- Campylorrhinus lateralis, Bilateral microphthalmia and odontoma temporalis
in an Oldenburg Foal
- Abstract: An Oldenburg colt with wry nose was autopsied after having lived for only 30 min. It presented cyanotic oral mucosae, underdeveloped eyes and a right‐sided temporal osseous mass. The applicable nomenclature for the defects is discussed, and the potential etiopathogenesis is explored by describing the normal embryonic development of the affected body parts.
- Successful Cryopreservation of Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Epididymal Sperm
after Slow Equilibration to 15 or 10°C
- Abstract: To support conservation strategies in wild species, simple but highly reproducible procedures of sperm cryopreservation are required for an application under field conditions. We used epididymal sperm of the domestic cat to optimize a sperm freezing procedure for felid species, particularly questioning the demand for sperm cooling to 4°C. We equilibrated sperm during slow cooling to only 15 or 10°C in a Tes–Tris–fructose extender with final concentrations of 4.7% (v/v) glycerol and 10% (v/v) of the water‐soluble fraction of hen's egg yolk (low‐density lipoproteins). Subsequently, sperm were frozen over liquid nitrogen. Total and progressive motility (mean ± SD) after thawing was 60.7 ± 8.6% and 53.9 ± 9.6% in samples cooled to 15°C or 61.6 ± 9.5% and 55.3 ± 9.9% in samples cooled to 10°C. Therefore, a one‐step addition of glycerol to sperm at room temperature together with the freezing extender, the use of cryovials (loaded with diluted sperm aliquots of 300 μl), an equilibration period of 40 min comprising slow cooling to 15°C at a rate of approximately −0.14 K/min before rapid freezing over liquid nitrogen, yielded satisfying results. Cooling, freezing and thawing rates were exactly characterized as a prerequisite for further optimization and to provide a repeatable protocol to other practitioners.
- Effect of Temporary Meiotic Attenuation of Oocytes with Butyrolactone I
and Roscovitine in Resistance to Bovine Embryos on Vitrification
- Abstract: This study aimed to produce in vitro bovine embryos by the addition of two drugs, which is responsible for oocyte meiosis inhibition: roscovitine (ROS) and butyrolactone I (BL‐I). Oocytes were recovered from slaughtered cows and matured in a commercial medium and maintained in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Oocytes were maintained for 6 h in an in vitro maturation (IVM) medium containing ROS (12.5 μm), BL‐I (50 μm) and association of drugs (ROS 6.25 μm and BL‐I 25 μm). Oocytes were cultured for 18 h in an agent‐free medium for the resumption of meiosis. After 24 h of maturation, oocytes were inseminated in the commercial in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOFaa medium in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. On day 3, rate of cleavage was evaluated and on days 6 and 7, rate of blastocyst formation. BL‐I and its association with the ROS increased the rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation (p
- Santa Maria, Brazil: Regulation of Anti‐Müllerian Hormone and
Its Receptor Expression around Follicle Deviation in Cattle
- Abstract: The anti‐Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an important marker of ovarian reserve and for predicting the response to superovulatory treatments in several species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether AMH and its receptor (AMHR2) are regulated in bovine granulosa cells during follicular development. In the first experiment, granulosa cells were retrieved from the two largest follicles on days 2 (before), 3 (at the expected time) or 4 (after deviation) of follicular wave. In the second experiment, four doses of FSH (30, 30, 20 and 20 mg) or saline were administered twice a day starting on Day 2 of the first follicular wave of the cycle. Granulosa cells and follicular fluid were collected from the two largest follicles 12 h after the last injection of FSH or saline. AMH mRNA abundance was similar in granulosa cells of the two largest follicles (F1 and F2) before deviation (Day 2), but greater in dominant (DF) than subordinate follicles (SF) at the expected time (Day 3) and after (Day 4) deviation (p 0.05), but they tended to be greater in DFs than SFs (p 0.05) between both co‐dominant follicles collected from the FSH‐treated cows. These findings indicate the followings: AMH mRNA levels decrease in both DFs and SFs during follicular deviation; granulosa cells from heathy follicles express more AMH mRNA compared to subordinate follicles undergoing atresia and FSH stimulates AMH and AMHR2 mRNA expression in granulosa cells of co‐dominant follicles.
- Key Factors Affecting Reproductive Success of Thoroughbred Mares and
Stallions on a Commercial Stud Farm
- Authors: EA Lane; MLJ Bijnen, M Osborne, SJ More, ISF Henderson, P Duffy, MA Crowe
Abstract: To evaluate factors contributing to fertility of thoroughbred mares, data from 3743 oestrous periods of 2385 mares were collected on a large thoroughbred farm in Ireland. Fourteen stallions (mean age 8.3 years; range 4–15 years) had bred 2385 mares (mean age 9.4 years; range 3–24 years). Maiden mares accounted for 12%, mares with a foal at foot for 64%, and barren, slipped or rested mares for 24% of the total. The mean pregnancy rate per cycle was 67.8% (68.6% in year 1 and 66.9% in year 2). Backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to develop two models to evaluate mare factors, including mare age, reproductive status, month of foaling, dystocia, month of cover, foal heat, cycle number, treatments, walk‐in status and stallion factors including stallion identity, stallion age, shuttle status, time elapsed between covers and high stallion usage on the per cycle pregnancy rate and pregnancy loss. Old age (p
- Issue Information
- Pages: 1 - 2
- Effects of Temperature on In Vitro Short‐Term Storage of Sterlet
Sturgeon (Acipenser Ruthenus) Ova
- Abstract: Artificial propagation of sturgeons is becoming increasingly important for recovery efforts as well as for commercial production. Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus is a common Eurasian sturgeon with a small body size and one of the fastest reproductive cycles among the sturgeons. The practical question being addressed in this study was how long fertilization of ovulated eggs can be delayed without substantially reducing the hatching rate, and an ancillary question is under what' temperature conditions do eggs retain good quality. Broodstock were injected with homogenized carp pituitary extract (CPE); ovulated eggs from three females were allocated to various treatment groups for temperature storage (control, 7°C, 11°C, 15°C and 19°C) until fertilized. Storage times at the regulated temperatures prior to fertilization were for 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 h. After the selected storage times in ovarian fluid, eggs were fertilized and transferred to incubation cages and then they were counted. Three replicates were allocated to each storage period and temperature. Hatched larvae were counted at 7‐day post‐fertilization. We found that sterlet eggs do not need to be fertilized immediately after collection. Reasonably good quality was retained for several hours if temperature conditions are fairly cool and stable. Eggs retained good quality when stored at 7°C and 11°C for up to 10 h with 54.1 ± 2.9 to 69.9 ± 7.9% hatching success, but egg quality was significantly reduced after 5‐h storage at 19°C (p
- Anti‐Müllerian Hormone in the Domestic Dog during the Anestrus
to Oestrous Transition
- Authors: JB Nagashima; BS Hansen, N Songsasen, AJ Travis, NJ Place
Abstract: The reproductive cycle of the domestic dog features a long period of relative ovarian inactivity or anestrus. The mechanism of anestrous termination/oestrous resumption is not yet fully understood, which presents a challenge to the development of oestrous induction protocols. In this study, we assess the possibility that anti‐Müllerian hormone (AMH) might play a role in this transition by characterizing its patterns of expression in the circulation during the transition from anestrus to oestrous and in all stages of ovarian follicular growth. Serum samples from five beagles (2.0–4.5 years) were collected three times per week at least 30 days prior to the onset of oestrous and assessed for AMH concentrations. Serum AMH concentration increased significantly during the transition from anestrus to proestrus and then declined back to the anestrous baseline beginning on day −4 before the luteinizing hormone surge, which was determined by changes in serum progesterone concentrations. Cortical sections of ovaries from females undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy (aged 8 months–5 years, n = 4) were evaluated for AMH by immunohistochemistry. Pre‐antral and small antral follicles were most strongly immunoreactive for AMH. These data suggest that the increase in the number of antral follicles is associated with the rise in serum AMH as the anestrous period comes to an end. The rise in AMH might be useful in predicting the onset of oestrus and therefore assist with the optimization of oestrous induction protocols and possibly other assisted reproductive technologies.
- Involvement of Protein cAMP‐dependent Kinase, Phospholipase A2 and
Phospholipase C in Sperm Acrosome Reaction of Chinchilla lanigera
- Abstract: The mechanisms involved in fertilization are the centre of attention in order to determine the conditions required to reproduce in vitro the events that take place in vivo, with special interest in endangered species. Previous data from mouse sperm, where acrosome reaction (AR) occurs more often in the interstitium of the cumulus oophorus, contribute to strengthen the use of progesterone as a physiological inducer of this process. We studied the participation of protein kinase A (PKA), phospholipases A2 and C (PLA2, PLC) in the AR induced by progesterone from Chinchilla epididymal spermatozoa. The addition of db‐cAMP to the incubation medium caused an increase of 58% in the AR, while the use of H89 (30 μm), a PKA inhibitor, reflected a decrease of 40% in the percentage of reacted gametes. The assays conducted with arachidonic acid showed a maximum increase of 23% in the AR. When gametes were pre‐incubated with PLA2 inhibitors, a dose‐dependent inhibitory effect was observed. The addition of phorbol12‐myristate13‐acetate (10 μm) revealed higher percentages of AR induction (60%). When PLC was inhibited with neomycin and U73122, a dose‐dependent decrease in AR percentages was observed. Combined inhibition of PKA, PLA2 and PLC, AR values similar to control were obtained. This work shows evidence, for the first time in Chinchilla, that progesterone activates the AC/cAMP/PKA system as well as sperm phospholipases and that these signalling pathways participate jointly and cooperatively in AR. These results contribute to the understanding of the complex regulation that is triggered in sperm after the effect of progesterone.
- Effects of Dietary Supplementation of
β‐hydroxy‐β‐methylbutyrate on Sow Performance
and mRNA Expression of Myogenic Markers in Skeletal Muscle of Neonatal
- Authors: HF Wan; JT Zhu, Y Shen, X Xiang, HJ Yin, ZF Fang, LQ Che, Y Lin, SY Xu, B Feng, D Wu
Abstract: The effects of dietary β‐hydroxy‐β‐methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during gestation on reproductive performance of sows and the mRNA expression of myogenic markers in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs were determined. At day 35 of gestation, a total of 20 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire, at third parity) were randomly assigned to two groups, with each group receiving either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 4 g/day β‐hydroxy‐β‐methylbutyrate calcium (HMB‐Ca) until parturition. At parturition, the total and live litter size were not markedly different between treatments, however, the sows fed HMB diet had a decreased rate of stillborn piglets compared with the sows fed the control (CON) diets (p
- Prolactin, Androstenedione and IGF1 Serum Concentrations During Induced
Follicular Growth by eCG Administration in the Bitch
- Abstract: The oestrus cycle in the domestic bitch, a monoestrous species, differs considerably from that of other veterinary domestic animals species. In the bitch the combined use of eCG and hCG is effective to induce oestrus predictably and safely (Stornelli et al., Theriogenology, 78, 2012 and 1056). Although several studies were done to describe the hormonal changes during the canine oestrus cycle, to our knowledge none was done to describe the hormonal changes during induced follicular growth after the administration of eCG. The aim of this work was to study prolactin (PRL), insulin‐like growth factor (IGF1) and androstenedione (ANDR) serum concentrations during follicular growth induced by a single dose of eCG administered to late anoestrous bitches. PRL and ANDR concentrations were lower before than after eCG TRT (before eCG vs pro‐oestrus, oestrus and dioestrus; 4.3 ± 1.8 ng/ml vs 6.5 ± 1.6 ng/ml, p 0.19). Furthermore, IGF1 concentrations were higher before and during oestrus compared to first day of dioestrus (286.1 ± 29.8vs 200.4 ± 29.2 ng/ml, p
- Co‐infection with Bovine Herpesvirus 4 and Histophilus somni
Significantly Extends the Service Period in Dairy Cattle with Purulent
- Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV‐4) and Histophilus (H.) somni on fertility rate of cows in a Hungarian Holstein‐Friesian dairy herd with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD). Non‐pregnant cows (n = 188) with mature corpus luteum were treated with cloprostenol and 3 days later if they did not show oestrus, were examined by rectal palpation. Animals showing PVD (n = 60/31.9%/) and 14 controls with normal vaginal discharge (Score 0) were randomly selected and further examined by ultrasonography and blood samples were collected for detecting BoHV‐4 DNA and transcervical guarded swabs were collected from the uterus for bacteriological examination. Although the majority of the examined animals were infected with BoHV‐4 and H. somni including the control animals as well, in group of animals with PVD score 3, fewer animals became pregnant and the duration between the first treatment to pregnancy was significantly extended. Based on these clinical and comparative data, our results confirm that these two microorganisms together may impair important reproductive parameters which may cause large economic losses to dairy farms.
- Exogenous Estradiol Benzoate Induces Spermatogenesis Disorder through
Influencing Apoptosis and Oestrogen Receptor Signalling Pathway
- Authors: X Lei; K Cui, Q Liu, H Zhang, Z Li, B Huang, D Shi
Abstract: As the exact role for exogenous oestrogen in spermatogenesis is not fully understood, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate (EB) exposure to male mice on their spermatogenesis and fertility. Sixty male mice aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into three groups, including a control group and two treatment groups. The mice of the control group were injected with 250 μl paraffin oil only by every other day subcutaneous injection for 4 weeks. Meantime, the mice of the treatment groups were injected with EB at the concentration of 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively. Results showed that EB slowed down the body weight gains and generated testicular atrophy with spermatogenesis disorder compared with that of the control mice, and consequently induced their infertility. Moreover, the number of TUNEL‐positive cells in the testis of EB‐treated mice was significantly increased with the EB concentration rise. In comparison with controls, the mRNA expression level of pro‐apoptosis factors (Fas, TNF, Cytochrome C, Apaf1, Chop, Caspase‐3, Caspase‐8, Caspase‐9 and Caspase‐12) and key genes in oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling pathway (ER α, ER β, Erk1/2, Hsp90 and DAX‐1) were upregulated in the testes of the treatment groups. Furthermore, Western blotting results proved the protein expression level of Fas, TNF, Cytochrome C, Chop, Caspase‐3, cleaved Caspase‐3, Caspase‐9, Erk1/2 and Hsp90 were upregulated, and the phosphorylation level of Erk1/2 was also increased. These results indicate that EB may impair spermatogenesis through influencing the apoptosis and ER signalling pathway.
- Effects of Female Dietary Restriction in a Rabbit Growth Line During
Rearing on Reproductive Performance and Embryo Quality
- Abstract: Maternal diet prior to mating has an effect on reproductive performance. We analysed the effect of maternal dietary restriction during rearing on reproductive performance, the embryo development and foetal growth. Females were categorized in two groups: (i) does with ad libitum access to feed or (ii) restricted. Two experiments were performed: (i) after 1 month, receptive females from both experimental groups were artificially inseminated and the reproductive performance was recorded during three reproductive cycles; at the first insemination, the body weight and perirenal fat thickness were recorded, and (ii) females from both experimental groups were inseminated, and 24 h later, embryos were recovered and transferred to recipient females from a maternal line. Later, embryonic implantation was assessed at day 14 by laparoscopy and foetal growth was monitored by ultrasound examination. In experiment 1, no differences in kindling rate was found, but prolificacy was showed to be higher in ad libitum does, which also were heavier than restricted ones. In experiment 2, no differences among does either in body weight, in perirenal fat thickness or in reproductive performance (ovulation rate and embryo recovery rate) were related to differences in feed intake. However, despite similar embryonic implantation losses, embryos from restricted females demonstrated higher foetal and gestational losses. Embryos from restricted does presented lower foetal growth than embryos from ad libitum does. Therefore, our results demonstrated that nutrition before first conception in a rabbit line selected for growth rate may impact on the embryo and results in a disturbance in gestational losses and foetal growth over all reproductive life.
- Effects of Intrauterine Devices in Mares: A Histomorphological and
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the Endometrium
- Abstract: Oestrous suppression by intrauterine devices (IUDs) is caused by prolongation of luteal function, but the biological mechanism is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate mechanisms which could explain the action of IUDs. Thirty mares were age‐matched and either inseminated (AI, n = 15) or fitted with an IUD (IUD, n = 15) and subsequently divided into four groups: AI‐P, pregnant (n = 8); AI‐N, non‐pregnant (n = 7); IUD‐P, prolonged luteal phase (n = 7); and IUD‐N, normal luteal phase (n = 8). The median ages were 5.5 and 7 years in AI‐P and IUD‐P groups and 14 and 11 years in AI‐N and IUD‐N groups, respectively. On Day 15 after ovulation, an endometrial biopsy was obtained to study histomorphological and immunohistochemical expression patterns of uterine proteins (uteroferrin, UF; uterocalin, UC; uteroglobin, UG), oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR), proliferation marker Ki‐67 and content of inflammatory cells. Expression of UF was higher in IUD mares; the difference between pregnant and IUD‐P mares was significant. Mares exhibiting a prolonged luteal phase (AI‐P, IUD‐P) showed only mild angiosclerosis and lower expression of both ER and PR than mares with a normal luteal phase (AI‐N, IUD‐N). No significant differences were detected in the numbers of inflammatory cells, with the exception of macrophages, which were more numerous in AI‐P than AI‐N mares. Although inflammatory cells were not detected in IUD mares, increased UF levels may indicate chronic inflammation. Young age and normality of the endometrial blood vessels may improve the efficacy of IUDs.
- The Recipients' Parity Does Not Influence Their Reproductive Performance
Following Non‐Surgical Deep Uterine Porcine Embryo Transfer
- Authors: EA Martinez; A Nohalez, CA Martinez, I Parrilla, J Vila, I Colina, M Diaz, J Reixach, JL Vazquez, J Roca, C Cuello, MA Gil
Abstract: With the development of the non‐surgical deep uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET) technology, the commercial applicability of ET in pigs is now possible. There are, nevertheless, many factors that influence NsDU‐ET effectiveness that need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the weaned recipients' parity on fertility and prolificacy following NsDU‐ET. The recipients (n = 120) were selected based on their reproductive history and body condition and grouped into three categories according to their parity: primiparous sows, sows of parity 2 and sows of parities from 3 to 5. Thirty fresh embryos (morulae and unhatched blastocysts) were non‐surgically transferred into one uterine horn of each recipient. It was possible to insert the NsDU‐ET catheter through the cervix along a uterine horn in 98.3% of the recipients. The parity had no influence on the difficulty grade of the insertions or on the percentage of correct insertions. The cervix and uterine wall were not perforated during the insertions, and vaginal discharge was not observed after transfer in any of the recipients. There were no differences in the pregnancy rates (74.8%), farrowing rates (71.2%) or litter sizes (9.6 ± 3.3) between groups. Also, there were no differences between groups regarding to the piglets' birthweights or piglet production efficiency. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that weaned sows from parity 1 to 5 are appropriate to be used as recipients in NsDU‐ET programs, which increase the possibilities for the utilization of ET in the recipient farms.
- Bone Morphogenetic Protein‐6 (BMP‐6) Stimulates the Antrum
Formation by the Regulation of its Signalling Pathway in Caprine
Pre‐antral Follicles Cultured In Vitro
- Abstract: BMP‐6 has been found to be important to ovarian cells and oocyte, as well as to uterus. Thus, this study investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP‐6) and recombinant follicle‐stimulating hormone (rFSH) alone or in combination on the in vitro culture (IVC) of isolated caprine secondary follicles (Experiment 1) and the mRNA levels for BMP receptors/Smad signalling pathway (BMPR1A, BMPR2, SMAD1, SMAD4, SMAD5, SMAD6, SMAD7 and SMAD8) in vivo and in vitro using BMP‐6 (Experiment 2). Secondary follicles were cultured in αMEM+ alone (control medium) or supplemented with BMP‐6 at 1 or 10 ng/ml and rFSH alone or the combination of both BMP‐6 concentrations and rFSH. The results from Experiment 1 showed that the antrum formation rate was higher in the BMP‐6 at 1 ng/ml (p
- The Effect of Sperm Morphology and Sire Fertility on Calving Rate of
Finnish Ayrshire AI Bulls
- Authors: S Attia; T Katila, M Andersson
Abstract: Good‐quality semen is a prerequisite for successful and profitable artificial insemination (AI) of modern dairy cattle. Fertility of the bulls is evaluated with andrological examinations and semen analyses, such as morphology. However, little attention has been paid to the inheritance of bull fertility. In this study, we correlated sperm morphology, birth year and station of 695 AI bulls with calving rate (CR). Sperm morphology was clearly associated with CR underlining the usefulness of morphological examination in the assessment of fertility. The correlation between the proportion of normal spermatozoa and CR was significant (p
- Reproductive Performance of Native Pulawska and High Productivity Polish
Landrace Sows in the Context of Stress During the Period of Early
- Abstract: Experiments revealed that it is necessary to get rid of genotypes RYR1C/T and RYR1T/T because of problems with meat quality and reproduction of gilts and sows. This phenomenon, however, is of individual nature and is characterized by high variability. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of stressogenic factors in native Puławska and high productivity Polish Landrace breed sows during the period of low pregnancy on reproductive performance and maternal behaviour. Sows in the 2nd reproduction cycle were assigned into groups of five animals as follows: control (C) of RYR1 C/C genotype and experimental (E) of RYR1 C/T genotype. In all, 30 Puławska breed sows and 30 PL breed sows were analysed. During the early stage of pregnancy (days 42–84), experimental groups were subjected to the action of stressogenic factors: elevated temperature, noisy and rough treatment of sows by service personnel and immobilization stress. The effect of stressogenic factors was referred to the reproductive performance of sows. Puławska and PL breed sows from the experimental groups were subjected to the evaluation of maternal traits on the basis of perinatal behaviour determined with the help of an ethogram. Analysis of the results of reproduction and the behaviour of the sows confirmed the higher resistance to stressogenic factors of the Puławska breed. The performed analysis of reproduction and behaviour confirmed that heterozygotic genotypes in the RYR1 locus exhibited less advantageous reproduction, which corroborates the hypothesis about a negative impact of the T allele on swine productivity.
- Effect of Prenatal and Neonatal Anti‐Androgen Flutamide Treatment on
Aquaporin 5 Expression in the Adult Porcine Ovary
- Abstract: The growth of ovarian follicles is accompanied by fluid‐filled antrum formation. Water movement within the follicular wall is predominantly transcellular via membranous water channels named aquaporins (AQPs). Androgens are important regulators of mammalian folliculogenesis, and their prenatal and/or neonatal deficiency affects female fertility in adulthood. Therefore, this study was performed to determine whether gestational or neonatal exposure to the anti‐androgen flutamide influences androgen‐dependent AQP5 expression in pre‐antral and large antral follicles of adult pigs. Flutamide was injected into pregnant gilts between days 80 and 88 of gestation and into female piglets between days 2 and 10 post‐natally. The ovaries were collected from flutamide‐treated and non‐treated (control) sexually mature pigs. In pre‐antral follicles, AQP5 mRNA and protein levels were both downregulated following maternal (p
- Fixed‐time Insemination in Pasture‐based Medium‐sized
Dairy Operations of Northern Germany and an Attempt to Replace GnRH by hCG
- Authors: D Marthold; J Detterer, U Koenig von Borstel, M Gauly, W Holtz
Abstract: A field study was conducted aimed at (i) evaluating the practicability of a fixed‐time insemination regime for medium‐sized dairy operations of north‐western Germany, representative for many regions of Central Europe and (ii) substituting hCG for GnRH as ovulation‐inducing agent at the end of a presynch or ovsynch protocol in an attempt to reduce the incidence of premature luteal regression. Cows of two herds synchronized by presynch and two herds synchronized by ovsynch protocol were randomly allotted to three subgroups; in one group ovulation was induced by the GnRH analog buserelin, in another by hCG, whereas a third group remained untreated. The synchronized groups were fixed‐time inseminated; the untreated group bred to observed oestrus. Relative to untreated herd mates, pregnancy rate in cows subjected to a presynch protocol with buserelin as ovulation‐inducing agent was 74%; for hCG it was 60%. In cows subjected to an ovsynch protocol, the corresponding relative pregnancy rates reached 138% in the case of buserelin and 95% in the case of hCG. Average service interval was shortened by 1 week in the presynch and delayed by 2 weeks in the ovsynch group. It may be concluded that fixed‐time insemination of cows synchronized via ovsynch protocol with buserelin as ovulation‐inducing agent is practicable and may help improve efficiency and reduce the work load involved with herd management in medium‐sized dairy operations. The substitution of hCG for buserelin was found to be not advisable.
- Laboratory and Clinical Evaluation of a Feia Method for Canine Serum
- Authors: A Rota; I Vannozzi, S Marianelli, A Gavazza, G Lubas
Abstract: The evaluation of progesterone (P4) concentration is a valuable tool in assessing physiological reproductive events and reproductive disorders in bitches. A reliable and rapid (preferable, point of care) determination of P4 is advisable in most cases. Aims of this study were to evaluate a fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) for canine serum P4 concentration by (i) the agreement with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), (ii) the association with vaginal cytology and (iii) the accuracy in the prediction of the parturition date calculated from the estimated day of ovulation. Serum samples were collected from client‐owned bitches presented between 2011 and 2014 for the evaluation of their oestrous cycle, pregnancy or reproductive disorders. The agreement between FEIA and LC/MS/MS, evaluated on 19 samples, was statistically significant (R2 = 95.7%, p
- Changes in c‐erbB‐2 Immunoexpression in Feline Endometrial
- Abstract: Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (c‐erbB‐2), an oncoprotein with potential prognostic marker and therapeutic use, is overexpressed in several human and animal tumours. But information regarding this molecule in feline tumours is scarce. This study aimed to assess the changes in the immunohistochemical expression of c‐erbB‐2 in feline endometrial adenocarcinomas (FEA) compared to normal endometrium. An immunohistochemistry assay using a specific antibody against c‐erbB‐2 was performed in FEA samples (n = 34) and in normal endometrium in the follicular (FS; n = 12) and luteal (LS; n = 11) stages. In FEA, the c‐erbB‐2 immunoexpression was assessed in neoplastic epithelial cells whilst in normal endometria it was individually evaluated in the surface and the superficial and deep glandular epithelia (SE, SGE and DGE, respectively). In FS and in LS, all the epithelia were positive for c‐erbB‐2; positivity was higher in the SE and the SGE than in DGE. Twenty of the 34 FEA samples (58.8%) were positive for c‐erbB‐2 immunolabelling. Nevertheless, its expression was higher in all the epithelia in the FS compared to FEA (p ≤ 0.0001) or the LS (p = 0.016). The results presented herein suggest that c‐erbB‐2 molecule is differently expressed in the feline endometrium through the oestrous cycle and though it may also be involved in feline endometrial carcinogenesis, a question remains unanswered on the importance of additional pathways of epithelial proliferation in the neoplastic changes in feline endometrium.
- Changes in Testicular Interstitial Connective Tissue of Hamsters
(Mesocricetus auratus) During Ageing and After Exposure to Short
- Abstract: The testicular interstitium of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was studied during ageing and in testicular regression after exposure to a short photoperiod, in relation to the interstitial cells and their connective tissue. This tissue was assessed histochemically using Masson's trichrome technique and the expression of Heat Shock Protein 47 (HSP‐47) and collagen IV (α5) was assessed in Leydig cells. Finally, an ultrastructural analysis of some cells of the testicular interstitium was made. Leydig cells were positive for HSP‐47 and collagen IV (α5). Ageing did not change the parameters studied while the short photoperiod altered the synthetic activity of Leydig cells. The positivity index of these cells for HSP‐47 was significantly higher in the regressed testis, but was lower for collagen IV (α5). During ageing no change were observed. Ultrastructural Leydig cells showed a discontinuous basal lamina that did not change during ageing. The basal lamina was not identified in Leydig cells regressed by exposure to a short photoperiod. In conclusion; the intertubular connective tissue suffers little change with age. By contrast, in the testis regressed after exposure to a short photoperiod the studied parameters related to the intertubular connective tissue were altered. These changes are probably related with the low synthetic activity of regressed Leydig cell.
- Influence of Post‐Mortem Sperm Recovery Method and Extender on
Unstored and Refrigerated Rooster Sperm Variables
- Abstract: Many post‐mortem sperm collection techniques have been described for mammalian species, but their use in birds is scarce. This paper compares the efficacy of two post‐mortem sperm retrieval techniques ‐ the flushing and float‐out methods ‐ in the collection of rooster sperm, in conjunction with the use of two extenders, i.e., L&R‐84 medium and Lake 7.1 medium. To determine whether the protective effects of these extenders against refrigeration are different for post‐mortem and ejaculated sperm, pooled ejaculated samples (procured via the massage technique) were also diluted in the above extenders. Post‐mortem and ejaculated sperm variables were assessed immediately at room temperature (0 h), and after refrigeration at 5°C for 24 and 48 h. The flushing method retrieved more sperm than the float‐out method (596.5 ± 75.4 million sperm vs 341.0 ± 87.6 million sperm; p
- Flow Cytometric Chromosomal Sex Sorting of Stallion Spermatozoa Induces
Oxidative Stress on Mitochondria and Genomic DNA
- Abstract: To date, the only repeatable method to select spermatozoa for chromosomal sex is the Beltsville sorting technology using flow cytometry. Improvement of this technology in the equine species requires increasing awareness of the modifications that the sorting procedure induces on sperm intactness. Oxidative stress is regarded as the major damaging phenomenon, and increasing evidence regards handling of spermatozoa – including sex sorting – as basic ground for oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to disclose whether the flow cytometric sorting procedure increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and to identify if ROS production relates to DNA damage in sorted spermatozoa using specific flow cytometry‐based assays. After sorting, oxidative stress increased from 26% to 33% in pre‐ and post‐incubation controls, to 46% after sex sorting (p
- Comparison of Diverse Differential Plating Methods to Enrich Bovine
- Abstract: Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) have important applications in domestic animal reproduction and advanced biotechnologies. Because differential plating is one of the most common methods used for SSC enrichment, the goal of this study was to compare three differential plating methods for the enrichment of bovine SSC. To achieve this goal, testicular parenchyma from pre‐pubertal calves was minced and single cells were obtained after two enzymatic digestions. We compared three coating methods for differential plating: laminin (20 ng/ml), BSA (0.05 mg/ml) and PBS. Cells were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 in air for 15 min onto laminin‐coated dishes or 2 h onto BSA‐ or PBS‐coated dishes. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion method. Recovered cells were analysed for the expression of SSC molecular markers by quantitative RT‐PCR (GFRA1, CXCR4, ITGA6, THY1) and flow cytometry (GFRA1, CXCR4 and ITGA6). Cells at time 0, adherent cells on laminin and non‐adherent cells from BSA and PBS groups had the same cell viability (p = 0.0655). GFRA1, CXCR4 and THY1 relative gene expression was higher (p = 0.0402, p = 0.0007, p = 0.0117, respectively) for non‐adherent cells selected in PBS group. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the presence of GFRA‐positive (GFRA+) cells was higher in non‐adherent cells from BSA and PBS groups (p
- Supplementation of Slow‐Release Melatonin Improves Recovery of
Ovarian Cyclicity and Conception in Summer Anoestrous Buffaloes (Bubalus
- Authors: A Kumar; S Mehrotra, G Singh, VP Maurya, K Narayanan, AS Mahla, RK Chaudhari, M Singh, YK Soni, BL Kumawat, SK Dabas, N Srivastava
Abstract: The role of melatonin as a protective neurohormone against restoring cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals in photoperiod species has gained wider acceptance. This study was designed to uncover the evidence the slow‐release melatonin (MLT) has on initiation of ovarian cyclicity and conception rate (CR) in summer anoestrous buffaloes. Thus, buffaloes diagnosed as summer anoestrous (absence of overt signs of oestrus, concurrent rectal examination and radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone at 10 days interval) were grouped as untreated (Group I, sterilized corn oil, n = 8) and treated (Group II, single subcutaneous injection of MLT @18 mg/50 kg bwt in sterilized corn oil, n = 20). Animals treated and detected in oestrus were artificially inseminated (AI) followed by division into Group III (second dose of MLT on 5th day post‐AI, n = 8) and Group IV (no melatonin administration, n = 10). Blood samples were collected at 4 days interval for estimation of serum MLT, progesterone and oestrogen using radioimmunoassay kit. Mean oestrous induction rate (OIR), oestrous induction interval (OII), interoestrous interval (IOI) and CR were estimated. Compared to control, concentration of melatonin was significantly (p
- Pregnancy‐Induced ISG‐15 and MX‐1 Gene Expression is
Detected in the Liver of Holstein–Friesian Heifers During Late
- Authors: MM Meyerholz; K Mense, H Knaack, O Sandra, M Schmicke
Abstract: The bovine embryonic signal interferon‐τ (IFN‐τ) produced by the trophoblast is known to pass through the uterine fluid towards the endometrium and further into the maternal blood, where IFN‐τ induces specific expression of interferon‐stimulated gene expression (ISG), for example in peripheral leucocytes. In sheep, it was shown experimentally by administration of IFN‐τ that ISG is also detectable in the liver. The objective was to test whether ISG can be detected in liver biopsy specimens from Holstein–Friesian heifers during early pregnancy. Liver biopsies were taken on day 18 from pregnant and non‐pregnant heifers (n = 19), and the interferon‐stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG‐15) and myxovirus‐resistance protein‐1 (MX‐1) gene expression was detected. The expression of both MX‐1 (p: 24.33 ± 7.40 vs np: 9.00 ± 4.02) and ISG‐15 (p: 43.73 ± 23.22 vs 7.83 ± 3.63) was higher in pregnant compared to non‐pregnant heifers (p
- A Non‐Reciprocal Autosomal Translocation 64,XX, t(4;10)(q21;p15) in
an Arabian Mare with Repeated Early Embryonic Loss
- Authors: S Ghosh; PJ Das, F Avila, BK Thwaits, BP Chowdhary, T Raudsepp
Abstract: Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3‐year‐old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non‐mosaic and non‐reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals.
- Absence of Sperm Factors as in the Parthenogenesis Does Not Interfere on
- Abstract: Oocyte has been considered the major contributor for embryo thermo‐tolerance. However, it was shown that sperm factors can be transferred to the oocyte during fertilization, raising the question of whether the absence of such factors could interfere on embryo thermo‐tolerance. In this study, we used parthenogenesis to generate bovine embryos without spermatozoa in order to test whether the absence of sperm factors could influence their thermo‐sensitiveness at early stages. In vitro fertilized (IVF) and parthenogenetic (PA) embryos at 44 h post‐insemination/chemical activation were exposed to 38.5°C (control) or 41°C (heat shock) for 12 h and then developed for 48 h and up to blastocyst stage. Apoptosis index and expression of PRDX1, GLUT1, GLUT5 and IGF1r genes in blastocysts derived from heat‐shocked embryos were also evaluated. The heat shock decreased the blastocyst rate at day seven (p