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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 216 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Intracellular survival of Clostridium chauvoei in bovine macrophages
    • Authors: Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires; Renato Lima Santos; Tatiane Alves da Paixão; Laura Cristina de Oliveira Bernardes; Auricélio Alves de Macêdo; Luciana Aramuni Gonçalves; Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior; Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 199
      Author(s): Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires, Renato Lima Santos, Tatiane Alves da Paixão, Laura Cristina de Oliveira Bernardes, Auricélio Alves de Macêdo, Luciana Aramuni Gonçalves, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Clostridium chauvoei is the etiological agent of blackleg, a severe disease of domestic ruminants, causing myonecrosis and serious toxemia with high mortality. Despite the known importance of this agent, studies evaluating its pathogenesis of blackleg are scarce, and many are based on an unproven hypothesis that states that macrophages are responsible for carrying C. chauvoei spores from the intestines to muscles in the early stages of blackleg. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the survival of C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores after phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages and to profile inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcripts of bovine macrophages infected with C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores. Both vegetative cells and spores of C. chauvoei remain viable after internalization by murine and bovine macrophages. Bovine macrophages infected with vegetative cells showed a pro-inflammatory profile, while those infected with spores displayed an anti-inflammatory profile. Together, these results corroborate the classical hypothesis that macrophages may play a role in the early pathogenesis of blackleg. Moreover, this is the first study to evaluate the infection kinetics and cytokine profile of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with a Clostridium species.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T06:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.027
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2016)
       
  • Effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on porcine nasal cavity dendritic
           cells
    • Authors: Yumeng Shen; Weiwei Hu; Yanna Wei; Zhixin Feng; Qian Yang
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): Yumeng Shen, Weiwei Hu, Yanna Wei, Zhixin Feng, Qian Yang
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is the primary etiological agent responsible for swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that cause tremendous economic losses all over the swine industry. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most effective antigen-presenting cells, are widely distributed beneath respiratory epithelium. DCs uptake and present antigens to T cells, to initiate protective immune responses or generate immune-mediated pathology in different infections. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different DCs subpopulations, T cells and SIgA positive cells counts in porcine nasal cavity after long time Mhp infection. We further evaluated the role of porcine DCs in Mhp exposure. Our results showed that the number of SLA-II-DR+SWC3a+DCs, SLA-II-DR+CD11b+ DCs, T cells, SIgA positive cells in nasal cavity were decreased after Mhp 28 days infection in vivo experiment. The antigen presenting ability of DCs were inhibited by Mhp exposure. DCs couldn’t activate T-cell proliferation by down-regulating the antigen presenting molecule CD1a expression and promoting high level of IL-10 production. Further more, the expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ in DCs were decreased, suggesting that DCs favour for Th2 immune response development after Mhp exposure in vitro. Taken together, Mhp infection impairs the immune function which allows the persistence of Mhp and cause predispose pigs to secondary infections. The decline of DCs presentation ability is the reason why dysfunction and persistence in Mhp infection. These findings are benefit for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms of Mhp in pigs.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T06:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
       
  • Origin and evolution of LX4 genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus in
           China
    • Authors: Wenjun Zhao; Mengying Gao; Qianqian Xu; Yang Xu; Yan Zhao; Yuqiu Chen; Tingting Zhang; Qiuling Wang; Zongxi Han; Huixin Li; Lingfeng Chen; Shuling Liang; Yuhao Shao; Shengwang Liu
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): Wenjun Zhao, Mengying Gao, Qianqian Xu, Yang Xu, Yan Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Tingting Zhang, Qiuling Wang, Zongxi Han, Huixin Li, Lingfeng Chen, Shuling Liang, Yuhao Shao, Shengwang Liu
      We investigated the genomic characteristics of 110 LX4 genotype strains of infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) isolated between 1995 and 2005 in China. The genome of these IBVs varies in size from 27596bp to 27790bp. Most IBV strains have the typical genomic organization of other gamacoronaviruses, however, two strains lacked 3a and 5b genes as a result of a nucleotide change within the start codon in the 3a or 5b genes. Analysis of our 110 viruses revealed that recombination events may be responsible for the emergence of the LX4 genotype with different topologies. Most of these viruses disappeared (before mid-2005) because they were not “fit” to adaptation in chickens. Finally, those of the “fit” viruses (after mid-2005) continued to evolve and have become widespread and predominant in commercial poultry. In addition, few of these viruses experienced recombination with those of the vaccine strains at the 3′ end of the genome.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T06:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
       
  • Experimental pathogenicity and complete genome characterization of a pig
           origin Pasteurella multocida serogroup F isolate HN07
    • Authors: Zhong Peng; Wan Liang; Yuanguo Wang; Wenjing Liu; Hongfeng Zhang; Teng Yu; Anding Zhang; Huanchun Chen; Bin Wu
      Pages: 23 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 198
      Author(s): Zhong Peng, Wan Liang, Yuanguo Wang, Wenjing Liu, Hongfeng Zhang, Teng Yu, Anding Zhang, Huanchun Chen, Bin Wu
      Pasteurella multocida serotype F isolates are predominately prevalent in avian hosts, but rarely seen in pigs. However, we isolated several strains of P. multocida serotype F from clinical samples of pigs in China. To understand the pathogenicity of these strains, one of the serotype F isolates designated HN07, was used to challenge experimental chickens, as P. multocida of this serotype is predominately prevalent in avian hosts. However, strain HN07 could not resulted in significant clinical signs in experimental chickens even at an infective dose of ∼109 CFU, suggesting the isolate was avirulent to chickens and therefore raising the possibility that the porcine serotype F isolate is not transmitted by chickens. We then used HN07 to challenge experimental pigs, as this strain was isolated from pigs. As expected, the strain led to the clinical signs and the pathological lesions in experimental pigs that are similar to the pasteurellosis disease. We then determined the complete genome sequence of the pig origin serogroup F isolate HN07 for the first time. Genome comparison between HN07 and the avian serotype F P. multocida Pm70 identified a novel integrative conjugative element (ICE) ICEpmcn07 which was likely to harbor a series of genes responsible for a putative type IV secretion system (T4SS) in HN07. This is the first time that we determined an ICE carrying a T4SS in P. multocida. Besides, comparative analysis also defined a number of virulence-associated genes in HN07 but absent in Pm70 which may have a contribution to the pathogenicity of the strain. This is the first report of the pathogenicity and genome characterization of a pig origin Pasteurella multocida serogroup F isolate. The pathogenic and genomic definition of the pig origin P. multocida serogroup F in our study would have significance on the pathogenesis and genetic diversity and virulence variability of P. multocida.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T06:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.028
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2016)
       
  • Single N-glycosylation site of bovine leukemia virus SU is involved in
           conformation and viral escape
    • Authors: Giorgia Rizzo; Katia Forti; Anna Serroni; Monica Cagiola; Sara Baglivo; Eleonora Scoccia; Antonio De Giuseppe
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Giorgia Rizzo, Katia Forti, Anna Serroni, Monica Cagiola, Sara Baglivo, Eleonora Scoccia, Antonio De Giuseppe
      The bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) envelope protein (Env) is synthesized as a polyprotein precursor (gp72) proteolytically cleaved into the mature surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins. The amino-terminal region of SU contains conformational epitopes F, G and H, which require a glycosylated SU to be recognized by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and antibodies from BLV-infected cattle. The SU contains eight asparagine (N) residues that are putative N-glycosylation sites. The N129, N203, N230 and N251 appear involved in carbohydrate binding, play an essential role in the in vitro infection. To determine which sites were actually glycosylated, we generated mutated SU forms, where each N-glycosylation site was changed to alanine (A). Subsequently, these N to A mutations were inserted into the env gene to generate Env mutants. The increase of electrophoretic mobility of EnvA256 and EnvA271 derived SU showed that the asparagine residues N256 and N271 were also glycosylated. ELISA revealed that only the N129 oligosaccharide determined the antigenic conformation of SU. The syncytium formation induced by EnvA129 showed that fusogenic capacity was independent of amino-terminal SU glycan conformational structure. Finally, anti-BLV serum inhibited syncytia formation even with the EnvA129 mutant. The latter inhibition was higher than Env, suggesting that the oligosaccharides could be also involved in the glycan shield for viral escape.

      PubDate: 2016-11-11T13:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Full genome analysis of Australian infectious bronchitis viruses suggests
           frequent recombination events between vaccine strains and multiple
           phylogenetically distant avian coronaviruses of unknown origin
    • Authors: José A. Quinteros; Sang-Won Lee; Philip F. Markham; Amir H. Noormohammadi; Carol A. Hartley; Alistair R. Legione; Mauricio J.C. Coppo; Paola K. Vaz; Glenn F. Browning
      Pages: 27 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): José A. Quinteros, Sang-Won Lee, Philip F. Markham, Amir H. Noormohammadi, Carol A. Hartley, Alistair R. Legione, Mauricio J.C. Coppo, Paola K. Vaz, Glenn F. Browning
      Australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have been evolving independently for many years, with control achieved by vaccination with local attenuated strains. Previous studies have documented the emergence of recombinants over the last 20 years, with the most recent one, Ck/Aus/N1/08, detected in 2008. These recombinants did not appear to be controlled by the vaccines currently in use. In this study we sequenced the complete genomes of three emergent Australian strains of IBV (IBV/Ck/Aus/N1/88, IBV/Ck/Aus/N1/03 and IBV/Ck/Aus/N1/08) and a previously incompletely characterised vaccine strain, IBV/Ck/Aus/Armidale, and compared them to the genome of the vaccine strain VicS. We detected multiple recombination events throughout the genome between wild type viruses and the vaccine strains in all three emergent isolates. Moreover, we found that strain N1/88 was not entirely exogenous, as was previously hypothesised. Rather, it originated from a recombination event involving the VicS vaccine strain. The S glycoprotein genes of N1/88 and N1/03 were known to be genetically distinct from previously characterised circulating strains and from each other, and the original donors of these genes remains unknown. The S1 glycoprotein gene of N1/88, a subgroup 2 strain, shares a high nucleotide identity with the sequence of the S1 gene of the recent isolate N1/08. As the subgroup 2 strains have not been isolated for at least 20 years, it appears likely that an unknown avian coronavirus that was the donor of the S1 glycoprotein sequence of N1/88 in the 1980s is still recombining with IBV strains in the field.

      PubDate: 2016-11-11T13:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Comparison of potential protection conferred by three immunization
           strategies (protein/protein, DNA/DNA, and DNA/protein) against Brucella
           infection using Omp2b in BALB/c Mice
    • Authors: Maryam Golshani; Sima Rafati; Mehdi Nejati-Moheimani; Melina Ghasemian; Saeid Bouzari
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Maryam Golshani, Sima Rafati, Mehdi Nejati-Moheimani, Melina Ghasemian, Saeid Bouzari
      In the present study, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the Brucella outer membrane protein 2b (Omp2b) was evaluated in BALB/c mice using Protein/Protein, DNA/DNA and DNA/Protein vaccine strategies. Immunization of mice with three vaccine regimens elicited a strong specific IgG response (higher IgG2a titers over IgG1 titers) and provided Th1-oriented immune response. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with the DNA/Pro regimen induced higher levels of IFN-γ/IL-2 and conferred more protection levels against B. melitenisis and B. abortus challenge than did the protein or DNA alone. In conclusion, Omp2b is able to stimulate specific immune responses and to confer cross protection against B. melitensis and B. abortus infection. Therefore, it could be introduced as a new potential candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine against Brucella infection.

      PubDate: 2016-11-11T13:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Characterization of fowl adenoviruses isolated between 2007 and 2014 in
           China
    • Authors: Li Changjing; Li Haiying; Wang Dongdong; Wang Jingjing; Wang Youming; Wang Shouchun; Li Jida; Liu Ping; Wang Jianlin; Xu Shouzhen; Cui Shangjin; Zhang Yi; Yin Yanbo
      Pages: 62 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Li Changjing, Li Haiying, Wang Dongdong, Wang Jingjing, Wang Youming, Wang Shouchun, Li Jida, Liu Ping, Wang Jianlin, Xu Shouzhen, Cui Shangjin, Zhang Yi, Yin Yanbo
      Forty-three fowl adenovirus (FAdV) strains were isolated in China from 2007 to 2014 from poultry and ostriches with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28/43 strains clustered into Fowl aviadenovirus D (FAdV-D) and 9/43 strains clustered into FAdV-E. FAdV-C included three isolates of ostrich origin, one of goose origin and two of chicken origin. Based on hexon loop 1 gene sequencing analysis, these viruses were genetically related to FAdV-4, FAdV-8a, FAdV-8b and FAdV-11, of which FAdV-11 was dominant. The isolation in 2014 of three FAdV strains belonging to serotype 4 from ostrich flocks is to our knowledge the first finding of FAdV-4 infection and HPS cases in ostriches. Epidemiological analysis showed that FAdV has been circulating in northern and eastern China, where more than 50% of layers and broilers are raised. The hosts of this pathogen included broilers, layers, geese and ostriches. IBH and HPS cases had a sporadic or cluster distribution from 2007 to 2013; however, since 2014 the number of cases has increased sharply. To control FAdV, strict biosecurity protection measures are necessary and a multivalent vaccine may be needed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Up-regulation of IL-10 upon PRRSV vaccination impacts on the immune
           response against CSFV
    • Authors: Xinglong Wang; Guohui Mu; Ruiyi Dang; Zengqi Yang
      Pages: 68 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Xinglong Wang, Guohui Mu, Ruiyi Dang, Zengqi Yang
      Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection negatively impacts the efficacy of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccine. This paper investigates whether the PRRSV vaccine also impacts the CSFV vaccine and if the impact is time-related. Forty-eight piglets born from four sows were divided into five groups (G1-G5). The piglets in G1 to G4 were given PRRSV vaccine at 14, 21, 28 and 35days of age. The G5 group was not vaccinated with the PRRSV. All pigs were given the CSFV vaccine at 35days of age. Immune responses to the CSFV vaccine were evaluated by testing CSFV-specific sera antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion. The results demonstrate that the PRRSV vaccine significantly reduces the immune responses of the CSFV vaccination when immunised both vaccines at the same time or with only a one week interval. The PRRSV vaccination induced higher levels of IL-10 expression in the first week and this may be why the CSFV vaccination is immunosuppressed. The findings indicate that a time interval of more than one week is necessary for vaccinated CSF after the PRRSV immunisation.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • PCV2d-2 is the predominant type of PCV2 DNA in pig samples collected in
           the U.S. during 2014–2016
    • Authors: Chao-Ting Xiao; Karen M. Harmon; Patrick G. Halbur; Tanja Opriessnig
      Pages: 72 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Chao-Ting Xiao, Karen M. Harmon, Patrick G. Halbur, Tanja Opriessnig
      Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination was introduced in the US in 2006 and since has been adopted by most pig producers. While porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) outbreaks are now relatively uncommon in the US, PCV2 remains a concern which is emphasized by increasing numbers of PCR and sequencing requests for PCV2. In the present study, randomly selected lung tissues from 586 pigs submitted in 2015 were tested for presence of PCV2 DNA. Positive samples were further characterized by sequencing and combined with available PCV2 open-reading-frame (ORF) 2 sequences from the client data base of the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The prevalence of PCV2 in the randomly selected lung tissues was 23% (135/586) with 11.3% PCV2a, 29% PCV2b and 71.8% for PCV2d subgroup PCV2d-2. A total of 455 ORF2 sequences obtained from 2014 through 2016 were analyzed and PCV2d accounted for 66.7% of the 2014 sequences, 71.8% of the 2015 sequences, and 72% of the 2016 sequences. Interestingly, only 1.9% (9/455) of the sequences belonged to the recently identified PCV2e genotype. The present data indicates that despite an almost 100% PCV2 vaccine coverage in the US, PCV2 DNA can still be detected in almost 1 of 4 randomly selected pig tissues. PCV2d-2 is now the predominant genotype in the USA suggesting that PCV2d-2 may have some advantage over PCV2a and PCV2b in its ability to replicate in pigs under vaccination pressure.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Sheep carrying pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and
           5/O:3 in the feces at slaughter
    • Authors: Suvi Joutsen; Kirsi-Maria Eklund; Riikka Laukkanen-Ninios; Roger Stephan; Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa
      Pages: 78 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Suvi Joutsen, Kirsi-Maria Eklund, Riikka Laukkanen-Ninios, Roger Stephan, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa
      Yersinia enterocolitica is a heterogeneous species including non-pathogenic strains belonging to biotype 1A and pathogenic strains belonging to biotypes 1B and 2–5. Pathogenic strains of biotypes 2–4 carrying the ail virulence gene have frequently been isolated from domestic pigs at slaughter. In sheep, mostly non-pathogenic biotype 1A strains have been reported. In our study, the prevalence of ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was studied by PCR and culturing in 406 young sheep (<1year of age) and 139 older sheep at slaughter in Finland. When using PCR, the detection rate was 11% (45/406) in young sheep originating from 11 (18%) farms. Surprisingly, Y. enterocolitica belonging to bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 5/O:3, carrying both chromosomal and plasmid-borne virulence genes, were isolated from the fecal samples of 10 (2%) and 23 (4%) sheep, respectively. All isolates of bioserotypes 2/O:9 (19 isolates) and 5/O:3 (53 isolates) carried the chromosomal virulence genes ail, inv, ystA, and myfA, and almost all isolates (71/72) also carried the virulence genes virF and yadA located on the virulence plasmid. The isolates showed high susceptibility to tested antimicrobials and low genetic diversity by PFGE. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 5/O:3 is a very rare bioserotype, and has earlier only sporadically been reported in European wildlife and in sheep in Australia and New Zealand. Bioserotype 2/O:9 is a common bioserotype found in humans with yersiniosis, and has sporadically been isolated in wild and domestic animals.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Quantifying the effect of lactogenic antibody on porcine epidemic diarrhea
           virus infection in neonatal piglets
    • Authors: Korakrit Poonsuk; Jianqiang Zhang; Qi Chen; Wendy Gonzalez; Lucas Correa da Silva Carrion; Yaxuan Sun; Ju Ji; Chong Wang; Rodger Main; Jeffrey Zimmerman; Luis Giménez-Lirola
      Pages: 83 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Korakrit Poonsuk, Jianqiang Zhang, Qi Chen, Wendy Gonzalez, Lucas Correa da Silva Carrion, Yaxuan Sun, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Rodger Main, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Luis Giménez-Lirola
      The contribution of lactogenic antibody to the protection of piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was evaluated. Pregnant multiparous sows and their litters were allocated to one of 3 treatment groups: Group 1–6 serum antibody-negative sows and a subset (n=11) of their piglets. Group 2–8 serum antibody-positive sows and their 91 piglets. Piglets were orally inoculated with PEDV at 4 (Group 1) or 2 (Group 2) days of age. Group 3–2 PEDV serum antibody-negative sows and 22 piglets, provided a baseline for piglet survivability and growth rate. Piglets were monitored daily for clinical signs, body weight, and body temperature through day post-inoculation (DPI) 12 (Groups 2 and 3) or 14 (Group 1). Serum and mammary secretions were tested for PEDV IgG, IgA, and virus-neutralizing antibody. Feces were tested by PEDV real-time, reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR). Piglets on sows without (Group 1) or with (Group 2) anti-PEDV antibody showed significantly different responses to PEDV infection in virus shedding (p < 0.05), thermoregulation (p < 0.05), growth rate (p < 0.05), and survivability (p <0.0001). Specifically, Group 1 piglets shed more virus on DPIs 1 to 5, were hypothermic at all sampling points except DPIs 9, 11, and 12, gained weight more slowly, and exhibited lower survivability than Group 2 piglets. Within Group 2 litters, significant differences were found in virus shedding (p < 0.05), and body temperature (p < 0.05), but not in piglet survival rate. The number of sows and litters in Group 2 was insufficient to derive the relationship between specific levels of lactogenic antibody (FFN, IgA, and IgG) and the amelioration of clinical effects. However, when combined with previous PEDV literature, it can be concluded that the optimal protection to piglets will be provided by dams able to deliver sufficient lactogenic immunity, both humoral and cellular, to their offspring.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Pathogenicity and antigenicity of a novel NADC30-like strain of porcine
           reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus emerged in China
    • Authors: Qiaoya Zhang; Ping Jiang; Zhongbao Song; Lin Lv; Liang Li; Juan Bai
      Pages: 93 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Qiaoya Zhang, Ping Jiang, Zhongbao Song, Lin Lv, Liang Li, Juan Bai
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread globally and caused huge economic loss. In recent years, a new kind of highly pathogenic NADC30-like strain has emerged in China. However, the pathogenicity and antigenicity of the virus are not well understood. In this study, PRRSV strain FJ1402 was isolated from piglets with clinical signs in Fujian Province in China in 2014. The complete genomic sequence analysis showed that it arose from recombination of North America NADC30 strain and highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) in China. Experiment in piglets showed that FJ1402 had similar virulence to HP-PRRSV strain BB0907. The commercial PRRSV modified live vaccines TJM-F92 and R98 could partly provide protective efficacy against FJ1402 challenge in piglets. This should be helpful for preventing and controlling this disease in the future.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Clinical and immunological assessment of therapeutic immunization with a
           subunit vaccine for recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 infection in
           dogs
    • Authors: Eric C. Ledbetter; Kay Kim; Edward J. Dubovi; Hussni O. Mohammed; M. Julia B. Felippe
      Pages: 102 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Eric C. Ledbetter, Kay Kim, Edward J. Dubovi, Hussni O. Mohammed, M. Julia B. Felippe
      Latent canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infections are common in domestic dogs and reactivation of latent virus may be associated with recurrent ocular disease. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the ability of a subunit CHV-1 vaccine to stimulate peripheral CHV-1 specific immunity and prevent recurrent CHV-1 ocular disease and viral shedding. Mature dogs with experimentally-induced latent CHV-1 infection received a 2-dose CHV-1 vaccine series. Recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection was induced by corticosteroid administration in the prevaccinal, short-term postvaccinal (2 weeks post-vaccination), and long-term postvacccinal (34 weeks post-vaccination) periods. Immunological, virological, and clinical parameters were evaluated during each study period. Quantitative assessment of peripheral immunity included lymphocyte immunophenotyping, proliferation response, and interferon-γ production; and CHV-1 virus neutralizing antibody production. In the present study, vaccination did not prevent development of ocular disease and viral shedding; however, there was a significant decrease in clinical ocular disease scores in the short-term postvaccinal period. Significant alterations in peripheral immunity detected in the dogs during the short-term and long-term postvaccinal periods included increased T and B lymphocyte subpopulation percentage distributions, increased lymphocyte expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II, increased CHV-1 virus neutralizing antibody titers, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, and decreased interferon-γ production. Vaccination of latently infected mature dogs with the selected subunit CHV-1 vaccine was not effective in preventing recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection and viral shedding induced by corticosteroid administration. The vaccine did induce long-term CHV-1 specific immunity and may decrease the severity of clinical ocular disease in the immediate postvaccinal period.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • The interaction of Rotavirus A pig/China/NMTL/2008/G9P[23] VP6 with
           cellular beta-actin is required for optimal RV replication and infectivity
           
    • Authors: Jing Yuan; Xin Zhang; Hongyan Shi; Jianfei Chen; Xiao Han; Ping Wei; Li Feng
      Pages: 111 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Jing Yuan, Xin Zhang, Hongyan Shi, Jianfei Chen, Xiao Han, Ping Wei, Li Feng
      VP6 forms the intermediate layer of the rotavirus (RV) capsid, and it plays important roles after RV penetration and uncoating. These functions rely on its ability to interact with host cell proteins. To gain further insights into the role of VP6 in porcine RV (PoRV) infection, a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay was utilized to find unknown cellular factors that interact with VP6. In this study, beta-actin, tropomyosin 1, and 40S ribosomal protein S16 were identified as interaction partners of VP6 by mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation. The interaction with beta-actin was further studied. By immunoelectron microscopy, we observed VP6 proteins that labeled with colloidal gold localized on the actin microfilaments at the early stage of PoRV infection, we also found VP6 distributed in the ribosome, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus in the infected cells. Actin binding protein spin-down assays verified PoRV double-layered particles (DLPs) bound to F-actin in vitro, but didn’t have actin polymerization enhancement activity. After a small interfering RNA (siACTB) was used to knock down beta-actin expression, PoRV VP6 expression and the infection rates of newly synthesized virions releasing into culture supernatants decreased dramatically. Our results confirm and extend previous reports indicating that the interaction between PoRV VP6 and beta-actin plays vital roles in the PoRV lifecycle.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Mannheimia haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine respiratory epithelial
           cells
    • Authors: Ismail Boukahil; Charles J. Czuprynski
      Pages: 129 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Ismail Boukahil, Charles J. Czuprynski
      Mannheimia haemolytica is the most important bacterial agent associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which causes worldwide economic losses to the cattle industry. M. haemolytica cells initially colonize the tonsillar crypts in the upper respiratory tract of cattle, from where they can subsequently descend into the lungs to cause disease. Many bacteria exist as biofilms inside their hosts. We hypothesize that M. haemolytica colonization of cattle during its commensal state may include biofilm formation. To begin to assess this possibility, we developed an in vitro system to study biofilm formation directly on bovine respiratory epithelial cells. Using fixed primary bovine bronchial epithelial cells, we observed M. haemolytica biofilm formation after a 48h incubation period at 37°C. Addition of mucin, the main component of mucus present in the upper respiratory tract, decreased M. haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine epithelial cells. We investigated the effects of prior viral infection of the epithelial cells on subsequent biofilm formation by M. haemolytica and found negligible effects. Utilization of this model system will provide new insights into the potential role of biofilm formation by M. haemolytica in the pathogenesis of BRDC.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Re-emergence of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus in 2015 in Morocco:
           Molecular characterization and experimental infection in Alpine goats
    • Authors: F. Fakri; T. Embarki; S. Parida; Z. Bamouh; M. Jazouli; M. Mahapatra; K. Tadlaoui; O. Fassi-Fihri; C.D. Richardson; M. Elharrak
      Pages: 137 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): F. Fakri, T. Embarki, S. Parida, Z. Bamouh, M. Jazouli, M. Mahapatra, K. Tadlaoui, O. Fassi-Fihri, C.D. Richardson, M. Elharrak
      Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a transboundary viral disease of small ruminants that causes huge economic losses in Africa, The Middle East and Asia. In Morocco, the first PPR outbreak was notified in 2008. Since then no cases were reported for seven years, probably due to three successive vaccination campaigns during 2008–2011 and close surveillance at the border areas. In June 2015, the disease re-emerged in Morocco, raising questions about the origin of the virus. The PPR virus was confirmed by qRT-PCR and virus was isolated from clinical samples on VeroNectin-4 cells. The disease was experimentally reproduced in Alpine goats using both sheep and goat derived outbreak isolates. Molecular characterization of the 2015 Moroccan PPR isolate confirmed the identity of the virus as lineage IV, closely related to the 2012 Algerian (KP793696) and 2012 Tunisian (KM068121) isolates and significantly distinct from the previous PPRV Morocco 2008 strain (HQ131927). Therefore this study confirms a new incursion of PPR virus in Morocco during 2015 and highlights the urgency of implementation of a common control strategy to combat PPR in Maghreb region in North Africa.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2016)
       
  • Whole genome SNP analysis of bovine B. anthracis strains from Switzerland
           reflects strict regional separation of Simmental and Swiss Brown breeds in
           the past
    • Authors: Sylviane Derzelle; Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet; Joachim Frey
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Sylviane Derzelle, Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet, Joachim Frey
      Bacillus anthracis is an evolutionarily young species that presents an extremely low genetic diversity due to its slow mode of propagation, determined by short replication phases and long sporulation periods. In our ongoing efforts to elucidate phylogenetic relationships between European B. anthracis isolates, the genomes of five strains from Switzerland belonging to lineages B.Br.CNEVA and A.Br.Aust94 were sequenced. Comparative analysis with additional, available genomes from both lineages, were used to reconstruct the substructure of these populations. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed two phylogeographical different groups among the Swiss B.Br.CNEVA strains (central and eastern Switzerland), that define the oldest most recent common ancestor of the B.Br.CNEVA lineage currently known. Age-old practices of livestock selection, breeding and preservation of unique traits of local breeds in Alpine valleys have likely favored differentiation of regional B. anthracis populations over centuries and the emergence of genetically distinct strains in an otherwise similar environment.

      PubDate: 2016-10-15T00:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Impact of a potential glycosylation site at neuraminidase amino acid 264
           of influenza A/H9N2 virus
    • Authors: Hongxia Shao; Xiaoxiang Zhou; Zhonglei Fan; Zhimin Wan; Kun Qian; Daniel Perez; Aijian Qin; Jianqiang Ye
      Pages: 9 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Hongxia Shao, Xiaoxiang Zhou, Zhonglei Fan, Zhimin Wan, Kun Qian, Daniel Perez, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
      To determine the role of the potential glycosylation site NA264N, which has been shown to be prevalent in recent Chinese H9N2 isolates, four reverse genetic viruses, rgWS1-NA264N, rgWS1-NA264H, rgBJ-NA264H and rgBJ-NA264N, were rescued. Growth kinetics showed that viruses with NA264H grew faster than viruses with NA264N. Mouse studies revealed that rgBJ-NA264H replicated to a significantly higher titer than rgBJ-NA264N at 3dpi. Notably, in contact chickens, rgBJ-NA264H and rgWS1-NA264H shed significantly more virus than rgBJ-NA264N at 6dpi from the larynx and rgWS1-NA264N at 4dpi from the cloaca, respectively. The present study demonstrates that NA264N affects viral replication of H9N2.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Kinetics of maternally derived antibodies upon intramuscular vaccination
           against classical swine fever with Suvaxyn® CSF Marker (CP7_E2alf)
    • Authors: Charlotte Schröder; Carolin Dräger; Andrea Aebischer; Lisa Dähnert; Christiane Breidenstein; Svenja Mamerow; Simone Leidenberger; Martin Beer; Sandra Blome
      Pages: 14 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Charlotte Schröder, Carolin Dräger, Andrea Aebischer, Lisa Dähnert, Christiane Breidenstein, Svenja Mamerow, Simone Leidenberger, Martin Beer, Sandra Blome
      Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important viral diseases that impact on sustainable pig production world wide. To control the disease in either endemic situations or in case of large, high-impact contingencies, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist since decades. However, until recently, the available live vaccines did not allow a serological marker concept that would be important to circumvent long-term trade restrictions. Recently, a new live attenuated marker vaccine, Suvaxyn® CSF Marker (Zoetis), was licensed by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). To supplement the data that are necessary for the design of appropriate vaccination strategies, a trial was carried out with single “emergency-type” vaccination of two pregnant sows. Focus was laid on the kinetics of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) in the screening assays of their offspring that would be used in case of a CSF outbreaks, i.e. CSFV E2 and Erns antibody ELISA. Neutralization peroxidase linked antibody assays were carried out to allow a rough estimate of protection. Upon vaccination with Suvaxyn® CSF Marker 21days before farrowing, MDAs were measurable in all piglets born to the vaccinated sows. The E2 ELISA reactivities showed an almost linear decrease over 10 weeks after which all piglets were tested negative in the ELISA again. No problems were observed in DIVA assays (Erns antibodies) when heat-inactivated sera were used. The protective effect of MDA needs further investigations as the titers were found to be lower than reported for C-strain vaccines.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Haemophilus parasuis modulates cellular invasion via TGF-β1 signaling
    • Authors: Yufeng Li; Yaning Zhang; Yuting Xia; Yijuan Shen; Jiansong Zhang
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Yufeng Li, Yaning Zhang, Yuting Xia, Yijuan Shen, Jiansong Zhang
      TGF-β1 plays an important role during the invasion of some bacteria into cells by regulating the expression of integrins, fibronectin, and other extracellular matrix proteins. We postulated that TGF-β1 levels could affect the invasion of Haemophilus parasuis into PK-15 cells. After infection by H. parasuis, PK-15 cells had elevated levels of TGF-β1 expression. Treatment of PK-15 cells with TGF-β1 prior to infection significantly decreased invasion by H. parasuis. Both TGF-β1 treatment and H. parasuis infection resulted in significant induction of fibronectin (Fn) and α5 integrin. Although pretreatment of PK-15 cells with siRNA fragments targeting Fn and α5 integrin resulted in enhanced H. parasuis invasion, H. parasuis attachment was elevated only on cells treated with the α5 integrin siRNA, there was no corresponding increase in attachment to cells treated with Fn siRNA. Our results firstly demonstrated that expression of TGF-β1, Fn and α5 integrin inhibited invasion of H. parasuis in PK-15 cells.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Effective interference between Simbu serogroup orthobunyaviruses in
           mammalian cells
    • Authors: Kerstin Wernike; Emiliana Brocchi; Martin Beer
      Pages: 23 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Kerstin Wernike, Emiliana Brocchi, Martin Beer
      The Simbu serogroup of orthobunyaviruses comprises a wide range of viruses with different medical and veterinary relevance. These viruses are known to reassort, and coinfection of the same cell is one of the prerequisites for reassortment. Here, a mammalian cell line was infected with various members of this virus group, inoculated after several time points with a second Simbu serogroup virus, and analyzed by strain or species specific immunofluorescence staining. Different virus species or different strains of the same virus species were able to co-infect mammalian cells, but only for a limited time frame. After a few hours, the replication of the first virus led to a gradual inhibition of a second virus until a complete resistance to superinfection after 24h regardless whether it is another strain of the same virus species or a distinct member of the serogroup.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Whole-genome characterization of a Peruvian alpaca rotavirus isolate
           expressing a novel VP4 genotype
    • Authors: Miguel Rojas; Jorge Luiz S. Gonçalves; Helver G. Dias; Alberto Manchego; Danilo Pezo; Norma Santos
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Miguel Rojas, Jorge Luiz S. Gonçalves, Helver G. Dias, Alberto Manchego, Danilo Pezo, Norma Santos
      The SA44 isolate of Rotavirus A (RVA) was identified from a neonatal Peruvian alpaca presenting with diarrhea, and the full-length genome sequence of the isolate (designated RVA/Alpaca-tc/PER/SA44/2014/G3P[40]) was determined. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the isolate possessed the genotype constellation G3-P[40]-I8-R3-C3-M3-A9-N3-T3-E3-H6, which differs considerably from those of RVA strains isolated from other species of the order Artiodactyla. Overall, the genetic constellation of the SA44 strain was quite similar to those of RVA strains isolated from a bat in Asia (MSLH14 and MYAS33). Nonetheless, phylogenetic analyses of each genome segment identified a distinct combination of genes. Several sequences were closely related to corresponding gene sequences in RVA strains from other species, including human (VP1, VP2, NSP1, and NSP2), simian (VP3 and NSP5), bat (VP6 and NSP4), and equine (NSP3). The VP7 gene sequence was closely related to RVA strains from a Peruvian alpaca (K’ayra/3368-10; 99.0% nucleotide and 99.7% amino acid identity) and from humans (RCH272; 95% nucleotide and 99.0% amino acid identity). The nucleotide sequence of the VP4 gene was distantly related to other VP4 sequences and was designated as the reference strain for the new P[40] genotype. This unique genetic makeup suggests that the SA44 strain emerged from multiple reassortment events between bat-, equine-, and human-like RVA strains.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Whole-genome comparative analysis of the pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis
    • Authors: Cristian Bravo; Victor Martinez
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Cristian Bravo, Victor Martinez
      The intracellular pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, the most important bacterial disease that affects the Chilean salmon industry. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the biology of the pathogen. In this study, recently published sequencing data was used in order to characterize the genome of P. salmonis, defining groups of genes associated with bacterial processes such as, invasion and intracellular survival. Moreover, one Chilean P. salmonis isolate, which is known to be virulent at in vitro and in vivo assays, was sequenced, assembled, annotated and functionally characterized. Whole-genome comparisons between public P. salmonis isolates confirmed the existence of two different genogroups associated with the LF-89 and EM-90 strains, and the bacterial pan and core genome were defined. Additionally, differences were observed at the genomic level between the P. salmonis reference strain and a Norwegian isolate, which is known to produce milder piscirickettsiosis outbreaks. Finally, candidate genes for invasion and intracellular survival were chosen from phylogenetically related bacteria, and annotated in P. salmonis using comparative genomics. These results showed the presence of several genes that might be related to bacterial pathogenesis, for example those of the type III, IV and VI secretion systems, in which some amino acidic differences within both genogroups and the Norwegian isolate were established. Altogether, these results will be relevant for understanding the host-pathogen interaction and further studies, aimed at generating new disease control strategies, should be devised using this information.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • High and low-virulent bovine Pasteurella multocida capsular type A
           isolates exhibit different virulence gene expression patterns in vitro and
           in vivo
    • Authors: Nengzhang Li; Qingshan Long; Huihui Du; Jixin Zhang; Tingting Pan; Chenlu Wu; Guihua Lei; Yuanyi Peng; Philip R. Hardwidge
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Nengzhang Li, Qingshan Long, Huihui Du, Jixin Zhang, Tingting Pan, Chenlu Wu, Guihua Lei, Yuanyi Peng, Philip R. Hardwidge
      Pasteurella multocida capsular type A causes respiratory disease in cattle. P. multocida virulence gene expression patterns, especially among different virulent isolates, during in vitro and in vivo growth are poorly understood. Here we show that the highly virulent bovine P. multocida capsular type A isolate PmCQ2 exhibits a significantly higher growth rate in mice, as compared with a strain of lower virulence, P. multocida capsular type A isolate PmCQ6. Among the six known and potential virulence genes (ompA, ompH, pfhB2, hasR, pm0979, and pm0442) investigated, most genes were expressed more highly in both isolates when grown in vivo as compared with in vitro, with ompH and pm0442 having the highest magnitude of expression. Virulence gene expression was higher in PmCQ6 than in PmCQ2 during in vitro growth. However, in mice, most virulence genes were expressed more highly in PmCQ2 as compared with PmCQ6. Virulence gene expression was highest in the liver and lowest in the lung, but was uncorrelated to bacterial loads. This study indicates that individual pathogenic capacity of P. multocida isolates is associated with the virulence gene expression patterns in vivo growth but not in vitro, and the investigation of virulence gene expression in pathogen should be performed in vivo.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Efficacy of the marker vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2 against classical swine fever
           in the presence of maternally derived antibodies to rAdV-SFV-E2 or
           C-strain
    • Authors: Shui-Li Xia; Guang-Tao Xiang; Jian-Lin Lei; Mingliang Du; Yimin Wang; Mo Zhou; Yan Liu; Shengwei Ji; Ya-Lin Wang; Yuzi Luo; Yuan Sun; Hua-Ji Qiu
      Pages: 50 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Shui-Li Xia, Guang-Tao Xiang, Jian-Lin Lei, Mingliang Du, Yimin Wang, Mo Zhou, Yan Liu, Shengwei Ji, Ya-Lin Wang, Yuzi Luo, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
      Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important disease caused by Classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In order to eradicate CSF, many marker vaccines that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) have been developed. In our previous studies, a DIVA CSF vaccine rAdV-SFV-E2 has been demonstrated to completely protect pigs against lethal CSFV challenge. In the context of risk assessments for an emergency vaccination scenario, the question has been raised whether preexisting maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) interfere with the efficacy of the vaccine. In this study, six groups of piglets (n =5), with or without anti-C-strain or anti-rAdV-SFV-E2 MDAs, were immunized twice with 106 TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 and challenged with the CSFV Shimen strain. Clinical signs, CSFV-specific antibodies, viremia and pathological and histopathological changes were monitored. The results showed that the vaccinated piglets, either with or without MDAs directed against C-strain (about 67% blocking rate) or rAdV-SFV-E2 (about 50% blocking rate) were completely protected; however, the mock-vaccinated piglets displayed severe CSF-typical clinical symptoms, viremia, pathological/histopathological changes and deaths (5/5). These findings demonstrate that the MDAs to either rAdV-SFV-E2 or C-strain do not interfere with the efficacy of rAdV-SFV-E2, which highlights the great potential of the vaccine for control and eradication of CSF.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Evaluating the association between body weight and the intestinal
           microbiota of weaned piglets via 16S rRNA sequencing
    • Authors: Geon Goo Han; Jun-Yeong Lee; Gwi-Deuk Jin; Jongbin Park; Yo Han Choi; Byung Jo Chae; Eun Bae Kim; Yun-Jaie Choi
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Geon Goo Han, Jun-Yeong Lee, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Jongbin Park, Yo Han Choi, Byung Jo Chae, Eun Bae Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi
      Due to the ban on the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in livestock feeds, understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota and the physiology of the host has become very important for improving livestock performance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intestinal microbiota and body weights of weaned piglets. Lighter (n=9) and heavier (n=9) 9-week-old weaned piglets were selected from approximately one-hundred individuals based on their body weights. Their fecal microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbial richness estimators of the heavier piglets, were significantly higher than those of the lighter piglets. At the phylum level, the microbiota of the heavier group had significantly higher levels of Firmicutes and a higher Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio than that of the lighter group. At the genus level, the levels of several genera, such as Anaerococcus and Lactococcus, were significantly different in the two groups. In particular, the lighter group had significantly higher levels of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Anaerotruncus and Bacteroides, compared with those of the heavier group. Moreover, the levels of bacteria expressing the components of several metabolic pathways were significantly different in the two groups. The microbiota of the heavier group had a significantly higher involvement in three KEGG pathways concerned with xenobiotic degradation than that of the lighter group. These results may provide insights into host-microbe interactions occurring in the piglet intestine and will be useful in establishing a strategy for improving growth performance in the swine industry.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • A dominant lineage of Mycoplasma bovis is associated with an increased
           number of severe mastitis cases in cattle
    • Authors: Sibylle Bürki; Joachim Spergser; Michèle Bodmer; Paola Pilo
      Pages: 63 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Sibylle Bürki, Joachim Spergser, Michèle Bodmer, Paola Pilo
      Mycoplasma bovis is the most frequent etiologic agent of bovine mycoplasmosis. It causes various diseases in bovines and considerable economic loss due to the lack of effective treatment or preventive measures such as vaccination. In contrast to the US, where M. bovis-mastitis has been reported for a long time, M. bovis infections in Switzerland and Austria were predominantly associated with pneumonia and subclinical mastitis. However, since 2007 the situation has changed with the emergence of severe M. bovis-associated mastitis cases in both countries. In order to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of the bacteria isolated from these infections, recent and old Swiss, along with recent Austrian M. bovis isolates were analyzed by a typing method displaying intermediate resolution of evolutionary relationships among isolates called Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). The analysis of Swiss and Austrian M. bovis isolates revealed two major lineages. Isolates collected since 2007 in both countries cluster in the lineage I including ST5, ST33, ST34, 36, and ST38-40 (clonal complex 1), while all Swiss isolates recovered before 2007 cluster in the lineage II comprising ST17 and ST35 (clonal complex 5). Further investigations are necessary to understand if lineage I has a higher predilection or virulence toward mammary gland cells than the old lineage or if other factors are involved in the increased number of severe mastitis cases.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • The arcA gene contributes to the serum resistance and virulence of
           Haemophilus parasuis serovar 13 clinical strain EP3
    • Authors: Lingqiang Ding; Xintian Wen; Lvqin He; Xuefeng Yan; Yongping Wen; Sanjie Cao; Xiaobo Huang; Rui Wu; Yiping Wen
      Pages: 67 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Lingqiang Ding, Xintian Wen, Lvqin He, Xuefeng Yan, Yongping Wen, Sanjie Cao, Xiaobo Huang, Rui Wu, Yiping Wen
      As a global transcriptional factor, ArcA regulates the expression of hundreds of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Here we deleted arcA gene and investigated the biological characteristics of arcA deletion mutant (ΔarcA) in Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) serovar 13 clinical strain EP3. Results indicated that deletion of arcA impaired growth of EP3 strain under anaerobic condition, and reduced virulence of EP3 strain in mice. Additionally, the ΔarcA strain showed greater sensitivity in porcine serum and produced less biofilm mass than the EP3 strain. Taken together, these findings suggested that the arcA gene may be involved in pathogenesis in Haemophilus parasuis.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Chlamydial infections in wildlife − conservation threats and/or
           reservoirs of ‘spill-over’ infections?
    • Authors: Delaney Burnard; Adam Polkinghorne
      Pages: 78 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Delaney Burnard, Adam Polkinghorne
      Members of the order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular pathogens known to cause disease in both humans and animals. As we learn more about the genetic diversity of this group of pathogens, evidence is growing that these bacteria infect a broader range of animal hosts than previously thought. Over 400 host species are now documented globally with the majority of these being wild animals. Given the impact of chlamydial infections on humans and domesticated animals, the identification of members of the order Chlamydiales in wildlife raises significant questions over a) their impact on animal health and b) the relationships to those strains also found in humans and domestic animals. In some species such as the iconic marsupial, the koala, the conservation impact is known with chlamydial infections associated with debilitating disease, however, in general, little is known about the pathogenic potential of Chlamydiae infecting most wildlife hosts. Accumulating evidence suggests contact with wild animals is a risk factor for infections in domestic animals and/or humans. Beyond the well-recognised zoonotic pathogen, Chlamydia psittaci, a range of studies have now reported traditional pathogens in the family Chlamydiaceae such as Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus in wild animals. The spectre of cross-host transmission ‘spill-over’ and ‘spill-back’ in the epidemiology of infections is of potential concern, however, comprehensive epidemiological studies are lacking for most of these. Accurate evaluation of the significance of chlamydial infections in wildlife is otherwise hampered by i) the cross-sectional nature of most impact studies, ii) a lack of standardised diagnostic approaches, iii) limited study sizes, and iv) biases associated with opportunistic sampling.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T00:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Epidemiologic analysis of a sarcoid outbreak involving 12 of 111 donkeys
           in Northern Italy
    • Authors: Hans Abel-Reichwald; Edmund K. Hainisch; Sophie Zahalka; Annunziata Corteggio; Giuseppe Borzacchiello; Barbara Massa; Luca Merlone; Lubna Nasir; Faith Burden; Sabine Brandt
      Pages: 85 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Hans Abel-Reichwald, Edmund K. Hainisch, Sophie Zahalka, Annunziata Corteggio, Giuseppe Borzacchiello, Barbara Massa, Luca Merlone, Lubna Nasir, Faith Burden, Sabine Brandt
      Equine sarcoids develop upon bovine papillomavirus type 1 or 2 (BPV1, BPV2) infection in conjunction with trauma and represent the most common tumour disease in horses and other equids, including donkeys. In face of a sarcoid outbreak involving 12 of 111 donkeys and mules at the ‘Rifugio degli Asinelli’, a subsidiary charity organization of The Donkey Sanctuary, non-invasively collected sample material including crusts, dandruff, swabs and hair roots was collected from sarcoid-affected and 26 healthy donkeys, as well as dandruff from a grooming kit and tabanids caught from or in the vicinity of sarcoid patients. In addition five previously collected sarcoids stored in formalin were provided. DNA isolated from collected material was tested for the presence of the BPV1/2 E5 oncogene using PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by E2/E4 and LCR PCR and amplicon sequencing to determine a possible common source of infection via comparative alignment of intralesional BPV1/2 gene variants. IC/PCR was used to assess sample aliquots for the presence of BPV1/2 virions, and IHC to analyse five tumours for BPV1 E5 and L1 protein expression. All sarcoid-affected donkeys, two of 55 tabanids and dandruff from a curry comb tested positive for BPV1/2 E5, yet negative by IC/PCR. Healthy animals were BPV1/2-free. IHC revealed different levels of intralesional E5 and L1 expression. A series of BPV1 E5, E2, and LCR variants and BPV2 E5 were detected from donkeys, indicating that they had accidently developed sarcoids at about the same time rather than having acquired disease from each other.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Evidence of Brucella strain ST27 in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops
           truncatus) in Europe
    • Authors: Željko Cvetnić; Sanja Duvnjak; Martina Đuras; Tomislav Gomerčić; Irena Reil; Maja Zdelar-Tuk; Silvio Špičić
      Pages: 93 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Željko Cvetnić, Sanja Duvnjak, Martina Đuras, Tomislav Gomerčić, Irena Reil, Maja Zdelar-Tuk, Silvio Špičić
      Marine mammal brucellosis has been known for more than 20 years, but recent work suggests it is more widespread than originally thought. Brucella (B.) pinnipedialis has been isolated from pinnipeds, while B. ceti strains have been associated with cetaceans. Here we report a Brucella strain isolated from multiple lymph nodes of one bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) during routine examination of dolphin carcasses found in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea during the summer of 2015. Classical bacteriological biotyping, PCR-based techniques (single, multiplex, PCR-RFLP) and 16S rRNA DNA sequencing were used to identify Brucella spp. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 loci and multilocus sequence typing of 9 loci were used for genotyping and species determination. The combination of bacteriological, molecular and genotyping techniques identified our strain as ST27, previously identified as a human pathogen. This report provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of ST27 in the Adriatic Sea in particular and in European waters in general. The zoonotic nature of the strain and its presence in the Adriatic, which is inhabited by bottlenose dolphins, suggest that the strain may pose a significant threat to human health.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Isolation, genomic characterization, and pathogenicity of a Chinese
           porcine deltacoronavirus strain CHN-HN-2014
    • Authors: Nan Dong; Liurong Fang; Hao Yang; Han Liu; Ting Du; Puxian Fang; Dang Wang; Huanchun Chen; Shaobo Xiao
      Pages: 98 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Nan Dong, Liurong Fang, Hao Yang, Han Liu, Ting Du, Puxian Fang, Dang Wang, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao
      Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine coronavirus that causes diarrhea in piglets. Since the first outbreak of PDCoV in the United States in 2014, this novel porcine coronavirus has been detected in South Korea, Canada, Mexico, Thailand, and China. In this study, a Chinese PDCoV strain, designated CHN-HN-2014, was isolated from piglets with severe diarrhea on a pig farm in Henan Province, China, and examined with a specific immunofluorescence assay and electron microscopy. Genomic analysis showed that CHN-HN-2014 shares 91.6%–99.4% nucleotide identity with other known PDCoV strains. The pathogenicity of CHN-HN-2014 was further investigated in 5-day-old and 21-day-old piglets. Both kinds of piglets developed clear clinical symptoms, including vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and severe diarrhea, by 2days postinoculation (DPI), and diarrhea persisted for about 5–6 days. Viral shedding was detected in rectal swabs until 14 DPI in challenged 5-day-old pigs and until 18 DPI in challenged 21-day-old pigs. At necropsy at 4 DPI, macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed and viral antigen was detected in the small intestines with immunohistochemical staining. These data demonstrate that Chinese PDCoV strain CHN-HN-2014 shares high nucleotide identity with previously reported PDCoV strains and is pathogenic in 5-day-old and 21-day-old piglets.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Recombinant NDV expressing cytokines or fliC confers a quick immune
           response against NDV challenge and resistance to maternal antibody
    • Authors: Tianyuan Zhang; Yunye Liu; Hui Wang; Xu Zhang; Shenglong Zhu; Pengfei Xu; Jiechao Yin; Guiping Ren; Jingli Liu; Deshan Li
      Pages: 107 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Tianyuan Zhang, Yunye Liu, Hui Wang, Xu Zhang, Shenglong Zhu, Pengfei Xu, Jiechao Yin, Guiping Ren, Jingli Liu, Deshan Li
      Currently, there are two major bottleneck problems which seriously affect prevention of the Newcastle disease (ND): interference of maternal antibody on NDV vaccination and slow production of neutralization antibody. To overcome these problems, in present study, four rNDV vaccine strains expressing bio-adjuvants chIL2, chIL15, chGM-CSF or fliC gene were constructed and rescued using reverse genetics approach. The HI antibody titers of SPF birds immunized with rNDV reached to 5.5log2, 4.7log2, 6.5log2 and 5.8log2, respectively at the 8th day post immunization, while the antibody titers of the parental virus and control were 3.3log2 and 1log2, respectively. The immunized chickens were challenged by 104ELD50 dose of the virulent NDV BJ strains at the 7th day post immunization. The protection rate of the four rNDVs bio-adjuvant groups was 100%, while the protection rate of the parental group was 80%. We also examined the anti-maternal antibody activity of these adjuvant vaccines by detection HI titer after vaccination of chickens with high (8.4log2) or low (5log2) maternal antibody levels. In chicken flock with higher maternal antibody, parental strain could not resist the influence of the maternal antibody and induce any notable change of HI antibody kinetics. However, both rClon30-chGM-CSF and rClon30-flic were able to resist the influence of the maternal antibody and maintained the HI antibody above the protection level during the 14day’s experiment. In chicken flock with lower maternal antibody, the parental rclone30 strain could not induce HI titer to the protection level until the 14th day, but both rClon30-GM-CSF and clone30-fliC raised the HI antibody to above the protection level at the 7th day post vaccination.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Genetic characterization of Australian Mycoplasma bovis isolates through
           whole genome sequencing analysis
    • Authors: Alysia M. Parker; Ankit Shukla; John K House; Mark S Hazelton; Katrina L Bosward; Branko Kokotovic; Paul A Sheehy
      Pages: 118 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Alysia M. Parker, Ankit Shukla, John K House, Mark S Hazelton, Katrina L Bosward, Branko Kokotovic, Paul A Sheehy
      Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen in cattle causing mastitis, arthritis and pneumonia. First isolated in Australian cattle in 1970, M. bovis has persisted causing serious disease in infected herds. To date, genetic analysis of Australian M. bovis isolates has not been performed. With whole genome sequencing (WGS) becoming a common tool for genetic characterization, this method was utilized to determine the degree of genetic diversity among Australian M. bovis isolates collected over a nine year period (2006–2015) from various geographical locations, anatomical sites, and from clinically affected and non-clinical carrier animals. Eighty-two M. bovis isolates underwent WGS from which single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, comparative genomics and analysis of virulence genes was completed. SNP analysis identified a single M. bovis strain circulating throughout Australia with marked genomic similarity. Comparative genomics suggested minimal variation in gene content between isolates from clinical and carrier animals, and between isolates recovered from different anatomical sites. A total of 50 virulence genes from the virulence factors database (VFDB) were identified as highly similar in the Australian isolates, while the presence of variable surface lipoprotein (vsp) genes was greatly reduced compared to reference strain M. bovis PG45. These results highlight that, while the introduction of multiple M. bovis strains has been prevented, elimination of the current strain has not been successful. The persistence of this strain may be due to the significant role that carrier animals play in harboring the pathogen. The similarity of clinical and non-clinical isolates suggests host and environmental factors play a significant role in determining host pathogen outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Detection of the biofilm component polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in
           Staphylococcus aureus infected cow udders
    • Authors: Sarah Schönborn; Volker Krömker
      Pages: 126 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: 30 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 196
      Author(s): Sarah Schönborn, Volker Krömker
      Biofilms are communities of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix made up of polymeric substances. They reduce the effects of antibiotics and allow the microorganisms to evade the innate immune system. This can lead to persistent or recurrent infections. In dairy cow herds, mastitis is a serious problem. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of biofilms in the udders of dairy cows infected with Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, because biofilms may affect the response to treatment of bovine mastitis. Immunofluorescence staining of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a component of S. aureus biofilms, was carried out based on swabs taken from different areas of S. aureus infected udders. We were able to demonstrate the presence of PIA in S. aureus infected bovine udders. However, the applied method is invasive and therefore only really suitable for scientific research and not for clinical diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine
           populations
    • Authors: Tariq Halasa; Anette Bøtner; Sten Mortensen; Hanne Christensen; Nils Toft; Anette Boklund
      Pages: 7 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Tariq Halasa, Anette Bøtner, Sten Mortensen, Hanne Christensen, Nils Toft, Anette Boklund
      African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic duration was predicted to be 21days (5th and 95th percentiles; 1-55 days), the median number of infected herds was predicted to be 3 herds (1-8), and the total costs were predicted to be €326 million (€256-€442 million). Adding pre-emptive depopulation or intensive surveillance by testing live animals resulted in marginal improvements to the control of the epidemics. However, adding testing of dead animals in the protection and surveillance zones was predicted to be the optimal control scenario for an ASF epidemic in industrialized swine populations without contact to wild boar. This optimal scenario reduced the epidemic duration to 9days (1-38) and the total costs to €294 million (€257-€392 million). Export losses were the driving force of the total costs of the epidemics.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
       
  • Vaccines for Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and other Swine Coronaviruses
    • Authors: Volker Gerdts; Alexander Zakhartchouk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Volker Gerdts, Alexander Zakhartchouk
      The recent introduction of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) into the North American swine herd has highlighted again the need for effective vaccines for swine coronaviruses. While vaccines for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) have been available to producers around the world for a long time, effective vaccines for PEDV and deltacoronaviruses were only recently developed or are still in development. Here, we review existing vaccine technologies for swine coronaviruses and highlight promising technologies which may help to control these important viruses in the future.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T06:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.029
       
  • Identification of genes involved in Mycoplasma gallisepticum biofilm
           formation using mini-Tn4001-SGM transposon mutagenesis
    • Authors: Yang Wang; Li Yi; Fanqing Zhang; Xusheng Qiu; Lei Tan; Shengqing Yu; Xiangchao Cheng; Chan Ding
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yang Wang, Li Yi, Fanqing Zhang, Xusheng Qiu, Lei Tan, Shengqing Yu, Xiangchao Cheng, Chan Ding
      Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important pathogen that can cause chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. MG has the ability to form biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying MG biofilm formation are complex and poorly understood. To better understand the mechanisms involved in biofilm formation, mini-Tn4001-SGM, a novel transposon vector containing the gentamicin gene was constructed and electroporated into MG strain Rlow. Of the 738 mutants obtained, 12 had significantly reduced capacity to form biofilms in a polystyrene microtiter-plate biofilm assay. Ten different genes were identified as disrupted in these mutants using genomic walking from the transposon insertion sites and Southern bolt hybridization with a transposon-based probe. Four genes were associated with cellular processes, especially synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide and several lipoproteins encoded. Other genes were associated with translation, metabolism and gene regulation, and one had unknown function. Seven genes identified in this study have been previously associated with biofilm formation in MG or other bacterial species. The other three have not been previously reported to play a role in biofilm formation in MG. In conclusion, a new transposon vector was shown to be a powerful tool for future studies of MG pathogenesis. This study adds to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MG biofilm formation and may shed light on the persistence of MG infections.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.021
       
  • Inter-laboratory study to characterize the detection of serum antibodies
           against porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus
    • Authors: Bertel Strandbygaard; Antonio Lavazza; Davide Lelli; Yannick Blanchard; Béatrice Grasland; Sophie Le Poder; Nicolas Rose; Falko Steinbach; Wim H.M. van der Poel; Frederik Widén; Graham J. Belsham; Anette Bøtner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Bertel Strandbygaard, Antonio Lavazza, Davide Lelli, Yannick Blanchard, Béatrice Grasland, Sophie Le Poder, Nicolas Rose, Falko Steinbach, Wim H.M. van der Poel, Frederik Widén, Graham J. Belsham, Anette Bøtner
      Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused extensive economic losses to pig producers in many countries. It was recently introduced, for the first time, into North America and outbreaks have occurred again in multiple countries within Europe as well. To assess the properties of various diagnostic assays for the detection of PEDV infection, multiple panels of porcine sera have been shared and tested for the presence of antibodies against PEDV in an inter-laboratory ring trial. Different laboratories have used a variety of “in house” ELISAs and also one commercial assay. The sensitivity and specificity of each assay has been estimated using a Bayesian analysis applied to the ring trial results obtained with the different assays in the absence of a gold standard. Although different characteristics were found, it can be concluded that each of the assays used can detect infection of pigs at a herd level by either the early European strains of PEDV or the recently circulating strains (INDEL and non-INDEL). However, not all the assays seem suitable for demonstrating freedom from disease in a country. The results from individual animals, especially when the infection has occurred within an experimental situation, show more variation.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.020
       
  • Marek’s disease vaccines: current status, and strategies for improvement
           and development of vector vaccines
    • Authors: Sanjay M. Reddy; Yoshihiro Izumiya; Blanca Lupiani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Sanjay M. Reddy, Yoshihiro Izumiya, Blanca Lupiani
      Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative viral disease of chicken, which has been controlled through vaccination since 1969. MD vaccines protect against tumors but do not provide sterilizing immunity, and thus it is generally believed that their use has contributed to increase virulence of field strains with the ability to cause MD in vaccinated chickens. Traditional methods of developing vaccines, like cell culture attenuation, have proved unsuccessful for the development of improved vaccines to protect against highly virulent MD virus (MDV) field strains. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, it is now possible to study MDV gene function and develop rational vaccines that protect against highly pathogenic strains. In addition, the long term protection conferred by MD vaccines, their excellent safety profile, their efficacy when administered early (at hatch or in ovo), and their ability to overcome maternal antibodies, has made MDV an excellent candidate vector to protect not only against MD but also against other important viral poultry diseases. In this review we will discuss the current status of MD vaccines and their use as vector vaccines to control important viral poultry diseases.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.024
       
  • Recombinant viral-vectored vaccines for the control of avian influenza in
           poultry
    • Authors: David E. Suarez; Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): David E. Suarez, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood
      Vaccination is a commonly used tool for the control of both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, inactivated adjuvanted vaccines made from a low pathogenic field strain have been used for vaccination, but advances in molecular biology have allowed a number of different viral vectored vaccines, expressing the AI virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene, to be developed and licensed for use for control of AI. This review summarizes the licensed vector vaccines available for us in poultry. As a group, these vaccines can stimulate both a cellular and humoral immune response and, when antigenically well matched to the target AI strain, are effective at preventing clinical disease and reducing virus shedding if vaccinated birds do become infected. The vaccines can often be given to one-day old chicks in the hatchery, which can provide early protection and is a cost effective route of administration of the vaccine. All the licensed vectored vaccines, because they only express the HA gene, can potentially be used to differentiate vaccinated from vaccinated and infected birds, which is often referred to as a DIVA strategy. Although a potentially valuable tool for the surveillance of the virus in countries that vaccinate, the DIVA principle has currently not been applied. Concern remains that maternal antibody or pre-existing immunity to the vector or to the AI HA insert can suppress the immune response to the vaccine. The viral vectored vaccines appear to work well with a prime boost strategy where the vectored vaccine is given first and a different type of vaccine, often a killed adjuvanted vaccine is given two or three weeks later.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.025
       
  • Influenza A virus vaccines for swine
    • Authors: Amy L. Vincent; Daniel R. Perez; Daniela Rajao; Tavis K. Anderson; Eugenio J. Abente; Rasna R. Walia; Nicola S. Lewis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Amy L. Vincent, Daniel R. Perez, Daniela Rajao, Tavis K. Anderson, Eugenio J. Abente, Rasna R. Walia, Nicola S. Lewis
      Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, the origin, gene constellation, and antigenic makeup of IAV vary greatly on different continents. Vaccination is one means of mitigating the effects of IAV disease, and vaccines are most effective if the strains included closely match the currently circulating strains in pigs. Genetic analyses provide panoramic views of the virus landscape at the sequence level and, thus, can aid in the selection of well-matched swine IAV vaccine strains, but is not sufficient alone. Additionally, a major challenge in selecting appropriate swine IAV vaccine strains is the co-circulation of multiple lineages of viruses in the same region, requiring multivalent or broadly cross-reacting antigens. Due to this complex IAV ecology in swine, new vaccination strategies and vaccine platforms are needed. The hemagglutinin (HA) viral protein is the major target of neutralizing antibodies, which are widely considered to be correlated with protection. Virus variants that are not recognized by previously elicited antibodies can render traditional vaccines that primarily elicit humoral responses ineffective, and therefore result in the need for vaccine strain reformulation and re-vaccination. In the future, new vaccine platforms may be on the market that will provide alternative options to those currently available. Nonetheless, a collaborative approach is needed to improve IAV vaccine strain selection for use in swine.

      PubDate: 2016-11-25T20:22:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.026
       
  • A Canine-specific Probiotic Product in Treating Acute or Intermittent
           Diarrhea in Dogs: A Double-blind Placebo-controlled Efficacy Study
    • Authors: Carlos Gómez-Gallego; Jouni Junnila; Sofia Männikkö; Pirkko Hämeenoja; Elisa Valtonen; Seppo Salminen; Shea Beasley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Carlos Gómez-Gallego, Jouni Junnila, Sofia Männikkö, Pirkko Hämeenoja, Elisa Valtonen, Seppo Salminen, Shea Beasley
      A double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study on 60 dogs recruited from a pool of canine patients visiting a veterinary practice and diagnosed with acute diarrhea was conducted. The dogs received in randomized manner either a sour-milk product containing three canine-derived Lactobacillus sp. probiotics in combination of Lactobacillus fermentum VET 9A, L. rhamnosus VET 16A, and L. plantarum VET 14A (2×109cfu/ml), or placebo. Stool consistency, general well-being, and the numbers of specific pathogens in stool samples were analyzed. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with the study sour-milk product had a normalizing effect on canine stool consistency. The treatment also enhanced the well-being of the pet by maintaining appetite and may reduce vomiting. In addition, the concentrations of Clostridium perfringens and Enterococcus faecium, which typically increase during diarrhea episodes in dogs, were decreased in probiotic group feces when compared with the placebo group. Taken together, the sour-milk with the specific probiotic combination had a normalizing effect on acute diarrhea in dogs which was associated with decreased numbers of potential pathogens in the feces of probiotic-treated dogs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.015
       
  • Characterization of the role in adherence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis variable
           lipoproteins containing different repeat unit copy numbers
    • Authors: Qiyan Xiong; Bixiong Zhang Jia Wang Yan Yanna Wei Shaobo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Qiyan Xiong, Bixiong Zhang, Jia Wang, Bo Ni, Yan Ji, Yanna Wei, Shaobo Xiao, Zhixin Feng, Maojun Liu, Guoqing Shao
      Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) is an important pathogen of pigs. In previous studies, the variable lipoprotein (Vlp) family has been shown to play a role in mediating M. hyorhinis cytoadhesion. Herein, we performed several experiments to study the function of each Vlp family member in detail, especially examining the cytoadhesion functional domain and how the repeat unit copy number impacts on function. Recombinant proteins rVlpⅡ, composed of region Ⅱ from all seven Vlp members; rVlpⅢ, composed of repeat peptides from region Ⅲ of all of Vlp members; as well as a series of recombinant rVlp proteins for each member containing different repeat unit copy numbers were constructed. All of the proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The recombinant proteins, as well as seven keyhole limpet hemocyanin-conjugated Vlp peptides containing two copies of the repeat unit, were analyzed for their adherence to swine tracheal epithelial cells using a microtiter plate adherence assay. Both rVlpⅡ and rVlpⅢ proteins were able to bind to cell membrane proteins. Among the repeat unit peptides, only PepVlpB and PepVlpG were able to bind to cell membrane proteins. All of the Vlp members had cytoadhesion capability. The adhesion abilities of the proteins containing 0 or 3 copies of the repeat unit were stronger than those of the proteins containing 12 copies. For rVlpA, rVlpB, rVlpD, rVlpF and rVlpG, the proteins containing no copies bound stronger than the proteins containing 3 copies. In contrast, the adherence of rVlpC3 was stronger than that of rVlpC0. There was no significant difference between the adherence of rVlpE3 and that of rVlpE0. Our results suggest that the major cytoadhesion sites of Vlps are mainly contained in region Ⅱ, the function of which would be blocked by region Ⅲ when region Ⅲ is longer.

      PubDate: 2016-11-04T17:19:56Z
       
  • The adherent abilities of Clostridium perfringens strains are critical for
           the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis
    • Authors: Ben Wade; Anthony Keyburn Volker Haring Mark Ford Julian Rood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Ben Wade, Anthony L. Keyburn, Volker Haring, Mark Ford, Julian I. Rood, Robert J. Moore
      Necrotic enteritis of poultry is an emerging disease of substantial economic importance, but aspects of the pathogenesis of this multi-factorial disease are still unclear. We recently demonstrated that the ability of avian strains of the causative bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, to bind to specific collagen types correlated strongly with their virulence and we postulated that binding of the pathogen to collagen types IV and V and gelatin may involve the putative adhesin-encoding gene cnaA, which is found in the VR–10B locus. In this study we have used site-directed mutagenesis to demonstrate that disruption of the cnaA gene leads to a reduction in the expression of the three genes immediately downstream of cnaA and reduced adherence to collagen types IV and V and gelatin. In addition, a cnaA mutant of strain EHE-NE18 was no longer capable of causing necrotic enteritis in a chicken disease induction model and had a significantly reduced ability to colonise the chicken intestinal mucosa. These results were confirmed by generating and analysing a similar mutant in an independent necrotic enteritis causing C. perfringens strain. This study expands our understanding of the mechanisms involved in necrotic enteritis pathogenesis by demonstrating the importance of C. perfringens adherence to extracellular matrix proteins.

      PubDate: 2016-11-04T17:19:56Z
       
  • First evaluation of an influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus
           vaccine in sheep and goats: Assessment of safety, immunogenicity and
           protective efficacy against Brucella melitensis infection
    • Authors: Kaissar Tabynov; Bolat Yespembetov Nurali Matikhan Sholpan Ryskeldinova Nadezhda Zinina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Kaissar Tabynov, Bolat Yespembetov, Nurali Matikhan, Sholpan Ryskeldinova, Nadezhda Zinina, Zhailaubay Kydyrbayev, Nurika Assanzhanova, Kairat Tabynov, Gourapura J Renukaradhya, Gulnara Mukhitdinova, Abylai Sansyzbay
      Previously we developed and evaluated a candidate influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus vaccine (Flu-BA) administered with a potent adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in cattle, which was found safe and highly effective. This study was aimed to establish a proof-of-concept of the efficacy of Flu-BA vaccine formulation in sheep and goats. We vaccinated sheep and goats with Flu-BA vaccine and as a positive control vaccinated a group of animals with a commercial B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine. Clinically, both Flu-BA and Rev.1 vaccines were found safe. Serological analysis showed the animals received Flu-BA vaccine did not induce antibody response against Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins during the period of our study (56days post-initial vaccination, PIV). But observed significant antigen-specific T cell response indicated by increased lymphocyte stimulation index and enhanced secretion of IFN-γ at day 56 PIV in Flu-BA group. The Flu-BA vaccinated animals completely protected 57.1% of sheep and 42.9% of goats against B. melitensis 16M challenge. The severity of brucellosis in terms of infection index and colonization of Brucella in tissues was significantly lower in the Flu-BA group compared to negative control animals group. Nevertheless, positive control commercial Rev.1 vaccine provided strong antigen-specific T cell immunity and protection against B. melitensis 16M infection. We conclude that the Flu-BA vaccine induces a significant antigen-specific T-cell response and provides complete protection in approximately 50% of sheep and goats against B. melitensis 16M infection. Further investigations are needed to improve the efficacy of Flu-BA and explore its practical application in small ruminants.

      PubDate: 2016-11-04T17:19:56Z
       
  • Protective efficacy of four recombinant fimbrial proteins of virulent
           Aeromonas hydrophila strain ML09-119 in channel catfish
    • Authors: Hossam Abdelhamed; Seong Won Nho Gokul Turaga Michelle Banes Attila
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 December 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 197
      Author(s): Hossam Abdelhamed, Seong Won Nho, Gokul Turaga, Michelle M. Banes, Attila Karsi, Mark L. Lawrence
      Aeromonas hydrophila is a reemerging pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); recent outbreaks from 2009 to 2014 have caused the loss of more than 12 million pounds of market size catfish in Alabama and Mississippi. Genome sequencing revealed a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates with unique genetic and phenotypic features that is highly pathogenic in channel catfish. Comparison of the genome sequence of a representative catfish isolate (ML09-119) from this virulent clonal group with lower virulence A. hydrophila isolates revealed four fimbrial proteins unique to strain ML09-119. In this work, we expressed and purified four A. hydrophila fimbrial proteins (FimA, Fim, MrfG, and FimOM) and assessed their ability to protect and stimulate protective immunity in channel catfish fingerlings against A. hydrophila ML09-119 infection for vaccine development. Our results showed catfish immunized with FimA, Fim, FimMrfG, and FimOM exhibited 59.83%, 95.41%, 85.72%, and 75.01% relative percent survival, respectively, after challenge with A. hydrophila strain ML09-119. Bacterial concentrations in liver, spleen, and anterior kidney were significantly (p <0.05) lower in vaccinated fish compared to the non-vaccinated sham groups at 48h post-infection. However, only the Fim immunized group showed a significantly higher antibody titer in comparison to the non-vaccinated treatment group (p <0.05) at 21days post-vaccination. Altogether, Fim and FimMrfG recombinant proteins have potential for vaccine development against virulent A. hydrophila infection.

      PubDate: 2016-11-04T17:19:56Z
       
  • Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Escherichia coli by using
           normalized resistance interpretation
    • Authors: Bénédicte Callens; Jeroen Dewulf; Göran Kronvall; Boudewijn Catry; Freddy Haesebrouck; Filip Boyen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Bénédicte Callens, Jeroen Dewulf, Göran Kronvall, Boudewijn Catry, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen
      Objectives To improve antimicrobial surveillance accuracy for results obtained by disk diffusion for porcine Escherichia coli, by comparing traditional clinical breakpoint interpretation with the Normalized Resistance Interpretation (NRI) method. Methods The susceptibilities of 921 E. coli isolates from clinically healthy pigs at slaughter age was determined for 15 antimicrobials by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion technique. NRI with previously established optimal controlled parameters for E. coli ATCC25922 was used to reconstruct the fully susceptible population of the tested E. coli isolates. Based on a lower limit for susceptibility, set at 2.5 standard deviations below the mean of the reconstructed susceptible population, the non-wild type percentage isolates was compared with the clinical resistance percentage. Results The NRI method was applicable for 11 out of the 15 antimicrobials tested. Antimicrobials for which no normal distribution of inhibition zones for the population of susceptible isolates was seen, could not be used to reconstruct the susceptible population. Clinical breakpoints much lower than the epidemiological cut-off values resulted into presumptively identifying isolates as clinically susceptible, but likely carrying acquired resistance determinants. Otherwise, clinical breakpoints did cut through the WT population for several antibiotics tested, categorizing isolates from the WT population as not susceptible. Conclusions NRI was shown to be a valid method to define the WT population for disk diffusion outcomes, provided a normal distribution of the susceptible bacterial species population is present. Until international harmonization of breakpoints is achieved, it might give rise to a wide application in monitoring antimicrobial resistance in veterinary medicine.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T22:01:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.019
       
  • Lambs are an important source of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia
           coli in southern Brazil
    • Authors: Fernando Martins; Beatriz E.C. Guth Roxane M.F. Piazza Waldir Elias
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Fernando H. Martins, Beatriz E.C. Guth, Roxane M.F. Piazza, Waldir P. Elias, Sylvia C. Leão, Juan Marzoa, Ghizlane Dahbi, Azucena Mora, Miguel Blanco, Jorge Blanco, Jacinta S. Pelayo
      Food-producing animals can harbor Escherichia coli strains with potential to cause diseases in humans. In this study, the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was investigated in fecal samples from 130 healthy sheep (92 lambs and 38 adults) raised for meat in southern Brazil. EPEC was detected in 19.2% of the sheep examined, but only lambs were found to be positive. A total of 25 isolates was characterized and designated atypical EPEC (aEPEC) as tested negative for bfpA gene and BFP production. The presence of virulence markers linked to human disease as ehxA, paa, and lpfAO113 was observed in 60%, 24%, and 88% of the isolates, respectively. Of the 11 serotypes identified, eight were described among human pathogenic strains, while three (O1:H8, O11:H21 and O125:H19) were not previously detected in aEPEC. Associations between intimin subtypes and phylogroups were observed, including eae-θ2/A, eae-β1/B1, eae-α2/B2 and eae-γ1/D. Although PFGE typing of 16 aEPEC isolates resulted in 14 unique pulsetypes suggesting a genetic diversity, specific clones were found to be distributed in some flocks. In conclusion, potentially pathogenic aEPEC strains are present in sheep raised for meat, particularly in lambs, which can better contribute to dissemination of these bacteria than adult animals.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-15T00:47:07Z
       
 
 
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