- Comparison of Diverse Differential Plating Methods to Enrich Bovine
- Abstract: Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) have important applications in domestic animal reproduction and advanced biotechnologies. Because differential plating is one of the most common methods used for SSC enrichment, the goal of this study was to compare three differential plating methods for the enrichment of bovine SSC. To achieve this goal, testicular parenchyma from pre‐pubertal calves was minced and single cells were obtained after two enzymatic digestions. We compared three coating methods for differential plating: laminin (20 ng/ml), BSA (0.05 mg/ml) and PBS. Cells were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 in air for 15 min onto laminin‐coated dishes or 2 h onto BSA‐ or PBS‐coated dishes. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion method. Recovered cells were analysed for the expression of SSC molecular markers by quantitative RT‐PCR (GFRA1, CXCR4, ITGA6, THY1) and flow cytometry (GFRA1, CXCR4 and ITGA6). Cells at time 0, adherent cells on laminin and non‐adherent cells from BSA and PBS groups had the same cell viability (p = 0.0655). GFRA1, CXCR4 and THY1 relative gene expression was higher (p = 0.0402, p = 0.0007, p = 0.0117, respectively) for non‐adherent cells selected in PBS group. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the presence of GFRA‐positive (GFRA+) cells was higher in non‐adherent cells from BSA and PBS groups (p
- Supplementation of Slow‐Release Melatonin Improves Recovery of
Ovarian Cyclicity and Conception in Summer Anoestrous Buffaloes (Bubalus
- Authors: A Kumar; S Mehrotra, G Singh, VP Maurya, K Narayanan, AS Mahla, RK Chaudhari, M Singh, YK Soni, BL Kumawat, SK Dabas, N Srivastava
Abstract: The role of melatonin as a protective neurohormone against restoring cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals in photoperiod species has gained wider acceptance. This study was designed to uncover the evidence the slow‐release melatonin (MLT) has on initiation of ovarian cyclicity and conception rate (CR) in summer anoestrous buffaloes. Thus, buffaloes diagnosed as summer anoestrous (absence of overt signs of oestrus, concurrent rectal examination and radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone at 10 days interval) were grouped as untreated (Group I, sterilized corn oil, n = 8) and treated (Group II, single subcutaneous injection of MLT @18 mg/50 kg bwt in sterilized corn oil, n = 20). Animals treated and detected in oestrus were artificially inseminated (AI) followed by division into Group III (second dose of MLT on 5th day post‐AI, n = 8) and Group IV (no melatonin administration, n = 10). Blood samples were collected at 4 days interval for estimation of serum MLT, progesterone and oestrogen using radioimmunoassay kit. Mean oestrous induction rate (OIR), oestrous induction interval (OII), interoestrous interval (IOI) and CR were estimated. Compared to control, concentration of melatonin was significantly (p
- Issue Information
- PubDate: 2015-11-09T01:21:13.241781-05:
- Pregnancy‐Induced ISG‐15 and MX‐1 Gene Expression is
Detected in the Liver of Holstein–Friesian Heifers During Late
- Authors: MM Meyerholz; K Mense, H Knaack, O Sandra, M Schmicke
Abstract: The bovine embryonic signal interferon‐τ (IFN‐τ) produced by the trophoblast is known to pass through the uterine fluid towards the endometrium and further into the maternal blood, where IFN‐τ induces specific expression of interferon‐stimulated gene expression (ISG), for example in peripheral leucocytes. In sheep, it was shown experimentally by administration of IFN‐τ that ISG is also detectable in the liver. The objective was to test whether ISG can be detected in liver biopsy specimens from Holstein–Friesian heifers during early pregnancy. Liver biopsies were taken on day 18 from pregnant and non‐pregnant heifers (n = 19), and the interferon‐stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG‐15) and myxovirus‐resistance protein‐1 (MX‐1) gene expression was detected. The expression of both MX‐1 (p: 24.33 ± 7.40 vs np: 9.00 ± 4.02) and ISG‐15 (p: 43.73 ± 23.22 vs 7.83 ± 3.63) was higher in pregnant compared to non‐pregnant heifers (p
- A Non‐Reciprocal Autosomal Translocation 64,XX, t(4;10)(q21;p15) in
an Arabian Mare with Repeated Early Embryonic Loss
- Authors: S Ghosh; PJ Das, F Avila, BK Thwaits, BP Chowdhary, T Raudsepp
Abstract: Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3‐year‐old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non‐mosaic and non‐reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals.
- Absence of Sperm Factors as in the Parthenogenesis Does Not Interfere on
- Abstract: Oocyte has been considered the major contributor for embryo thermo‐tolerance. However, it was shown that sperm factors can be transferred to the oocyte during fertilization, raising the question of whether the absence of such factors could interfere on embryo thermo‐tolerance. In this study, we used parthenogenesis to generate bovine embryos without spermatozoa in order to test whether the absence of sperm factors could influence their thermo‐sensitiveness at early stages. In vitro fertilized (IVF) and parthenogenetic (PA) embryos at 44 h post‐insemination/chemical activation were exposed to 38.5°C (control) or 41°C (heat shock) for 12 h and then developed for 48 h and up to blastocyst stage. Apoptosis index and expression of PRDX1, GLUT1, GLUT5 and IGF1r genes in blastocysts derived from heat‐shocked embryos were also evaluated. The heat shock decreased the blastocyst rate at day seven (p
- Actin Polymerization: An Event Regulated by Tyrosine Phosphorylation
During Buffalo Sperm Capacitation
- Authors: S Naresh; SK Atreja
Abstract: In the female reproductive tract, the spermatozoa undergo a series of physiological and biochemical changes, prior to gaining the ability to fertilize, that result to capacitation. However, the actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation are the two necessary steps for capacitation. In this study, we have demonstrated the actin polymerization and established the correlation between protein tyrosine phosphorylation and actin reorganization during in vitro capacitation in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot techniques were used to detect actin polymerization and tyrosine phosphorylation. The time‐dependent fluorimetric studies revealed that the actin polymerization starts from the tail region and progressed towards the head region of spermatozoa during capacitation. The lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC)‐induced acrosome reaction (AR) stimulated quick actin depolymerization. The inhibitor cytochalasin D (CD) blocked the in vitro capacitation by inhibiting the actin polymerization. In addition, we also performed different inhibitor (Genistein, H‐89, PD9809 and GF‐109) and enhancer (dbcAMP, H2O2 and vanadate) studies on actin tyrosine phosphorylation and actin polymerization. The inhibitors of tyrosine phosphorylation inhibit actin tyrosine phosphorylation and polymerization, whereas enhancers of tyrosine phosphorylation stimulate F‐actin formation and tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations suggest that the tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the actin polymerization, and both are coupled processes during capacitation of buffalo spermatozoa.
- The Amniotic Membrane: Development and Potential Applications – A
- Abstract: Foetal membranes are essential tissues for embryonic development, playing important roles related to protection, breathing, nutrition and excretion. The amnion is the innermost extraembryonic membrane, which surrounds the foetus, forming an amniotic sac that contains the amniotic fluid (AF). In recent years, the amniotic membrane has emerged as a potential tool for clinical applications and has been primarily used in medicine in order to stimulate the healing of skin and corneal diseases. It has also been used in vaginal reconstructive surgery, repair of abdominal hernia, prevention of surgical adhesions and pericardium closure. More recently, it has been used in regenerative medicine because the amniotic‐derived stem cells as well as AF‐derived cells exhibit cellular plasticity, angiogenic, cytoprotective, immunosuppressive properties, antitumoural potential and the ability to generate induced pluripotent stem cells. These features make them a promising source of stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering. In this review, we discussed the development of the amnion, AF and amniotic cavity in different species, as well as the applicability of stem cells from the amnion and AF in cellular therapy.
- Diagnostic Efficacy of a Single Progesterone Determination to Assess
Full‐Term Pregnancy in the Bitch
- Authors: A Rota; C Charles, A Starvaggi Cucuzza, P Pregel
Abstract: In clinical settings, when the reproductive history of a near‐term bitch is limited to mating dates, the possibility to accurately assess whether pregnancy is at term could be very useful in order to be able to plan a correct management of parturition or to safely perform an elective Caesarean section. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of a single progesterone determination, measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), in predicting the occurrence of parturition on the following day. At least one blood sample was collected from 51 pre‐partum bitches during the 3 days before parturition and on day of parturition. The efficacy of progesterone as a marker of the end of pregnancy was tested using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Youden's index was calculated to select the optimal cut‐off value (with 95% confidence interval), aiming at maximizing the correct identification of negative events, so not to risk to diagnose as full term a bitch which is not. Progesterone concentration lower than 3.4 ng/ml correctly identified the bitches whelping the following day; however, because of the obliged prudential approach, sensitivity was low (46.88%), and 17 of 32 full‐term bitches were missed. Due to a very large individual variation, a single progesterone determination has low diagnostic efficacy, although it can represent a useful first screening.
- Qualitative Analyses of Protein Phosphorylation in Bovine Pluripotent Stem
Cells Generated from Embryonic Fibroblasts
- Authors: W Nong; TS Xie, LY Li, AG Lu, J Mo, YF Gou, G Lan, H Jiang, J Len, MM Li, QY Jiang, B Huang
Abstract: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) generated from somatic cells via ectopic expression of specific transcription factors provide an unlimited cell resource for regenerative medicine and transgenic breeding. Here, we describe the successful generation of bovine induced PSCs (biPSCs) from foetal fibroblasts by lentivirus‐mediated delivery of bovine pluripotency reprogramming factors (PRFs) OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, c‐MYC, NANOG and LIN28. The generated biPSCs resembled embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in their gene expression profiles, self‐renewal capabilities and proliferation, as well as maintenance of a normal karyotype and differentiation into diverse cell types of all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Qualitative phosphoproteomics of biPSCs revealed a large number of phosphorylated proteins, which might be related to the control of biPSCs status. The successful generation of biPSCs and the analysis of their phosphoproteome would further our understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying iPSC pluripotency, thus promoting their application in bovine transgenic breeding and marking avenues for future research.
- Coenzyme Q10 and α‐Tocopherol Prevent the Lipid Peroxidation of
Cooled Equine Semen
- Abstract: Biotechnology applied for equine semen increases the levels of reactive oxygen species and reduces the natural antioxidant defence, by both dilution and removal of seminal plasma. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of adding coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and α‐tocopherol (α‐TOH) to the cooling extender, singly or in combination, on sperm parameters, and their effectiveness in preventing lipid peroxidation (LPO) of equine semen during cooling at 5°C for 72 h. Ten adult stallions of proven fertility were used, using two ejaculates each, subjecting them to the treatments with the following concentrations: α‐TOH: 2 mm; CoQ10: 40 μg/ml; and CoQ10 + α‐TOH: 40 μg/ml + 2 mm for control (C) without the addition of antioxidants and for vehicle control (EtOH) with 100 μl ethanol. The CoQ10 group had a higher percentage of total motility (69.1 ± 16.2%) compared to control (62.1 ± 16.2%) and EtOH (58.1 ± 18.6%). CoQ10 + α‐TOH and α‐TOH groups were most effective in preventing LPO compared to controls (1765.9 ± 695.9, 1890.8 ± 749.5, 2506.2 ± 769.4 ng malondialdehyde/108 sptz, respectively). In conclusion, CoQ10 and α‐TOH were effective during the cooling process of equine semen at 5°C for 72 h, providing increased levels of total motility, as well as lower LPO.
- Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Test to the Diagnosis of Canine
Brucellosis Caused by Brucella canis
- Authors: LB Keid; JA Diniz, TMFS Oliveira, HL Ferreira, RM Soares
Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of an immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis, comparing its results with that of the rapid slide agglutination test with and without the use of 2‐mercaptoethanol and the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). The microbiological culture, PCR and clinical examination were used as reference. According to the results obtained in clinical examination, blood culture, culture of semen and vaginal swab and PCR in blood, semen and vaginal swab, a total of 102 dogs were divided into three groups: B. canis‐infected dogs (Group 1), B. canis‐non‐infected dogs (Group 2) and dogs with suspected brucellosis (Group 3). The diagnostic sensitivity of RSAT, 2ME‐RSAT, AGID and ICT in Group 1 was, respectively, 75%, 37.5%, 27.8% and 89.58%. The diagnostic specificity of RSAT, 2ME‐RSAT, AGID and ICT in Group 2 was, respectively, 91%, 100%, 100%, and 100%. In dogs with suspected brucellosis, 9.67% were RSAT positive, none was positive by 2ME‐RSAT, 3.22% were AGID positive and 6.45% were ICT positive. The main drawback concerning canine brucellosis diagnosis is the lack of a highly sensitive serological assay to be used as a screening test to the rapid identification of infected animals. The ICT showed a high diagnostic specificity and a diagnostic sensitivity value greater than that observed in the RSAT, 2ME‐RSAT and AGID. However, 10.41% of infected dogs had negative results by ICT. These dogs were positive by microbiological culture and/or PCR, indicating active infection and consequently a higher potential of spreading Brucella. Although rapid and simple to perform, the ICT lacked sensitivity to be used as a screening test.
- Competition Between Different Social Ranked Rams has Similar Effects on
Testosterone and Sexual Behaviour Throughout the Year
- Authors: R Ungerfeld; L Lacuesta
Abstract: Dominant rams have preferential access to females, as they frequently interrupt sexual behaviour from subordinated. Testosterone concentrations are directly linked to sexual and aggressive behaviour and have important variations along the year. Therefore, it may be expected that the effects of dominance relationships on reproductive behaviour differ according to testosterone concentrations, and thus to the period of the year. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dominance relationships on testosterone and sexual behaviour in different moments of the year in rams. Twelve rams were maintained in a single group. Social rank was determined in January (maximum reproductive development), May (regression of the reproductive status) and August (lowest reproductive activity), and the four rams with higher (HR) and the four with lower (LR) success index were used. Testosterone serum concentration was weekly measured four times during each experimental period. Sexual behaviour was evaluated in each period with an oestrous ewe, and with the oestrous ewe and another ram from the other social rank (each HR with each LR ram). Testosterone concentration was greater in HR than LR rams in January (p = 0.03), and all the behaviours were displayed more frequently in non‐competitive than in competitive tests (p
- Epigallocatechin‐3‐Gallate (EGCG) Reduces Rotenone Effect on
Stallion Sperm–Zona Pellucida Heterologous Binding
- Abstract: Stallion spermatozoa are highly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production to achieve normal sperm function and to fuel the motility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of equine sperm under capacitating conditions to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone and to test whether epigallocatechin‐3‐gallate (EGCG), a natural polyphenol component of green tea, could counteract this effect. After 2‐h incubation of stallion spermatozoa in modified Tyrode's medium, rotenone (100 nm, 500 nm and 5 μm) and EGCG (10, 20 and 60 μm), alone or in combination, did not induce any significant difference on the percentage of viable cells, live sperm with active mitochondria and spermatozoa with intact acrosome. The inhibition of complex I of mitochondrial respiratory chain of stallion sperm with rotenone exerted a negative effect on heterologous ZP binding ability. EGCG at the concentrations of 10 and 20 μm (but not of 60 μm) induced a significant increase in the number of sperm bound to the ZP compared with that for control. Moreover, when stallion sperm were treated with rotenone 100 nm, the presence of EGCG at all the concentrations tested (10, 20 and 60 μm) significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP up to control levels, suggesting that this green tea polyphenol is able to reduce the toxicity of rotenone.
- Influence of Different Protocols of Urethral Catheterization after
Pharmacological Induction (Ur.Ca.P.I.) on Semen Quality in the Domestic
- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence that different protocols of urethral catheterization after pharmacological induction (Ur.Ca.P.I.) may have on the semen quality of the domestic cat. The study has been divided into two experiments: one in which different dosages of medetomidine administrated are evaluated and the second one in which the timing of the catheterization after pharmacological induction is tested. In the first experiment, 18 cats were sedated with the recommended dosage of medetomidine (130 μg/kg i.m.) while the other 18 were sedated with a lower dose of the same drug (50 μg/kg i.m.). In the second experiment, three groups were implemented, each containing 25 subjects. In group 1, the semen collection was performed immediately once the pharmacological effect of the drug was reached; in group 2, the semen collection was performed three times every 5 min after the pharmacological effect was reached; finally, in group 3, Ur.Ca.P.I. was performed 20 min after the pharmacological effect was reached. All the different protocols permitted sperm collection, nevertheless the first experiment showed a better quality in terms of volume, concentration, total number of spermatozoa (p
- Proteomic Characterization of Zinc‐Binding Proteins of Canine
- Abstract: The zinc‐binding proteins (ZnBPs) of the seminal plasma are implicated in different processes related to sperm–egg fusion. The aim of this study was to characterize the ZnBPs of canine seminal plasma using two‐dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D‐PAGE) and mass spectrometry. The ZnBPs were isolated from the ejaculates of five dogs by affinity chromatography and subjected to 2D‐PAGE analysis. The acquired spots, detected across the gels, were analysed by mass spectrometry. Using 2D‐PAGE analysis, it was shown that canine seminal plasma comprised about 46–57 zinc‐binding polypeptides, with molecular mass ranging from 9.3 to 138.7 kDa and pI at pH 5.2–10.0. It was found that zinc‐binding polypeptides of low molecular masses (9.3–19.0 kDa and pI at pH 6.1–10.0) were predominant in the seminal plasma, and seven polypeptides, with molecular masses ranging from 11.7 to 15.4 kDa and pI at pH 6.8–8.7, were characterized by high optical density values. In addition, analysis with mass spectrometry (LC‐MS‐MS/MS) revealed that the identified seven polypeptides are canine prostate‐specific esterase (CPSE), which is the main proteolytic enzyme of the seminal plasma. The findings of this study indicate an important regulatory role of seminal plasma zinc ions in the functional activity of CPSE, which is of great significance for maintaining the normal function of canine prostate and the spermatozoa functions.
- Effect of Different Media and Protein Source on Equine Gametes: Potential
Impact During In Vitro Fertilization
- Abstract: Equine in vitro fertilization (IVF) is still inconsistent. In the present work, we studied how modified Whitten's (MW) medium and Tissue Culture Medium 199 (TCM) added with Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS; 10% v/v) or Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA; 7 mg/ml) affected equine gametes to subsequently run IVF trials. Compact (Cp) and expanded (Ex) cumuli equine oocytes were matured and placed in TCM or MW supplemented with BSA or FBS for 18–20 h (no sperm added). In Ex oocytes, TCM‐199 added with FBS or BSA resulted in higher metaphase II (MII) rates (75.7% and 62.7%, respectively) than MW added with BSA (54%) or FBS (52.2%; p
- VASA (DDX4) is a Putative Marker for Spermatogonia, Spermatocytes and
Round Spermatids in Stallions
- Authors: JY Kim; HJ Jung, MJ Yoon
Abstract: Expression of the protein DDX4/MVH, or VASA, has been reported in germ cells of several species. The main objectives of this study were to (i) investigate VASA expression patterns in testicular cells of stallions at two different reproductive stages (pre‐pubertal and post‐pubertal) and (ii) evaluate the use of VASA antibody as a molecular marker for single germ cells from stallions. Testicular tissues were obtained from stallions and categorized as pre‐pubertal and post‐pubertal based on the formation of lumen and status of spermatogenesis on the cross section of seminiferous tubules. The results of Western blot showed a VASA protein band located at 76 kDa, indicating that the rabbit antibody has a cross‐reactivity with horse testicular tissues. The result of immunolabelling showed that VASA was expressed in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia at both reproductive stages and in spermatocytes and round spermatids at the post‐pubertal stage. GATA4‐positive Sertoli cells and Leydig cells located in the interstitial space were not immunolabelled with VASA. These results suggest that VASA can be utilized as a molecular marker for germ cells of stallions at pre‐pubertal and post‐pubertal stages. Interestingly, immunolabelling intensity was significantly higher in pachytene spermatocytes compared to spermatogonia and round spermatid. VASA antibody was also effective for staining of single germ cell preparations. In conclusion, VASA protein expression can be used as a marker for identification of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and round spermatids in testicular tissues of stallions.
- Detection, Localization and Tyrosine Phosphorylation Status of Ser/Thr
Protein Phosphatase1γ in Freshly Ejaculated, In Vitro Capacitated and
Cryopreserved Buffalo Spermatozoa
- Authors: S Naresh; SK Atreja
Abstract: Several recent studies have indicated the important roles of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase1γ (PP1γ) in regulating the motility and capacitation of mammalian spermatozoa. Here, we report the presence and distribution of PP1γ protein in freshly ejaculated, in vitro capacitated and cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa. The presence of PP1γ and its distribution were assessed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence techniques, whereas the isoforms of PP1γ and their tyrosine phosphorylation status were identified by using 2D electrophoresis. The number of isoforms and the status of tyrosine phosphorylation of PP1γ were increased in capacitated spermatozoa when compared with freshly ejaculated spermatozoa. Differential pattern of expression and tyrosine phosphorylation of PP1γ were observed in cryopreserved spermatozoa, wherein some isoforms were degraded and some were tyrosine phosphorylated. In addition, immunofluorescence technique revealed that PP1γ was localized to principle, mid‐piece, post‐acrosomal and equatorial regions of buffalo spermatozoa. Differential distribution of tyrosine‐phosphorylated proteins were observed in fresh, capacitated and cryopreserved spermatozoa. The tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins (20, 37, 38, 52, 60, 79 and 100 kDa) were increased when sperm cells were incubated with PP1γ inhibitor, okadaic acid. Together, our results suggest that buffalo spermatozoa express different isoforms of PP1γ protein. The protein expression and tyrosine phosphorylation of PP1γ were increased during capacitation. Furthermore, the differential pattern of expression and tyrosine phosphorylation of PP1γ were observed in cryopreserved spermatozoa. In addition, the inhibition of PP1γ protein increases protein tyrosine phosphorylation in capacitation.
- Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points System for a Bull Semen
- Authors: KL Goularte; EM Madeira, CER Ferreira, EH Duval, AD Vieira, RG Mondadori, T Lucia
Abstract: Bull semen production centres (SPC) generally present satisfactory quality control for sperm processing, but non‐standardized hygiene procedures. This study describes a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system developed for bull SPC and subsequently implemented in a commercial SPC. After the identification of hazards at each step of semen processing and the determination of their risk and severity, monitoring and corrective procedures were designed to assess the system's efficiency. The HACCP system identified six microbiological hazards, 10 physical hazards, four chemical hazards and three critical control points. After the establishment of Good Processing Practices, Standard Operating Procedures and Standard Sanitizing Operating Procedures, the system was validated through an audit, to identify eventual failures and to define measures to correct them.
- Morphometry, Morphology and Ultrastructure of Ring‐tailed Coati
Sperm (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766)
- Abstract: The ring‐tailed coati (Nasua nasua) is a procyonid whose population is in sharp decline. Therefore, studies are needed to better understand the reproduction of this animal. For this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the morphology, morphometry and sperm ultrastructure of ring‐tailed coati sperm. Four captive adult males were used for this study. Slides stained with Bengal Rose were used for the morphometric and morphologic analyses. The length and width of the head were measured, as well as the length of the midpiece and tail and the total length of the sperm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for the ultrastructural analyses. The most obvious morphological abnormalities observed were coiled tails (6.1 ± 8.7%) and the lack of acrosomes (5.4 ± 4.4%). Regarding the morphometry, the measurements of the head (length × width), midpiece (length) and tail (length) were (mean ± SD) 6.2 ± 0.4 × 8.1 ± 0.6 μm, 14.1 ± 0.5 and 63.9 ± 4.1 μm, respectively, and the total length of the sperm was 86.1 ± 4.3 μm. Through electron microscopy, the presence of electron‐lucent points in the nucleus and the presence of approximately 55 mitochondrial spirals in the midpiece were identified. The data obtained in this study provide detailed information on the sperm characteristics of coatis and may inform future research on germplasm conservation, both for this species and other threatened procyonids.
- Expression of mRNA Encoding the LH Receptor (LHR) and LHR Binding Protein
in Granulosa Cells from Nelore (Bos indicus) Heifers Around Follicle
- Authors: RL Ereno; B Loureiro, ACS Castilho, MF Machado, MF Pegorer, RA Satrapa, MFG Nogueira, J Buratini, CM Barros
Abstract: The time at which follicles acquire LHR in bovine granulosa cells is the subject of some controversy among researchers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of LHR and LRBP (mRNA protein binding), a post‐transcriptional suppressor of LHR mRNA expression, in granulosa cells from the two largest follicles around the expected time of follicle deviation in Nelore heifers. First, the interval between ovulation and follicle deviation in 20 Nelore heifers was determined (2.3 ± 0.2 days after ovulation). Ovulation was hormonally synchronized, and then, heifers were slaughtered on days 2, 2.5 and 3 after ovulation (before, during and after, respectively, the expected time of follicle deviation), and granulosa cells from the two largest follicles were collected. The mRNA abundance of an LHR fragment common to all isoforms (total LHR) and LRBP was assessed by real‐time RT‐PCR, and LHR alternative transcripts were assessed by semiquantitative RT‐PCR followed by electrophoresis. LHR mRNA expression was not detected before the expected time of deviation. Total LHR mRNA abundance was greater in the largest follicle and increased from day 2.5 to 3. In contrast, LRBP mRNA was detected starting on day 2 and was more expressed in the second largest follicle on days 2.5 and 3. The present data suggest that the expression of LHR mRNA in bovine granulosa cells is established after follicle deviation and that the lower abundance of LRBP mRNA after the expected time of deviation may contribute to greater expression of LHR in the bovine dominant follicle.
- Comparison of Whole Ovary Cryotreatments for Fertility Preservation
- Abstract: The goal of this study was to compare a traditional slow‐freeze method (TF) with an open unidirectional slow freeze cooling system (UF) for whole ovary cryopreservation. Therefore, whole pig ovaries were randomly assigned to (A) fresh control, (B) traditional slow freeze (TF) or (C) unidirectional slow freeze (UF). Ovaries were perfused with 10% DMSO in Krebs‐Ringer. For TF, whole ovaries were placed in specimen jars containing 10% DMSO and placed into a specialized container for freezing filled with propan‐2‐ol. For UF, whole ovaries were placed within a specially designed container containing 10% DMSO and transferred to a specialized freezing machine (CTE 920). Histological evaluation demonstrated intact morphology of follicles in all groups; however, an overall decrease of follicle numbers in TF (46%) and UF (50%) compared to fresh control. Live/dead assay indicated significantly lower populations of live cells in both TF (60%) and UF (58%) compared to fresh tissue (74%). TUNEL assay confirmed a difference in percentage of apoptotic follicles between fresh and TF, but there was no significant difference between fresh and UF. To improve the structural and functional integrity of whole ovaries, further investigation, especially into directional freezing, is needed. Whole ovary cryopreservation could provide opportunities for women facing fertility loss due to chemo‐ or radiotherapy treatment.
- Fertility in Adult Bitches Previously Treated with a 4.7 mg
Subcutaneous Deslorelin Implant
- Abstract: The absence of fertility problems in male dogs after a single treatment with deslorelin acetate (Suprelorin®) is well acknowledged. However, reports on the application of deslorelin in the bitch and information concerning fertility after implant treatment are still limited. In this retrospective study, data concerning induced and spontaneous oestruses of 39 bitches from 17 breeds, treated with deslorelin acetate implants (4.7 mg Suprelorin®, Virbac, France), were retrieved to assess post‐treatment fertility (ovulation rate, pregnancy rate and litter size). Animals were grouped according to treatment characteristics: group 1 (Gr1) – females submitted to oestrus induction, showing natural oestruses afterwards (n = 19); group 2 (Gr2) – females re‐implanted with 4.7 mg deslorelin acetate to re‐induce oestrus, showing subsequent spontaneous post‐implant oestruses (n = 7); and group 3 (Gr3) – females submitted to a 4.7 mg deslorelin acetate implant for oestrus suppression, evaluated at subsequent spontaneous post‐implant oestruses (n = 13). Comparison of fertility traits between induced and post‐treatment spontaneous oestruses in Gr1 and Gr2 (short treatments), or between spontaneous oestruses after long‐treatment schedules (Gr 3) revealed a slightly better performance in spontaneous cycles compared with induced cycles: ovulation rate post‐treatment was 97.1%, 94.1% and 94.4% and the pregnancy rate post‐treatment was 91.2%, 88.9% and 84.6% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Nevertheless, fertility in induced and post‐treatment oestruses was considered normal. Moreover, the individual litter size did not differ within groups between induced and spontaneous cycles. From these findings, we concluded that treatment with 4.7 mg deslorelin implants did not compromise the bitches' fertility in subsequent oestruses.
- Oestrogen and Progesterone Receptors and COX‐2 Expression in
Endometrial Biopsy Samples During Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in
Llamas (Lama glama)
- Abstract: Endometrial expression of oestrogen receptor‐α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclooxigenase‐2 (COX‐2) was evaluated in non‐pregnant and pregnant llamas during the period when luteolysis/maternal recognition of pregnancy is expected to occur. Females (n = 28) were divided into two groups: non‐pregnant llamas were induced to ovulate with a Buserelin injection, and endometrial biopsies were obtained on day 8 (n = 5) or 12 (n = 5) post‐induction of ovulation. Animals of the pregnant group (n = 18) were mated with a fertile male. Pregnancy was confirmed by the visualization of the embryo collected by transcervical flushing in 5 of 9 animals on day 8 post‐mating and by progesterone profile on day 12 post‐mating in 4 of 9 animals, when endometrial biopsies were obtained. An immunohistochemical technique was used to evaluate receptors population and COX‐2 expression. Pregnant llamas showed a higher percentage of positive cells and stronger intensity for ERα than for non‐pregnant llamas in stroma on day 8 and in the luminal epithelium on day 12 post‐induction of ovulation, while a deep decrease in endometrial PR population was reported in pregnant llamas on that day in luminal and glandular epithelia and stroma. In the luminal epithelium, COX‐2 expression was lower in pregnant than in non‐pregnant animals. Briefly, the increase of ERα in pregnant llamas gives further support to the hypothesis that oestrogens are involved in the mechanism of maternal recognition of pregnancy. Endometrial PR decrease in pregnant llamas might be a necessary event to allow the expression of proteins involved in conceptus attachment, a mechanism widely accepted in other species. Moreover, embryo seems to attenuate maternal PGF2α secretion during early pregnancy by decreasing the endometrial expression of COX‐2 in the luminal epithelium of pregnant llamas.
- Phenotypic Correlations of Testes Size with Semen Traits and the
Productive Traits of Young Boars
- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship of young boar testes size with semen traits and with productive traits. The dimensions (length, width and volume) of each testis and semen traits (semen volume, percentage of sperm with progressive motility, sperm concentration, total number of sperm in semen, percentage of sperm with normal acrosome, percentage of sperm with major and minor morphological defects, osmotic resistance test value and activity of aspartate aminotransferase in seminal plasma) were determined on 120 young boars aged 6 months. At 180 day of age, the boars backfat thickness and leanness (by ultrasonic apparatus) and body weight were also measured. The average daily gain was determined in the period from 70 to 180 days of age of the boars. The results showed that the sperm concentration, total number of sperm in semen and percentage of progressive motile sperm were a significantly positively correlated with width and volume of the left (p ≤ 0.01) and right testis (p ≤ 0.05) and with total volume of both testes (p ≤ 0.01). But the highest values of correlation coefficients were found between the width of the left testis and sperm concentration, total number of sperm in semen and percentage of progressive motile sperm. A correlations of dimensions (length and width) and volume of testes with other semen traits were very low and statistically non‐significant. The volume of testes (left and right testis and total testes) was significantly positively correlated with body weight at 180 days of age and daily gain (p ≤ 0.01), but lower correlation coefficient was between left testis and daily gain (p ≤ 0.05), whereas correlations were low and non‐significant with leanness and backfat thickness.
- Influence of Body Condition on Serum Metabolic Indicators of Lipid
Mobilization and Oxidative Stress in Dairy Cows During the Transition
- Abstract: The objectives of this study were to examine the influence of body condition of cows on metabolic and antioxidative status, as well as to investigate the relationship between metabolic indicators of lipid mobilization and oxidative stress during transition period. The study was conducted on 24 Holstein‐Friesian dairy cows divided into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) as optimal (n = 12; BCS from 3.25 to 3.75) or adipose (n = 12; BCS ≥4). Metabolic status (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, NEFA and BHB), paraoxonase‐1 (PON1) and apolipoprotein A‐I (ApoA‐I) were analysed in sera taken on days −30, −10, −2, 0, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 60 relative to parturition. Adipose cows had significantly higher glucose concentration at parturition being significantly decreased after parturition on days 12 and 19. Total cholesterol and HDL‐C concentrations were the lowest at parturition and significantly higher on days 26 and 60 after parturition in both groups of cows. Both investigated groups had significantly higher NEFA concentration from parturition until day 19 after parturition, indicating energy deficit and an increased lipid mobilization after calving. There were no significant differences in BHB concentration during transition period in both groups. No significant differences were found in PON1 activity and ApoA‐I concentration during transition period in both groups of cows. However, in adipose cows, although not significantly different, PON1 was decreased from calving until day 19 after parturition indicating a disturbance in antioxidative status in adipose cows. PON1 significantly positively correlated with total cholesterol and HDL‐C concentrations and negatively with NEFA indicating a strong relationship of PON1 with lipid metabolism. Significant positive correlation between NEFA and BHB in both groups of cows points out on energy deficit during transition period that cows tend to overcome by lipid mobilization providing alternative source of energy needed for parturition and lactation.
- Methyl‐β‐Cyclodextrin Improves Sperm Capacitation Status
Assessed by Flow Cytometry Analysis and Zona Pellucida‐Binding
Ability of Frozen/Thawed Bovine Spermatozoa
- Abstract: Mammalian sperm undergo a series of biochemical transformations in the female reproductive tract that are collectively known as capacitation. Cyclodextrins added to the sperm culture medium have been described to induce in vitro sperm capacitation, enabling its use in protein‐free media. However, the additive capacitating effect of methyl‐β‐cyclodextrin (MβCD) in the medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) is unknown in the bovine species. In this study, we evaluated the effects of incubating frozen–thawed bovine spermatozoa in a BSA‐containing medium supplemented with MβCD on different sperm quality and functional parameters. Sperm viability decreased with the addition of MβCD in a dose‐dependent manner (p
- Melatonin Supplementation During In Vitro Maturation and Development
Supports the Development of Porcine Embryos
- Authors: LTK Do; Y Shibata, M Taniguchi, M Nii, TV Nguyen, F Tanihara, M Takagi, T Otoi
Abstract: Melatonin has been reported to improve the in vitro development of embryos in some species. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of melatonin supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) and development culture on the development and quality of porcine embryos. In the first experiment, when the in vitro fertilized embryos were cultured with different concentrations of melatonin (0, 10, 25 and 50 ng/ml) for 8 days, the blastocyst formation rate of embryos cultured with 25 ng/ml melatonin (10.7%) was significantly increased (p
- Gene Expression and Localization of NGF and Its Cognate Receptors NTRK1
and NGFR in the Sex Organs of Male Rabbits
- Abstract: Experiments were devised to characterize the expression of nerve growth factor, beta polypeptide (NGF), and its cognate receptors neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (NTRK1) and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) in rabbit male sex organs, as well as the concentrations of NGF in both seminal and blood plasma of sexually mature male rabbits. Immunoreactivity and gene expression for NGF and cognate receptors were detected in testis, prostate gland and seminal vesicle. The highest levels of NGF and NTRK1 transcripts were found in the prostate, while intermediate expressions were found in the testis. NGFR transcripts were expressed at the same levels in both testis and prostate and were more abundant than in seminal vesicles. The widespread distribution of NGF in all prostate glandular cells, together with its relative high mRNA abundance, confirms that the prostate of rabbits is the main source of this neurotrophin. In conclusion, the present data suggest that the NGF system is involved in the testicular development and spermatogenesis of rabbits and that NGF may act as a potential ovulation‐inducing factor being abundantly present in the seminal plasma.
- Comparison of Two Different Programmes of Ovulation Synchronization in the
Treatment of Ovarian Cysts in Dairy Cows
- Authors: N Gundling; S Drews, M Hoedemaker
Abstract: It was the aim of this field study to evaluate two different protocols of ovulation synchronization for the treatment of ovarian cysts and their effect on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In addition, factors with a possible influence on treatment success and pregnancy outcome as well as costs per pregnancy were analysed. The study was performed with 130 German Holsteins with ovarian cysts diagnosed on days 55 to 60 postpartum. Cows belonging to group 1 (n = 65) received a modified ovsynch protocol [day 0: 0.15 mg cloprostenol (PGF) + 0.02 mg buserelin acetate (GnRH); day 14: PGF; day 16: GnRH]. Group 2 (n = 65) was treated with the conventional ovsynch protocol (day 0: GnRH; day 7: PGF; day 9: GnRH). Timed artificial insemination was performed 20 to 24 h later. Cows without ovarian cysts served as controls. Treatment success (disappearance of the ovarian cyst) after the first ovsynch cycle was higher in group 1 (66.2%) than in group 2 (23.1%, p