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        1 2     

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 176 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2566 journals]   [SJR: 1.221]   [H-I: 75]
  • Molecular identification of Bartonella species in dogs with leishmaniosis
           (Leishmania infantum) with or without cytological evidence of arthritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Mathios E. Mylonakis , Nectarios Soubasis , Nandhakumar Balakrishnan , Konstantina Theodorou , Dimitrios Kasabalis , Manolis Saridomichelakis , Christos K. Koutinas , Alexander F. Koutinas , Edward B. Breitschwerdt
      Recent evidence suggests that Bartonella species may cause polyarthritis and lameness in dogs. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a multi-systemic disease often occurring in association with arthritis. We hypothesized that concurrent Bartonella infection may be a contributing factor for the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. Hence the primary objective of this study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. in dogs with naturally-occurring CanL, with or without cytologically documented arthritis. Thirty-eight dogs with CanL (31 with neutrophilic arthritis and 7 without arthritis) were retrospectively studied. Seventy-four archived clinical specimens from these 38 dogs, including 33 blood samples, 19 bone marrow (BM) samples and synovial fluid (SF) aspirates from 22 dogs were tested for Bartonella spp. DNA using the Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Overall, eight (21.1%) dogs were infected with one or two Bartonella species; however, Bartonella spp. infection was not associated with arthritis in dogs with CanL. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine if there is a correlation between Bartonella spp. infection and the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL.


      PubDate: 2014-09-17T18:13:15Z
       
  • Evidence of Possible Vertical Transmission of Duck Circovirus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhiguo Li , Xin Wang , Ruihua Zhang , Junhao Chen , Linlin Xia , Shaoli Lin , Zhijing Xie , Shijin Jiang
      To test the hypothesis that duck circovirus (DuCV) may be vertically transmitted from infected breeder ducks to their ducklings, we investigated 120 newly hatched ducklings, 30 dead duck embryos and 80 non-embryonated duck eggs with the duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DuCV DNA was present in 15 newly hatched ducklings, 4 duck embryos and 3 non-embryonated eggs. Four ducklings from two flocks were co-infected by DuCV-1 and DuCV-2, three ducklings from three flocks were DuCV-1 single infection, and eight ducklings from six flocks were DuCV-2 single infection. One duck embryo and one non-embryonated egg were positive for both DuCV-1 and DuCV-2 DNAs, one embryo for DuCV-1 DNA, and two embryos and two non-embryonated eggs for DuCV-2 DNA. The findings provide evidence of possible vertical transmission of DuCV and simultaneous transmission of DuCV-1 and DuCV-2 from breeder ducks to ducklings.


      PubDate: 2014-09-17T18:13:15Z
       
  • Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the
           blood of Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Eveline J. Emmenegger , Jolene A. Glenn , James R. Winton , William N. Batts , Jacob L. Gregg , Paul K. Hershberger
      Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.


      PubDate: 2014-09-17T18:13:15Z
       
  • Brucella infection inhibits macrophages apoptosis via Nedd4-dependent
           degradation of calpain2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Guimei Cui , Pan Wei , Yuxi Zhao , Zhenhong Guan , Li Yang , Wanchun Sun , Shuangxi Wang , Qisheng Peng
      The calcium-dependent protease calpain2 is involved in macrophages apoptosis. Brucella infection–induced up-regulation of intracellular calcium level is an essential factor for the intracellular survival of Brucella within macrophages. Here, we hypothesize that calcium-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 ubiquitinates calpain2 and inhibits Brucella infection-induced macrophage apoptosis via degradation of calpain2.Our results reveal that Brucella infection induces increases in Nedd4 activity in an intracellular calcium dependent manner. Furthermore, Brucella infection-induced degradation of calpain2 is mediated by Nedd4 ubiquitination of calpain2. Brucella infection-induced calpain2 degradation inhibited macrophages apoptosis. Treatment of Brucella infected macrophages with calcium chelator BAPTA or Nedd4 knock-down decreased Nedd4 activity, prevented calpain2 degradation, and resulted in macrophages apoptosis.


      PubDate: 2014-09-12T18:05:06Z
       
  • Efficacy of CSF vaccine CP7_E2alf in piglets with maternally derived
           antibodies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): P.L. Eblé , S. Quak , Y. Geurts , H.W. Moonen-Leusen , W.L.A. Loeffen
      There is a need for live DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccines against Classical Swine Fever (CSF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether vaccination with the chimeric pestivirus vaccine CP7_E2alf is efficacious to protect young piglets born from vaccinated sows, thus with maternally derived antibodies (MDAs). Groups of 10 piglets each, with or without MDAs, were vaccinated either intramuscularly (IM), at an age of 3 or 6 weeks, or orally (OR), at an age of 6 weeks. Five piglets of each group were challenged with CSFV strain Koslov and protection against clinical disease, virus shedding and transmission were studied. Vaccination with CP7_E2alf, both in the presence of MDA's and in piglets without MDA's, protected against severe clinical signs, but virus shedding from most inoculated piglets and transmission to contact pigs was observed. However, virus transmission in the vaccinated piglets was significantly reduced as compared to non-vaccinated piglets, although the reproduction ratio's R calculated from the results in the vaccinated pigs from our study were not yet significantly below 1. The efficacy of vaccination with CP7_E2alf in the presence of MDAs (R IM vac =0.8, R OR vac =0.4) seemed to be slightly less as compared to vaccination in the absence of MDAs (R IM vac =0.2, R OR vac =0). On a population level, the results suggest that the CP7_E2alf vaccine is an effective tool in the control and eradication of CSF and, moreover, can be applied for both IM and oral use for young age groups, with MDAs having a limited effect on the efficacy.


      PubDate: 2014-09-12T18:05:06Z
       
  • Diversity of zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species and detection of
           a putative novel gastric Helicobacter species in wild and wild-born
           captive chimpanzees and western lowland gorillas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Bram Flahou , David Modrý , Kateřina Pomajbíková , Klára J. Petrželková , Annemieke Smet , Richard Ducatelle , Frank Pasmans , Rui M. Sá , Angelique Todd , Chie Hashimoto , Martin Mulama , John Kiang , Mirko Rossi , Freddy Haesebrouck
      A number of Helicobacter species cause gastrointestinal or hepatic disease in humans, including H. pylori, gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters from animal origin and enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Little is known on the presence of Helicobacter species in great apes, our closest living relatives and potential reservoirs of microorganisms that might emerge in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter species in African chimpanzees and gorillas. Fresh fecal samples were collected from wild endangered chimpanzees and critically endangered western lowland gorillas from different African National Parks, as well as wild-born captive animals from primate sanctuaries. Intact Helicobacter bacteria were demonstrated in feces by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Screening using a Helicobacter genus-specific PCR revealed the presence of Helicobacter DNA in the majority of animals in all groups. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed a high homology to sequences from various zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species, including H. cinaedi and H. canadensis. A number of gorillas and chimpanzees also tested positive using PCR assays designed to amplify part of the ureAB gene cluster and the hsp60 gene of gastric helicobacters. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a putative novel zoonotic gastric Helicobacter taxon/species. For this species, we propose the name ‘Candidatus Helicobacter homininae’, pending isolation and further genetic characterization. The presence of several Helicobacter species not only implies a possible health threat for these endangered great apes, but also a possible zoonotic transmission of gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters from these primate reservoirs to humans.


      PubDate: 2014-09-12T18:05:06Z
       
  • Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies
           transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from
           Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Zaida Rentería-Solís , Christine Förster , Angelika Aue , Ulrich Wittstatt , Gudrun Wibbelt , Matthias König
      From December 2012 to May 2013, an outbreak occurred among urban wild carnivores from Berlin. We collected 97 free-ranging raccoons from the city area. PCR assays, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in 69 raccoons. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene fragments (1767 nucleotides) of CDV isolated from 4 raccoons showed close relation to CDV isolates from foxes from Germany and a domestic dog from Hungary; all belonging to the “Europe” lineage of CDV. These study results suggest an inter-species transmission of CDV as the origin for the outbreak among the raccoon population. Implications for domestic pets and suggested interspecies transmission between urban wildlife and raccoons are discussed. This is the first major outbreak of CDV amongst free-ranging raccoons in Europe.


      PubDate: 2014-09-12T18:05:06Z
       
  • A novel parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) identified from goat herds with
           respiratory diseases in eastern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Wenliang Li , Li Mao , Suping Cheng , Qiusheng Wang , Jiachun Huang , Jiawu Deng , Zhongyu Wang , Wenwen Zhang , Leilei Yang , Fei Hao , Yonglong Ding , Yinhua Sun , Jianzhong Wei , Ping Jiang , Jieyuan Jiang
      Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens for humans and for many animals, but goat infection has been rarely reported. Starting in Aug 2013, goats in the Jiangsu and Anhui provinces of eastern China suffered severe respiratory diseases. In order to identify the causative agent, numerous related pathogens were tested with RT-PCR or PCR. A unique PIV3 strain was detected in most of the clinical nasal swabs or serum samples. The virus was isolated on MDBK cells and characterized by RT-PCR, nucleotide sequence analysis and hemagglutination test. The entire M and F gene coding regions, HN, 5′-UTR-N and L gene fragments were amplified using pairs of degenerate primers. Nucleotide, amino acid sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses based on these genes indicated that the goat-derived PIV3 strain was distinct from previously reported BPIV3 genotypes and HPIV3 strains. The novel isolate, named JS2013, might be a potentially new member of the respirovirus genus. Goats were experimentally infected with JS2013 culture. The virus-inoculated goats displayed coughing and nasal discharges that were related to respiratory diseases. Viremia and virus shedding were detected during 4-10 days post inoculation (dpi). Virus-specific HI antibodies became positive from 14 dpi. This is the first report of the detection of PIV3 from Chinese goat herds and genetic and pathogenetic characterization of the novel goat-derived PIV3.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T17:50:20Z
       
  • Novel canine bocavirus strain associated with severe enteritis in a dog
           litter
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Rogier Bodewes , Stefanie Lapp , Kerstin Hahn , André Habierski , Christine Förster , Matthias König , Peter Wohlsein , Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus , Wolfgang Baumgärtner
      Bocaviruses are small non-enveloped viruses with a linear ssDNA genome, that belong to the genus Bocaparvovirus of the subfamiliy Parvovirinae. Bocavirus infections are associated with a wide spectrum of disease in humans and various mammalian species. Here we describe a fatal enteritis associated with infection with a novel strain of canine bocavirus 2 (CaBoV-2), that occurred in a litter of German wirehaired pointers. Necropsy performed on three puppies revealed an enteritis reminiscent of canine parvovirus associated enteritis, accompanied with signs of lymphocytolytic disease in bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. While other major causes of enteritis of young dogs, including canine parvovirus, were excluded, by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel CaBoV-2 strain was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome of this novel canine bocavirus strain indicated that this virus was indeed most closely related to group 2 canine bocaviruses. Infection with canine bocavirus was confirmed by in situ hybridization, which revealed the presence of CaBoV-2 nucleic acid in the intestinal tract and lymphoid tissues of the dogs. In a small-scale retrospective analysis concerning the role of CaBoV-2 no additional cases were identified. The findings of this study provide novel insights into the pathogenicity of canine bocaviruses.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T17:50:20Z
       
  • Evaluation of haemostaseological status of pigs experimentally infected
           with African swine fever virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Hovakim Zakaryan , Elena Karalova , Henrik Voskanyan , Zarine Ter-Pogossyan , Narek Nersisyan , Astghik Hakobyan , David Saroyan , Zaven Karalyan
      African swine fever is a highly contagious haemorrhagic disease of pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Haemorrhages are the most frequently reported lesions in acute and subacute forms of ASF. Haemorrhagic lesions are accompanied by impaired haemostasis, which includes thrombocytopenia and changes in the coagulation system. In the present study, experimental infection was conducted to elucidate whether a highly virulent ASFV genotype II circulating in the Trans-Caucasus and Eastern Europe affects the haemostasis of infected pigs. Platelet count changes and platelet size, as well as coagulation parameters were evaluated upon experimental infection. In contrast to other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II showed a significant decrease in the number of platelets from 3rd dpi onwards. Furthermore, a decrease in platelet size was observed throughout the entire period of experiment. A significant increase in the number of platelet aggregates was observed from the beginning of infection. Unlike other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II induced a slight shortening of an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) throughout the experiment. Thrombin time (TT) was prolonged from day 5 onwards, whereas no changes in prothrombin time (PT) were found upon infection. The level of D-dimers was permanently higher than in control with a peak on day 3 post-infection. ASFV induced a significant decrease in the level of fibrinogen from day 5 till the end of experiment. Thus, it can be concluded that ASFV genotype II isolated in Armenia affects the haemostasis of infected pigs and causes changes that differ from that of other ASFV strains described previously.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T17:50:20Z
       
  • Serological proteome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
           isolated from different hosts reveals novel candidates for prophylactics
           to control caseous lymphadenitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Nubia Seyffert , Renata Faria Silva , Julien Jardin , Wanderson Marques Silva , Thiago Luiz de Paula Castro , Natayme Rocha Tartaglia , Karina Talita de Oliveira Santana , Ricardo Wagner Portela , Artur Silva , Anderson Miyoshi , Yves Le Loir , Vasco Azevedo
      Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a highly prevalent disease in goats and sheep worldwide, which is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Although several prophylactic methods against CLA have been proposed previously, the identification of new C. pseudotuberculosis proteins that are really produced during the infectious process is still needed to improve efficiency and accuracy in vaccines and diagnostics. In this study, we used optimized conditions for serological proteome analysis (SERPA) in order to identify new immune-reactive proteins in C. pseudotuberculosis culture supernatants of two strains, 1002 and C231, isolated from goats and sheep, respectively. Using a sheep and goat serum pool, 13 novel immune-reactive exoproteins common to the two strains were identified. Four of these proteins present known functions and were already described as immune-reactive proteins in other microorganisms, whereas the other nine are of unknown function and show low similarity with proteins from other bacterial species. These data reveal promising targets for immunoprophylactic methods against CLA.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T17:50:20Z
       
  • Molecular characterisation of Lineage IV Peste des petitsruminants virus
           using multi gene sequence data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Senthil Kumar. K , Aravindh Babu , Sundarapandian. G , Parimal Roy , Thangavelu. A , Siva Kumar. K , Arumugam. R , N.D.J. Chandran , Murali Muniraju , Mana Mahapatra , Ashley C. Banyard , B. Murali Manohar , Satya Parida
      Peste des petits ruminants is responsible for an economically important plague of small ruminants that is endemic across much of the developing world. Here we describe the detection and characterisation of a PPR virus from a recent outbreak in Tamil Nadu, India. We demonstrate the isolation of PPR virus from rectal swab and highlight the potential spread of disease to in-contact animals through faecal materials and use of faecal material as non-invasive method of sampling for susceptible wild ruminants. Finally we have performed a comprehensive ‘multi-gene’ assessment of lineage IV isolates of PPRV utilising sequence data from our study and publically available partial N, partial F and partial H gene data. We describe the effects of grouping PPRV isolates utilising different gene loci and conclude that the variable part of N gene at C terminus gives the best phylogenetic assessment of PPRV isolates with isolates generally clustering according to geographical isolation. This assessment highlights the importance of careful gene targeting with RT-PCR to enable thorough phylogenetic analysis.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T17:50:20Z
       
  • Temporal insight into the natural generation of a new reassortant porcine
           influenza virus in a swine holding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Chiapponi Chiara , Baioni Laura , Luppi Andrea , Moreno Ana , Castellan Alberto , Foni Emanuela
      The influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine in Italy. Reassortant influenza A viruses subtypes in swine appeared in European pig population. In particular reassortant viruses carrying genome segment from the pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) are reported in many European countries, included Italy. In a 1000 sows farrow-to feeder farm, in Northern Italy, we isolated 10 IAVs from recurrent episodes of respiratory disease in 45-70 days-old pigs from September 2012 to June 2013. The antigenic and genetic characterization of the swine IAV isolates showed the contemporary circulation of H1N1 avian-like and H1N1pdm strains in the first outbreak. The analysis of the viruses isolated subsequently showed the circulation of H1N1pdm IAV and then the establishment of a new previously undescribed H1N1 reassortant strain with a pandemic derived hemagglutinin gene and all the other seven segments of swine H1N1 avian-like lineage.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T17:50:20Z
       
  • Molecular and serologic detection of Coxiella burnetii in native Korean
           goats (Capra hircus coreanae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Byeong Yeal Jung , Min-Goo Seo , Seung-Hun Lee , Jae-Won Byun , Jae-Ku Oem , Dongmi Kwak
      The occurrence of Q fever in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae) was investigated for the first time in the country using ELISA and PCR. A total of 597 blood samples were collected from goats belonging to five different provinces of Korea. To detect Coxiella burnetii, sera were separated from the whole blood and analysed by ELISA; DNA was extracted directly from the whole blood and analysed by PCR. Overall, 114 (19.1%, 95% C.I.=16.1–22.4) and 57 goats (9.5%, 95% C.I.=7.5–12.2) tested positive for C. burnetii in the ELISA- and PCR-based screening, respectively, while 18 goats (3.0%, 95% C.I.=1.9–4.7) tested positive in both the assays. There was a significant difference between the number of ELISA- and PCR-positive goats (P <0.05). The seroprevalence of Q fever was significantly higher among the adult goats (≥1y, 22.0%) than among the young goats (<1y, 13.8%) (P <0.05). While the results of the serologic analysis showed no seasonal variation, data from the PCR-based assay indicated that there were a higher number of positive cases during the cold seasons. Because Q fever infection has high rates of prevalence in native Korean goats, further studies on humans at a high risk of contracting this disease should be conducted. The PCR-based assay used in this study is a useful method for the direct detection of C. burnetii in blood samples from small ruminants.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • First finding of subgroup-E avian leukosis virus from wild ducks in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ruijun Hao , Chunyan Han , Lanlan Liu , Xiangwei Zeng
      To analyze the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALV-E) in wild ducks in China, we collected 276 wild ducks, including 12 species, from four provinces of China. The PCR detection for ALV-E identified four samples as positive samples and the detection rate was 1.45%. The env sequences of ALV-E were cloned and sequenced. In gp85, genes of the four ALV-E strains showed a high homology(98.1-99.5%) with ev-1, ev-3, and SD0501 and more than 90% homology with other subgroup-A and subgroup-B avian leukosis viruses. However, they showed a slightly lower identity with subgroup-J (NX0101 and HPRS103), from 47.5 to 48.1%. Simultaneously, a further comparison with ALV-E representative isolates indicated that the amino acid substitutions of the four wild duck strains were distributed throughout the gp85. In total, these results suggested that the subgroup-E avian leukosis virus has been found in wild ducks in China.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Identification of Corynebacterium spp. isolated from bovine intramammary
           infections by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight
           mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Juliano Leonel Gonçalves , Tiago Tomazi , Juliana Regina Barreiro , Patrícia Aparecida de Campos Braga , Christina Ramires Ferreira , João Pessoa Araújo Junior , Marcos Nogueira Eberlin , Marcos Veiga dos Santos
      Corynebacterium species (spp.) are among the most frequently isolated pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. However, simple, fast, and reliable methods for the identification of species of the genus Corynebacterium are not currently available. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identifying Corynebacterium spp. isolated from the mammary glands of dairy cows. Corynebacterium spp. were isolated from milk samples via microbiological culture (n =180) and were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Using MALDI-TOF MS methodology, 161 Corynebacterium spp. isolates (89.4%) were correctly identified at the species level, whereas 12 isolates (6.7%) were identified at the genus level. Most isolates that were identified at the species level with 16 S rRNA gene sequencing were identified as Corynebacterium bovis (n =156; 86.7%) were also identified as C. bovis with MALDI-TOF MS. Five Corynebacterium spp. isolates (2.8%) were not correctly identified at the species level with MALDI-TOF MS and 2 isolates (1.1%) were considered unidentified because despite having MALDI-TOF MS scores >2, only the genus level was correctly identified. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS could serve as an alternative method for species-level diagnoses of bovine intramammary infections caused by Corynebacterium spp.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Detection of a pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in an African hedgehog
           (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Hiroo Madarame , Kikumi Ogihara , Moe Kimura , Makoto Nagai , Tsutomu Omatsu , Hideharu Ochiai , Tetsyuya Mizutani
      A pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) from an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) was detected and genetically characterized. The affected hedgehog had a nonsuppurative encephalitis with vacuolization of the white matter, and the brain samples yielded RNA reads highly homogeneous to PVM strain 15 (96.5% of full genomic sequence homology by analysis of next generation sequencing). PVM antigen was also detected in the brain and the lungs immunohistochemically. A PVM was strongly suggested as a causative agent of encephalitis of a hedgehog with suspected WHS. This is a first report of PVM infection in hedgehogs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Isolation and characterization of flagellar filament from zoospores of
           Dermatophilus congolensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Mieko Hiraizumi , Yuichi Tagawa
      Highly motile zoospores from Dermatophilus congolensis bovine isolates from clinical dermatophilosis in Japan were obtained by culturing at 27°C in an ambient atmosphere on heart infusion agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood for 72h or in heart infusion broth for 48h with gentle shaking. After vigorous mechanical agitation of the zoospore suspension, the flagellar filaments detached from motile zoospores and were isolated in the clear gelatinous part of the final pellet by differential centrifugation. Typical morphology of a flagellar filament, with a width of approximately 15nm, was observed in the isolated flagellar filament by electron microscopy. A single major protein (flagellin) band with an apparent molecular mass of 35kDa was detected in the flagellar filament of D. congolensis strain AM-1 and that of 33kDa was detected in strain IT-2 by SDS-PAGE. In immunoblot analysis of whole-cell proteins from seven isolates of D. congolensis, antiserum to strain AM-1 zoospores reacted with the 35-kDa antigen band of strain AM-1, but not with any antigen band of other strains in a similar molecular mass range. In contrast, antiserum to strain IT-2 zoospores reacted with antigen bands at 33kDa from six strains, except strain AM-1. Similar strain-specific reactions of these anti-zoospore sera with isolated flagellar filaments from strains AM-1 and IT-2 were confirmed by immunoblot, indicating the presence of antigenic variations of flagellins of D. congolensis zoospores.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Lowly pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2) infection in Plateau pika
           (Ochotona curzoniae), Qinghai Lake, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Zhijun Yu , Kaihui Cheng , Weiyang Sun , Yue Xin , Jinshan Cai , Ruilin Ma , Quanbang Zhao , Lin Li , Jing Huang , Xiaoyu Sang , Xue Li , Kun Zhang , Tiecheng Wang , Chuan Qin , Jun Qian , Yuwei Gao , Xianzhu Xia
      Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are globally important contagions. Several domestic mammals can be infected with AIVs and may play important roles in the adaptation and transmission of these viruses in mammals, although the roles of wild mammals in the natural ecology of AIVs are not yet clear. Here, we performed a serological survey of apparently healthy Plateau pikas at Qinghai Lake in China to assess the prevalence of exposure to AIVs. Ninety-two of 293 (31%) of wild Plateau pikas possessed serum antibodies against a lowly pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 virus. Experimental inoculation of Plateau pikas with a LPAI H9N2 virus resulted in productive viral replication in respiratory tissues without prior adaptation. Our findings suggest that Plateau pikas represent a natural mammalian host to H9N2 AIVs and may play a role in the ongoing circulation of H9N2 viruses at Qinghai Lake in China. Surveillance for AIV infection in Plateau pika populations and other mammals that have close contact with the Plateau pikas should be considered.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Susceptibility of calves to porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Mohammad Y. Halami , Markus Freick , Awad A. Shehata , Hermann Müller , Thomas W. Vahlenkamp
      Circoviruses are known to infect pigs and birds and cause severe diseases with various clinical signs. Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), associated with severe economic losses, was detected in rodents, mosquitoes, cattle, and in calves affected with bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP). However, molecular and serological investigations on circovirus infections in cattle revealed inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to investigate the susceptibility and immune response of calves to experimental PCV2 inoculation. Animals were either intravenously inoculated with tissue-culture grown PCV2, with bone marrow from PCV2 positive and negative calves or immunized with a commercial inactivated PCV2 vaccine. The results showed that the animals inoculated with tissue-culture grown PCV2 and with PCV2 positive bone marrow displayed clinical signs including lymph node swelling, reddening of oral and ocular mucosa, and diarrhoea 7–18 days post inoculation (p.i.). PCV2-specific antibodies were detected in the tissue-culture grown PCV2-infected animals and in the PCV2-immunized animals from day 11 and 7 p.i. onwards, respectively, but were absent in both bone marrow inoculated groups. PCV2 was detected by real-time quantitative PCR only in blood samples of the tissue-culture grown PCV2-infected animals and in various tissues (e.g. spleen, lymph nodes, thymus), with high copy numbers in blood between day 4 (5.16log10 genomic copy number/ml) and 46 (5.33log10 genomic copy number/ml) p.i. In conclusion, the seroconversion and the detection of PCV2 in lymphoid tissues for more than five weeks p.i. revealed that host susceptibility of PCV2 is not solely restricted to pigs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Nir Rudoler , Michal Rasis , Benny Sharir , Anna Novikov , Gregory Shapira , Michael Giladi
      Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0–89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises
           (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Elisa Maio , Lineke Begeman , Yvette Bisselink , Peter van Tulden , Lidewij Wiersma , Sjoukje Hiemstra , Robin Ruuls , Andrea Gröne , Hendrik-Ido-Jan Roest , Peter Willemsen , Joke van der Giessen
      The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n =3), pulmonary lymph node (n =3) and lungworms (n =2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • A longitudinal study of the prevalence and super-shedding of Escherichia
           coli O157 in dairy heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): K.J. Williams , M.P. Ward , O.P. Dhungyel , E.J.S. Hall , L. Van Breda
      The fecal shedding and super-shedding of the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157 by cattle has been the focus of many previous studies with varied results observed. The heterogeneity of shedding is becoming more accepted, both in the numbers of animals shedding and the levels at which animals shed. To clarify patterns in shedding and super-shedding we undertook a longitudinal study to investigate shedding within a cohort of replacement dairy heifers. The cohort of 52 heifers was sampled 18 times at approximately weekly intervals with no significant changes in management during the sampling period. An overall prevalence of 44.3% (412/930 samples) was detected with prevalence ranging from 9.6 to 94.3% at individual sampling points. Each of the 52 heifers yielded at least one sample which was detected positive for E. coli O157. Super-shedding was detected at a sample level of 3.6% (32/893) and ranged between 0 and 9.6% at each sampling point. Of the 52 heifers, 24 (46.2%) were detected to be super-shedding at some point during the study, 19 of which were detected as super-shedding at only one point. From our findings we conclude that super-shedding is not associated with a small subset of animals that shed at high levels continually as had been proposed by earlier studies. We propose that the term ‘super-shedding event’ as opposed to ‘super-shedding animal’ better describes the nature of shedding.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Relatedness of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis clinical
           isolates of human and porcine origins assessed by MLVA
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Célia Leão , Ana Canto , Diana Machado , Ilda Santos Sanches , Isabel Couto , Miguel Viveiros , João Inácio , Ana Botelho
      Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an important opportunistic pathogen, infecting humans and animals, notably pigs. Several methods have been used to characterize MAH strains. RFLP and PFGE typing techniques have been used as standard methods but are technically demanding. In contrast, the analysis of VNTR loci is a simpler, affordable and highly reliable PCR-based technique, allowing a numerical and reproductive digitalization of typing data. In this study, the analysis of Mycobacterium avium tandem repeats (MATRs) loci was adapted to evaluate the genetic diversity of epidemiological unrelated MAH clinical strains of human (n =28) and porcine (n =69) origins, collected from diverse geographical regions across mainland Portugal. These MAH isolates were found to be genetically diverse and genotypes are randomly distributed across the country. Some of the human strains shared identical VNTR profiles with porcine isolates. Our study shows that the VNTR genotyping using selected MATR loci is a useful analysis technique for assessing the genetic diversity of MAH isolates from Portugal. This typing method could be successfully applied in other countries toward the implementation of a worldwide open-access database of MATR-VNTR profiles of MAH isolates, allowing a better assessment of the global epidemiology traits of this important pathogenic species.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Evaluating the potential of marine Bacteriovorax sp. DA5 as a biocontrol
           agent against vibriosis in Litopenaeus vannamei larvae
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Chongqing Wen , Ming Xue , Huafang Liang , Shining Zhou
      The potential application of Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) for the biocontrol of bacterial diseases has been widely recognized. However, no marine BALOs have been reported for Vibrio-related infections in penaeid shrimp. In the present study, the bacteriolytic ability of the marine Bacteriovorax strain DA5 against Vibrio alginolyticus zouA was examined by cocultivation and electron microscopy, and optimal lysis was observed at 30–35°C and 20–30‰ salinity along with a high multiplicity of infection. Then, we showed that experimentally infected Litopenaeus vannamei larvae exhibited significantly higher survival with incremental DA5 levels. Finally, variation in the bacterial counts and the bacterial community in larval rearing water was investigated after prophylactic application of DA5. The elimination effect of DA5 on vibrios was visible at early time points, whereas only a few non-dominant bacteria, rather than the predominant populations, were affected through analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rDNA V3 region. Accordingly, the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of DA5 on vibriosis associated with L. vannamei could markedly enhance larval survivability, and these results will facilitate the application of marine Bacteriovorax to control vibriosis in shrimp larviculture.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Dissemination of plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases in antimicrobial
           resistant Salmonella serotypes originating from humans, pigs and the swine
           environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Shivaramu Keelara , Siddhartha Thakur
      The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the inter-serovar exchange of AmpC β-lactamase conferring plasmids isolated from humans, pigs and the swine environment. Plasmids isolated from a total of 21 antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Salmonella isolates representing human clinical cases (n =6), pigs (n =6) and the swine farm environment (n =9) were characterized by replicon typing and restriction digestion, inter-serovar transferability by conjugation, and presence of AmpC β-lactamase enzyme encoding gene bla CMY-2 by southern hybridization. Based on replicon typing, the majority (17/21, 81%) of the plasmids belonged to the I1-Iγ Inc group and were between 70 and 103kb. The potential for inter-serovar plasmid transfer was further confirmed by the PCR detection of AMR genes on the plasmids isolated from trans-conjugants. Plasmids from Salmonella serovars Anatum, Ouakam, Johannesburg and Typhimurium isolated from the same cohort of pigs and their environment and S. Heidelberg from a single human clinical isolate had identical plasmids based on digestion with multiple restriction enzymes (EcoRI, HindIII and PstI) and southern blotting. We demonstrated likely horizontal inter-serovar exchange of plasmid-encoding AmpC β-lactamases resistance among MDR Salmonella serotypes isolated from pigs, swine farm environment and clinical human cases. This study provides valuable information on the role of the swine farm environment and by extension other livestock farm environments, as a potential reservoir of resistant bacterial strains that potentially transmit resistance determinants to livestock, in this case, swine, humans and possibly other hosts by horizontal exchange of plasmids.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Molecular detection and genotyping of Aphanomyces astaci directly from
           preserved crayfish samples uncovers the Norwegian crayfish plague disease
           history
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Trude Vrålstad , David A. Strand , Frédéric Grandjean , Agnar Kvellestad , Tore Håstein , Ann Kristin Knutsen , Trond Taugbøl , Ida Skaar
      Aphanomyces astaci causes crayfish plague in European freshwater crayfish, but most historical epizootics lack agent isolation and identification. Although declared as crayfish plague outbreaks by the Norwegian Competent Authorities, only presumptive diagnoses without agent isolation exist from Norwegian epizootics until 2005. Molecular methods now allow both A. astaci detection and genotype determination from preserved samples. We therefore aimed to (1) investigate molecularly if A. astaci was involved in a selection of mass-mortality events in Norwegian noble crayfish populations from 1971 to 2004, and (2) determine the eventually involved A. astaci genotype groups both from these historical and also more recent mass-mortality events. DNA was extracted directly from presumptively infected crayfish tissues, and screened by A. astaci specific qPCR. A representative selection of positive samples was confirmed by ITS-sequencing. Finally, genotype determination was performed with microsatellite markers that distinguish all known A. astaci genotype groups. The molecular examination detected A. astaci in crayfish materials from all examined mass-mortality events. The first event in 1971–1974 was caused by the A. astaci genotype group A, presumably the first genotype group that entered Europe more than 150 years ago. All later outbreaks were caused by the A. astaci genotype group B which was introduced to Europe by importation of signal crayfish in the 1960s. The results suggest that molecular methods can verify the involvement of A. astaci in the vast majority of observed crayfish mass mortalities in Europe whenever preserved materials exist. Moreover, microsatellite genotyping can reveal at least parts of the underlying epidemiology.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Quantification of tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistance in digestive
           tracts of bulls and piglets fed with Toyocerin®, a feed additive
           containing Bacillus toyonensis spores
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Arnau Casanovas-Massana , Laura Sala-Comorera , Anicet R. Blanch
      The complete genome sequencing of Bacillus toyonensis, the active ingredient of the feed additive Toyocerin®, has revealed the presence of tetM and cat genes, a tetracycline and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of Toyocerin® (viable spores of B. toyonensis) as a probiotic in feedstuff increased the abundance of tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistant bacteria in the intestinal tracts of piglets and Holstein bulls. To this end, qPCRs were designed to quantify the abundances of tetM and cat genes and B. toyonensis in the intestinal content of animals treated and non-treated with Toyocerin®. Additionally, the culturable bacterial populations resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol were enumerated by plate counting. No statistical significances were detected between the concentrations of tetracycline or chloramphenicol resistant bacterial populations in treated and non-treated animals. The concentrations of tetM and cat in most of the treated animals were similar to those of B. toyonensis. Furthermore, tetM and cat genes were also detected in some non-treated animals, although in low concentrations. These results suggest that tetM and cat genes are already circulating among the commensal microbiota regardless of the use of Toyocerin®. The use of Toyocerin® as a supplement in feedstuff does not increase the abundances of tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistant bacteria in the intestinal tracts of piglets and Holstein bulls beyond the contribution directly associated to the introduction of B. toyonensis spores through diet.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Inactivation of Aleutian mink disease virus through high temperature
           exposure in vitro and under field-based composting conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): I. Hussain , G.W. Price , A.H. Farid
      Disposal of manure contaminated with Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a significant concern to the mink industry. Inactivation of AMDV under field conditions has received limited attention in the scientific literature. We evaluated the thermal inactivation of AMDV in vitro and during composting of mink manure. Spleen homogenate containing AMDV was heated under controlled conditions at 45°C, 55°C, and 65°C for 3 days. Results of the in vitro study identified complete absence of viral replication in mink at 65°C only. Next, manure-mixed AMDV packed in polyester pouches was inserted in different layers of three replicate mink manure compost piles. The virus was retrieved after the compost piles had undergone a heating period and subsequently returned to ambient temperatures. Temperature regimes in the compost piles were categorized as ≥65°C, ≥60–64°C, and ≥55–59°C. Initially, layer-wise composite virus samples were assayed for virus replication in mink. Twenty-one-day post-inoculation (p.i.) plasma tested for AMDV and antibodies indicated infection in 40%, 80%, and 100% of mink inoculated from samples originating from the top, center and bottom layers of the piles, respectively. Subsequently, the virus was extracted from individual pouches in compost layers achieving thermal activity ≥65°C and was tested in mink. No antibodies or virus was detected in plasma taken weekly up to day 21 p.i. PCR data of bone marrow and lymph nodes collected on day 21 p.i. also showed no AMDV. However, mink that received virus from positive control manure indicated infection in their plasma as early as 1 week p.i.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Complete genome sequence analysis of goatpox virus isolated from China
           shows high variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Xiancheng Zeng , Xuelin Chi , Wei Li , Wenbo Hao , Ming Li , Xiaohong Huang , Yifan Huang , Daniel L. Rock , Shuhong Luo , Shihua Wang
      Goatpox virus (GTPV), a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, is the causative agent of variolo caprina (goatpox). GTPV can cause significant economic losses of domestic ruminants in endemic regions and can threaten breeding stocks. In this study, we report on the compilation of the complete genomic sequence of an isolated GTPV field strain FZ (GTPV_FZ). The 150,194bp GTPV genome consists of a central coding region bounded by two identical 2301bp inverted terminal repeats and contains 151 putative genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals the apparent genetic relationships among Capripoxviruses are close, but sufficient genomic variants in the field isolate strain FZ have been identified to distinguish it from other GTPV strains and other Capripoxvirus species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the p32 and complete GTPV genome can be used to differentiate SPPVs, GTPVs and LSDVs. These data may contribute to the epidemiological study of the Chinese capripoxvirus and help to develop more specific detection methods to distinguish GTPVs, SPPVs and LSDVs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Genetic diversity of porcine group A rotavirus strains in the UK
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Rebecca Chandler-Bostock , Laura R. Hancox , Sameena Nawaz , Oliver Watts , Miren Iturriza-Gomara , Kenneth M. Mellits
      Rotavirus is endemic in pig farms where it causes a loss in production. This study is the first to characterise porcine rotavirus circulating in UK pigs. Samples from diarrheic pigs with rotavirus enteritis obtained between 2010 and 2012 were genotyped in order to determine the diversity of group A rotavirus (GARV) in UK pigs. A wide range of rotavirus genotypes were identified in UK pigs: six G types (VP7); G2, G3, G4, G5, G9 and G11 and six P types (VP4); P[6], P[7], P[8], P[13], P[23], and P[32]. With the exception of a single P[8] isolate, there was less than 95% nucleotide identity between sequences from this study and any available rotavirus sequences. The G9 and P[6] genotypes are capable of infecting both humans and pigs, but showed no species cross-over within the UK as they were shown to be genetically distinct, which suggested zoonotic transmission is rare within the UK. We identified the P[8] genotype in one isolate, this genotype is almost exclusively found in humans. The P[8] was linked to a human Irish rotavirus isolate in the same year. The discovery of human genotype P[8] rotavirus in a UK pig confirms this common human genotype can infect pigs and also highlights the necessity of surveillance of porcine rotavirus genotypes to safeguard human as well as porcine health.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Identification of recently described porcine parvoviruses in archived
           North American samples from 1996 and association with porcine circovirus
           associated disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Tanja Opriessnig , Chao-Ting Xiao , Priscilla F. Gerber , Patrick G. Halbur
      The association of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV) type 1 as a cause of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) is well established. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence rates of classical PPV1 and recently recognized PPV2-5 in serum and lung samples from pigs and farms with known PCV2 status. A total of 586 serum samples and 164 lung homogenates collected from 1996 to 2013 in the USA and Canada were utilized. All samples were tested for PPV1-5 and PCV2. PCV2 was detected in 27.7% (162/586) and PPV in 48.8% (286/586) of the serum samples, whereas 78.7% (129/164) of the lung tissues were positive for PCV2 and 56.7% (93/164) were positive for PPV. Overall, PPV2 had the highest prevalence rates in sera (35.2%) and tissues (42.7%). Concurrent infection of PCV2 and PPV occurred in 14.3% (84/586) of the serum samples and in 49.4% (81/164) of the tissue samples. Moreover, the prevalence of PPV1 or PPV2 DNA was significantly higher in tissues containing high amounts of PCV2 DNA compared to non-PCVAD cases. The frequency of concurrent PPV/PCV2 infection was higher for PCVAD herds compared to negative or subclinically infected herds. PPV2, PPV3 and PPV4 were all identified in samples collected in 1998 and PPV5 was first identified in 2006. The obtained findings indicate that similar to PCV2, PPVs are widespread in North American pigs. Nevertheless, diagnostic investigations into PCVAD cases should give more consideration to the role of PPV1 and PPV2 as contributing cofactors.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Identification of immuno-reactive capsid proteins of malignant catarrhal
           fever viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Kathryn Bartley , David Deane , Ann Percival , Inga R. Dry , Dawn M. Grant , Neil F. Inglis , Kevin Mclean , Erin D.T. Manson , Lisa H.J. Imrie , David M. Haig , Felix Lankester , George C. Russell
      Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal disease of cattle and other ungulates caused by certain gamma-herpesviruses including alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). An attenuated virus vaccine based on AlHV-1 has been shown to induce virus-neutralising antibodies in plasma and nasal secretions of protected cattle but the targets of virus-specific antibodies are unknown. Proteomic analysis and western blotting of virus extracts allowed the identification of eight candidate AlHV-1 virion antigens. Recombinant expression of selected candidates and their OvHV-2 orthologues confirmed that two polypeptides, the products of the ORF17.5 and ORF65 genes, were antigens recognised by antibodies from natural MCF cases or from AlHV-1 vaccinated cattle. These proteins have potential as diagnostic and/or vaccine antigens.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Effects of tetracycline and zinc on selection of methicillin-resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 in pigs (Moodley et al.,
           2011)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): David G.S. Burch
      Although this paper was published some time ago, its importance is only recently coming to light as zinc oxide's use as a therapeutic substance for the treatment and control of post-weaning diarrhoea caused primarily by Escherichia coli, is being called into question in Europe. One of the main negative aspects of this paper was the conclusion that that feed supplemented with tetracycline or zinc increases the numbers of MRSA ST398 in the nasal cavity of pigs and that they significantly select for such higher counts. It is the purpose of this critique to demonstrate that by using a poor trial method with only a single replicate and small treatment group numbers of only four pigs (two infected with MRSA and two not), by ignoring the MRSA counts on day 0 before treatment started and manipulating the statistics, to increase the low power of the original analysis, has led to the drawing of misleading conclusions regarding the co-selection effect on MRSA by zinc oxide and underestimating the major numerical impact of tetracycline. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship analysis supports the finding that zinc oxide is unlikely to have any direct co-selector effect on MRSA in the nasal cavity.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Involvement of oxidative stress in subacute toxicity induced by fumonisin
           B1 in broiler chicks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): A.B. Poersch , F. Trombetta , A.C.M. Braga , S.P. Boeira , M.S. Oliveira , P. Dilkin , C.A. Mallmann , M.R. Fighera , L.F.F. Royes , M.S. Oliveira , A.F. Furian
      Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. It has been reported to be a potential cause of liver cancer in rats and esophageal cancer in humans. The underlying mechanisms of FB1 toxicity are thought to be related to the inhibition of ceramide synthase, causing an accumulation of sphingosine (SO) and sphinganine (SA), which in turn may cause tissue functional impairment and the development of oxidative stress. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the effects of an FB1-contaminated diet on markers of oxidative stress in chick liver. A total of 24 male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were fed a standard control diet or a diet contaminated with FB1 (100mg/kg) for 21 days, starting on postnatal day one. The feed and animals were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 to estimate the feed conversion ratio, and at 21 days, the liver weight and liver relative weight were determined. At the end of the experiment, samples of blood and liver were collected. The blood was used to quantify the SA/SO ratio, and the liver was used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); ascorbic acid levels (VitC), non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels and TBARS content were also determined. The FB1 diet increased the liver weight, liver relative weight, feed conversion and SA/SO ratio. Furthermore, hepatic TBARS levels, Vit C content and CAT activity were also increased. Conversely, the activities of SOD, GST and NPSH, in the liver were not altered by the mycotoxin-contaminated diet. In summary, we showed that subacute exposure of broiler chicks to FB1 induced liver oxidative stress concomitantly with SA/SO accumulation.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of
           enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Peter Kuhnert , Gudrun Overesch
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized illegal animal transport. Results indicate presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Complete sequence of a F2:A-:B- plasmid pHN3A11 carrying rmtB and qepA,
           and its dissemination in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Xiaojie Chen , Liangying He , Yugu Li , Zhenling Zeng , Yuting Deng , Yahong Liu , Jian-Hua Liu
      Previous studies have confirmed that the spread of rmtB and qepA was mainly mediated by similar F2:A-:B- plasmids. In this study, a representative rmtB amd qepA-harbouring F2:A-:B- plasmid, pHN3A11, originating from an Escherichia coli strain of feline origin, was fully sequenced and compared with other IncFII plasmids. pHN3A11 is 76,626bp long with a backbone similar to that of the IncFII plasmids obtained from China (pHK23a, pFOS-HK151325, pXZ) and Canada (pC15-1a). It contains genes encoding addiction (pemI/pemK, hok/mok/sok) and partitioning (parM, parB, and stbB) systems that promote plasmid maintenance during vertical transmission. rmtB, qepA, bla TEM-1, and dfr were found in previously observed contexts, interspersed with different complete or truncated insertion sequences and transposons (ΔIS1, ΔTn2, ΔintI1, ISCR3, 3 IS26, Tn21). Further analyses confirmed that pHN3A11-like plasmids have disseminated in E. coli isolates from pets, food animals and farm environments in China. The successful dissemination of F2:A-:B- type multidrug resistant plasmid among animals may represent a public health risk, and may further worsen the clinical impact.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Local and systemic immune responses induced by a recombinant chimeric
           protein containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens fused to the B
           subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LTB
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Silvana Beutinger Marchioro , Andressa Fisch , Charles K. Gomes , Sérgio Jorge , Vanessa Galli , Freddy Haesebrouck , Dominiek Maes , Odir Dellagostin , Fabricio R. Conceição
      A multi-antigen chimera composed of three antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (R1, P42, and NrdF) and the mucosal adjuvant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) was constructed, and its antigenic and immunogenic properties were evaluated in mice and pigs. In addition, we compared the effect of the fusion and co-administration of these proteins in mice. Antibodies against each subunit recognized the chimeric protein. Intranasal and intramuscular immunization of mice with the chimeric protein significantly increased IgG and IgA levels in the serum and tracheobronchial lavages, respectively, against some of the antigens present in the chimeric. Swine immunized with the chimeric protein developed an immune response against all M. hyopneumoniae antigens present in the fusion with a statistically significant difference (P <0.05). The adjuvant rLTB enhanced the immune response in both fused and co-administered antigens; however, better results were obtained with the chimeric protein. This multi-antigen is a promising vaccine candidate that may help control M. hyopneumoniae infection.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Pheno- and genotyping of Brucella abortus biovar 5 isolated from a water
           buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetus: First case reported in the Americas
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Diana Martínez , Carolina Thompson , Graciela Draghi , Vilma Canavesio , Roberto Jacobo , Patricia Zimmer , Sebastián Elena , Ana M. Nicola , Susana Torioni de Echaide
      An isolate of Brucella spp. from an aborted water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetus was characterized based on its pheno- and genotype. The phenotype was defined by carbon dioxide requirement, hydrogen sulfide production, sensitivity to thionin and basic fuchsin and agglutination with Brucella A and M monospecific antisera. The genotype was based on the amplification of the following genes: bcsp31, omp2ab, and eri and the species-specific localization of the insertion sequence IS711 in the Brucella chromosome via B. abortus–B. melitensis–B. ovis–B. suis (AMOS)-PCR. Unexpectedly, the isolate showed a phenotype different from B. abortus bv 1, the most prevalent strain in cattle in Argentina, and from vaccine strain 19, currently used in bovines and water buffaloes. Genotyping supported the phenotypic results, as the analysis of the omp2ab gene sequence showed an identical pattern to either B. abortus bv 5 or B. melitensis. Finally, the AMOS PCR generated a 1700-bp fragment from the isolate, different than those amplified from B. abortus bv 1 (498bp) and B. melitensis (731bp), confirming the presence of B. abortus bv 5. The OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for Brucellosis confirmed this typing. This is the first report of B. abortus bv 5 from a water buffalo in the Americas.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian
           oryx (Oryx leucoryx)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): AL Chaber , L Lignereux , M Al Qassimi , C Saegerman , L Manso-Silván , V Dupuy , F Thiaucourt
      Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Serum protein profiles, circulating immune complexes and proteinuria in
           dogs naturally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Urska Ravnik , Blanka Premrov Bajuk , Lara Lusa , Natasa Tozon
      Alterations in serum protein profile, presence of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and proteinuria were investigated in a large group of dogs naturally infected with the Anaplasma phagocytophilum bacterium. Our aim was to evaluate the presence of hypergammaglobulinaemia, CIC and proteinuria as a possible result of an immune-mediated disease following infection by or exposure to A. phagocytophilum. Dogs were divided into three groups – IFA positive (188 dogs with confirmed exposure to A. phagocytophilum), PCR positive (31 dogs with confirmed infection), and control (IFA and PCR negative) (19 dogs). Serum and urine protein patterns were determined by electrophoresis and CIC concentrations by absorbance nephelometry. No significant differences in hypergammaglobulinaemia were observed between the different groups, as shown by the presence of acute phase proteins α2 and β1–2 globulins. CIC concentrations in the IFA and PCR positive groups were, on average, higher than in controls by 151.3μg/ml, though the differences were not significant. The proportion of dogs with proteinuria did not differ significantly between groups. Our results confirm the assumption that anaplasmosis in dogs is most probably a disease with an acute course, with a good prognosis under the right treatment.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2




      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • The protective effectiveness of an inactivated bovine ephemeral fever
           virus vaccine
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 September 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 173, Issues 1–2
      Author(s): Orly Aziz-Boaron , Dan Gleser , Hagai Yadin , Boris Gelman , Maor Kedmi , Nadav Galon , Eyal Klement
      Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an important viral disease of cattle. Despite the extensive use of inactivated vaccines for the prevention of BEF, a controlled study of their field effectiveness has never been performed. We conducted a large field effectiveness study of a BEF inactivated vaccine, during a large BEF outbreak. Neutralizing antibody titers measured in 385 heifers and calves 1 month after 2nd vaccination averaged 1:91.8 (CI95% =76.6–110). The effectiveness study enrolled 2780 cows in nine herds. In two herds cows vaccinated twice, 1 year before the outbreak and once 2–3 months before outbreak onset were compared with non-vaccinated cows. Average vaccine effectiveness of three vaccine doses compared to no vaccination was 47% (CI95% =34–57) in these herds. In two other herds cows vaccinated twice 1 year before the outbreak and twice again 2–3 months before outbreak were compared with cows vaccinated only twice 2–3 months prior to the outbreak. Average vaccine effectiveness of four doses compared to two doses was 49% (CI95% =25–65) in these herds. In five herds cows vaccinated twice 2–3 months before outbreak onset were compared with non-vaccinated cows. This vaccination schedule was shown to be non-effective (average effectiveness=2%, CI95% =−14–17). Milk production analysis on one of the effected herds, in which 56% vaccine effectiveness and an absolute reduction of 27% in morbidity were documented, revealed a net milk production loss of 175.9kg/sick cow (CI95% =127.9–223.9) and an average gain of 37kg for each vaccinated cow (CI95% =−3.6–77.7). This study indicates that despite the fact that two vaccine doses of the tested inactivated vaccine elicited high titers of neutralizing antibodies, partial protection was induced only when at least 3 doses were administrated before natural challenge.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T17:37:12Z
       
  • Detection of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 in porcine tissues by in situ
           hybridization using multi-strained pooled probes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 172, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Yao Lee , Chun-Ming Lin , Chian-Ren Jeng , Victor Fei Pang
      Porcine torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) has been suggested as a co-factor for the development of porcine circovirus-associated diseases. However, the pathogenic role of TTSuV is still inconclusive, and the target cell and tissue tropism of this virus are also ambiguous. In the present study, a multi-strained pooled probe-based in situ hybridization was established to detect the nucleic acids of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 in the tissue. The strategy of using polymerase chain reaction-derived digoxigenin-labeled multi-strained pooled probe, instead of single-strained probe or oligonucleotide, was to overcome the fact of high sequence diversity among TTSuV strains and simultaneous infection with distinct strains of TTSuV in the same animal. The cell tropism and tissue distribution were evaluated by grading system with tissues from major organs. Lymphoid tissues, including superficial inguinal, mesenteric, and hilar lymph nodes, tonsil, intestinal lamina propria of mucosa and Peyer's patches, and sometimes spleen, generally contained higher levels of positive signals and are considered as the target sites for TTSuV. Morphologically, the distribution of TTSuV-positive signals had a strong correlation with the T lymphocyte zone. T lymphocytes are, thus, speculated as the major target cells for TTSuV.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T16:22:37Z
       
  • Investigation into an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by a
           neuroinvasive porcine sapelovirus in the United Kingdom
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 172, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Alex Schock , Rajesh Gurrala , Harriet Fuller , Leo Foyle , Malte Dauber , Francesca Martelli , Sandra Scholes , Lisa Roberts , Falko Steinbach , Akbar Dastjerdi
      An outbreak of neurological disease in grower pigs characterised by ataxia and paraparesis was investigated in this study. The outbreak occurred 3–4 weeks post weaning in grower pigs which displayed signs of spinal cord damage progressing to recumbency. Pathology in the affected spinal cords and to a lesser extent in the brainstem was characterised by pronounced inflammation and neuronophagia in the grey matter. Molecular investigation using a pan-virus microarray identified a virus related to porcine sapelovirus (PSV) in the spinal cord of the two affected pigs examined. Analysis of 802 nucleotides of the virus polymerase gene showed the highest homology with those of viruses in the genus Sapelovirus of Picornaviridae. This PSV, strain G5, shared 91–93%, 67–69% and 63% nucleotide homology with porcine, simian and avian sapeloviruses, respectively. The nucleotide homology to other members of the Picornaviridae ranged from 41% to 62%. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected and co-localised in the spinal cord lesions of affected animals by an antibody known to react with PSV. In conclusion, clinical and laboratory observations of the diseased pigs in this outbreak are consistent with PSV-G5 being the causative agent. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first unequivocal report of polioencephalomyelitis in pigs by a neuroinvasive PSV in the United Kingdom.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T16:22:37Z
       
  • Comparison of sow and/or piglet vaccination of 3 commercial porcine
           circovirus type 2 (PCV2) single-dose vaccines on pigs under experimental
           PCV2 challenge
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 172, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Yeonsu Oh , Hwi Won Seo , Changhoon Park , Chanhee Chae
      The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of sow and/or piglet vaccination regimen by three commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines on pigs experimentally challenged with PCV2 at 84 days of age based on immunological, virological, and pathological evaluation. One hundred and nineteen piglets born to vaccinated or non-vaccinated sows were divided into 17 groups. A portion of the pigs with or without passively acquired immunity was vaccinated at 21 or 49 days of age. Regardless of the PCV2 vaccine, the combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations significantly (P <0.05) reduced PCV2 viremia, induced higher log2 transformed neutralizing antibody titers, and resulted in higher proportion of CD4+CD8+IFN-γ+ lymphocyte subsets than the sow vaccination alone, the pig (21 or 49 days of age) vaccination alone, and the combination of sow and pig (21 days of age) vaccinations at various days post challenge. The results showed a significant negative correlation between maternally derived antibodies at the day of vaccination and the increment of antibody titers to PCV2 at 28 days post vaccination in the combination of sow and pig (21 days of age) vaccinations but not the combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations. The combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations could be more effective for controlling PCV2 infection if PCV2 the infection occurs during the growing-finishing period in herds. Optimal vaccination strategies must balance the advantage of delayed vaccination with the need to induce immunity prior to exposure to pathogens under field conditions.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T16:22:37Z
       
  • Detection and distribution of torque teno sus virus 1 in porcine
           reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus positive/negative pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 172, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Zhicheng Zhang , Yang Wang , Wei Dai , Dingzhen Dai
      To investigate the detection rate and distribution of torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) positive/negative pigs, 2384 pathological tissues samples collected from 6 provinces of Eastern China from 2010 to 2013 were amplified using previously published PRRSV and TTSuV1 primers. The presence and viral load of TTSuV1 were investigated in a wide range of samples from 5 PRRSV positive/negative 4-week-old pigs by real-time TaqMan PCR. TTSuV1 was detected in 65.3% of 1115 PRRSV-positive samples, and 47.2% of 1269 negative samples. Viral DNA was most commonly detected in the immune organs, including spleen, lung, pancreas, and mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes, followed by serum, liver, kidney, trachea, anal swabs, nasal swabs and sex glands of PRRSV-positive or negative pigs. TTSuV1 DNA loads in PRRSV-positive pigs increased from 2 to 5 times in almost all the corresponding parts compared with PRRSV-negative pigs. Statistical analysis showed that PRRSV may have a synergistic effect with TTSuV1, and promote the replication and proliferation of TTSuV1.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T16:22:37Z
       
  • VP6 genetic diversity, reassortment, intragenic recombination and
           classification of rotavirus B in American and Japanese pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 172, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Douglas Marthaler , Tohru Suzuki , Kurt Rossow , Marie Culhane , James Collins , Sagar Goyal , Hiroshi Tsunemitsu , Max Ciarlet , Jelle Matthijnssens
      Rotavirus B (RVB) has been identified as a causative agent of diarrhea in rats, humans, cattle, lambs, and swine. Recently, 20 RVB VP7 genotypes were determined based on an 80% nucleotide percent cut-off value. In this study, we sequenced the RVB VP6 gene segment from 80 RVB positive swine samples from the United States and Japan. Phylogenetic analyses, using the 30 available RVB VP6 sequences from GenBank and our 80 novel RVB VP6 sequences, revealed a large genetic diversity of RVB strains, mainly in pigs. For classification purposes, pairwise identity frequency analyses suggested an 81% nucleotide percent cut-off value, resulting in 13 RVB VP6 (I) genotypes. In addition, an intragenic recombinant RVB VP6 segment was identified from Japan. Furthermore, the data indicates frequent reassortment events occurred between the porcine RVB VP7 and VP6 gene segments.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T16:22:37Z
       
  • Pathogenesis of leptospirosis: Cellular and molecular aspects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 172, Issues 3–4
      Author(s): Ben Adler
      Leptospirosis is arguably the most widespread zoonosis; it is also a major cause of economic loss in production animals worldwide. At the level of the host animal or human, the progression of infection and the onset of disease are well documented. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis at the cellular and molecular level remain poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of modern genetic tools for mutagenesis of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The recent development of transposon mutagenesis and the construction of a very small number of directed leptospiral mutants have identified a limited number of essential virulence factors. Perhaps surprisingly, many leptospiral proteins with characteristics consistent with a role in virulence have been shown to not be required for virulence in animal models, consistent with a high degree of functional redundancy in pathogenic Leptospira. A large number of putative adhesins has been reported in Leptospira, which interact with a range of host tissue components; however, almost none of these have been genetically confirmed as having an essential role in pathogenesis.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T16:22:37Z
       
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 August 2014
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 172, Issues 3–4




      PubDate: 2014-07-27T16:22:37Z
       
 
 
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