculation (EXP/ABT group) neither showed signs of disease nor seroconverted (IgG) after low dose inoculation. EXP/ABT pigs as well as naïve control pigs [enrofloxacin only (ABT) and challenge only (CHA)] were susceptible to challenge. Variable levels of antibodies in bronchioalveolar fluid and IFN-γ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed after H. parasuis inoculation, but were not associated with protection. In summary, only pigs treated before low dose H. parasuis inoculation seroconverted and were protected against subsequent challenge. Results from this study can help determine timing of antimicrobial use and contribute to our current understanding of judicious antibiotic use.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.032
  • Lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Greece during 2015–16, implementation of
           emergency immunization and genetic differentiation between field isolates
           and vaccine virus strains
    • Authors: Eirini I. Agianniotaki; Konstantia E. Tasioudi; Serafeim C. Chaintoutis; Peristera Iliadou; Olga Mangana-Vougiouka; Aikaterini Kirtzalidou; Thomas Alexandropoulos; Achilleas Sachpatzidis; Evangelia Plevraki; Chrysostomos I. Dovas; Eleni Chondrokouki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Eirini I. Agianniotaki, Konstantia E. Tasioudi, Serafeim C. Chaintoutis, Peristera Iliadou, Olga Mangana-Vougiouka, Aikaterini Kirtzalidou, Thomas Alexandropoulos, Achilleas Sachpatzidis, Evangelia Plevraki, Chrysostomos I. Dovas, Eleni Chondrokouki
      The objective of this study is to present epizootiological data from the lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in Greece during 2015–16, following the implementation of emergency vaccination and total stamping-out, along with laboratory data regarding the genetic differentiation between field isolates and live attenuated vaccine virus strains. Descriptive geographical chronology analysis was conducted to present the progressive shift of the outbreaks westwards, and at the same time, the absence of further outbreaks in previously affected regional units where vaccination coverage was achieved. Isolation and molecular characterization of LSDV from the first recorded case in Greece (Evros/GR/15 isolate) was performed. The two live attenuated vaccine LSDV strains (Neethling and SIS type), currently used for emergency immunization in Greece, were sequenced and compared to the Evros/GR/15 isolate, in 3 genomic regions (GPCR gene, RPO30 gene, and partial LSDV126/LSDV127 genes). Sequence comparisons revealed prominent differences between the Evros/GR/15 isolate and the vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in the classification of the Evros/GR/15 isolate in the same clade with all field LSDV isolates, whereas vaccine strains were grouped in a distinct cluster within the LSDV clade. Additional samples from animals presenting LSD-like signs (N=13) were characterized by sequencing in the 3 aforementioned genomic regions. Among them, in 5 animals that were vaccinated, the vaccine strains were identified. A PCR-RFLP method targeting the LSDV127 gene was developed and proved to be able to discriminate between the characterized field and vaccine strains. The findings of the present study substantiate the importance of timely and intensive vaccinations for the control of LSDV epizootic and the genetic differences between the Evros/GR/15 isolate and the vaccine strains. This provides the basis for the development of PCR-based DIVA assays, which would be of major importance for effective disease surveillance and stamping out during LSD vaccination campaigns.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.037
  • Antagonizing Cytokine-Mediated JAK-STAT Signaling by Porcine Reproductive
           and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
    • Authors: Liping Yang; Yan-Jin Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Liping Yang, Yan-Jin Zhang
      Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is activated by myriad cytokines, which are involved in regulation of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, immunity and inflammatory response. Because of its significance in immune response, JAK-STAT pathway is often targeted by pathogens, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. A typical feature of the immune response to PRRSV infection in pigs is delayed production and low titer of virus neutralizing antibodies, and weak cell-mediated immune response. One of the possible reasons for the weak protective immune response is that PRRSV interferes with cytokine-mediated JAK-STAT signaling. PRRSV inhibits interferon-activated JAK-STAT signaling by blocking nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2. The mechanism is that PRRSV non-structural protein 1β (nsp1β) induces degradation of karyopherin α1 (KPNA1), a critical adaptor in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. PRRSV also antagonizes IL6-activated JAK-STAT3 signaling via inducing degradation of STAT3. In this review, we briefly introduce JAK-STAT signaling, summarize the PRRSV interference with it, and provide perspective on the perturbation in the context of PRRSV-elicited immune response.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.036
  • Identification of a novel species of papillomavirus in giraffe lesions
           using nanopore sequencing
    • Authors: Bert Vanmechelen; Mads Frost Bertelsen; Annabel Rector; Joost J. Van den Oord; Lies Laenen; Valentijn Vergote; Piet Maes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Bert Vanmechelen, Mads Frost Bertelsen, Annabel Rector, Joost J. Van den Oord, Lies Laenen, Valentijn Vergote, Piet Maes
      Papillomaviridae form a large family of viruses that are known to infect a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, birds and fish. Infections usually give rise to minor skin lesions but can in some cases lead to the development of malignant neoplasia. In this study, we identified a novel species of papillomavirus (PV), isolated from warts of four giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). The sequence of the L1 gene was determined and found to be identical for all isolates. Using nanopore sequencing, the full sequence of the PV genome could be determined. The coding region of the genome was found to contain seven open reading frames (ORF), encoding the early proteins E1, E2 and E5-E7 as well as the late proteins L1 and L2. In addition to these ORFs, a region located within the E2 gene is thought, based on sequence similarities to other papillomaviruses, to encode an E4 protein, although no start codon could be identified. Based on the sequence of the L1 gene, this novel PV was found to be most similar to Capreolus capreolus papillomavirus 1 (CcaPV1), with 67.96% nucleotide identity. We therefore suggest that the virus identified here is given the name Giraffa camelopardalis papillomavirus 1 (GcPV1) and is classified as a novel species within the genus Deltapapillomavirus, in line with the current guidelines for the nomenclature and classification of PVs.

      PubDate: 2016-12-31T08:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.035
  • Genetic diversity of ORF 4-6 of type 1 porcine reproductive and
           respiratory syndrome virus in naturally infected pigs
    • Authors: Dong-Uk Lee; Sung J. Yoo; Taeyong Kwon; Sang H. Je; Jeong Y. Shin; Jeong J. Byun; Myung H. Kim; Young S. Lyoo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Dong-Uk Lee, Sung J. Yoo, Taeyong Kwon, Sang H. Je, Jeong Y. Shin, Jeong J. Byun, Myung H. Kim, Young S. Lyoo
      Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been highly prevalent throughout Korea since the virus was first detected in 2005. However, genetic analyses of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea have been limited to ORF5 and/or ORF7. In the present study, we determined 10 representative sequence covering ORF4 to ORF6 and each individual ORFs of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea, and performed molecular analyses. The most variable gene among the individual ORFs of field strains was ORF4, and this gene exhibited only 74.5–87.3% sequence homology compared with strains reported elsewhere. However, the strains showed analogous sequence arrangements with each other. In the phylogenetic analysis, the sequences of Korean field strains formed a distinct cluster with some Austrian and German strains compared to genotype 1 PRRSV strains available in GenBank. In the amino acid analysis, the putative antigenic region of GP4 was highly variable, whereas the predicted epitope regions of ORF5 and ORF6 were relatively conserved. The hydropathy plots of GP4 showed a highly variable pattern in the antigenic region. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution analysis suggested that ORF4 presumably had more immunogenic pressure compare with the other ORFs. According to these findings, genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea have been diversified and indigenized in Korea, and these strains might have multifarious immunological and genetic properties. This study provides novel insights into genotype 1 PRRSV in a geographically remote area and contributes to the information for further research on the evolution of type 1 PRRSV in the Korean peninsula.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T08:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.026
  • Novel variants of clade H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza
           virus in migratory waterfowl of Hongze Lake
    • Authors: Wenming Jiang; Guangyu Hou; Jinping Li; Cheng Peng; Suchun Wang; Jiming Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Wenming Jiang, Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Cheng Peng, Suchun Wang, Jiming Chen
      Wild birds are known to play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of the avian influenza viruses (AIVs). More specifically, the waterfowl are thought to be the natural reservoirs of AIVs. Here, we conducted a survey in 2015 at the Hongze Lake and characterized 11 H5N1 highly pathogenic AIVs isolated from wild waterfowls which were found to belong to clade In contrast, the 11 variants of H5N1 viruses did not align with the three previously defined monophyletic subclades. Antigenicity analysis revealed that antigenic drift occurred in these H5N1 variants. Hence, current vaccines may fail to confer protection against the H5N1 AIV variants in poultry.

      PubDate: 2016-12-16T08:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.011
  • Molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cattle
    • Authors: N. Sweetline Anne.; B.S.M. Ronald; T.M.A. Senthil Kumar; P. Kannan; A. Thangavelu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): N. Sweetline Anne., B.S.M. Ronald, T.M.A. Senthil Kumar, P. Kannan, A. Thangavelu
      Bovine tuberculosis continued to be a re-emerging problem in some countries especially in endemic areas due to the fact that human and animal health surveillance system is not adopted to diagnose the infection. This crisis can be attributed due to sharing of the same habitat especially in rural areas. In the present study, a total of 148 samples were collected from cattle for isolation over a period of 3 years from cattle with and without lesions, of which 67 isolates were obtained by culture. Fifty one isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) by IS6110 PCR of which 43 (84.3%) were identified as M. tuberculosis and 08 (15.6%) were identified as M. bovis by using 12.7kb fragment multiplex PCR. Among this, 31 isolates which were positive for IS6110 PCR were subjected to spoligotyping and revealed 28 isolates belonging to MANU1 strain of M. tuberculosis. This study clearly indicates that high prevalence of M. tuberculosis than M. bovis in bovine was identified by means of culture and by molecular methods M. tuberculosis can affect cattle producing lesion in contradiction to the earlier thoughts. This study speculates that M. tuberculosis MANU1 strain infection in cattle could be due to spill over from human or other non specific hosts in tuberculosis endemic areas. Though bovine tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis in cattle is not considered a serious threat worldwide, in countries where human TB is endemic, M. tuberculosis infection of cattle needs to be considered.

      PubDate: 2016-12-16T08:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.013
  • Characterization of the interaction of African swine fever virus with
           monocytes and derived macrophage subsets
    • Authors: Giulia Franzoni; Simon P. Graham; Silvia Dei Giudici; Piero Bonelli; Giovannantonio Pilo; Antonio G. Anfossi; Marco Pittau; Paola S. Nicolussi; Alberto Laddomada; Annalisa Oggiano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Giulia Franzoni, Simon P. Graham, Silvia Dei Giudici, Piero Bonelli, Giovannantonio Pilo, Antonio G. Anfossi, Marco Pittau, Paola S. Nicolussi, Alberto Laddomada, Annalisa Oggiano
      African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease for which there is no vaccine available. The ASF virus (ASFV) primarily infects cells of the myeloid lineage and this tropism is thought to be crucial for disease pathogenesis. A detailed in vitro characterization of the interactions of a virulent Sardinian isolate (22653/14) and a tissue culture adapted avirulent strain (BA71V) of ASFV with porcine monocytes, un-activated (moMΦ), classically (moM1) and alternatively (moM2) activated monocyte-derived macrophages was conducted in an attempt to better understand this relationship. Using a multiplicity-of-infection (MOI) of 1, both viruses were able to infect monocytes and macrophage subsets, but BA71V presented a reduced ability to infect moM1 compared to 22653/14, with higher expression of early compared to late proteins. Using an MOI of 0.01, only 22653/14 was able to replicate in all the macrophage subsets, with initially lowest in moM1 and moM2⋅ No differences were observed in the expression of CD163 between ASFV infected and uninfected bystander cells. ASFV down-regulated CD16 expression but did not modulate MHC class II levels in monocytes and macrophage subsets. BA71V-infected but not 22653/14-infected moMΦ and moM2 presented with a reduced expression of MHC class I compared to the mock-infected controls. Higher levels of IL-18, IL1-β and IL-1α were released from moM1 after infection with BA71V compared to 22653/14 or mock-infected control. These results revealed differences between these ASFV strains, suggesting that virulent isolates have evolved mechanisms to counteract activated macrophages responses, promoting their survival, dissemination in the host and so ASF pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2016-12-16T08:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.010
  • Identification and molecular characterization of a novel serotype
           infectious bronchitis virus (GI-28) in China
    • Authors: Yuqiu Chen; Lei Jiang Wenjun Zhao Liangliang Liu Yan Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yuqiu Chen, Lei Jiang, Wenjun Zhao, Liangliang Liu, Yan Zhao, Yuhao Shao, Huixin Li, Zongxi Han, Shengwang Liu
      Avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) is a major poultry pathogen. A characteristic feature of IBV is the occurrence of many different strains belonging to different serotypes, which renders complete control of the disease by vaccination a challenging task due to the poor cross-protection between different serotypes. In this study, based on the results of S1 sequence analysis and virus cross-neutralization tests, IBV strain ck/CH/LGX/111119 was found to be genetically and antigenically different from other known IBV types, representing not only a novel genotype, but also a novel serotype (designated as GI-28). Viruses belonging to this novel serotype have been isolated from several regions in China in recent years, suggesting endemic circulation of the serotype in various geographic locations in China. Further studies by complete genomic analysis showed that strain ck/CH/LGX/111119 may have originated from recombination events involving LX4 genotype IBVs and an as-yet-unidentified IBV donating a S1 gene, or from the result of accumulation of mutations and selections, especially in the S1 gene, from a LX4 genotype virus. ck/CH/LGX/111119 is a nephropathogenic strain, although it had broader tissue tropism (respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts) among chickens challenged at one day old. Infection of the oviducts with ck/CH/LGX/111119 found in this study may have severe implications because the virus will likely induce the occurrence of false layers.

      PubDate: 2016-12-16T08:20:00Z
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
  • Experimental infection of mandarin duck with highly pathogenic avian
           influenza A (H5N8 and H5N1) viruses
    • Authors: Hyun-Mi Kang; Eun-Kyoung Lee; Byung-Min Song; Gyeong-Beom Heo; Joojin Jung; Il Jang; You-Chan Bae; Suk Chan Jung; Youn-Jeong Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Hyun-Mi Kang, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Byung-Min Song, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Joojin Jung, Il Jang, You-Chan Bae, Suk Chan Jung, Youn-Jeong Lee
      A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was first detected in poultry and wild birds in South Korea in January 2014. Here, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three different clades of H5 viruses in mandarin ducks to examine the potential for wild bird infection. H5N8 (clade replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mandarin ducks than two previously identified H5N1 virus clades (clades 2.2 and However, none of the mandarin ducks infected with H5N8 and H5N1 viruses showed severe clinical signs or mortality, and gross lesions were only observed in a few tissues. Viral replication and shedding were greater in H5N8-infected ducks than in H5N1-infected ducks. Recovery of all viruses from control duck in contact with infected ducks indicated that the highly pathogenic H5 viruses spread horizontally through contact. Taken together, these results suggest that H5N8 viruses spread efficiently in mandarin ducks. Further studies of pathogenicity in wild birds are required to examine possible long-distance dissemination via migration routes.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.005
  • Newcastle Disease Virus from Domestic Mink, China, 2014
    • Authors: Panpan Zhao; Lingshuang Sun; Xiao Sun; Siwen Li; Wen Zhang; Laura A. Pulscher; Hongliang Chai; Mingwei Xing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Panpan Zhao, Lingshuang Sun, Xiao Sun, Siwen Li, Wen Zhang, Laura A. Pulscher, Hongliang Chai, Mingwei Xing
      Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that most often infects poultry species. In investigating a 2014 outbreak of encephalitis and death among farmed mink (Mustela vison), we found pathological and later experimental evidence that NDV can infect and cause severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in these animals. Our findings confirm the host range of NDV.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.003
  • Splenic CD163+ macrophages as targets of porcine reproductive and
           respiratory virus: role of Siglecs
    • Authors: María Yuste; Teresa Fernández-Caballero; Cinta Prieto; Belén Álvarez; Javier Martínez-Lobo; Isabel Simarro; José María Castro; Fernando Alonso; Ángel Ezquerra; Javier Domínguez; Concepción Revilla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): María Yuste, Teresa Fernández-Caballero, Cinta Prieto, Belén Álvarez, Javier Martínez-Lobo, Isabel Simarro, José María Castro, Fernando Alonso, Ángel Ezquerra, Javier Domínguez, Concepción Revilla
      CD169 and CD163 have been involved in the process of PRRS virus attachment and infection in macrophages, although recent studies have challenged the requirement for CD169. In addition to CD169, macrophages express other siglecs, whose role in PRRS virus infection is so far unknown. Splenic CD163+ macrophages express Siglec-3 and Siglec-5 but almost undetectable levels of CD169. Hence, we considered this cell population appropriate for analysing the role of these siglecs in the attachment and internalization of PRRS virus into macrophages. PRRS virus replicated efficiently in these macrophages, yielding even higher titres than in alveolar macrophages. Besides, a recombinant protein consisting in the ectodomain of porcine Siglec-3 fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (Siglec3-Fc) was able to bind PRRS virus, while binding to Siglec-5-Fc was inconsistent. Antibodies to CD169 but not to Siglec-3 or Siglec-5 blocked the binding and infection of PRRS virus on alveolar macrophages. Unexpectedly, our antibody to CD169 also blocked the binding of PRRS virus to splenic CD163+ macrophages, whereas antibodies to Siglec-3 or Siglec-5 had no effect. These results show that very low levels of CD169 expression are enough to support the attachment and internalization of PRRS virus into macrophages, whereas Siglec-3 and Siglec-5 do not seem to contribute to the virus entry in these cells.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.004
  • Reduced particle size wheat bran is butyrogenic and lowers Salmonella
           colonization, when added to poultry feed
    • Authors: K. Vermeulen; J. Verspreet; C.M. Courtin; F. Haesebrouck; R. Ducatelle; F. Van Immerseel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): K. Vermeulen, J. Verspreet, C.M. Courtin, F. Haesebrouck, R. Ducatelle, F. Van Immerseel
      Feed additives, including prebiotics, are commonly used alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters to improve gut health and performance in broilers. Wheat bran is a highly concentrated source of (in)soluble fiber which is partly degraded by the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of wheat bran as such to reduce colonization of the cecum and shedding of Salmonella bacteria in vivo. Also, the effect of particle size was evaluated. Bran with an average reduced particle size of 280μm decreased levels of cecal Salmonella colonization and shedding shortly after infection when compared to control groups and groups receiving bran with larger particle sizes. In vitro fermentation experiments revealed that bran with smaller particle size was fermented more efficiently, with a significantly higher production of butyrate and propionate, compared to control fermentation and fermentation of the larger fraction. The fermentation products derived from bran with an average particle size of 280μm downregulated the expression of hilA, an important invasion-related gene of Salmonella. This downregulation was reflected in an actual lowered invasive potential when Salmonella bacteria were pretreated with the fermentation products derived from the smaller bran fraction. These data suggest that wheat bran with reduced particle size can be a suitable feed supplement to combat Salmonella infections in broilers. The mechanism of action most probably relies on a more efficient fermentation of this bran fraction and the consequent increased production of short chain fatty acids. Among these SCFA, butyrate and propionate are known to reduce the invasion potential of Salmonella bacteria.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.009
  • A Recombinant Fusion Protein Consisting of West Nile Virus Envelope Domain
           III Fused in-frame with Equine CD40 Ligand Induces Antiviral Immune
           Responses in Horses
    • Authors: Shiliang A. Liu; Muzammel Haque; Brent Stanfield; Frank M. Andrews; Alma A. Roy; Konstantin G. Kousoulas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Shiliang A. Liu, Muzammel Haque, Brent Stanfield, Frank M. Andrews, Alma A. Roy, Konstantin G. Kousoulas
      West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in the US and causes severe neurologic disease in horses since its introduction in 1999. There is no effective pharmaceutical treatment for WNV infection rendering vaccination as the only approach to prevention and control of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a recombinant vaccine containing domain III (DIII) of the WNV envelope glycoprotein with and without a natural adjuvant equine (CD40L) in producing virus neutralizing antibodies in horses. Serum IgG1 concentration in the groups of horses vaccinated with the DIII-CD40L+TiterMax and DIII-CD40L proteins were significantly increased (p<0.05) after the second booster vaccination compared to other groups. Serum IgG4 and IgG7, IgG3 and IgG5 concentrations were not significantly increased among all groups. Western blot results showed that animals immunized with the DIII-CD40L protein (with or without TiterMax exhibited the highest specific anti-DIII antibody activities after vaccinations. Moreover, animals immunized with the DIII-CD40L protein (with or without TiterMax) exhibited significantly stronger neutralization activity (p<0.05) compared to other groups starting at week eight. The DIII-CD40L protein (with or without TiterMax) stimulated more CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells in equine PMBCs. The results demonstrated that vaccination with recombinant WNV E DIII-CD40L protein induced superior humoral and cellular immune response in healthy horses that may be protective against WNV-associated disease in infected animals. CD40L could be utilized as a non-toxic, alternative adjuvant to boost the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines in horses.

      PubDate: 2016-12-10T09:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.008
  • Identification of genes involved in Mycoplasma gallisepticum biofilm
           formation using mini-Tn4001-SGM transposon mutagenesis
    • Authors: Yang Wang; Li Yi; Fanqing Zhang; Xusheng Qiu; Lei Tan; Shengqing Yu; Xiangchao Cheng; Chan Ding
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yang Wang, Li Yi, Fanqing Zhang, Xusheng Qiu, Lei Tan, Shengqing Yu, Xiangchao Cheng, Chan Ding
      Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important pathogen that can cause chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. MG has the ability to form biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying MG biofilm formation are complex and poorly understood. To better understand the mechanisms involved in biofilm formation, mini-Tn4001-SGM, a novel transposon vector containing the gentamicin gene was constructed and electroporated into MG strain Rlow. Of the 738 mutants obtained, 12 had significantly reduced capacity to form biofilms in a polystyrene microtiter-plate biofilm assay. Ten different genes were identified as disrupted in these mutants using genomic walking from the transposon insertion sites and Southern bolt hybridization with a transposon-based probe. Four genes were associated with cellular processes, especially synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide and several lipoproteins encoded. Other genes were associated with translation, metabolism and gene regulation, and one had unknown function. Seven genes identified in this study have been previously associated with biofilm formation in MG or other bacterial species. The other three have not been previously reported to play a role in biofilm formation in MG. In conclusion, a new transposon vector was shown to be a powerful tool for future studies of MG pathogenesis. This study adds to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MG biofilm formation and may shed light on the persistence of MG infections.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.021
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