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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 260 journals)
Showing 201 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Uludag University Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal  
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Veterinary Record Case Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Record Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Tropical Animal Health and Production
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.511
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0049-4747 - ISSN (Online) 1573-7438
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • In growing pigs, nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of
           distillers’ by-products obtained from two varieties of rice

    • Abstract: Abstract In South-East Asia, rice distillers’ by-product (RDP) is a widely abundant feedstuff whose adequate incorporation into pig diets is still questionable. Especially, effects of RDP on nutrient digestibility of growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine nutrient digestibility and energy value of ordinary (ORDP) and glutinous (GRDP) rice distillers’ by-product in growing pigs. Two groups of 12 castrated crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire), about 3 months old, 38 ± 1.04-kg initial body weight, were each allocated to a 15-day experiment in which pigs were divided into three isonitrogenous diet-groups. The animals were housed individually in metabolism cages for separated collection of feces and urine. Each diet-group was provided either a control corn-soybean meal diet or a diet in which corn and soybean meal were partly replaced by ORDP or GRDP at 15 or 30% on diet dry matter basis. Glutinous by-product especially showed higher levels in crude protein, neutral/acid detergent fiber, total branched-chain amino acids, and butyric acid. When compared to the control diet, ORDP tented to increase DM intake (P = 0.054) but decreased energy (P < 0.001) and crude protein (P < 0.04) digestibility, while GRDP decreased DM intake (P < 0.001). Both GRDP and ORDP products negatively affected digestibility of ether extract. The average digestible and metabolizable energy of ORDP and GRDP were 17.0 and 16.6, and 17.7, and 17.1 MJ/kg DM, respectively. In conclusion, these results show that both RDP, and especially GRDP, are highly valuable protein and energy sources for pig production.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
       
  • Ovines submitted to diets containing cassava foliage hay and spineless
           cactus forage: histological changes in the digestive and renal systems

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological alterations in the digestive and renal systems of 35 male ovines in Paraíba, Brazil, at around 16 ± 1.87 kg submitted to the following treatments for 90 days (15 of adaptation + 75 of experimental period): 1- Tifton hay (TH); 2- Cassava foliage hay (CH); 3–35% TH and 35% CH; 4–35% TH and 35% forage palm (FP), and 5–35% CH and 35% FP, based on dry matter (DM). Samples of the liver, kidney, rumen, and small intestine were histomorphometrically evaluated and the data were submitted to ANOVA analysis and Tukey post test at p ≤ 0.05. The use of alternative foods in the voluminous fraction (CH + FP) in the ovine diets did not compromise the performance of the animals; on the contrary, promoted better gain when compared with TH treatment (18.55 kg vs 9.42 kg). The CH + FP diet had a positive effect on papilla height. The papilla width decreased with the diets CH + FP and TH + FP. The thickness of the ruminal muscular layer were higher in the diets containing TH + CH and CH + FP. The keratinized layer of the ruminal epithelium was larger in the diet containing CH and FP. The villi of the intestinal crypts were deeper in the diets with FP and the villus/crypt ratio was the same in all diets. Goblet cells decreased with the CH or FP diet. Some renal changes were observed according to the diets, mainly when using FP. It is recommended to use CH and FP as a large fraction of the ovines diet, which will not alter animal performance.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
       
  • Foot-and-mouth disease in Southern Ghana: occurrence and molecular
           characterization of circulating viruses

    • Abstract: Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is considered to be endemic in Ghana. However, our knowledge of the local epidemiology of the disease is restricted by a lack of serological information and data for characterized viruses causing field outbreaks. In order to improve our understanding of the prevailing situation, this study was initiated to establish the FMD viruses (FMDV) circulating in the country. During 2016, sera (n = 93) and epithelia/oral swab (n = 20) samples were collected from cattle from four districts in Southern Ghana that experienced FMD outbreaks. Sera were analyzed using the PrioCHECK® FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) ELISA whereas the epithelia/oral swab samples were examined by virus isolation, antigen ELISA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing of VP1 followed by phylogenetic analysis. Assay for antibodies against FMDV NSPs provided evidence of exposure to FMDV in 88.2% (82/93) of the sera tested. Serotypes O and A viruses were detected from clinical samples by RT-PCR and sequencing of VP1. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 coding sequences revealed that the serotype O viruses belonged to the West Africa (WA) topotype and were most closely related to viruses from Niger and Benin, while the serotype A viruses clustered within genotype IV (G-IV) of the Africa topotype and were most closely related to viruses from Nigeria. This study provides useful information on FMDV serotypes and viral lineages that circulate in Ghana and West Africa that may aid in the formulation of effective FMD control strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
       
  • Effect of biotin supplementation on milk yield of Girolando cows reared in
           a tropical climate

    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of biotin supplementation on milk yield and the reproductive efficiency in Girolando cows. The study was conducted on a dairy farm located in central Brazil, between April 2012 and December 2016. Thirty-six Girolando cows in their first lactation were used. The cows were distributed in two treatment groups, each with equivalent weight distributions. Control treatment (CT) cows (n = 18) received a diet without any supplemental biotin, whereas biotin treatment (BT) cows (n = 18) received a diet supplemented with 20 mg/day of biotin during lactation. Biotin supplementation caused a significant increase (p = 0.001) in milk yield in the second lactation, and a trend (p = 0.09) toward higher average production during the three lactations was evaluated. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatments in terms of reproductive efficiency. In conclusion, biotin supplementation (20 mg/day) during lactation for Girolando cows reared in a tropical climate is able to increase milk yield, but does not improve reproductive efficiency.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
       
  • Epidemiology of Leptospira infection in livestock species in Saint Kitts

    • Abstract: Abstract This pilot study describes the prevalence of Leptospira infection and exposure in livestock species, cattle, pig, sheep, and goats in Saint Kitts in the Caribbean region. Serum and kidney samples were collected from cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats at a local abattoir between September 2016 and March 2017. Cattle had the highest seroprevalence (79.8%) followed by pigs (64.8%), sheep (39.4%), and goats (24.8%). Highest seroprevalence was observed to serovars, Mankarso in cattle, Bratislava in pigs, Hardjo in sheep, and goats. Leptospira DNA was amplified from kidney samples of 18/99 cattle (18.2%), 11/106 pigs (10.4%), 4/106 sheep (3.8%), and 2/105 goats (1.9%). Our findings warrant further studies to assess leptospirosis associated economic burden to subsistence farmers and public health impact.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Epidemiology, control, and prevention of Newcastle disease in endemic
           regions: Latin America

    • Abstract: Abstract Newcastle disease (ND) infects wild birds and poultry species worldwide, severely impacting the economics of the poultry industry. ND is especially problematic in Latin America (Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru) where it is either endemic or re-emerging. The disease is caused by infections with one of the different strains of virulent avian Newcastle disease virus (NDV), recently renamed Avian avulavirus 1. Here, we describe the molecular epidemiology of Latin American NDVs, current control and prevention methods, including vaccines and vaccination protocols, as well as future strategies for control of ND. Because the productive, cultural, economic, social, and ecological conditions that facilitate poultry endemicity in South America are similar to those in the developing world, most of the problems and control strategies described here are applicable to other continents.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Reporting temporal fluctuations of hepatic C16 and C18 fatty acids during
           late gestation and early lactation in dromedary camel

    • Abstract: Abstract Based on current knowledge, C16 and C18 fatty acids (FA) are considered the most functional FA in hepatic metabolism. Although these FAs have been satisfyingly investigated in cattle, other species such as camel have been neglected. For this reason, the current study was designed to scrutinize changing patterns of C16 and C18 FAs in 10 dromedary camels from the last 2 months of gestation to the first months of lactation. Camels were grazed on natural pasture and supplemented with a balanced ration. Liver biopsies were obtained through blind biopsy technique at about 60, 45, 30, and 15-day antepartum (AP), and at 3, 15, 30, 45, and 60 post-partum (PP). Data were analyzed by the ANOVA procedure of SPSS with repeated measurements. From 15-day AP, saturated FA content of the liver declined (P < 0.01) and 15-day PP reached its peak (P = 0.02). At 30-day PP it went down (P < 0.01), and re-elevated at 45-day PP (P < 0.01) but remained at a steady state for the duration of the study. Mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated FA content of hepatic tissue were constant throughout AP, albeit observed to peak at 15-day AP compared with 45 (P = 0.04) and 30-day AP (P < 0.01) for mono-unsaturated FAs, and with 60-, 45-, and 30-day AP (P ≤ 0.01) for polyunsaturated FAs. The palmitic acid content of the liver reached a nadir at 30-day AP (P < 0.01), increased sharply (P < 0.01) at the next sampling time-point, and had a trend to escalate until 3-day PP. Palmitoleic acid levels were unchanged from 60- to 30-day AP, decreased at 15 AP and 3-day PP, increased at 15-day PP, then remained constant until the end of the study period (P ≤ 0.04). Stearic acid content started to grow at 15-day AP and reached its peak at 15-day PP (P < 0.01). At 30-day PP, stearic level in liver dropped abruptly (P < 0.01), then intensified at 45-day PP and did not change after; hepatic content of stearic acid was lower during AP compared with PP time-points. Other C18 FAs changed significantly during the study period. These results suggest that parturition could have a profound effect on FA composition and other metabolites in camel liver. Further research is required to establish the metabolic mechanism behind these changes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
       
  • Assessing mineral status in edible tissues of domestic and game animals: a
           review with a special emphasis in tropical regions

    • Abstract: Abstract Mineral status in edible tissues has been extensively studied since the beginning of the twentieth century. Most research focus on nutrition, as the earliest reports were essentially related to nutrition, animal health and mineral deficiencies. Nutrition wise, minerals are of great importance for consumers worldwide, as meat (i.e. beef, pork, chicken) and fish are major sources of protein in human diets. Nutrition gains renewed importance in the tropical context, since tropical forages are poor in minerals. This fact contributes to mineral deficiencies and impaired production performance in extensive production systems, with greater emphasis in ruminant species. In addition to nutrition, several other factors have an important impact in mineral metabolism such as geographic location, gender and species. In this article, we aim to infer on both the role in the organism and the amount present in various edible tissues of different species, either game or production animals, presenting an overall perspective in the context of tropical animal production.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • Low developmental competence and high tolerance to thermal stress of ovine
           oocytes in the warm compared with the cold season

    • Abstract: Abstract Heat stress can potentially affect most aspects of reproduction in mammals. To our knowledge, no studies have ever been conducted for evaluating the influences of hot season on the developmental competence of ewe oocytes. In the present study, for the first time, we evaluated the effects of season (winter or summer), in vitro thermal stress, and their interaction on the ewe oocytes harvested from slaughterhouse ovaries. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were either incubated at 39 °C for the entire length of IVM period or first incubated at 41 °C for 12 h and then at 39 °C. Evaluated endpoints included the ratios of total aspirated COCs/ovary and good-quality COCs/ovary, the apoptosis (Annexin V staining) and nuclear maturation of oocytes after 24-h IVM, and the developmental competence of oocytes after IVF. Our results showed that the number of aspirated oocytes per ovary was similar in both seasons, but the winter ovaries yielded significantly more oocytes with acceptable morphology in winter than in summer (2.1 ± 0.14 vs. 1.5 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between season and thermal stress on the apoptosis, some nuclear maturation parameters, and blastocyst development of oocytes (P < 0.05). Although the winter oocytes were more developmentally competent than the summer oocytes, the winter oocytes were more sensitive to the thermal stress than summer oocytes. In conclusion, the developmental competence of ovine oocytes was lower in summer than in winter. However, it seemed that summer oocytes were more resistant to the in vitro thermal stress during IVM period compared with winter oocytes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
       
  • Sensitivity and specificity of the FAMACHA © system in tropical hair
           sheep

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the FAMACHA© (F©) system in Morada Nova ewes. The conjunctivae of 562 ewes were evaluated using the F© system. Packed cell volume (PCV) served as the gold standard for clinical F© evaluation. To calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the F© system, different criteria were adopted: animals classified as (I) F© 4 and 5 or (II) 3, 4, and 5 were considered to be anemic and animals classified as (I) F© 1, 2, and 3, or (II) 1 and 2 were considered to be non-anemic. Three standard values of PCV, namely, ≤ 19%, ≤ 18%, or ≤ 15%, were used to confirm anemia. The percentage of correct treatments was always high when the F© values 4 and 5 were used as criteria for positive tests. For all the PCV cut-off values, more animals were classified as false positives when evaluated using F© 3, 4, and 5 as criteria for a positive test and more true negative animals when evaluated using only F© 4 and 5 as criteria for a positive test. For both sets of criteria for the positive tests, few animals were classified as false negatives and true positives. Eliminating the classification of F© 3 as anemic decreased the sensitivity and increased the specificity for all the PCV cut-off values for the ewes. The F© system can be used as a reliable alternative to reduce selection pressure for anthelmintics in relation to routine non-selective blanket treatment for worm control in the Morada Nova ewes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
       
  • Spineless cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) and saltbush ( Atriplex halimus
           L.) as feed supplements for fattening Awassi male lambs: effect on
           digestibility, water consumption, blood metabolites, and growth
           performance

    • Abstract: Abstract The effect of replacing 13.6% and 20.3% of a total ration of fattening Awassi lambs by two combinations of fresh saltbush (Atriplex halimus) and fresh spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes at a ratio of 1.9:1 (TRT1) and 1.7:1 (TRT2) on water intake, digestibility, blood metabolites, and fattening performance was evaluated. Thirty-six lambs with average initial live weight 34.5 ± 4.18 kg were randomly assigned to three diets (control, TRT1, and TRT2). The control received a diet containing 166 g/kg barley straw and 834 g/kg of commercial concentrate mixture; TRT1 comprised 126 g barley straw, 739 g/kg concentrate mixture, 47 g/kg spineless cactus, and 89 g saltbush; TRT2 comprised 67 g/kg barley straw, 704 g/kg commercial concentrate mixture, 86 g/kg spineless cactus, and 144 g saltbush. A growth trial of 100 days (10 days of adaptation and 90 days of collection) followed by a metabolism trial of 17 days (10 days of adaptation and 7 days of a total feces and urine collection) was carried out. Daily dry matter intake, digestibility of crude protein, ether extract and nutrient detergent fiber, nitrogen balance, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and blood metabolites were not significantly affected by the treatment. Water consumption in TRT2 was significantly 16% less compared with the control. A combination of saltbush and spineless cactus at a ratio of 1.7:1 (TRT2) replaced 60% of barley straw and 16% of concentrate mixture without adverse effects on health and growth performance of Awassi male lambs. This represents a potential reduction in feed costs for smallholder farmers.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
       
  • Efficacy of the re-utilization of an ear implant impregnated with
           progestogen in estrus synchronization response and pregnancy in sheep

    • Abstract: Abstract The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of the re-utilization of an ear implant impregnated with norgestomet on estrus synchronization response and pregnancy rates in sheep. Fifty-five Texel ewes were classified according to body condition (3.5) and live weight (65 kg), and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: NORN-new (n = 30) and NORU-used (n = 25). The dose of norgestomet used in the treatments was half of that recommended for bovine (1.5 mg). The synchronization protocol consisted of an ear implant inserted on day 0 (beginning of the experiment) and kept for 6 days. The removal of the implant on day 6 was followed by an injection of a prostaglandin analogue (0.263 mg) and eCG (250 IU). Rams with paint applied to their chest were used to facilitate estrus detection for 5 days following implant withdrawal. Estrus behavior was observed in 93.3% (28/30) and 90% for NORN and NORU, respectively. Pregnancy rates for NORN were 73.3% and for NORU were 68%. Estrus behavior and pregnancy rates between treatment groups did not differ statistically. Therefore, the re-utilization of ear implants impregnated with norgestomet, in addition to eCG and a prostaglandin analogue in short-term estrus synchronization protocols, allow acceptable estrus response and pregnancy rates in sheep.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
       
  • Immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the
           oviduct of Indian buffalo during follicular and luteal phases of estrous
           cycle

    • Abstract: Abstract The localization and distribution of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in different segments of oviduct of buffalo during follicular and luteal phases of estrous cycle were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Tissue samples from the different segments of oviduct from 12 buffaloes (six each during follicular and luteal phases of estrous cycle) were collected from slaughter house after assessing the gross morphology of ovaries. In addition, blood samples were collected from the animals before slaughter to estimate levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones. The tissue distribution of estrogen receptor was determined by immunohistochemical technique using one-step polymer HRPO staining system. The estrogen receptor was localized in the lamina epithelialis, propria submucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The maximum localization was observed in the lamina epithelialis, where both ciliated and secretory cell types were positive for ERα. Percentage of positive cells varied during the follicular and luteal phases of estrous cycle. The lining epithelium of oviductal glands was also intensely positive for ERα. No immunostaining was observed in any tunic of the oviduct when the primary antibody was replaced by antibody diluent or buffer, and it served as negative control. The data showed that highest immune positive cells were observed in the ampulla region of the oviduct and these cells were lowest in the utero-tubal junction (p < 0.05). Infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus showed a higher percentage of ERα-positive cells during follicular phase of estrous cycle as compared with those of the luteal phase of estrous cycle (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the percentage positive cells during the two phases of estrous cycle in the utero-tubal junction. Immunogold labeling with anti-ERα antibody confirmed the findings of immunohistochemical study at subcellular level. The higher expression during the follicular phase was directly correlated with the level of estrogen hormone.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
       
  • Change of daily milk yield during estrous period in Holstein cattle raised
           under Mediterranean climate

    • Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted to determine the effect of estrus on the daily milk yield in Holstein cows and to investigate the chance of using the possible milk yield changes in determining the estrus. During the 3-year period of the study, 103 dairy cows were observed 4 days before and 4 days after daily milk yield of 240 estruses and a total of 2174 daily milk yields were evaluated. Variance analysis was used to determine the factors affecting the daily milk yield, and the LSD test was used for multiple comparisons. Insemination year, insemination season, number of lactation, milk yield group, and daily milk yield of lactation period were found to be significant (P < 0.01). On the other hand, the effect of estrus days on milk yield was insignificant. In the days of estrus, the least square mean of milk yield is 31.0 kg, while the lowest and highest milk yields are 10.2 kg and 62.9 kg. The daily milk yield in the estruses decreased by an average of 300 g, which decreased to 400 g by continuing 1 day after the estruses. The next day, however, it increased rapidly by 600 g, and then dropped again, probably due to the effect of metestrus. It was found that, among all estruses, 31.3% of cows decreased their milk yield, whereas 26.5% of cows increased their milk yield. However, 42.2% of cows both decreased and increased their milk yield in different estruses. The interval between birth and the first insemination after were found to be longer (97.5 days and 92.9 days) at high milk-yielding cows compared to the low milk-yielding cows. According to the results of this study, daily milk yield changes could not be used as an estrus indicator.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
       
  • Gymnopodium floribundum fodder as a model for the in vivo evaluation of
           nutraceutical value against Haemonchus contortus

    • Abstract: Abstract This study validated a protocol to identify the nutraceutical value of Gymnopodium floribundum (GF) foliage based on its effects on sheep nutrition, production and health and its impact on adult Haemonchus contortus. Thirty animals (17.8 ± 3.44 kg BW) were distributed into five experimental groups (n = 6). Groups T1–T3 received feed including 20%, 30% and 40% GF content, respectively, and group T4 received feed with 0% GF. Groups T1–T4 were all infected with 6000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3). Group T5 included six worm-free lambs fed a diet without GF. Feed intake, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) were measured, in addition to the faecal excretion of eggs per gram (EPG) and total faecal egg count (TFEC) of H. contortus. On day 39 post-infection, lambs were humanely slaughtered to recover and count adult parasites and assess the length and fecundity of female worms. Higher levels of GF in the diet reduced DMD and OMD (P < 0.05), with the lowest values in T3 (40% GF) (P < 0.05). Body weight gain was similar for all groups (0.18 to 0.2 kg/day; P > 0.05). EPG and TFEC were lower in T1 and T3 than in T4 (P < 0.05), and the number of adult female worms was lowest in T3 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, GF leaf meal can be considered a nutraceutical when included at 40% (T3) in the diet of lambs, based on its ability to decrease the EPG and TFEC of H. contortus by reducing the female worm burden. A 40% inclusion level had no negative impact on lamb diet intake, production and health, although a reduction of digestibility was observed.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
       
  • Correction to: Occurrence of anti- Leptospira spp. antibodies in
           Rhipidomys spp. from a forest fragment of the Brazilian Cerrado

    • Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contains an error. Vanessa do Nascimento Ramos was not included in the original article as one of the contributors. The name is now included in the authorgroup.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Serological investigations of peste des petits ruminants among cattle in
           the Sudan

    • Abstract: Abstract During 2015 and 2016, from five different States of the Sudan, a total of 1000 cattle sera were purposively collected from many herds of apparently healthy cattle regardless of their age, sex, and breed. Assessment of the sero-prevalence of PPRV antibodies using competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) yielded a higher overall sero-prevalence of 42.0% (420/1000) among cattle populations in the Sudan which is higher than previously reported. Within Sudanese States under study, the highest sero-prevalence of 53.5% (107/200 sera) was demonstrated in Khartoum State while the least sero-prevalence of 31.5% (63/200 sera) was demonstrated in White Nile State. The higher PPRV sero-prevalence values detected in cattle suggested the potential exposure of cattle to PPRV via contact with infected small ruminants and thus might be an indicator of infection of small ruminants. There is a need to include serological surveillance of PPR in cattle within the sero-monitoring program of PPR to give a better indication of the national herd immunity and to assess in the ongoing eradication program.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Hypodermosis in cattle translocated to Tamil Nadu from Punjab

    • Abstract: Abstract Fifteen apparently healthy Kandari cross-bred cattle aged about 4 years were purchased from Rurki, Patiala district of Punjab by a private dairy farmer in Erode, Tamil Nadu. Four animals showed eruptions on the lateral thoracic and dorsal abdominal regions of the body after 15-day period of quarantine. Manual palpation of the eruptions resulted in the emergence of larval stages of dipteran flies, identified by their morphology as Hypoderma from these animals. Molecular identification based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1 (COX-1) gene confirmed it to be Hypoderma lineatum. Treatment with oral ivermectin did not have any curative effects, with exacerbation of disease being noticed, as more than 500 eruptions subsequently emerged in each animal, which had to be culled. Consequences of long distance migration of host on parasite epidemiology are discussed. Awareness must be created among livestock farmers to prevent their economic loss while purchasing cattle from different parts of the country.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Risk factors associated with occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in
           sheep of resource-poor farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa

    • Abstract: Abstract Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants even though several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), resulting in limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge of resource-poor sheep farmers in Limpopo province of South Africa on the use of anthelmintics. A questionnaire regarding helminthosis control practices was administered to small ruminant farmers in five districts of Limpopo province namely Capricorn, Sekhukhune, Waterberg, Vhembe, and Mopani. A total of 77 resource-poor farmers were interviewed between June and August of 2017 using a structured questionnaire with a combination of qualitative and quantitative open-ended questions. The interviewed farmers were divided into three groups based on their farming experience (< 5; 6–10, and ˃ 10 years of farming experience). Limited farming experience was shown as one of the risks, as farmers that owned sheep for less than 10 years could not identify the symptoms of gastrointestinal parasites infection and did not know how nematodes are transmitted to animals. However, no significant difference (p < 0.05) was found to exist between the three groups of farmers in terms of clinical signs identification and correct application of anthelmintics. About 43% of the respondents were unaware of gastrointestinal nematodes (GI) that infect sheep, could not identify the clinical symptoms of gastrointestinal nematodes infection, and only 34% knew how animals become infected. Although 67.5% of farmers mentioned that they never dose their sheep, 32.5% use anthelmintics at varying times in a year. None of the farmers weighed their sheep before dosing them instead visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose. The above information is an indication of risks associated with possible occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in the study areas. There is therefore, a need to give training to resource-poor farmers of small stock on proper application of anthelmintic treatment and to educate them on how to prevent development of AR. Future studies on AR should also be conducted in the province in flocks with high-treatment frequencies to establish the occurrence of AR using both in vivo and in vitro methods. The most common risk factor associated with the occurrence of AR in all the five districts of Limpopo province was found to be the use of anthelmintics without weighing the animals to determine the correct dosage.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on serum copper and phosphorus of
           growing beef calves in northwestern Argentina

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this work was to study the effect of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) on copper (Cu) and phosphorus (P) in blood of beef cattle in two ranches (R1 and R2) located in northwestern Argentina. In 2015–2016 (R1) and 2016–2017 (R2), in each ranch, 22 weaned female calves were divided into two groups: calves treated systematically with 200 mcg/kg moxidectin every 45–50 days (TG) and untreated calves (UTG). The following parameters were measured: number of fecal eggs (epg), fecal cultures, serum Cu and P levels, and live weight gain (LWG). Differences between groups were compared using analysis of variance and Tukey test. GIN infections in both ranches were subclinical and moderate, showing the highest epg (R1 = 907 ± 754; R2 = 1049 ± 1040) by mid-winter. Epg values of TG groups were always negligible (> 93% of moxidectin efficacy). The dominant nematode genera were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The average serum Cu values (μg/dl) indicated low (R1 = 49.7 ± 18) and severe (R2 = 27.2 ± 14) deficiency. The effect of treatments was evident in both ranches from late winter, with TG showing significantly (p < 0.01) higher serum levels in winter, spring, and early autumn (R1 = 65.1, 50.9, and 60.3; R2 = 48.0, 25.7, and 22.4) than UTG (R1 = 44.3, 33.9, and 32.9; R2 = 25.5, 18.2, and 16.4). There were no differences in serum P levels between groups. LWG of TG increased significantly (p < 0.008) (27.2% in R1 and 38.6% in R2), with respect to those of UTG. This study showed a negative effect of GIN on serum Cu values in moderately infected growing calves.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
 
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