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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 215 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.425]   [H-I: 84]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Evidence for an independent third Usutu virus introduction into Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ute Ziegler, Christine Fast, Martin Eiden, Sabine Bock, Christoph Schulze, Dirk Hoeper, Andreas Ochs, Patricia Schlieben, Markus Keller, Dorothee E. Zielke, Renke Luehken, Daniel Cadar, Doreen Walther, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Martin H. Groschup
      Usutu virus (USUV) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to Southern Europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. In Germany USUV was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), in the Upper Rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing USUV epidemic is caused by two different USUV strains, USUV-Germany belonging to the USUV Europe 3 lineage and USUV-Bonn belonging to the USUV Africa 3 lineage. The two strains were introduced independently. In August 2015 a new USUV strain, named USUV-Berlin, was isolated in Vero cells from two carcasses of juvenile Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) kept in the Zoological Garden Berlin, which had suffered from a hyperacute fatal systemic infection. Both owls carried high USUV genome loads. Full-length USUV genomes sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship with a Spanish mosquito-derived sequence from 2006. Immunohistochemical antigen detection in organ samples of the owls showed the typical USUV infection patterns. According to the phylogenetic analysis, USUV-Berlin belongs to the Africa 2 lineage, and can thus be distinguished from the other strains circulating in Germany. Repeated findings of different USUV strains suggest more frequent introductions into Central Europe and a higher mobility of this virus than assumed to date.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:21:59Z
  • Factors associated with herd-level PRRSV infection and age-time to
           seroconversion in farrow-to-finish herds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): C. Fablet, C. Marois-Créhan, B. Grasland, G. Simon, N. Rose
      Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd’s PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:21:59Z
  • Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of clinical mastitis in sheep caused
           by Mannheimia haemolytica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Lida Omaleki, Glenn F. Browning, Joanne L. Allen, Philip F. Markham, Stuart R. Barber
      The aetiology and epidemiology of outbreaks of clinical mastitis in sheep under extensive pastoral conditions are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed investigation of a clinical mastitis outbreak that affected more than 10% of 230 at-risk ewes on a sheep and grain producing property in south east Australia during drought conditions in 2009. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all affected ewes and plated on sheep blood agar for bacterial identification. M. haemolytica was isolated from 80% of the samples that yielded cultivable microorganisms and thus was the main microorganism responsible for the outbreak. Analysis of the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed some evidence of clonality, suggesting the possibility of horizontal transmission, but there was also considerable diversity between the clusters of closely related isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of the M. haemolytica isolates revealed most of the isolates belonged to ST1 with no association between the PFGE and MLST fingerprints of the isolates. Resistance to neomycin, streptomycin and sulphafurazole was detected in some of the isolates, but they were all susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin and trimethoprim. This is the first published record of a comparison of the strains of M. haemolytica involved in a clinical mastitis outbreak in sheep and demonstrates the importance of this pathogen in sheep production systems, particularly during adverse climatic conditions and increased stocking rate.

      PubDate: 2016-06-15T12:47:28Z
  • IFC - Aims & Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 190

      PubDate: 2016-06-10T12:27:12Z
  • Heavy metal and disinfectant resistance genes among livestock-associated
           methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): M. Angeles Argudín, Birgit Lauzat, Britta Kraushaar, Patricia Alba, Yvonne Agerso, Lina Cavaco, Patrick Butaye, M. Concepción Porrero, Antonio Battisti, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen, Alexandra Fetsch, Beatriz Guerra
      Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has emerged in animal production worldwide. Most LA-MRSA in Europe belong to the clonal complex (CC)398. The reason for the LA-MRSA emergence is not fully understood. Besides antimicrobial agents used for therapy, other substances with antimicrobial activity applied in animal feed, including metal-containing compounds might contribute to their selection. Some of these genes have been found in various novel SCCmec cassettes. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of metal-resistance genes among a LA-S. aureus collection [n=554, including 542 MRSA and 12 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA)] isolated from livestock and food thereof. Most LA-MRSA isolates (76%) carried at least one metal-resistance gene. Among the LA-MRSA CC398 isolates (n=456), 4.8%, 0.2%, 24.3% and 71.5% were positive for arsA (arsenic compounds), cadD (cadmium), copB (copper) and czrC (zinc/cadmium) resistance genes, respectively. In contrast, among the LA-MRSA non-CC398 isolates (n=86), 1.2%, 18.6% and 16.3% were positive for the cadD, copB and czrC genes, respectively, and none were positive for arsA. Of the LA-MRSA CC398 isolates, 72% carried one metal-resistance gene, and the remaining harboured two or more in different combinations. Differences between LA-MRSA CC398 and non-CC398 were statistically significant for arsA and czrC. The czrC gene was almost exclusively found (98%) in the presence of SCCmec V in both CC398 and non-CC398 LA-MRSA isolates from different sources. Regarding the LA-MSSA isolates (n=12), some (n=4) were also positive for metal-resistance genes. This study shows that genes potentially conferring metal-resistance are frequently present in LA-MRSA.

      PubDate: 2016-06-10T12:27:12Z
  • Preliminary Treatment of Bovine Mastitis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus,
           with Trx-SA1, Recombinant Endolysin of S. aureus Bacteriophage IME-SA1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jindai Fan, Zhiliang Zeng, Kaijie Mai, Yu Yang, Jiaqi Feng, Yang Bai, Baoli Sun, Qingmei Xie, Yigang Tong, Jingyun Ma
      Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a great threat to human and animal health and there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial agents to control this pathogen. The objective of this study was to obtain an active recombinant endolysin from the novel bacteriophage (IME-SA1), and conduct an efficacy trial of its effectiveness against bovine mastitis. We isolated a phage that was virulent and specific for S. aureus with an optimal multiplicity of infection of 0.01. Electron microscopy revealed that IME-SA1 was a member of the family Myoviridae, with an isometric head (98nm) and a long contractile tail (200nm). Experimental lysis experiments indicated the phage had an incubation period of 20min with a burst size of 80. When host bacteria were in early exponential growth stages, a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 resulted in a complete bacterial lysis after 9h. The endolysin gene (804bp) was cloned into the pET-32a bacterial expression vector and recombinant endolysin Trx-SA1 was successfully obtained with molecular size of about 47kDa. Preliminary results of therapeutic trials in cow udders showed that Trx-SA1 could effectively control mild clinical mastitis caused by S. aureus. The endolysin Trx-SA1 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by S. aureus, including MRSA.

      PubDate: 2016-06-10T12:27:12Z
  • Comparison of protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine
           reproductive and respiratory syndrome field viruses against homologous and
           heterologous challenge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Kyuhyung Choi, Changhoon Park, Jiwoon Jeong, Chanhee Chae
      The objective of this study was to compare protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) against homologous and heterologous challenge based on clinical, virological, immunological, and pathological analysis. At 3 and 8 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intranasally with either 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 105 TCID50/mL of type 1 PRRSV or 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 105 TCID50/mL of type 2 PRRSV. The homologous challenges resulted in a significant boost of the neutralizing antibodies (NA) and interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to heterologous challenges. The reduction of secondary challenging PRRSV viremia coincided with the appearance of homologous PRRSV-specific NA and IFN-γ-SC. Homologous challenge reduced the severity of lung lesions and levels of PRRSV viremia significantly in pigs in comparison with heterologous challenge. The differences in homologous and heterologous NA and IFN-γ-SC response may explain the differences in protection against homologous and heterologous challenge between type 1 and type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge (immunization) with type 1 PRRSV provided protection against the secondary homologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV but failed to provide protection against the secondary heterologous challenge of type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge with type 2 PRRSV provided protection against both the secondary homologous challenge with type 2 PRRSV and the secondary heterologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV.

      PubDate: 2016-06-10T12:27:12Z
  • Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri to assess
           its genetic variability in a contagious agalactia endemic area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Juan Tatay-Dualde, Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Christian de la Fe, Ángel Gómez-Martín, Ana Paterna, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Antonio Sánchez
      Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is one of the main causative agents of caprine contagious agalactia. Besides, the absence of accurate control methods eases its dispersion between different herds within endemic areas of this disease. In this context, there is a need to implement molecular typing schemes which offer valuable information useful to establish control measures and enables the surveillance of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variability of different strains of Mmc from a contagious agalactia endemic area through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For this purpose, five house-keeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA, rpoB) from 39 field isolates were analysed. These isolates were obtained from different geographic areas of Spain, between the years 2004 and 2015. The results obtained in this study suggest that the selected MLST scheme could be a useful technique to monitor the genetic variability of Mmc in endemic areas. Despite the significant differences found between the assessed field isolates, they could be classified according to their geographical origin. Moreover, it was also possible to detect genetic differences between Mmc strains coming from the same herd at the same sampling time, which may need to be taken into consideration when designing or arranging prophylactic strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-06-10T12:27:12Z
  • Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control
           foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Huawei Zhang, Haixue Zheng, Ping Qian, Jinfang Xu, Xi Yang, Rui Zhou, Huanchun Chen, Xiangmin Li
      Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks.

      PubDate: 2016-06-05T12:06:52Z
  • Simultaneous occurrence of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae on
           pig farms and in nasal and stool samples from farmers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Julia Fischer, Katja Hille, Inga Ruddat, Alexander Mellmann, Robin Köck, Lothar Kreienbrock
      Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing enterobacteria (ESBL-E) have emerged in livestock. This study prospectively investigates the prevalence of MRSA and ESBL-E on pig farms and in nasal and stool samples from farmers and compares molecular characteristics of these ESBL-E isolates. In 2014, samples were derived at 51 pig farms in Germany. Per farm, five dust and five fecal samples were collected; one nasal and one stool sample were retrieved from farmers. ESBL-E isolates from humans and environmental isolates from the respective farms were characterized using whole genome sequencing for classical multilocus sequence typing (MLST), determination of ESBL-encoding genes and an ad hoc core genome MLST (cgMLST) analysis. MRSA and ESBL-E were detected on 49 (96%) and 31 (61%) of the farms, respectively; in most cases (59%) simultaneously. Nasal MRSA carriage was detected in 72 of 85 (84.7%) farmers and five of 84 (6.0%) farmers carried ESBL-E. ESBL-Escherichia coli isolates from farmers belonged to MLST STs/ESBL-genes ST10/CTX-M-1, ST196/TEM-52, ST278/TEM-52, ST410/CTX-M-15 and ST453/CTX-M-1. In one case, the human ESBL-E isolate was clonally identical to isolates from the farm environment; in the other four cases typing results indicated potential exchange of resistance determinants between human and environmental isolates, but, comparing the isolates within a minimum spanning tree indicated differences in cgMLST-patterns between the farms (p=0.076). This study demonstrated rectal ESBL-E carriage rates among farmers, which were similar to those in the general population. Molecular typing suggested that cross-transmission between the farmers and the farm environment is possible.

      PubDate: 2016-06-05T12:06:52Z
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of bacterial pathogens isolated
           from respiratory tract infections in dogs and cats across Europe: ComPath
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ian Morrissey, Hilde Moyaert, Anno de Jong, Farid El Garch, Ulrich Klein, Carolin Ludwig, Julien Thiry, Myriam Youala
      ComPath is a pan-European monitoring programme collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats. We present data for respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. Antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and susceptibility calculated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards for veterinary medicine. The main pathogen from dogs was Staphylococcus intermedius Group (49/215, 22.8%) which was >90% susceptible to most antimicrobials (including oxacillin − 93.9%; 3 isolates confirmed mecA-positive) but only 59.2%, 73.5% and 87.8% susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin. Bordetella bronchiseptica (48/215, 22.3%), streptococci (36/215, 16.7%), Escherichia coli (24/215, 11.2%) and P. multocida (23/215, 10.7%) were also found in dog RTI. There are no breakpoints for Bordetella bronchiseptica. Most streptococci were penicillin- chloramphenicol-, ampicillin- and pradofloxacin-susceptible. None were enrofloxacin-resistant but 6 isolates (16.7%) were of intermediate susceptibility. The least active agent against streptococci was tetracycline (47.2% susceptible). For E. coli, 37.5% were ampicillin-susceptible but 83.3% were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-susceptible. Only chloramphenicol showed susceptibility>90% against E. coli, with 66.7% tetracycline-susceptible and 79.2% to 87.5% susceptibility to enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pradofloxacin. P. multocida were susceptible to pradofloxacin (no other breakpoints are available). The main pathogen from cats was Pasteurella multocida (82/186, 44.1%), where only pradofloxacin has breakpoints (100% susceptible). Streptococci were also collected from cats (25/186, 13.4%) and were>90% susceptible to all antimicrobials except tetracycline (36% susceptible). Most susceptibility was calculated with human-derived breakpoints and some antimicrobials had no breakpoints. Therefore predictions of clinical utility for dog and cat RTI will remain problematical unless specific breakpoints are set.

      PubDate: 2016-06-05T12:06:52Z
  • Antimicrobial resistances and virulence markers in Methicillin-resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus from broiler and turkey: A molecular view from farm
           to fork
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Britta Kraushaar, Britta Ballhausen, Daniel Leeser, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Alexandra Fetsch
      Little is known about the characteristics of MRSA occurring along the broiler and turkey production chains. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare MRSA of turkey and broiler origin sampled on different production levels using a DNA microarray and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Main differences could be observed in the prevalence of the resistance genes erm(C), aacA-aphD and tet(K) and the number of non-wild type strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values (MICs) above the epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) for gentamicin and kanamycin. Overall, MRSA with non-wild type phenotype for the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin group, tetracycline, and trimethoprim were found in more than 70% of poultry isolates. Non-wild type isolates carrying the qacC gene conferring resistance to quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants were found at all production stages in similar frequencies. Regarding the presence of enterotoxin genes in poultry-derived MRSA the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) was only found in Non-CC (clonal complex) 398 strains. Three CC398 strains harboured the genes sed (from turkey at slaughter and broiler meat) and sea-N315 (from a chicken carcass). One Non-CC398 strain isolated from turkey meat was found positive for the seb gene and also enterotoxin production. Similarity analysis based on selected resistance and virulence markers revealed a high clonality among Non-CC398 isolates. Isolates of the same clonal complex clustered together according to their common virulence and resistance profiles. Strains of CC9 were grouped in two subclusters due to different resistance genes. Our results underline, that there are other poultry associated clones of MRSA (mainly CC9 and CC5) besides the predominant CC398 which are similar in both poultry species.

      PubDate: 2016-06-05T12:06:52Z
  • Particle and subunit-based hemagglutinin vaccines provide protective
           efficacy against H1N1 influenza in pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Luis A. Hernandez, Cathy L. Miller, Eric M. Vaughn
      The increasing diversity of influenza strains circulating in swine herds escalates the potential for the emergence of novel pandemic viruses and highlights the need for swift development of new vaccines. Baculovirus has proven to be a flexible platform for the generation of recombinant forms of hemagglutinin (HA) including subunit, VLP-displayed, and baculovirus-displayed antigens. These presentations have been shown to be efficacious in mouse, chicken, and ferret models but little is known about their immunogenicity in pigs. To assess the utility of these HA presentations in swine, Baculovirus constructs expressing HA fused to swine IgG2a Fc, displayed in a FeLV gag VLP, or displayed in the baculoviral envelope were generated. Vaccines formulated with these antigens were administered to groups of pigs who were subsequently challenged with H1α cluster H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) A/Swine/Indiana/1726/88. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with any of these three vaccines elicits robust hemagglutinin inhibition titers in the serum and decreased the severity of SIV-associated lung lesions after challenge when compared to placebo-vaccinated controls. In addition, the number of pigs with virus detected in the lungs and nasal passages was reduced. Taken together, the results demonstrate that these recombinant approaches expressed with the baculovirus expression vector system may be viable options for development of SIV vaccines for swine.

      PubDate: 2016-06-05T12:06:52Z
  • IFC - Aims & Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 189

      PubDate: 2016-06-05T12:06:52Z
  • An in-depth comparison of the porcine, murine and human inflammasomes;
           lessons from the porcine genome and transcriptome.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Harry D. Dawson, Allen D. Smith, Celine Chen, Joseph F. Urban
      Emerging evidence suggests that swine are a scientifically acceptable intermediate species between rodents and humans to model immune function relevant to humans. The swine genome has recently been sequenced and several preliminary structural and functional analysis of the porcine immunome have been published. Herein we provide an expanded in silico analysis using an improved assembly of the porcine transcriptome that provides an in depth analysis of genes that are related to inflammasomes, responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and M1 macrophage polarization and Escherichia coli as a model organism. Comparisons of the expansion or contraction of orthologous gene families indicated more similar rates and classes of genes in humans and pigs than in mice; however several novel porcine or artiodactyl-specific paralogs or pseudogenes were identified. Conservation of homology and structural motifs of orthologs revealed that the overall similarity to human proteins was significantly higher for pigs compared to mouse. Despite these similarities, two out of four canonical inflammasome pathways, Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and NLR family and CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4), were found to be missing in pigs. Pig M1 Mϕ polarization in response to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was assessed, via the transcriptome, using next generation sequencing. Our analysis revealed predominantly human-like responses however some, mouse-like responses were observed, as well as induction of numerous pig or artiodactyl-specific genes. This work supports using swine to model both human immunological and inflammatory responses to infection. However, caution must be exercised as pigs differ from humans in several fundamental pathways.

      PubDate: 2016-06-05T12:06:52Z
  • Differentially expressed genes after viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus
           infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jee Youn Hwang, Mun-Gyeong Kwon, Jung Soo Seo, Jung Wan Do, Myoung-Ae Park, Sung-Hee Jung, Sang Jung Ahn
      A strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) during epizootics in South Korean. This strain showed high mortality to olive flounder in in vivo challenge experiment. The complete genomic RNA sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of glycoprotein revealed that this isolate was grouped into genotype IVa of genus Novirhabdovirus. Expression profile of genes in olive flounder was analyzed at day 1 and day3 after infection with this VHSV isolate by using cDNA microarray containing olive flounder 13K cDNA clones. Microarray analysis revealed 785 up-regulated genes and 641 down-regulated genes by at least two-fold in virus-infected fish compared to healthy control groups. Among 785 up-regulated genes, we identified seven immune response-associated genes, including the interferon (IFN)-induced 56-kDa protein (IFI56), suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), cluster of differentiation 83 (CD83), α-globin (HBA), VHSV-induced protein-6 (VHSV6), and cluster of differentiation antigen 9 (CD9). Our results confirm previous reports that even virulent strain of VHSV induces expression of genes involved in protective immunity against VHSV.

      PubDate: 2016-06-05T12:06:52Z
  • Serotype, antigenicity, and pathogenicity of a naturally recombinant TW I
           genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Mengying Gao, Qiuling Wang, Wenjun Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Tingting Zhang, Zongxi Han, Qianqian Xu, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
      Since 2009, strains of the naturally recombinant TW I genotype of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have caused considerable damage to the Chinese poultry industry. To better understand the antigenicity and pathogenesis of this genotype, the characteristics of the ck/CH/LDL/140520 strain were compared to those of four commercial IB vaccine strains that are used commonly in China, as well as four attenuated viruses that represent two types of IBV strains, which are believed to have originated in China and are the predominant IBV types circulating in chicken flocks in China and many other parts of the world. The results showed that all eight strains were genetically and serotypically different from the strain ck/CH/LDL/140520. Furthermore, neither the vaccine strains nor the attenuated viruses could provide complete respiratory protection of chickens against a challenge with the ck/CH/LDL/140520 strain, indicating that it is necessary to develop new live vaccines or to evaluate the use of established vaccines in combination to control naturally recombinant TW I-type IBV strains in the future. Our results showed that strain ck/CH/LDL/140520 is very pathogenic, and that it is able to cause cystic oviducts in a high percentage of birds, as well as mortality due to nephritis and respiratory distress with complete tracheal ciliostasis, especially in chickens infected at 1day of age.

      PubDate: 2016-05-30T19:47:36Z
  • The first detection and whole genome characterization of the G6P[15] group
           A rotavirus strain from roe deer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska Kuhar, Sabina Sturm, Andrej Kirbis, Nejc Racki, Andrej Steyer
      Although rotaviruses have been detected in a variety of host species, there are only limited records of their occurrence in deer, where their role is unknown. In this study, group A rotavirus was identified in roe deer during a study of enteric viruses in game animals. In total 102 samples of intestinal content were collected from roe deer (56), wild boars (29), chamois (10), red deer (6) and mouflon (1), but only one sample from roe deer was positive. Following whole genome sequence analysis, the rotavirus strain D38/14 was characterized by next generation sequencing. The genotype constellation, comprising 11 genome segments, was G6-P[15]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 genome segment showed that the D38/14 rotavirus strain is closely related to the various G6 zoonotic rotavirus strains of bovine-like origin frequently detected in humans. In the VP4 segment, this strain showed high variation compared to that in the P[15] strain found in sheep and in a goat. This finding suggests that rotaviruses from deer are similar to those in other DS-1 rotavirus groups and could constitute a source of zoonotically transmitted rotaviruses. The epidemiological status of group A rotaviruses in deer should be further investigated.

      PubDate: 2016-05-30T19:47:36Z
  • Genetic variability and limited clonality of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in pig
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Bettina Trüeb, Elena Catelli, Adrian Luehrs, Heiko Nathues, Peter Kuhnert
      Mycoplasma hyorhinis is a common inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract and tonsils of pigs. Its role as a possible pathogen remains controversial. In order to gain more insight into the epidemiology and population structure of Mycoplasma hyorhinis we genetically characterized 60 isolates by multi locus sequence typing (MLST). The M. hyorhinis strains originated from Swiss and German pig herds with knowledge on the clinical background. The MLST scheme of Tocqueville et al. (J.Clin.Microbiol. 2014) was optimized, primers for the six MLST gene fragments were newly designed to allow amplification and sequencing with a single protocol. A total of 27 ST were observed with the 60 strains, 26 of those were previously unknown types. Generally identical genotypes were observed within a farm but they differed between farms. The identical genotype was also observed in three different Swiss farms. On the other hand different genotypes within a farm were found with three German farms. The Swiss isolates formed a distinct cluster but otherwise there was no geographical nor a clinical association with specific clusters observed. Data shows a high variability of M. hyorhinis comparable to what is observed for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Similar to this pathogen the population structure of M. hyorhinis also shows some limited clonality with predominant genotypes within an animal and a single farm but different ones between farms. The comparable population structure of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis could indicate a similar evolution of the two species in the common pig host.

      PubDate: 2016-05-30T19:47:36Z
  • Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from apparently healthy pig herds
           following an evaluation of a prototype commercial serological ELISA
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): David J. Hampson, Tom La, Nyree D. Phillips, Patricia K. Holyoake
      Swine dysentery (SD) is a disease mainly of grower/finisher pigs characterised by severe mucohaemorrhagic colitis. The classical aetiological agent is the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, although “Brachyspira hampsonii” and Brachyspira suanatina also cause SD. This study reports on the unexpected isolation of B. hyodysenteriae from pigs in apparently healthy herds that gave positive reactions when tested with a prototype commercial serological ELISA for detecting herds infected with B. hyodysenteriae (Priocheck® Brachyspira porcine Ab ELISA). The ELISA was tested with sera collected at abattoirs from 1,770 slaughtered pigs from 30 Australian herds, including 12 with a history of SD and18 that were considered by their consulting veterinarians to be healthy. The latter herds had no history of SD and did not routinely use antimicrobials that may have masked the disease. Based on the recommended ELISA cut-off value, 25 herds were recorded as showing evidence of infection, including 11 of 12 herds that were considered infected by the submitters and 14 of the 18 “healthy” herds. When faecal or colonic wall samples from 11 of the 14 “false positive” herds subsequently were culturing 6-24 months after the original ELISA testing was completed, different strains of B. hyodysenteriae were isolated from six herds, including a high-health status breeding herd. The existence of apparently healthy herds that are colonised by B. hyodysenteriae has major implications for the control of SD. Had the ELISA not been trialled it is unlikely that colonic samples from these herds would have been cultured and the colonisation identified.

      PubDate: 2016-05-30T19:47:36Z
  • Therapeutic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YH30 on mink
           hemorrhagic pneumonia
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 190
      Author(s): Jingmin Gu, Xinwei Li, Mei Yang, Chongtao Du, Ziyin Cui, Pengjuan Gong, Feifei Xia, Jun Song, Lei Zhang, Juecheng Li, Chuang Yu, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han
      Hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most costly infectious diseases among farmed mink and commonly leads to large economic losses during mink production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. A broad-host-range phage from the Podoviridae family, YH30, was isolated using the mink-originating P. aeruginosa (serotype G) D7 strain as a host. The genome of YH30 was 72,192bp (54.92% G+C), contained 86 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. These characteristics make YH30 eligible for use in phage therapy. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of YH30 was sufficient to cure hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. The mean colony count of P. aeruginosa in the blood and lung of YH30-protected mink was less than 103 CFU/mL (g) within 24h of bacterial challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas that in unprotected mink reached more than 108 CFU/mL (g). Additionally, YH30 dramatically improved the pathological manifestations of lung injury in mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrates the potential of phages to treat P. aeruginosa-caused hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink.

      PubDate: 2016-05-26T14:45:33Z
  • Outbreak of mortality in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian
           (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons associated with sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmatic
           large DNA virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): S. Ciulli, E. Volpe, R. Sirri, P.L. Passalacqua, F. Cesa Bianchi, P. Serratore, L. Mandrioli
      Diseased outbreaks with high mortality in farmed sturgeon are a limiting factor to the success of this emerging aquaculture sector in Europe. Thorough investigations of outbreaks can determine the aetiological agents, identify important pathological and epidemiological pathways of infections and pave the way for effective control strategies. A thorough investigation of a mortality outbreak in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons in Italy, demonstrated the primary involvement of a sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). While, the taxonomy classification of this new virus is still uncertain, its involvement in sturgeon mortality outbreaks in Europe is, for the first time, fully investigated and described. Furthermore, the coinfection of bacteria such as motile Aeromonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. was reported. Genetic characterisation showed the close relationship between the European sturgeon NCLDV with North American NCLDVs. Similarly to the latter, the European sturgeon NCLDV persists in survivors. Furthermore, a systemic distribution of the European sturgeon NCLDV was evident in diseased A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii and in recovered A. gueldenstaedtii. These epidemiological and pathological findings will help in the identification of effective control strategies for sturgeon NCLDV infection, which afflict an important and emerging European aquaculture sector.

      PubDate: 2016-05-26T14:45:33Z
  • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare differential domains
           from orthologous surface proteins induce distinct cellular immune
           responses in mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Fernanda Munhoz dos Anjos Leal, Veridiana Gomes Virginio, Carolina Lumertz Martello, Jéssica Andrade Paes, Thiago J. Borges, Natália Jaeger, Cristina Bonorino, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare are two genetically close species found in the swine respiratory tract. Despite their similarities, while M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Genomic and transcriptional comparative analyses so far failed to explain the difference in pathogenicity between these two species. We then hypothesized that such difference might be, at least in part, explained by amino acid sequence and immunological or functional differences between ortholog surface proteins. In line with that, it was verified that approximately 85% of the ortholog surface proteins from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and M. flocculare present one or more differential domains. To experimentally assess possible immunological implications of this kind of difference, the extracellular differential domains from one pair of orthologous surface proteins (MHP7448_0612, from M. hyopneumoniae, and MF_00357, from M. flocculare) were expressed in E. coli and used to immunize mice. The recombinant polypeptides (rMHP61267–169 and rMF35767–196, respectively) induced distinct cellular immune responses. While, rMHP61267–169 induced both Th1 and Th2 responses, rMF35767-196 induced just an early pro-inflammatory response. These results indicate that immunological properties determined by differential domains in orthologous surface protein might play a role in pathogenicity, contributing to elicit specific and differential immune responses against each species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-20T14:27:12Z
  • Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep
           keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic
           characterization, and ecological connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Michael Kosoy, Ying Bai, Russell Enscore, Maria Rosales Rizzo, Scott Bender, Vsevolod Popov, Levent Albayrak, Yuriy Fofanov, Bruno Chomel
      Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further.

      PubDate: 2016-05-20T14:27:12Z
  • Piglets with maternally derived antibodies born from sows immunized with
           rAdV-SFV-E2 were completely protected against lethal CSFV challenge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Shui-Li Xia, Mingliang Du, Jian-Lin Lei, Yan Liu, Yimin Wang, Shengwei Ji, Guang-Tao Xiang, Lian-Feng Li, Xin Cong, Yuzi Luo, Lina Shao, Hua-Ji Qiu, Yuan Sun
      Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important infectious disease of pigs caused by Classical swine fever virus (CSFV). To facilitate the eradication of CSF in endemic areas, a marker vaccine enabling differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is urgently needed. Previously, we have demonstrated that the DIVA vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2, an adenovirus-vectored Semliki Forest virus replicon expressing the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV, induces complete protection from lethal CSFV challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) from sows immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 can effectively protect piglets against lethal CSFV challenge. Three groups of five-week-old piglets (n=4), with or without MDAs, were challenged with the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain. Clinical signs, CSFV-specific antibodies, viremia and pathological and histopathological changes were monitored. The results showed that the piglets with MDAs from the sow immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 were protected clinically, virologically and pathologically, while the piglets with undetectable MDAs from the rAdV-SFV-E2-immunized sow were partially protected (2/4 survival), in contrast with the piglets from the non-vaccinated sow, which displayed CSF-typical clinical signs, viremia, deaths (4/4) and pathological/histopathological lesions. These results indicate that MDAs from the sow immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 are able to confer full passive immunity to newborn piglets.

      PubDate: 2016-05-16T14:19:26Z
  • Edwardsiella tarda EsaE (Orf19 protein) is required for the secretion of
           type III substrates, and pathogenesis in fish
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ying Zhou, Lu Yi Liu, Tian Tian He, Zubair Ahmed Laghari, Pin Nie, Qian Gao, Hai Xia Xie
      Type III secretion system (T3SS) is a large macromolecular assembly found at the surface of many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Edwardsiella tarda is an important Gram-negative pathogen that employs T3SS to deliver effectors into host cells to facilitate its survival and replication. EseB, EseC, and EseD, when secreted, form a translocon complex on host membranes through which effectors are translocated. The orf19 gene (esaE) of E. tarda is located upstream of esaK, and downstream of esaJ, esaI, esaH and esaG in the T3SS gene cluster. When its domains were searched using Delta-Blast, the EsaE protein was found to belong to the T3SS YscJ/PrgK family. In the present study, it is found that EsaE is not secreted into culture supernatants, and the deletion of esaE abolished the secretion of T3SS translocon protein EseBCD and T3SS effector EseG. Increased steady-state protein level of EseC and EseD was detected in bacterial pellet of ΔesaE strain although a reduced level was observed for the eseC and eseD transcription. EsaE was found to localize in membrane but not the cytoplasm of E. tarda by fractionation. In blue gourami fish infection model, 87.88% of blue gourami infected with ΔesaE strain survived whereas only 3.03% survived when infected with wild-type strain. Taken together, our study demonstrated that EsaE is probably an apparatus protein of T3SS, which contributes to the pathogenesis of E. tarda in fish.

      PubDate: 2016-05-16T14:19:26Z
  • Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava and Muenchen animal infections:
           Implications for epidemiology and control
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Z. Arent, C. Frizzell, C. Gilmore, A. Allen, W.A. Ellis
      Strains of Leptospira interrogans belonging to two very closely related serovars − Bratislava and Muenchen − have been associated with disease in domestic animals, in particular pigs, but also in horses and dogs. Similar strains have also been recovered from various wildlife species. Their epidemiology is poorly understood. Two hundred and forty seven such isolates, from UK domestic animal and wildlife species, were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. A representative sub-sample of 65 of these isolates was further examined by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and 22 by secY sequencing. Ten restriction pattern types were identified. The majority of isolates fell into one of three restriction endonuclease analysis pattern types designated B2a, B2b and M2a. B2a was ubiquitous and was isolated from 10 species and represented the majority of the horse and all dog isolates. B2b was very different, being isolated only from pigs, indicating that this type was maintained by pigs. The pattern M2a was reported for the majority of isolates from pigs but also was common in small rodents isolates. Five restriction pattern types were found only in wildlife suggesting that they are unlikely to pose a disease threat to domestic animals. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis identified six clusters. The REA types B2a and B2b were all found in one MLVA cluster while the majority of the M2a strains examined occurred in another cluster. The secY sequencing detected only one sequence type, clustered with other serovars of Leptospira interrogans.

      PubDate: 2016-05-16T14:19:26Z
  • Isolation and confirmation of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in
           golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and leaping mullet (Liza saliens) in the
           Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): M.E.J. Zorriehzahra, M. Ghasemi, M. Ghiasi, S.H. Karsidani, G. Bovo, A. Nazari, M. Adel, V. Arizza, K. Dhama
      The present study was conducted on 428 moribund mullet fish samples to isolate and identify the causative agent of a mysterious acute mortality which recently occurred in wild mullets in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea, suspected to be due to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Disease investigation was carried out employing various diagnostic procedures such as virology, bacteriology, parasitology, hematology, histopathology, IFAT, IHC and nested RT-PCR. Brain and eye samples of affected fishes were collected in sterile conditions and then kept at −80° C for cell culture isolation and nested RT-PCR detection of the causative agent. Other tissue samples were also collected and fixed for histopathology, IHC and EM examinations. CPE was observed in cell cultures at 6days after inoculation. Nine samples were found positive with virological assay. Nested RT-PCR, performed on suspected tissues and CPE positive samples, showed that about 21 tissue samples and all the CPE positive samples were positive for VNN virus (VNNV). IFAT was selected as a confirmatory method for detecting the presence of Betanodavirus antigen, cell culture isolation results and nested RT-PCR findings. Moreover, VNNV particles with 25–30nm in diameter were also visualized in the infected brain and retina. In pathogenicity studies, guppy fishes bathed in VNNV-infected tissue culture (10−4 TCID50) showed clinical signs similar to naturally infected mullet after 15days post infection (dpi), with mortality rates reaching up to 100% at 30 dpi. Affected organ samples as examined by cell culture isolation, IFAT, IHC and histopathology, revealed the presence of VNNV in the guppy fishes. In conclusion, it was confirmed that VNNV was the main causative agent for the disease outbreak in mullet fish in the Caspian Sea, and this is such first report from Iran.

      PubDate: 2016-05-16T14:19:26Z
  • Genetic analysis of a Treponema phagedenis locus encoding antigenic
           lipoproteins with potential for antigenic variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Mamoona Mushtaq, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Heidur Loftsdottir, Märit Pringle, Bo Segerman, Richard Zuerner, Anna Rosander
      Digital dermatitis (DD) is a painful and debilitating claw disease in cattle. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The occurrence of Treponema phagedenis in DD lesions, especially near the interface of healthy and diseased tissue, suggests that this species contributes to the development and/or progression of the lesions. In this study we characterized a genetic locus in T. phagedenis that contains coding regions for three antigenic proteins, PrrA, VpsA, and VpsB. Comparative analysis of homologous loci from fifteen strains suggests that prrA may be transposed into or out of this locus. Alterations in the copy number of TA repeats within the putative promoter region may regulate VpsA/B expression. The vpsA and prrA genes occur in allelic variants in different T. phagedenis isolates and may provide one explanation for the antigenic variation observed in T. phagedenis DD isolates.

      PubDate: 2016-05-06T14:43:18Z
  • National reduction in porcine circovirus type 2 prevalence following
           introduction of vaccination
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Cheryl M.T. Dvorak, Yan Yang, Charles Haley, Nikita Sharma, Michael P. Murtaugh
      Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a small, single-stranded circular DNA virus and the causative agent of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), was first observed in the mid-1990s in pigs with a post-weaning wasting disease. In 2006 the number of PCVAD cases greatly increased, marking it as an important viral pathogen for the United States (US) swine industry. PCV2 vaccines were introduced to the US in 2006 in response to widespread outbreaks of PCVAD. These vaccines were effective in preventing disease, but did not eliminate virus from the animals. In 2006, prior to vaccine use, a study of PCV2 prevalence in pig herds across the US was performed in conjunction with the US National Animal Health Monitoring System. In 2012, 6 years after widespread PCV2 vaccination, this study was repeated. Since the introduction of PCV2 vaccines in 2006, viral presence and viral loads have greatly decreased, and a genotypic shift dominated by PCV2b has occurred. Antibody levels have decreased in the pig population, but approximately 95% of sites continue to be antibody-positive. Widespread vaccination has controlled PCVAD and decreased PCV2 prevalence to the point that viremia is not detected on many sites. Thus, continued vaccination may lead to PCV2 elimination in the national herd over time.

      PubDate: 2016-05-06T14:43:18Z
  • The Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory
           syndrome virus infection suppresses Th17 cells response in vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Long Zhang, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been shown to immunomodulate innate and adaptive immunity of pigs. The Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection causes severe bacterial secondary infection in pigs. However, the mechanism in relation to the bacterial secondary infection induced by HP-PRRSV remains unknown. In the present study, Th17 cells response in peripheral blood, lungs, spleens and lymph nodes of piglets were analyzed, and bacterial loads in lungs of piglets were examined upon HP-PRRSV infection. Meanwhile the changes of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of the inoculated piglets were analyzed. The results showed that HP-PRRSV-inoculated piglets exhibited a suppressed Th17 cells response in peripheral blood and a reduced number of Th17 cells in lungs, and higher bacterial loads in lungs, compared with low pathogenic PRRSV. Moreover, HP-PRRSV obviously resulted in severe depletion of porcine T cells in peripheral blood at the early stage of infection. These findings indicate that HP-PRRSV infection suppresses the response of Th17 cells that play an important role in combating bacterial infections, suggesting a possible correlation between the suppression of Th17 cells response in vivo and bacterial secondary infection induced by HP-PRRSV. Our present study adds a novel insight into better understanding of the pathogenesis of the Chinese HP-PRRSV.

      PubDate: 2016-05-06T14:43:18Z
  • IFC - Aims & Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 188

      PubDate: 2016-05-02T14:30:25Z
  • Detection of bovine papillomavirus type 14 DNA sequences in urinary
           bladder tumors in cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Sante Roperto, John S. Munday, Federica Corrado, Maria Goria, Franco Roperto
      Bovine papillomavirus type 14 (BPV-14) is a novel Deltapapillomavirus (δPV) which is most closely related to BPV-1, -2, and -13, well-known members of the δPV genus. So far BPV-14 has been detected in cutaneous neoplastic lesions in cattle and in feline sarcoids. As BPV-14 may share biological and pathological properties with BPV-1, -2 and -13, it has been hypothesized that, like other δPVs, BPV-14 could be associated with bovine bladder neoplasia. In this study, 50 tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle were diagnosed. DNA was extracted from all tumor samples as well as from 25 normal bladder samples and submitted to BPV-14 L1 PCR and subsequent amplicon sequencing analysis. BPV-14 L1 DNA sequences of specific 195bp amplicons were obtained from 17 of 50 (34%) tumor DNA isolates; no BPV-14 DNA was detected from 25 normal samples. Amplicons revealed a 99% homology with the corresponding BPV-14 L1 DNA region (GenBank accession number KP276343.1). Co-infections by two or three δPV types were also seen. This study reveals the presence of BPV-14 DNA alone or in combination with other δPV DNA in bovine bladder tumors alone and suggests that BPV-14 could also be involved in bladder neoplasia as its E5 oncoprotein has the potential to induce cell proliferation. Furthermore, this is the first study to show the presence of BPV-14 in Europe, suggesting that BPV-14, like other δPVs, has a worldwide distribution.

      PubDate: 2016-05-02T14:30:25Z
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from veal calves
           and dairy cattle in the Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 189
      Author(s): Annet Heuvelink, Constance Reugebrink, Jet Mars
      Control of Mycoplasma bovis infections depends on good husbandry practices and antibiotic treatment. To allow more prudent use of antimicrobial drugs, there is a need for information on the susceptibility profile of this pathogen. The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical M. bovis isolates in the Netherlands. The collection comprised 95 bovine isolates, originating from lungs (n=56), mastitis milk (n =27), and synovial fluid (n =12), collected between 2008 and 2014. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by broth microdilution, both by using in-house prepared MIC plates and by using commercially available MIC plates. For each antimicrobial agent, the range of MIC results, the MIC50, and MIC90 values were calculated. M. bovis strains recently isolated in the Netherlands appeared to be characterized by relatively high MIC values for antimicrobial agents that, until now, have been recommended by the Dutch Association of Veterinarians for treating pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma species. Fluoroquinolones appeared to be the most efficacious in inhibiting M. bovis growth, followed by tulathromycin and oxytetracycline. The highest MIC values were obtained for erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin. Future studies should be done on determining M. bovis specific clinical breakpoints, standardization of methods to determine MIC values as well as molecular studies on detection of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of M. bovis isolates to develop PCR assays for determining resistance.

      PubDate: 2016-04-27T14:16:54Z
  • Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under
           experimental conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): C. Colenutt, J.L. Gonzales, D.J. Paton, J. Gloster, N. Nelson, C. Sanders
      Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of FMDV by aerosol may not be prevented by these control measures and this route of transmission may allow infection of animals at distance from the infection source. Understanding the potential for aerosol spread of specific FMDV strains is important for informing control strategies in an outbreak. Here, the potential for transmission of an FMDV Asia 1 strain between pigs and cattle by indirect aerosol exposure was evaluated in an experimental setting. Four naïve calves were exposed to aerosols emitted from three infected pigs in an adjacent room for a 10h period. Direct contact between pigs and cattle and fomite transfer between rooms was prevented. Viral titres in aerosols emitted by the infected pigs were measured to estimate the dose that calves were exposed to. One of the calves developed clinical signs of FMD, whilst there was serological evidence for spread to cattle by aerosol transmission in the remaining three calves. This highlights the possibility that this FMDV Asia 1 strain could be spread by aerosol transmission given appropriate environmental conditions should an outbreak occur in pigs. Our estimates suggest the exposure dose required for aerosol transmission was higher than has been previously quantified for other serotypes, implying that aerosols are less likely to play a significant role in transmission and spread of this FMDV strain.

      PubDate: 2016-04-27T14:16:54Z
  • Low pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2) in chicken: Evaluation of an
           ancestral H9-MVA vaccine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Mariette F. Ducatez, Jens Becker, Astrid Freudenstein, Maxence Delverdier, Mattias Delpont, Gerd Sutter, Jean-Luc Guérin, Asisa Volz
      Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has proven its efficacy as a recombinant vector vaccine for numerous pathogens including influenza virus. The present study aimed at evaluating a recombinant MVA candidate vaccine against low pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 in the chicken model. As the high genetic and antigenic diversity of H9N2 viruses increases vaccine design complexity, one strategy to widen the range of vaccine coverage is to use an ancestor sequence. We therefore generated a recombinant MVA encoding for the gene sequence of an ancestral hemagglutinin H9 protein (a computationally derived amino acid sequence of the node of the H9N2 G1 lineage strains was obtained using the ANCESCON program). We analyzed the genetics and the growth properties of the MVA vector virus confirming suitability for use under biosafety level 1 and tested its efficacy when applied either as an intra-muscular (IM) or an oral vaccine in specific pathogen free chickens challenged with A/chicken/Tunisia/12/2010(H9N2). Two control groups were studied in parallel (unvaccinated and inoculated birds; unvaccinated and non-inoculated birds). IM vaccinated birds seroconverted as early as four days post vaccination and neutralizing antibodies were detected against A/chicken/Tunisia/12/2010(H9N2) in all the birds before challenge. The role of local mucosal immunity is unclear here as no antibodies were detected in eye drop or aerosol vaccinated birds. Clinical signs were not detected in any of the infected birds even in absence of vaccination. Virus replication was observed in both vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens, suggesting the MVA-ancestral H9 vaccine may not stop virus spread in the field. However vaccinated birds showed less histological damage, fewer influenza-positive cells and shorter virus shedding than their unvaccinated counterparts.

      PubDate: 2016-04-27T14:16:54Z
  • The serine protease autotransporter Tsh contributes to the virulence of
           Edwardsiella tarda
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yong-hua Hu, Hai-zhen Zhou, Qian-wen Jin, Jian Zhang
      The temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh), identified as serine protease autotransporters of the Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) proteins, is an important virulence factor for avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and uropathogenic E. coli. However, little is known about the role of Tsh as a virulence factor in Edwardsiella tarda, a severe fish pathogen. In this study, we characterized the Tsh of E. tarda (named TshEt) and examined its function and vaccine potential. TshEt is composed of 1,224 residues and has three functional domains typical for autotransporters. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that expression of tshEt was upregulated under conditions of high temperature, increased cell density, high pH, and iron starvation and during the infection of host cells. A markerless tsh in-frame mutant strain, TX01Δtsh, was constructed to determine whether TshEt participates in the pathogenicity of E. tarda, Compared to the wild type TX01, TX01Δtsh exhibited (i) retarded biofilm growth, (ii) decreased resistance against serum killing, (iii) impaired ability to block the host immune response, (iv) attenuated tissue and cellular infectivity. Introduction of a trans-expressed tsh gene restored the lost virulence of TX01Δtsh. The passenger domain of TshEt contains a putative serine protease (PepS) that exhibits apparent proteolytic activity when expressed in and purified from E. coli as a recombinant protein (rPepS). When used as a subunit vaccine to immunize Japanese flounder, rPepS was able to induce effective immune protection. This is the first study of Tsh in a fish pathogen, and the results suggest that TshEt exerts pleiotropic effects on the pathogenesis of E. tarda.

      PubDate: 2016-04-27T14:16:54Z
  • Genome-wide mining of potential virulence-associated genes in Riemerella
           anatipestifer using random transposon mutagenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Xintao Ni, Pan Jiang, Linlin Xing, Changcan Ou, Hui Yu, Jingjing Qi, Bingqing Sun, Junsheng Cui, Guijun Wang, Qinghai Hu
      Riemerella anatipestifer infection is a severe disease confronting the duck industry worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular basis of R. anatipestifer pathogenesis. In this study, we screened 3580 transposon Tn4351 insertion mutagenesis mutants of the highly virulent strain YZb1 in a duckling infection experiment and found 29 of them to be attenuated and 28 potential virulence-associated genes were identified. Molecular characterization of transposon insertion sites showed that of the 28 screened genes, two were predicted to encode TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor (plugs), sixteen encoded enzymes, and seven encoded hypothetical proteins. In addition, of the 28 affected genes, 19 were only found in bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes and 10 were only found in the family Flavobacteriaceae. The median lethal dose of the mutants M11 and M29, which was affected in Riean_0060 and Riean_1537 respectively, were about 1700-fold and 210-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain YZb1, and those of the complemented strains M11(pRES-Riean_0060) and M29(pRES-Riean_1537) were decreased by 25- and 3-fold respectively compared to those of the mutants M11 and M29. Additional analysis indicated that the blood bacterial loading of ducklings infected with M11 or M29 was decreased significantly, as compared with that in ducklings infected with the wild-type strain YZb1. Thus, our results indicate that Riean_0060 and Riean_1537 were involved in R. anatipestifer pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2016-04-27T14:16:54Z
  • Evolution of equine infectious anaemia in naturally infected mules with
           different serological reactivity patterns prior and after immune
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 189
      Author(s): Gian Luca Autorino, Claudia Eleni, Giuseppe Manna, Raffaele Frontoso, Roberto Nardini, Cristiano Cocumelli, Francesca Rosone, Andrea Caprioli, Lavinia Alfieri, Maria Teresa Scicluna
      Information on equine infectious anaemia (EIA) in mules, including those with an equivocal reaction in agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT), is scarce. For this, a study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, viral loads and pathological findings of two groups of naturally infected asymptomatic mules, respectively with a negative/equivocal and positive AGIDT reactivity, which were subjected to pharmacological immune suppression (IS). A non-infected control was included in the study that remained negative during the observation period. Throughout the whole study, even repeated episodes of recrudescence of EIA were observed in 9 infected mules, independently from their AGIDT reactivity. These events were generally characterised by mild, transient alterations, typical of the EIA acute form represented by hyperthermia and thrombocytopenia, in concomitance with viral RNA (vRNA) peaks that were higher in the Post-IS period, reaching values similar to those of horses during the clinical acute phase of EIA. Total tissue viral nucleic acid loads were greatest in animals with the major vRNA activity and in particular in those with negative/equivocal AGIDT reactivity. vRNA replication levels were around 10–1000 times lower than those reported in horses, with the animals still presenting typical alterations of EIA reactivation. Macroscopic lesions were absent in all the infected animals while histological alterations were characterised by lymphomonocyte infiltrates and moderate hemosiderosis in the cytoplasm of macrophages. On the basis of the above results, even mules with an equivocal/negative AGIDT reaction may act as EIAV reservoirs. Moreover, such animals could escape detection due to the low AGIDT sensitivity and therefore contribute to the maintenance and spread of the infection.

      PubDate: 2016-04-27T14:16:54Z
  • Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in
           multi-dog households: A longitudinal study using whole genome sequencing
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 June 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 189
      Author(s): Ulrika Windahl, Joakim Ågren, Bodil S. Holst, Stefan Börjesson
      Despite a worldwide increase in the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs and its potential to cause serious canine health problem, the understanding of the transmission and long-term carriage of MRSP is limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the transmission of MRSP to contact dogs living in multiple dog households where one or more of the dogs had been diagnosed with a clinically apparent infection with MRSP. MRSP carriage was investigated over several months in 11 dogs living in four separate multiple dog households where an MRSP infection in a dog had been diagnosed. Whole-genome sequencing was used for genotypic characterization. Contact dogs were only MRSP-positive if the index dog was positive on the same sample occasion. Three contact dogs were consistently MRSP-negative. The data from whole genome sequencing showed similarities between isolates within each family group, indicating that MRSP was transmitted within each family. The results show that the risk of MRSP-colonization in dogs living with an MRSP-infected dog is reduced if the index dog becomes MRSP negative. All of the contact dogs will not carry MRSP continuously during the time the index dog is MRSP-positive. The information yielded from whole genome sequencing showed the methodology to be a promising additional tool in epidemiologic investigations of MRSP transmission.

      PubDate: 2016-04-27T14:16:54Z
  • The first experimental research on the pathogenicity of Arcobacter
           butzleri in zebrafish
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Mehmet Nuri Açik, Hayati Yüksel, Aykut Ulucan, Burhan Çetinkaya
      This experimental study was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity and histopathology of Arcobacter butzleri in zebrafish model organism. Firstly, mean infective dose (ID50) of A. butzleri was calculated in zebrafish as 1.3×108 CFU/mL and 1×105 CFU/mL by immersion and intraperitoneal injection, respectively. For histopathological trials, the ID50 of A. butzleri were given to zebrafish by both immersion and intraperitoneal routes and then, clinical and pathological findings were evaluated on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 21 of the experiment. During the experimental period, no clinical signs or gross lesions of disease were observed in the zebrafish groups infected with the ID50 of A. butzleri by either method. In the histopathological examination, acute inflammation characterized by neutrophil and plasma cells and local necrosis or congestion were determined in liver, kidney, spleen, gaster and other visceral organs. In addition peritonitis, leukocyte infiltration, villous atrophy and septicemia were observed in the experimental groups. Neither gross nor microscopic lesions were detected in the control groups. This study presented the first report of experimental A. butzleri infection in wild zebrafish. In the light of the findings obtained here, it was concluded that zebrafish could be used as a model organism to investigate pathogenicity and histopathology of arcobacters.

      PubDate: 2016-04-23T13:54:59Z
  • Lineage associated expression of virulence traits in bovine-adapted
           Staphylococcus aureus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Kathleen E. Budd, Jennifer Mitchell, Orla M. Keane
      Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease to the dairy industry worldwide with Staphylococcus aureus commonly associated with intramammary infections that are persistent and refractory to treatment. The strains of S. aureus that cause mastitis predominantly belong to a number of well-described bovine-adapted lineages. The objective of this study was to determine if a variety of potential virulence traits were associated with lineage. Bovine-adapted S. aureus isolates (n=120), belonging to lineages CC97, CC151 and ST136, were tested for their ability to adhere to and internalise within cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC), to bind bovine fibronectin, to form a biofilm in TSB, TSB+1% glucose and TSB+4% NaCl, and to induce an immune response from bMEC. There were no significant differences between the lineages in ability to adhere to or internalise within bMEC although there were significant differences between individual isolates. For lineages CC97 and ST136, mammalian cell adherence was correlated with the ability to bind bovine fibronectin, however isolates from CC151 could not bind bovine fibronectin in vitro, but adhered to bMEC in a fibronectin-independent manner. There were significant differences between the lineages in ability to form a biofilm in all three growth media with ST136 forming the strongest biofilm while CC151 formed the weakest biofilm. Lineages also differed in their ability to elicit an immune response from bMEC with CC97 eliciting a stronger immune response than CC151 and ST136. These data indicate the potential for both lineage and strain-specific virulence and a strain-specific response to infection in vivo and caution against extrapolating an effect from a single strain of S. aureus to draw conclusions regarding virulence or the host response to infection in unrelated lineages.

      PubDate: 2016-04-23T13:54:59Z
  • Determining the optimal number of individual samples to pool for
           quantification of average herd levels of antimicrobial resistance genes in
           Danish pig herds using high-throughput qPCR
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Julie Clasen, Anders Mellerup, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Øystein Angen, Anders Folkesson, Tariq Halasa, Nils Toft, Anna Camilla Birkegård
      The primary objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of individual fecal samples to pool together in order to obtain a representative sample for herd level quantification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in a Danish pig herd, using a novel high-throughput qPCR assay. The secondary objective was to assess the agreement between different methods of sample pooling. Quantification of AMR was achieved using a high-throughput qPCR method to quantify the levels of seven AMR genes (ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O) and tet(W)). A large variation in the levels of AMR genes was found between individual samples. As the number of samples in a pool increased, a decrease in sample variation was observed. It was concluded that the optimal pooling size is five samples, as an almost steady state in the variation was observed when pooling this number of samples. Good agreement between different pooling methods was found and the least time-consuming method of pooling, by transferring feces from each individual sample to a tube using a 10μl inoculation loop and adding 3.5ml of PBS, approximating a 10% solution, can therefore be used in future studies.

      PubDate: 2016-04-23T13:54:59Z
  • Thymic depletion of lymphocytes is associated with the virulence of
           PRRSV-1 strains
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 188
      Author(s): Shyrley Paola Amarilla, Jaime Gómez-Laguna, Librado Carrasco, Irene M. Rodríguez-Gómez, José M. Caridad y Ocerín, Simon P. Graham, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Falko Steinbach, Francisco J. Salguero
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exists as two distinct viruses, type 1 (PRRSV-1) and type 2 (PRRSV-2). Atrophy of the thymus in PRRSV-2 infected piglets has been associated with a loss of thymocytes. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of PRRSV-1 strains of differing virulence on the thymus of infected piglets by analysing the histomorphometry, the presence of apoptotic cells and cells producing cytokines. Thymic samples were taken from animals experimentally infected (with LV, SU1-bel, and 215-06 strains) or mock inoculated animals at 3, 7 and 35days post-infection (dpi) and processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. PRRSV antigen was detected in the thymus from 3dpi until the end of the study in all virus-infected animals with the highest numbers of infected cells detected in SU1-bel group. The histomorphometry analysis and counts of CD3+ thymocytes in the thymic cortex displayed significant differences between strains at different time-points (p ≤0.011), with SU1-bel group showing the most severe changes at 7dpi. Cell death displayed statistically significant increase in the cortex of all infected animals, with SU1-bel group showing the highest rate at 3 and 7dpi. The number of cells immunostained against IL-1α, TNF-α and IL-10 were predominantly detected in the medulla (p ≤0.01). An increase in the number of TNF-α and IL-10 positive cells was observed in LV and SU-1bel groups. Our results demonstrate that different PRRSV-1 strains induced depletion of the thymic cortex due to apoptosis of thymocytes and that the most severe depletion was associated with the highly virulent SU1-bel strain.

      PubDate: 2016-04-19T17:46:02Z
  • Chloroquine inhibits Rhodococcus equi replication in murine and foal
           alveolar macrophages by iron-starvation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 188
      Author(s): Leticia T. Gressler, Angela I. Bordin, Cole M. McQueen, Noah D. Cohen, Agueda Castagna de Vargas
      Rhodococcus equi preferentially infects macrophages causing pyogranulomatous pneumonia in young foals. Both the vapA and rhbC genes are up-regulated in an iron (Fe)-deprived environment, such as that found within macrophages. Chloroquine (CQ) is a drug widely used against malaria that suppresses the intracellular availability of Fe in eukaryotic cells. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of CQ to inhibit replication of virulent R. equi within murine (J774A.1) and foal alveolar macrophages (AMs) and to verify whether the mechanism of inhibition could be Fe-deprivation-dependent. CQ effect on R. equi extracellular survival and toxicity to J774A.1 were evaluated. R. equi survival within J774A.1 and foal AMs was evaluated under CQ (10 and 20μM), bovine saturated transferrin (bHTF), and bovine unsaturated transferrin (bATF) exposure. To explore the action mechanism of CQ, the superoxide anion production, the lysozyme activity, as well as the relative mRNA expression of vapA and rhbC were examined. CQ at≤20μM had no effect on R. equi extracellular multiplication and J774A.1 viability. Exposure to CQ significantly and markedly reduced survival of R. equi within J774A.1 and foal AMs. Treatment with bHTF did not reverse CQ effect on R. equi. Exposure to CQ did not affected superoxide anion production or lysozyme activity, however vapA and rhbC expression was significantly increased. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that intracellular availability of Fe is required for R. equi survival, and our initial hypothesis that CQ can limit replication of R. equi in J774A.1 and foal AMs, most likely by Fe starvation.

      PubDate: 2016-04-15T17:12:37Z
  • Whole genome characterization of a G6P[5] rotavirus A strain isolated from
           a stray cat in Japan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Miho Kaneko, Masami Mochizuki, Osamu Nakagomi, Toyoko Nakagomi
      The whole genome of an unusual G6P[5] rotavirus A strain named FRV537, which was isolated from a stray cat in Japan, was characterized to determine its species of origin. The genotype constellation of FRV537 was G6-P[5]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A13-N2- T6-E2-H3. No known feline rotavirus has this genotype constellation; the Japanese equine strain OH-4 is the only known strain that does. While FRV537 shares the same genotype with some feline rotaviruses in all genes except those encoding VP4 and NSP1, none of these genes are closely related to those of known feline rotaviruses. By contrast, G6P[5] is almost exclusively present in bovine rotaviruses. The VP7 and VP4 genes of FRV537 formed a lineage with typical bovine rotaviruses with high bootstrap values. As to the internal capsid and nonstructural gene constellation, three bovine rotavirus strains had a constellation identical to that of FRV537. Moreover, each of the genotypes of FRV537 was found to be a common bovine genotype. In addition to the high nucleotide sequence identities between FRV537 and bovine rotaviruses in each genome segment (≥95%), phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship to bovine/artiodactyl rotaviruses. Thus, the molecular and phylogenetic evidence suggests that FRV537 isolated from a stray cat was of bovine rotavirus origin.

      PubDate: 2016-04-12T13:07:28Z
  • Polarisation of equine pregnancy outcome associated with a maternal MHC
           class I allele: preliminary evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): J.H. Kydd, R. Case, C. Winton, S. MacRae, E. Sharp, S.L. Ricketts, N. Rash, J.R. Newton
      Identification of risk factors which are associated with severe clinical signs can assist in the management of disease outbreaks and indicate future research areas. Pregnancy loss during late gestation in the mare compromises welfare, reduces fecundity and has financial implications for horse owners. This retrospective study focussed on the identification of risk factors associated with pregnancy loss among 46 Thoroughbred mares on a single British stud farm, with some but not all losses involving equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection. In a sub-group of 30 mares, association between pregnancy loss and the presence of five common Thoroughbred horse haplotypes of the equine Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) was assessed. This involved development of sequence specific, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions and in several mares, measurement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. Of the 46 mares, 10 suffered late gestation pregnancy loss or neonatal foal death, five of which were EHV-1 positive. Maternal factors including age, parity, number of EHV-1 specific vaccinations and the number of days between final vaccination and foaling or abortion were not significantly associated with pregnancy loss. In contrast, a statistically significant association between the presence of the MHC class I B2 allele and pregnancy loss was identified, regardless of the fetus/foal’s EHV-1 status (p=0.002). In conclusion, this study demonstrated a significantly positive association between pregnancy loss in Thoroughbred mares and a specific MHC class I allele in the mother. This association requires independent validation and further investigation of the mechanism by which the mare’s genetic background contributes to pregnancy outcome.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:01:16Z
  • Persistent spread of the rmtB 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene among
           Escherichia coli isolates from diseased food-producing animals in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jing Xia, Jian Sun, Ke Cheng, Liang Li, Liang-Xing Fang, Meng-Ting Zou, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu
      A total of 963 non-duplicate E. coli strains isolated from food-producing animals between 2002 and 2012 were screened for the presence of the 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes. Among the positive isolates, resistance determinants to extended spectrum β-lactamases, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes as well as floR and fosA/A3/C2 were detected using PCR analysis. These isolates were further subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing, PCR-based plasmid replicon typing and plasmid analysis. Of the 963 E. coli isolates, 173 (18.0%), 3 (0.3%) and 2 (0.2%) were rmtB-, armA- and rmtE- positive strains, respectively. All the 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene-positive isolates were multidrug resistant and over 90% of them carried one or more type of resistance gene. IncF (especially IncFII) and non-typeable plasmids played the main role in the dissemination of rmtB, followed by the IncN plasmids. Plasmids that harbored rmtB ranged in size from 20kb to 340kb. EcoRI-RFLP testing of the 109 rmtB-positive plasmids from different years and different origins suggested that horizontal (among diverse animals) and vertical transfer of IncF, non-typeable and IncN-type plasmids were responsible for the spread of rmtB gene. In summary, our findings highlight that rmtB was the most prevalent 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene, which present persistent spread in food-producing animals in China and a diverse group of plasmids was responsible for rmtB dissemination.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:01:16Z
  • Microbiome associations in pigs with the best and worst clinical outcomes
           following co-infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
           virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 30 May 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 188
      Author(s): Megan C. Niederwerder, Crystal J. Jaing, James B. Thissen, Ada Giselle Cino-Ozuna, Kevin S. McLoughlin, Raymond R.R. Rowland
      On a world-wide basis, co-infections involving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are common and contribute to a range of polymicrobial disease syndromes in swine. Both viruses compromise host defenses, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections by primary and secondary pathogens that can affect growth performance as well as increased morbidity and mortality. An experimental population of 95 pigs was co-infected with PRRSV and PCV2. At 70days post-infection (dpi), 20 representative pigs were selected as having the best or worst clinical outcome based on average daily gain (ADG) and the presence of clinical disease. Worst clinical outcome pigs had prolonged and greater levels of viremia as measured by qPCR. Serum, lung and fecal samples collected at 70 dpi were analyzed using a comprehensive DNA microarray technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, to detect over 8000 microbes. Bacterial species, such as Bacillus cereus, were detected at a higher rate in the serum of worst performing pigs. At the level of the fecal microbiome, the overall microbial diversity was lower in the worst clinical outcome group. The results reinforce the importance of pathogen load in determining clinical outcome and suggest an important role of microbial diversity as a contributing factor in disease.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:01:16Z
  • Lethal dose and clinical signs of Aeromonas hydrophila in Arapaima gigas
           (Arapaimidae), the giant fish from Amazon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Marcia K.R. Dias, Luciana S. Sampaio, Aldo A. Proietti-Junior, Eliane T.O. Yoshioka, Dália P. Rodrigues, Anselmo F.R. Rodriguez, Ricardo A. Ribeiro, Fernando E.S.E.D.V. Faria, Rodrigo O.A. Ozório, Marcos Tavares-Dias
      Aeromonas hydrophila is causing substantial economic losses in world aquaculture. This study determined the tolerance limit (LD50-96h) of A. hydrophila in Arapaima gigas, and also investigated the clinical signs after intradermal inoculation. Arapaima gigas fingerlings were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0 (control), 1.0×105, 1.0×106, 1.0×107, 1.0×109 and 1.0×1010 CFU/mL of A. hydrophila for the determination of LD50-96h, which was 1.8×108 CFU/mL. In another trial with intradermal inoculation of 1.8×108 CFU/mL A. hydrophila, there was a 91.6% of mortality between 8–23h, and several clinical signs were found. As follows: depigmentation in the tegument, lesions in the tail and fins, loss of balance, reduction of respiratory movements, hemorrhagic foci, necrotic hemorrhages in the kidney, liver and swim bladder, splenomegaly, ascites in the abdominal cavity and hyperemia, enlargement of the gall bladder, among other clinical signs observed. The results showed that A. gigas has a relative tolerance to A. hydrophila when compared to other Neotropical fish species.

      PubDate: 2016-04-03T20:32:54Z
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