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        1 2     

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 178 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Reproduction in Domestic Animals
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [3 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0936-6768 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0531
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]   [SJR: 0.562]   [H-I: 35]
  • Effect of a Single Dose of Cadmium on Pregnant Wistar Rats and their
           Offspring
    • Authors: M del C Díaz; NV González, S Gómez, MA Quiroga, R Najle, CG Barbeito
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a well‐known toxicant targeting many organs, among them placenta. This heavy metal also has embryonary and foetal toxicity. This study was undertaken to analyse the effect of a single Cd dose administered at 4, 7, 10 or 15 days of gestation on the offspring of pregnant rats sacrificed at 20 days of gestation. Cadmium chloride was administered subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg body weight to Wistar pregnant dams; control animals received a proportionate volume of sterile normal saline by the same route. Maternal uteri, livers, kidneys and lungs, and foetuses were examined at necropsy. Samples of maternal organs and whole foetuses were collected for histopathologic examination, determination of Cd levels and staining by the Alizarin red S technique. Results revealed a clear embryotoxic and a teratogenic effect of this heavy metal, the former as a significant increase in the number of resorptions, and the latter as significant decrease of the gestational sac weight, and the size and weight of foetuses of Cd‐treated dams as well as induced malformations in skull bones, vertebrae and thoracic, and pelvian limbs. The deleterious effects found were similar to those previously reported for other animal models suggesting a high conservation of the pathogenic mechanisms of Cd. Additionally, many of the addressed aspects showed a slight dependence on the time of administration of the toxic that might be due to the accumulation of the metal in different organs, as we were able to demonstrate by the analysis of its concentration.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17T01:55:43.559517-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12439
       
  • Effect of Overnight Staining on the Quality of Flow Cytometric Sorted
           Stallion Sperm: Comparison with Tradtitional Protocols
    • Authors: CM Balao da Silva; C Ortega Ferrusola, JM Gallardo Bolaños, M Plaza Dávila, P Martín‐Muñoz, JM Morrell, H Rodriguez Martínez, FJ Peña
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Flow cytometry is considered the only reliable method for the separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa in equines. The MoFlo SX DP sorter is highly efficient, allowing the production of foals of the desired sex. However, to achieve acceptable pregnancy rates the currently used protocol requires working with fresh semen obtained close to, or at, the sorting facility. An alternative protocol was tested during two consecutive breeding seasons. Fresh stallion semen was cooled for 20 h, during which staining with Hoechst 33342 took place. On the following day, this sample was flow sorted and compared with spermatozoa from the same ejaculate that had been sexed on the previous day. All sperm parameters evaluated remained unchanged when fresh sorted and refrigerated sorted semen were compared. Pre‐sorting storage at 5°C did not alter sperm velocities nor kinetics, viability or membrane permeability, production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential or DNA fragmentation index of the sorted sample. The findings open for the possibility of using semen from stallions housed far from the sorting facilities. Processed and stained sperm could be shipped refrigerated on the previous day, sorted and inseminated on the next day.
      PubDate: 2014-10-12T23:15:32.998647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12431
       
  • Phosphofructokinase and Malate Dehydrogenase Participate in the In Vitro
           Maturation of Porcine Oocytes
    • Authors: E Breininger; BE Vecchi Galenda, GM Alvarez, C Gutnisky, PD Cetica
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Oocyte maturation depends on the metabolic activity of cumulus–oocyte complex (COC) that performs nutritive and regulatory functions during this process. In this work, the enzymes [phosphofructokinase (PFK) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH)] were tested to elucidate the metabolic profile of porcine COCs during the in vitro maturation (IVM). Enzymatic activity was expressed in U/COC and U/mg protein (specific activity) as mean ± SEM. In vitro maturation was performed with 2‐oxoglutarate (5, 10 and 20 mm) or hydroxymalonate (30, 60 and 100 mm) inhibitors of PFK and MDH, respectively. The PFK and MDH activities (U) remained constant during maturation. For PFK, the U were (2.48 ± 0.23) 10−5 and (2.54 ± 0.32) 10−5, and for MDH, the U were (4.72 ± 0.42) 10−5 and (4.38 ± 0.25) 10−5 for immature and in vitro matured COCs, respectively. The specific activities were significantly lower after IVM, for PFK (4.29 ± 0.48) 10−3 and (0.94 ± 0.12) 10−3, and for MDH (9.08 ± 0.93) 10−3 and (1.89 ± 0.10) 10−3 for immature and in vitro matured COCs, respectively. In vitro maturation percentages and enzymatic activity diminished with 20 mm 2‐oxoglutarate or 60 mm hydroxymalonate (p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T23:27:00.604706-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12437
       
  • Validation of Bovine Oestrous‐Specific Synthetic Molecules with
           Trained Scent Dogs; Similarities Between Natural and Synthetic Oestrous
           Smell
    • Authors: C Fischer‐Tenhagen; D Johnen, C Le Danvic, J Gatien, P Salvetti, BA Tenhagen, W Heuwieser
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Oestrous detection is crucial for successful dairy cow reproduction. Bulls identify cows in oestrus by oestrous‐specific odours especially in urine and vaginal fluid. These have been used to train dogs to detect cows in heat. To improve and simplify the dog training, a spray containing synthetic oestrous molecules was developed. The objective of this study was to test the spray on similarities to the natural substance thus to assess its suitability as a training substance for heat detection dogs. Ten privately owned dogs of various breeds were trained. Dogs should be trained either to differentiate natural vaginal fluid from cows in oestrus and dioestrus (n = 5), or spray with or without synthetic oestrous molecules (n = 5). Dogs trained on natural fluid and on spray could detect the oestrous odour they had been trained on with an overall accuracy of 69.0% and 82.4%, respectively (p = 0.019). To validate the synthetic molecules, dogs trained with synthetic molecules had to detect oestrous odour in natural fluid without further training (accuracy 37.6%). Dogs trained on natural fluid detected the synthetic molecules with an accuracy of 50.0% (50% vs 37.4%, p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T23:20:58.472969-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12440
       
  • Standing Laparoscopic Peritoneal Flap Hernioplasty of the Vaginal Rings
           does not Modify the Sperm Production and Motility Characteristics in
           Intact Male Horses
    • Authors: LA Gracia‐Calvo; LJ Ezquerra, M Martín‐Cuervo, ME Durán, H Tapio, JM Gallardo, FJ Peña, C Ortega‐Ferrusola
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Laparoscopic hernioplasty techniques have been developed in the recent years to avoid the recurrence of inguinal hernias and to spare the testicles for breeding purposes in stallions. However, there have been no previous comprehensive and systematic studies of the reproductive outcomes and prognoses for stallions after inguinal hernioplasty. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the possible effects of one of these techniques (standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty) on the sperm production and motility characteristics of six healthy stallions that received this procedure based on 1‐year follow‐ups. There were no significant differences in the measured sperm variables (assessments based on the DSO, MOT, PMOT, VSL, VCL and VAP) during 1‐year follow‐ups.
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T23:20:43.375666-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12434
       
  • Calm Temperament Improves Reproductive Performance of Beef Cows
    • Authors: R Kasimanickam; M Asay, S Schroeder, V Kasimanickam, JM Gay, JP Kastelic, JB Hall, WD Whittier
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus‐cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85‐day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T06:24:19.167065-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12436
       
  • Effect of Oestrus Synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG on Luteal P4
           Synthesis in Early Pregnant Gilts
    • Authors: M Szymanska; E Morawska‐Pucinska, K Krawczynski, J Kiewisz, AJ Ziecik, A Blitek
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Administration of hormones to synchronize oestrus is a useful tool in animal breeding. However, exogenous ovarian stimulation may be detrimental to reproductive function. This study was aimed to examine whether an oestrus synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 9, 12 and 16 of pregnancy from gilts with natural (n = 16) and synchronized (n = 18) oestrus and analysed for (i) the expre‐ssion of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide (CYP11A1), and 3β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (ii) the concentration of P4 in the luteal tissue and blood; and (iii) the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors (LHR) and oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). Additionally, the effect of LH on P4 secretion from CL slices collected from synchronized and naturally ovulated animals has been studied in vitro. PGF2α/eCG/hCG administration increased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1, 3βHSD, and LHR on day 9 and CYP11A1 and LHR on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group (p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T06:24:06.466629-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12433
       
  • Epidemiological Description of Cystic Ovarian Disease in Argentine Dairy
           Herds: Risk Factors and Effects on the Reproductive Performance of
           Lactating Cows
    • Authors: L Cattaneo; ML Signorini, J Bertoli, JA Bartolomé, NC Gareis, PU Díaz, GA Bó, HH Ortega
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: To describe the epidemiology of cystic ovarian disease (COD), to find possible risk factors associated with the incidence of cysts and to analyse the impact of COD on the reproductive performance of dairy cows, databases from 22 dairy herds from the main dairy region in Argentina were retrospectively evaluated throughout a 3‐year period (2009–2011). A total of 248 COD cases over 9156 parturitions were recorded, resulting in a cumulative incidence rate of 2.7%. Cystic ovarian disease incidence density was lower during the first 100 days post‐partum (DPP) than during later stages of lactation. Seasonality had a significant influence on the disease presentation with higher incidence rates during winter and spring. Cows with a previous diagnosis of clinical mastitis showed 2.72 times more chances of developing ovarian cysts. Cystic cows had longer calving to first service and calving to conception intervals and lower conception rate than controls.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T06:23:52.532983-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12432
       
  • Anti‐Mullerian Hormone Concentration and Antral Ovarian Follicle
           Population in Murrah Heifers Compared to Holstein and Gyr Kept Under the
           Same Management
    • Authors: JM Baldrighi; MF Sá Filho, EOS Batista, RNVR Lopes, JA Visintin, PS Baruselli, MEOA Assumpção
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate plasma concentrations of anti‐Mullerian hormone (AMH) and the ovarian antral follicle population (AFP) in different genetic groups. Cyclic heifers (13 Bubalus bubalis [Murrah]; 15 Bos taurus [Holstein] and 10 Bos indicus [Gyr]) were maintained under the same management and were synchronized with two doses of 150 μg IM d‐cloprostenol administered 14 days apart. After the second d‐cloprostenol treatment, heifers had their ovaries scanned daily by ultrasound to define the day of ovulation. On the same day, the AFP was determined and a plasma sample was collected to measure AMH. Murrah heifers had less AFP (25.6 ± 2.1 follicles; p = 0.01) and plasma AMH concentration (0.18 ± 0.03 ng/ml; p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-07T23:46:31.123177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12430
       
  • The Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and its Receptor (EGFR)
           During Post‐Natal Testes Development in the Yak
    • Authors: Y Pan; Y Cui, S Yu, Q Zhang, J Fan, B Abdul Rasheed, K Yang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Growth factors play critical role in cell proliferation, regulate tissue differentiation and modulate organogenesis. Several growth factors have been identified in the testes of various mammalian species in last few years. In present investigation, the objective was to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in yak testicular tissue by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR), Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) from mRNA and protein levels. The testicular tissues were collected from male yak at 6 and 24 months old. Results of RT‐PCR and WB showed that the expression quantity of EGF and EGFR at 24 months of age was higher than at 6 months, and the increase rate of EGFR on mRNA and protein levels was higher than the increase rate EGF during post‐natal testes development. Positive staining for EGF and EGFR was very low and mainly localized to Leydig cells testes at 6 months of age with immunohistochemistry, and seminiferous tubules were not observed. At 24 month of age, both the EGF and EGFR could be detected in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells, sertoli cells and germ cells of the yak testes. However, EGF and EGFR were localized to preferential adluminal compartment and basal compartment in the seminiferous tubules, respectively. In conclusion, the findings in present studies suggest that EGF and EGFR as important paracrine and/or autocrine regulators in yak testes development and spermatogenesis.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T22:58:03.422079-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12416
       
  • Influence of Dietary Zinc on Semen Traits and Seminal Plasma Antioxidant
           Enzymes and Trace Minerals of Beetal Bucks
    • Authors: HU Rahman; MS Qureshi, RU Khan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T22:55:50.619951-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12422
       
  • Genome‐Wide Association Study for Sperm Concentration in
           Holstein‐Friesian Bulls
    • Authors: DM Hering; K Olenski, S Kaminski
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to screen the entire bull genome to identify markers and candidate genes underlying sperm concentration. The analysed data set originates from a population of 877 Polish Holstein‐Friesian bulls. Based on sperm concentration value, two extreme groups of bulls were created: Low (L, n = 126) and High (H, n = 140). Each bull was genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Genome‐wide association analysis was performed with the use of GoldenHelix SVS7 software. An additive model with a Cohran–Armitage test, Correlation/Trend adjusted by a Bonferroni test, was used to estimate the effect of SNP marker for sperm concentration. Thirteen markers reached genome‐wide significance. The most significant SNPs were located on chromosome 3 (rs109154964 and rs108965556), 14 (rs41621145) and 18 (rs41615539), in the close vicinity of protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6), Sel1 repeat containing 1 (SELRC1), triple QxxK/R motif containing (TRIQK) and zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) genes, respectively. For three other candidate genes located close to significant markers (within a distance of ca 1 Mb), namely histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9), an inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) and glutathione S‐transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), their potential role in the production of male germ cells was confirmed in earlier studies. Six additional candidate genes (Vav3, GSTM1, CDK5, NOS3, PDP1 and GAL3ST1) were suspected of being significantly associated with sperm concentration or semen biochemistry. Our results indicate the genetic complexity of sperm concentration but also open the possibility for finding causal polymorphism useful in marker‐assisted selection.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T07:22:43.914466-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12423
       
  • Cloning and Spatio‐Temporal Expression of Bone Morphogenetic
           Proteins‐2,‐4 Gene During Ovarian Development in New Zealand
           White Rabbit
    • Authors: S‐Y Xie; D Wang, H Zhu, W Zhang, N‐Q Geng, X Feng, C‐X Sun, M Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In the transforming growth factor‐β(TGF‐β) superfamily, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are one of the largest subfamily, among which BMP‐2 and BMP‐4 are the most powerful molecules in biological activities. They have been shown to be involved in follicle development of ovary in mammals. However, whether these factors are involved in folliculogenesis in rabbit is still unknown. This study was performed to determine the relationships between ovarian development and the expression of BMP (BMP‐2,‐4) mRNAs in rabbit. Ovaries were removed from different development stages of rabbits (30‐, 60‐, 120‐, 180‐day age and 6‐day encyesis), and method of RT‐PCR was used for the cloning. The relative transcript levels of BMP‐2,‐4 genes were measured by real‐time quantitative PCR, with GAPDH as an internal control. Known from the results, the BMP‐2,‐4 genes showed similar but also different expression patterns during ovarian development; they both increased significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T23:39:36.782818-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12421
       
  • Effect of Post‐Thaw Addition of Seminal Plasma on Motility,
           Viability and Chromatin Integrity of Cryopreserved Donkey Jack (Equus
           asinus) Spermatozoa
    • Authors: C Sabatini; G Mari, B Mislei, CC Love, D Panzani, F Camillo, A Rota
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pregnancy rates in donkeys after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen are still low, compared to the horse species. Addition of autologous seminal plasma to frozen‐thawed semen appeared to improve pregnancy rates. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity after thawing (T0) and after one and 2 h (T1 and T2) of post‐thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0) or 70% (SP70) autologous seminal plasma and (2) sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and DNA quality (%COMP‐αt) after thawing (T0) and after 2 and 4 h (T2 and T4) of post‐thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0), 5% (SP5) or 20% (SP20) homologous seminal plasma. In experiment 1, seminal plasma decreased total and progressive sperm motility and plasma membrane intact spermatozoa immediately after dilution and at all following time points (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T23:39:23.910968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12419
       
  • Optimizing Electrical Activation of Porcine Oocytes by Adjusting
           Pre‐ and Post‐Activation Mannitol Exposure Times
    • Authors: D Kwon; IM Saadeldin, SJ Kim, SJ Park, JT Kang, HJ Park, JH Moon, OJ Koo, G Jang, BC Lee
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Modifying electrical activation conditions have been used to improve in vitro embryo production and development in pigs. However, there is insufficient information about correlations of porcine embryo development with oocyte pre‐ and post‐activation conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare the developmental rates of porcine oocytes subjected to different mannitol exposure times, either pre‐ or post‐electrical activation, and to elucidate the reason for the optimal mannitol exposure time. Mannitol exposure times around activation were adjusted as 0, 1, 2 or 3 min. Blastocyst development were checked on day 7. Exposure of oocytes to mannitol for 1 or 2 min before electrical activation produced significantly higher blastocyst rates than exposure for 0 or 3 min. There was no significant difference in blastocyst rates when activated oocytes were exposed to mannitol for 0, 1, 2 or 3 min after electrical activation. While exposure of oocytes to mannitol for 1 min pre‐ and 3 min post‐activation showed significantly higher blastocyst development than 0 min pre‐ and 0 min post‐activation. It also showed higher maintenance of normal oocyte morphology than exposure for 0 min pre‐ and 0 min post‐activation. In conclusion, exposure of oocytes to mannitol for 1 min pre‐ and 3 min post‐activation seems to be optimal for producing higher in vitro blastocyst development of porcine parthenogenetic embryos. The higher blastocyst development is correlated with higher maintenance of normal morphology in oocytes exposed to mannitol for 1 min pre‐ and 3 min post‐activation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T23:39:01.112475-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12420
       
  • Accurate Ultrasonographic Prediction of Progesterone Concentrations
           Greater than 1 ng/ml in Holstein lactating dairy cows
    • Authors: K Kaneko; N Takagi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: To develop an ultrasonographic assay for determining plasma progesterone concentration (P4) as
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T06:10:03.551815-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12418
       
  • Changes in Bull Sperm Kinematics after Single Layer Centrifugation
    • Authors: Y Yulnawati; MC Abraham, D Laskowski, A Johannisson, JM Morrell
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate bull sperm kinematics after centrifugation through a single layer of a colloid [Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC)]. Ejaculates from 20 bulls were extended and stored at 4–6°C for 24 h during transport to the laboratory for SLC through Androcoll‐B, followed by measurement of sperm kinematics in all samples. Total motility (86% and 88% for uncentrifuged and SLC samples, respectively) and progressive motility (84% for both the groups) were similar (p > 0.05). In contrast, straightness (STR) (0.65 vs 0.69), linearity (LIN) (0.32 vs 0.35) and beat cross frequency (BCF) (22.3 vs 23.6 Hz) were significantly higher in the SLC‐selected samples than in the uncentrifuged samples, whereas velocity of the average path (VAP) (95 vs 90 μm/s), curvilinear velocity (VCL) (192 vs 180 μm/s), amplitude of lateral head deviation (ALH) (7 μm vs 6.5 μm) and hypermotility (49% vs 38%) were significantly decreased. The kinematics of the samples with the poorest motility was improved most by SLC. In conclusion, even though SLC had no direct effect on total and progressive motility, it appeared to have a positive influence on several other kinematic parameters that may be important for fertilization after artificial insemination.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T00:12:55.381015-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12412
       
  • Fertility of a High‐Altitude Sheep Model is Compromised by
           Deficiencies in Both Preovulatory Follicle Development and Plasma LH
           Availability
    • Authors: VH Parraguez; F Diaz, E Cofré, B Urquieta, M De Los Reyes, S Astiz, A Gonzalez‐Bulnes
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: At high altitude, hypoxia and/or oxidative stress may compromise fertility. This study tested the relative effect of short‐ or long‐term exposure to high‐altitude hypobaric hypoxia and oxidative stress in sheep on preovulatory follicle dynamics and gonadotrophin secretion. Thus, growth dynamics, stereidogenic function and competence to ovulate of preovulatory follicles, as well as FSH and LH availability throughout the entire oestrous cycle, were compared among sheep native from low and high altitude, and sheep newcomers to high altitude. The results indicates that short‐term exposure in sheep newcomers to high altitude has a deleterious effect on both the ovarian function (affecting preovulatory follicular development) and the pituitary function (diminishing plasma LH availability). On the other hand, there were no detected differences in the preovulatory follicular development in sheep adapted to high altitude for generations and, conversely, LH secretion was increased, which suggests an adaptive mechanism. The treatment with antioxidant agents during a relative short period for the time of folliculogenesis (approximately 1 month and a half) changed substantially the development of preovulatory follicles in short‐term exposed sheep to similar patterns than in sheep native and living to both high and low altitude. These results highlight the role of oxidative stress in the detriment of the reproductive function in individuals recently exposed to high‐altitude hypoxic environment.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T00:12:53.301813-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12417
       
  • Effects of Flunixin Meglumine and Prostaglandin F2α Treatments on the
           Development and Quality of Bovine Embryos In Vitro
    • Authors: S‐S Kim; J‐I Bang, M Fakruzzaman, K‐L Lee, D‐H Ko, N Ghanem, Z Wang, I‐K Kong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Assisted reproduction procedures, such as embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI), in cattle could induce the secretion of prostaglandin F2‐alpha (PGF2α) from uterine horns which may in turn interrupt embryo development and implantation. This study investigated the effect of flunixin meglumine (FM), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) and FM combined with PGF2α supplementation in culture medium (IVC‐II) on the development and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. The development rate of embryos was significantly higher in the FM group (33.3%) than in control (24.3%), PGF2α (23.9%) and FM + PGF2α groups (24.5%). The percentage of hatched blastocysts was also higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T00:12:19.769024-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12413
       
  • Gonadotropin‐induced Puberty Does Not Impair Reproductive
           Performance of Gilts over Three Parities
    • Authors: OHO Eckhardt; SMMK Martins, ME Pinese, FC Horta, AC Rosseto, MA Torres, AFC De Andrade, BBD Muro, CT Marino, PHM Rodrigues, AS Moretti
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of three parities of gilts treated or not treated with gonadotropin to induce puberty. Sixty gilts received 600 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed by 2.5 mg of porcine luteinizing hormone (LH) 72 h later. Fifty‐nine other gilts were exposed only to a mature boar for 15 min twice daily. Artificial insemination (AI) was performed at 0, 12 and 24 h after the detection of oestrus, and gestation was confirmed by ultrasound after 35 days. Sows were inseminated at the first post‐weaning oestrus. The total numbers of piglets born, piglets born alive, stillborn, mummified foetuses, as well as pregnancy and farrowing rates were evaluated for each of the three parities. Culling rates, farrowing intervals and weaning‐to‐oestrous intervals (WEI) were also analysed. Mean age at puberty and oestrous manifestation were not significantly different between treatments (p = 0.0639; 179.20 ± 17.52 compared with 173.96 ± 16.94, 91.66% compared with 94.92%) across the experimental period. However, females that underwent puberty induction showed modest increases both in the number of total pigs born and in the number of piglets born alive. In conclusion, puberty induction through exogenous gonadotropin administration in field conditions did not induce a more concentrated first oestrous manifestation, but trended to a modest increase in the number of pigs born alive in the first parity and a reduced culling rate during the first gestation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T00:12:08.351261-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12415
       
  • Prepubertal and Pubertal Canine Reproductive Studies: Conflicting Aspects
    • Authors: C Gobello
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Insufficient knowledge has been acquired regarding the prepubertal and pubertal periods of domestic canids. Until further information becomes available, a better standardization of the definitions, a careful and complete description of experimental variables and end points is necessary to diminish experimental bias in published trials. The aim of this report is therefore to discuss the definition of puberty and some of the most conflicting conditions influencing the pubertal transition (e.g. age and body weight and condition score among others) that, in turn, will be useful for the future design of reproductive studies on the domestic dog. Only trials that could be easily processed by a meta‐analysis will contribute to an improvement of our general knowledge on the reproductive physiology of this particular species.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T23:29:05.29144-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12414
       
  • Metabolic Profile of Broodmares During Late Pregnancy and Early
           Post‐Partum
    • Authors: M Bazzano; C Giannetto, F Fazio, F Arfuso, E Giudice, G Piccione
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pregnancy represents a specific physiological status characterized by continuous adjustments that affect maternal metabolism of all nutrients. In the last trimester of pregnancy, mare's nutrient requirements greatly increase and most pregnancy‐associated diseases are likely to occur. Therefore, we aimed to assess the metabolic profile of broodmares focusing on the last 3 months of pregnancy and the early post‐partum. Fifteen pregnant mares (Group A) were monitored from 263 ± 3 days of pregnancy until 21 days after foaling. Seven non‐pregnant mares (Group B) were used as the control group. Blood samples were collected weekly by jugular venipuncture throughout the experimental period, and additional blood samples were collected within 24 ± 12 h of foaling. Obtained sera were analyzed for urea (Ur), creatinine (Cre), total protein (TP), total, direct and indirect bilirubin (tB, dB, iB), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (tChol) and β‐hydroxybutyrate (BHB). During pregnancy, Ur (p = 0.015) and dB (p = 0.028) were higher in Group A than Group B. Serum Cre, tB, iB and TG (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T23:28:53.141413-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12411
       
  • Hyaluronic Acid as Capacitation Inductor: Metabolic Changes and
           Membrane‐Associated Adenylate Cyclase Regulation
    • Authors: S Fernández; M Córdoba
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the effect of hyaluronic acid on bovine cryopreserved spermatozoa compared with heparin as regards the variation of capacitation induction, cellular oxidative metabolism and intracellular signal induced by membrane‐associated adenylate cyclase to propose hyaluronic acid as a capacitation inductor. Heparin or hyaluronic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine were used to induce sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction, respectively. 2′,5′‐dideoxyadenosine was used as a membrane‐associated adenylate cyclase inhibitor. The highest percentages of capacitated spermatozoa and live spermatozoa with acrosome integrity were obtained by incubating sperm for 60 min using 1000 μg/ml hyaluronic acid. In these conditions, capacitation induced by hyaluronic acid was lower compared with heparin; nonetheless both glycosaminoglycans promote intracellular changes that allow true acrosome reaction in vitro induced by lysophosphatidylcholine in bovine spermatozoa. Oxygen consumption in heparin‐capacitated spermatozoa was significantly higher than in hyaluronic acid‐treated spermatozoa. With all treatments, mitochondrial coupling was observed when a specific uncoupler of the respiratory chain was added. The inhibition of membrane‐associated adenylate cyclase significantly blocked capacitation induction produced by hyaluronic acid, maintaining a basal sperm oxygen uptake in contrast to heparin effect in which both sperm parameters were inhibited, suggesting that the membrane‐associated adenylate cyclase activation is involved in the intracellular signal mechanisms induced by both capacitation inductors, but only regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in heparin‐capacitated spermatozoa.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T23:28:39.057575-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12410
       
  • Characterization of miR‐126‐3p and its Target Talin2 in the
           Bovine Corpus Luteum during the Oestrus Cycle
    • Authors: L Dai; J Xu, S Liu, T Ma, Y Zhu, F Xu, Y Gao, B Yuan, S Wang, Y Zhang, G Sun, J Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Although clear advances have been made in understanding of gene transcriptional regulation in the corpous luteum (CL) during the oestrous cycle, little is known about the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this physiological process. In the present study, expression of miR‐126‐3p was preliminarily detected in bovine CL throughout the oestrous cycle, while the expression during the middle or late stages was significantly more abundant (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T00:48:18.83403-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12400
       
  • Cycle‐Characteristic Odour of Cow Urine Can Be Detected by the
           Female Face Fly (Musca autumnalis)
    • Authors: K Nordéus; B Webster, L Söderquist, R Båge, R Glinwood
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Due to declining dairy cow fertility rates, there is great interest in developing tools for oestrus detection. Compounds in the volatile profile of oestrous cows are suggested as oestrus‐specific, but consistent results have not been presented. Certain haematophagous arthropods can discriminate stages of the mammalian reproductive cycle based on host volatiles. This study investigated whether the face fly, Musca autumnalis de Geer (Diptera: Muscidae), can discriminate between urine from cows in oestrus and urine collected during the luteal phase. Individual flies were tested in a two‐choice behavioural assay with choice between odour of oestrous or luteal urine and water (control). Flies chose the control arm significantly more when exposed to oestrous urine than when exposed to luteal urine. Analysis of volatiles showed that 1‐hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol) was released in greater amounts from oestrous urine than from urine collected during the luteal phase. In a dose response assay, flies were significantly attracted by 0.01 ng of 1‐hexadecanol but significantly repelled by 0.1 ng, a pattern consistent with fly responses to urine. In conclusion, M. autumnalis can discriminate between oestrous and luteal urine, and this may be mediated by differences in 1‐hexadecanol concentration.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T00:45:20.881986-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12393
       
  • Bilateral Sertoli and Interstitial Cell Tumours in Abdominal Testes of a
           Goat with Polled Intersex Syndrome (PIS)
    • Authors: IF Canisso; LL Coffee, K Ortved, SL Fubini, LV Monteagudo, DH Schlafer, RO Gilbert
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An 8‐year‐old, mixed breed, polled goat was presented for evaluation of male‐like behaviour. Clinical findings included clitoromegaly, a heavily muscled neck, pronounced beard, and erect dorsal guard hairs, which are phenotypic characteristics commonly observed in intersex animals. Transrectal ultrasonography revealed the presence of two abdominal masses caudolateral to the uterine horns. Serum concentration of estradiol was elevated. Genetic evaluation was compatible with polled intersex syndrome defined by an XX karyotype without a Y chromosome or SRY gene. Based on gross and histologic evaluation, the abdominal masses were determined to be intra‐abdominal testes, each of which was effaced by Sertoli cell and interstitial (Leydig) cell tumours. The Sertoli cell tumours (SCTs) represented two unique histologic patterns. Regardless of pattern, neoplastic Sertoli cells were consistently lipid laden and positive for vimentin. Interstitial cell tumours (ICTs) were negative for vimentin. Clinical and histopathologic findings suggest that prolonged exposure to steroids secreted by neoplastic Sertoli cells contributed to virilization. In addition, results from immunohistochemistry indicated that vimentin may be a valuable immunodiagnostic tool for differentiation between interstitial and Sertoli cell tumours in goats.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:24:03.160034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12408
       
  • Cryopreservation of Ram Semen in Extenders Containing Soybean Lecithin as
           Cryoprotectant and Hyaluronic Acid as Antioxidant
    • Authors: A Najafi; MH Najafi, Z Zanganeh, M Sharafi, F Martinez‐Pastor, H Adeldust
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A soybean lecithin‐based extender supplemented with hyaluronic acid (HA) was assayed for effectiveness to improve the quality of frozen–thawed ram semen. HA has not been tested yet in an extender containing soybean lecithin for freezing ram semen. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of soybean lecithin at 1% or 1.5% along with HA at 0, 0.5 and 1 mg ml‐1 in a Tris‐based extender on the motion characteristics, membrane integrity (HOST), viability, GSH peroxidase (GSH‐PX) activity, lipid peroxidation and acrosomal status after freezing–thawing. Semen was collected from four Mehraban rams during the breeding season and frozen in the six lecithin×HA extenders. The extender containing 1.5% lecithin supplemented with no HA yielded higher total motility (52.5%±1.6), viability (55.8%±1.6) and membrane integrity (44.5%±1.7), but the effects of the lecithin concentration did not reach signification. Linearity‐related parameters, ALH, BCF, lipid peroxidation, GSH‐PX activity, morphology and acrosomal status were not affected by the extender composition. In general, adding HA significantly decreased sperm velocity (1 mg ml‐1 HA), total motility (only with 1.5% lecithin), viability (1 mg ml‐1 HA for 1% lecithin; both concentrations for 1.5% lecithin) and membrane integrity. In conclusion, adding HA to the freezing extender supplemented with soybean lecithin failed to improve quality‐related variables in ram semen. Increasing the lecithin content could have a positive effect, but further studies are needed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:23:49.733178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12405
       
  • The Induction of a Secondary Corpus Luteum on Day 12 Post‐Ovulation
           can Delay the Time of Luteolysis in High‐Producing Holstein Cows
    • Authors: M Saint‐Dizier; A‐C Legendre, M‐A Driancourt, S Chastant‐Maillard
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Luteolysis before the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy is one cause of low fertility in high‐producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether induction of a secondary corpus luteum (CL) late in the luteal phase would delay the time of luteolysis. Twenty high‐producing Holstein cows were synchronized to ovulation (Day 0) with the Ovsynch protocol and received hCG (1500 IU im) on Day 12. Corpora lutea formation (as evaluated by ultrasonography) and plasma P4 concentrations were monitored from Days 4 to 36. hCG treatment induced the formation of one secondary CL (CL2) in 11 of 20 cows (55%) from the dominant follicle (mean diameter: 14.2 ± 0.9 mm) of two‐wave (3/11) and three‐wave (8/11) cycles. The maximal diameter of the CL2 (23.3 ± 1.9 mm) was reached approximately 6 days after hCG treatment and was correlated with its structural lifespan (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:23:37.612525-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12401
       
  • Successful Use of Endoscopy for Transcervical Cannulation Procedures in
           the Goat
    • Authors: A Colagross‐Schouten; D Allison, L Brent, E Lissner
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Two methods for transcervical cannulation of the goat were evaluated during a contraception study in 15 adult female Nigerian dwarf and African pygmy goats. Twenty‐four transcervical cannulation procedures were conducted in which seven females underwent the procedure 2–3 times. Initially, a rigid 4‐mm stainless steel cannula and external light source were used in 19 procedures to introduce the contraceptive compound into the uterus. Placement of the cannula was directed by feel or depth assessment. Of seven females that were euthanized following this procedure, four evidenced complications including penetration of the cervix with the cannula and cervical damage. A 2‐mm custom‐made endoscope with a specially designed cannula was then used for the remaining five procedures. No complications were found. A single animal, that underwent the endoscopic procedure twice, was euthanized for study purposes and no abnormal findings of the reproductive tract were reported. The use of an endoscope resulted in better outcomes because the uterus could be visualized after traversing the cervix.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:23:25.192811-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12399
       
  • Effect of Breeding Activity on the Microflora of the External Genitalia
           and in the Semen of Stallions, and the Relationship Between
           Micro‐organisms on the Skin and on the External Genitalia
    • Authors: T Guimarães; C Miranda, M Pinto, E Silva, L Damásio, AL Costa, MJ Correia, JC Duarte, C Cosinha, G Lopes, G Thompson, A Rocha
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A possible role of breeding activities in the composition of the microbial population in stallions' external genitalia (EG) and the relationship between micro‐organisms colonizing the skin of the abdomen and the ones colonizing the EG have not been studied. In experiment 1, EG microbiological samples were collected from 41 stallions used for both natural cover and semen collection (BST) and from 18 non‐breeding stallions (NBST). A higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:23:12.391085-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12403
       
  • Sarcocystosis in a Stillborn Lamb
    • Authors: JS Agerholm; JP Dubey
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Confirmed congenital sarcocystosis has been reported extremely rarely in domestic ruminants. Sarcocystosis was diagnosed in a stillborn lamb with microscopic lesions predominantly in the central nervous system and placenta. Encephalitis was characterized by multiple foci of glial nodules some with central necrosis, perivascular cuffing and vascular occlusion, while placental lesions consisted of multifocal necroses, inflammation and mild calcification. Immature and mature schizonts were found in vascular endothelium of several organs. It is suggested that the protozoa were Sarcocystis tenella based on their morphology, location and as this is the most pathogenic Sarcocystis sp. parasitizing sheep.
      PubDate: 2014-09-14T23:56:51.154704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12398
       
  • A Field Study to Unravel Factors that are Significantly Associated with
           the Secretory Activity of the Corpus Luteum During the First Three
           Postpartum Cycles in High Yielding Dairy Cows, Based on the Amount of
           Steroidogenic and Endothelial Cells Present in the Luteal Tissue
    • Authors: S Cools; W Van den Broeck, P Bossaert, M Hostens, G Opsomer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fourteen multi‐ and eight primiparous high‐yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3β‐hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-21T23:41:27.172312-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12348
       
  • Expression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) in Porcine Oocytes During Maturation
    • Authors: RN Zhang; XW Fu, BY Jia, C Liu, KR Cheng, SE Zhu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Perilipins have been reported to limit the interaction of lipases with neutral lipids within the droplets, thereby regulating neutral lipid accumulation and utilization. This study aimed to identify the location and expression of PLIN1 and PLIN2 in porcine oocytes during maturation. Quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qRT‐PCR), immunostaining and Western blot methods were used to characterize the expression and distribution patterns of PLIN1 and PLIN2 in porcine oocytes. The results showed that PLIN1 was not detectable in porcine oocytes. PLIN2 and BODIPY 493/503‐detected neutral lipid droplets appeared identical distribution patterns and extensive colocalization in both GV and MII porcine oocytes. PLIN2 protein expression was higher in GV oocytes than that in MII oocytes (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:51.880401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12386
       
  • Molecular Characterization of Oxytocin Receptor Gene in Water Buffalo
           (Bubalus bubalis)
    • Authors: N Arunmozhi; SK Singh, T Sarath, SK Agarwal, A Doiphode, U Shankar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Buffaloes are known for their productivity as compared to average yielding cows due to higher fat percentage, better feed conversion ability and disease resistance. On the other hand, the reproductive performances of buffaloes are often considered as poor owing to late sexual maturity, weak/silent oestrus, repeat breeder and prolonged intercalving interval. The study of cascade of events during oestrus and oestrous cycle can be useful for the improvement of reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. More precisely, the hormonal changes initiated at the molecular level within the animal determine the reproductive nature of the species. Nucleotide/protein sequence analysis serves as a vital tool in analysing the binding of the hormones for their effect or functions. In this study, we have reported cloning and characterization of the complete coding (cDNA) sequence of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in buffaloes. Buffalo OXTR gene contains an uninterrupted ORF of 1176 nucleotides corresponding to an inferred polypeptide length of 391 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight of the deduced aa sequence was found to be 43 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.253 and 16.328 charge at pH 7.0. The deduced protein sequence consists of 38 strongly basic (+) (K,R), 22 strongly acidic (−) (D,E), 186 hydrophobic (A, I, L, F, W, V) and 95 Polar (N, C, Q, S, T, Y) aa. Results indicated that aspartate (D) at aa position 85 and D, R and C at aa positions 136, 137 and 138, respectively, are conserved in buffaloes. The buffalo OXTR gene shared a per cent similarity ranging from 84.7 to 98.1 and 88.5 to 97.7 at nucleotide and deduced aa sequence levels, respectively, with that of other species. Phylogram constructed on the basis of either nucleotide or deduced aa sequences of buffalo OXTR gene showed that buffalo, cattle and sheep have diverged from human and swine and formed a separate clad. The buffalo sequence has shown maximum similarity and closeness with cattle followed by sheep both at nucleotide and at aa level.
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:38.891693-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12389
       
  • Positive Effects of Melatonin Treatment on the Reproductive Performance of
           Young Border Leicester Rams Mated to Merino Ewes in Spring: Preliminary
           Observations
    • Authors: DO Kleemann; JM Kelly, LJ Arney, IL Farley, AJ Tilbrook, SK Walker
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Poor reproductive performance of Merino ewe flocks when mated to Border Leicester rams during spring may be due to seasonality of the Border Leicester breed. Two approaches were taken to test this assumption. Six young (12 months old) or six mixed‐age (12, 24 and ≥36 months old) Border Leicester rams were either treated or not treated with melatonin implants (2 × 2 design) 6 weeks before the four groups of rams were each put with approximately 300 Merino ewes for an 8‐week mating period. Implants were inserted in early September (experiment 1). The second approach was to yard or not yard ewes and mixed‐age rams on several occasions during the first 3 weeks of the mating period (experiment 2). Pregnancy rate and twinning percentage were assessed by ultrasonography. In experiment 1, melatonin treatment in young rams increased (p  0.05) for ewes mated to either melatonin or non‐melatonin‐treated young rams (36.8% vs 40.0%, respectively), whereas melatonin significantly improved (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:26.082074-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12387
       
  • The Importance of Having Zinc During In Vitro Maturation of Cattle
           Cumulus–Oocyte Complex: Role of Cumulus Cells
    • Authors: JM Anchordoquy; JP Anchordoquy, MA Sirini, SJ Picco, P Peral‐García, CC Furnus
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of zinc (Zn) on the health of cumulus–oocyte complex (COC) during in vitro maturation (IVM). Experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of Zn added to IVM medium on: DNA integrity, apoptosis, cumulus expansion and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of cumulus cells (CC). Also, role of CC on Zn transport during IVM was evaluated on oocyte developmental capacity. DNA damage and early apoptosis were higher in CC matured with 0 μg/ml Zn compared with 0.7, 1.1 and 1.5 μg/ml Zn (p  0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity was higher in COC matured with 1.5 μg/ml Zn than with 0 μg/ml Zn (p  0.05). Blastocyst rates were significantly higher in COC than in DO + CC and DO with the addition of 1.5 μg/ml Zn during IVM (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:14.464695-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12385
       
  • Inhibition of Angiotensin‐Converting Enzyme Increases Oestradiol
           Production in Ewes Submitted to Oestrous Synchronization Protocol
    • Authors: AS Costa; AS Junior, GEN Viana, MCS Muratori, AM Reis, APR Costa
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating the effects of angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) and angiotensin II antagonist (valsartan) on the oestradiol and progesterone production in ewes submitted to oestrous synchronization protocol. The animals were weighed and randomly divided into three groups (n = 7). A pre‐experiment conducted to verify the effectiveness and toxicity of enalapril (0.5 mg/kg LW) and valsartan (2.2 mg/kg LW) showed that, in the doses used, these drugs were effective in reducing blood pressure without producing toxic effects. In the experiment, all animals were subjected to oestrous synchronization protocol during 12 days. On D10, D11 and D12, animals received saline, enalapril or valsartan (same doses of the pre‐experiment), according to the group randomly divided. The hormonal analysis showed an increase in oestradiol on the last day of the protocol (D12) in animals that received enalapril (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:02.68027-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12384
       
  • First Description of Scrotal Testicles in a Dog Affected by 78, XX
           Testicular Disorder of Sex Development
    • Authors: AP Del Carro; E Rosset, A Josson‐Schramme, V Lambert, S Buff
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An eight‐month‐old female dog presented with ambiguous external genitalia. A thorough clinical examination together with various imaging techniques and a histology examination showed the presence of two testicles linked to both the Mullerian and Wolffian ducts. The discovery of the 78,XX SRY‐negative karyotype led to the diagnosis of incoherence between the chromosomal and gonadal sex, which is typical for a 78,XX testicular disorder of sex development. Our case was unique because the testicles were still located in their normal scrotal position, whereas the literature contains reports of the presence of cryptorchid testicles in this karyotype setting. To our knowledge, this is the first case that describes an SRY‐negative 78,XX testicular disorder of sex development with bilateral scrotal testicles.
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:37:46.691586-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12382
       
  • Sexual Precocity of Nellore Bulls that are Offspring of Super Precocious,
           Precocious and Normal Cows in Extensive Farming Conditions
    • Authors: JB Siqueira; E Oba, RO Pinho, SEF Guimarães, TM Neto, JD Guimarães
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to verify that mothers classified as super precocious (M1) and precocious (M2) produce more precocious bulls than females classified as normal (M3). This study included 21 186 animals with an average age of 21.29 ± 1.77 months that underwent a breeding soundness evaluation from 1999 to 2008. Of these animals, 2019, 6059 and 13 108 were offspring of M1, M2 and M3 females, respectively. In the breeding soundness examination, the animals were classified as sound for reproduction, sound under a natural mating regime, unsound for reproduction and discarded. To compare the averages obtained for each category of mother within the individual breeding soundness classes, a chi‐square test with a 5% error probability was used, considering the effects of year and month of birth and farm. For the three classes of mothers (M1, M2 and M3), 67.26, 67.22 and 64.16% of bull calves were considered sound for reproduction and 19.71, 19.46 and 21.90% were considered unsound for reproduction, respectively. There was no difference in the frequency of animals that were sound for reproduction under the natural breeding regime between the three classes of mothers (8.87, 9.31 and 9.19%, respectively). There was a difference between the numbers of precocious and normal females that were discarded, with frequencies of 4.01 and 4.75%, respectively (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T07:56:35.920183-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12380
       
  • Cytometric Analysis of Surface Molecules of Leucocytes and Phagocytic
           Activity of Granulocytes and Monocytes/Macrophages in Cows with Pyometra
    • Authors: P Brodzki; K Kostro, A Brodzki, K Niemczuk, U Lisiecka
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pyometra is a serious problem in dairy cow herds, causing large economic losses due to infertility. The development of pyometra depends mainly on the immunological status of the cow. The aim of the study was a comparative evaluation of selected indicators involving non‐specific and specific immunity in cows with pyometra and in cows without inflammation of the uterus. The study was performed in 20 cows, which were divided into two groups: pyometra group and healthy group, each comprising 10 cows, based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests. A flow cytometric analysis was performed for the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD14, CD21, CD25 and CD4+CD25+ on leucocytes, and the phagocytic activity was determined from granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in the peripheral blood and uterine washings, respectively. It was demonstrated that the percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in both the peripheral blood and uterine washings was significantly lower in cows with pyometra compared with the healthy group (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T07:56:24.237169-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12381
       
  • Influence of Gonadotrophin‐Induced First Oestrus on Gilt Fertility
    • Authors: DM Hidalgo; RM Friendship, L Greiner, R Manjarín, MR Amezcua, JC Domínguez, RN Kirkwood
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the oestrous response of pre‐pubertal gilts to gonadotrophin injection or boar exposure and their subsequent farrowing rate and litter size. At 154 days of age, randomly selected pre‐pubertal gilts received an intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin plus 200 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (PG600®; Merck Animal Health; n = 181). From the remaining pool of animals not treated with hormones, the first gilts showing signs of oestrus were selected to act as controls (n = 201). Boar exposure began at 155 days of age for both groups, and gilts were bred at a weight of approximately 130 kg. Comparisons were made between PG600®‐treated gilts exhibiting oestrus or not within 7 days post‐injection (early and late responders, respectively) and control gilts exhibiting oestrus or not within 30 days after beginning of boar exposure (select and non‐select control gilts, respectively). By 162 days, oestrus was detected in 67.5% of PG600®‐treated gilts compared with 5.7% of control gilts (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T07:27:17.994395-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12390
       
  • Use of Cholesterol‐Loaded Cyclodextrin in Donkey Semen
           Cryopreservation Improves Sperm Viability but Results in Low Fertility in
           Mares
    • Authors: RR Oliveira; DM Rates, G Pugliesi, PG Ker, RP Arruda, EA Moraes, GR Carvalho
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The use of cholesterol‐loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) on semen cryopreservation has been related with better sperm viability in several species; however, the effect on fertility is not known in donkey semen. Ejaculates (n = 25) from five donkeys were diluted in S‐MEDIUM with 0, 1, 2 or 3 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa. Semen was frozen, and thawed samples were evaluated by computer‐assisted sperm analyser system (CASA), supravital test, hyposmotic swelling test and fluorescent dyes to assess the integrity of sperm membranes. Mares (n = 60) were inseminated with frozen‐thawed semen treated with the doses of 0 or 1 mg CLC. Percentages of sperm with progressive motility and with functional plasma membrane were greater (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T07:27:06.027902-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12379
       
  • Comparison of Conventional Freezing and Vitrification with
           Dimethylformamide and Ethylene Glycol for Cryopreservation of Ovine
           Embryos
    • Authors: FC Varago; VS Moutacas, BC Carvalho, RV Serapião, F Vieira, H Chiarini‐Garcia, FZ Brandão, LS Camargo, M Henry, MA Lagares
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the cryoprotectants dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos using vitrification and conventional freezing. The recovered embryos were distributed randomly in three treatment groups: Gr. 1: conventional freezing (n = 44), Gr. 2: vitrification with ethylene glycol (n = 39) and Gr. 3: vitrification with dimethylformamide (n = 38). Quality of fresh embryos in control group as well as of frozen and vitrified embryos was examined by three methodologies: staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and evaluation under fluorescent microscopy, evaluation of re‐expansion and hatching rates after culture, and determination of apoptotic index with TUNEL technique. It was established that re‐expansion rate in all treatment groups was similar. In the same time, hatching rates were higher in Gr. 1 (40.5%) and Gr. 2 (35.3%) in comparison with Gr. 3 (15.5%, p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T00:18:18.218549-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12376
       
  • Altered Expression of Transforming Growth Factor‐Beta Isoforms in
           Bovine Cystic Ovarian Disease
    • Authors: V Matiller; ML Stangaferro, PU Díaz, HH Ortega, F Rey, E Huber, NR Salvetti
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the main causes of infertility in dairy cattle. It has been shown that intra‐ovarian factors may contribute to follicular persistence. Transforming growth factor‐beta (TGFB) isoforms are important paracrine and autocrine signalling molecules that regulate ovarian follicle growth and physiology. Considering the importance of these factors in the ovarian physiology, in this study, we examined the expression of TGFB isoforms (TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3) in the ovary of healthy cows and animals with spontaneous and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)‐induced COD. In the oestrous‐synchronized control group, the expression of TGFB1 in granulosa and theca cells was higher in spontaneous cysts than in atretic or tertiary follicles. When we compared TGFB2 expression in granulosa cells from atretic or tertiary follicles from the oestrous‐synchronized control group with that in ACTH‐induced or spontaneous follicular cysts, we found a higher expression in the latter. The expression of the TGFB isoforms studied was also altered during folliculogenesis in both the spontaneous and ACTH‐induced COD groups. As it has been previously shown that TGFB influences steroidogenesis, ovarian follicular proliferation and apoptosis, an alteration in its expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:58:22.041692-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12373
       
  • The Expression and Localization of Crb3 in Developmental Stages of the
           Mice Embryos and in Different Organs of 1‐week‐old Female Mice
           
    • Authors: Y Yin; J Sheng, R Hu, Y Yang, S Qing
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Crumbs homolog 3 (Crb3) is a member of the Crumbs family of proteins. This protein may play a role in epithelial cell polarity and is associated with tight junctions at the apical surface of epithelial cells. Alternative transcriptional splice variants that encode different Crb3 isoforms have been characterized. The expression of Crb3 mRNA and protein was observed in the pre‐implantation mouse embryos and different organs of 1‐week‐old mouse, and Crb3 expression was primarily observed in the cytoplasm. Crb3 was expressed in a unique temporal pattern in pre‐implantation embryos. The main characteristic of Crb3 expression was that the positive signals were stronger in the mature oocytes and zygotes than in the 2‐cell, 4‐cell, and 8‐cell stages and the morula, but a similar level of high expression was observed in blastocysts. Therefore, the Crb3 expression signal during the course of development process grew gradually stronger from the 2‐cell stage to blastocyst. In addition, Crb3 protein was widely distributed in each stage of the post‐implantation embryos. Crb3 expression was observed in the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and endoderm of E4.5d embryos; in the chorion, amnion, trophoblast cells, yolk sac endoderm and embryo ectoderm of E7.5d embryos; in the amnion and limb bud of E8.0d embryos; and in the semicircular canal epithelium, retina, lens vesicle and liver tissue of E13.5d embryos. Crb3 was expressed at different levels in different organs of 1‐week‐old mouse with the strengths in the following order: kidney > small intestine > stomach > uterus > liver > skeletal muscle > cerebellum > brain. The presence of Crb3 in many organs and the regularity of Crb3 distribution in the process of mouse embryonic development indicate that Crb3 protein plays an important role in establishing and maintaining the polarity of mouse embryos.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:58:05.513687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12374
       
  • Effects of Prolonged in vitro Culture and Cryopreservation on Viability,
           DNA Fragmentation, Chromosome Stability and Ultrastructure of Bovine Cells
           from Amniotic Fluid and Umbilical Cord
    • Authors: ER Cunha; CF Martins, CG Silva, HC Bessler, SN Báo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to study cellular types that did not participated in the gastrulation process, amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) and umbilical cord cells (UCCs), in conditions of long‐term culture and cryopreserved with different solutions. The AFCs and UCCs were used in a comparative study with ear fibroblast cells (EFCs) that were cultured in vitro until 20 cellular passages and cryopreserved in 10% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), 5% dimethyl formamide (DMF) and 7% glycerol (Gly) solutions. The cellular viability, ultrastructure, DNA fragmentation and chromosome stability were evaluated to determine the cellular type most resistant. In all cell types, it was possible to evaluate the AFCs until 15 passages and UCCs until 20 passages with different periods of cellular growth to reach the confluence phase. Solutions containing 10% DMSO ensured viability of 90.33 ± 5.58%, 90.56 ± 4.40% and 81.90 ± 3.31%, respectively for EFCs, AFCs and UCCs, being significantly more efficient and with less variation than other cryoprotectant solutions. The AFCs were more sensitive to cryopreservation and presented low viability rate at the passage 20 (17.2 ± 8.87%). There was no change in karyotype and nuclear fragmentation was low in all cellular passages studied. With the scanning electron analysis was possible the characterization of AFCs and UCCs in suspension. The three cellular types of cells presented different shapes and characteristics on the surface. The results demonstrate that bovine AFCs and UCCs can be isolated, cultured in vitro and cryopreserved in 10% DMSO, not causing damage to DNA and chromosomes. The UCCs were more resistant than AFCs in all aspects.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:57:50.672626-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12372
       
  • ‘Soya Milk Tris‐based Phytoextender Reduces Apoptosis in
           Cryopreserved Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Spermatozoa’
    • Authors: R Mohan; SK Atreja
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of newly developed soya milk Tris (SMT)‐based phytoextender as an alternative to egg yolk Tris (EYT) extender used for cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa on apoptosis. Fresh buffalo semen (control without dilution) was cryopreserved in conventional EYT (20% egg yolk v/v in Tris) and SMT (25% soya milk v/v in Tris) extender and used for the assessment of expression of apoptotic proteins. Proteins extracted from a total number of nine ejaculates from three individual buffalo bulls chosen at random were separated using SDS–PAGE followed by immunoblotting against caspase‐8, caspase‐9, caspase‐3, poly(ADP‐ribose)polymerase (PARP), cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In addition, fluorescence microscopy was used for the detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (JC‐1 assay) and apoptotic cells (annexin V‐FITC/PI assay). The results obtained clearly indicate the significant (p  0.05) reduction in expression of PARP‐DNA‐binding subunit (24 kDa) was observed in SMT extender. No expression of AIF was found in cryopreserved semen samples. A significant (p  0.05) decrease in late apoptotic cells (AN+/PI+) was observed in SMT extender when compared to EYT extender. The results demonstrated that cryopreservation of buffalo semen in SMT‐based phytoextender can replace the traditional egg yolk extenders as it reduces the expression of apoptotic proteins maintaining high mitochondrial membrane potential and gives better protection to sperms in terms of its non‐animal origin.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:57:40.144975-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12371
       
  • Evaluation of the Breeding Soundness of Male Camels (Camelus dromedarius)
           via Clinical Examination, Semen Analysis, Ultrasonography and Testicular
           Biopsy: A Summary of 80 Clinical Cases
    • Authors: MM Waheed; IM Ghoneim, MM Hassieb, AA Alsumait
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Male camel infertility is a heterogeneous disorder. A variety of factors may adversely affect sperm production and function and impair fertility. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography and testicular biopsy in the evaluation of the breeding soundness of male dromedaries compared with results obtained by clinical examination and semen analysis. Eighty‐four male dromedary camels (5–15 years old) were used in this study during the rutting season (November–May). Four sexually mature male camels were used as controls. These animals were apparently healthy and had histories of normal fertility. Eighty infertile male camels were subjected to an algorithmic approach based on information collected during careful examinations of the camels' breeding histories, clinical examinations, testicular evaluations, testicular ultrasonographies, the results of the semen analyses and testicular biopsies to diagnose the camels' infertilities. The differences in the semen parameters between the control and infertile male camels were highly significant (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:57:25.652925-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12370
       
  • MALDI‐MS Lipid Profiles of Oocytes Recovered by Ovum Pickup from Bos
           indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus with High vs Low Oocyte Yields
    • Authors: KC Silva‐Santos; CR Ferreira, GMG Santos, MN Eberlin, LS Siloto, CO Rosa, TN Marcantonio, MM Seneda
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare the lipid profile in oocytes of indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus cows with high and low antral follicle count (AFC)/oocyte yields. After an OPU procedure (D0), antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted by ultrasonography (D4, 19, 34, 49, 64), and cows were assigned to groups with either high AFC (≥30 follicles; indicus, NH group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AH group) or low AFC (≤15 antral follicles; indicus, NL group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AL group). The lipid profiles of the oocytes were determined by MALDI‐MS. For GI, GII and GIII oocytes, the indicus samples tend to cluster separately from the 1/2 indicus × taurus samples. The lipid species [PC (P‐38:5) + H]+ and/or [PC (P‐36:2) + Na]+, [PC (38:2) + H]+, [PC (38:5) + Na]+ and [TAG (60:8) + NH4]+ were more abundant in indicus (NH and NL groups) than 1/2 indicus × taurus. The higher lipid content in the indicus oocytes likely reflects differences in the rate of lipid metabolism and may contribute to oocyte competence and embryo development.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T05:16:11.84022-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12352
       
  • Protein Localization of Epidermal Growth Factor in Sheep Ovaries and
           Improvement of Follicle Survival and Antrum Formation In Vitro
    • Authors: LP Santos; VRP Barros, AYP Cavalcante, VG Menezes, TJS Macedo, JMS Santos, VR Araújo, MAA Queiroz, MHT Matos
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to characterize EGF protein expression in ovine ovaries and to verify the effect of EGF on the in vitro development of isolated pre‐antral follicles. After collection, ovarian tissue was fixed for immunohistochemical analysis. Additional pairs of ovaries were collected, and secondary follicles were cultured for 18 days in α‐MEM+ (control) alone or supplemented with EGF (1, 10 or 50 ng/ml). The immunostaining for EGF was observed in oocytes from pre‐antral and antral follicles, in granulosa cells of primary and secondary follicles, as well as in cumulus and mural cells of antral follicles. After 18 days, the results showed that treatment with 50 ng/ml EGF significantly increased the percentage of morphologically normal follicles compared with the control group (α‐MEM+) and significantly reduced the precocious extrusion of oocytes and increased the percentage of antral follicles compared with the control and 1 ng/ml EGF. All the treatments induced a progressive and significant increase of the follicular diameter throughout the period of culture. However, there were no significant differences in follicular diameter or in the daily growth rate among treatments. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of EGF in ovine ovaries. Moreover, 50 ng/ml EGF increased the percentage of normal follicles and improved antrum formation in isolated ovine follicles after 18 days of in vitro culture.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:29:20.852321-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12369
       
  • Influence of Temperament Score and Handling Facility on Stress,
           Reproductive Hormone Concentrations, and Fixed Time AI Pregnancy Rates in
           Beef Heifers
    • Authors: R Kasimanickam; S Schroeder, M Assay, V Kasimanickam, DA Moore, JM Gay, WD Whittier
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objectives were (i) to evaluate the effect of temperament, determined by modified 2‐point chute exit and gait score, on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers following fixed time AI and (ii) to determine the effect of temperament on cortisol, substance‐P, prolactin and progesterone at initiation of synchronization and at the time of AI. Angus beef heifers (n = 967) at eight locations were included in this study. At the initiation of synchronization (Day 0 = initiation of synchronization), all heifers received a body condition score (BCS), and temperament score (0 = calm; slow exit and walk or 1 = excitable; fast exit or jump or trot or run). Blood samples were collected from a sub‐population of heifers (n = 86) at both synchronization initiation and the time of AI to determine the differences in serum progesterone, cortisol, prolactin and substance‐P concentrations between temperament groups. Heifers were synchronized with 5‐day CO‐Synch+ controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and were inseminated at 56 h after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy by ultrasound 70 days after AI to determine AI pregnancy. Controlling for synchronization treatment (p = 0.03), facility design (p = 0.05), and cattle handling facility design by temperament score interaction (p = 0.02), the AI pregnancy differed between heifers with excitable and calm temperament (51.9% vs 60.3%; p = 0.01). The alley‐way with acute bends and turns, and long straight alley‐way had lower AI pregnancy rate than did the semicircular alley‐way (53.5%, 56.3% and 67.0% respectively; p = 0.05). The serum hormone concentrations differed significantly between different types of cattle handling facility (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:29:07.454979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12368
       
  • Efficacy of Low‐Dose Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Therapy in Dogs
           with Spermatogenic Dysfunction: A Preliminary Study
    • Authors: M Kobayashi; T Hori, E Kawakami
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein used in the treatment of spermatogenic dysfunction. However, previous studies performed in dogs show that repeated administration of large doses of hCG produces antibodies against hCG. In this study, we examined the efficacy of low‐dose injections of hCG in four male dogs with spermatogenic dysfunction and low plasma testosterone (T) levels. We administered 100 IU hCG per animal, five times at 3‐day intervals, and evaluated the changes in semen quality and plasma T levels. The total number of sperm in ejaculate, the percentage of progressively motile sperm and the plasma T levels had increased by 3–5 weeks after the first injection of hCG in three of the four dogs, but were unchanged in the fourth dog. These findings indicate that temporary improvement of the semen quality of dogs with spermatogenic dysfunction and low plasma T levels is possible after five low‐dose injections of hCG.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:28:54.722771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12366
       
  • Effect of LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1 Gene Polymorphisms on Reproductive Traits
           in the Iranian Holstein Cattle
    • Authors: H Asadollahpour Nanaei; S Ansari Mahyari, M‐A Edriss
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: During the last decades, genetic selection for milk production traits has led to increased fertility and health problems in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three polymorphisms located in the ATP‐binding cassette superfamily G member 2 transporter (ABCG2), stearoyl‐CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes on reproductive traits and somatic cell count (SCC). The analysis was conducted on 408 randomly selected cows. The SNPs within the genes (LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1) were genotyped using the PCR‐RFLP method. All three possible genotypes were observed for SCD1‐T878C and LEPR‐T945M SNPs, but not for ABCG2‐Y581S SNP. LEPR‐T945M and ABCG2‐Y581S SNPs had no statistically significant effect on the studied reproductive traits and SCC. However, SCD1‐T878C SNP were negatively and significantly related to pregnancy length, dry days and open days (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:28:39.934872-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12365
       
  • Validation of a Field Based Chromatin Dispersion Assay to Assess Sperm DNA
           Fragmentation in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
    • Authors: M‐J Sánchez‐Calabuig; C López‐Fernández, E Martínez‐Nevado, JF Pérez‐Gutiérrez, J Fuente, SD Johnston, D Blyde, K Harrison, J Gosálvez
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Over the last two decades, there have been significant advances in the use of assisted reproductive technology for genetic and reproductive management of captive dolphin populations, including evaluation of sperm DNA quality. This study validated a customized sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) as a means of assessing sperm DNA damage both in the field and in the laboratory. After performing the SCDt, two different sperm morphotypes were identified: (i) sperm with fragmented DNA showed large haloes of dispersed DNA fragments emerging from a compact sperm nucleoid core and (ii) sperm containing non‐fragmented DNA displayed small compact haloes surrounded by a dense core of non‐dispersed DNA and protein complex. Estimates of sperm DNA fragmentation by means of SCDt were directly comparable to results obtained following a two‐tailed comet assay and showed a significant degree of correlation (r = 0.961; p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:27:44.325571-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12364
       
  • Altered Expression of 3β‐HSD, CYP17 and 17β‐HSD in
           the Foetal Porcine Gonads in Response to Anti‐androgen Flutamide
           Exposure
    • Authors: K Knapczyk‐Stwora; M Grzesiak, M Slomczynska
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We investigated whether the limited access to androgens during late prenatal period alters expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in androgen production: 3β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5‐Δ4 isomerase (3β‐HSD), cytochrome P450 17α‐hydroxylase/17,20‐lyase (CYP17) and 17β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β‐HSD1) or type 3 (17β‐HSD3) in the foetal porcine gonads. Pregnant gilts were injected with anti‐androgen flutamide (for seven days, 50 mg/day/kg bw) or corn oil (control) starting at 83 (GD90) or 101 (GD108) gestational day. To assess 3β‐HSD, CYP17 and 17β‐HSD1 or 17β‐HSD3 expression, real‐time PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed. In testes from flutamide‐treated foetuses, increased 3β‐HSD and CYP17 mRNA expression was observed in the GD90 group, while decreased 3β‐HSD and 17β‐HSD3 mRNA expression and increased CYP17 mRNA expression were found in the GD108 group. CYP17 and 17β‐HSD3 were localized in Leydig cells. Following flutamide administration, the intensity of CYP17 immunostaining was higher in both treated groups, while 17β‐HSD3 intensity was lower in the GD108 group. In ovaries from flutamide‐treated foetuses in the GD90 group, mRNA level for 3β‐HSD was elevated, but it was diminished for CYP17 and 17β‐HSD1. In the GD108 group, flutamide treatment led to lower mRNA level for 3β‐HSD but higher for CYP17. 3β‐HSD was found in granulosa cells, while CYP17 was localized within egg nests and oocytes of forming follicles. Following flutamide treatment, the intensity of 3β‐HSD and CYP17 immunostaining was higher in the GD90 and GD108 groups, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining for 3β‐HSD was restricted to the ovary. Concluding, diminished androgen action in the porcine foetal gonads during late gestation induces changes in steroidogenic enzymes expression, which may led to changes in gonadal function. However, it seems that androgens exert diverse biological effects depending on the gestational period.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:27:19.009806-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12356
       
  • Use of Porcine Luteinizing Hormone at Oestrous Onset in a Protocol for
           Fixed‐Time Artificial Insemination in Gilts
    • Authors: RR Ulguim; DL Fontana, JZ Rampi, ML Bernardi, I Wentz, FP Bortolozzo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) given at oestrous onset in gilts, by different routes and doses, on the interval between onset of oestrus and ovulation (IOEO) and reproductive performance using a single fixed‐time artificial insemination (FTAI). A total of 153 gilts were submitted to oestrous detection at 8‐h intervals and assigned to three groups: control – without hormone application and inseminated at 0, 24 and 48 h after oestrous onset; VS2.5FTAI – 2.5 mg pLH by the vulvar submucosal route at oestrous onset and a single FTAI 16 h later; IM5FTAI – 5 mg pLH by the intramuscular route at oestrous onset and a single FTAI 16 h later. More VS2.5FTAI gilts (47.1%; p  0.05). The IOEO tended to be shorter (p = 0.06) in VS2.5FTAI (30.2 ± 1.4 h) than in control (34.7 ± 1.4 h) gilts, but there was no difference (p > 0.05) between control and IM5FTAI (32.8 ± 1.4 h) gilts. Farrowing rate was not different (p > 0.05) among treatments. Total born piglets (TB) was lower (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:27:04.235835-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12362
       
  • Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in Fresh and Frozen Semen from Rams in
           Brazil
    • Authors: MJG Bezerra; JALO Cruz, ES Kung, PPF Albuquerque, PCP Kim, EPBX Moraes, JW Pinheiro Júnior, RA Mota
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in semen samples from commercial rams in artificial insemination centres in Brazil, as well as in fresh semen from rams in the northeast of Brazil. In total, 108 semen samples were obtained from artificial insemination centres, and genomic DNA of T. gondii was detected in 24 of 108 (22.2%). The prevalence of antibodies anti‐Toxoplasma gondii among sheep on rural properties was 9.2% (10/109), and 100% of the semen samples of these animals were positive in the PCR for T. gondii DNA. The molecular identity was confirmed through sequencing, which indicated 99.9% similarity with the T. gondii DNA sequences stored in the GenBank. This study reports the first occurrence of T. gondii DNA in the semen of rams, which came from artificial insemination centres in Brazil, as well as the occurrence of T. gondii DNA in the fresh semen of naturally infected rams in the northeast of Brazil.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:26:49.683532-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12361
       
  • Effect of Dietary N‐Carbamylglutamate Levels on Reproductive
           Performance of Gilts
    • Authors: B Zhang; LQ Che, Y Lin, Y Zhuo, ZF Fang, SY Xu, J Song, YS Wang, Y Liu, P Wang, D Wu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The effect of dietary N‐carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation during the entire gestation on reproductive performance of gilts was determined. At the initial day of gestation, forty‐five cross‐bred (Landrace × Large white) gilts were randomly assigned to five groups receiving a basal diet (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% NCG until parturition, respectively. At parturition, total litter size, live litter size and rate of stillbirth were not markedly affected by NCG supplementation. However, gilts in 0.05% NCG‐supplemented group had more pigs born alive than gilts in control group (+1.11 pigs, p = 0.12), and live litter weight was increased (+12.13–19.17%, p 
      PubDate: 2014-07-14T07:45:31.049702-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12358
       
  • Expression Pattern of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Canine
           Folliculogenesis and its Effect on the Growth and Development of Follicles
           after Ovarian Organ Culture
    • Authors: MA Abdel‐Ghani; T Shimizu, H Suzuki
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, the expressions of VEGF in dog follicles were detected by immunohistochemistry and the effects of VEGF treatment on the primordial to primary follicle transition and on subsequent follicle progression were examined using a dog ovary organ culture system. The frozen‐thawed canine ovarian follicles within slices of ovarian cortical tissue were cultured for 7 and 14 days in presence or absence of VEGF. After culture, the ovaries were fixed, sectioned, stained and counted for morphologic analysis. The results showed that VEGF was expressed in the theca cells of antral follicles and in the granulosa cells nearest the oocyte in preantral follicle but not in granulosa cells of primordial and primary follicles; however, the VEGF protein was expressed in CL. After in vitro culture, VEGF caused a decrease in the number of primordial follicles and concomitant increase in the number of primary follicles that showed growth initiation and reached the secondary and preantral stages of development after 7 and 14 days. Follicular viability was also improved in the presence of VEGF after 7 and 14 days in culture. In conclusion, treatment with VEGF was found to promote the activation of primordial follicle development that could provide an alternative approach to stimulate early follicle development in dogs.
      PubDate: 2014-07-12T06:26:19.274522-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12357
       
  • Impact of Food Restriction on Ovarian Development, RFamide‐Related
           Peptide‐3 and the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Ovarian Axis in
           Pre‐Pubertal Ewes
    • Authors: H Li; H Song, M Huang, H Nie, Z Wang, F Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: RFamide‐related peptide‐3 (RFRP‐3), the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin‐inhibiting hormone, has been implicated as a mediator between reproduction and energy balance. This study aimed to investigate the physiological effects of RFRP‐3 on the process of ovarian development in food‐restricted pre‐pubertal ewes. The results showed that food restriction significantly inhibited the ovarian development and follicular growth. The data of qPCR in the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian (HPO) axis showed that food restriction not only upregulated RFRP‐3 mRNA expression but also downregulated the mRNA expression of gonadotropin‐releasing‐hormone receptor, follicle‐stimulating hormone receptor and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). Immunohistochemistry of RFRP‐3 in the ovaries suggested that RFRP‐3 may regulate the follicular development. These results suggested that the changes of RFRP‐3 in response to food restriction might influence the HPO axis and inhibit ovarian development.
      PubDate: 2014-07-12T06:26:17.224026-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12375
       
  • Seminal Leucocytary Profile in Beef Bulls
    • Authors: AL Zart; VCL Jurgielewicz, CE Fernandes
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Despite evidences that seminal leucocytes could affect semen quality, references for the frequency and concentration of these cells in bulls are not available. The aim of this study was to determine the normal concentration of leucocytes in beef bulls and to correlate this characteristic with semen quality. First, 57 bulls from artificial insemination centres were evaluated to obtain the normal leucocytary profile values. Next, 382 bulls were subjected to breeding soundness evaluation. The average concentration of leucocytes in bovine semen was 4.73 × 106/ml. Unsatisfactory bulls showed a higher number of leucocytes/field than that in the satisfactory ones. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the unsatisfactory bulls showed 6.5‐fold more chances of having higher leucocyte counts than satisfactory ones. Values of up to 1 leucocyte/field in the bull ejaculate are considered physiologically normal, whereas >5 leucocytes/field is associated with poor semen quality.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T06:58:31.084505-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12353
       
  • Determination of Feeder Cell‐Based Cellular Niches Supporting the
           Colonization and Maintenance of Spermatogonial Stem Cells from Prepubertal
           Domestic Cat Testes
    • Authors: NR Han; YH Park, JI Yun, HJ Park, MH Park, MS Kim, JH Choi, E Lee, SP Gong, JM Lim, ST Lee
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Recently, isolation and in vitro culture of putative spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in the domestic cat have been conducted. However, the cellular niche conditions that facilitate the establishment and long‐term maintenance of feline SSCs (FSSCs) have not been described. Therefore, we investigated the type of feeder cells used to stimulate colony formation and growth of FSSCs among the various factors in the FSSC niche. Spermatogonial stem cells isolated from feline testes were cultured on mitotically inactivated testicular stromal cells (TSCs) derived from cats, dogs and mice, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The formation and growth of colonies derived from SSCs cultured on each type of feeder cell were identified at passage 0, and the morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expression of SSC‐specific genes in surviving colonies were investigated at passage 4. Among these diverse feeder cells, TSCs from cat showed the greatest colony formation, growth and maintenance of FSSCs, and SSC colonies cultured by passage 4 showed a typical dome‐shaped morphology, AP activity and expression of SSC‐specific genes (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and CD9). Accordingly, these results demonstrate that feline TSCs could be used as feeder cells to support the establishment and maintenance of SSCs from domestic cats.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T06:58:28.653781-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12351
       
  • Comparison of Cryoprotective Effects of Lycopene and Cysteamine in
           Different Cryoprotectants on Bull Semen and Fertility Results
    • Authors: PB Tuncer; S Büyükleblebici, A Eken, U Taşdemir, E Durmaz, O Büyükleblebici, E Çoşkun
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to compare glycerol and ethylene glycol at different concentrations as cryoprotectants and lycopene or cysteamine (with/without) as antioxidants in Tris extender for bull semen. Twenty‐four ejaculates were obtained from three bulls. Each ejaculate was split into four equal aliquots and diluted using both of the Tris extenders with glycerol (5% or 7%) or ethylene glycol (3% or 5%). After that, each extenders were split into three equal aliquots and added using both of the cysteamine 5 mm or lycopene 500 μg/ml, and control (without additives). The addition of 7% glycerol with cysteamine, 5% ethylene glycol with cysteamine and 3% ethylene glycol with cysteamine groups gave the lowest CASA motility than the other groups. However, 7% glycerol and 7% glycerol with lycopene resulted in a better rate of CASA progressive motility compared with that of other groups. Generally, all the lycopene groups signed better protective effects on acrosome and total morphology than the other groups. Glycerol 7% and 3% ethylene glycol with lycopene groups yielded to slight higher percentages of membrane integrity assessed by HOST than that of the other groups, but 7% glycerol with cysteamine and 3% ethylene glycol with cysteamine showed the worst percentages of membrane integrity. Glycerol 7% and 5% glycerol with lycopene gave rise to a higher value of VAP, VSL and VCL compared with that of the other groups. On the contrary, adding to 5% glycerol with cysteamine showed negative effect for VAP, VSL, VCL and ALH values. All cryoprotectant groups with lycopene decreased chromatin damage than the other groups. Ethylene glycol 3% led to lower non‐return rates of inseminated cows. However, this result was not considered to be statistically important.
      PubDate: 2014-06-18T06:44:03.633585-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12359
       
  • Neuroendocrine, Metabolic and Genomic Cues Signalling the Onset of Puberty
           in Females
    • Authors: CA Meza‐Herrera; A Gonzalez‐Bulnes, RT Kridli, M Mellado, CF Arechiga‐Flores, H Salinas, JM Luginbuhl
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Puberty is the result of a dynamic interaction between genetic factors and environmental cues, all of which lead to the attainment of reproductive capacity. Thus, significant changes in hormone secretion occur from the pre‐pubertal to the pubertal stage. The objective of this review is to provide an update of some endocrine, physiological, metabolic and genetic concepts involved in the establishment of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis function promoting the onset of the reproductive function during puberty. To achieve this purpose, basic aspects of the function of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis, the control of the axis by neurotransmitters and the interaction between reproductive function and metabolic status will be considered. Finally, the role of the novel kisspeptin system and the GPR54 receptor as modulators of puberty will be considered, in addition to the hierarchical expression of the main genes acting as regulators of the onset of puberty.
      PubDate: 2009-04-08T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01355.x
       
  • Comparison of Two Different Programmes of Ovulation Synchronization in the
           Treatment of Ovarian Cysts in Dairy Cows
    • Authors: N Gundling; S Drews, M Hoedemaker
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: It was the aim of this field study to evaluate two different protocols of ovulation synchronization for the treatment of ovarian cysts and their effect on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In addition, factors with a possible influence on treatment success and pregnancy outcome as well as costs per pregnancy were analysed. The study was performed with 130 German Holsteins with ovarian cysts diagnosed on days 55 to 60 postpartum. Cows belonging to group 1 (n = 65) received a modified ovsynch protocol [day 0: 0.15 mg cloprostenol (PGF) + 0.02 mg buserelin acetate (GnRH); day 14: PGF; day 16: GnRH]. Group 2 (n = 65) was treated with the conventional ovsynch protocol (day 0: GnRH; day 7: PGF; day 9: GnRH). Timed artificial insemination was performed 20 to 24 h later. Cows without ovarian cysts served as controls. Treatment success (disappearance of the ovarian cyst) after the first ovsynch cycle was higher in group 1 (66.2%) than in group 2 (23.1%, p 
      PubDate: 2009-03-11T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01342.x
       
  • Luteal Characteristics and Progesterone Production on Day 5 of the Bovine
           Oestrous Cycle
    • Authors: MP Green; GE Mann, MG Hunter
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: In this study we have examined luteal function in non‐lactating and late lactation dairy cows on day 5 of the cycle, during the period of the post‐ovulatory progesterone rise. Comparison of luteal progesterone content and in vitro synthetic capacity with circulating plasma progesterone demonstrated that circulating progesterone concentration is a function of total luteal activity rather than the activity of individual units of tissue. Incubation of luteal tissue in vitro demonstrated stimulatory activity of LH and IGF‐I, and to a greater degree IGF‐II, on luteal progesterone synthesis. Finally the study showed no effect of double ovulation on luteal function. Occurrence of double ovulation in 35% of animals was not associated with any difference in luteal function or plasma progesterone concentrations.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00836.x
       
  • Effect of Time for Mating and Gestation Length on Reproductive Efficiency
           in Dogs
    • Authors: Y Shimatsu; H Yuzawa, K Aruga, M. Nakura
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of time for mating and gestation length on reproductive efficiency in dogs. Groups of eight, six and six beagle bitches were mated with a total of three sires on days 3, 5 and 7, respectively, after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. All the bitches whelped successfully. The gestation lengths (the intervals from the LH surge to the whelping) were 65.1 ± 1.9, 65.5 ± 1.9 and 68.0 ± 1.8 days, respectively. This length of mating 7 days after the LH surge was significantly longer than that of mating 3 and 5 days after the LH surge (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00840.x
       
  • Successful Low Dose Insemination of Flow Cytometrically Sorted Ram
           Spermatozoa in Sheep
    • Authors: SP De Graaf; G Evans, WMC Maxwell, JA Downing, JK O'Brien
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The fertility of ram spermatozoa that had undergone flow cytometric sorting (MoFlo® SX) and cryopreservation was assessed after low‐dose insemination of synchronized Merino ewes. Oestrus was synchronized with progestagen‐impregnated pessaries, PMSG and GnRH treatment. Ewes (n = 360) were inseminated with 1 × 106, 5 × 106 or 15 × 106 motile sorted frozen‐thawed (S1, S5, or S15 respectively) or non‐sorted frozen‐thawed (C1, C5 or C15 respectively) spermatozoa from three rams. An additional group of ewes were inseminated with 50 × 106 motile non‐sorted frozen‐thawed spermatozoa (C50) to provide a commercial dose control. The percentage of ewes lambing after insemination was similar for C50 (24/38, 63.2%), C15 (37/54, 68.5%), S15 (38/57, 66.7%), S5 (37/56, 66.1%) and S1 (32/52, 61.5%) groups (p > 0.05), but lower for C5 (19/48, 39.6%) and C1 (19/55, 34.5%) treatments (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00837.x
       
  • Bovine Endothelial Cells Interact with Fully‐luteinized, but Not
           Luteinizing, Granulosa Cells in the mRNA Expression of Endothelin‐1
           System in Response to Prostaglandin F2α
    • Authors: K Shirasuna; S Watanabe, D Yamamoto, M Hayashi, K Nagai, A Miyamoto
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The corpus luteum (CL) undergoes regression by prostaglandin (PG)F2α from uterus and endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) plays an important role during luteolysis as a local mediator of PGF2α in the cow. Endothelial cells (EC) and luteal cells are main cell types making up the CL and their interactions are vital for CL function. We aimed to examine the relevance of interactions between EC and luteal cells on stimulation of genes which involved ET‐1 synthesis by PGF2α. We further focused the impact of maturity of luteal cells on the stimulation of the genes. To make a microenvironment which resembles the CL, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and luteinizing or fully‐luteinized granulosa cells (GC) and evaluated the effect of PGF2α on the expression for mRNA of ET‐1 system by using real‐time RT‐PCR. PGF2α stimulated the expression of preproET‐1 and endothelin converting enzyme‐1 mRNA only in the co‐cultures of BAEC with fully‐luteinized GC, but not with luteinizing GC. The data suggest that interactions between BAEC and fully‐luteinized GC enhance the capability of BAEC to produce ET‐1 in response to PGF2α. This mechanism may contribute to the local induction of luteolytic action of PGF2α which is dependent on the age/maturation of the CL.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00835.x
       
  • Ovum Pick‐up in Dairy Heifers: Does it Affect Animal
           Well‐being?
    • Authors: S Petyim; R Båge, A Madej, B Larsson
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the ovum pick‐up (OPU) technique on animal well‐being. Eight dairy heifers were subjected to 4 months of twice‐weekly OPU. The physiological response to OPU was recorded in four heifers at two sessions, at the beginning (time 1) and at the end (time 2) of the 4‐month period. Heart rates were measured and blood was analysed for cortisol, vasopressin and PG‐metabolite before, during (every 5 and 2 min), and after the OPU sessions. Reactions to each subprocedure of OPU (‘restraint’, ‘epidural’, ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’) were closely observed. In all heifers, reactions to the OPU procedures were also noted throughout the experimental period, and changes in routine behaviour, oestrous behaviour, body temperature, or other clinical traits were recorded. Subsequent to the experiment, the ovaries and tails were carefully inspected. At time 1, there was an insignificant increase in heart rate and cortisol throughout the OPU procedure. At time 2, these two parameters increased significantly, but both parameters declined to pre‐OPU levels 10 min after completion of the procedure. No significant changes were seen in vasopressin or PG‐metabolite at time 1 and time 2. Behaviourally, the heifers showed the strongest response to epidural anaesthesia, with a tendency for more intense response during the late 4‐month sessions. The response to ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’ varied among individuals independently of time. There were no changes in the routine or oestrous behaviour throughout the experiment and no signs of clinical disorders. No major pathological changes were macroscopically seen in the ovaries and tails subsequent to the 4 months of OPU. In conclusion, the heifers showed a response to OPU, mostly to administration of epidural anaesthesia. However, we demonstrated that epidural anaesthesia can be administered in a way causing less discomfort.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00833.x
       
  • Infertility in a Dog due to Proximal Cytoplasmic Droplets in the
           Ejaculate: Investigation of the Significance for Sperm Functionality In
           Vitro
    • Authors: AI Peña; M Barrio, JJ Becerra, LA Quintela, PG Herradón
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: A 4‐year‐old Basque Shepherd male dog was presented for breeding soundness evaluation after the dog failed to impregnate the three bitches he had mated. Clinical examination showed no anomaly of the reproductive system. Semen evaluation showed normal sperm count (640 × 106), 80% had progressively motile spermatozoa, and 96% had morphologically abnormal sperm of which 84% had proximal cytoplasmic droplet and 12% had proximal droplet plus other anomaly. A zona pellucida‐binding assay, using canine oocytes derived from frozen‐thawed ovaries, was performed in order to investigate the zona‐binding ability of dog spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets. For the zona pellucida‐binding assay, ovaries were thawed and minced in phosphate‐buffered saline + 0.4% bovine serum albumin, the oocytes recovered were divided into two groups of 35–40 oocytes to be, respectively, used with the infertile dog and with a control fertile dog. Spermatozoa were capacitated in Canine Capacitating Medium (CCM) at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in air for 2 h before oocyte insemination. Groups of five to six oocytes placed in 45 μl droplets of CCM were incubated for 1 h. Afterwards, 5 μl of CCM containing 25 000 spermatozoa were added to each droplet and co‐incubated for 2 h before fixation and evaluation of the complexes. After oocyte insemination, sperm motility and viability were evaluated: the sample from the infertile dog had 85% sperm motility with fast and linear progressive movement, and sperm viability of 92%. The sample from the control dog showed 40% sperm motility with fast and highly curvilinear and erratic movement, high degree of sperm agglutination and sperm viability of 32%. For the infertile dog the mean number of bound spermatozoa/oocyte was 0.33 whereas for the control dog it was 1.80. It was concluded that dog sperm with proximal cytoplasmic droplets seem to lack normal capacitating ability in vitro, and consequently, they may have reduced capacity to bind to the zona pellucida of canine oocytes.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00809.x
       
  • Early Detection of Pregnancy and Embryonic Loss in Dairy Cattle by ELISA
           Tests
    • Authors: G Gábor; F Tóth, L Ózsvári, Zs Abonyi‐Tóth, RG Sasser
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Over a 25‐month period 8118 blood samples were assayed for the presence of the serum pregnancy specific‐protein B (PSPB) and progesteron (P4) concentrations on three Hungarian large‐scale dairy farms. Pregnancy (n = 4085) was checked by BioPRYN assay at 30–36 days post‐insemination (PI). Samples from all cows that tested not pregnant and from cows with an optical density (OD) reading in the BioPRYN test that was between 0% and 30% above the cutoff OD value were tested for serum P4 concentration. According to serum P4 concentration, cows were assigned to three categories: high (>4 ng/ml), medium (2–4 ng/ml) and low (
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00834.x
       
  • Distribution of Spermatozoa and Embryos in the Female Reproductive Tract
           after Unilateral Deep Intra Uterine Insemination in the Pig
    • Authors: P Tummaruk; P Sumransap, M Techakumphu, A Kunavongkrit
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The present study was performed to investigate the number of either the spermatozoa or the embryos in the reproductive tracts of sows after unilateral, deep, intra uterine insemination (DIUI). Two experiments were conducted, 10 sows were used in experiment I and eight sows were used in experiment II. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to examine the time when ovulation took place in relation to oestrus behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen 6–8 h prior to expected ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. In experimental I, five sows were inseminated by a conventional artificial insemination (AI) technique using 100 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 3000 × 106 motile spermatozoa and five sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique with 5 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized and ovario‐hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the uterine horns on each side of the reproductive tracts were divided into seven segments, namely ampulla, cranial isthmus, caudal isthmus, utero‐tubal junction (UTJ), cranial uterine horn, middle uterine horn and caudal uterine horn. Each segment of the reproductive tracts was flushed with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) through the lumen. The total number of spermatozoa in the flushing from each segment were determined. In experimental II, eight sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique using 5.0 ml diluted fresh semen containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized 61.1 ± 12 h after insemination (48–72 h) and the embryos were flushed from the oviduct through the proximal part of the uterine horn. It was revealed that, in experimental I, the spermatozoa were recovered from both sides of the reproductive tract in the AI‐group, and from unilateral side of the reproductive tract in the DIUI‐group (three sows from the left and two sows from the right sides). The number of spermatozoa recovered from the reproductive tracts was higher in the AI‐ than the DIUI‐group (p 
      PubDate: 2007-06-15T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00830.x
       
 
 
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