for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 209 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Record Case Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2        [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Effect of vaccination against pneumonia on the survival of bighorn sheep
           (Ovis canadensis) commingled with carrier animals
    • Authors: Bindu Raghavan; Jegarubee Bavananthasivam; Abirami Kugadas; Gary J. Haldorson; Subramaniam Srikumaran
      Pages: 56 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Bindu Raghavan, Jegarubee Bavananthasivam, Abirami Kugadas, Gary J. Haldorson, Subramaniam Srikumaran
      Leukotoxin producing (lkt+) members of Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi are important pathogens of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis), causing fatal disease. Predisposing or concurrent infection with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae enhances the severity of the disease, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of vaccines against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae in preventing fatal pneumonia in BHS. In all of these studies, however, vaccinated animals were challenged experimentally, by direct inoculation of the pathogens, rather than by natural challenge. Moreover, none has investigated the efficacy of the vaccines under conditions of concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae. We immunized three bighorn rams and one pregnant ewe with an experimental multivalent vaccine along with a commercial vaccine. The immunized animals were then commingled with two bighorn ewes known to be carriers of lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae, to simulate natural infection or disease transmission. All vaccinated animals remained healthy. We then inoculated the two carrier ewes with nasal washings from domestic sheep containing M. ovipneumoniae. Within a week, all animals developed mild to moderate signs of pneumonia. While the rams died within two-three months post-inoculation (p.i.), the vaccinated ewe and her lamb died five and eight months p.i., respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that vaccination of BHS against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae alone can protect them from natural challenge by these pathogens. However, it may not be adequate to protect them against pneumonia compounded by concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Inter-laboratory validation of foot-and-mouth disease diagnostic
           capability in Germany
    • Authors: Veronika Dill; Michael Eschbaumer; Martin Beer; Bernd Hoffmann
      Pages: 62 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Veronika Dill, Michael Eschbaumer, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann
      Germany has been free from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) without vaccination since 1992, but diagnostic capability at regional laboratories is maintained for FMDV exclusion in suspect cases and as surge capacity for outbreak preparedness. A proficiency test was initiated in 2015 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 20 regional veterinary laboratories. A panel of two identical samples of FMDV genome for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), four lyophilized bovine sera for antibody detection and eight samples of inactivated vaccine antigen for analysis with a lateral-flow device (LFD) were tested with the systems routinely used at the participating institutions. With only one exception, all laboratories reliably detected viral RNA with two real-time RT-PCR assays down to a dilution of 10(-4) of the original material. The LFD pen-side test was evaluated at 8 of 20 laboratories, and FMDV antigen was detected by all participants down to a dilution of 1:81. Serological diagnosis was also very consistent at most participating institutions. Very few false-negative results were returned for the diluted positive sera, and testing of a large cohort of negative samples demonstrated a high specificity of over 99% for the two commercial ELISA kits used (PrioCHECK® FMDV NS and ID Screen® FMD NSP). In conclusion, the proficiency test demonstrated the reliable and robust FMDV diagnostic capability of the German regional veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Furthermore, the suitability of the commercially available ELISA systems for the detection of FMDV-specific antibodies was confirmed. Proficiency tests are an important quality assurance measure for transboundary diseases like FMDV where diagnostic capacity in free countries has to be available at the highest possible standard.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Proteomic and bioinformatic analyses of putative Mannheimia haemolytica
           secretome by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Sahlu Ayalew; Anthony W. Confer; Steve D. Hartson; Patricia J. Canaan; Mark Payton; Brian Couger
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Sahlu Ayalew, Anthony W. Confer, Steve D. Hartson, Patricia J. Canaan, Mark Payton, Brian Couger
      Mannheimia haemolytica is a major bacterial contributor to bovine respiratory disease complex that costs the livestock industry a billion dollars a year in USA. Commercial vaccines are only partially efficacious under field conditions. Earlier studies found that outer membrane protein preparations and culture supernatants can induce immune responses that enhance resistance to challenge by M. haemolytica strains. The objective of this study was to characterize secretome of two M. haemolytica stains grown under two different media. Bacteria-free concentrated supernatants from M. haemolytica culture was subjected to LC–MS/MS. The secretome of M. haemolytica from both strains yielded 923 proteins. Using bioinformatic tools, 283 were identified as secreted proteins. Further breakdown of 283 proteins showed that 114 (40.2%), 184 (65.0%), 138(48.7%), 151 (53.3%) and 172 (60.7%) were characterized as secreted proteins by SignalP 4.1, SecretomeP 2.0, LipoP, Phobius, and PRED-TAT, respectively. A total of 95 (33.56%) proteins were characterized as being secreted via non-classical pathway as opposed to the majority that were secreted in signal peptide dependent pathway. The demonstrated proteins include all previously immunologically characterized M. haemolytica proteins. The potential of using secretome analysis in the design and development of a multivalent vaccine is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Genetic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum
           based on characterization and evolution of CRISPR sequence
    • Authors: Xiaolei Xie; Yachen Hu; Yaohui Xu; Kequan Yin; Yang Li; Yun Chen; Jie Xia; Lijuan Xu; Zijian Liu; Shizhong Geng; Qiuchun Li; Xinan Jiao; Xiang Chen; Zhiming Pan
      Pages: 81 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Xiaolei Xie, Yachen Hu, Yaohui Xu, Kequan Yin, Yang Li, Yun Chen, Jie Xia, Lijuan Xu, Zijian Liu, Shizhong Geng, Qiuchun Li, Xinan Jiao, Xiang Chen, Zhiming Pan
      Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is the cause of pullorum disease, characterized by white diarrhea, which leads to high mortality in poultry. In this study, we aimed to assess the genetic diversity of 655 S. Pullorum strains from 1962 to 2015 in China, Europe, and South America. A sequence typing scheme based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) was used to reveal the genetic relationships among these strains in this study. Overall, a total of 20 Pullorum sequence types (PSTs) of CRISPR were identified in the 655 isolates with PST7 (74%, 486/655) and PST3 (13%, 86/655) to be the most two frequent PSTs belonging to two different lineages, which confirmed the genetic conservation of S. Pullorum strains isolated from six provinces and two direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing and Shanghai) in China. However, the identification of seven new PSTs distributed in strains isolated since 2001 implied that genetic variation continues to develop in S. Pullorum. Interestingly, the whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing (WGST) of 96 strains out of the 655 isolates divided them into four lineages based on SNP analysis of core genomic sequence and exhibit good correspondence with the CRISPR subtyping method. Notably, 22 out of 26 isolates from Europe and South America were distributed in five distinctive PSTs (with no Chinese strains). Additionally, CRISPR data of spacers and their arrangement exhibit subtle but distinct specificity between different strains, and the dynamic adaptive nature of CRISPR loci provides critical insights into the evolution of S. Pullorum as the bacteria are influenced by their environment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Vaccine immune pressure influences viral population complexity of avian
           influenza virus during infection
    • Authors: Adelaide Milani; Alice Fusaro; Francesco Bonfante; Gianpiero Zamperin; Annalisa Salviato; Marzia Mancin; Eleonora Mastrorilli; Joseph Hughes; Hussein A. Hussein; Magdi Hassan; Egbert Mundt; Calogero Terregino; Giovanni Cattoli; Isabella Monne
      Pages: 88 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Adelaide Milani, Alice Fusaro, Francesco Bonfante, Gianpiero Zamperin, Annalisa Salviato, Marzia Mancin, Eleonora Mastrorilli, Joseph Hughes, Hussein A. Hussein, Magdi Hassan, Egbert Mundt, Calogero Terregino, Giovanni Cattoli, Isabella Monne
      Vaccines are useful tools to control influenza A virus infection in poultry, but they need to be periodically reformulated to guarantee appropriate protection from infection and to limit viral replication and circulation, which could favour the emergence of new variants. In this study, a deep sequencing approach was used to characterize and follow the evolution of the hemagglutinin of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viral population in infected animals vaccinated with two vaccines conferring different protection levels. Results from this preliminary investigation suggested that the evolution of the viral population, as well as the abundance and heterogeneity of minority variants could be influenced by the immune pressure conferred by vaccination.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of sample types and diagnostic methods for in vivo detection of
           Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during early stages of infection
    • Authors: Maria Pieters; Jason Daniels; Albert Rovira
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Maria Pieters, Jason Daniels, Albert Rovira
      Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in live pigs during the early stages of infection is critical for timely implementation of control measures, but is technically challenging. This study compared the sensitivity of various sample types and diagnostic methods for detection of M. hyopneumoniae during the first 28days after experimental exposure. Twenty-one 8-week old pigs were intra-tracheally inoculated on day 0 with M. hyopneumoniae strain 232. Two age matched pigs were mock inoculated and maintained as negative controls. On post-inoculation days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21 and 28, nasal swabs, laryngeal swabs, tracheobronchial lavage fluid, and blood samples were obtained from each pig and oral fluid samples were obtained from each room in which pigs were housed. Serum samples were assayed by ELISA for IgM and IgG M. hyopneumoniae antibodies and C-reactive protein. All other samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae DNA by species-specific real-time PCR. Serum antibodies (IgG) to M. hyopneumoniae were detected in challenge-inoculated pigs on days 21 and 28. M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected in samples from experimentally inoculated pigs beginning at 5days post-inoculation. Laryngeal swabs at all samplings beginning on day 5 showed the highest sensitivity for M. hyopneumoniae DNA Detection, while oral fluids showed the lowest sensitivity. Although laryngeal swabs are not considered the typical M. hyopneumoniae diagnostic sample, under the conditions of this study laryngeal swabs tested by PCR proved to be a practical and reliable diagnostic sample for M. hyopneumoniae detection in vivo during early-stage infection.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Genetic, antigenic, and pathogenic characteristics of avian infectious
           bronchitis viruses genotypically related to 793/B in China
    • Authors: Zongxi Han; Wenjun Zhao; Yuqiu Chen; Qianqian Xu; Junfeng Sun; Tingting Zhang; Yan Zhao; Shuling Liang; Mengying Gao; Qiuling Wang; Xiangang Kong; Shengwang Liu
      Pages: 125 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Zongxi Han, Wenjun Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Qianqian Xu, Junfeng Sun, Tingting Zhang, Yan Zhao, Shuling Liang, Mengying Gao, Qiuling Wang, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
      In this study, 20 infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, which were genotypically related to 793/B, as assessed by an S1 gene comparison and a complete genomic sequence analysis, were isolated and identified from 2009 to 2014 in China. Phylogenetic analysis, network tree, similarity plot analysis, Recombination Detection Program 4(RDP4) and sequence comparison revealed that 12 of the 20 isolates were likely the reisolated vaccine virus. One isolate, ck/CH/LSD/110857, was shown to have originated from recombination events between H120- and 4/91-like vaccine strains that did not result in changes of antigenicity and pathogenicity. The remaining seven IBV isolates were shown to have originated from recombination events between a 4/91-like vaccine strain and a GX-LY9-like virus, which were responsible for the emergence of a novel serotype. A vaccination-challenge test found that vaccination with the 4/91 vaccine strain did not provide protection against challenge with the recombinant viruses. In addition, the results showed that the recombination events between the vaccine and field strains resulted in altered genetics, serotype, antigenicity, and pathogenicity compared with those of their deduced parental viruses. The results are important not only because this virus is of economic importance to poultry industry, but also because it is important for elucidating the origin and evolution of other coronaviruses.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.039
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • In vitro adherence and invasion of primary chicken oviduct epithelial
           cells by Gallibacterium anatis
    • Authors: Xiu-Ping Zhang; Cai-Jing Lu; Yong-Tao Li; Xia Yang; Xin-Wei Wang; Hong-Tao Chang; Hong-Ying Liu; Lu Chen; Jun Zhao; Chuan-Qing Wang; Yung-Fu Chang
      Pages: 136 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Xiu-Ping Zhang, Cai-Jing Lu, Yong-Tao Li, Xia Yang, Xin-Wei Wang, Hong-Tao Chang, Hong-Ying Liu, Lu Chen, Jun Zhao, Chuan-Qing Wang, Yung-Fu Chang
      Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) has been suggested to have a causal role in salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying chickens, leading to decreased egg production and increased mortality worldwide. Adherence and invasion of epithelial cells are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of G. anatis infection. The purpose of this article was to study adherence and invasion of G. anatis using two G. anatis strains of different virulence (Yu-PDS-RZ-1-SLG strain, highly virulent and F149T strain, non-virulent) via infection of the primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (PCOECs).The results showed that Yu-PDS-RZ-1 -SLG strain was able to attach to PCOECs at higher levels than that of F149T strain, but no invasion was observed with either strain. However, cell debris and cell apoptosis were observed after being exposed to G. anatis Yu-PDS-RZ-1-SLG for 90min, whereas G. anatis F149T did not cause cell damage, and adherence was prevented by trypsin treatment of bacterial cells. Cytokines were detected by ELISA after infection, and the results showed that the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels was higher in virulent strain infection than that of the avirulent group. Results also indicated that the highly virulent strain G. anatis displayed an increased level of adherence. Changes in cytokine profiles in this study suggested that the production of cytokines might influence the microenvironment of oviduct and promote adherence, serving as a possible mechanism inducing cell damage.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Determinants of virulence and of resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and
           spectinomycin in clinical Escherichia coli from broiler chickens in
           Québec, Canada
    • Authors: Gabhan Chalmers; Ashley C. Cormier; Marie Nadeau; Geneviève Côté; Richard J. Reid-Smith; Patrick Boerlin
      Pages: 149 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Gabhan Chalmers, Ashley C. Cormier, Marie Nadeau, Geneviève Côté, Richard J. Reid-Smith, Patrick Boerlin
      Antimicrobials are frequently used for the prevention of avian colibacillosis, with gentamicin used for this purpose in Québec until 2003. Ceftiofur was also used similarly, but voluntarily withdrawn in 2005 due to increasing resistance. Spectinomycin-lincomycin was employed as a replacement, but ceftiofur use was partially reinstated in 2007 until its definitive ban by the poultry industry in 2014. Gentamicin resistance frequency increased during the past decade in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Québec, despite this antimicrobial no longer being used. Since this increase coincided with the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin, co-selection of gentamicin resistance through spectinomycin was suspected. Therefore, relationships between spectinomycin, gentamicin, and ceftiofur resistance determinants were investigated here. The distribution of 13 avian pathogenic E. coli virulence-associated genes and their association with spectinomycin resistance were also assessed. A sample of 586 E. coli isolates from chickens with colibacillosis in Québec between 2009 and 2013 was used. The major genes identified for resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin were bla CMY, aac(3)-VI, and aadA, respectively. The aadA and aac(3)-VI genes were strongly associated and shown to be located on a modified class 1 integron. The aadA and bla CMY genes were negatively associated, but when present together, were generally located on the same plasmids. No statistical positive association was observed between aadA and virulence genes, and virulence genes were only rarely detected on plasmids encoding spectinomycin resistance. Thus, the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin may likely select for gentamicin but not ceftiofur resistance, nor for any of the virulence-associated genes investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Drivers of Bartonella infection in micromammals and their fleas in a
           Mediterranean peri-urban area
    • Authors: Aitor Cevidanes; Laura Altet; Andrea D. Chirife; Tatiana Proboste; Javier Millán
      Pages: 181 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Aitor Cevidanes, Laura Altet, Andrea D. Chirife, Tatiana Proboste, Javier Millán
      People living at the human/wildlife interface are at risk of becoming infected with Bartonella for which micromammals act as reservoir. We aimed to determine the factors related to the prevalence of Bartonella and its haplotype diversity in micromammals and in their fleas in a Mediterranean peri-urban environment. We analyzed 511 micromammals, chiefly 407 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), captured into Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain) in spring and autumn from 2011 to 2013 in two natural and two adjacent residential areas, their fleas (grouped in 218 monospecific pools) and 29 fetuses from six Bartonella-positive female wood mice. Amplification of a fragment of ITS was carried out by real time PCR. Prevalence was 49% (57% in the dominant species, the wood mouse), and 12 haplotypes were detected. In general, prevalence was higher in those hosts more heavily infested by fleas, coincident with higher rates of capture, in autumn than in spring, and in adults than in juveniles. Prevalence did not differ between natural and residential areas except for one prevalent haplotype, which was more frequent in natural areas. Prevalence in flea pools (58%) was only explained by Bartonella occurrence in the pool host. In 56.4% of the flea pools with identified Bartonella haplotypes, we found the same haplotype in the host and in its flea pool. Prevalence in wood mouse fetuses was 69%, with at least one infected fetus in all litters, and two litters with all the fetuses infected. indicating that vertical transmission might be important in Bartonella epidemiology in the wood mouse. There is a hazard of Bartonella infection for people living in residential areas and those visiting peri-urban natural areas in Barcelona.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • A bacterial ghost improves the immunological efficacy of a Newcastle
           disease virus inactivated vaccine
    • Authors: Wei Si; Shenye Yu; Henggui Liu; Chunlai Wang; Liping Chen; Gaoling Wang; Jianan Wu; Siguo Liu
      Pages: 189 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Wei Si, Shenye Yu, Henggui Liu, Chunlai Wang, Liping Chen, Gaoling Wang, Jianan Wu, Siguo Liu
      Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most common contagious viral infectious diseases of poultry. Vaccination is an effective way to protect chickens from Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and large efforts have been made to acquire not only new vaccines but also new adjuvants to improve the efficiency of existing inactivated vaccines. Here, we observed the adjuvanticity of the bacterial ghost (BG) on the effectiveness of inactivated NDV vaccine in a chicken model. We found that BG, as an adjuvant with inactivated NDV vaccine, substantially strengthened the ND-specific antibody response and protection against lethal challenge in a chicken model, reduced viral shedding, strengthened the time duration of antibody titers, produced an available immunization effect with a low dose of vaccine, and improved serum IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations. Our results demonstrate that BG significantly improved the immunogenicity of an inactivated NDV vaccine and is a new immune adjuvant candidate.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian
           vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody
           response in cattle
    • Authors: B.P. Sreenivasa; J.K. Mohapatra; S.J. Pauszek; M. Koster; V.C. Dhanya; R.P. Tamil Selvan; M. Hosamani; P. Saravanan; Suresh H. Basagoudanavar; T. de los Santos; R. Venkataramanan; L.L. Rodriguez; M.J. Grubman
      Pages: 196 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): B.P. Sreenivasa, J.K. Mohapatra, S.J. Pauszek, M. Koster, V.C. Dhanya, R.P. Tamil Selvan, M. Hosamani, P. Saravanan, Suresh H. Basagoudanavar, T. de los Santos, R. Venkataramanan, L.L. Rodriguez, M.J. Grubman
      Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O, A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (Bos indicus). Purified Ad5-FMD viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×109 pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×109 pfu/animal per serotype) vaccines. Animals vaccinated with monovalent Ad5-FMD vaccines were boosted 63days later with the same dose. After primary immunization, virus neutralization tests (VNT) showed seroconversion in 83, 67 and 33% of animals vaccinated with Ad5-FMD O, A and Asia 1, respectively. Booster immunization elicited seroconversion in all of the animals (100%) in the monovalent groups. When used in a trivalent form, the Ad5-FMD vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in only 33, 50 and 16% of animals against serotypes O, A and Asia 1, respectively on primo-vaccination, and titers were significantly lower than when the same vectors were used in monovalent form. Neutralizing antibody titers differed by serotype for both Ad5-FMD monovalent and trivalent vaccines, with Asia 1 serotype inducing the lowest titers. Antibody response to Ad5 vector in immunized cattle was also assessed by VNT. It appeared that the vector immunity did not impact the recall responses to expressed FMDV antigens on booster immunization. In summary, the study suggested that the recombinant Ad5-FMD vaccine has a potential use in monovalent form, while its application in multivalent form is not currently encouraging.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Dynamics of CMY-2 producing E. coli in a broiler parent flock
    • Authors: Anita Dame-Korevaar; Egil A.J. Fischer; Arjan Stegeman; Dik Mevius; Alieda van Essen-Zandbergen; Francisca Velkers; Jeanet van der Goot
      Pages: 211 - 214
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Anita Dame-Korevaar, Egil A.J. Fischer, Arjan Stegeman, Dik Mevius, Alieda van Essen-Zandbergen, Francisca Velkers, Jeanet van der Goot
      Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producing bacteria are resistant to Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins (ESC), and are present in all levels of the broiler production chain. We determined the prevalence, concentration, and persistence of ESBL/pAmpC-Escherichia coli in a broiler parent flock during the rearing and laying period. One-day old chickens were housed in four separate pens. Until week 33 no antibiotics or coccidiostatics were used. During rearing 57 chickens in each pen (n =228), and in the laying period two groups of 33 chickens were individually sampled (n =66). Environmental samples were taken from week 16 onwards. ESBL/pAmpC-E. coli presence was determined by selective culturing. In the samples of week 16–19 the concentration of ESBL/pAmpC-E. coli was determined. All ESC-resistant isolates found were positive for pAmpC gene bla CMY-2 located on IncA/C plasmids, in several E. coli MLST types. CMY-2-E. coli prevalence decreased from 91% (95%CI 86–94%) at day 7 (week 1) to 0% (95%CI 0–5%) in week 21. However, CMY-2-E. coli remained present in the environmental samples during the whole study. CMY-2-E. coli concentration varied between detection limit (<10^3) and 2·10^4 cfu/g faeces. The sharp reduction of CMY-2-E. coli in this broiler parent flock in absence of antibiotics suggests a selective disadvantage of bla CMY-2 on IncA/C plasmids on animal level. The underlying mechanism should be studied further as this may provide new insights on how to reduce ESBL/pAmpC prevalence and transmission in the broiler production chain.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in naturally infected gilts over
           time
    • Authors: Karine L. Takeuti; David E.S.N. de Barcellos; Anne C. de Lara; Cintia F. Kunrath; Maria Pieters
      Pages: 215 - 220
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 203
      Author(s): Karine L. Takeuti, David E.S.N. de Barcellos, Anne C. de Lara, Cintia F. Kunrath, Maria Pieters
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes a chronic respiratory infection in pigs and its transmission occurs mainly by direct contact and by vertical transmission (sow-to-piglet). The objective of this study was to assess the detection dynamics and persistence of M. hyopneumoniae natural infection in replacement gilts. Forty-four twenty-day-old gilts were selected from a M. hyopneumoniae positive farm and followed up to one day prior to their first weaning. Laryngeal swabs were collected every 30days, starting at day 20, for M. hyopneumoniae detection by real-time PCR, resulting in 12 samplings. Piglets born to selected females were sampled via laryngeal swabs one day prior to weaning to evaluate sow-to-piglet transmission. The M. hyopneumoniae prevalence was estimated at each one of the 12 samplings in gilts and a multiple comparison test and Bonferroni correction were performed. Bacterial detection in gilts started at 110days of age (doa) and a significant increase (p< 0.05) occurred at 140 doa. The M. hyopneumoniae prevalence remained above 20% from 140 to 230 doa, decreasing thereafter. However, it did not reach 0% at any sampling after 110 doa. In this study, M. hyopneumoniae was not detected in piglets sampled prior to weaning. The M. hyopneumoniae detection pattern showed that in natural infections, gilts were positive for M. hyopneumoniae for one to three months, but occasionally long-term detection may occur. Moreover, the lack of M. hyopneumoniae detection throughout the study in 18.2% of gilts indicated the existence of negative subpopulations in positive herds.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 203 (2017)
       
  • Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Modified Live Virus Vaccines for Cattle Reproduction:
           Balancing Protection with Undesired Effects
    • Authors: Christopher C.L. Chase; Robert W. Fulton; Donal O’Toole; Benjamin Gillette; Russell F. Daly; George Perry; Travis Clement
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Christopher C.L. Chase, Robert W. Fulton, Donal O’Toole, Benjamin Gillette, Russell F. Daly, George Perry, Travis Clement
      Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) has long been associated with reproductive failure in cattle following infection of the ovary and/or fetus. Vaccination prior to breeding has been an effective approach to lessen the impact of BoHV-1 on reproduction. Prior studies in the 1980's and 1990's established the susceptibility of the ovary and particularly the corpus luteum (CL) to BoHV-1 infection. A series of studies at breeding time established that: 1) in naïve animals, the CL was the major target of BoHV-1 pathology; 2) CL lesions occurred within 4-9 days after estrus; 3) similar lesions was seen with BoHV-1 MLV vaccines; 4) ovarian lesions varied by the vaccine strain used; 5) progesterone decreased with or without CL lesions; and 6) following reactivation of BoHV-1 latent infection, ovaries could become reinfected in the face of BoHV-1 immunity. Large scale field studies demonstrated that conception was highest in animals previously vaccinated and boostered with inactivated vaccine compared to animals revaccinated with MLV. In the early 2000's, to get a label claim to vaccinate calves nursing pregnant cows, safety study outlines were approved by USDA-APHIS CVB. These studies were designed to determine the effect of revaccination with MLV during pregnancy on previously vaccinated cows and were not rigorous enough to confirm complete fetal safety. As designed these studies showed no difference in reproductive loss between the previously vaccinated animals and the animals revaccinated ∼4, 7 and 9 months later, leading to the label approval for MLV vaccination in pregnant cows. Subsequent investigations by diagnostic laboratories found an increase in BoHV-1 reproductive loss after the approval for use in pregnant animals. A method was developed to differentiate IBR vaccine strains from field strains. Analysis of viruses from 31 cases from 2009- 2016 indicated that all 31 isolates matched with vaccine strains. Going forward, it will be necessary to develop vaccine approaches that use non-abortifacient, nonlatent BoHV-1 vaccines that develop lifelong immunity, protecting the animal while doing no harm to the fetus.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.016
       
  • Host genetics of response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
           in nursery pigs
    • Authors: Jack Dekkers; R.R.R. Rowland; Joan K. Lunney; Graham Plastow
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jack Dekkers, R.R.R. Rowland, Joan K. Lunney, Graham Plastow
      PRRS is the most costly disease in the US pig industry. While vaccination, biosecurity and eradication effort have had some success, the variability and infectiousness of PRRS virus strains has hampered the effectiveness of these measures. We propose the use of genetic selection of pigs as an additional and complementary effort. Several studies have shown that host response to PRRS infection has a sizeable genetic component and recent advances in genomics provide opportunities to capitalize on these genetic differences and improve our understanding of host response to PRRS. While work is also ongoing to understand the genetic basis of host response to reproductive PRRS, the focus of this review is on research conducted on host response to PRRS in the nursery and grow-finish phase as part of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium. Using experimental infection of large numbers of commercial nursery pigs, combined with deep phenotyping and genomics, this research has identified a major gene that is associated with host response to PRRS. Further functional genomics work identified the GBP5 gene as harboring the putative causative mutation. GBP5 is associated with innate immune response. Subsequent work has validated the effect of this genomic region on host response to a second PRRSV strain and to PRRS vaccination and co-infection of nursery pigs with PRRSV and PCV2b. A genetic marker near GBP5 is available to the industry for use in selection. Genetic differences in host response beyond GBP5 appear to be highly polygenic, i.e. controlled by many genes across the genome, each with a small effect. Such effects can by capitalized on in a selection program using genomic prediction on large numbers of genetic markers across the genome. Additional work has also identified the genetic basis of antibody response to PRRS, which could lead to the use of vaccine response as an indicator trait to select for host response to PRRS. Other genomic analyses, including gene expression analyses, have identified genes and modules of genes that are associated with differences in host response to PRRS and can be used to further understand and utilize differences in host response. Together, these results demonstrate that genetic selection can be an additional and complementary tool to combat PRRS in the swine industry.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.026
       
  • Antigenic diversity of Brazilian isolates of HoBi-like pestiviruses
    • Authors: R.K. Dias; J.F. Cargnelutti; M.N. Weber; C.W. Canal; F.V. Bauermann; J.F. Ridpath; R. Weiblen; E.F. Flores
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): R.K. Dias, J.F. Cargnelutti, M.N. Weber, C.W. Canal, F.V. Bauermann, J.F. Ridpath, R. Weiblen, E.F. Flores
      Hobi-like viruses comprise an unclassified group of bovine pestiviruses related to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2). These viruses were originally identified in fetal bovine serum from Brazilian origin and, subsequently, isolated from diseased animals in several countries. Herein we performed an antigenic characterization of eight Brazilian HoBi-like viruses isolated from persistently infected (PI) animals and from gastroenteric disease (2007 to 2015). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5′ unstranslated region (UTR) clustered these viruses with other HoBi-like viruses from European and Asiatic origin. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) binding indicated variability in the Hobi-like virus glycoprotein E2 and significant differences from the homologous BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 glycoprotein. Analysis of antigenic relatedness based on virus-neutralizing titers using virus-specific antisera revealed that HoBi-like viruses are antigenically very different from BVDV-1 and, to a lesser extent, from BVDV-2. Cross-neutralizing assays between pairs of HoBi-like viruses and their respective antisera indicated the existence of antigenic variability among these viruses, even for viruses isolated from the same herd in different occasions. Moreover, the identification of a HoBi-like isolate with low antigenic similarity with the other isolates indicates the potential existence of antigenic subgroups among HoBi-like virus isolates. Finally, sera of lambs immunized with commercial BVDV vaccines showed low or undetectable neutralizing activity against HoBi-like isolates. These results indicate significant antigenic differences between BVDV genotypes and Brazilian HoBi-like viruses and the existence of antigenic variability within this atypical group of pestiviruses. These findings extend the knowledge about the antigenic diversity of HoBi-like viruses and reinforce the need for their inclusion in current BVDV vaccines.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.021
       
  • Impact of treatments for recycled broiler litter on the viability and
           infectivity of microorganisms
    • Authors: Daiane Voss-Rech; Iara Maria Trevisol; Liana Brentano; Virgínia Santiago Silva; Raquel Rebelatto; Fátima Regina Ferreira Jaenisch; Cintia Hiromi Okino; Marcos Antonio Zanella Mores; Arlei Coldebella; Sônia de Avila Botton; Clarissa Silveira Luiz Vaz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Daiane Voss-Rech, Iara Maria Trevisol, Liana Brentano, Virgínia Santiago Silva, Raquel Rebelatto, Fátima Regina Ferreira Jaenisch, Cintia Hiromi Okino, Marcos Antonio Zanella Mores, Arlei Coldebella, Sônia de Avila Botton, Clarissa Silveira Luiz Vaz
      The microbiological risk of recycled litter depends on the efficacy of the management system applied to inactivate residual microorganisms and preserve the health of the successive broiler flock. This study aimed to assess the viability and infectivity of the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Salmonella Heidelberg in recycled litter exposed to different treatments. The litter was contaminated with microorganisms and submitted to the treatments (T): T1: shallow fermentation; T2: quicklime (calcium oxide); T3: shallow fermentation followed by addition of quicklime; T4: no treatment. Sentinel chicks housed on the treated litter showed that T1 and T3 inactivated residual IBDV. Analysis of the litter subjected to T1 also showed reduced levels of total enterobacteria. T2 was not able to reduce the microorganisms assessed and its association with T1 (T3) failed to enhance the effect of the treatment. NDV did not survive in the broiler litter, regardless of the treatment applied, and it was also not detected in the sentinel chicks. S. Heidelberg remained viable in the litter submitted to all studied treatments, being isolated from the sentinel chicks of all the experimental groups. The antimicrobial activity of T1 and T3 was associated to higher ammonia contents in the broiler litter. The results indicate that the shallow fermentation treatment is efficient for controlling residual IBDV and total enterobacteria in the recycled litter.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.020
       
  • Abortion and mortality in farm mink (Neovison vison) associated with
           feed-born Clostridium limosum
    • Authors: Anne Sofie Hammer; Lars Andresen; Bent Aalbæk; Peter Damborg; Vilhelm Weiss; Mette Line Christiansen; Søren Selsing; Martin Iain Bahl
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Anne Sofie Hammer, Lars Andresen, Bent Aalbæk, Peter Damborg, Vilhelm Weiss, Mette Line Christiansen, Søren Selsing, Martin Iain Bahl
      Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters. Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria. These slow growing bacteria were isolated by anaerobic culturing and identified as Clostridium limosum by both MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All the performed tests for relevant differential diagnoses were negative. Foodborne disease was indicated because all the affected farms were served by the same feed factory. A specific PCR-based analysis was developed for positive identification of C. limosum and used to screen archived feed samples from the implicated feed factory. Both C. limosum 16S rRNA genes and C. limosum collagenase genes were identified in both mixed feed and more specifically in raw chicken carcass used as one of the components in the mixed feed, which was therefore identified as the most likely source of contamination. Based on the results of this investigation it is concluded that C. limosum can be associated with abortion and increased mortality in pregnant mink females and it is consequently recommended that raw materials contaminated with C. limosum should be avoided in mink feed, in particular during the whelping season.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.017
       
  • An unusual culprit: Klebsiella pneumoniae causing septicaemia outbreaks in
           neonatal pigs'
    • Authors: Bethany G. Bowring; V. Anthony Fahy; Andrew Morris; Alison M. Collins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Bethany G. Bowring, V. Anthony Fahy, Andrew Morris, Alison M. Collins
      This study investigated the cause of recent outbreaks of septicaemia in neonatal pigs in Australia (Victoria and Queensland). Septicaemia in neonatal pigs is commonly caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and beta-haemolytic streptococci. Infrequent causes of septicaemia are Actinobacillus suis and Citrobacter freundii. Therefore, it was quite unexpected when Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in predominant growth from multiple organs of pigs dying of septicaemia from six days of age. Two cases in Victoria were associated with multilocus sequence type 25 (ST25), whereas the cases on a single farm in Queensland were associated with two different sequence types (ST278 and ST1978). Similar outbreaks of septicaemia have also occurred in England, but all were associated with K. pneumoniae ST25. The K. pneumoniae sequence types did not cluster phylogenetically into groups of isolates from the same geographical location or into groups which caused either septicaemia or pneumonia. Antibiotic resistance also varied between isolates and showed neomycin resistance in Queensland. These results suggest that several sequence types of K. pneumoniae are involved in causing outbreaks of septicaemia in neonatal pigs, in addition to its previously recognised role in pneumonia and mastitis.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.018
       
  • A Review of Potential Bluetongue Virus Vaccine Strategies
    • Authors: Christie Mayo; Justin Lee; Jennifer Kopanke; N.James MacLachlan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Christie Mayo, Justin Lee, Jennifer Kopanke, N.James MacLachlan
      Bluetongue (BT) is an economically important, non-zoonotic arboviral disease of certain wild and domestic species of cloven-hooved ungulates. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent and the occurrence of BTV infection is distinctly seasonal in temperate regions of the world, and dependent on the presence of vector biting midges (e.g. Culicoides sonorensis in much of North America). In recent years, severe outbreaks have occurred throughout Europe and BTV is endemic in most tropical and temperate regions of the world. Several vaccines have been licensed for commercial use, including modified live (live-attenuated) and inactivated products, and this review summarizes recent strategies developed for BTV vaccines with emphasis on technologies suitable for differentiating naturally infected from vaccinated animals. The goal of this review is to evaluate realistic vaccine strategies that might be utilized to control or prevent future outbreaks of BT.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.015
       
  • The viral innate immune antagonism and an alternative vaccine design for
           PRRS virus
    • Authors: Hanzhong Ke; Dongwan Yoo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Hanzhong Ke, Dongwan Yoo
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains one of the most economically significant diseases in the swine industry worldwide. The current vaccines are less satisfactory to confer protections from heterologous infections and long-term persistence, and the need for better vaccines are urgent. The immunological hallmarks in PRRSV-infected pigs include the unusually poor production of type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) and the aberrant and delayed adaptive immune responses, indicating that PRRSV has the ability to suppress both innate and adaptive immune responses in the host. Type I IFNs are the potent antiviral cytokines and recent studies reveal their pleiotropic functions in the priming of expansion and maturation of adaptive immunity. Thus, IFN antagonism-negative PRRSV is hypothesized to be attenuated and to build effective and broad- spectrum innate and adaptive immune responses in pigs. Such vaccines are promising alternatives to traditional vaccines for PRRSV.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.014
       
  • The newly emerging duck-origin goose parvovirus in China exhibits a wide
           range of pathogenicity to main domesticated waterfowl
    • Authors: Shifeng Xiao; Shilong Chen; Xiaoxia Cheng; Fengqiang Lin; Shao Wang; Xiaoli Zhu; Bo Yu; Meiqing Huang; Jinxiang Wang; Nanyang Wu; Min Zheng; Shaoying Chen; Fusong Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Shifeng Xiao, Shilong Chen, Xiaoxia Cheng, Fengqiang Lin, Shao Wang, Xiaoli Zhu, Bo Yu, Meiqing Huang, Jinxiang Wang, Nanyang Wu, Min Zheng, Shaoying Chen, Fusong Yu
      Short beak and dwarfism syndrome virus (SBDSV) is a newly emerging distinct duck-origin goose parvovirus that belongs to the genus Dependovirus. Our previous studies have found that SBDSV was highly pathogenic to Cherry Valley ducklings and mule ducklings. However, little is known about its pathogenicity to other waterfowls. In the present study, the pathogenicity of SBDSV was evaluated in domesticated waterfowl including Muscovy ducklings, Sheldrake ducklings and domestic goslings. All experimentally infected birds exhibited remarkable growth retardation, anorexia and diarrhea similar to naturally infected birds. Interestingly, atrophic beaks and protruded tongues were not observed in all infection groups. At necropsies, no diagnostic pathological lesions were observed. Viral antigens existed in most organ tissues such as heart, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas and intestine. All ducks in Muscovy duckling and Sheldrake duckling infected groups and 70% goslings in infected groups were seropositive for goose parvovirus (GPV) antibodies at 21 dpi with the average titers as 28.4, 26.9, 24.0, respectively. Muscovy ducklings were more prominent in viral load and weight loss with a higher GPV antibodies titer than Sheldrake ducklings and goslings. Taken together, SBDSV exhibits a wide range of pathogenicity to main domesticated waterfowl with variable symptoms and cause considerable economic losses in China.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.012
       
  • Alpha/beta interferon receptor deficiency in mice significantly enhances
           susceptibility of the animals to pseudorabies virus infection
    • Authors: Jingyun Wei; Yanmei Ma; Long Wang; Xiaojuan Chi; Ruoxiang Yan; Song Wang; Xinxin Li; Xiaoyong Chen; Wenhan Shao; Ji-Long Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jingyun Wei, Yanmei Ma, Long Wang, Xiaojuan Chi, Ruoxiang Yan, Song Wang, Xinxin Li, Xiaoyong Chen, Wenhan Shao, Ji-Long Chen
      Pseudorabies virus is one of the neurotropic viruses that can infect numerous mammals. Importantly, there is increasing evidence that pseudorabies virus infection is widespread in swine across the world, and is still a major threat to swine husbandry. However, mechanism underlying interaction between pseudorabies virus and host innate immune system is not fully understood. Here, we used mouse model to investigate involvement of interferon α/β (IFN-α/β) receptor (IFNAR) in pathogenesis of pseudorabies virus. We found that mice lacking IFNAR were highly susceptible to the virus infection, as evidenced by markedly reduced survival rate of infected animals and increased viral replication. Results showed that deficiency of IFNAR caused significant decrease in expression of IFN-α/β and relevant interferon-stimulated genes in the animals as compared with that of wild-type (WT) littermates after the viral infection. Moreover, IFNAR−/− mice displayed elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1β, and phosphorylation of STAT3 was greatly increased in IFNAR−/− cell after the virus challenge. Together, these data reveal that the IFNAR−/− mice are more permissive of pseudorabies virus infection than WT animals and excessive IL-6/STAT3 response in IFNAR−/− mice likely contributes to the pathogenesis, and suggest that type I IFNs/IFNAR-dependent homeostatic control of the innate immunity is required for host defense against pseudorabies virus infection.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.022
       
  • Identification of candidate protein markers of Bovine Parainfluenza Virus
           Type 3 infection using an in vitro model
    • Authors: Darren W. Gray; Michael D. Welsh; Simon Doherty; Mark H. Mooney
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Darren W. Gray, Michael D. Welsh, Simon Doherty, Mark H. Mooney
      Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (BPI3V) infections are often asymptomatic, causing respiratory tissue damage and immunosuppression, predisposing animals to severe bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) mortality. As with many pathogens, routine BPI3V serology does not indicate the presence of damaged respiratory tissue or active infection. In vitro proteomic marker screening using disease relevant cell models could help identify markers of infection and tissue damage that are also detectable during in vivo infections. This study utilised a proteomic approach to investigate in vitro cellular responses during BPI3V infection to enhancing the current understanding of intracellular host-virus interactions and identify putative markers of in vivo infection. Through 2D gel electrophoresis proteomic analysis, BPI3V Phosphoprotein P and host T-complex Protein 1 subunit theta were found to be accumulated at the latter stages of infection within bovine fibroblasts. These proteins were subsequently detected using targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry in the plasma of animals challenged with BPI3V, with differential protein levels profile observed dependant on animal vaccination status. Potential mechanisms by which BPI3V overcomes host cellular immune response mechanisms allowing for replication and production of viral proteins were also revealed. Assessment of circulating protein marker levels identified through an in vitro approach as described may enable more effective diagnosis of active viral infection and diseased/damaged respiratory tissue in animals and allow for more effective utilisation of preventative therapeutic interventions prior to bacterial disease onset and significantly aid the management and control of BRD.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.013
       
  • Thymol kills bacteria, reduces biofilm formation, and protects mice
           against a fatal infection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strain L20
    • Authors: Lei Wang; Xueqin Zhao; Chunling Zhu; Xiaojing Xia; Wanhai Qin; Yanzhao Xu; Bolin Hang; Yawei Sun; Jinqing Jiang; Langford Paul Richard; Liancheng Lei; Gaiping Zhang; Jianhe Hu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Lei Wang, Xueqin Zhao, Chunling Zhu, Xiaojing Xia, Wanhai Qin, Yanzhao Xu, Bolin Hang, Yawei Sun, Jinqing Jiang, Langford Paul Richard, Liancheng Lei, Gaiping Zhang, Jianhe Hu
      Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of the highly contagious and deadly respiratory infection porcine pleuropneumonia, resulting in serious losses to the pig industry worldwide. Alternative to antibiotics are urgently needed due to the serious increase in antimicrobial resistance. Thymol is a monoterpene phenol and efficiently kills a variety of bacteria. This study found that thymol has strong bactericidal effects on the A. pleuropneumoniae 5b serotype strain, an epidemic strain in China. Sterilization occurred rapidly, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is 31.25μg/mL; the A. pleuropneumoniae density was reduced 1000 times within 10min following treatment with 1 MIC. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that thymol could rapidly disrupt the cell walls and cell membranes of A. pleuropneumoniae, causing leakage of cell contents and cell death. In addition, treatment with thymol at 0.5 MIC significantly reduced the biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that thymol treatment significantly increased the expression of the virulence genes purC, tbpB1 and clpP and down-regulated ApxI, ApxII and Apa1 expression in A. pleuropneumoniae. Therapeutic analysis of a murine model showed that thymol (20mg/kg) protected mice from a lethal dose of A. pleuropneumoniae, attenuated lung pathological lesions. This study is the first to report the use of thymol to treat A. pleuropneumoniae infection, establishing a foundation for the development of new antimicrobials.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:50:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.021
       
  • Decreased egg production in laying hens associated with infection with
           genotype 3 avian hepatitis E virus strain from China
    • Authors: Qin Zhao; Baoyuan Liu; Yani Sun; Taofeng Du; Yiyang Chen; Xinjie Wang; Huixia Li; Yuchen Nan; Gaiping Zhang; En-Min Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Qin Zhao, Baoyuan Liu, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, Gaiping Zhang, En-Min Zhou
      To determine the relationship between decreased egg production and avian HEV infection, thirty healthy 23-week-old Hy-Line Variety Brown layer hens were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 hens per group. Next, a genotype 3 avian HEV strain from China was used to inoculate laying hens via oronasal or intravenous routes using a 50% chicken infectious dose of 500. All hens were necropsied at 14 weeks postinoculation (wpi). Fecal virus shedding, viremia, seroconversion, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increases and liver lesions showed that after intravenous (i.v.) and oronasal inoculation, the laying hens were successfully infected. Compared with the uninoculated group, the i.v. and oronasally inoculated groups exhibited egg production decreases at 1wpi and 2wpi, reaching peak production at 3wpi and 8wpi, respectively. In both groups, decreased production was evident for 12 weeks and overall decreases ranged from 10% to 30%. In addition, in the 7 field layer farms exhibiting decreased egg production, vaccination regimens had been completed against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza H9N2 and H5N1 and egg drop syndrome virus. However, circulating avian HEV was confirmed on these farms using tests to detect avian HEV IgG antibodies and RNA. Therefore, the experimental and field data indicate that avian HEV infection acting alone could account for observed decreases in egg production in laying hens.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.005
       
  • Analysis of antigenicity and pathogenicity reveals major differences among
           QX-like infectious bronchitis viruses and other serotypes
    • Authors: Shihong Yan; Xiaoyu Liu; Jing Zhao; Gang Xu; Ye Zhao; Guozhong Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Shihong Yan, Xiaoyu Liu, Jing Zhao, Gang Xu, Ye Zhao, Guozhong Zhang
      Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes considerable damage to the poultry industry worldwide and the proportion of QX-like genotype isolates have increased over time. Here, to better understand the antigenicity and pathogenicity of this genotype, we conducted sequence analyses, cross neutralization tests, and also examined the pathogenicity of two strains, SD and SZ. Sequence analyses revealed that SD and SZ isolates belong to the QX-like IBV genotype and share high homology in their full-length genomes. Cross neutralization tests showed high cross neutralization between SD and SZ, but distant relationships with other representative strains of the classical IBV serotypes. Virus infection experiments showed that SD caused high mortality with strong respiratory and renal pathogenicity in chickens, whereas SZ caused milder lesions by comparison. This study highlights the big discrepancy in antigenicity that exists between QX-like strains and other serotypes. Collectively, these findings provide important information about the epidemiology and pathogenicity of IBV, which may benefit the control of IB in the poultry industry.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.010
       
  • Biofilm in equine experimental wounds healing by second intention
    • Authors: E. Jørgensen; L. Bay; T. Bjarnsholt; L. Bundgaard; M.A. Sørensen; S. Jacobsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): E. Jørgensen, L. Bay, T. Bjarnsholt, L. Bundgaard, M.A. Sørensen, S. Jacobsen
      In humans, biofilm is a well-known cause of delayed healing and low-grade inflammation of chronic wounds. In equine wounds, biofilm formation has been studied to a very limited degree. The objective of this study was thus to investigate occurrence of biofilm in equine experimental wounds healing by second intention. Biopsies from non-contaminated, experimental excisional shoulder and limb wounds were obtained on day 1-2, day 7-10 and day 14-15 post-wounding. Limb wounds were either un-bandaged or bandaged to induce exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) formation and thereby impaired healing. Presence of biofilm in formalin-fixed biopsies was assessed by peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Bandaged limb wounds developed EGT and displayed delayed healing, while shoulder and un-bandaged limb wounds healed normally. Biofilm was detected in limb wounds only. At day 14-15 biofilm was significantly (P=0.003) more prevalent in bandaged limb wounds than in un-bandaged limb wounds. Further, bandaged limb wounds had a statistically significant (P=0.009) increase in biofilm burden from day 7-10 to day 14-15. That biofilm was most prevalent in bandaged limb wounds with EGT formation suggests that biofilm may be linked to delayed wound healing in horses, as has been observed in humans. The inability to clear bacteria could be related to hypoxia and low-grade inflammation in the EGT, but the interaction between biofilm forming bacteria and wound healing in horses needs further elucidation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.011
       
  • Effects of vitamin D and its metabolites on cell viability and
           Staphylococcus aureus invasion in bovine mammary epithelial cells
    • Authors: Yuan Yue; Stig Purup; Charlotte Lauridsen; Lone Hymøller; Søren K. Jensen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yuan Yue, Stig Purup, Charlotte Lauridsen, Lone Hymøller, Søren K. Jensen
      Vitamin D has been found have various biological effects that may be potent in preventing bovine mastitis. Two forms of vitamin D, vitamin D2 (D2) and vitamin D3 (D3), can be hydroxylated to functional metabolites in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of D2 and D3 compounds on bovine mammary epithelial cell proliferation and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) invasion.. Results showed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 have an anti-proliferation activity comparable to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, while D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) was slightly more potent than D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in inhibiting MAC-T cell viability in vitro. S. aureus growth was inhibited by high concentrations of D2, D3, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3. 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 induced CYP24A1 expression but reduced VDR mRNA expression, whereas the expression of CYP27B1, occludin, and E-cadherin did not change. Additionally, the induction of CYP24A1 expression by 25(OH)D3 was higher than that of 25(OH)D2, which may contribute to the differences in anti-proliferation activity. S. aureus invaded into MAC-T cells and universally inhibited gene expressions. MAC-T cells pre-treated with 25(OH)D2 reduced S. aureus adhesion while pre-treatment with 25(OH)D3 inhibited S. aureus invasion, but neither of the compounds attenuated the S. aureus-induced gene expression reduction. In conclusion, the present study showed that D2 compounds have comparable effects on cell proliferation and bacterial invasion to their D3 analogues in vitro, suggesting that D2 and its metabolites may also be effective in the defense against bacterial infection.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.008
       
  • Inactivated Vaccinia virus vaccine protects Balb/c mice from challenge
    • Authors: Ana Carolina Diniz Matos; Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes; Izabelle Silva Rehfeld; Erica Azevedo Costa; Aristoteles Gomes Costa; Natalia Lopes da Silva; Andrey Pereira Lag; Zélia Inês Portela Lobato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Izabelle Silva Rehfeld, Erica Azevedo Costa, Aristoteles Gomes Costa, Natalia Lopes da Silva, Andrey Pereira Lag, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato
      Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematic lesions in the teats of dairy cows and milkers hands. Due to the occurrence of many BV outbreaks in dairy farms in all Brazilian regions, since 1999, there is a need to improve the control and prevention measures of the disease. Vaccination is one of the major tools to prevent viral diseases, and it could be an alternative for BV prevention. The main objective of the research was the development of vaccine formulations against BV using the inactivated VACV strain GP2 as antigen combined with different adjuvants. Then, potency tests were performed in mice, which were vaccinated with two doses with 21days interval, and then challenged with the vaccine homologous virus. VACV strain GP2, inactivated by beta-propiolactone (BPL) in association with adjuvants was effective to induce a humoral immune response against VACV, as measured by neutralizing antibody titers (NA) and was variable according to the adjuvant used in each vaccine formulation. The vaccine formulation using aluminum hydroxide (AH) associated with saponin as adjuvants induced production of high titers of neutralizing antibodies in all vaccinated mice, giving 100% protection in Balb/c murine model after challenge with homologous virus.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.009
       
  • Equine herpesvirus type 1 induces both neurological and respiratory
           disease in Syrian hamsters
    • Authors: Leonardo P. Mesquita; Andressa Ferrari Arévalo; Dennis A. Zanatto; Samantha Ive Miyashiro; Elenice Maria Sequetin Cunha; Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza; Eliana Monteforte Cassaro Villalobos; Cláudia Madalena Cabrera Mori; Paulo César Maiorka; Enio Mori
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Leonardo P. Mesquita, Andressa Ferrari Arévalo, Dennis A. Zanatto, Samantha Ive Miyashiro, Elenice Maria Sequetin Cunha, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro Villalobos, Cláudia Madalena Cabrera Mori, Paulo César Maiorka, Enio Mori
      The equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an important cause of myeloencephalopathy and respiratory disease in horses. Animal models for EHV-1 infection have been specially developed using mice and Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). However, few studies have attempted to evaluate the pathogenesis of EHV-1 infection in the central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory system of hamsters. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis of four Brazilian EHV-1 strains within the CNS and lungs of Syrian hamsters. Hamsters intranasally infected with A4/72, A9/92, A3/97, and Iso/72 EHV-1 strains developed severe neurological and respiratory signs and died during acute EHV-1 infection within 3 to 5days post-inoculation. However, neurological signs were more severe in A4/72 and A9/92-infected hamsters, whereas respiratory signs were more prominent in A3/97 and Iso/72-infected hamsters. In the latter, lesions in the CNS were predominantly inflammatory, whereas in A4/72 and A9/92-infected hamsters, neuronal and liquefactive necrosis were the predominant lesions. EHV-1 infected hamsters also developed an interstitial pneumonia with infiltration of alveolar septa by macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, with the exception of A9/92-infected hamsters, which developed severe hemorrhages within the airways. EHV-1 antigens were detected along with CNS and pulmonary lesions. EHV-1 was also recovered from CNS of all infected hamsters, whereas the virus was recovered from the lungs of A4/72, A9/92, and Iso/72-infected hamsters. Brazilian EHV-1 strains caused both severe CNS and respiratory disease in hamsters, thus making this species an interesting model for EHV-1 infection in the CNS and respiratory system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.007
       
  • Coimmunization with recombinant epitope-expressing baculovirus enhances
           
    • Authors: Zhen Zhang; Jiao Zhang; Jie Zhang; Qi Li; Peisi Miao; Jie Liu; Shijie Li; Jianni Huang; Ming Liao; Huiying Fan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhen Zhang, Jiao Zhang, Jie Zhang, Qi Li, Peisi Miao, Jie Liu, Shijie Li, Jianni Huang, Ming Liao, Huiying Fan
      H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), poses a significant threat to poultry and human health. However, currently available inactivated influenza vaccines are less efficacious against viruses that display antigenic drift. In this study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus (BV-HMNN) expressing four conserved antigen epitopes: H5N1 hemagglutinin stem area amino acids 76–130 (HA2 76–130); three tandem repeats from the ectodomain of the conserved influenza matrix protein M2 (3M2e); nucleoprotein amino acids 55–69 (NP55–69); and nucleoprotein amino acids 380–393 (NP380–393). We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of coimmunization with an inactivated avian influenza virus vaccine (Re6) and the recombinant baculovirus (BV-HMNN) against heterologous viral infection in specific-pathogen-free chickens. The chickens immunized with both vaccines (Re6+BV-HMNN) achieved complete protection, was significantly greater than that of chickens vaccinated with Re6 alone. BV-HMNN-supplemented vaccination also reduced viral shedding more effectively than nonsupplemented vaccination. We conclude that coimmunization with both vaccines was superior to immunization with the inactivated vaccine alone in inducing cross-protection against heterologous H5N1 virus.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.004
       
  • Co-infection of H9N2 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus and Infectious
           Bronchitis Virus Decreases SP-A Expression Level in Chickens
    • Authors: Qi Huang; Kai Wang; Ling Pan; Kezong Qi; Hongmei Liu; Hongjun Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Qi Huang, Kai Wang, Ling Pan, Kezong Qi, Hongmei Liu, Hongjun Chen
      Chicken surfactant protein A (cSP-A) is a collectin believed to play an important role in antiviral immunity. However, cSP-A expression in the respiratory tract of chickens after viral co-infection remains unclear. The aim of this study was the detection and characterization of cSP-A in co-infected chickens. For this purpose, four-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were divided into five groups and inoculated intranasally with H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), or Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Chickens were sacrificed at three days post inoculation, and the lung, trachea, and air sac samples were taken to determine histological changes and expression levels of cSP-A mRNA and cSP-A protein. The cSP-A mRNA and its protein were detected separately using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA), and an immunohistochemistry assay (IHC). In comparison, for the PBS group as the negative group and the NDV-infected group as the positive group, the histological changes showed that the lesions of the AIV+ IBV co-infected group were more serious compared to the AIV-infected group and the IBV-infected group. Consequently, the expression level of cSP-A in the AIV+IBV co-infected group significantly decreased when compared to the AIV-infected group and the IBV-infected group by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and IHC analysis. The mechanism of the downregulation of SP-A expression level will be addressed in future.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.015
       
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 201


      PubDate: 2017-03-11T15:38:37Z
       
  • Newcastle disease virus-like particles induce DC maturation through
           TLR4/NF-κB pathway and facilitate DC migration by CCR7-CCL19/CCL21 axis
    • Authors: Jing Qian; Xiaohong Xu; Jiaxin Ding; Renfu Yin; Yixue Sun; Cong Xue; Chan Ding; Shengqing Yu; Xiufan Liu; Shunlin Hu; Chunfeng Wang; Yanlong Cong; Zhuang Ding
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jing Qian, Xiaohong Xu, Jiaxin Ding, Renfu Yin, Yixue Sun, Cong Xue, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu, Xiufan Liu, Shunlin Hu, Chunfeng Wang, Yanlong Cong, Zhuang Ding
      Newcastle disease virus-like particles (NDV VLPs) are a potential candidate vaccine, as shown by eliciting specific immune response against NDV in mice and chickens. Activation of dendritic cells (DCs) is critical to initiate immune response. However, the mechanism how NDV VLPs induce DC maturation and migration remains elusive. In this study, we found that NDV VLPs are efficient in DC activation by up-regulating MHC II and costimulatory molecules, and proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, NDV VLPs elevated CCR7 expression on DCs, resulting in DC migration towards CCL19/CCL21 both in vitro and ex vivo. As a consequence of DC maturation and migration, CD4+ T cells were also activated in vivo, as shown by evaluation of intracellular IFN-γ and IL-4 levels. Together, these results provide new insights for NDV VLPs inducing DC maturation and migration, giving us a better understanding of VLP-triggered innate immune responses.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.002
       
  • Seroprevalence for norovirus genogroup II, IV and VI in dogs
    • Authors: Barbara Di Martino; Federica Di Profio; Irene Melegari; Vittorio Sarchese; Ivano Massirio; Giuseppe Palermo; Giovanni Romito; Eleonora Lorusso; Gianvito Lanave; Livia Bodnar; Canio Buonavoglia; Fulvio Marsilio; Kim Y. Green; Vito Martella
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Barbara Di Martino, Federica Di Profio, Irene Melegari, Vittorio Sarchese, Ivano Massirio, Giuseppe Palermo, Giovanni Romito, Eleonora Lorusso, Gianvito Lanave, Livia Bodnar, Canio Buonavoglia, Fulvio Marsilio, Kim Y. Green, Vito Martella
      Molecular and serological data suggest that noroviruses (NoVs) might be transmitted between humans and domestic carnivores. In this study we screened an age-stratified collection of canine sera (n=516) by using an ELISA assay based on virus-like particles (VLPs) of human NoVs GII.4 and GIV.1 and carnivore NoVs GIV.2 and GVI.2. Antibodies against GII.4 and GIV.1 human NoVs and GIV.2 and GVI.2 NoVs from carnivores were identified in dog sera (13.0%, 67/516) suggesting their exposure to homologous and heterologous NoVs. Analysis of the trends of age-class prevalence showed a gradual increase in the positive rate from 9.0% and 7.0%, in young dogs <1year of age to 15.0% in dogs older than 12 years, for GII.4 and GVI.2 NoVs, respectively. A significant difference in the IgG distribution by age classes was observed for GIV.1 NoVs, with the highest rate of antibodies (7.0%) in the age group <1year and the lowest (1.0%) in the age-classes 7-9 (P=0.049). High correlation between the reactivity to GII.4 and GVI.2 NoVs was observed, likely due to conserved epitopes in the capsid structure.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.006
       
  • Experimental infection with highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses
           in the Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia
           domestica)
    • Authors: Jung-Hoon Kwon; Yun Kyung Noh; Dong-Hun Lee; Seong-Su Yuk; Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir; Jin-Yong Noh; Woo-Tack Hong; Jei-Hyun Jeong; Sol Jeong; Gyeong-Bin Gwon; Chang-Seon Song; Sang-Soep Nahm
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jung-Hoon Kwon, Yun Kyung Noh, Dong-Hun Lee, Seong-Su Yuk, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Sol Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Chang-Seon Song, Sang-Soep Nahm
      Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV). Sub-clinical infection with HPAI in resident wild birds could be a source of dissemination of HPAIV and continuous outbreaks. In this study, the pathogenicity and infectivity of two strains of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 virus were evaluated in the Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). None of the birds experimentally infected with H5N8 viruses showed clinical signs or mortality. The H5N8 viruses efficiently replicated in the virus-inoculated Mandarin ducks and transmitted to co-housed Mandarin ducks. Although relatively high levels of viral shedding were noted in pigeons, viral shedding was not detected in some of the pigeons and the shedding period was relatively short. Furthermore, the infection was not transmitted to co-housed pigeons. Immunohistochemical examination revealed the presence of HPAIV in multiple organs of the infected birds. Histopathological evaluation showed the presence of inflammatory responses primarily in HPAIV-positive organs. Our results indicate that Mandarin ducks and pigeons can be infected with H5N8 HPAIV without exhibiting clinical signs; thus, they may be potential healthy reservoirs of the H5N8 HPAIV.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.003
       
  • Pathogenesis and control of the Chinese highly pathogenic porcine
           reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
    • Authors: Jun Han; Lei Zhou; Xinna Ge; Xin Guo; Hanchun Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jun Han, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has remained a major threat to the worldwide swine industry ever since its first discovery in the early 1990s. Under the selective pressures in the field, this positive-stranded RNA virus undergoes rapid genetic evolution that eventually leads to emergence in 2006 of the devastating Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). The atypical nature of HP-PRRSV has caused colossal economic losses to the swine producers in China and the surrounding countries. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis, evolution and ongoing field practices on the control of this troubling virus in China.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.020
       
  • Novel insights into host responses and reproductive pathophysiology of
           porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome caused by PRRSV-2
    • Authors: John C.S. Harding; Andrea Ladinig; Predrag Novakovic; Susan E. Detmer; Jamie M. Wilkinson; Tianfu Yang; Joan K. Lunney; Graham S. Plastow
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): John C.S. Harding, Andrea Ladinig, Predrag Novakovic, Susan E. Detmer, Jamie M. Wilkinson, Tianfu Yang, Joan K. Lunney, Graham S. Plastow
      A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining. Viral load at the maternal-fetal interface was a strong predictor of viral load in fetal thymus and odds of fetal death. However, interferon-alpha suppression, a consequence of PRRSV infection, was protective against fetal death. Although the prevalence of fetal lesions was low, their presence in fetal organs and umbilical cord was strongly associated with fetal compromise. Fetal death and viral load clustered in litters suggesting inter-fetal transmission starting from a limited number of index fetuses. Factors associated with index fetal infection are unclear, but large fetuses appear at greater risk. Disease progression in fetuses was associated with an up-regulation of genes associated with inflammation, innate immunity, and cell death signaling, and down-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle and lymphocyte quality. A number of maternal transcriptomic responses were associated with PRRS resilience including higher basal gene expression correlated with platelet function, interferon and pro-inflammatory responses. Twenty-one genomic regions across 10 chromosomes were associated with important traits including fetal viral load, fetal death and viability suggesting that selection for reproductive PRRS resilience may be possible.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.019
       
  • Role of the microbiome in swine respiratory disease
    • Authors: Megan C. Niederwerder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Megan C. Niederwerder
      Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. In this review, we will discuss the factors that influence microbiome development in swine, associations of the microbiome with growth and immunity during infection with respiratory pathogens, and the role of the microbiome in PRRS. Taken together, modulation of the microbiome may be an alternative tool in the control of PRRS due to its intricate role in digestion of nutrients, systemic immunity, and response to pulmonary infections.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.017
       
  • Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Escherichia coli from
           Chicken and Swine, China, 2008-2015
    • Authors: Peng Zhang; Zhangqi Shen; Chunping Zhang; Li Song; Bing Wang; Jun Shang; Xiuying Yue; Zhina Qu; Xinnan Li; Liqin Wu; Yongjun Zheng; Anand Aditya; Yang Wang; Shixin Xu; Congming Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Peng Zhang, Zhangqi Shen, Chunping Zhang, Li Song, Bing Wang, Jun Shang, Xiuying Yue, Zhina Qu, Xinnan Li, Liqin Wu, Yongjun Zheng, Anand Aditya, Yang Wang, Shixin Xu, Congming Wu
      The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance trend in Escherichia coli from food animals in China. During 2008-2015, a total of 15,130 E. coli were isolated from chicken and swine from seven provinces. The susceptibilities of these isolates to nine classes of antimicrobial agents were determined using broth microdilution susceptibility method. The findings of this study include: (1) multi-drug resistance was highly prevalent in E. coli; (2) these E. coli isolates showed high resistant rate (>80%) to several old drugs, including ampicillin, tetracycline and sulfisoxazole; (3) increasing resistance to colistin, florfenicol and ceftiofur was observed; (4) the E. coli isolates from different provinces had different resistance patterns. All these data highlight the rising problem of antimicrobial resistance. It is urgent to improve the management of animal production and enhance the proper use of antimicrobials in China as well as the other countries.

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T01:44:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.008
       
  • Occurrence of a lethal ranavirus in hybrid mandarin (Siniperca
           scherzeri×Siniperca chuatsi) in Guangdong, South China
    • Authors: Chuanfu Dong; Zhimei wang; Shaoping Weng; Jianguo He
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Chuanfu Dong, Zhimei wang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He
      A novel ranavirus with features similar to largemouth bass virus (LMBV) was isolated and then characterized from a natural mass mortality of adult hybrid mandarin (Siniperca scherzeri × Siniperca chuatsi). The isolated LMBV-like iridovirus was designated as mandarin ranavirus (MRV)-GD1301. The results of artificial infection showed that MRV-GD1301 was highly virulent to hybrid mandarin juveniles, and 100% mortality was observed within 5days after infection via intraperitoneal injection. Moribund fishes typically have abnormally swollen abdomens with extremely severe ascites and exhibit exophthalmia. The characteristic clinical signs have been rarely recorded in other LMBV-associated fish diseases and other viral diseases in mandarin aquaculture. In contrast to the high lethality in hybrid mandarin, MRV-GD1301 showed avirulence to koi Cyprinus carpio, a susceptible fish species to LMBV-like koi ranavirus (KIRV) found recently in India. Our findings suggest that MRV is an emerging causative agent of mass mortality in mandarin species.

      PubDate: 2017-02-20T20:03:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.006
       
  • The Use of Animals as a Surveillance Tool for Monitoring Environmental
           Health Hazards, Human Health Hazards and Bioterrorism
    • Authors: Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo; Boon Huan Tan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo, Boon Huan Tan
      This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments.

      PubDate: 2017-02-20T20:03:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.007
       
  • Comparison of Asian porcine high fever disease isolates of porcine
           reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to United States isolates for
           
    • Authors: Susan L. Brockmeier; Crystal L. Loving; Mitchel V. Palmer; Allyn Spear; Tracy L. Nicholson; Kay S. Faaberg; Kelly M. Lager
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Susan L. Brockmeier, Crystal L. Loving, Mitchel V. Palmer, Allyn Spear, Tracy L. Nicholson, Kay S. Faaberg, Kelly M. Lager
      Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggest that disease severity was associated with both the virulence of the PRRSV isolates and secondary bacterial infections. Previous reports have indicated that U.S. isolates of PRRSV predispose to secondary bacterial infections as well, but the severity of disease that occurred in Asia in pigs infected with these HP-PRRSV strains has not been reported in the U.S. The objectives of this research were to compare the pathogenesis of Asian and U.S. PRRSV isolates with regard to their ability to cause disease and predispose to secondary bacterial infections in swine. To address these objectives groups of pigs were infected with 1 of 2 Asian HP-PRRSV strains (rJXwn06 or rSRV07) or 1 of 2 U.S. PRRSV strains (SDSU73 or VR-2332) alone or in combination with Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Actinobacillus suis. Pigs infected with rJXwn06 exhibited the most severe clinical disease while the pigs infected with rSRV07 and SDSU73 exhibited moderate clinical disease, and pigs infected with VR-2332 exhibited minimal clinical signs. The frequency of secondary bacterial pneumonia was associated with the clinical severity induced by the PRRSV strains evaluated. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum were often lower for pigs coinfected with virus and bacteria compared to pigs infected with PRRSV alone indicating an alteration in the immune response in coinfected pigs. Combined our results demonstrate that severity of disease appears to be dependent on virulence of the PRRSV strain, and development of secondary bacterial infection.

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T19:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.003
       
  • A cross-sectional study of oral antibacterial treatment patterns in
           relation to specific diarrhoeal pathogens in weaner pigs
    • Authors: Vibeke F. Jensen; Sven-Erik L. Jorsal; Nils Toft
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Vibeke F. Jensen, Sven-Erik L. Jorsal, Nils Toft
      According to international guidelines, the use of antibacterials should be evidence based and prudent. This register-based, cross-sectional study investigates the potential effect of laboratory findings on the patterns of antibacterial oral (batch) medication of weaner pigs, and the level of compliance with national guidelines for antibacterial use. The study population includes 1,736 weaner herds (≈65% of all Danish weaner pigs) that were subject to laboratory analysis from the National Veterinary Institute on Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E.coli (F4 and F18) in 2014. Antibacterial prescription data were obtained from the national database, VetStat. These showed that antibacterial prescriptions for use in weaner pigs was 8.6% lower in spring 2015 compared to spring 2014. The antibacterial use per pig tended (p=0.08) to decrease more in herds with negative laboratory results compared to herds with a moderate or massive occurrence of either of the pathogens. Irrespective of the laboratory findings on diarrhoeal pathogens, tetracyclines were the most frequently used antibacterials by a substantial margin, both 3 months prior to and 2-5 months after laboratory analysis. According to the national guidelines, tetracyclines are the second or third-choice antibacterial for treatment of diarrhoeal pathogens, due to resistance and co-resistance patterns. Compliance with the guidelines increased in 14% of the herds, mostly following identification of B. pilosicoli within the herd. Between 10% and 20% of the herds did not use batch treatment, despite the presence of moderate–massive amounts of the pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.038
       
  • Occurrence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis infections in fattening pigs and
           association with clinical signs and pathological lesions of Enzootic
           Pneumonia
    • Authors: Adrian Luehrs; Salome Siegenthaler; Niels Grützner; Elisabeth grosse Beilage; Peter Kuhnert; Heiko Nathues
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Adrian Luehrs, Salome Siegenthaler, Niels Grützner, Elisabeth grosse Beilage, Peter Kuhnert, Heiko Nathues
      Respiratory disorders in fattening pigs are of major concern worldwide. Particularly Enzootic Pneumonia remains a problem for the pig industry. This chronic respiratory disease is primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). However, more recently it was hypothesised that M. hyorhinis can also cause similar lung lesions. To investigate the relevance of M. hyorhinis as a cause of pneumonia in fattening pigs 10 farms in Switzerland (considered free of Enzootic Pneumonia) and 20 farms in Germany (regarded as endemic for Enzootic Pneumonia) with a history of chronic and/or recurrent respiratory diseases were included in the study. During a one-time farm visit the coughing index was determined in the batch of oldest fattening pigs in each farm before submission to slaughter. In total, 1375 lungs from these pigs were collected at the abattoir and individually scored for lesions. Furthermore, 600 lungs with, if present, indicative lesions for Enzootic Pneumonia (purple to grey areas of tissue consolidation in the cranio-ventral lung lobes) were tested for mycoplasma species by culture and by real-time PCR for the presence of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. In total, 15.7% of the selected lungs were tested positive for M. hyorhinis by real-time PCR. The prevalence of M. hyorhinis was 10% in Switzerland and 18.5% in Germany and differed significantly between these two countries (p=0.007). M. hyorhinis was detected significantly more often in pneumonic lungs (p=0.004) but no significant association was found between M. hyorhinis and the coughing index or the M. hyopneumoniae status of the pig. M. hyopneumoniae was detected in 0% and 78.5% of the selected lungs in Switzerland and Germany, respectively. We found no evidence that M. hyorhinis alone can lead to similar lung lesions as seen by an infection with M. hyopneumoniae in fattening pigs. In addition, a simultaneous infection with both M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae did not aggravate the observed lung lesions. Moreover, the presence of M. hyorhinis showed no clinical effect in terms of coughing at least at the end of the fattening phase. However, different levels of virulence of M. hyorhinis isolates as well as interactions with viral pathogens like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were reported in the literature and need to be further investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.001
       
  • Impact of environmental bacterial communities on fish health in marine
           recirculating aquaculture systems
    • Authors: Shuxia Xue; Wei Xu; Junli Wei; Jinsheng Sun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Shuxia Xue, Wei Xu, Junli Wei, Jinsheng Sun
      Marine cultured fish diseases caused by bacteria in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) greatly threaten fish aquaculture. To date, the dynamics of bacterial populations in RAS and their impacts to fish health remain largely unknown. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the water from two different marine RASs were analyzed using pyrosequencing technique. Fish disease syndromes and mortality had been reported from one RAS (RAS-d) while the fish in the other RAS remained healthy (RAS-h). The diversity of bacteria in each RAS and the abundance of each bacterium were identified based on sequencing the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. A total number of 107,476 effective sequences were obtained from the pyrosequencing results. 640 and 844 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in RAS-d and RAS-h, respectively. In order level, tags annotation showed that Vibrionales and Flavobacteriales were the predominant strains in RAS-d with a relative abundance 50.5% and 36.5%, respectively. In contrast, the bacterial community in RAS-h contained 35.8% Vibrionales, 17.3% Alteromonadales, 10.7% Rhodobacterales, 7.43% Kordiimonadales, and 6.26% Oceanospirillales. In addition, the Vibrionaceae in the RAS-d represented 6.98% of the population which was significantly higher than that in RAS-h (0.40%). More potential pathogenic bacteria in fish, such as Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio rotiferianus were also found in the bacterial population in RAS-d. The results also showed that the bacteria community in RAS-h was more diverse and balanced than in RAS-d. These findings of this study suggested a potential correlation between fish diseases and environmental bacterial populations.

      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.034
       
  • Japanese encephalitis virus infection, diagnosis and control in domestic
           animals
    • Authors: Karen L. Mansfield; Luis M. Hernández-Triana; Ashley C. Banyard; Anthony R. Fooks; Nicholas Johnson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Karen L. Mansfield, Luis M. Hernández-Triana, Ashley C. Banyard, Anthony R. Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
      Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others. The impact of JEV infection is particularly apparent in pigs. Although infection in adult swine does not result in symptomatic disease, it is considered a significant reproductive problem causing abortion, still-birth and birth defects. Infected piglets can display fatal neurological disease. Equines are also infected, resulting in non-specific signs including pyrexia, but occasionally leading to overt neurological disease that in extreme cases can lead to death. Veterinary vaccination is available for both pigs and horses. This review of JEV disease in livestock considers the current diagnostic techniques available for detection of the virus. Options for disease control and prevention within the veterinary sector are discussed. Such measures are critical in breaking the link to zoonotic transmission into the human population where humans are dead-end hosts.

      PubDate: 2017-01-18T22:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.014
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.166.77.32
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016