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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 210 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of
           antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs
    • Authors: Ana Herrero-Fresno; Camilla Zachariasen; Nanna Nørholm; Anders Holm; Lasse Engbo Christiansen; John Elmerdahl Olsen
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 208
      Author(s): Ana Herrero-Fresno, Camilla Zachariasen, Nanna Nørholm, Anders Holm, Lasse Engbo Christiansen, John Elmerdahl Olsen
      A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered from swine feces. The work encompassed two studies: 1) OTC 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to nursery pigs for 3 and 10days, respectively, under controlled experimental conditions, and 2) 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg OTC were given to a higher number of pigs for 6, 3 and 2days, respectively, under field conditions. Statistical modeling was applied to analyze trends in the proportion of TET-R coliforms. In the experimental study, no statistical difference in proportion of TET-R coliforms was observed between treatments at the end of the trial (day 18) and compared to day 0. In the field study, treatment had a significant effect on the proportion of TET-R bacteria two days after the end of treatment (2dAT) with the regimes “low dose-six days” and “medium dose-three days” yielding the highest and lowest proportions of TET-R strains, respectively. No indication of co-selection for ampicillin- and sulphonamide -R bacteria was observed for any treatment at 2dAT. By the end of the nursery period, the proportion of TET-R bacteria was not significantly different between treatments and compared to day 0. Our results suggest that similar resistance levels might be obtained by using different treatment regimes regardless of the combinations of oral dose-duration of treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
  • Different susceptibility and pathogenesis of rabbit genotype 3 hepatitis E
           virus (HEV-3) and human HEV-3 (JRC-HE3) in SPF rabbits
    • Authors: Yulin Zhang; Wanyun Gong; William Tianshi Song; Hongwei Fu; Lin Wang; Manyu Li; Ling Wang; Hui Zhuang
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): Yulin Zhang, Wanyun Gong, William Tianshi Song, Hongwei Fu, Lin Wang, Manyu Li, Ling Wang, Hui Zhuang
      Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasingly important zoonotic infection in humans with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 being recognized as zoonotic pathogens. The relatively recently isolated genotype 3 rabbit HEV (rHEV-3) and the more well known genotype 3 isolates from humans and swine (hsHEV-3) have all been confirmed experimentally to be capable of infecting both non-human primates and specific-pathogen free (SPF) pigs. In a previous study rHEV-3 was shown to cause acute hepatitis in experimentally infected rabbits. However, whether hsHEV-3 can productively infect rabbits remained unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the experimental infection of rabbits with human HEV-3 (hHEV-3, JRC-HE3), to compare it to that with rHEV-3 (CHN-BJ-rb14) and to further characterise the pathogenesis of the two isolates. All animals inoculated with rHEV-3 (CHN-BJ-rb14) became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, elevated liver enzymes, and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the 15 week study period. Liver histopathology showed acute inflammation and both positive- and negative-stranded viral RNA was detected in various tissues from necropsied rabbits. By contrast, neither sero-conversion nor alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was observed in most rabbits inoculated with hHEV-3 (JRC-HE3). In addition, rHEV-3 (CHN-BJ-rb14) but not hHEV-3 (JRC-HE3) recovered from primary infected rabbits was transmissible to naive rabbits. These results showed that SPF rabbits are readily susceptible to infection with rHEV-3 (CHN-BJ-rb14) but not hHEV-3 (JRC-HE3), which might indicate the influence of viral genomic organization on its pathogenicity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T10:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.019
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • A large-scale serological survey of Akabane virus infection in cattle,
           yak, sheep and goats in China
    • Authors: Jidong Wang; Kim R. Blasdell; Hong Yin; Peter J. Walker
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): Jidong Wang, Kim R. Blasdell, Hong Yin, Peter J. Walker
      Akabane virus (AKAV) is a member of the Simbu serogroup, classified in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae. AKAV infection can cause abortion, stillbirth, and congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in cattle and sheep. The distribution and prevalence of AKAV infection in China is still unknown. A total of 2731 sera collected from 2006 to 2015 in 24 provinces of China from cattle, sheep, goats and yak were examined by serum neutralisation test. The overall seroprevalence rates for AKAV antibodies were 21.3% in cattle (471/2215) and 12.0% (17/142) in sheep or goats, and 0% in yak (0/374). The results indicated widespread AKAV infection in China among cattle and sheep but yak appear to have a low risk of infection. Using a selection of 50 AKAV-positive and 25 AKAV-negative cattle sera, neutralisation tests were also conducted to detect antibodies to several other Simbu serogroup bunyaviruses and closely related Leanyer virus. Although inconclusive, the data suggest that both Aino virus and Peaton virus, which have been reported previously in Japan and Korea, may also be present in cattle in China.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Longitudinal study of transmission of Escherichia coli from broiler
           breeders to broilers
    • Authors: Louise Ladefoged Poulsen; Ida Thøfner; Magne Bisgaard; Jens Peter Christensen; Rikke Heidemann Olsen; Henrik Christensen
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): Louise Ladefoged Poulsen, Ida Thøfner, Magne Bisgaard, Jens Peter Christensen, Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Henrik Christensen
      Escherichia coli is of major importance in industrial broiler production as the main cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. Furthermore E. coli is the most common cause of first week mortality in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transmission of E. coli, isolated from broiler breeders with salpingitis, to the progeny and the possibility of subsequent first week mortality. Four parent flocks were followed during the whole production period (20-60 weeks) by post mortem and bacteriological examination of randomly selected dead birds. Newly hatched chickens from each flock were swabbed in the cloaca on four occasions (parent age 30, 40, 50, 60 weeks) and E. coli was isolated. Causes of first week mortality were determined pathologically and bacteriologically. E. coli isolates from parents, newly hatched chickens and first week mortality were selected for Pulsed-Field-Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST) to determine their clonal relationships. E. coli was the main cause of both salpingitis in parents and first week mortality in broilers, and E. coli dominated the bacterial flora of the cloaca of newly hatched chickens. PFGE of E. coli showed identical band patterns in isolates from the three different sources indicating a transmission of E. coli from parent birds to chickens. In conclusion, E. coli isolated from salpingitis in broiler parents were found to be transmitted to broilers in which some sequence types contributed to the first week mortality.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.029
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region conferring
           resistance to fluoroquinolones in Mycoplasma agalactiae
    • Authors: Juan Tatay-Dualde; Miranda Prats-van der Ham; Christian de la Fe; Ana Paterna; Antonio Sánchez; Juan Carlos Corrales; Antonio Contreras; Ángel Gómez-Martín
      Pages: 63 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): Juan Tatay-Dualde, Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Christian de la Fe, Ana Paterna, Antonio Sánchez, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Ángel Gómez-Martín
      M. agalactiae is the main causative agent of contagious agalactia, against which antimicrobial treatment is the main applied control measure. Quinolones are an effective group of antimicrobials inhibiting the growth of M. agalactiae, but in the last years, various reports have demonstrated an increase of resistance in field isolates due to its massive use. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of fluoroquinolones resistance in M. agalactiae have not been elucidated yet. Therefore, the aim of this work was to analyze the presence of DNA variations that could be related to changes in fluoroquinolone susceptibility. For this purpose, three M. agalactiae strains were selected to obtain in vitro resistant mutants against enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and moxifloxacin and afterwards, partial sequences of their gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE genes were analyzed. In addition, a set of field isolates with different MIC values were also studied. Changes related to variations in fluoroquinolones susceptibility were found in gyrB, parC and parE. Specifically, gyrB genes were affected at the predicted amino acid position 424, four amino acid changes were detected in parC (positions 78, 79, 80 and 84) and two substitutions were reported in parE (amino acid positions 429 and 459). Mutations at predicted positions 424 of gyrB and 429 of parE are novel DNA changes which had not been previously described and, on the whole, parC was the first gene showing alterations when changes in susceptibility to fluoroquinolones occurred. Thus, this gene is the most suitable target for a rapid study of fluoroquinolone resistance in field isolates of M. agalactiae.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T10:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus suis isolates from
           pigs with or without streptococcal disease in England between 2009 and
    • Authors: Juan Hernandez-Garcia; Jinhong Wang; Olivier Restif; Mark A. Holmes; Alison E. Mather; Lucy A. Weinert; Thomas M. Wileman; Jill R. Thomson; Paul R. Langford; Brendan W. Wren; Andrew Rycroft; Duncan J. Maskell; Alexander W. Tucker
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): Juan Hernandez-Garcia, Jinhong Wang, Olivier Restif, Mark A. Holmes, Alison E. Mather, Lucy A. Weinert, Thomas M. Wileman, Jill R. Thomson, Paul R. Langford, Brendan W. Wren, Andrew Rycroft, Duncan J. Maskell, Alexander W. Tucker
      Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus suis, a global zoonotic pathogen of pigs, has been mostly studied only in diseased animals using surveys that have not evaluated changes over time. We compared patterns of resistance between S. suis isolates from clinical cases of disease (CC) and non-clinical case (NCC) pigs in England, collected over two discrete periods, 2009–2011 and 2013–2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 17 antimicrobials (nine classes) were determined on 405 S. suis isolates categorised by sampling period and disease association to assess changes in resistance over time and association with disease. First, isolates were characterized as resistant or susceptible using published clinical breakpoints. Second, epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFF) were derived from MIC values, and isolates classified as wild type (WT) below the ECOFF and non-wild type (NWT) above the ECOFF. Finally, isolate subsets were analysed for shifts in MIC distribution. NCC isolates were more resistant than CC isolates to cephalosporins, penams, pleuromutilins, potentiated sulphonamides and tetracyclines in both study periods. Resistance levels among CC isolates increased in 2013–2014 relative to 2009–2011 for antimicrobials including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, pleuromutilins, potentiated sulphonamides and tetracyclines. The prevalence of isolates categorised as NWT for five or more classes of antimicrobials was greater among NCC than CC isolates for both time periods, and increased with time. This study used standardised methods to identify significant shifts in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of S. suis isolated from pigs in England, not only over time but also between isolates from known clinical cases or disease-free pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Experimental infection of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) in Nile tilapia
           (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.)
    • Authors: Puntanat Tattiyapong; Worawan Dachavichitlead; Win Surachetpong
      Pages: 170 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): Puntanat Tattiyapong, Worawan Dachavichitlead, Win Surachetpong
      Since 2015, a novel orthomyxo-like virus, tilapia lake virus (TiLV) has been associated with outbreaks of disease and massive mortality of cultured Nile and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis spp., respectively) in Thailand. In this study, TiLV was isolated from field samples and propagated in the permissive E-11 cell line, with cytopathic effect (CPE) development within 3–5days post-inoculation. Electron micrographs of infected E-11 cells and fish tissues confirmed the rounded, enveloped virions of 60 to 80nm with characteristics very similar to those of Orthomyxoviridae. In vivo challenge studies showed that high mortality in Nile (86%) and red tilapia (66%) occurred within 4–12days post-infection. The virus was re-isolated from challenged fish tissues in the permissive cell line, and PCR analysis confirmed TiLV as a causative pathogen. The distinct histopathology of challenged fish included massive degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver and brain as well as the presence of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in hepatocytes and splenic cells. Our results fulfilled Koch’s postulates and confirmed that TiLV is an etiologic agent of mass mortality of tilapia in Thailand. The emergence of this virus in many countries has helped increase awareness that it is a potential threat to tilapia aquacultured in Thailand, Asia, and worldwide.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Epidemiology and molecular detection of equine herpesviruses in western
           Algeria in 2011
    • Authors: F. Laabassi; E. Hue; C. Fortier; E. Morilland; L. Legrand; A. Hans; S. Pronost
      Pages: 205 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): F. Laabassi, E. Hue, C. Fortier, E. Morilland, L. Legrand, A. Hans, S. Pronost
      An episode of acute equine respiratory infection was reported in western Algeria (Tiaret province) between February and March 2011, affecting a large population of horses. Nasal swabs (n = 100) were taken from horses aged between 1 and 27 years, presenting with cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge. The prevalence of equine respiratory virus infections was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). One, or more, of four equine respiratory viruses were detected in the nasal swabs of 90 of 100 horses (90%) and the detection rate of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4), equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) and equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5) were 2%, 14%, 90% and 75%, respectively. Equine influenza virus and equine arteritis virus were not detected in any samples. Among the 90 infected horses, 70 were co-infected with EHV-2 and EHV-5 and 14 others were co-infected with EHV-4, EHV-2 and EHV-5. The present study shows a positivity rate of 97.3% for EHV-5 in young horses aged <3years; a finding which decreased with age. Viral load of EHV-5 was significantly higher in <3years whereas no effect of age was observed with EHV-2. The study shows that equine herpesviruses 1, 2, 4 and 5 are endemic in horse populations from Algeria as detected for the first time by qPCR.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.017
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Marek’s disease virus type 1 encoded analog of miR-155 promotes
           proliferation of chicken embryo fibroblast and DF-1 cells by targeting
    • Authors: Lu Dang; Man Teng; Hui-Zhen Li; Sheng-Ming Ma; Qing-Xia Lu; Hui-Fang Hao; Dong Zhao; En-Min Zhou; Gai-Ping Zhang; Jun Luo
      Pages: 210 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Lu Dang, Man Teng, Hui-Zhen Li, Sheng-Ming Ma, Qing-Xia Lu, Hui-Fang Hao, Dong Zhao, En-Min Zhou, Gai-Ping Zhang, Jun Luo
      Marek’s disease virus type 1 (MDV-1) is a representative oncogenic Alpha herpesvirus that causes an immunosuppressive and neoplastic lymphoproliferative avian disease, namely Marek’s disease (MD). The rapid-onset T-cell lymphoma in chickens induced by MDV-1 has been historically regarded as an ideal natural model for herpesvirus-related cancer research. As a viral analog of cellular miR-155, the MDV-1-encoded miR-M4-5p has been shown to be crucial for the virally-induced MD tumorigenesis. Our previous studies demonstrated that miR-M4-5p induces an over-expression of oncogene c-Myc by targeting LTBP1 and suppressing the TGF-β signaling pathway during MDV-1 infection. We have now further identified the chicken heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein AB (hnRNPAB) as a new cellular biological target for miR-M4-5p. Suppression of hnRNPAB expression mediated by miR-M4-5p promotes the proliferation, but not the apoptosis, of both primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and transformed chicken fibroblast DF-1 cell line. HnRNPAB is a member of the hnRNP family of proteins that play important roles in normal biological processes as well as cancer development. Our data suggests that the recognition and down-regulation of hnRNPAB by miR-M4-5p may be one of the important strategies for MDV-1 to trigger the development of MD lymphomas.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Salmonella serovar-specific interaction with jejunal epithelial cells
    • Authors: Elisabetta Razzuoli; Massimo Amadori; Fabrizio Lazzara; Dania Bilato; Monica Ferraris; Guendalina Vito; Angelo Ferrari
      Pages: 219 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): Elisabetta Razzuoli, Massimo Amadori, Fabrizio Lazzara, Dania Bilato, Monica Ferraris, Guendalina Vito, Angelo Ferrari
      Gut is often a receptacle for many different pathogens in feed and/or the environment, such as Salmonella spp. The current knowledge about pathogenicity of Salmonella is restricted to few serotypes, whereas other important ones like S. Coeln, S. Thompson, S. Veneziana, have not been investigated yet in human and animal models. Therefore, the aim of our work was to verify the ability of widespread environmental Salmonella strains to penetrate and modulate innate immunity in pig intestinal IPEC-J2 cells. Our results outline the different ability of Salmonella strains to modulate innate immunity; the expression of the IFN-β gene was increased by S. Typhimurium, S. Ablogame and S. Diarizonae 2, that also caused an inflammatory response in terms of Interleukin (IL)-1β and/or IL-8 gene espression. In particular, IL-8 gene expression and protein release were significantly modulated by 5 Salmonella strains out of 7. Interestingly, S. Typhimurium, S. Coeln and S. Thompson strains, characterized by a peculiar ability to penetrate into IPEC-J2 cells, up-regulated both IL-8 and TNF-α gene expression. Accordingly, blocking IL-8 was shown to decrease the penetration of S. Typhimurium. On the contrary, S. Diarizonae strain 1, showing lesser invasion of IPEC-J2 cells, down-regulated the p38-MAPK pathway, and it did not induce an inflammatory response. Our results confirm that IPEC-J2 cells are a useful model to evaluate host-gut pathogen interaction and indicate IL-8 and TNF-α as possible predictive markers of invasiveness of Salmonella strains in enterocytes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Identification and genetic characterization of equine hepaciviruses in
    • Authors: Gabriella Elia; Gianvito Lanave; Eleonora Lorusso; Antonio Parisi; Nicola Cavaliere; Giovanni Patruno; Calogero Terregino; Nicola Decaro; Vito Martella; Canio Buonavoglia
      Pages: 239 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): Gabriella Elia, Gianvito Lanave, Eleonora Lorusso, Antonio Parisi, Nicola Cavaliere, Giovanni Patruno, Calogero Terregino, Nicola Decaro, Vito Martella, Canio Buonavoglia
      Viruses similar to human hepatitis C virus, hepaciviruses, have been identified in various animal species. Equine hepacivirus (EqHV) is the closest relative of human hepaciviruses. Although detected worldwide, information on EqHV epidemiology, genetic diversity and pathogenicity is still limited. In this study we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of EqHV in Italian equids. The RNA of EqHV was detected in 91/1932 sera (4.7%) whilst it was not detectable in 134 donkey sera screened by a TaqMan-based quantitative assay. Upon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of genomic portions located in the NS5B, 5′UTR and NS3 genes, the Italian EqHV strains segregated into two distinct clades that are also co-circulating globally, without apparent geographic restrictions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Microbial community sequencing analysis of the calf eye microbiota and
           relationship to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis
    • Authors: J.N. Cullen; A. Lithio; A.S. Seetharam; Y. Zheng; G. Li; D. Nettleton; A.M. O’Connor
      Pages: 267 - 279
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): J.N. Cullen, A. Lithio, A.S. Seetharam, Y. Zheng, G. Li, D. Nettleton, A.M. O’Connor
      Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is an important production limiting disease in cattle. Moraxella bovis has historically been considered the primary causal agent; however, vaccines have not been consistently shown as effective in controlling disease incidence. The purpose of this study was to examine the bacterial community of calf eyes prior to disease onset using high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA and determine if it was associated with IBK occurrence. The study was designed as a case-control nested within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Eye swabs were collected from all spring-born calves without clinical signs of IBK (t 0 swabs) on a research farm with a previous history of IBK disease outbreaks. At follow-up or weaning, calves were diagnosed as IBK positive or negative. The lag time between enrollment swabs (t 0) and IBK diagnosis ranged from approximately one to three months. Cases were randomly selected from IBK positive calves and controls were selected from IBK negative calves (i.e. calves that did not exhibit clinical signs of IBK throughout the course of the RCT). Analysis of the fold-change differences between cases and controls did not reveal large-scale distinctions in bacterial composition. However, principal component analysis suggested bacterial composition differences between calf management groups, which were based on dam parity. Moraxella was found to be among the top ten most abundant genera in our population; however, the difference in abundance was not significant between the cases and controls. No large-scale differences in the bacterial communities of calves that did or did not develop IBK were observed in our population. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether the “natural” bacterial population of the calf might ultimately impact disease status. Further study is warranted to examine bacterial taxa that were observed to be significantly more abundant in the cases or controls as potential vaccines/therapeutic targets.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
  • Vaccines against pseudorabies virus (PrV)
    • Authors: C.M. Freuling; T.F. Müller; T.C. Mettenleiter
      Pages: 3 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 206
      Author(s): C.M. Freuling, T.F. Müller, T.C. Mettenleiter
      Aujeszkýs disease (AD, pseudorabies) is a notifiable herpesvirus infection of pigs causing substantial economic losses to swine producers. AD in pigs is controlled by the use of vaccination with inactivated and attenuated live vaccines. Starting with classically attenuated live vaccines derived from low virulent field isolates, AD vaccination has pioneered novel strategies in animal disease control by the first use of genetically engineered live virus vaccines lacking virulence-determining genes, and the concept of DIVA, i.e. the serological differentiation of vaccinated from field-virus infected animals by the use of marker vaccines and respective companion diagnostic tests. The basis for this concept has been the molecular characterization of PrV and the identification of so-called nonessential envelope glycoproteins, e.g. glycoprotein E, which could be eliminated from the virus without harming viral replication or immunogenicity. Eradication of AD using the strategy of vaccination-DIVA testing has successfully been performed in several countries including Germany and the United States. Furthermore, by targeted genetic modification PrV has been developed into a powerful vector system for expression of foreign genes to vaccinate against several infectious diseases of swine, while heterologous vector systems have been used for expression of major immunogens of PrV. This small concise review summarizes the state-of-the-art information on PrV vaccines and provides an outlook for the future.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
  • Disparity in the nasopharyngeal microbiota between healthy cattle on feed,
           at entry processing and with respiratory disease
    • Authors: Mohamed Zeineldin; James Lowe; Maria de Godoy; Nidia Maradiaga; Chelsey Ramirez; Mohamed Ghanem; Yassein Abd El-Raof; Brian Aldridge
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Mohamed Zeineldin, James Lowe, Maria de Godoy, Nidia Maradiaga, Chelsey Ramirez, Mohamed Ghanem, Yassein Abd El-Raof, Brian Aldridge
      Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most serious causes of health and economic problems in the beef production industry, especially in recently weaned, intensely raised and newly transported feedlot cattle. While the importance of upper airway structure and function in the susceptibility of the lower respiratory tract to colonization with potential pathogens is well established, the role of the mucosal microbiota in respirtatory health is less well defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle at entry into a commercial feedlot, during initial management processing, and to compare the dynamics of change in these microbial communities between clinically healthy calves and those that develop BRD within the first month after entry. Deep nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from randomly selected healthy calves (n=66) during initial handling and processing at the feedlot, and again at the initial diagnosis of BRD (n=22). Clinically healthy pen matched controls calves (n=10) were sampled at the same time as the BRD affected animals. Genomic DNA was extracted from each sample, and the 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable region was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Across all the samples, the predominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. While the predominant genera were Moraxella, Mycoplasma and Acinetobacter. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial taxa between healthy and BRD affected calves. Discriminant analysis revealed that the nasopharyngeal microbiota in feedlot calves at entry and in BRD affected calves were distinct from pen matched healthy calves. While the temporal dynamics of this shift were not examined in this study, it is possible that the observed changes in mucosal microbiota are linked to the increased susceptibility of calves to BRD during the first month after entry in to the feedlot. Additional studies are needed to examine the trajectory of change in nasopharyngeal microbial communities from entry to disease onset, and to explore the impact of other factors such as diet transition, commingling, vaccination and housing on the nasopharyngeal microbiota of growing cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.006
  • Fine mapping and conservation analysis of linear B-cell epitopes of peste
           des petits ruminants virus hemagglutinin protein
    • Authors: Ruisong Yu; Rui Zhu; Weixiang Gao; Ming Zhang; Shijuan Dong; Bingqing Chen; Li Yu; Chunfang Xie; Fengying Jiang; Zhen Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ruisong Yu, Rui Zhu, Weixiang Gao, Ming Zhang, Shijuan Dong, Bingqing Chen, Li Yu, Chunfang Xie, Fengying Jiang, Zhen Li
      Hemagglutinin protein (H), one of the two glycoproteins of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), binds to its receptor on the host cell and acts as a major antigen that induces and confers highly protective immunity in the host. In order to delineate the epitopes on H protein, fine epitope mapping and conservation analysis of linear B-cell epitopes (BCEs) on PPRV H has been undertaken using biosynthetic peptides and rabbit anti-PPRV H sera. Thirteen linear BCEs were identified and their corresponding minimal motifs were located on the H protein of PPRV China/Tibet/Geg/07-30. Conservation analysis indicated that two of the 13 minimal motifs were conserved among 52 PPRV strains. Nine of the 13 peptides containing the minimal motifs were recognized using anti-PPRV serum from a goat immunized with PPRV vaccine strain Nigeria 75/1. Identified epitopes and their motifs improve our understanding of the antigenic characteristics of PPRV H and provide a basis for the development of epitope-based diagnostic assays and multiple epitopes vaccine.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.008
  • Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Germany—Diversity of
           subtypes and detection of live-vaccine viruses
    • Authors: Kerstin Wernike; Horst Schirrmeier; Heinz-Günter Strebelow; Martin Beer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Kerstin Wernike, Horst Schirrmeier, Heinz-Günter Strebelow, Martin Beer
      Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) causes high economic losses in the cattle population worldwide. In Germany, an obligatory control program with detection and removal of persistently infected animals is in force since 2011. For molecular tracing of virus transmission, a comprehensive sequence data base of the currently circulating BVD viruses was established. Partial sequences of 1007 samples collected between 2008 and 2016 were generated. As dominant viruses, subtypes 1b (47.0%) and 1d (26.5%) could be identified with no marked geographic or sampling year effect, a much higher amount of BVDV-2c was detected in 2013 compared to other years, predominantly in Western Germany. In addition, subtypes 1a, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1g, 1k, and 2a were found. Interestingly, besides field-viruses, two different live-vaccine viruses were detected in tissue samples of newborn calves (n=37) whose mothers were immunized during pregnancy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.009
  • Infection dynamics and genetic variability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in
           self-replacement gilts
    • Authors: Karine L. Takeuti; David E.S.N. de Barcellos; Caroline P. de Andrade; Laura L. de Almeida; Maria Pieters
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Karine L. Takeuti, David E.S.N. de Barcellos, Caroline P. de Andrade, Laura L. de Almeida, Maria Pieters
      The aim of this study was to assess the longitudinal pattern of M. hyopneumoniae detection in self-replacement gilts at various farms and to characterize the genetic diversity among samples. A total of 298 gilts from three M. hyopneumoniae positive farms were selected at 150days of age (doa). Giltswere tested for M. hyopneumoniae antibodies by ELISA, once in serum at 150 doa and for M. hyopneumoniae detection in laryngeal swabs by real time PCR two or three times. Also, 425 piglets were tested for M. hyopneumoniae detection in laryngeal swabs. A total of 103 samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats Analysis. Multiple comparison tests were performed and adjusted using Bonferroni correction to compare prevalences of positive gilts by ELISA and real time PCR. Moderate to high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in gilts was detected at 150 doa, which decreased over time, and different detection patterns were observed among farms. Dam-to-piglet transmission of M. hyopneumoniae was not detected. The characterization of M. hyopneumoniae showed 17 different variants in all farms, with two identical variants detected in two of the farms. ELISA testing showed high prevalence of seropositive gilts at 150 doa in all farms. Results of this study showed that circulation of M. hyopneumoniae in self-replacement gilts varied among farms, even under similar production and management conditions. In addition, the molecular variability of M. hyopneumoniae detected within farms suggests that in cases of minimal replacement gilt introduction bacterial diversity maybe farm specific.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.007
  • Characterization of Akabane Virus from domestic Bamboo rat, Southern China
    • Authors: Hai-bo Tang; Fenglian Chen; Guibo Rao; Anbin Bai; Jiajia Jiang; Yichao Du; Pengfei Ren; Jinfeng Liu; Shaomin Qin; Lei Yang; Jianmin Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Hai-bo Tang, Fenglian Chen, Guibo Rao, Anbin Bai, Jiajia Jiang, Yichao Du, Pengfei Ren, Jinfeng Liu, Shaomin Qin, Lei Yang, Jianmin Wu
      To identify the causative agents in 3 large-scale outbreaks of encephalitis and death among farmed bamboo rats (Rhizomys pruinosus). The routine bacterial culture and identification were performed. There were no significant pathogenic bacteria isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, or kidney of diseased bamboo rats. Using PCR-based methods, we excluded the following as causative agent: pox virus, herpesvirus, adenovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, rabies virus, and sendai virus. Furthermore, the homogenate from the diseased bamboo rats was subjected to viral metagenomic analysis which revealed 48506 filtered viral reads annotated to Akabane virus (AKAV) with >75% nucleotide identity, suggesting the presence of AKAVs in bamboo rats. Five novel AKAV isolates were successfully isolated and characterized. Furthermore the newly isolated AKAV isolate was used to demonstrate that it can reproduce the severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in bamboo rats and mice. The findings add to the better understanding of AKAV epidemiology and to the prevention and control of Akabane diseases in China.

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.018
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 206

      PubDate: 2017-07-14T01:33:05Z
  • Incidence of postoperative implant-related bacterial endocarditis in dogs
           that underwent trans-catheter embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus
           without intra- and post-procedural prophylactic antibiotics
    • Authors: Viktor
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 207
      Author(s): Viktor Szatmári
      Intra- and post-procedural prophylactic antibiotics are routinely administered by veterinary cardiologists to dogs that undergo trans-catheter embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus for prevention of implant-related infective endocarditis. The hypothesis of our study was that primary antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary to prevent bacterial endocarditis. In this retrospective case series 54 client-owned dogs that underwent trans-catheter occlusion of a patent ductus arteriosus in a single tertiary veterinary referral center between 2004 and 2016 were evaluated. Follow-up information was gained by telephone interviews with the owners or the referring veterinarians, or from the digital archives of the authors’ clinic. Inclusion criteria were that at least one metal implant (a coil or an Amplatz duct occluder) had to be delivered in the ductal ampulla, no local or systemic antibiotics were given on the day of the intervention or the week thereafter, at least 3 months of postoperative follow-up information was available, and the author was performing the procedure either as the primary or as the supervising cardiology specialist. None of the 54 dogs developed infective endocarditis in the postoperative 3 months. A study describing a similar population reports 2 of the included 47 dogs having developed infective endocarditis in the postoperative period despite the administration of intra- and post-procedural prophylactic antibiotics. We conclude that intra- and post-procedural antibiotic prophylaxis is not justified in dogs that undergo trans-catheter closure of a patent ductus arteriosus. Proper surgical technique and the use of new sterile catheters and implants are sufficient to prevent infective endocarditis in these dogs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
  • Detection of rat hepatitis E virus in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)
           and Black rats (R. rattus) from 11 European countries
    • Authors: René Ryll; Samuel Bernstein; Elisa Heuser; Mathias Schlegel; Paul Dremsek; Maxi Zumpe; Sandro Wolf; Michel Pépin; Daniel Bajomi; Gabi Müller; Ann-Charlotte Heiberg; Carina Spahr; Johannes Lang; Martin H. Groschup; Hermann Ansorge; Jona Freise; Sebastian Guenther; Kristof Baert; Francisco Ruiz-Fonscisco; Jiri Pikula; Nataša Knap; Ιoannis Tsakmakidis; Chrysostomos Dovas; Stefania Zanet; Christian Imholt; Gerald Heckel; Reimar Johne; Rainer G. Ulrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): René Ryll, Samuel Bernstein, Elisa Heuser, Mathias Schlegel, Paul Dremsek, Maxi Zumpe, Sandro Wolf, Michel Pépin, Daniel Bajomi, Gabi Müller, Ann-Charlotte Heiberg, Carina Spahr, Johannes Lang, Martin H. Groschup, Hermann Ansorge, Jona Freise, Sebastian Guenther, Kristof Baert, Francisco Ruiz-Fonscisco, Jiri Pikula, Nataša Knap, Ιoannis Tsakmakidis, Chrysostomos Dovas, Stefania Zanet, Christian Imholt, Gerald Heckel, Reimar Johne, Rainer G. Ulrich
      Rat hepatitis E virus (ratHEV) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. It was initially detected in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany, and subsequently in rats from Vietnam, the USA, Indonesia, China, Denmark and France. Here, we report on a molecular survey of Norway and Black rats from 12 European countries for ratHEV and human pathogenic hepeviruses. RatHEV-specific real-time and conventional RT-PCR investigations revealed the presence of ratHEV in 63 of 508 (12.4%) rats at the majority of sites in 11 of 12 countries. In contrast, a real-time RT-PCR specific for human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1-4 and a nested broad-spectrum (NBS) RT-PCR with subsequent sequence determination did not detect any infections with these genotypes. Only in a single Norway rat from Belgium a rabbit HEV-like genotype 3 sequence was detected. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a clustering of all other novel Norway and Black rat-derived sequences with ratHEV sequences from Europe, the USA and a Black rat-derived sequence from Indonesia within the proposed ratHEV genotype 1. No difference in infection status was detected related to age, sex, rat species or density of human settlements and zoological gardens. In conclusion, our investigation shows a broad geographical distribution of ratHEV in Norway and Black rats from Europe and its presence in all settlement types investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.001
  • Diversity of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains isolated from
           the Spanish sheep and goat population and the identification, function and
           prevalence of a novel arbutin utilisation system
    • Authors: Karen F. Steward; Carl Robinson; Matthew T.G. Holden; Simon R. Harris; Ana Fernández Ros; Gema Chacón Pérez; Rafael Baselga; Andrew S. Waller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Karen F. Steward, Carl Robinson, Matthew T.G. Holden, Simon R. Harris, Ana Fernández Ros, Gema Chacón Pérez, Rafael Baselga, Andrew S. Waller
      The zoonotic bacterium Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a diverse, opportunistic pathogen that can cause mastitis in dairy sheep and goats. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to define the genetic diversity of 60 isolates of S. zooepidemicus, which were recovered from sheep and goats in Spain between 2003 and 2010. We identify a novel clonal complex based on sequence type (ST), ST-236, which accounted for 39 of the 60 isolates. A representative ST-236 strain, S. zooepidemicus strain C7 (SzC7), was sequenced and interrogated for the presence of novel nutritional uptake or utilisation systems, the acquisition of which have previously been shown to be important for environmental adaptation in other streptococcal pathogens. A novel phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), which enabled the utilisation of arbutin, was identified. Functionality of the PTS was confirmed following deletion of the PTS from SzC7. Arbutin is found in multiple animal foodstuffs and we propose that the ability to utilise arbutin may have conferred a selective advantage to strains infecting animals, the diet of which contains this sugar.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.020
  • Campylobacter hepaticus, the cause of spotty liver disease in chickens, is
           present throughout the small intestine and caeca of infected birds
    • Authors: Thi Thu Hao Van; Mian-Chee Gor; Arif Anwar; Peter C. Scott; Robert J. Moore
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Thi Thu Hao Van, Mian-Chee Gor, Arif Anwar, Peter C. Scott, Robert J. Moore
      Spotty liver disease (SLD) causes significant egg production losses and mortality in chickens and is therefore a disease of concern for some sectors of the poultry industry. Although the first reports of the disease came from the United States in the 1950s it is only recently that the organism that causes the disease was identified, isolated, and characterised as a new bacterial species, Campylobacter hepaticus. The first isolations of C. hepaticus were from the livers and bile of SLD affected birds. Isolates could only be recovered from samples that had a monoculture of C. hepaticus in the tissues, as a selective culturing method has not yet been developed. In non-selective growth conditions the slow growing C. hepaticus is quickly outgrown by many other members of the chicken microbiota. Therefore, it is currently not possible to use a culturing approach to evaluate C. hepaticus carriage in tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), that also carry complex microbial populations. As it is suspected that birds become infected via the faecal-oral route it is important that pathogen carriage in the GIT is investigated. In the present study, a specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCR assay, based on the glycerol kinase gene of C. hepaticus, was developed. The assay facilitated the detection and quantification of C. hepaticus in tissue samples from clinical cases of SLD. It was shown that in infected birds C. hepaticus colonises the small intestine, increasing in abundance from duodenum to ileum, and is at highest levels within the ceaca. C. hepaticus was also readily detected in cloacal swabs, indicating that the pathogen may be spread via faecal-oral infection.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.022
  • Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O22:H8 isolated from cattle
           reduces E. coli O157:H7 adherence in vitro and in vivo
    • Authors: L. Martorelli; A. Albanese; D. Vilte; R. Cantet; A. Bentancor; G. Zolezzi; I. Chinen; C. Ibarra; M. Rivas; E.C. Mercado; A. Cataldi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): L. Martorelli, A. Albanese, D. Vilte, R. Cantet, A. Bentancor, G. Zolezzi, I. Chinen, C. Ibarra, M. Rivas, E.C. Mercado, A. Cataldi
      Problem addressed Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a group of bacteria responsible for food-associated diseases. Clinical features include a wide range of symptoms such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition. Objective Our group has observed that animals naturally colonized with STEC strains of unknown serotype were not efficiently colonized with E. coli O157:H7 after experimental infection. In order to assess the basis of the interference, three STEC strains were isolated from STEC persistently-colonized healthy cattle from a dairy farm in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods and Results The three isolated strains are E. coli O22:H8 and carry the stx1 and stx2d genes. The activatable activity of Stx2d was demonstrated in vitro. The three strains carry the adhesins iha, ehaA and lpf O113. E. coli O22:H8 formed stronger biofilms in abiotic surface than E. coli O157:H7 (eae+, stx2+) and displayed a more adherent phenotype in vitro towards HeLa cells. Furthermore, when both serotypes were cultured together O22:H8 could reduce O157:H7 adherence in vitro. When calves were intragastrically pre-challenged with 108 CFU of a mixture of the three STEC strains and two days later challenged with the same dose of the strain E. coli O157:H7 438/99, the shedding of the pathogen was significantly reduced. Conclusions These results suggest that E. coli O22:H8, a serotype rarely associated with human illness, might compete with O157:H7 at the bovine recto-anal junction, making non-O157 carrying-calves less susceptible to O157:H7 colonization and shedding of the bacteria to the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.021
  • Genetic characteristics, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity associated with
    • Authors: Sunhee Lee; Kyu-Yeol Son; Yun-Hee Noh; Seung-Chul Lee; Hwan-Won Choi; In-Joong Yoon; Changhee Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Sunhee Lee, Kyu-Yeol Son, Yun-Hee Noh, Seung-Chul Lee, Hwan-Won Choi, In-Joong Yoon, Changhee Lee
      Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has emerged or re-emerged worldwide, posing a significant financial threat to major pig-producing countries. In the present study, a virulent Korean pandemic PEDV strain, KNU-141112, was serially propagated in Vero cells for up to 100 passages. Through cell culture adaptation, we obtained four distinct deletion (DEL) mutants by plaque purification followed by nucleotide sequencing of the spike (S)/ORF3 gene-coding region, which were designated KNU-141112-S DEL2, −S DEL5, −S DEL2/ORF3, and −S DEL5/ORF3. Further whole genome sequencing identified 12 or 14 amino acid changes in the cell-adapted DEL strains. Animal inoculation studies revealed that the virulence of both S DEL2/ORF3 and S DEL5/ORF3 viruses with a large 46-nt deletion in the intergenic portion of S and ORF3 was remarkably diminished, indicating viral attenuation in the natural host. Furthermore, these cell-adapted strains elicited potent neutralizing antibody responses in immunized pigs. Taken together, our data indicate that the cell-attenuated S DEL2/ORF3 and S DEL5/ORF3 strains are promising candidates for the development of a safe and effective live PEDV vaccine.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.019
  • Commensal coagulase-negative Staphylococcus from the udder of healthy cows
           inhibits biofilm formation of mastitis-related pathogens
    • Authors: Paula Isaac; Luciana Paola Bohl; María Laura Breser; María Soledad Orellano; Agustín Conesa; Marcela Alejandra Ferrero; Carina Porporatto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Paula Isaac, Luciana Paola Bohl, María Laura Breser, María Soledad Orellano, Agustín Conesa, Marcela Alejandra Ferrero, Carina Porporatto
      Bovine mastitis, considered the most important cause of economic losses in the dairy industry, is a major concern in veterinary medicine. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main pathogens associated with intramammary infections, and bacterial biofilms are suspected to be responsible for the persistence of this disease. CNS from the udder are not necessarily associated with intramammary infections. In fact, some commensal CNS have been shown to have biological activities. This issue led us to screen exoproducts from commensal Staphylococcus chromogenes for anti-biofilm activity against different mastitis pathogens. The cell-free supernatant from S. chromogenes LN1 (LN1-CFS) was confirmed to display a non-biocidal inhibition of pathogenic biofilms. The supernatant was subjected to various treatments to estimate the nature of the biofilm-inhibiting compounds. The results showed that the bioactive compound >5KDa in mass is sensitive to thermal treatment and proteinase K digestion, suggesting its protein properties. LN1-CFS was able to significantly inhibit S. aureus and CNS biofilm formation in a dose-independent manner and without affecting the viability of bovine cells. These findings reveal a new activity of the udder microflora of healthy animals. Studies are underway to purify and identify the anti-biofilm biocompound and to evaluate its biological activity in vivo.

      PubDate: 2017-07-05T01:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.025
  • Glycan-specificity of four neuraminidase-sensitive animal rotavirus
    • Authors: Ji-Yun Kim; Deok-Song Kim; Ja-Young Seo; Jun-Gyu Park; Mia Madel Alfajaro; Mahmoud Soliman; Yeong-Bin Baek; Eun-Hyo Cho; Hyung-Jun Kwon; Su-Jin Park; Mun-Il Kang; Kyoung-Oh Cho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ji-Yun Kim, Deok-Song Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Jun-Gyu Park, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Mahmoud Soliman, Yeong-Bin Baek, Eun-Hyo Cho, Hyung-Jun Kwon, Su-Jin Park, Mun-Il Kang, Kyoung-Oh Cho
      Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are divided into neuraminidase (NA)-sensitive and NA-insensitive strains depending upon their binding affinity to the VP8* domain in the terminal sialic acids (SAs) of cell surface carbohydrates. Although NA-sensitive strains are known to use terminal SAs as an attachment factor, the exact nature of this attachment factor is largely unknown. Here we show that the specific linkage of SA-containing glycan to glycoprotein or glycolipid is an attachment factor used by NA-sensitive porcine G9P[7] PRG9121 and G9P[23] PRG942, bovine G6P[1] NCDV, and canine G3P[3] strains. Infectivity of porcine G9P[7] and G9P[23] strains was markedly blocked by α2,3-linkage and α2,6-linkage inhibitors, indicating that these strains bind to both α2,3- and α2,6-linked SAs. However, the infectivity of bovine G6P[1] and canine G3P[3] strains was significantly reduced by α2,6-linkage inhibitor but not by α2,3-linkage blockers, demonstrating a predilection of these strains for α2,6-linked SAs. The infectivity of four NA-sensitive strains was equally reduced by inhibitors of lipid membrane and N-linked glycoprotein but not by a inhibitor of O-linked glycoprotein, indicating that these strains utilize both glycolipid and N-linked glycoprotein. Our study demonstrates that four NA-sensitive animal strains could have a strain-dependent binding preference toward α2,6-linked SAs (P[1] NCDV and P[3] CU-1 strains) or both α2,3- and α2,6-linked SAs (P[7] PRG9121 and P[23] PRG942 strains) to the glycolipid and N-linked glycoprotein.

      PubDate: 2017-06-24T11:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.016
  • A review of methods used for studying the molecular epidemiology of
           Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
    • Authors: Friederike Zeeh; Heiko Nathues; Joachim Frey; Petra Muellner; Claes Fellström
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Friederike Zeeh, Heiko Nathues, Joachim Frey, Petra Muellner, Claes Fellström
      Brachyspira (B.) spp. are intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs, other mammals, birds and humans. In pigs, seven Brachyspira spp. have been described, i.e. B. hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. innocens, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is especially relevant in pigs as it causes swine dysentery and hence considerable economic losses to the pig industry. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae to antimicrobials is of increasing concern. The epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae infections is only partially understood, but different methods for detection, identification and typing have supported recent improvements in knowledge and understanding. In the last years, molecular methods have been increasingly used. Molecular epidemiology links molecular biology with epidemiology, offering unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases. This review is based on papers published in the field of epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae in pigs. Electronic databases were screened for potentially relevant papers using title and abstract and finally, 64 papers were systemically selected and assessed. The review summarises briefly the current knowledge on B. hyodysenteriae epidemiology and elaborates on molecular typing techniques available. Results of the studies are compared and gaps in the knowledge are addressed. Finally, potential areas for future research are proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-24T11:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.011
  • 16S rRNA genes Illumina sequencing revealed differential cecal microbiome
           in specific pathogen free chickens infected with different subgroup of
           avian leukosis viruses
    • Authors: Xinxin Ma; Qi Wang; Hongmei Li; Chuantian Xu; Ning Cui; Xiaomin Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Xinxin Ma, Qi Wang, Hongmei Li, Chuantian Xu, Ning Cui, Xiaomin Zhao
      Intestinal flora play important roles in the pathogenisis of many pathogens. This study examined the cecal microbiome of chickens infected with avian leukosis virus (ALV) using 16S rRNA genes Illumina sequencing. One-day-old specific pathogen free chicks were inoculated in the abdomen with subgroup J or K of ALV. At 21-day-old, chickens positive for ALV viremia were selected and their cecal contents were extracted and examined for the composition of gut microflora by illumina sequencing of the V3+V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that there is a clear association with loss of important bacterial populations in concert with an enrichment of potentially pathogenic populations and ALV infections, despite of the virus subgroups. In addition, ALV-K infected chickens revealed a preference for opportunistic pathogens in Firmicutes such as Staphylococcus and Weissella and some genus from Bacillales. Whereas, ALV-J infected chickens were characterized by a larger number of notable pathogens like Escherichia-Shigella from Proteobacteria, and other condition pathogens including Enterococcus and members of Erysipelotrichaceae from Firmicutes, and members of Helicobacteraceae from Bacteroidetes. Collectively, our results suggest that relative abundance data from the cecal microbiome differentiates healthy chickens from those infected with ALVs. Most importantly, there was a significant difference in the gut microbiome of chickens infected with ALV-K compared to those with ALV-J infected ones. This strongly suggests that ALV infection may be associated with the microbiome and there may be multiple underlying mechanisms by which the microbiome is involved in the pathogenisis of different subgroup of ALV infections.

      PubDate: 2017-06-24T11:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.016
  • Prevalence of novel porcine circovirus 3 in Korean pig populations
    • Authors: Taeyong Kwon; Sung J. Yoo; Choi-Kyu Park; Young S. Lyoo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Taeyong Kwon, Sung J. Yoo, Choi-Kyu Park, Young S. Lyoo
      Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a novel porcine circovirus that was identified in pigs with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, and multi-systemic inflammation. However, the distribution and genetic characteristics of emerging PCV3 in Korea remains unclear. In this study, we determined the nationwide prevalence and genetic characteristics of PCV3 using pen-based oral fluid samples. The total prevalence of PCV3 in individual samples and at the farm level was 44.2% (159/360) and 72.6% (53/73), respectively. Korean PCV3 shared 99.2±0.2% (98.9–99.8%) and 98.6±0.5% (97.9–99.8%) nucleotide identity in the complete genome and ORF2, respectively, when compared to those of US strains. These data suggested that PCV3 is widely distributed throughout Korean pig populations.

      PubDate: 2017-06-18T10:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.013
  • Dual infections of CD163 expressing NPTr epithelial cells with influenza A
           virus and PRRSV
    • Authors: Chantale Provost; Glenn Hamonic; Carl A. Gagnon; François Meurens
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Chantale Provost, Glenn Hamonic, Carl A. Gagnon, François Meurens
      In the pig, respiratory co-infections involving various pathogens are far more frequent than single infections. Amongst respiratory viruses, swine influenza type A virus (swIAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are frequently associated. Previously, we performed co-infections with swIAV and PRRSV in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) and precision cut lung slices (PCLS). With these two approaches it was practically impossible to have co-infections of the same cells as the main target cell of swIAV is the epithelial cell while the main target of PRRSV is the PAM. This constraint makes the study of interference between the two viruses difficult at the cellular level. In the current report, an epithelial cell line expressing, CD163, the main receptor of PRRSV was generated. This cell line receptive for both viruses was used to assess the interference between the two viruses. Results showed that swIAV as well as PRRSV, even if they interacted differently with the modified epithelial cells, were clearly interfering with each other regarding their replication when they infected a same cell with consequences within the cellular antiviral response. Our modified cell line, receptive to both viruses, can be used as a tool to assess interference between swIAV and PRRSV in a same cell as it probably happens in the porcine host.

      PubDate: 2017-06-18T10:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.012
  • Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, C. confusum and C.
           amycolatum isolated from sows with genitourinary infection
    • Authors: André P. Poor; Luisa Z. Moreno; Carlos E.C. Matajira; Beatriz M. Parra; Vasco T.M. Gomes; Ana Paula S. Silva; Mauricio C. Dutra; Ana Paula G. Christ; Mikaela R.F. Barbosa; Maria Inês Z. Sato; Andrea M. Moreno
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): André P. Poor, Luisa Z. Moreno, Carlos E.C. Matajira, Beatriz M. Parra, Vasco T.M. Gomes, Ana Paula S. Silva, Mauricio C. Dutra, Ana Paula G. Christ, Mikaela R.F. Barbosa, Maria Inês Z. Sato, Andrea M. Moreno
      Porcine Corynebacterium infection is still poorly studied, even though the pig has been described as an asymptomatic carrier of Corynebacterium species, including the zoonotic species C. ulcerans, C. confusum and C. amycolatum. Here we present the identification, molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility characterization of coryneform bacteria isolated from sows with urinary tract infection. C. diphtheriae, C. confusum and C. amycolatum were isolated from sows with urinary infection and metritis. Corynebacterium species were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and confirmed by 16S rRNA and rpoB sequencing. All porcine C. diphtheriae strains were further characterized as non-toxigenic (tox −). SE-AFLP genotyping was also performed and enabled not only Corynebacterium species differentiation but also the assessment of C. amycolatum genetic heterogeneity. All studied porcine Corynebacterium strains presented alarming resistance profiles with high MIC values for macrolides/lincosamide, tetracyclines and quinolones, which can be related with high usage in both veterinary and human medicine. Isolation of zoonotic Corynebacterium species from commercial swine is important for assessing the potential zoonotic risk for farmers and further implication for both human and animal treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-18T10:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.008
  • Genomic comparison of virulent and non-virulent serotype V ST1
           Streptococcus agalactiae in fish
    • Authors: Rui Wang; Li-Ping Li; Ting Huang; Ai-Ying Lei; Yan Huang; Fu-Guang Luo; Dong-Ying Wang; Wei-Yi Huang; Ming Chen; Jun Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Rui Wang, Li-Ping Li, Ting Huang, Ai-Ying Lei, Yan Huang, Fu-Guang Luo, Dong-Ying Wang, Wei-Yi Huang, Ming Chen, Jun Huang
      Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the major pathogen causing pneumonia and meningitis in human, mastitis in dairy cows, and streptococcal disease in tilapia. Previous studies have shown that fish GBS strains are correlated with human GBS strains in evolution and might have cross-host infection ability. Although the invasive disease caused by ST1 GBS in non-pregnant adults and cows is increasing worldwide, infection of fish by ST1 GBS has not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether ST1 GBS was virulent in fish and to investigate the genomic characteristics of ST1 GBS strains with different pathogenicity in tilapia. The human-derived serotype V ST1 GBS strains NNA048 and NNA038 were used to intraperitoneally challenge Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with doses of 1.0×109 CFU/fish, 1.0×107 CFU/fish, and 1.0×105 CFU/fish, respectively. The cumulative mortality rates of NNA048 infection at three different doses were 100.00%, 83.33%, and 40.00%. In contrast, there were no any sick or dead fish in NNA038 infection group. Histopathological results indicated that challenge of tilapia with NNA048 caused different degree of degeneration and necrosis in brain, liver, spleen, head kidney, and gut, and a large number of blue-stained Streptococcus granules were observed in the tissues. In contrast, there were no any lesions in the tissues of tilapia that were challenged with NNA038. Genome comparison showed that the major genome differences between NNA048 and NNA038 were attributed to the different phage sequences, and there was a 49.8kb length, intact phage sequence encoding 68 proteins in NNA048 genome. SNV and Indels analysis between NNA038 and NNA048 genomes indicated that there were a total of 96 SNVs, 5 deletions and 1 insert. Taken together, serotype V ST1 GBS was comprised of virulent and nonvirulent strains to tilapia, and gene rearrangement might be the main reason of causing different levels of virulence between strains.

      PubDate: 2017-06-18T10:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.007
  • Characterization of NDM-5-positive extensively resistant Escherichia coli
           isolates from dairy cows
    • Authors: Tao He; Ruicheng Wei; Lili Zhang; Lichang Sun; Maoda Pang; Ran Wang; Yang Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Tao He, Ruicheng Wei, Lili Zhang, Lichang Sun, Maoda Pang, Ran Wang, Yang Wang
      The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bla NDM-5 gene in Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cows and to characterize the molecular traits of the bla NDM-5-positive isolates. A total of 169 cows were sampled (169 feces and 169 raw milk samples) in three dairy farms in Jiangsu Province and 203 E. coli isolates were recovered. Among these strains, three isolates carried bla NDM-5 gene, including one co-harboring mcr-1, which belonged to sequence type 446 and the other two belonged to ST2. Susceptibility testing revealed that the three bla NDM-5-positive isolates showed extensively resistance to antimicrobials. The bla NDM-5 gene was located on a ∼46-kb IncX3 transferrable pNDM-MGR194-like plasmid in all three isolates, while mcr-1 was located on a ∼260-kb IncHI2 plasmid pXGE1mcr. Competition experiments revealed that acquisition of bla NDM-5 or mcr-1-bearing plasmid can incur fitness cost of bacterial host, however, plasmid stability testing showed that both bla NDM-5 and mcr-1-carrying plasmid maintained stable in the hosts after ten passages without antimicrobial selection. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the mcr-1 gene coexisted with multiple resistance genes in pXGE1mcr and the backbone of this plasmid was similar to that of previously reported mcr-1-positive plasmid pHNSHP45-2. Moreover, pXGE1 could be conjugated into clinical NDM-5-positive E. coli isolates in vitro, thereby generating strains that approached pan-resistance. Active surveillance efforts are imperative to monitor the prevalence of bla NDM-5 and mcr-1 in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from dairy farms throughout China.

      PubDate: 2017-06-18T10:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.010
  • Fungal dermatitis, glossitis and disseminated visceral mycosis caused by
           different Metarhizium granulomatis genotypes in veiled chameleons
           (Chamaeleo calyptratus) and first isolation in healthy lizards
    • Authors: Volker Schmidt; Linus Klasen; Juliane Schneider; Jens Hübel; Michael Pees
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Volker Schmidt, Linus Klasen, Juliane Schneider, Jens Hübel, Michael Pees
      Metarhizium (M.) granulomatis (formerly Chamaeleomyces granulomatis) invariably causes fatal fungal glossitis and systemic mycosis in veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). Isolation of M. granulomatis in other lizards thus far has not been described. The aim of this study therefore was to obtain information on the presence of M. granulomatis in reptiles kept as pets, and to examine whether there was an association between specific genotypes and clinical/pathological outcomes. Besides 18S ribosomal (r) DNA (SSU) and internal transcribed spacer1-5.8S (ITS1-5.8S) rDNA, a fragment of the large subunit of the 28S rDNA (LSU), including the domains 1 (D1) and D2, were sequenced for identification of the fungus and phylogenetic analysis. Metarhizium granulomatis was isolated from 23 veiled chameleons, two panther chameleons (Furcifer pardalis) and one central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Only the veiled chameleons revealed corresponding pathological findings in the form of glossal hemorrhage, granulomatous glossitis, pharyngitis, dermatitis and/or visceral mycosis. The infection site correlated to survival times of infected veiled chameleons. Combined long-term treatment with terbinafine and nystatin based on susceptibility testing may be helpful for prevention of disease and visceral spreading of the fungus, but elimination of the fungal pathogen or successful treatment of diseased veiled chameleons have not been achieved yet. Sequencing of the ribosomal genes yielded five different genotypes, with genotype A being strongly correlated with dermatitis, and remaining genotypes with pharyngitis and glossitis. However, disseminated visceral mycosis developed irrespective of the genotypes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T10:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.005
  • Rapid acquisition adaptive amino acid substitutions involved in the
           virulence enhancement of an H1N2 avian influenza virus in mice
    • Authors: Zhijun Yu; Weiyang Sun; Xinghai Zhang; Kaihui Cheng; Chuqi Zhao; Xianzhu Xia; Yuwei Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhijun Yu, Weiyang Sun, Xinghai Zhang, Kaihui Cheng, Chuqi Zhao, Xianzhu Xia, Yuwei Gao
      Although H1N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) only infect birds, documented cases of swine infection with H1N2 influenza viruses suggest this subtype AIV may pose a potential threat to mammals. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a H1N2 AIV to identify adaptive changes that increased virulence in mammals. MLD50 of the variants were reduced >1000-fold compared to the parental virus. Variants displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and replicate in extrapulmonary organs. These data show that enhanced replication capacity and expanded tissue tropism may increase the virulence of H1N2 AIV in mice. Sequence analysis revealed multiple amino acid substitutions in the PB2 (L134H, I647L, and D701N), HA (G228S), and M1 (D231N) proteins. These results indicate that H1N2 AIV can rapidly acquire adaptive amino acid substitutions in mammalian hosts, and these amino acid substitutions collaboratively enhance the ability of H1N2 AIV to replicate and cause severe disease in mammals.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T10:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.009
  • Efficacy of potential phage cocktails against Vibrio harveyi and closely
           related Vibrio species isolated from shrimp aquaculture environment in the
           south east coast of India
    • Authors: Nattan Stalin; Pappu Srinivasan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Nattan Stalin, Pappu Srinivasan
      A diverse set of novel phages infecting the marine pathogenic Vibrio harveyi was isolated from shrimp aquaculture environments in the south east coast of India. Based on initial screening, three phages with a broad host range revealed that the growth inhibition of phage is relatively specific to V. harveyi. They were also able to infect V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus that belonged to the Harveyi clade species from shrimp pond and sea coast environment samples. However, the impact of these phages on their host bacterium are well understood; a one-step growth curve experiment and transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed three phages grouped under the Myoviridae (VHM1 and VHM2); Siphoviridae (VHS1) family. These phages were further molecular characterized with respect to phage genomic DNA isolates. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) digestion with HindIII, and major structural proteins were distinguished by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) clearly indicated that all the phage isolates were different, even when they came from the same source, giving an insight into the diversity of phages. Evaluation of microcosm studies of Penaeus monodon larvae infected with V. harveyi (105 CFU mL−1) showed that larvae survival after 96h in the presence of phage treatment at 109 PFU mL−1 was enhanced when compared with the control. The resolution in over survival highly recommended that this study provides the phage-based therapy which could be an innovative and eco-friendly solution against Vibrio disease in shrimp aquaculture and in the natural environment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T10:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.006
  • High occurrence of mecC-MRSA in wild hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in
    • Authors: Björn Bengtsson; Lotta Persson; Kerstin Ekström; Helle Ericsson Unnerstad; Henrik Uhlhorn; Stefan Börjesson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Björn Bengtsson, Lotta Persson, Kerstin Ekström, Helle Ericsson Unnerstad, Henrik Uhlhorn, Stefan Börjesson
      We investigated the occurrence of mecC-MRSA in wild hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Sweden and characterized the obtained isolates. Samples from 55 hedgehogs from five counties of Sweden were cultivated selectively for MRSA and putative isolates were confirmed by real-time PCR detecting mecA, mecC, nuc and PVL genes. mecC-MRSA was confirmed in 35 (64%) animals from three geographically separated counties. Confirmed isolates were spa-typed and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by broth microdilution. Eight different spa-types were identified (t843, t978, t3391, t9111, t10751, t10893, t11015, t15312) of which t843 (49%) was the most common. The spa-types t843, t3391 and t978 were found in isolates from two counties. The study shows that mecC-MRSA is common in wild hedgehogs in two counties of Sweden but occurs in hedgehogs also in other parts of the country. Our findings suggest that hedgehogs could be a reservoir for mecC-MRSA. In addition, similar spa-types of isolates from hedgehogs and isolates previously described in domesticated animals and in humans indicates transfer between these populations.

      PubDate: 2017-06-09T10:26:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.004
  • Porcine parvovirus infection activates inflammatory cytokine production
           through Toll-like receptor 9 and NF-κB signaling pathways in porcine
           kidney cells
    • Authors: Yong Zhou; Xiao-hui Jin; Ya-xing Jing; Yue Song; Xiao-xiang He; Lan-Lan Zheng; Ya-bin Wang; Zhan-yong Wei; Gai-ping Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yong Zhou, Xiao-hui Jin, Ya-xing Jing, Yue Song, Xiao-xiang He, Lan-Lan Zheng, Ya-bin Wang, Zhan-yong Wei, Gai-ping Zhang
      Porcine parvovirus virus (PPV) is an animal virus that has caused high economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies demonstrated that PPV infection induced significant production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in vitro and in vivo. However, the inflammatory cytokines and specific signaling pathways induced during PPV infection remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the expression levels of IL-6 in PPV-infected porcine kidney 15 (PK-15) and the results showed that PPV infection induced the increase of IL-6 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. We also detected the expression of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling proteins in the mRNA expressing level, when compared with the control group, the TLR9 expression in mRNA level increased at 24h in PK-15 cells after PPV infection and reached the peak level at 48h. In addition, the transcript profile of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathway relating genes (MyD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, TAK1α, IκBκB and NF-κB) expression levels increased at different times. Furthermore, to verify the IL-6 expression was specific with the TLR9 expression and then by activating the NF-κB signal pathway, TLR9 and NF-κB specific inhibitors were applied during PPV infection, separately, the result indicated that the expression of IL-6 was decreased after inhibitor treatment. Taken together, PPV infection significantly induced IL-6 expression and this induction depended on NF-κB activation and TLR9 signaling pathways in PK-15 cell.

      PubDate: 2017-06-09T10:26:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.030
  • Presence and mechanisms of acquired antimicrobial resistance in Belgian
           Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates belonging to different clonal
    • Authors: M. Mahu; F. Pasmans; K. Vranckx; N. De Pauw; L. Vande Maele; Philip Vyt; Tamara Vandersmissen; A. Martel; F. Haesebrouck; F. Boyen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): M. Mahu, F. Pasmans, K. Vranckx, N. De Pauw, L. Vande Maele, Philip Vyt, Tamara Vandersmissen, A. Martel, F. Haesebrouck, F. Boyen
      Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important disease for which antimicrobial treatment still occupies an important place to control outbreaks. However, acquired antimicrobial resistance is increasingly observed in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. In this study, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of six antimicrobial compounds for 30 recent Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates were determined using a broth microdilution method. In addition, relevant regions of the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and the L3 protein encoding genes were sequenced to reveal mutations associated with acquired resistance. Finally, a phylogeny was reconstructed using minimal spanning tree analysis of multi locus sequence typing of the isolates. For lincomycin, doxycycline, tylosin and tylvalosin, at least 70% of the isolates did not belong to the wild-type population and were considered to have acquired resistance. For valnemulin and tiamulin, this was over 50%. In all isolates with acquired resistance to doxycycline, the G1058C mutation was present in their 16S rRNA gene. All isolates showing acquired resistance to lincomycin and both macrolides displayed the A2058T mutation in their 23S rRNA gene. Other mutations in this gene and the N148S mutation in the L3 protein were present in both wild-type isolates and isolates considered to have acquired resistance. Multi locus sequence analysis revealed a previously undescribed clonal complex, with 4 novel sequence types in which the majority of isolates showed acquired resistance to all tested antimicrobial products. In conclusion, acquired antimicrobial resistance is widespread among Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates. The emergence of multi-resistant clonal complexes can pose a threat to swine industry.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T10:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.022
  • Efficacy evaluation of three modified-live virus vaccines against a strain
           of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus NADC30-like
    • Authors: Lei Zhou; Beina Yang; Lei Xu; Huan Jin; Xinna Ge; Xin Guo; Jun Han; Hanchun Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Lei Zhou, Beina Yang, Lei Xu, Huan Jin, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome reproductive virus is a devastating pathogen causing tremendous economic losses to swine production worldwide. Emergence of novel and variant PRRSV strains always leads to variable protection efficacy of modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines. Prevalence of PRRSV NADC30-like recently emerging in China has brought about clinical outbreaks of the disease. In the present study, the pathogenicity of a NADC30-like strain CHsx1401 for piglets was analyzed, and the potential cross-protective efficacy of three MLV vaccines including two commercial MLV vaccines and an attenuated low pathogenic PRRSV against this virus was further evaluated in piglets. The NADC30-like CHsx1401 was shown to cause fever, respiratory clinical signs, and lung gross and microscopic lesions of the inoculated piglets, suggesting that this virus is moderate virulent for piglets. Vaccination of piglets with the MLV vaccines could not reduce the clinical signs and lung lesions, and was partially efficacious in the reduction of viral loads in sera upon NADC30-like CHsx1401 challenge, indicating that these three MLV vaccines provide extremely limited cross-protection efficacy against the NADC30-like virus infection. Additionally, Ingelvac PRRS MLV appeared to exert some beneficial efficiency in shortening the period of clinical fever and in improving the growth performance of the challenged pigs. Our findings give valuable guidance for the choice and use of PRRSV MLV vaccines to control NADC30-like virus infection in the field.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T10:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.031
  • A haplotype at intron 8 of PTPRT gene is associated with resistance to
           Brucella infection in Argentinian creole goats
    • Authors: Ursula A. Rossi; Flavia C. Hasenauer; Maria E. Caffaro; Roberto Neumann; Antonio Salatin; Mario A. Poli; Carlos A. Rossetti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ursula A. Rossi, Flavia C. Hasenauer, Maria E. Caffaro, Roberto Neumann, Antonio Salatin, Mario A. Poli, Carlos A. Rossetti
      Brucellosis is the leading zoonosis on a worldwide scale and constitutes a major public health threat in many regions of the world. Several molecular markers associated with natural resistance to intracellular bacterial infection have been identified. Recently seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the PTPRT gene were associated with resistance to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. Here, we perform a case-control study to test if polymorphisms at PTPRT intron 8 might influence the resistance or susceptibility to Brucella infection in goats. DNA samples from 22 seropositive (cases) and 22 seronegative (controls) for brucellosis, unrelated female creole goats, were included in the present study. Four previously reported polymorphisms (SNP1: rs643551276, SNP2: rs651618967, SNP3: rs662137815 and SNP4: rs657542977) and a new SNP (SNP5: chr13: 691695526) were detected by PCR-DNA sequencing method. Genotypic and allelic frequencies differed significantly between cases and controls at SNPs 1, 2, 4 and 5 (p≤0.001). Indeed, the SNP1 TT, SNP2 TT, SNP4 CC and SNP5 TT genotypes were associated with absence of Brucella-specific antibodies (ORs=0.019 to 0.045). Moreover, haplotype association analysis revealed a significant association of the TTCCT haplotype with protection to Brucella infection (p≤1×104; OR=21), including the major allelic variants associated with resistance. These results represent the first evidence of genetic association between polymorphisms in the PTPRT gene and absence of brucellosis in goats.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T10:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.06.001
  • Genomic characterisation of Felis catus papillomavirus type 5 with
           proposed classification within a new papillomavirus genus
    • Authors: John S. Munday; Keren E. Dittmer; Neroli A. Thomson; Simon F. Hills; Rebecca E. Laurie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): John S. Munday, Keren E. Dittmer, Neroli A. Thomson, Simon F. Hills, Rebecca E. Laurie
      Four Felis catus papillomavirus (FcaPV) types have been fully sequenced from domestic cats. Of these, FcaPV-2 and −3 are thought to cause feline viral plaques and Bowenoid in situ carcinomas. Two short sequences of DNA from a previously unreported PV type were amplified from a feline viral plaque using consensus PCR primers. DNA was then extracted from a swab of the lesion and two sets of ‘outward facing’ primers were designed using the short sequences to amplify the entire 7600bp genome of the novel PV. The PV was designated FcaPV-5 and contained putative coding regions that were predicted to produce five early proteins and two late ones. The ORF L1 showed over 65% similarity to that of FcaPV-3 and -4. Assignment to a genus was difficult as the PV was over 60% similar to PV types from 4 different genera. However, due to the ORF L1 similarity of FcaPV-3, -4, and -5, the shared host species of all three PVs, and the similar lesions associated with FcaPV-3 and -5, it is proposed all three PVs are classified within a new genus. FcaPV-5 is the third PV type to be associated with feline viral plaques. The plaque that contained FcaPV-5 showed unusual histological features including hyperplasia and PV-induced cell changes in sebaceous glands and deep within hair follicles. While additional study of further lesions of this type is required, it is possible that FcaPV-5 may be able to infect a broader range of cells than other PV types.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T10:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.032
  • High reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio in infectious spleen and kidney
           necrosis virus-infected cells contributes to degradation of VP08R
    • Authors: Jian-Hui He; Muting Yan; Hongliang Zuo; Shengwen Niu; Jia Yuan; Shao-Ping Weng; Jianguo He; Xiaopeng Xu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jian-Hui He, Muting Yan, Hongliang Zuo, Shengwen Niu, Jia Yuan, Shao-Ping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
      Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus, family Iridoviridae. The ISKNV-infected cells in fish tissues are attached by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), which is a unique pathological phenomenon of ISKNV infection. The viral protein VP23R and VP08R and the host protein nidogen-1 constitute the virus-mock basement membrane (VMBM) on the membrane of infected cells to provide attaching sites for LECs. VP08R can form cross-linked multimers via intermolecular disulfide bonds to make VMBM a compact and strong structure. A question is that when the virions mature, how do they penetrate VMBMs to be released from the cells? In this study, the redox state in ISKNV-infected cells was investigated. We demonstrated that the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) was significantly elevated in ISKNV-infected cells, suggesting the increasing of reducing power. Remarkable changes were also observed in activities of many GSH metabolic enzymes and in the ratio of NADPH/NADP. We further exhibited that the high ratio of GSH/GSSG could lead to degradation of the VP08R multimer in vitro. These may suggest that the high GSH/GSSG ratio in infected cells could act on the VP08R multimer to facilitate the disassembly of VMBMs after virus maturation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T10:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.024
  • The phenotypic and molecular resistance induced by a single-exposure to
           sub-mutant prevention concentration of marbofloxacin in Salmonella
           Typhimurium isolates from swine
    • Authors: Seung-Jin Lee; Na-Hye Park; Abraham Fikru Mechesso; Kwang-Jick Lee; Seung-Chun Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Seung-Jin Lee, Na-Hye Park, Abraham Fikru Mechesso, Kwang-Jick Lee, Seung-Chun Park
      In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium clinical isolates from pigs were investigated using a single-step mutation model of exposure to sub-mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of marbofloxacin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of seven antibacterial drugs were evaluated against 30 S. Typhimurium clinical isolates from different pigs. MPCs of marbofloxacin were also determined. The mechanism of marbofloxacin-resistance was investigated by sequencing analysis of target gene mutations and quantifying the overexpression of efflux pumps and their regulators by quantitative RT-PCR. Marbofloxacin showed the highest potency against all isolates (23.3%), including multi-drug resistant isolates. The MPC50 (0.5μg/mL) and MPC90 (2μg/mL) of marbofloxacin were determined, as were MPC/MIC ratios of 2.5 to 8. A gyrA mutation (Ser83Phe or Asp87His) was detected in isolates with an MIC>0.06μg/mL and all single-step mutants. Moreover, expression of acrAB-tolC and marA/soxS/ramA increased following a single-step mutation, but only ramA expression showed a positive correlation with the resistance phenotype of clinical isolates and single-step mutants (p< 0.05). Furthermore, the acrR mutation was detected in two clinical isolates and 50% of single-step mutants, regardless of whether the gyrA mutation was present. This is the first report of acrR mutations in S. Typhimurium isolates from pigs in Korea. Our findings suggest that a single-exposure to sub-MPCs of marbofloxacin was sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of Salmonella isolates. Therefore, optimized dosing based on application with the MPC concept is required to reduce the chances of marbofloxacin resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T10:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.026
  • Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is
           widespread in farmed mink (Neovison vison)
    • Authors: Julie Elvekjær Hansen; Anders Rhod Larsen; Robert Leo Skov; Mariann Chriél; Gitte Larsen; Øystein Angen; Jesper Larsen; Desireé Corvera Kløve Lassen; Karl Pedersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Julie Elvekjær Hansen, Anders Rhod Larsen, Robert Leo Skov, Mariann Chriél, Gitte Larsen, Øystein Angen, Jesper Larsen, Desireé Corvera Kløve Lassen, Karl Pedersen
      Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 is widespread in the Danish pig production with around 90% of herds being positive. Since 2009, cases of CC398 LA-MRSA infections in Danish mink farmers have been observed. The objective of the study was to examine the presence of LA-MRSA in farmed mink. The investigation comprised three different sample types 1) clinical samples from carcasses submitted to the laboratory for diagnostic examination, 2) paws and pharyngeal swabs from healthy animals collected at pelting, and 3) feed samples from mink feed producers. In clinical samples, LA-MRSA was found in 34% of submissions and was most prevalent in samples from paws (33%) and pharynx (17%), followed by nasal and intestinal samples (each 13%), whereas it was never detected in perineal samples. LA-MRSA was found in healthy animals on 40% of the investigated farms, including paw samples (29%) and pharyngeal samples (16%). Twenty out of the 108 feed samples from feed producers were positive for LA-MRSA. The dominant spa-types were t034 and t011 associated to CC398, corresponding to the dominant spa-types detected in the Danish pig production, from which slaughter offal is used for mink feed. The spa-types, the high prevalence of LA-MRSA on paws and in pharynx, and its detection in feed samples, suggest feed as a possible source of LA-MRSA in mink.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T10:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.027
  • Occurrence and characterization of stx and/or eae-positive Escherichia
           coli isolated from wildlife, including a typical EPEC strain from a wild
    • Authors: Carla Andrea Alonso; Azucena Mora; Dafne Díaz; Miguel Blanco; David González-Barrio; Francisco Ruiz-Fons; Carmen Simón; Jorge Blanco; Carmen Torres
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Carla Andrea Alonso, Azucena Mora, Dafne Díaz, Miguel Blanco, David González-Barrio, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Carmen Simón, Jorge Blanco, Carmen Torres
      Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains are food-borne pathogens associated with acute diarrhea. Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is often a complication of STEC infection. In order to examine the occurrence, serotypes, virulence and antimicrobial-resistance profiles of STEC and EPEC in wildlife, 326 faecal E. coli strains from 304 clinically healthy animals were analyzed. For this approach stx1 , stx2 and eae genes, as well as accessory virulence determinants (ehx, hlyA, saa, tia, bfp, subAB) were PCR-screened and sequenced. Serotyping was performed employing all available O (O1–O185) and H (H1-H56) antisera. Genetic diversity was analyzed by XbaI-PFGE and phylotyping. Thirteen STEC (4.3%) and 10 EPEC (3.3%) were identified among 12 deer, 3 mouflon, 6 wild boars and 2 birds. Nine STEC showed seropathotypes B (O145:[H28]) and C (O22:H8, O128:[H2]) associated with HUS, and D (O110:H28, O146:H21, O146:[H28], ONT:H8) associated with human diarrhea. Although most isolates harbored stx2b and stx1c variants, stx2a and stx1a (related with severe disease) were also detected. Additionally, the eae gene was present in one stx2a –positive O145:[H28] STEC from a deer and 11 STEC harbored subAB genes (mainly the subAB2 variant). EPEC isolates showed 7 different intimin variants (β1, β2, γ1, ε1, ζ1, ι1-A, κ). Interestingly, the O49:[H10] eae-κ EPEC isolated from a wild boar was bfpA-positive showing a combination of serotype/virulence profile previously detected among human clinical tEPEC. Based on present results, wild ruminants, wild boars and to a lesser extent birds would be carriers of potentially pathogenic STEC and EPEC strains.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T10:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.028
  • In vitro modelling effective scrapie decontamination
    • Authors: K.C. Gough; C.A. Baker; B.C. Maddison
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): K.C. Gough, C.A. Baker, B.C. Maddison
      Scrapie infectivity enters the environment via a multiplicity of routes from infected animals. Environmentally associated scrapie persists on farms when infected animals have been removed and is particularly resistant to disinfection. Infectivity within the farm is not adequately removed by current recommended guidelines for farm decontamination. We describe an in vitro method for modelling decontamination, specifically the removal of scrapie prions from the surface of concrete fomites within buildings that have housed scrapie infected animals. Concrete that had been spiked with low amounts of a diluted scrapie positive brain homogenate was sampled before and after decontamination. Extracts were used to seed a semi-quantitative serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification assay (sPMCA). We demonstrate that methods currently recommended for prion decontamination result in inadequate reduction of prion seeding activity within this in vitro assay. Effective treatment was achieved using repeat dosing of surfaces with 20,000ppm available chlorine for 4hours.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T09:45:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.018
  • Multiple amino acid substitutions involved in the virulence enhancement of
           an H3N2 avian influenza A virus isolated from wild waterfowl in mice
    • Authors: Zhijun Yu; Weiyang Sun; Xinghai Zhang; Kaihui Cheng; Chuqi Zhao; Yuwei Gao; Xianzhu Xia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhijun Yu, Weiyang Sun, Xinghai Zhang, Kaihui Cheng, Chuqi Zhao, Yuwei Gao, Xianzhu Xia
      Frequent emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza H3N2 viruses in the wild birds has caused concern for human health. Here, we generated mouse-adapted strains of a wild waterfowl-origin low pathogenic avian influenza H3N2 virus to identify adaptive mutations that confer enhanced virulence in mammals. The mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of the adapted strains were reduced >562-fold compared to the parental virus. Mouse-adapted strains displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and acquired the ability to replicate in extrapulmonary tissues. These observations suggest that enhanced growth characteristics and modified cell tropism may increase the virulence of H3N2 AIVs in mice. Genomic analysis revealed mutations in the PB2 (E192K and D701N), PB1 (F269S, I475V, and L598P), HA (V242E), NA (G170R), and M1 (M192V) proteins. Our results suggest that these amino acid substitutions collaboratively enhance the ability of H3N2 avian influenza A virus to replicate and cause severe disease in mammals.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T09:45:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.05.020
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