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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)

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Journal Cover Veterinary Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.381]   [H-I: 98]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-1135 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2542
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Staphylococcus agnetis, a potential pathogen in broiler breeders
    • Authors: Louise Ladefoged Poulsen; Ida Thøfner; Magne Bisgaard; Rikke Heidemann Olsen; Jens Peter Christensen; Henrik Christensen
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 212
      Author(s): Louise Ladefoged Poulsen, Ida Thøfner, Magne Bisgaard, Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Jens Peter Christensen, Henrik Christensen
      In this study, four broiler parent flocks have been followed from the onset of the production period (week 20) until slaughter (week 60). Every week, approximately ten dead broiler breeders, randomly selected among birds dead on their own, were collected and subjected to a full post mortem analysis including bacteriological examination. In total 997 breeders were investigated and for the first time Staphylococcus agnetis was isolated in pure culture from cases of endocarditis and septicemia from 16 broiler breeders. In addition, the cloacal flora from newly hatched chickens originating from the same four flocks were characterized and S. agnetis was found in pure culture of several newly hatched chickens (n=12) and only in one case in combination with another species. Clonality of the isolates was examined by pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis which showed indistinguishable patterns in isolates from both broiler breeders and broilers. Three isolates were whole genome sequenced to obtain knowledge on virulence genes. The isolates harbored a number of genes encoding different fibrinogen binding proteins and toxins which might be important for virulence. The present findings demonstrate that S. agnetis may be associated with mortality in broiler breeders. No disease was associated with the broilers which were found positive for S. agnetis in the cloaca.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T11:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2017)
  • Pathogenicity and transmissibility of a highly pathogenic avian influenza
           virus H5N6 isolated from a domestic goose in Southern China
    • Authors: Bin Xiang; Jianpeng Liang; Renrong You; Lujie Han; Kun Mei; Libin Chen; Ruojing Chen; Yifan Zhang; Xu Dai; Pei Gao; Ming Liao; Chencheng Xiao; Tao Ren
      Pages: 16 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 212
      Author(s): Bin Xiang, Jianpeng Liang, Renrong You, Lujie Han, Kun Mei, Libin Chen, Ruojing Chen, Yifan Zhang, Xu Dai, Pei Gao, Ming Liao, Chencheng Xiao, Tao Ren
      Since the first outbreak of H5N6 reported in Laos at 2013, there has been a dramatic increase in H5N6 strains isolated from waterfowl in China, particularly Southern China. However, pathogenicity and transmissibility of the virus in different birds remain largely unknown. In this study, a novel H5N6 virus, termed QY01, that belonged to group C in was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic goose in Guangdong province, southern China in 2016. In order to simulate the natural transmission of different kinds of birds, we evaluated its pathogenicity and transmissibility in chickens, domestic geese and pigeons. To investigate the replication and shedding of QY01 in poultry, chickens, geese and pigeons were inoculated intranasally with 106 EID50 of virus. In addition, to measure intra-species transmission of QY01, three sentinel birds were housed with each group. The results demonstrated that QY01 exhibited a highly pathogenic phenotype, and was transmissible among in chickens and geese. However, the virus did not appear to be pathogenic in pigeons, indicating that this novel H5N6 virus exhibited different host ranges and tissue tropisms, and may pose a substantial risk for the chicken and goose industry. Therefore, continued surveillance for H5N6 AIVs is necessary, and increased attention should be paid to cross-species transmission between waterfowl and terrestrial birds.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T10:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2017)
  • Differential immune-related gene expression in the spleens of duck Tembusu
           virus-infected goslings
    • Authors: Yu He; Anqi Wang; Shun Chen; Zhen Wu; Jinyue Zhang; Mingshu Wang; Renyong Jia; Dekang Zhu; Mafeng Liu; Qiao Yang; Ying Wu; Kunfeng Sun; Xiaoyue Chen; Anchun Cheng
      Pages: 39 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 212
      Author(s): Yu He, Anqi Wang, Shun Chen, Zhen Wu, Jinyue Zhang, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Kunfeng Sun, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
      Flaviviruses pose a significant threat to public health worldwide. Recently, a novel flavivirus, duck Tembusu virus (TMUV), was identified as the causative agent of a serious duck viral disease in Asia. Its rapid spread and expanded host range have raised substantial concerns regarding its potential threat to non-avian hosts, including humans. However, the specific molecular host responses to this virus are poorly understood. In this study, we used the RNA-sequencing technique to analyse the differential gene expression in the spleens of infected goslings 5days post-infection. In total, 2878 upregulated unigenes and 2943 downregulated unigenes were identified. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses revealed that different pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signalling pathways simultaneously participated in the sensing of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of TMUV, and the antigen presentation pathway and acquired immunity were activated. Then, the signals were transduced by the NF-kappa B (NF-κB) or the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways, resulting in the enormous production of various cytokines and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). We further investigated the immune response patterns in the liver and brain tissue using RT-qPCR. The bacterial peptidoglycan sensor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) receptor was significantly upregulated, especially in the brain tissue, suggesting that NOD1 likely induces an inflammatory response by interacting with dsRNA, which is similar to its actions during hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. However, major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) was downregulated only in the spleen, indicating that the downregulation of MHCII in the spleen may be an immune evasion strategy of TMUV to facilitate pathogenesis during infection. Here, we are the first to report a transcriptome analysis of the host immune response to TMUV infection, and the data reported herein may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the gosling-TMUV interaction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2017)
  • Interferon alpha inhibits replication of a live-attenuated porcine
           reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine preventing development
           of an adaptive immune response in swine
    • Authors: Susan L. Brockmeier; Crystal L. Loving; Kirsten C. Eberle; Samantha J. Hau; Alexandra Buckley; Albert Van Geelen; Nestor A. Montiel; Tracy Nicholson; Kelly M. Lager
      Pages: 48 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 212
      Author(s): Susan L. Brockmeier, Crystal L. Loving, Kirsten C. Eberle, Samantha J. Hau, Alexandra Buckley, Albert Van Geelen, Nestor A. Montiel, Tracy Nicholson, Kelly M. Lager
      Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFN-α), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and are also involved in promoting an adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most devastating and costly viruses to the swine industry world-wide and has been shown to induce a meager IFN-α response. Previously we administered porcine IFN-α using a replication-defective adenovirus vector (Ad5-IFN-α) at the time of challenge with virulent PRRSV and demonstrated an increase in the number of virus-specific IFNγ secreting cells, indicating that the presence of IFN-α at the time of infection can alter the adaptive immune responses to PRRSV. In the current experiment, we explored the use of IFN-α as an adjuvant administered with live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine as a method to enhance immune response to the vaccine. Unlike the previous studies with fully virulent virus, one injection of the Ad5-IFN-α abolished replication of the vaccine virus and as a result there was no detectible adaptive immune response. Although IFN-α did not have the desired adjuvant effect, the results further highlight the use of IFN-α as a treatment for PRRSV infection.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2017)
  • A comprehensive study of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs entering a
           slaughterhouse in Slovenia
    • Authors: Petra Raspor Lainšček; Ivan Toplak; Andrej Kirbiš
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 212
      Author(s): Petra Raspor Lainšček, Ivan Toplak, Andrej Kirbiš
      Hepatitis E is a zoonotic viral disease of pigs with increasing public health concern in industrialized countries. Presented broad study of hepatitis E virus (HEV) presence in pigs in Slovenia is the first attempt to overview the HEV situation in pigs entering a slaughterhouse and, further, to analyse the possibility of HEV entering into the food supply chain. 2433 samples from 811 clinically healthy pigs were collected at four slaughterhouses in Slovenia. Sampling covered three different age groups of pigs and three different types of samples (faeces, bile and liver) important for tracing HEV in a pig population. In addition, 63 swab samples were collected systematically from three different sites on the slaughter line, as well as 22 samples of minced meat and 30 bratwurst samples. All the samples were screened for the presence of HEV nucleic acids by specific real-time RT-PCR assay. In the group of three month old pigs 13.7% of faeces, 13.0% of bile and 2.1% of liver samples were HEV positive. In the group of six months old pigs only 0.25% of liver and 0.25% of bile samples were positive. In the category of sows, no positive samples were found. Two out of 63 swab samples collected on the slaughter line were HEV positive. All tested samples of minced meat and bratwurst were negative. The phylogenetic analysis of 50 HEV positive samples, with comparison of 366 nucleotides in ORF1 region, revealed high diversity of identified strains of HEV in pigs, belonging into subtypes 3a, 3b, 3c and 3e.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2017)
  • West Nile virus in horses during the summer and autumn seasons of 2015 and
           2016, Portugal
    • Authors: Sílvia C. Barros; Fernanda Ramos; Teresa Fagulha; Margarida Duarte; Ana Margarida Henriques; Helga Waap; Tiago Luís; Teresa Costa; Rita Amador; Sofia Quintans; Miguel Fevereiro
      Pages: 75 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 212
      Author(s): Sílvia C. Barros, Fernanda Ramos, Teresa Fagulha, Margarida Duarte, Ana Margarida Henriques, Helga Waap, Tiago Luís, Teresa Costa, Rita Amador, Sofia Quintans, Miguel Fevereiro
      West Nile fever (WNF) is an emergent disease in Europe, under surveillance in the European Union. Following a 5-year period of apparent silence (autumn 2010 to summer 2015), West Nile virus (WNV) reemerged in the South of Portugal, in July 2015. Here we present data from the onset, geographic location within mainland Portugal, and outcome of clinical cases of WNV infection in horses in 2015 and 2016. During the transmission seasons of 2015 and 2016, twenty-seven horses, most symptomatic (n=20) were found positive to IgM, pr-E immunoglobulins and VNT, leading to the subsequent report to Animal Disease Notification System of the European Commission (ADNS) by the Portuguese National Authority for Animal Health. Outbreaks occurred in the middle summer (August) and early/mid autumn (October/November) of 2015 and 2016, in the southern regions of the country (Alentejo and Algarve). Compared with the previous WNV transmission seasons of 2004 and 2010, a higher number of cases were reported in 2015 and 2016. The results of our study contribute to increase information concerning the geographic areas affected and time period for WNV transmission risk in Portugal.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T10:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2017)
  • Bluetongue virus infection in naïve cattle: Identification of circulating
           serotypes and associated Culicoides biting midge species in Trinidad
    • Authors: T. Brown-Joseph; C. Batten; L.E. Harrup; L. Frost; J. Flannery; H. Hicks; V. Ramkissoon; R. Ramdeen; C.V. Carrington; C.A.L. Oura
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211
      Author(s): T. Brown-Joseph, C. Batten, L.E. Harrup, L. Frost, J. Flannery, H. Hicks, V. Ramkissoon, R. Ramdeen, C.V. Carrington, C.A.L. Oura
      To better understand risks associated with trading cattle, it is important to know which serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV) are circulating within the exporting and importing country. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the circulating serotypes of BTV in Trinidad. Blood samples were collected monthly from sixty BTV- naïve imported cattle over a six month period after their arrival in the country. Virological (PCR and virus isolation) and serological (ELISA) analyses were carried out on the samples and CDC light traps were placed near the cattle enclosure to trap and identify the species of Culicoides biting midges that were present. All of the cattle seroconverted for BTV antibodies within three months of their arrival in the country and real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) detected BTV-RNA in the samples throughout the remainder of the study. The patterns of infection observed in the cattle indicated serial infections with multiple serotypes. A combination of BTV serotype-specific rRT-PCR on the original blood samples and virus isolation followed by serotype-specific rRT-PCR on selected samples, confirmed the presence of BTV serotypes 1, 2, 3, 5, 12 and 17. This is the first report of BTV-2 and BTV-5 in Trinidad. Light-suction traps placed in close proximity to the cattle predominantly trapped Culicoides insignis Lutz 1913 species (96%), with a further six Culicoides species making up the remaining 4% of trapped samples. The circulation of multiple BTV serotypes in Trinidad underlines the need for regular surveillance, which will contribute to the development of risk assessments for trade in livestock.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T12:59:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2017)
  • RIG-1 and MDA-5 signaling pathways contribute to IFN-β production and
           viral replication in porcine circovirus virus type 2-infected PK-15 cells
           in vitro
    • Authors: Bei Huang; Jiansheng Li; Xinchen Zhang; Qiling Zhao; Mingqing Lu; Yingjun Lv
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211
      Author(s): Bei Huang, Jiansheng Li, Xinchen Zhang, Qiling Zhao, Mingqing Lu, Yingjun Lv
      Type I Interferons (IFNs) is known for its antiviral activity; however, it is surprising that in vitro treatment of IFN-α and IFN-γ enhanced the replication of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), indicating a complex relationship between interferon and PCV2. To date, it remains poorly understood how the interferon is produced during PCV2 infection and whether the interferon induced by PCV2 itself can promote viral replication. In this study, PCV2 induced the up-regulation of IFN-β in PK-15 cells, while treatment of PCV2-infected cells with the interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) inhibitor, BX795, decreased the expression of IFN-β, whereas treatment with the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, did not. These findings indicate that PCV2 can induce IFN-β production via the IRF3-mediated rather than the NF-κB-mediated signal pathway. Moreover, PCV2 increased the protein expression levels of phosphorylation-IRF3 (p-IRF3), mitochondria antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-1) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA-5), and the knockdown of RIG-1 and MDA-5 decreased the expression level of IFN-β in PK-15 cells. Therefore, PCV2 induces IFN-β production via the RIG-1/MDA-5/MAVS/IRF signaling pathway. Furthermore, the PCV2 load and PCV2 infectivity decreased after knockdown of RIG-1 and MDA-5, indicating that RIG-1 and MDA-5 signaling pathways contribute to PCV2 replication. In conclusion, PCV2 induces the production of IFN-β via the RIG-1 and MDA-5 signaling pathways, and the IFN-β produced during PCV2 infection facilitates viral replication. These results will help us further understand the pathogenic mechanisms of PCV2.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T12:59:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2017)
  • Antimicrobial resistance in clinical Escherichia coli isolated from
           companion animals in Australia
    • Authors: Sugiyono Saputra; David Jordan; Tahlia Mitchell; Hui San Wong; Rebecca J. Abraham; Amanda Kidsley; John Turnidge; Darren J. Trott; Sam Abraham
      Pages: 43 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211
      Author(s): Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Tahlia Mitchell, Hui San Wong, Rebecca J. Abraham, Amanda Kidsley, John Turnidge, Darren J. Trott, Sam Abraham
      Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28). AST was undertaken for 15 antimicrobial agents according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and interpreted using epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) as well as CLSI veterinary and human clinical breakpoints. The AST revealed complete absence of resistance to carbapenems while resistance to amikacin was observed at a low level in isolates from dogs (1.6%) and cats (1.5%) compared to horses (10.7%). Among dog isolates, resistance to fluoroquinolones ranged from 9.1%–9.3% whereas among cat isolates, it ranged from 3.2%–5%. Among dog isolates, the proportion showing a 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) non-wild type phenotype was significantly higher (P<0.05) in skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI, n=122) isolates (17.2%–20.5%) compared to urinary tract infection (UTI, n=392) isolates (9.9%–10.2%). The frequency of multidrug resistance was 18.1%, 11.7% and 42.9% in dog, cat and horse isolates, respectively. Risk factor analysis revealed that MDR E. coli isolated from UTI were positively associated with chronicity of infection and previous antimicrobial treatment. Dogs and cats with chronic UTI that had been previously treated with antimicrobials were eight times and six times more likely to be infected with MDR E. coli compared to dogs and cats with non-chronic UTI, and no history of antimicrobial treatment, respectively. This study revealed that pre-existing disease condition and prior antimicrobial use were the major risks associated with UTI with MDR E. coli in companion animals.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T12:59:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2017)
  • Transparent Tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, a fish model for in vivo
           analysis of nocardial infection
    • Authors: F. Wang; X.G. Wang; C. Liu; O.Q. Chang; Y.Y. Feng; L. Jiang; K.B. Li
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211
      Author(s): F. Wang, X.G. Wang, C. Liu, O.Q. Chang, Y.Y. Feng, L. Jiang, K.B. Li
      Nocardiosis afflicts multiple species of cultured fish, resulting in substantial economic losses to the aquaculture industry, however, lack of detailed knowledge on disease pathogenesis has hampered the development of effective prevention and control strategies. In this study, we injected a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Nocardia seriolae strain into a transparent mutant strain of Tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona) to monitor tissue pathogen accumulation and tissue damage in vivo, and to clarify the relationship between pathogenic processes and overt symptoms. GFP-labeled bacteria were phagocytized by leukocytes and could proliferate within these cells, which in turn led to leukocyte aggregation, leukocyte death, and granuloma formation. In addition, intracellular bacteria could permanently colonize various tissues via leukocyte circulation, causing multi-organ infection as revealed by changes of tissue transparency. Histology revealed granulomatous lesions in organs such as muscle, kidney, and spleen that was corresponded to the tissue opacities in vivo. Confocal microscopy confirmed massive accumulations of GFP-labeled bacteria within these granulomas, which often contained a necrotic core. Tiger barb transparency allows for real-time observation of in vivo pathological changes within the same animal, and the pathogenic process can be evaluated based on the shape and size of body opacities. Thus, transparent Tiger barb is a promising model to study the pathogenesis of nocardiosis.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2017)
  • Transmission of African swine fever virus from infected pigs by direct
           contact and aerosol routes
    • Authors: Ann Sofie Olesen; Louise Lohse; Anette Boklund; Tariq Halasa; Carmina Gallardo; Zygmunt Pejsak; Graham J. Belsham; Thomas Bruun Rasmussen; Anette Bøtner
      Pages: 92 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211
      Author(s): Ann Sofie Olesen, Louise Lohse, Anette Boklund, Tariq Halasa, Carmina Gallardo, Zygmunt Pejsak, Graham J. Belsham, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Anette Bøtner
      In 2014, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Baltic states and Poland. Since then, the disease has continued to spread within these regions, and recently, cases were reported in the Czech Republic and Romania. Currently, there is an increasing risk of ASFV introduction into Western Europe. Hence, there is an urgent need to assess current contingency plans. For this purpose, knowledge of modes-of-transmission and clinical outcome in pigs infected with new European ASFV strains is needed. In the present study, two experiments were conducted in pigs using an isolate of ASFV from Poland (designated here POL/2015/Podlaskie/Lindholm). In both studies, pigs were inoculated intranasally with the virus and contact pigs were exposed to the experimentally infected pigs, either directly (contact within and between pens) or by air. Pigs exposed to the virus by intranasal inoculation, by direct contact to infected animals and by aerosol developed acute disease characterized by viremia, fever and depression. Infectious virus was first detected in blood obtained from the inoculated pigs and then sequentially among the within-pen, between-pen and air-contact pigs. ASFV DNA and occasionally infectious virus was found in nasal-, oral-, and rectal swabs obtained from the pigs, and ASFV DNA was detected in air samples. No anti-ASFV antibodies were detected in sera. In conclusion, the study shows that the currently circulating strain of ASFV can be efficiently transmitted via direct contact and by aerosols. Also, the results provide quantitative transmission parameters and knowledge of infection stages in pigs infected with this ASFV.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T10:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2017)
  • Frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal distribution of
           methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in canine clinical
           samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory in Italy: A 3-year
           retrospective investigation
    • Authors: G. Ventrella; A. Moodley; E. Grandolfo; A. Parisi; M. Corrente; D. Buonavoglia; L. Guardabassi
      Pages: 103 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211
      Author(s): G. Ventrella, A. Moodley, E. Grandolfo, A. Parisi, M. Corrente, D. Buonavoglia, L. Guardabassi
      In the last decade there has been a rapid global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) clones displaying multidrug resistance in dogs. We investigated prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal distribution of MRSP isolated from clinical canine samples between during 2011–2014. Following species identification by nuc PCR, MRSP were confirmed by the presence of mecA and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), SCCmec typing, and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of a few isolates having distinct PFGE profiles. Both the MRSP isolation frequency in the 175 samples tested (12%) and the prevalence of methicillin resistance amongst the 63 S. pseudintermedius isolates (33%) were high compared to a previous study in Italy. Sequence type (ST)71 carrying SCCmec type II–III, described as the epidemic European MRSP clone, accounted for approximately half of the isolates. The remaining isolates belonged to ST410-SCCmec type II–III, ST258-SCCmec type IV and other three clones associated with SCCmec type IV (ST261, ST290 and ST477). MRSP were consistently resistant to potentiated sulfonamides, and more frequently to clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and doxycycline than methicillin-susceptible isolates. Gentamicin was the only antibiotic showing good in vitro activity on all MRSP with 20 of the 21 isolates being susceptible. Results confirm a high prevalence of MRSP amongst clinical samples in Italy, revealing the emergence of new clones other than ST71, such as ST258, ST410, ST261, ST290 and ST477, here describe for the first time. Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship and surveillance programmes are required to prevent the emergence of new MRSP clones and reducing transmission in small animal practice.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T10:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2017)
  • The characterization of Brucella strains isolated from cattle in Algeria
           reveals the existence of a B. abortus lineage distinct from European and
           Sub-Saharan Africa strains
    • Authors: Mammar Khames; Virginie Mick; M. Jesús de Miguel; Guillaume Girault; Raquel Conde-Álvarez; Djamel Khelef; Mustapha Oumouna; Ignacio Moriyón; Pilar M. Muñoz; Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa
      Pages: 124 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211
      Author(s): Mammar Khames, Virginie Mick, M. Jesús de Miguel, Guillaume Girault, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, Djamel Khelef, Mustapha Oumouna, Ignacio Moriyón, Pilar M. Muñoz, Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa
      Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella that causes important economic losses and human suffering worldwide. Brucellosis control requires an understanding of the Brucella species circulating in livestock and humans and, although prevalent in African countries of the Mediterranean basin, data for this area are mostly restricted to isolates obtained from humans and small ruminants. Here, we report the characterization of twenty-four Brucella strains isolated from Algerian cattle. Bruce-ladder multiplex PCR and conventional biotyping showed that Algerian cattle are infected mostly by B. abortus biovar 3, and to less extent by B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 3. Extended AMOS-ERY PCR showed that all Algerian B. abortus biovar 3 strains were of the subgroup 3b. Although by multi locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) most isolates were closer to the European counterparts, five strains displayed characteristics distinct from the European isolates and those of countries across the Sahara, including three repetitions of marker Bruce55. These five strains, plus an earlier isolate from an Algerian human patient, may represent a lineage close to clades previously described in Africa. These data provide the basis for additional molecular epidemiology studies in northern Africa and indicate that further bacteriological and molecular investigations are necessary for a complete understanding of the epidemiology of cattle brucellosis in countries north and south of the Sahara.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T11:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2017)
  • Increased virulence of a PB2/HA mutant of an avian H9N2 influenza strain
           after three passages in porcine differentiated airway epithelial cells
    • Authors: Wei Yang; Ruth L.O. Lambertz; Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya; Sarah R. Leist; Jürgen Stech; Klaus Schughart; Georg Herrler; Nai-Huei Wu; Fandan Meng
      Pages: 129 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211
      Author(s): Wei Yang, Ruth L.O. Lambertz, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Sarah R. Leist, Jürgen Stech, Klaus Schughart, Georg Herrler, Nai-Huei Wu, Fandan Meng
      We analyzed the adaptation of influenza viruses to growth in differentiated airway epithelial cells of a new host by passaging an avian H9N2 virus three times in porcine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). Sequence analysis revealed four mutations: one each in the PB2 and NS1 proteins, and two in the HA protein. In this study, we characterized the PB2 mutation G685R by generating recombinant H9N2 viruses containing the PB2 single mutation alone or in combination with one of the HA mutations (A190V or T212I). When analyzed in porcine cells − a tracheal cell line (NPTr) or PCLS − the PB2-685 mutant did not provide a growth advantage and had no effect on the ciliary activity which is a virulence marker of swine influenza viruses. Pathogenicity for mice was also not increased by the single PB2 mutation. However, both double mutants (HA-190+PB2-685 and HA-212+PB2-685) showed significantly increased virulence in mice. Therefore, the mutations in the HA and PB2 proteins may confer early adaptation of an avian H9N2 virus to a mammalian host. In conclusion, we expect that a broader ensemble of mutations will be required to render an H9N2 virus virulent for pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T11:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2017)
  • In vivo probiotic and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as alternative
           therapies against cryptococcosis are ineffective
    • Authors: Lorena Vívien Neves de Oliveira; Rafael Wesley Bastos; Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro; Marliete Carvalho Costa; Leonardo Borges Acurcio; Karen Maia Rocha; Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos; Rosana de Carvalho Cruz; Betânia Maria Soares; Daniel Assis Santos
      Pages: 169 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211
      Author(s): Lorena Vívien Neves de Oliveira, Rafael Wesley Bastos, Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Leonardo Borges Acurcio, Karen Maia Rocha, Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos, Rosana de Carvalho Cruz, Betânia Maria Soares, Daniel Assis Santos
      Cryptococcosis, an invasive fungal infection distributed worldwide that affects both domestic and wild animals, has incredible rates regarding treatment failure, leading to the necessity of the development of new therapies. In this way, we aimed to evaluate the probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus paracasei ST-11, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) and antimicrobial photodynamic alternative therapies against Cryptococcus gattii in a murine model. Although previous studies suggest that these therapies can be promising against cryptococcosis, our experimental conditions for both probiotic and antimicrobial photodynamic therapies (aPDT) were not able to improve the survival of mice with cryptococcosis, even with the treatment combined with fluconazole. Our results may help other researchers to find the best protocol to test alternative therapies against Cryptococcus gattii.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T12:59:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2017)
  • Are vaccine strain, type or administration protocol risk factors for
           canine parvovirus vaccine failure'
    • Authors: K.D. Altman; M. Kelman; M.P. Ward
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 210
      Author(s): K.D. Altman, M. Kelman, M.P. Ward
      Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious and worldwide cause of serious and often fatal disease in dogs, despite the widespread availability of vaccines. Which vaccine-related factors are associated with vaccination failure is largely unknown, and there are no reports from Australia. In this study – the first national population-level CPV study of its kind ever conducted – we analysed data on 594 cases of apparent CPV vaccination failure reported from an Australian national surveillance system to determine whether vaccine strain, type or administration protocol are risk factors for vaccination failures. The strain of CPV used in vaccine manufacture was not significantly associated with vaccination failure in clinical practice. The vaccine type (killed versus attenuated vaccine) for puppies diagnosed with CPV was associated with a lower mean age at time of vaccination (P=0.0495). The age at administration of the last CPV vaccination a puppy received prior to presenting with disease was a significant (P=0.0334) risk factor for vaccination failure, irrespective of whether the vaccine was marketed for a 10-week or 12-week or greater vaccination finish protocol. There was also a strong negative correlation between age at last vaccination prior to disease and vaccination failure (P<0.0001): the later a puppy received this last vaccination, the lower the risk of vaccination failure. This supports the hypothesis that the use of final vaccination in puppies at less than 16 weeks of age predisposes to vaccination failure and warrants a final age for vaccination recommendation to be at least 16 weeks for all canine parvovirus vaccines, especially in outbreak situations. The large number of cases identified in this study confirms that CPV vaccination failure is occurring in Australia. Veterinarians should consider CPV as a differential diagnosis in cases with appropriate clinical presentation, regardless of the reported vaccination status of the dog.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T22:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2017)
  • Pathogenicity of Pekin duck- and goose-origin parvoviruses in Pekin
    • Authors: Kang Ning; Minghang Wang; Shenghua Qu; Junfeng Lv; Lixin Yang; Dabing Zhang
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Kang Ning, Minghang Wang, Shenghua Qu, Junfeng Lv, Lixin Yang, Dabing Zhang
      Goose parvovirus (GPV) usually affects goslings and Muscovy ducks but not Pekin ducks. Earlier works showed that a variant GPV can cause short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) in Pekin ducks. Here, we investigated the pathogenicity of a variant GPV of Pekin duck-origin (JS1) and a classical GPV of goose-origin (H) in Pekin ducklings. Following intramuscular infection at two days of age, both JS1 and H strains influenced weight gain and development of beaks and bones of wings and legs, and caused microscopic lesions of internal organs of ducks. However, the clinical signs typical of SBDS could only be replicated with the JS1 isolate. The findings suggest that both variant and classical GPVs are pathogenic for Pekin ducklings, while the former is more virulent than the latter. Using a quantitative real-time PCR assay, high levels of viral load were detected from bloods, internal organs, leg muscles, and ileac contents in JS1- and H-infected ducks from 6hours to 35days postinfection (DPI). Using a GPV VP3-based ELISA, antibodies in sera of JS1- and H-infected ducks were detectable at 1 DPI and then persistently rose during the subsequent five weeks. These results suggest that both variant and classical GPVs can infect Pekin ducklings. The present work contributes to the understanding of pathogenicity of GPV to Pekin ducks and may provide clues to pathogenesis of GPV-related SBDS.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T22:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2017)
  • Corrigendum to ’Efficacy of E2 glycoprotein fused to porcine CD154 as a
           novel chimeric subunit vaccine to prevent classical swine fever virus
           vertical transmission in pregnant sows’ [Veterinary Microbiology (2017)
    • Authors: S Muñoz-González; Y Sordo; M Pérez-Simó; M Suárez; A Canturri; MP Rodriguez; MT Frías-Lepoureau; M Domingo; MP Estrada; L Ganges
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): S Muñoz-González, Y Sordo, M Pérez-Simó, M Suárez, A Canturri, MP Rodriguez, MT Frías-Lepoureau, M Domingo, MP Estrada, L Ganges

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T10:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.013
  • Serological and virological survey of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in animal
           reservoirs from Uruguay reveals elevated prevalences and a very close
           phylogenetic relationship between swine and human strains
    • Authors: Santiago Mirazo; Noemí R. Gardinali; D'Albora Cecilia; Lorenzo Verger; Florencia Ottonelli; Natalia Ramos; Gustavo Castro; Marcelo A. Pinto; Viviana Re; Belén Pisano; Alejandra Lozano; Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira; Juan Arbiza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Santiago Mirazo, Noemí R. Gardinali, D'Albora Cecilia, Lorenzo Verger, Florencia Ottonelli, Natalia Ramos, Gustavo Castro, Marcelo A. Pinto, Viviana Re, Belén Pisano, Alejandra Lozano, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Juan Arbiza
      Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an issue of public health concern in high-income and non-endemic countries. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis of a zoonotic route as the main mode of infection in this epidemiological setting, since the transmission of genotypes HEV-3 and HEV-4 from reservoirs to humans has been demonstrated. In America, studies have confirmed the circulation of HEV in pig herds but the zoonotic role of wild boars has never been evaluated. Uruguay has a high burden of HEV- associated acute hepatitis, and a close phylogenetic relationship was observed among human HEV-3 strains and European isolates detected in swine. However in this context, swine herds have never been surveyed. Herein is reported a survey of HEV in swine herds, pigs at slaughter-house and free-living wild boar populations. Two-hundred and twenty sera and 150 liver tissue samples from domestic pigs, and 140 sera from wild boars were tested for HEV by ELISA and PCR-based approaches. All tested swine farms resulted seropositive with an overall rate of 46.8%. In turn, 22.1% of the wild boars had anti-HEV antibodies. HEV RNA was detected in 16.6% and 9.3% of liver samples from slaughter-age pigs and adult wild boars sera, respectively. Three strains from domestic pig were also amplified by nested-PCR approaches. By contrast, none of the positive samples obtained from wild boars could be confirmed by nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a very high nucleotide identity among swine strains and sequences obtained from humans in Uruguay. Results showed that HEV is widely distributed among swine herds in Uruguay. Additionally, this study evidences for the first time in the American continent that wild boar populations are a reservoir for HEV, though its zoonotic role remains to be elucidated. Altogether, data presented here suggest a high zoonotic risk of HEV transmission from swine to humans.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T10:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.013
  • Seroprevalence of horses to Coxiella burnetii in an Q fever endemic area
    • Authors: Isabelle Desjardins; Aurélien Joulié; Sophie Pradier; Sylvie Lecollinet; Cécile Beck; Laurence Vial; Philippe Dufour; Patrick Gasqui; Loïc Legrand; Sophie Edouard; Karim Sidi-Boumedine; Elodie Rousset; Elsa Jourdain; Agnès Leblond
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Isabelle Desjardins, Aurélien Joulié, Sophie Pradier, Sylvie Lecollinet, Cécile Beck, Laurence Vial, Philippe Dufour, Patrick Gasqui, Loïc Legrand, Sophie Edouard, Karim Sidi-Boumedine, Elodie Rousset, Elsa Jourdain, Agnès Leblond
      Coxiella burnetii can infect many animal species, but its circulation dynamics in and through horses is still unclear. This study evaluated horse exposure in an area known to be endemic for ruminants and humans. We assessed antibody prevalence in horse serum by ELISA, and screened by qPCR horse blood, ticks found on horses and dust from stables. Horse seroprevalence was 4% (n=335, 37 stables) in 2015 and 12% (n=294, 39 stables) in 2016. Of 199 horses sampled both years, 13 seroconverted, eight remained seropositive, and one seroreverted. Seropositive horses were located close to reported human cases, yet none displayed Q fever-compatible syndromes. Coxiella DNA was detected in almost 40% of collected ticks (n=59/148 in 2015; n=103/305 in 2016), occasionally in dust (n=3/46 in 2015; n=1/14 in 2016) but never in horse blood. Further studies should be implemented to evaluate if horses may be relevant indicators of zoonotic risk in urban and suburban endemic areas.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T10:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.012
  • Gene expression profiling of chicken cecal tonsils and ileum following
           oral exposure to soluble and PLGA-encapsulated- CpG ODN, and lysate of
           Campylobacter jejuni
    • Authors: Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz; Tamiru Negash Alkie; Douglas C. Hodgins; Alexander Yitbarek; Bahram Shojadoost; Shayan Sharif
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Tamiru Negash Alkie, Douglas C. Hodgins, Alexander Yitbarek, Bahram Shojadoost, Shayan Sharif
      Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness in humans. Contaminated chicken meat is an important source of infection for humans. Chickens are not clinically affected by colonization, and immune responses following natural infection have limited effects on bacterial load in the gut. Induction of intestinal immune responses may possibly lead to a breakdown of the commensal relationship of chickens with Campylobacter. We have recently shown that soluble and poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as well as C. jejuni lysate, are effective in reducing the intestinal burden of C. jejuni in chickens; however, the mechanisms behind this protection have yet to be determined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of host responses conferred by these treatments. Chickens were treated orally with soluble CpG ODN, or PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, or C. jejuni lysate, and expression of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides was evaluated in cecal tonsils and ileum using quantitative RT-PCR. Oral administration of soluble CpG ODN upregulated the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCLi2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4/1, IL-10 and IL-13, while treatment with PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN upregulated the expression of IL-1β, CXCLi2, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). C. jejuni lysate upregulated the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, AvBD1, and CATHL-In conclusion, induction of cytokine and antimicrobial peptides expression in intestinal microenvironments may provide a means of reducing C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens, a key step in reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.010
  • Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in zoo animals and
           identification of a rodent-borne strain in a Syrian brown bear
    • Authors: Carina Spahr; René Ryll; Tobias Knauf-Witzens; Thomas W. Vahlenkamp; Rainer G. Ulrich; Reimar Johne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Carina Spahr, René Ryll, Tobias Knauf-Witzens, Thomas W. Vahlenkamp, Rainer G. Ulrich, Reimar Johne
      Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging infectious disease of humans. HEV infections have also been described in various animal species. Whereas domestic pigs and wild boars are well-known animal reservoirs for HEV, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in zoo animals is scarce so far. Here, we analysed 244 sera from 66 mammal species derived from three zoos in Germany using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 16 animal species, with the highest detection rates in suids (33.3%) and carnivores (27.0%). However, RNA of the human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1 to 4 was not detected in the serum samples from suids or carnivores. Using a broad spectrum RT-PCR, a ratHEV-related sequence was identified in a sample of a female Syrian brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus). Subsequent serum samples within a period of five years confirmed a HEV seroconversion in this animal. No symptoms of hepatitis were recorded. In a follow-up investigation at the same location, closely related ratHEV sequences were identified in free-living Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), whereas feeder rats (Rattus norvegicus forma domestica) were negative for HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. Therefore, a spillover infection of ratHEV from free-living Norway rats is most likely. The results indicate that a wide range of zoo animals can be naturally infected with HEV or HEV-related viruses. Their distinct role as possible reservoir animals for HEV and sources of HEV infection for humans and other animals remains to be investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.005
  • Factors influencing the outcome of primary immunization against rabies in
           young dogs
    • Authors: Konstantia E. Tasioudi; Dimos Papatheodorou; Peristera Iliadou; Polychronis Kostoulas; Maria Gianniou; Eleni Chondrokouki; Olga Mangana-Vougiouka; Mathios E. Mylonakis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Konstantia E. Tasioudi, Dimos Papatheodorou, Peristera Iliadou, Polychronis Kostoulas, Maria Gianniou, Eleni Chondrokouki, Olga Mangana-Vougiouka, Mathios E. Mylonakis
      There is currently limited information on the factors influencing the outcome of rabies vaccination in dogs based on the primary immunization schedule. The objective of this study was to investigate whether selected variables (signalment, number of vaccinations, vaccine brand and multivalence, and time interval between the most recent vaccination and blood sampling) were associated with the achievement of an acceptable titer threshold (based on international standards) and with absolute antibody titers in young dogs vaccinated with commercially available vaccines. Serologic data from 662 dogs tested prior to their first annual booster for rabies were retrospectively reviewed. Neutralizing antibody titers were determined using a fluorescent antibody neutralization test. An acceptable titer threshold (≥0.5IU/ml) was achieved in 86.5% of the dogs. Dogs that had been vaccinated twice had significantly (P< 0.001) higher antibody titers compared with dogs vaccinated once. The odds of achieving seropositivity and the median absolute antibody titer tended to decrease with increasing time between vaccination and blood sampling. Dogs vaccinated with monovalent vaccines were more likely to achieve an acceptable titer than dogs vaccinated with polyvalent vaccines. Dogs that were vaccinated after 3-6 months of age were more likely to develop higher antibody titers. These results indicate that the administration of two vaccines rather than one vaccine in the primary immunization schedule for rabies, result in a superior vaccination response and may be a more beneficial policy for ensuring pre-exposure prophylaxis and for travel certification of young dogs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.006
  • Corrigendum to “Efficacy of E2 glycoprotein fused to porcine CD154 as a
           novel chimeric subunit vaccine to prevent classical swine fever virus
           vertical transmission in pregnant sows”
    • Authors: Sara Muñoz-González; Yusmel Sordo; Marta Pérez-Simó; Marisela Suarez; Albert Canturri; Maria Pilar Rodriguez; María Teresa Frías-Lepoureau; Mariano Domingo; Mario Pablo Estrada; Llilianne Ganges
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Sara Muñoz-González, Yusmel Sordo, Marta Pérez-Simó, Marisela Suarez, Albert Canturri, Maria Pilar Rodriguez, María Teresa Frías-Lepoureau, Mariano Domingo, Mario Pablo Estrada, Llilianne Ganges
      Here we evaluated the effect of double vaccination with a novel subunit marker vaccine candidate based in the CSFV E2 glycoprotein fused to the porcine CD154 to prevent CSFV vertical transmission. A lentivirus-based gene delivery system was used to obtain a stable recombinant HEK 293 cell line for the expression of E2 fused to porcine CD154 molecule. Six pregnant sows were distributed in two groups and at 64days of gestation animals numbered 1–4 (group 1) were vaccinated via intramuscular inoculation with 50μg of E2-CD154 subunit vaccine. Animals from group 2 (numbered 5 and 6, control animals) were injected with PBS. Seventeen days later sows from group 1 were boosted with the same vaccine dose. Twenty-seven days after the first immunization, the sows were challenged with a virulent CSFV Margarita strain and clinical signs were registered. Samples were collected during the experiment and at necropsy to evaluate immune response and virological protection. Between 14 and 18days after challenge, the sows were euthanized, the foetuses were obtained and samples of sera and tissues were collected. E2-CD154 vaccinated animals remained clinically healthy until the end of the study; also, no adverse reaction was shown after vaccination. An effective boost effect in the neutralizing antibody response after the second immunization and viral challenge was observed and supports the virological protection detected in these animals after vaccination. Protection against CSFV vertical transmission was found in the 100% of serums samples from foetus of vaccinated sows. Only two out of 208 samples (0.96%) were positive with Ct value about 36 corresponding to one tonsil and one thymus, which may be non-infective viral particles. Besides, its DIVA potential and protection from vertical transmission, the novel CSFV E2 bound to CD154 subunit vaccine, is a promising alternative to the live-attenuated vaccine for developing countries.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.014
  • EIF3i Affects Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Growth by Interacting with Matrix
    • Authors: Wei Pan; Deguang Song; Wenqi He; Huijun Lu; Yungang Lan; Hongli Li; Feng Gao; Kui Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Wei Pan, Deguang Song, Wenqi He, Huijun Lu, Yungang Lan, Hongli Li, Feng Gao, Kui Zhao
      The matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) performs multiple functions during viral genome replication and virion production and is involved in modulating multiple host signaling pathways that favor virus replication. To perform numerous functions within infected cells, the M protein needs to recruit cellular partners. To better understand the role of M during VSV replication, we looked for interacting partners by using the two-hybrid system. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit i (eIF3i) was identified to be an M-binding partner, and this interaction was validated by GST pull-down and laser confocal assays. Through a mutagenesis analysis, we found that some mutants of M between amino acids 122 and 181 impaired but did not completely abolish the M–eIF3i interaction. Furthermore, the knockdown of eIF3i by RNA interference decreased viral replication and transcription in the early stages but led to increase in later stages. VSV transcription was increased at 4hours post-infection but was not changed at 8 and 12hours post-infection after the over-expression of eIF3i. Finally, we also demonstrated that VSV could inhibit the activity of Akt1 and that the knockdown of eIF3i inhibited the expression of the ISGs regulated by phospho-Akt1. These results indicated that eIF3i may affect VSV growth by regulating the host antiviral response in HeLa cells.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.021
  • Recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease
           virus VP60 protein provided protection against RHD in rabbits
    • Authors: Qian Jiang; Zuo Yu; Jia-sen Liu; De-sheng Kong; Dong-chun Guo; Chuan-song Quan; Bo-tao Li; Xiao-liang Hu; Liandong Qu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Qian Jiang, Zuo Yu, Jia-sen Liu, De-sheng Kong, Dong-chun Guo, Chuan-song Quan, Bo-tao Li, Xiao-liang Hu, Liandong Qu
      Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is responsible for rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), which is an acute, lethal and highly contagious disease in both wild and domestic rabbits. Although current vaccines are highly effective for controlling RHD, they are derived from infected rabbit livers and their use is thus associated with safety and animal-welfare concerns. In this study, we generated a recombinant lentogenic canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) vector expressing the RHDV vp60 gene, named rCAV2-VP60. rCAV2-VP60 expressed VP60 protein in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells as demonstrated by western blot and immunofluorescence assay. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the vp60 gene was successfully inserted into rCAV2-VP60 and was still detectable after 20 passages, indicating its stable genetic character. We evaluated the feasibility of rCAV2-VP60 as a live-virus-vectored RHD vaccine in rabbits. rCAV2-VP60 significantly induced specific antibodies to RHDV and provided effective protection against RHDV lethal challenge. These results suggest that rCAV2 expressing RHDV VP60 could be a safe and efficient candidate vaccine against RHDV in rabbits.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.007
  • Screening host proteins required for bacterial adherence after H9N2 virus
    • Authors: Li-li Ma; Zhen-hong Sun; Yu-lin Xu; Shu-juan Wang; Hui-ning Wang; Hao Zhang; Li-ping Hu; Xiao-mei Sun; Lin Zhu; Hong-qi Shang; Rui-liang Zhu; Kai Wei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Li-li Ma, Zhen-hong Sun, Yu-lin Xu, Shu-juan Wang, Hui-ning Wang, Hao Zhang, Li-ping Hu, Xiao-mei Sun, Lin Zhu, Hong-qi Shang, Rui-liang Zhu, Kai Wei
      H9N2 subtype low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) is distributed worldwide and causes great economic losses in the poultry industry, especially when complicated with other bacterial infections. Tissue damages caused by virus infection provide an opportunity for bacteria invasion, but this mechanism is not sufficient for low pathogenic strains. Moreover, although H9N2 virus infection was demonstrated to promote bacterial infection in several studies, its mechanism remained unclear. In this study, infection experiments in vivo and in vitro demonstrated that the adhesion of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to host cells significantly increased after H9N2 virus infection, and this increase was not caused by pathological damages. Subsequently, we constructed a late chicken embryo infection model and used proteomics techniques to analyze the expression of proteins associated with bacterial adhesion after H9N2 virus infection. A total of 279 significantly differential expressed proteins were detected through isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis. The results of Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed proteins were enriched in host innate immunity; cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis; and pathogenicity-related signaling pathways. Finally, we screened out several proteins, such as TGF-β1, integrins, cortactin, E-cadherin, vinculin, and fibromodulin, which were probably associated with bacterial adhesion. The study analyzed the mechanism of secondary bacterial infection induced by H9N2 virus infection from a novel perspective, which provided theoretical and data support for investigating the synergistic infection mechanism between the H9N2 virus and bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T19:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.003
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 211

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T12:59:31Z
  • IFC - Aims &amp; Scope, EDB, Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 210

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T12:59:31Z
  • European surveillance of emerging pathogens associated with canine
           infectious respiratory disease
    • Authors: Judy A. Mitchell; Jacqueline M. Cardwell; Heather Leach; Caray A. Walker; Sophie Le Poder; Nicola Decaro; Miklos Rusvai; Herman Egberink; Peter Rottier; Mireia Fernandez; Eirini Fragkiadaki; Shelly Shields; Joe Brownlie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Judy A. Mitchell, Jacqueline M. Cardwell, Heather Leach, Caray A. Walker, Sophie Le Poder, Nicola Decaro, Miklos Rusvai, Herman Egberink, Peter Rottier, Mireia Fernandez, Eirini Fragkiadaki, Shelly Shields, Joe Brownlie
      Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a major cause of morbidity in dogs worldwide, and is associated with a number of new and emerging pathogens. In a large multi-centre European study the prevalences of four key emerging CIRD pathogens; canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), influenza A, and Mycoplasma cynos (M. cynos); were estimated, and risk factors for exposure, infection and clinical disease were investigated. CIRD affected 66% (381/572) of the dogs studied, including both pet and kennelled dogs. Disease occurrence and severity were significantly reduced in dogs vaccinated against classic CIRD agents, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus 2 (CAV-2) and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), but substantial proportions (65.7%; 201/306) of vaccinated dogs remained affected. CRCoV and CnPnV were highly prevalent across the different dog populations, with overall seropositivity and detection rates of 47% and 7.7% for CRCoV, and 41.7% and 23.4% for CnPnV, respectively, and their presence was associated with increased occurrence and severity of clinical disease. Antibodies to CRCoV had a protective effect against CRCoV infection and more severe clinical signs of CIRD but antibodies to CnPnV did not. Involvement of M. cynos and influenza A in CIRD was less apparent. Despite 45% of dogs being seropositive for M. cynos, only 0.9% were PCR positive for M. cynos. Only 2.7% of dogs were seropositive for Influenza A, and none were positive by PCR.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T11:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.019
  • Immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing porcine reproductive
           and respiratory syndrome virus polyepitopes
    • Authors: Jesús Hernández; Edgar Rascón-Castelo; Jocelyn Bray; Shehnaz Lokhandwala; Waithaka Mwangi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jesús Hernández, Edgar Rascón-Castelo, Jocelyn Bray, Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Waithaka Mwangi
      The objective of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity of a chimeric antigen containing characterized PRRSV epitopes. A synthetic gene, designated HEJ, encoding defined epitopes was used to generate a recombinant adenovirus designed Ad-HEJ. The chimeric antigen included T-cell epitopes from structural and nonstructural proteins, and a neutralizing B-cell epitope. Following a homologous prime-boost immunization, the Ad-HEJ virus elicited significant (p<0.05) epitope-specific IFN-γ responses compared to sham-treatment. Two weeks post-challenge, this response was significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to the negative control treatment. IFN-γ response to PRRSV stimulation in vitro were observed in both groups only after challenge. Antibodies against PRRSV and peptides were detectable following prime-boost immunization in the Ad-HEJ treatment group and the responses increased post-challenge against the virus and against most of the peptides. All the swine were viremic one week post-challenge, but four weeks later, five out of the seven Ad-HEJ vaccinees had cleared the PRRSV, whereas only two of the six negative controls had cleared the virus. The outcome suggests that the adenovirus expressing defined epitopes induced a strong immune response against the peptides, but this response was not sufficient to confer protection against PRRSV challenge.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T11:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.020
  • Candida parapsilosis complex in veterinary practice: A historical
           overview, biology, virulence attributes and antifungal susceptibility
    • Authors: Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro; Jamille Alencar Sales; Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco; Raimunda Samia Nogueira Brilhante; Yago Brito de Ponte; Géssica dos Santos Araújo; Patrícia Bruna Leite Mendes; Vandbergue Santos Pereira; Lucas Pereira de Alencar; Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro; José Júlio Costa Sidrim; Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Jamille Alencar Sales, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Raimunda Samia Nogueira Brilhante, Yago Brito de Ponte, Géssica dos Santos Araújo, Patrícia Bruna Leite Mendes, Vandbergue Santos Pereira, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
      The Candida genus is composed by yeast that commensally live as part of human and animal microbiota. In the last years, C. parapsilosis complex, composed by the cryptic species C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, has been frequently implicated in human nosocomial infections in Europe and Latin America. In veterinary medicine, C. parapsilosis sensu lato infections have been reported in different animal species. Several putative virulence factors have been associated with the pathogenicity of this species complex, including biofilm formation and the production of proteases, phospholipases, lipases and other hydrolytic enzymes. Additionally, these species have developed antifungal resistance, especially to azole derivatives and echinocandins. Thus, considering the pathogenic potential of the C. parapsilosis species complex, along with the emergence of antifungal resistant strains, this review was designed to approach historical and biological aspects, microbiological features, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility traits of C. parapsilosis complex from animals.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T11:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.07.031
  • Different activated methyl cycle pathways affect the pathogenicity of
           avian pathogenic Escherichia coli
    • Authors: Da Xu; Jiakun Zuo; Zhaoguo Chen; Xiaolong Lv; Jiangang Hu; Xiaoka Wu; Kezong Qi; Rongsheng Mi; Yan Huang; Jingfeng Miao; Wei Jiang; Shaohui Wang; Chengming Wang; Xiangan Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Da Xu, Jiakun Zuo, Zhaoguo Chen, Xiaolong Lv, Jiangang Hu, Xiaoka Wu, Kezong Qi, Rongsheng Mi, Yan Huang, Jingfeng Miao, Wei Jiang, Shaohui Wang, Chengming Wang, Xiangan Han
      The activated methyl cycle (AMC) regulates the cellular levels of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) in bacteria, which plays a crucial role in bacterial pathogenicity. There are two AMC pathways in bacteria: one is a two-step reaction pathway (named the LuxS/Pfs pathway) in which LuxS and Pfs catalyze the conversion of SAH to l-homocysteine and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and the other is a one-step reaction (named the SahH pathway) mediated by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SahH), which completes this cycle without producing AI-2. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different AMC pathways on the pathogenicity of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). The plasmid pSTV-sahH (containing the sahH gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was transformed into the wild-type APEC strain DE17 (containing the LuxS/Pfs pathway) and the pfs mutant strain DE17Δpfs, which lacks the LuxS/Pfs pathway, to create the strains SahH-DE17Δpfs (containing the SahH pathway) and SahH-DE17 (containing the LuxS/Pfs and SahH pathways). The results showed that the different AMC pathways had different effects on the growth rate, AI-2 activity, and motility in APEC. Furthermore, we showed that the 50% lethal doses of the DE17Δpfs and SahH-DE17Δpfs strains were reduced by 650-fold and 52-fold, respectively, in ducklings, compared with that of the DE17 strain. The DE17Δpfs strain exhibited significantly reduced adherence and invasion (p< 0.01). In addition, the DE17Δpfs and SahH-DE17Δpfs strains also showed reduced survival in vivo, as evidenced by significant (p< 0.01) reductions in their bacterial loads in infected liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. This study suggests that different AMC pathways affect the pathogenesis of APEC.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T11:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.017
  • Molecular epidemiology of swine influenza A viruses in the Southeastern
           United States, highlights regional differences in circulating strains
    • Authors: Constantinos S. Kyriakis; Ming Zhang; Stefan Wolf; Les P. Jones; Byoung-Shik Shim; Anna H. Chocallo; Jarod M. Hanson; Mingrui Jia; Dong Liu; Ralph A. Tripp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Constantinos S. Kyriakis, Ming Zhang, Stefan Wolf, Les P. Jones, Byoung-Shik Shim, Anna H. Chocallo, Jarod M. Hanson, Mingrui Jia, Dong Liu, Ralph A. Tripp
      Swine influenza A virus (IAV) can cause widespread respiratory disease with high morbidity, low mortality, and have a substantial economic impact to the swine industry. Swine infection may contribute to pandemic IAV given their susceptibility to both avian and human IAVs. Currently, three IAV subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2) circulate in swine in North America frequently combining gene segments from avian or human viruses. This study investigated the prevalence of IAV in commercial swine herds. A total of 1,878 oral fluid samples were collected from pigs of all ages from 201 commercial farms located in North Carolina and South Carolina. Sixty-eight oral fluid samples from 35 farms were positive by MP gene PCR with an overall IAV-positivity of 3.6%. On the herd level, the percentage of IAV positivity was 17.4%. Fifty-six viruses were subtyped, while 12 were partly subtyped or not subtyped at all. Using de novo assembly, complete sequences were obtained for 59 HA genes. The majority of IAVs subtyped had an H1 HA demonstrating a considerable prevalence over H3 viruses. Furthermore, only six out of eleven HA types were detected which has implications for the selection of vaccines used by swine producers in the region.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T11:24:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.016
  • Fetopathic effects of experimental Schmallenberg virus infection in
           pregnant goats
    • Authors: Eve Laloy; Emmanuel Bréard; Sascha Trapp; Nathalie Pozzi; Mickaël Riou; Céline Barc; Sylvain Breton; Rémi Delaunay; Nathalie Cordonnier; Sophie Chateau-Joubert; Didier Crochet; Julie Gouzil; Typhaine Hébert; Maxime Raimbourg; Cyril Viarouge; Damien Vitour; Benoît Durand; Claire Ponsart; Stéphan Zientara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Eve Laloy, Emmanuel Bréard, Sascha Trapp, Nathalie Pozzi, Mickaël Riou, Céline Barc, Sylvain Breton, Rémi Delaunay, Nathalie Cordonnier, Sophie Chateau-Joubert, Didier Crochet, Julie Gouzil, Typhaine Hébert, Maxime Raimbourg, Cyril Viarouge, Damien Vitour, Benoît Durand, Claire Ponsart, Stéphan Zientara
      Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging virus responsible for congenital malformations in the offspring of domestic ruminants. It is speculated that infection of pregnant dams may also lead to a significant number of unrecognized fetal losses during the early period of gestation. To assess the pathogenic effects of SBV infection of goats in early pregnancy, we inoculated dams at day 28 or 42 of gestation and followed the animals until day 55 of gestation. Viremia in the absence of clinical signs was detected in all virus-inoculated goats. Fetal deaths were observed in several goats infected at day 28 or 42 of gestation and were invariably associated with the presence of viral genomic RNA in the affected fetuses. Among the viable fetuses, two displayed lesions in the central nervous system (porencephaly) in the presence of viral genome and antigen. All fetuses from goats infected at day 42 and the majority of fetuses from goats infected at day 28 of gestation contained viral genomic RNA. Viral genome was widely distributed in these fetuses and their respective placentas, and infectious virus could be isolated from several organs and placentomes of the viable fetuses. Our results show that fetuses of pregnant goats are susceptible to vertical SBV infection during early pregnancy spanning at least the period between day 28 and 42 of gestation. The outcomes of experimental SBV infection assessed at day 55 of gestation include fetal mortalities, viable fetuses displaying lesions of the central nervous system, as well as viable fetuses without any detectable lesion.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.011
  • Magnolol protects channel catfish from Aeromonas hydrophila infection via
           inhibiting the expression of aerolysin
    • Authors: Jing Dong; Hao Ding; Yongtao Liu; Qiuhong Yang; Ning Xu; Yibin Yang; Xiaohui Ai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Jing Dong, Hao Ding, Yongtao Liu, Qiuhong Yang, Ning Xu, Yibin Yang, Xiaohui Ai
      Aeromonas hydrophila is a common zoonotic pathogen which can cause several infections both in human and animals, particular aquatic animals. Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of A. hydrophila infections, however, the development of resistance has limited the treatment for these infections. There is an urgent need for novel agents and strategies against these infections. Aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by most pathogenic A. hydrophila, is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila infections. Therefore, aerolysin has been identified as a potential target for drug discovery. In this paper, we found that magnolol, a natural compound without anti -A. hydrophila activity, could significantly inhibit the hemolytic activity of A. hydrophila culture supernatants by inhibiting the transcription of the aerolysin encoding gene aerA at low concentrations. Furthermore, the survival assay showed that magnolol could significantly reduce the mortality induced by A. hydrophila infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Taken together, these findings provide a potent agent against A. hydrophila infections

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.005
  • Molecular resistance mechanisms of Mycoplasma agalactiae to macrolides and
    • Authors: Miranda Prats-van der Ham; Juan Tatay-Dualde; Christian de la Fe; Ana Paterna; Antonio Sánchez; Juan Carlos Corrales; Antonio Contreras; Ángel Gómez-Martín
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Juan Tatay-Dualde, Christian de la Fe, Ana Paterna, Antonio Sánchez, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Ángel Gómez-Martín
      The extensive use of antimicrobials for disease control has caused a remarkable decrease in antimicrobial susceptibility of different animal mycoplasma species, including Mycoplasma agalactiae (M. agalactiae), the main causative agent of contagious agalactia. However, the molecular mechanisms behind M. agalactiae resistance to macrolides and lincomycin have not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of different antimicrobials and mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22, analysing both field isolates (n=50) and in vitro selected resistant mutants of M. agalactiae. The obtained MIC results of the studied field isolates demonstrate an increasing development of tylosin resistance in this bacterium, in comparison to previous studies. Interestingly, predicted amino acid changes in L22 (Ser89Leu and Gln90Lys/His) were the first variations observed when MICs of M. agalactiae started to increase (tylosin MIC ≥0.8μg/ml), whereas mutations at positions 2058 or 2059 of domain V of the 23S rRNA gene appeared from MIC values of 1.6μg/ml. These results were consistent in both field isolates and in vitro selected mutants of M. agalactiae. Thus, although in other mycoplasma species resistance to macrolides and lincosamides had been mainly related to mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, this work demonstrates the role of alterations in ribosomal protein L22 in decreased susceptibility of M. agalactiae. Moreover, these mutations can be used as molecular markers to set an interpretative breakpoint of antimicrobial resistance for M. agalactiae.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.012
  • Identification of Two Conserved B-cell Epitopes in the gp90 of
           Reticuloendothelial Virus using Peptide Microarray
    • Authors: Wiaam O.A. Khairy; Kun Qian; Hongxia Shao; Jianqiang Ye; Aijian Qin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Wiaam O.A. Khairy, Kun Qian, Hongxia Shao, Jianqiang Ye, Aijian Qin
      Since the gp90 protein of Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) plays vital roles in virus neutralization, so detailed analysis of REV-gp90 epitopes is important for the development of epitope based marker vaccines and diagnostic tools for REV infections. In this study, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) namely 6C12 and 09980 were used to map the epitopes in REVgp90 using peptide microarray and ELISA. Peptide microarray revealed that mAbs 6C12 and 09980 recognized 216YHPLA220 and 230DPQTSDILEA239 motifs, respectively. This result was confirmed by ELISA using synthetic peptides. Moreover, homology analysis indicated that mAbs defined epitopes are highly conserved among REV strains used in this study. The mAbs and their epitopes identified in this study may have potential applications in development of diagnostic techniques and epitope-based marker vaccines for control of REV infections.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.009
  • Cholesterol exacerbates Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-induced apoptosis via
           stimulating proliferation and adhesion to porcine alveolar macrophages
    • Authors: Maojun Liu; Gaimei Du; Beibei Liu; Yun Hu; Jie Liu; Yiming Jia; F. Chris Minion; Guoqing Shao; Ruqian Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Maojun Liu, Gaimei Du, Beibei Liu, Yun Hu, Jie Liu, Yiming Jia, F. Chris Minion, Guoqing Shao, Ruqian Zhao
      Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) is the agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, a disease that causes considerable economic losses in the swine industry. Induction of apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages is an important pathogenic mechanism of M. hyo. Cholesterol has been reported to influence cell adherence and cell invasion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma fermentans leading to apoptosis, but the role of cholesterol on the apoptotic inducing activity of M. hyo remains unknown. In this study, we found a positive correlation between cholesterol level and M. hyo infection in porcine serum and lung tissue. Cholesterol exacerbated M. hyo-induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in a dosage-dependent manner, which was associated with increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) production, up-regulated TNF-α mRNA expression, and activated caspase-3. The pathogenicity-enhancing effect of cholesterol was related to increased M. hyo proliferation with an up-regulation of M. hyo genes responsible for DNA and protein synthesis, which led to improved M. hyo adherence to PAMs, presumably via increased mRNA expression of adhesin genes. In conclusion, cholesterol promotes the apoptotic effect of M. hyo through stimulating proliferation and enhancing its adherence to PAMs. Hence, the study gives new insights into the role of cholesterol on the PAM – M. hyo interations.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.007
  • Refinement of the equine influenza model in the natural host: A
           meta-analysis to determine the benefits of individual nebulisation for
           experimental infection and vaccine evaluation in the face of decreased
           strain pathogenicity
    • Authors: Dion Garrett; Fernando Montesso; Stéphanie Fougerolle; Maria R. Lopez-Alvarez; Ilhan Birand; Manuelle De Bock; Chengjin M. Huang; Loïc Legrand; Stéphane Pronost; Romain Paillot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Dion Garrett, Fernando Montesso, Stéphanie Fougerolle, Maria R. Lopez-Alvarez, Ilhan Birand, Manuelle De Bock, Chengjin M. Huang, Loïc Legrand, Stéphane Pronost, Romain Paillot
      Equine Influenza (EI) is an important respiratory disease of horses caused by H3N8 equine influenza viruses (EIV). Vaccination is a key strategy to prevent or control this disease. However, EIV undergoes continuous antigenic drift and whilst numerous EI vaccines are commercially available worldwide, an accurate evaluation of their efficacy is frequently required through clinical trials conducted in the natural host. Room nebulisation is one of the chosen methods to challenge horses during EI vaccine studies. A potential decreased pathogenicity observed with recent Florida Clade 2 (FC2) EIV isolates have increased the heterogeneity of the clinical response and virus shedding measured after infection by room nebulisation, which reduced the statistical power of studies. Our objectives were to compare clinical and virological parameters following experimental infection with several different EIV strains and to confirm that individual nebulisation is a model refinement that prevents an increase of the number of animals per group. This study is a retrospective comparison and meta-analysis of clinical and virological results collected from 9 independent EIV infection studies in the natural host. Naïve Welsh mountain ponies were experimentally infected by room or individual nebulisation with FC2 EIV strains, including A/equine/Richmond/1/07 (R/07), A/equine/East Renfrewshire/11 (ER/11), A/equine/Cambremer/1/2012 (C/12) and A/equine/Northamptonshire/1/13 (N/1/13). The retrospective meta-analysis confirmed a decreased pathogenicity of the EIV ER/11 and C/12 strains when compared with R/07.Experimental infection by individual nebulisation improved the clinical and virological parameters induced by recent FC2 strains, when compared with conventional room nebulisation. In conclusion, individual nebulisation offers a better control of the challenge dose administered and a greater homogeneity of the response measured in control animals. This in turn, helps maintain the number of animals per group to the minimum necessary required to obtain meaningful results in vaccine efficacy studies, which adheres to the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) principles.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.010
  • Secretion of the Shiga toxin B subunit (Stx1B) via an autotransporter
           protein optimizes the protective immune response to the antigen expressed
           in an attenuated E. coli (rEPEC E22Δler) vaccine strain
    • Authors: Wyatt Byrd; Fernando Ruiz-Perez; Prashanth Setty; Chengru Zhu; Edgar C. Boedeker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Wyatt Byrd, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Prashanth Setty, Chengru Zhu, Edgar C. Boedeker
      We previously developed attenuated rabbit enteropathogenic E. coli (rEPEC) strains which are effective oral vaccines against their parent pathogens by deleting ler, a global regulator of virulence genes. To use these strains as orally administered vectors to deliver other antigens we incorporated the B subunit of shiga-like toxin 1(Stx1) into the passenger domain of the autotransporter EspP expressed on a plasmid. Native EspP enters the periplasm where its passenger domain is exported to the bacterial surface through an outer membrane channel formed by its translocator domain, then cleaved and secreted. Since antigen localization may determine immunogenicity, we engineered derivatives of EspP expressing Stx1B- passenger domain fusions: 1. in cytoplasm 2. in periplasm, 3. surface-attached or 4. secreted. To determine which construct was most immunogenic, rabbits were immunized with attenuated O103 E. coli strain (E22 Δler) alone or expressing Stx1B in each of the above four cellular locations. IgG responses to Stx1B, and toxin-neutralizing antibodies were measured. Animals were challenged with a virulent rabbit Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain of a different serogroup (O15) than the vaccine strain expressing Stx1 (RDEC-H19) and their clinical course observed. IgG responses to Stx1B subunit were induced in all animals vaccinated with the strain secreting Stx1B, in some vaccinated with surface-expressed Stx1B, but in not animals immunized with periplasmic or cytoplasmic Stx1B. Robust protection was observed only in the group immunized with the vaccine secreting Stx1B. Taken together, our data suggest that secretion of Stx1B, or other antigens, via an autotransporter, may maximize the protective response to live attenuated oral vaccine strains.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.006
  • Development of CDV-specific monoclonal antibodies for differentiation of
           variable epitopes of nucleocapsid protein
    • Authors: Zhenwei Yongshan; Wang Qunxing Pan Xingxia Xia Libo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhenwei Bi, Yongshan Wang, Qunxing Pan, Xingxia Xia, Libo Xu
      The highly contagious canine distemper viruses (CDVs) are still a major threat to a wide range of natural susceptible hosts. The nucleocapsid (N) protein plays various roles in the virus-induced immune response. But precise mapping of epitopes and antigenic variations in N protein of CDV are still scant. In this study, two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated as F8N and G3N, against the N protein of CDV were generated and characterized. The epitopes recognized by the two MAbs were mapped by truncated N protein fragments expressed in E.coli based on western blotting. The 470ESRYDTQ476 and 385GITKEEAQL393 were identified as the minimal linear epitopes recognized by F8N and G3N, respectively. The amino acid residues of the epitope (385-393aa) were highly conserved in a variety of CDV strains from the databases as well as five CDV strains in this study, indicating that MAb G3N can detect various CDV strains. However, MAb F8N was found not to react with an older CDV 851 strain of the five CDV strains due to both of two amino substitution (S471P and Y473H) in the epitope, whereas either single mutant S471P or Y473H did not eliminate the binding of F8N. Further, the variable epitopes existed in the N protein of six CDV strains resembling CDV3 in phylogenic tree by alignment with sequences from the databases. This is the first record of a precise epitope affecting antigenity of N protein of CDV. These results may facilitate future investigations into the function of NP of CDV and diagnostic methods for CDV infection.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T14:21:09Z
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus envelope (E) protein
           interacts with tubulin
    • Authors: Maodong Zhang; Alexander Zakhartchouk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Maodong Zhang, Alexander Zakhartchouk
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) encodes the small envelope (E) protein which is a minor structural component of the virion that is important for virus infectivity. To better understand the biological functions of the E protein, we studied interactions between E and PRRSV cellular proteins. Using immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry approach, we previously identified tubulin-α as an interacting partner of E. In this study, we confirmed this interaction using co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays. In addition, we demonstrated that the 25-residue C-terminal endodomain of E was essential for its interaction with tubulin-α. Over-expression of the E protein in cultured cells led to microtubule depolymerisation. Similarly, we observed that microtubule depolymerisation occurs in MARC-145 cells at the late stage of PRRSV replication. Also, depolymerisation of microtubules by colcemid significantly inhibited PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells at early time points but the effect was not as dramatic at the late stage of infection. These data suggest that that PRRSV infection of MARC-145 cells requires the microtubules network to facilitate early phase of infection whereas microtubules depolymerisation occurs at the late stage of PRRSV replication. Interaction between E and tubulin-α may contribute to microtubules depolymerisation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T14:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.002
  • Genetic and biological characterization of a Porcine Reproductive and
           Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (PRRSV-2) causing significant clinical
           disease in the field
    • Authors: L.K. Kvisgaard; L.E. Larsen; C.K. Hjulsager; A. Bøtner; P.H. Rathkjen; P.M.H. Heegaard; N.P. Bisgaard; J. Nielsen; M.S. Hansen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): L.K. Kvisgaard, L.E. Larsen, C.K. Hjulsager, A. Bøtner, P.H. Rathkjen, P.M.H. Heegaard, N.P. Bisgaard, J. Nielsen, M.S. Hansen
      Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the cause of severe reproductive and respiratory disease in swine worldwide. In Denmark, both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 are circulating and approximately 35% of pig herds are seropositive for PRRSV. In November 2010, a pig herd in the Northern part of Denmark experienced an infection with PRRSV-2 with clinical signs that were much more severe than normally reported from current Danish PRRSV-2 affected herds. Due to the clinical observations of reproductive failure in sows and high mortality in piglets, it was speculated that a new, more pathogenic or vaccine evading PRRSV strain had emerged in Denmark. The overall aim of the present study was to perform a genetic and biological characterization of the virus isolated from the diseased herd. Complete genome sequencing of isolates from this herd revealed that although the case strain had some unique genetic features including a deduced 3 amino acid deletion, it was in overall very similar to the other PRRS-2 viruses circulating in Denmark. In an experimental trial in growing pigs, no overt clinical signs or pathology were observed following intranasal inoculation with the new virus isolate. Virus shedding, acute phase protein responses and serological responses were comparable to those seen after experimental challenge with a Danish PRRSV-2 reference strain isolated in 1997. Vaccination with a commercial modified live PRRSV-2 vaccine had a clear reducing effect on virus shedding, magnitude, and duration of viremia and viral load in the lungs. Overall, the results indicate that the severe disease observed in the field was contributed by additional factors in combination with the PRRS virus infection.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T14:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.10.001
  • Discovery of a novel swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV) in southern
    • Authors: Yongfei Pan; Xiaoyan Tian; Pan Qin; Bin Wang; Pengwei Zhao; Yong-Le Yang; Lianxiang Wang; Dongdong Wang; Yanhua Song; Xiangbin Zhang; Yao-Wei Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Yongfei Pan, Xiaoyan Tian, Pan Qin, Bin Wang, Pengwei Zhao, Yong-Le Yang, Lianxiang Wang, Dongdong Wang, Yanhua Song, Xiangbin Zhang, Yao-Wei Huang
      Outbreaks of diarrhea in newborn piglets without detection of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), have been recorded in a pig farm in southern China since February 2017. Isolation and propagation of the pathogen in cell culture resulted in discovery of a novel swine enteric alphacoronavirus (tentatively named SeACoV) related to the bat coronavirus HKU2 identified in the same region a decade ago. Specific fluorescence signal was detected in Vero cells infected with SeACoV by using a positive sow serum collected in the same farm, but not by using TGEV-, PEDV- or PDCoV-specific antibody. Electron microscopy observation demonstrated that the virus particle with surface projections was 100 to 120nm in diameter. Complete genomic sequencing and analyses of SeACoV indicated that the extreme amino-terminal domain of the SeACoV spike (S) glycoprotein structurally similar to the domain 0 of the alphacoronavirus NL63, whereas the rest part of S structurally resembles domains B to D of the betacoronavirus. The SeACoV-S domain 0 associated with enteric tropism had an extremely high variability, harboring 75-amino-acid (aa) substitutions and a 2-aa insertion, compared to that of HKU2, which is likely responsible for the extended host range or cross-species transmission. The isolated virus was infectious in pigs when inoculated orally into 3-day-old newborn piglets, leading to clinical signs of diarrhea and fecal virus shedding. These results confirmed that it is a novel swine enteric coronavirus representing the fifth porcine coronavirus.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T10:43:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.020
  • Impact of poxvirus lesions on saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus)
    • Authors: Rhiannon L. Moore; Sally R. Isberg; Cathy M. Shilton; Natalie L. Milic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Rhiannon L. Moore, Sally R. Isberg, Cathy M. Shilton, Natalie L. Milic
      Cutaneous poxvirus infections are common in several crocodilian species and are of importance in crocodile farming due to their potential impact on the tanned hide. To confirm poxvirus infection and understand the impact on saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) skin, fourteen animals from different age groups (five hatchlings, five yearlings and four grow-outs) were selected based on a criterion of ten poxvirus-like lesions per animal. One lesion on each animal was extruded for genetic analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Both methods confirmed poxvirus so the remainder of lesions were re-examined every six weeks over a 24 week study period. Each lesion went through four distinct phases: early active, active, expulsion and healing. To understand how these lesions impact on the final skin product, one crocodile from each age group was euthanised and the lesions examined. Using standard skin grading techniques (light-table), the early phase (early active – expulsion) lesions were all translucent and would lead to downgrading of the skin or, at worst, rendering them unsaleable. At the later stages of healing, the translucency reduces. Histological examination of the phases confirm that the basement membrane is not breached by the infection further indicating that poxvirus lesions, given enough time, will eventually have no detrimental effect on skin quality. This is obviously dependent upon no more lesions developing in the interim.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T10:43:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.019
  • Effects of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection on nursery pig
           intestinal function and barrier integrity1
    • Authors: S.M. Curry; K.J. Schwartz; K.J. Yoon; N.K. Gabler; E.R. Burrough
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): S.M. Curry, K.J. Schwartz, K.J. Yoon, N.K. Gabler, E.R. Burrough
      The pig intestinal epithelium can be compromised by pathogens leading to reduced integrity and function. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), recently detected in North America, exemplifies intestinal epithelial insult. Although several studies have investigated the molecular aspects and host immune response to PEDV, there are little data on the impact of PEDV on pig intestinal physiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal impact of PEDV on nursery pig intestinal function and integrity. Fifty recently-weaned, 5-week-old barrows and gilts (BW=9.92±0.49kg) were sorted based on body weight (BW) and sex into two treatments: 1) Control or 2) PEDV inoculated. At 2, 5, 7, and 14days post inoculation (dpi), 4 pigs per treatment were euthanized and jejunum sections collected. PEDV antigen was detected in inoculated pigs by immunohistochemistry in 50% (2/4) at dpi 2, 100% (4/4) at dpi 5, and none at later time points. PEDV-infected pigs had reduced (P< 0.05) villus height and decreased transepithelial resistance compared with controls. Total acidic mucins, particularly sialomucin, were reduced in PEDV pigs at dpi 2 and then increased compared with controls at dpi 7 and 14. In addition, PEDV pigs had increased stem cell proliferation (P< 0.05) and a numerical increase in DNA fragmentation compared with controls through dpi 7 which coincided with an observed return of digestive function to that of controls. Collectively, these data reveal that PEDV infection results in time-dependent changes not only in intestinal morphology but also barrier integrity and function.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T10:43:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.021
  • Genetic and pathogenic characterization of a Russian subtype 2 PRRSV-1
    • Authors: Anton G. Yuzhakov; Sergei A. Raev; Andrei N. Skrylev; Alexander M. Mishin; Tatiana V. Grebennikova; Oleg A. Verkhovsky; Alexei D. Zaberezhny; Ivan Trus; Hans J. Nauwynck; Taras I. Aliper
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Anton G. Yuzhakov, Sergei A. Raev, Andrei N. Skrylev, Alexander M. Mishin, Tatiana V. Grebennikova, Oleg A. Verkhovsky, Alexei D. Zaberezhny, Ivan Trus, Hans J. Nauwynck, Taras I. Aliper
      Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure and respiratory problems. Data about the virulence and pathogenicity of subtype 2 PRRSV-1 strains are limited. The main purposes of this investigation were to characterize the full genome sequence of the subtype 2 PRRSV-1 WestSib13 strain and to compare the pathogenicity with that of the subtype 1 PRRSV-1 Lelystad strain. Comparison of the whole genome sequence of the WestSib13 strain with that of PRRSV-1 prototype strains revealed a 76.2% (subtype 1 Lelystad virus) and 79.0% (subtype 3 Lena virus) identity, respectively. The virulence and pathogenicity of the European subtype 2 PRRSV strain WestSib13 and the European subtype 1 PRRSV strain Lelystad were compared in 3-week-old piglets upon inoculation of 105.4 TCID50 of virus. Non-infected animals (control group) as well as animals infected with the Lelystad strain were clinically healthy until 14days post challenge. In contrast, animals infected with the WestSib13 strain demonstrated dyspnea starting from the 3day post-inoculation (dpi). All piglets in this group died between 5 to 8 dpi. During that period, fever was not observed in WestSib13-infected animals. Viremia was detected in animals from both infected groups starting from 2 dpi. Viral loads in serum and lungs upon euthanasia were significantly higher (3 log10) in the WestSib13-infected than in the LV-infected animals. Taken together, this study provides the full genome sequence and the unusual virological and clinical outcome (high level viremia without fever) of the novel WestSib13 strain.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T14:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.017
  • Convergence of plasmid architectures drives emergence of multi-drug
           resistance in a clonally diverse Escherichia coli population from a
           veterinary clinical care setting
    • Authors: Sam Wagner; Nadejda Lupolova; David L. Gally; Sally A. Argyle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Sam Wagner, Nadejda Lupolova, David L. Gally, Sally A. Argyle
      The purpose of this study was to determine the plasmid architecture and context of resistance genes in multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections in dogs. Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing were applied to assemble the complete genomes of E. coli strains associated with clinical urinary tract infections, which were either phenotypically MDR or drug susceptible. This revealed that multiple distinct families of plasmids were associated with building an MDR phenotype. Plasmid-mediated AmpC (CMY-2) beta-lactamase resistance was associated with a clonal group of IncI1 plasmids that has remained stable in isolates collected up to a decade apart. Other plasmids, in particular those with an IncF replicon type, contained other resistance gene markers, so that the emergence of these MDR strains was driven by the accumulation of multiple plasmids, up to 5 replicons in specific cases. This study indicates that vulnerable patients, often with complex clinical histories provide a setting leading to the emergence of MDR E. coli strains in clonally distinct commensal backgrounds. While it is known that horizontally-transferred resistance supplements uropathogenic strains of E. coli such as ST131, our study demonstrates that the selection of an MDR phenotype in commensal E. coli strains can result in opportunistic infections in vulnerable patient populations. These strains provide a reservoir for the onward transfer of resistance alleles into more typically pathogenic strains and provide opportunities for the coalition of resistance and virulence determinants on plasmids as evidenced by the IncF replicons characterised in this study.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T14:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.09.016
  • Enhanced protection against FMDV in cattle after prime- boost vaccination
           based on mucosal and inactivated FMD vaccine
    • Authors: Manar E. Khalifa; Ayman H. El-Deeb; Sayed M. Zeidan; Hussein A. Hussein; Hany I. Abu-El-Naga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017
      Source:Veterinary Microbiology
      Author(s): Manar E. Khalifa, Ayman H. El-Deeb, Sayed M. Zeidan, Hussein A. Hussein, Hany I. Abu-El-Naga
      Improved immunization and control strategies and platforms are greatly needed for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and mucosal vaccines propose an effective strategy for the control FMDV by blocking viral entry. In this study, several immunization strategies, using two FMDV vaccine formulations, including Montanide ISA 206 oil-based FMD inactivated vaccine and Montanide IMS 1313 VG N PR-based concentrated semi-purified FMD mucosal vaccine, were applied. Results of intranasal immunization with the prepared FMD mucosal vaccine, given once or twice, induced IgA levels in both nasal and salivary secretions besides a high response of lymphocyte proliferation with protection levels reaching 20% and 40%, respectively, in a challenge trial in cattle. Immunization with Montanide 206 inactivated FMD vaccine was capable of inducing 80% protection whereas prime-boost strategy based on the administration of mucosal vaccine followed by inactivated vaccine appeared to be the most potent strategy by achieving 100% protection against an FMDV challenge. Indeed, the study reports the efficacy of the prepared IMS 1313 FMD mucosal vaccine and the possible use of this vaccine in the context of different vaccination strategies to control FMDV.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T22:00:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.08.014
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