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        1 2     

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 176 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access  
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Reproduction in Domestic Animals
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [3 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0936-6768 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0531
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1603 journals]   [SJR: 0.562]   [H-I: 35]
  • A Field Study to Unravel Factors that are Significantly Associated with
           the Secretory Activity of the Corpus Luteum During the First Three
           Postpartum Cycles in High Yielding Dairy Cows, Based on the Amount of
           Steroidogenic and Endothelial Cells Present in the Luteal Tissue
    • Authors: S Cools; W Van den Broeck, P Bossaert, M Hostens, G Opsomer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fourteen multi‐ and eight primiparous high‐yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3β‐hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-21T23:41:27.172312-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12348
       
  • Expression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) in Porcine Oocytes During Maturation
    • Authors: RN Zhang; XW Fu, BY Jia, C Liu, KR Cheng, SE Zhu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Perilipins have been reported to limit the interaction of lipases with neutral lipids within the droplets, thereby regulating neutral lipid accumulation and utilization. This study aimed to identify the location and expression of PLIN1 and PLIN2 in porcine oocytes during maturation. Quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qRT‐PCR), immunostaining and Western blot methods were used to characterize the expression and distribution patterns of PLIN1 and PLIN2 in porcine oocytes. The results showed that PLIN1 was not detectable in porcine oocytes. PLIN2 and BODIPY 493/503‐detected neutral lipid droplets appeared identical distribution patterns and extensive colocalization in both GV and MII porcine oocytes. PLIN2 protein expression was higher in GV oocytes than that in MII oocytes (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:51.880401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12386
       
  • Molecular Characterization of Oxytocin Receptor Gene in Water Buffalo
           (Bubalus bubalis)
    • Authors: N Arunmozhi; SK Singh, T Sarath, SK Agarwal, A Doiphode, U Shankar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Buffaloes are known for their productivity as compared to average yielding cows due to higher fat percentage, better feed conversion ability and disease resistance. On the other hand, the reproductive performances of buffaloes are often considered as poor owing to late sexual maturity, weak/silent oestrus, repeat breeder and prolonged intercalving interval. The study of cascade of events during oestrus and oestrous cycle can be useful for the improvement of reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. More precisely, the hormonal changes initiated at the molecular level within the animal determine the reproductive nature of the species. Nucleotide/protein sequence analysis serves as a vital tool in analysing the binding of the hormones for their effect or functions. In this study, we have reported cloning and characterization of the complete coding (cDNA) sequence of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in buffaloes. Buffalo OXTR gene contains an uninterrupted ORF of 1176 nucleotides corresponding to an inferred polypeptide length of 391 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight of the deduced aa sequence was found to be 43 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.253 and 16.328 charge at pH 7.0. The deduced protein sequence consists of 38 strongly basic (+) (K,R), 22 strongly acidic (−) (D,E), 186 hydrophobic (A, I, L, F, W, V) and 95 Polar (N, C, Q, S, T, Y) aa. Results indicated that aspartate (D) at aa position 85 and D, R and C at aa positions 136, 137 and 138, respectively, are conserved in buffaloes. The buffalo OXTR gene shared a per cent similarity ranging from 84.7 to 98.1 and 88.5 to 97.7 at nucleotide and deduced aa sequence levels, respectively, with that of other species. Phylogram constructed on the basis of either nucleotide or deduced aa sequences of buffalo OXTR gene showed that buffalo, cattle and sheep have diverged from human and swine and formed a separate clad. The buffalo sequence has shown maximum similarity and closeness with cattle followed by sheep both at nucleotide and at aa level.
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:38.891693-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12389
       
  • Positive Effects of Melatonin Treatment on the Reproductive Performance of
           Young Border Leicester Rams Mated to Merino Ewes in Spring: Preliminary
           Observations
    • Authors: DO Kleemann; JM Kelly, LJ Arney, IL Farley, AJ Tilbrook, SK Walker
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Poor reproductive performance of Merino ewe flocks when mated to Border Leicester rams during spring may be due to seasonality of the Border Leicester breed. Two approaches were taken to test this assumption. Six young (12 months old) or six mixed‐age (12, 24 and ≥36 months old) Border Leicester rams were either treated or not treated with melatonin implants (2 × 2 design) 6 weeks before the four groups of rams were each put with approximately 300 Merino ewes for an 8‐week mating period. Implants were inserted in early September (experiment 1). The second approach was to yard or not yard ewes and mixed‐age rams on several occasions during the first 3 weeks of the mating period (experiment 2). Pregnancy rate and twinning percentage were assessed by ultrasonography. In experiment 1, melatonin treatment in young rams increased (p  0.05) for ewes mated to either melatonin or non‐melatonin‐treated young rams (36.8% vs 40.0%, respectively), whereas melatonin significantly improved (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:26.082074-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12387
       
  • The Importance of Having Zinc During In Vitro Maturation of Cattle
           Cumulus–Oocyte Complex: Role of Cumulus Cells
    • Authors: JM Anchordoquy; JP Anchordoquy, MA Sirini, SJ Picco, P Peral‐García, CC Furnus
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of zinc (Zn) on the health of cumulus–oocyte complex (COC) during in vitro maturation (IVM). Experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of Zn added to IVM medium on: DNA integrity, apoptosis, cumulus expansion and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of cumulus cells (CC). Also, role of CC on Zn transport during IVM was evaluated on oocyte developmental capacity. DNA damage and early apoptosis were higher in CC matured with 0 μg/ml Zn compared with 0.7, 1.1 and 1.5 μg/ml Zn (p  0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity was higher in COC matured with 1.5 μg/ml Zn than with 0 μg/ml Zn (p  0.05). Blastocyst rates were significantly higher in COC than in DO + CC and DO with the addition of 1.5 μg/ml Zn during IVM (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:14.464695-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12385
       
  • Inhibition of Angiotensin‐Converting Enzyme Increases Oestradiol
           Production in Ewes Submitted to Oestrous Synchronization Protocol
    • Authors: AS Costa; AS Junior, GEN Viana, MCS Muratori, AM Reis, APR Costa
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating the effects of angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) and angiotensin II antagonist (valsartan) on the oestradiol and progesterone production in ewes submitted to oestrous synchronization protocol. The animals were weighed and randomly divided into three groups (n = 7). A pre‐experiment conducted to verify the effectiveness and toxicity of enalapril (0.5 mg/kg LW) and valsartan (2.2 mg/kg LW) showed that, in the doses used, these drugs were effective in reducing blood pressure without producing toxic effects. In the experiment, all animals were subjected to oestrous synchronization protocol during 12 days. On D10, D11 and D12, animals received saline, enalapril or valsartan (same doses of the pre‐experiment), according to the group randomly divided. The hormonal analysis showed an increase in oestradiol on the last day of the protocol (D12) in animals that received enalapril (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:02.68027-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12384
       
  • First Description of Scrotal Testicles in a Dog Affected by 78, XX
           Testicular Disorder of Sex Development
    • Authors: AP Del Carro; E Rosset, A Josson‐Schramme, V Lambert, S Buff
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An eight‐month‐old female dog presented with ambiguous external genitalia. A thorough clinical examination together with various imaging techniques and a histology examination showed the presence of two testicles linked to both the Mullerian and Wolffian ducts. The discovery of the 78,XX SRY‐negative karyotype led to the diagnosis of incoherence between the chromosomal and gonadal sex, which is typical for a 78,XX testicular disorder of sex development. Our case was unique because the testicles were still located in their normal scrotal position, whereas the literature contains reports of the presence of cryptorchid testicles in this karyotype setting. To our knowledge, this is the first case that describes an SRY‐negative 78,XX testicular disorder of sex development with bilateral scrotal testicles.
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:37:46.691586-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12382
       
  • Sexual Precocity of Nellore Bulls that are Offspring of Super Precocious,
           Precocious and Normal Cows in Extensive Farming Conditions
    • Authors: JB Siqueira; E Oba, RO Pinho, SEF Guimarães, TM Neto, JD Guimarães
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to verify that mothers classified as super precocious (M1) and precocious (M2) produce more precocious bulls than females classified as normal (M3). This study included 21 186 animals with an average age of 21.29 ± 1.77 months that underwent a breeding soundness evaluation from 1999 to 2008. Of these animals, 2019, 6059 and 13 108 were offspring of M1, M2 and M3 females, respectively. In the breeding soundness examination, the animals were classified as sound for reproduction, sound under a natural mating regime, unsound for reproduction and discarded. To compare the averages obtained for each category of mother within the individual breeding soundness classes, a chi‐square test with a 5% error probability was used, considering the effects of year and month of birth and farm. For the three classes of mothers (M1, M2 and M3), 67.26, 67.22 and 64.16% of bull calves were considered sound for reproduction and 19.71, 19.46 and 21.90% were considered unsound for reproduction, respectively. There was no difference in the frequency of animals that were sound for reproduction under the natural breeding regime between the three classes of mothers (8.87, 9.31 and 9.19%, respectively). There was a difference between the numbers of precocious and normal females that were discarded, with frequencies of 4.01 and 4.75%, respectively (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T07:56:35.920183-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12380
       
  • Cytometric Analysis of Surface Molecules of Leucocytes and Phagocytic
           Activity of Granulocytes and Monocytes/Macrophages in Cows with Pyometra
    • Authors: P Brodzki; K Kostro, A Brodzki, K Niemczuk, U Lisiecka
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pyometra is a serious problem in dairy cow herds, causing large economic losses due to infertility. The development of pyometra depends mainly on the immunological status of the cow. The aim of the study was a comparative evaluation of selected indicators involving non‐specific and specific immunity in cows with pyometra and in cows without inflammation of the uterus. The study was performed in 20 cows, which were divided into two groups: pyometra group and healthy group, each comprising 10 cows, based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests. A flow cytometric analysis was performed for the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD14, CD21, CD25 and CD4+CD25+ on leucocytes, and the phagocytic activity was determined from granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in the peripheral blood and uterine washings, respectively. It was demonstrated that the percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in both the peripheral blood and uterine washings was significantly lower in cows with pyometra compared with the healthy group (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T07:56:24.237169-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12381
       
  • Influence of Gonadotrophin‐Induced First Oestrus on Gilt Fertility
    • Authors: DM Hidalgo; RM Friendship, L Greiner, R Manjarín, MR Amezcua, JC Domínguez, RN Kirkwood
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the oestrous response of pre‐pubertal gilts to gonadotrophin injection or boar exposure and their subsequent farrowing rate and litter size. At 154 days of age, randomly selected pre‐pubertal gilts received an intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin plus 200 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (PG600®; Merck Animal Health; n = 181). From the remaining pool of animals not treated with hormones, the first gilts showing signs of oestrus were selected to act as controls (n = 201). Boar exposure began at 155 days of age for both groups, and gilts were bred at a weight of approximately 130 kg. Comparisons were made between PG600®‐treated gilts exhibiting oestrus or not within 7 days post‐injection (early and late responders, respectively) and control gilts exhibiting oestrus or not within 30 days after beginning of boar exposure (select and non‐select control gilts, respectively). By 162 days, oestrus was detected in 67.5% of PG600®‐treated gilts compared with 5.7% of control gilts (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T07:27:17.994395-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12390
       
  • Use of Cholesterol‐Loaded Cyclodextrin in Donkey Semen
           Cryopreservation Improves Sperm Viability but Results in Low Fertility in
           Mares
    • Authors: RR Oliveira; DM Rates, G Pugliesi, PG Ker, RP Arruda, EA Moraes, GR Carvalho
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The use of cholesterol‐loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) on semen cryopreservation has been related with better sperm viability in several species; however, the effect on fertility is not known in donkey semen. Ejaculates (n = 25) from five donkeys were diluted in S‐MEDIUM with 0, 1, 2 or 3 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa. Semen was frozen, and thawed samples were evaluated by computer‐assisted sperm analyser system (CASA), supravital test, hyposmotic swelling test and fluorescent dyes to assess the integrity of sperm membranes. Mares (n = 60) were inseminated with frozen‐thawed semen treated with the doses of 0 or 1 mg CLC. Percentages of sperm with progressive motility and with functional plasma membrane were greater (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T07:27:06.027902-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12379
       
  • Comparison of Conventional Freezing and Vitrification with
           Dimethylformamide and Ethylene Glycol for Cryopreservation of Ovine
           Embryos
    • Authors: FC Varago; VS Moutacas, BC Carvalho, RV Serapião, F Vieira, H Chiarini‐Garcia, FZ Brandão, LS Camargo, M Henry, MA Lagares
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the cryoprotectants dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos using vitrification and conventional freezing. The recovered embryos were distributed randomly in three treatment groups: Gr. 1: conventional freezing (n = 44), Gr. 2: vitrification with ethylene glycol (n = 39) and Gr. 3: vitrification with dimethylformamide (n = 38). Quality of fresh embryos in control group as well as of frozen and vitrified embryos was examined by three methodologies: staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and evaluation under fluorescent microscopy, evaluation of re‐expansion and hatching rates after culture, and determination of apoptotic index with TUNEL technique. It was established that re‐expansion rate in all treatment groups was similar. In the same time, hatching rates were higher in Gr. 1 (40.5%) and Gr. 2 (35.3%) in comparison with Gr. 3 (15.5%, p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T00:18:18.218549-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12376
       
  • Altered Expression of Transforming Growth Factor‐Beta Isoforms in
           Bovine Cystic Ovarian Disease
    • Authors: V Matiller; ML Stangaferro, PU Díaz, HH Ortega, F Rey, E Huber, NR Salvetti
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the main causes of infertility in dairy cattle. It has been shown that intra‐ovarian factors may contribute to follicular persistence. Transforming growth factor‐beta (TGFB) isoforms are important paracrine and autocrine signalling molecules that regulate ovarian follicle growth and physiology. Considering the importance of these factors in the ovarian physiology, in this study, we examined the expression of TGFB isoforms (TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3) in the ovary of healthy cows and animals with spontaneous and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)‐induced COD. In the oestrous‐synchronized control group, the expression of TGFB1 in granulosa and theca cells was higher in spontaneous cysts than in atretic or tertiary follicles. When we compared TGFB2 expression in granulosa cells from atretic or tertiary follicles from the oestrous‐synchronized control group with that in ACTH‐induced or spontaneous follicular cysts, we found a higher expression in the latter. The expression of the TGFB isoforms studied was also altered during folliculogenesis in both the spontaneous and ACTH‐induced COD groups. As it has been previously shown that TGFB influences steroidogenesis, ovarian follicular proliferation and apoptosis, an alteration in its expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:58:22.041692-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12373
       
  • The Expression and Localization of Crb3 in Developmental Stages of the
           Mice Embryos and in Different Organs of 1‐week‐old Female Mice
           
    • Authors: Y Yin; J Sheng, R Hu, Y Yang, S Qing
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Crumbs homolog 3 (Crb3) is a member of the Crumbs family of proteins. This protein may play a role in epithelial cell polarity and is associated with tight junctions at the apical surface of epithelial cells. Alternative transcriptional splice variants that encode different Crb3 isoforms have been characterized. The expression of Crb3 mRNA and protein was observed in the pre‐implantation mouse embryos and different organs of 1‐week‐old mouse, and Crb3 expression was primarily observed in the cytoplasm. Crb3 was expressed in a unique temporal pattern in pre‐implantation embryos. The main characteristic of Crb3 expression was that the positive signals were stronger in the mature oocytes and zygotes than in the 2‐cell, 4‐cell, and 8‐cell stages and the morula, but a similar level of high expression was observed in blastocysts. Therefore, the Crb3 expression signal during the course of development process grew gradually stronger from the 2‐cell stage to blastocyst. In addition, Crb3 protein was widely distributed in each stage of the post‐implantation embryos. Crb3 expression was observed in the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and endoderm of E4.5d embryos; in the chorion, amnion, trophoblast cells, yolk sac endoderm and embryo ectoderm of E7.5d embryos; in the amnion and limb bud of E8.0d embryos; and in the semicircular canal epithelium, retina, lens vesicle and liver tissue of E13.5d embryos. Crb3 was expressed at different levels in different organs of 1‐week‐old mouse with the strengths in the following order: kidney > small intestine > stomach > uterus > liver > skeletal muscle > cerebellum > brain. The presence of Crb3 in many organs and the regularity of Crb3 distribution in the process of mouse embryonic development indicate that Crb3 protein plays an important role in establishing and maintaining the polarity of mouse embryos.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:58:05.513687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12374
       
  • Effects of Prolonged in vitro Culture and Cryopreservation on Viability,
           DNA Fragmentation, Chromosome Stability and Ultrastructure of Bovine Cells
           from Amniotic Fluid and Umbilical Cord
    • Authors: ER Cunha; CF Martins, CG Silva, HC Bessler, SN Báo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to study cellular types that did not participated in the gastrulation process, amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) and umbilical cord cells (UCCs), in conditions of long‐term culture and cryopreserved with different solutions. The AFCs and UCCs were used in a comparative study with ear fibroblast cells (EFCs) that were cultured in vitro until 20 cellular passages and cryopreserved in 10% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), 5% dimethyl formamide (DMF) and 7% glycerol (Gly) solutions. The cellular viability, ultrastructure, DNA fragmentation and chromosome stability were evaluated to determine the cellular type most resistant. In all cell types, it was possible to evaluate the AFCs until 15 passages and UCCs until 20 passages with different periods of cellular growth to reach the confluence phase. Solutions containing 10% DMSO ensured viability of 90.33 ± 5.58%, 90.56 ± 4.40% and 81.90 ± 3.31%, respectively for EFCs, AFCs and UCCs, being significantly more efficient and with less variation than other cryoprotectant solutions. The AFCs were more sensitive to cryopreservation and presented low viability rate at the passage 20 (17.2 ± 8.87%). There was no change in karyotype and nuclear fragmentation was low in all cellular passages studied. With the scanning electron analysis was possible the characterization of AFCs and UCCs in suspension. The three cellular types of cells presented different shapes and characteristics on the surface. The results demonstrate that bovine AFCs and UCCs can be isolated, cultured in vitro and cryopreserved in 10% DMSO, not causing damage to DNA and chromosomes. The UCCs were more resistant than AFCs in all aspects.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:57:50.672626-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12372
       
  • ‘Soya Milk Tris‐based Phytoextender Reduces Apoptosis in
           Cryopreserved Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Spermatozoa’
    • Authors: R Mohan; SK Atreja
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of newly developed soya milk Tris (SMT)‐based phytoextender as an alternative to egg yolk Tris (EYT) extender used for cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa on apoptosis. Fresh buffalo semen (control without dilution) was cryopreserved in conventional EYT (20% egg yolk v/v in Tris) and SMT (25% soya milk v/v in Tris) extender and used for the assessment of expression of apoptotic proteins. Proteins extracted from a total number of nine ejaculates from three individual buffalo bulls chosen at random were separated using SDS–PAGE followed by immunoblotting against caspase‐8, caspase‐9, caspase‐3, poly(ADP‐ribose)polymerase (PARP), cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In addition, fluorescence microscopy was used for the detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (JC‐1 assay) and apoptotic cells (annexin V‐FITC/PI assay). The results obtained clearly indicate the significant (p  0.05) reduction in expression of PARP‐DNA‐binding subunit (24 kDa) was observed in SMT extender. No expression of AIF was found in cryopreserved semen samples. A significant (p  0.05) decrease in late apoptotic cells (AN+/PI+) was observed in SMT extender when compared to EYT extender. The results demonstrated that cryopreservation of buffalo semen in SMT‐based phytoextender can replace the traditional egg yolk extenders as it reduces the expression of apoptotic proteins maintaining high mitochondrial membrane potential and gives better protection to sperms in terms of its non‐animal origin.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:57:40.144975-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12371
       
  • Evaluation of the Breeding Soundness of Male Camels (Camelus dromedarius)
           via Clinical Examination, Semen Analysis, Ultrasonography and Testicular
           Biopsy: A Summary of 80 Clinical Cases
    • Authors: MM Waheed; IM Ghoneim, MM Hassieb, AA Alsumait
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Male camel infertility is a heterogeneous disorder. A variety of factors may adversely affect sperm production and function and impair fertility. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography and testicular biopsy in the evaluation of the breeding soundness of male dromedaries compared with results obtained by clinical examination and semen analysis. Eighty‐four male dromedary camels (5–15 years old) were used in this study during the rutting season (November–May). Four sexually mature male camels were used as controls. These animals were apparently healthy and had histories of normal fertility. Eighty infertile male camels were subjected to an algorithmic approach based on information collected during careful examinations of the camels' breeding histories, clinical examinations, testicular evaluations, testicular ultrasonographies, the results of the semen analyses and testicular biopsies to diagnose the camels' infertilities. The differences in the semen parameters between the control and infertile male camels were highly significant (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T23:57:25.652925-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12370
       
  • MALDI‐MS Lipid Profiles of Oocytes Recovered by Ovum Pickup from Bos
           indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus with High vs Low Oocyte Yields
    • Authors: KC Silva‐Santos; CR Ferreira, GMG Santos, MN Eberlin, LS Siloto, CO Rosa, TN Marcantonio, MM Seneda
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare the lipid profile in oocytes of indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus cows with high and low antral follicle count (AFC)/oocyte yields. After an OPU procedure (D0), antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted by ultrasonography (D4, 19, 34, 49, 64), and cows were assigned to groups with either high AFC (≥30 follicles; indicus, NH group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AH group) or low AFC (≤15 antral follicles; indicus, NL group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AL group). The lipid profiles of the oocytes were determined by MALDI‐MS. For GI, GII and GIII oocytes, the indicus samples tend to cluster separately from the 1/2 indicus × taurus samples. The lipid species [PC (P‐38:5) + H]+ and/or [PC (P‐36:2) + Na]+, [PC (38:2) + H]+, [PC (38:5) + Na]+ and [TAG (60:8) + NH4]+ were more abundant in indicus (NH and NL groups) than 1/2 indicus × taurus. The higher lipid content in the indicus oocytes likely reflects differences in the rate of lipid metabolism and may contribute to oocyte competence and embryo development.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T05:16:11.84022-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12352
       
  • Protein Localization of Epidermal Growth Factor in Sheep Ovaries and
           Improvement of Follicle Survival and Antrum Formation In Vitro
    • Authors: LP Santos; VRP Barros, AYP Cavalcante, VG Menezes, TJS Macedo, JMS Santos, VR Araújo, MAA Queiroz, MHT Matos
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to characterize EGF protein expression in ovine ovaries and to verify the effect of EGF on the in vitro development of isolated pre‐antral follicles. After collection, ovarian tissue was fixed for immunohistochemical analysis. Additional pairs of ovaries were collected, and secondary follicles were cultured for 18 days in α‐MEM+ (control) alone or supplemented with EGF (1, 10 or 50 ng/ml). The immunostaining for EGF was observed in oocytes from pre‐antral and antral follicles, in granulosa cells of primary and secondary follicles, as well as in cumulus and mural cells of antral follicles. After 18 days, the results showed that treatment with 50 ng/ml EGF significantly increased the percentage of morphologically normal follicles compared with the control group (α‐MEM+) and significantly reduced the precocious extrusion of oocytes and increased the percentage of antral follicles compared with the control and 1 ng/ml EGF. All the treatments induced a progressive and significant increase of the follicular diameter throughout the period of culture. However, there were no significant differences in follicular diameter or in the daily growth rate among treatments. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of EGF in ovine ovaries. Moreover, 50 ng/ml EGF increased the percentage of normal follicles and improved antrum formation in isolated ovine follicles after 18 days of in vitro culture.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:29:20.852321-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12369
       
  • Influence of Temperament Score and Handling Facility on Stress,
           Reproductive Hormone Concentrations, and Fixed Time AI Pregnancy Rates in
           Beef Heifers
    • Authors: R Kasimanickam; S Schroeder, M Assay, V Kasimanickam, DA Moore, JM Gay, WD Whittier
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objectives were (i) to evaluate the effect of temperament, determined by modified 2‐point chute exit and gait score, on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers following fixed time AI and (ii) to determine the effect of temperament on cortisol, substance‐P, prolactin and progesterone at initiation of synchronization and at the time of AI. Angus beef heifers (n = 967) at eight locations were included in this study. At the initiation of synchronization (Day 0 = initiation of synchronization), all heifers received a body condition score (BCS), and temperament score (0 = calm; slow exit and walk or 1 = excitable; fast exit or jump or trot or run). Blood samples were collected from a sub‐population of heifers (n = 86) at both synchronization initiation and the time of AI to determine the differences in serum progesterone, cortisol, prolactin and substance‐P concentrations between temperament groups. Heifers were synchronized with 5‐day CO‐Synch+ controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and were inseminated at 56 h after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy by ultrasound 70 days after AI to determine AI pregnancy. Controlling for synchronization treatment (p = 0.03), facility design (p = 0.05), and cattle handling facility design by temperament score interaction (p = 0.02), the AI pregnancy differed between heifers with excitable and calm temperament (51.9% vs 60.3%; p = 0.01). The alley‐way with acute bends and turns, and long straight alley‐way had lower AI pregnancy rate than did the semicircular alley‐way (53.5%, 56.3% and 67.0% respectively; p = 0.05). The serum hormone concentrations differed significantly between different types of cattle handling facility (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:29:07.454979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12368
       
  • Efficacy of Low‐Dose Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Therapy in Dogs
           with Spermatogenic Dysfunction: A Preliminary Study
    • Authors: M Kobayashi; T Hori, E Kawakami
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein used in the treatment of spermatogenic dysfunction. However, previous studies performed in dogs show that repeated administration of large doses of hCG produces antibodies against hCG. In this study, we examined the efficacy of low‐dose injections of hCG in four male dogs with spermatogenic dysfunction and low plasma testosterone (T) levels. We administered 100 IU hCG per animal, five times at 3‐day intervals, and evaluated the changes in semen quality and plasma T levels. The total number of sperm in ejaculate, the percentage of progressively motile sperm and the plasma T levels had increased by 3–5 weeks after the first injection of hCG in three of the four dogs, but were unchanged in the fourth dog. These findings indicate that temporary improvement of the semen quality of dogs with spermatogenic dysfunction and low plasma T levels is possible after five low‐dose injections of hCG.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:28:54.722771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12366
       
  • Effect of LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1 Gene Polymorphisms on Reproductive Traits
           in the Iranian Holstein Cattle
    • Authors: H Asadollahpour Nanaei; S Ansari Mahyari, M‐A Edriss
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: During the last decades, genetic selection for milk production traits has led to increased fertility and health problems in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three polymorphisms located in the ATP‐binding cassette superfamily G member 2 transporter (ABCG2), stearoyl‐CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes on reproductive traits and somatic cell count (SCC). The analysis was conducted on 408 randomly selected cows. The SNPs within the genes (LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1) were genotyped using the PCR‐RFLP method. All three possible genotypes were observed for SCD1‐T878C and LEPR‐T945M SNPs, but not for ABCG2‐Y581S SNP. LEPR‐T945M and ABCG2‐Y581S SNPs had no statistically significant effect on the studied reproductive traits and SCC. However, SCD1‐T878C SNP were negatively and significantly related to pregnancy length, dry days and open days (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:28:39.934872-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12365
       
  • Validation of a Field Based Chromatin Dispersion Assay to Assess Sperm DNA
           Fragmentation in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
    • Authors: M‐J Sánchez‐Calabuig; C López‐Fernández, E Martínez‐Nevado, JF Pérez‐Gutiérrez, J Fuente, SD Johnston, D Blyde, K Harrison, J Gosálvez
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Over the last two decades, there have been significant advances in the use of assisted reproductive technology for genetic and reproductive management of captive dolphin populations, including evaluation of sperm DNA quality. This study validated a customized sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) as a means of assessing sperm DNA damage both in the field and in the laboratory. After performing the SCDt, two different sperm morphotypes were identified: (i) sperm with fragmented DNA showed large haloes of dispersed DNA fragments emerging from a compact sperm nucleoid core and (ii) sperm containing non‐fragmented DNA displayed small compact haloes surrounded by a dense core of non‐dispersed DNA and protein complex. Estimates of sperm DNA fragmentation by means of SCDt were directly comparable to results obtained following a two‐tailed comet assay and showed a significant degree of correlation (r = 0.961; p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:27:44.325571-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12364
       
  • Altered Expression of 3β‐HSD, CYP17 and 17β‐HSD in
           the Foetal Porcine Gonads in Response to Anti‐androgen Flutamide
           Exposure
    • Authors: K Knapczyk‐Stwora; M Grzesiak, M Slomczynska
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We investigated whether the limited access to androgens during late prenatal period alters expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in androgen production: 3β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5‐Δ4 isomerase (3β‐HSD), cytochrome P450 17α‐hydroxylase/17,20‐lyase (CYP17) and 17β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β‐HSD1) or type 3 (17β‐HSD3) in the foetal porcine gonads. Pregnant gilts were injected with anti‐androgen flutamide (for seven days, 50 mg/day/kg bw) or corn oil (control) starting at 83 (GD90) or 101 (GD108) gestational day. To assess 3β‐HSD, CYP17 and 17β‐HSD1 or 17β‐HSD3 expression, real‐time PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed. In testes from flutamide‐treated foetuses, increased 3β‐HSD and CYP17 mRNA expression was observed in the GD90 group, while decreased 3β‐HSD and 17β‐HSD3 mRNA expression and increased CYP17 mRNA expression were found in the GD108 group. CYP17 and 17β‐HSD3 were localized in Leydig cells. Following flutamide administration, the intensity of CYP17 immunostaining was higher in both treated groups, while 17β‐HSD3 intensity was lower in the GD108 group. In ovaries from flutamide‐treated foetuses in the GD90 group, mRNA level for 3β‐HSD was elevated, but it was diminished for CYP17 and 17β‐HSD1. In the GD108 group, flutamide treatment led to lower mRNA level for 3β‐HSD but higher for CYP17. 3β‐HSD was found in granulosa cells, while CYP17 was localized within egg nests and oocytes of forming follicles. Following flutamide treatment, the intensity of 3β‐HSD and CYP17 immunostaining was higher in the GD90 and GD108 groups, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining for 3β‐HSD was restricted to the ovary. Concluding, diminished androgen action in the porcine foetal gonads during late gestation induces changes in steroidogenic enzymes expression, which may led to changes in gonadal function. However, it seems that androgens exert diverse biological effects depending on the gestational period.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:27:19.009806-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12356
       
  • Use of Porcine Luteinizing Hormone at Oestrous Onset in a Protocol for
           Fixed‐Time Artificial Insemination in Gilts
    • Authors: RR Ulguim; DL Fontana, JZ Rampi, ML Bernardi, I Wentz, FP Bortolozzo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) given at oestrous onset in gilts, by different routes and doses, on the interval between onset of oestrus and ovulation (IOEO) and reproductive performance using a single fixed‐time artificial insemination (FTAI). A total of 153 gilts were submitted to oestrous detection at 8‐h intervals and assigned to three groups: control – without hormone application and inseminated at 0, 24 and 48 h after oestrous onset; VS2.5FTAI – 2.5 mg pLH by the vulvar submucosal route at oestrous onset and a single FTAI 16 h later; IM5FTAI – 5 mg pLH by the intramuscular route at oestrous onset and a single FTAI 16 h later. More VS2.5FTAI gilts (47.1%; p  0.05). The IOEO tended to be shorter (p = 0.06) in VS2.5FTAI (30.2 ± 1.4 h) than in control (34.7 ± 1.4 h) gilts, but there was no difference (p > 0.05) between control and IM5FTAI (32.8 ± 1.4 h) gilts. Farrowing rate was not different (p > 0.05) among treatments. Total born piglets (TB) was lower (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:27:04.235835-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12362
       
  • Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in Fresh and Frozen Semen from Rams in
           Brazil
    • Authors: MJG Bezerra; JALO Cruz, ES Kung, PPF Albuquerque, PCP Kim, EPBX Moraes, JW Pinheiro Júnior, RA Mota
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in semen samples from commercial rams in artificial insemination centres in Brazil, as well as in fresh semen from rams in the northeast of Brazil. In total, 108 semen samples were obtained from artificial insemination centres, and genomic DNA of T. gondii was detected in 24 of 108 (22.2%). The prevalence of antibodies anti‐Toxoplasma gondii among sheep on rural properties was 9.2% (10/109), and 100% of the semen samples of these animals were positive in the PCR for T. gondii DNA. The molecular identity was confirmed through sequencing, which indicated 99.9% similarity with the T. gondii DNA sequences stored in the GenBank. This study reports the first occurrence of T. gondii DNA in the semen of rams, which came from artificial insemination centres in Brazil, as well as the occurrence of T. gondii DNA in the fresh semen of naturally infected rams in the northeast of Brazil.
      PubDate: 2014-08-11T04:26:49.683532-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12361
       
  • Effect of Dietary N‐Carbamylglutamate Levels on Reproductive
           Performance of Gilts
    • Authors: B Zhang; LQ Che, Y Lin, Y Zhuo, ZF Fang, SY Xu, J Song, YS Wang, Y Liu, P Wang, D Wu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The effect of dietary N‐carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation during the entire gestation on reproductive performance of gilts was determined. At the initial day of gestation, forty‐five cross‐bred (Landrace × Large white) gilts were randomly assigned to five groups receiving a basal diet (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% NCG until parturition, respectively. At parturition, total litter size, live litter size and rate of stillbirth were not markedly affected by NCG supplementation. However, gilts in 0.05% NCG‐supplemented group had more pigs born alive than gilts in control group (+1.11 pigs, p = 0.12), and live litter weight was increased (+12.13–19.17%, p 
      PubDate: 2014-07-14T07:45:31.049702-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12358
       
  • Expression Pattern of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Canine
           Folliculogenesis and its Effect on the Growth and Development of Follicles
           after Ovarian Organ Culture
    • Authors: MA Abdel‐Ghani; T Shimizu, H Suzuki
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, the expressions of VEGF in dog follicles were detected by immunohistochemistry and the effects of VEGF treatment on the primordial to primary follicle transition and on subsequent follicle progression were examined using a dog ovary organ culture system. The frozen‐thawed canine ovarian follicles within slices of ovarian cortical tissue were cultured for 7 and 14 days in presence or absence of VEGF. After culture, the ovaries were fixed, sectioned, stained and counted for morphologic analysis. The results showed that VEGF was expressed in the theca cells of antral follicles and in the granulosa cells nearest the oocyte in preantral follicle but not in granulosa cells of primordial and primary follicles; however, the VEGF protein was expressed in CL. After in vitro culture, VEGF caused a decrease in the number of primordial follicles and concomitant increase in the number of primary follicles that showed growth initiation and reached the secondary and preantral stages of development after 7 and 14 days. Follicular viability was also improved in the presence of VEGF after 7 and 14 days in culture. In conclusion, treatment with VEGF was found to promote the activation of primordial follicle development that could provide an alternative approach to stimulate early follicle development in dogs.
      PubDate: 2014-07-12T06:26:19.274522-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12357
       
  • Impact of Food Restriction on Ovarian Development, RFamide‐Related
           Peptide‐3 and the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Ovarian Axis in
           Pre‐Pubertal Ewes
    • Authors: H Li; H Song, M Huang, H Nie, Z Wang, F Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: RFamide‐related peptide‐3 (RFRP‐3), the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin‐inhibiting hormone, has been implicated as a mediator between reproduction and energy balance. This study aimed to investigate the physiological effects of RFRP‐3 on the process of ovarian development in food‐restricted pre‐pubertal ewes. The results showed that food restriction significantly inhibited the ovarian development and follicular growth. The data of qPCR in the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian (HPO) axis showed that food restriction not only upregulated RFRP‐3 mRNA expression but also downregulated the mRNA expression of gonadotropin‐releasing‐hormone receptor, follicle‐stimulating hormone receptor and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). Immunohistochemistry of RFRP‐3 in the ovaries suggested that RFRP‐3 may regulate the follicular development. These results suggested that the changes of RFRP‐3 in response to food restriction might influence the HPO axis and inhibit ovarian development.
      PubDate: 2014-07-12T06:26:17.224026-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12375
       
  • Seminal Leucocytary Profile in Beef Bulls
    • Authors: AL Zart; VCL Jurgielewicz, CE Fernandes
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Despite evidences that seminal leucocytes could affect semen quality, references for the frequency and concentration of these cells in bulls are not available. The aim of this study was to determine the normal concentration of leucocytes in beef bulls and to correlate this characteristic with semen quality. First, 57 bulls from artificial insemination centres were evaluated to obtain the normal leucocytary profile values. Next, 382 bulls were subjected to breeding soundness evaluation. The average concentration of leucocytes in bovine semen was 4.73 × 106/ml. Unsatisfactory bulls showed a higher number of leucocytes/field than that in the satisfactory ones. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the unsatisfactory bulls showed 6.5‐fold more chances of having higher leucocyte counts than satisfactory ones. Values of up to 1 leucocyte/field in the bull ejaculate are considered physiologically normal, whereas >5 leucocytes/field is associated with poor semen quality.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T06:58:31.084505-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12353
       
  • Determination of Feeder Cell‐Based Cellular Niches Supporting the
           Colonization and Maintenance of Spermatogonial Stem Cells from Prepubertal
           Domestic Cat Testes
    • Authors: NR Han; YH Park, JI Yun, HJ Park, MH Park, MS Kim, JH Choi, E Lee, SP Gong, JM Lim, ST Lee
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Recently, isolation and in vitro culture of putative spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in the domestic cat have been conducted. However, the cellular niche conditions that facilitate the establishment and long‐term maintenance of feline SSCs (FSSCs) have not been described. Therefore, we investigated the type of feeder cells used to stimulate colony formation and growth of FSSCs among the various factors in the FSSC niche. Spermatogonial stem cells isolated from feline testes were cultured on mitotically inactivated testicular stromal cells (TSCs) derived from cats, dogs and mice, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The formation and growth of colonies derived from SSCs cultured on each type of feeder cell were identified at passage 0, and the morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expression of SSC‐specific genes in surviving colonies were investigated at passage 4. Among these diverse feeder cells, TSCs from cat showed the greatest colony formation, growth and maintenance of FSSCs, and SSC colonies cultured by passage 4 showed a typical dome‐shaped morphology, AP activity and expression of SSC‐specific genes (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and CD9). Accordingly, these results demonstrate that feline TSCs could be used as feeder cells to support the establishment and maintenance of SSCs from domestic cats.
      PubDate: 2014-06-30T06:58:28.653781-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12351
       
  • Effect of Three pFSH Doses on Superovulation and Embryo Quality in Goats
           During Two Breeding Seasons in North-eastern Mexico
    • Authors: F Sánchez-Dávila; RA Ledezma-Torres, G Padilla-Rivas, AS Bosque-González, A González Gómez, H Bernal-Barragán
      Pages: e40 - e43
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of three pFSH doses (80 mg; 145 mg and 215 mg) on ovarian response and on quantity and quality of transferable embryos of goats during the breeding and the non-breeding seasons. Ovary structures were exposed (laparatomy under general anaesthesia) and numbers of follicles and corpora lutea were registered. Surgical embryo flushing was conducted to count and classify embryos. There were more follicles (3.4 ± 1.1) in does administered 80 mg of pFSH (p 
      PubDate: 2014-06-29T23:55:50.169859-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12350
       
  • Comparison of Cryoprotective Effects of Lycopene and Cysteamine in
           Different Cryoprotectants on Bull Semen and Fertility Results
    • Authors: PB Tuncer; S Büyükleblebici, A Eken, U Taşdemir, E Durmaz, O Büyükleblebici, E Çoşkun
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to compare glycerol and ethylene glycol at different concentrations as cryoprotectants and lycopene or cysteamine (with/without) as antioxidants in Tris extender for bull semen. Twenty‐four ejaculates were obtained from three bulls. Each ejaculate was split into four equal aliquots and diluted using both of the Tris extenders with glycerol (5% or 7%) or ethylene glycol (3% or 5%). After that, each extenders were split into three equal aliquots and added using both of the cysteamine 5 mm or lycopene 500 μg/ml, and control (without additives). The addition of 7% glycerol with cysteamine, 5% ethylene glycol with cysteamine and 3% ethylene glycol with cysteamine groups gave the lowest CASA motility than the other groups. However, 7% glycerol and 7% glycerol with lycopene resulted in a better rate of CASA progressive motility compared with that of other groups. Generally, all the lycopene groups signed better protective effects on acrosome and total morphology than the other groups. Glycerol 7% and 3% ethylene glycol with lycopene groups yielded to slight higher percentages of membrane integrity assessed by HOST than that of the other groups, but 7% glycerol with cysteamine and 3% ethylene glycol with cysteamine showed the worst percentages of membrane integrity. Glycerol 7% and 5% glycerol with lycopene gave rise to a higher value of VAP, VSL and VCL compared with that of the other groups. On the contrary, adding to 5% glycerol with cysteamine showed negative effect for VAP, VSL, VCL and ALH values. All cryoprotectant groups with lycopene decreased chromatin damage than the other groups. Ethylene glycol 3% led to lower non‐return rates of inseminated cows. However, this result was not considered to be statistically important.
      PubDate: 2014-06-18T06:44:03.633585-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12359
       
  • Impact of Probing the Reproductive Tract During Early Pregnancy on
           Fertility of Beef Cows
    • Authors: G Pugliesi; SC Scolari, FS Mesquita, M Maturana Filho, ER Araújo, D Cardoso, JN Sales, I Martin, M Sá Filho, CM Bertan, M Binelli
      Abstract: This short communication reports the impact of endometrial biopsies, uterine flushings and follicular fluid aspiration procedures at day 6 post artificial insemination (AI) on pregnancy rates. In Experiment 1, cows were timed AI (TAI) and assigned to the following treatment groups: control (n = 37), uterine flushing (n = 35) and endometrial biopsy (n = 38). On day 30 post AI, pregnancy rates were 40.5%, 33% and 28.5%, respectively (p > 0.1). Pregnancy rate on day 60 was lower (p  0.1). In Experiment 3, cows were, 6 days after TAI, randomly assigned to the following treatments: control (n = 84) or aspiration of the largest follicle (n = 73). Pregnancy rates on day 30 post AI were 63.5% for the control group and 53% for the aspirated group (p > 0.1). In conclusion, uterine flushing and endometrial biopsy negatively affect pregnancy rates, but neither procedure can be considered to be incompatible with pregnancy maintenance. Follicular aspiration during pregnancy does not interact with pregnancy success. The amount and quality of samples obtained are compatible with the use of cellular and molecular analysis of uterine variables from cows that failed or succeeded on maintaining pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T02:14:02.110962-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12345
       
  • Does Coxiella burnetii Affect Reproduction in Cattle? A Clinical
           Update
    • Authors: I Garcia-Ispierto; J Tutusaus, F López-Gatius
      Pages: 529 - 535
      Abstract: Q fever is a zoonosis produced by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that is widely distributed worldwide. Domestic ruminants are the most important source of C. burnetii for human infection. In sheep and goats, abortion is the main clinical consequence of infection, yet the symptoms described in cattle have so far been inconsistent. Q fever has been also scarcely reported in cattle, most likely because of its difficult diagnosis at the farm level and because of the many existing responsible C. burnetii strains. In this report, the effects of C. burnetii infection or Q fever disease on the reproductive behaviour of dairy cattle are reviewed, with special emphasis placed on the scarcity of data available and possible control actions discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-05-30T00:36:58.550649-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12333
       
  • Are Pharmacological Interventions Between Conception and Birth Effective
           in Improving Reproductive Outcomes in North American Swine'
    • Authors: JM Wessels; K Khalaj, RT Kridli, AK Edwards, M Bidarimath, C Tayade
      First page: 536
      Abstract: The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of using pharmacological compounds on reproductive outcomes, particularly litter size, in North American swine. While the opportunity to improve reproduction in North American pigs exists, numerous hurdles need to be overcome in order to achieve measureable results. In the swine industry, the majority of piglet losses are incurred during pregnancy and around farrowing. Over the last 20 years, a reduction in losses has been achieved through genetic selection and nutritional management; however, these topics are the focus of other reviews. This review will evaluate attempts to improve litter size by reducing losses at various stages of the reproductive process, from the time of conception to the time of farrowing, using pharmacological compounds. Generally, these compounds are used to either alter physiological processes related to fertilization, embryonic attachment or uterine capacity, etc., or to facilitate management aspects of the breeding females such as inducing parturition. Although some of the pharmacological agents reviewed here show some positive effects on improving reproductive parameters, the inconsistent results and associated risks usually outweigh the benefits gained. Thus, at the present time, the use of pharmacological agents to enhance reproduction in North American swine may only be recommended for herds with low fertility and presents an avenue of research that could be further explored.
      PubDate: 2014-06-19T03:18:02.688135-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12347
       
  • Apoptosis-Like Events and In Vitro Fertilization Capacity of Sex-Sorted
           Bovine Sperm
    • Authors: X-M Zhao; J-J Ren, S-J Zhao, L-S Cui, H-S Hao, H-Y Wang, W-H Du, T Qin, Y Liu, D Wang, H-B Zhu
      First page: 543
      Abstract: This study utilized three staining assays (Annexin V, mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1) and TUNEL) for flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis in sex-sorted sperm from four different bulls (A, B, C and D). Correlations between sperm quality and IVF efficiency were then assessed to determine which assay provided the best prediction of IVF efficiency. The results of the Annexin V assays, as well as measures of viable sperm, early apoptosis, necrotic sperm and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm) showed that the sex-sorted sperm collected from bull A significantly differed from those of the other three bulls (p 
      PubDate: 2014-06-04T00:05:36.486758-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12305
       
  • The Endometrium of Cycling Cows Contains Populations of Putative
           Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells
    • Authors: J Cabezas; E Lara, P Pacha, D Rojas, D Veraguas, F Saravia, L Rodríguez-Alvarez, FO Castro
      Pages: 550 - 559
      Abstract: Endometrial stem cells have been identified in humans, mice and pigs. This study was designed to determine whether the uterine endometrium of cycling cows contains such cells, to identify markers of stemness and ultimately to isolate putative stem/progenitor cell and evaluate their capability to differentiate into mesodermal derivatives. Uteri from healthy cows in the early (days 1–5) and late luteal phases (days 13–18) of the oestrous cycle were collected. Total RNA and proteins were isolated and searched for gene markers of embryonic (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2) and mesenchymal (CD44, STAT3, CD-117) stem cells and for protein markers (Oct4, Sox2, Cd44) in Western blots or immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tissue. Primary cell cultures were isolated; characterized in terms of morphology, colony formation and gene/protein expression; and induced osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. We identified expression of embryonic (OCT4 and SOX2, but not NANOG) and mesenchymal (STAT3, CD44 and c-KIT) gene markers in the endometrium of cycling cows and the encoded proteins (Oct4, Sox2 and Cd44) in both stages of the oestrous cycle. Derived cell lines displayed essentially the same gene expression pattern; however, at the protein level, Oct4 was not detected. No clear influence of the stage of the oestrous cycle was found. Cell lines from late luteal phase displayed osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential upon chemical stimulation. In this research, we demonstrated the presence of mesenchymal progenitor cell populations of apparently mesenchymal origin in the endometrium of cycling cows, in both the early and late phases of the oestrous cycle. The cells isolated from the late luteal phase were more acquiescent to differentiate into mesodermal derivatives than cells in the early luteal phase. Our findings might have implications for the understanding of uterine stem cell biology in cows and other farm animal species.
      PubDate: 2014-04-23T00:36:19.23879-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12309
       
  • Kinematics and Subpopulations’ Structure Definition of Blue Fox
           (Alopex lagopus) Sperm Motility using the ISAS® V1 CASA System
    • Authors: C Soler; A García, J Contell, J Segervall, M Sancho
      First page: 560
      Abstract: Over recent years, technological advances have brought innovation in assisted reproduction to the agriculture. Fox species are of great economical interest in some countries, but their semen characteristics have not been studied enough. To advance the knowledge of function of fox spermatozoa, five samples were obtained by masturbation, in the breeding season. Kinetic analysis was performed using ISAS® v1 system. Usual kinematic parameters (VCL, VSL, VAP, LIN, STR, WOB, ALH and BCF) were considered. To establish the standardization for the analysis of samples, the minimum number of cells to analyse and the minimum number of fields to capture were defined. In the second step, the presence of subpopulations in blue fox semen was analysed. The minimum number of cells to test was 30, because kinematic parameters remained constant along the groups of analysis. Also, the effectiveness of ISAS® D4C20 counting chamber was studied, showing that the first five squares presented equivalent results, while in the squares six and seven, the kinematic parameters showed a reduction in all of them, but not in the concentration or motility percentage. Kinematic variables were grouped into two principal components (PC). A linear movement characterized PC1, while PC2 showed an oscillatory movement. Three subpopulations were found, varying in structure among different animals.
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T00:08:53.327094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12310
       
  • The Effect of the Intracervical Application of Follicle-Stimulating
           Hormone or Luteinizing Hormone on the Pattern of Expression of
           Gonadotrophin Receptors in the Cervix of Non-Pregnant Ewes
    • Authors: S Leethongdee; M Khalid, RJ Scaramuzzi
      Pages: 568 - 575
      Abstract: During the periovulatory period, the cervix relaxes in response to changes in circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones. The present study investigated the role of gonadotrophins in cervical function by examining the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and their mRNAs following intracervical treatment with either FSH or LH. Eighteen ewes were assigned to four groups, and they were then treated with progestagen sponges and PMSG to synchronize their oestrous cycles. Intracervical treatments were given 24 h after sponge removal as follows: Group 1: FSH 2 mg; Group 2: LH 2 mg; Group 3: Vehicle and Group 4: Control. Cervices were collected 54 h after sponge removal and then divided into three regions. The expression of FSHR and LHR was determined by immunohistochemistry and FSHR mRNA and LH mRNA by in situ hybridization. The expression of LHR, FSHR and their respective mRNAs was compared in six tissue layers (luminal epithelium, subepithelial stroma, circular, longitudinal and transverse muscle and serosa) and in three cervical regions (vaginal, mid and uterine). The results showed that FSH increased transcription of the FSHR gene and the levels of its receptor, but only in subepithelial stroma of the cervix. FSH also increased the levels of LHR in the cervix, but only in the muscle layers. LH had no effect on the levels of FSHR despite the fact that it did increase the level of transcription of the FSHR gene and LH also increased the levels of its own receptor in the cervix, but only in the muscle layers, and this action was independent of increased levels of transcription of the LHR gene. These findings suggest multiple levels of regulation of cervical LH and FSH receptors and that the gonadotrophins may have a role in relaxation of the cervix during oestrus by regulating their own receptors.
      PubDate: 2014-04-23T00:36:14.810431-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12312
       
  • The Influence of Morphology, Follicle Size and Bcl-2 and Bax Transcripts
           on the Developmental Competence of Bovine Oocytes
    • Authors: THC De Bem; PR Adona, FF Bressan, LG Mesquita, MR Chiaratti, FV Meirelles, CLV Leal
      First page: 576
      Abstract: This study analysed two non-invasive oocyte selection methods in relation to in vitro embryo development capacity and expression of apoptosis-related genes. Selection was based on morphological quality of oocytes or follicle diameter. Oocytes were classified as grade I (GI ≥3 layers compact cumulus cells and homogeneous cytoplasm; grade II (GII ≤3 layers compact cells and homogeneous cytoplasm;, and grade III (GIII ≥3 layers, but cells with slight expansion and slightly granulated cytoplasm). Blastocyst development was lower for GII (28.5%) than for GIII (47.7%, p  0.05). Relative expression of Bcl-2 gene was lower in the GI (1.0, p  0.05). There was no difference (p > 0.05) between GI (1.0), GII (0.92) and GIII (0.93) regarding the Bax transcript. However, the Bax and Bcl-2 transcript ratios in GII (Bax; 0.92 and Bcl-2; 1.8) and GIII (Bax; 0.93 and Bcl-2; 2.2) were different (p  0.05). Regarding Bax and Bcl-2 expression, the oocytes were similar (p > 0.05) for 1–3 mm (Bax; 1.0 and Bcl-2; 1.0), 3–6 mm (Bax; 1.0 and Bcl-2; 0.93) and 6–9 mm (Bax; 0.92 and Bcl-2; 0.91). In conclusion, oocyte selection based on morphological appearance does not guarantee the success of embryonic development. Additionally, the absence of apoptosis is not necessarily a benefit for the development of oocytes. Bovine COCs with initial signs of atresia may be used for the in vitro production of embryos, and COCs taken from follicles>3 mm in diameter are better suited to in vitro embryo development.
      PubDate: 2014-05-30T00:37:43.778567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12325
       
  • Genetic Parameters and Breeding Values for Semen Characteristics in
           Hanoverian Stallions
    • Authors: D Labitzke; H Sieme, G Martinsson, O Distl
      First page: 584
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to show whether semen traits of 30 Hanoverian stallions regularly used in AI may be useful for breeding purposes. Semen characteristics were studied using 15 149 ejaculates from 30 Hanoverian stallions of the State Stud Celle of Lower Saxony. Semen samples were collected between 2005 and 2009. Traits analysed were gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total and motile sperm number and progressive motility. A linear multivariate animal model was employed to estimate heritabilities and permanent environmental variances for stallions. The same model was used to predict breeding values for all traits simultaneously. Heritabilities were high for gel-free volume (h2 = 0.43) and moderate for total number of sperm (h2 = 0.29) and progressive motility (h2 = 0.20). Gel-free volume, sperm concentration and total number of sperm were genetically negatively correlated with progressive motility. The effect of the permanent environment for stallions accounted for 9–55% of the trait variance. The total variance among stallions explained 37–69% of the trait variance. The average reliabilities of the breeding values were 0.43–0.76 for the 30 Hanoverian stallions. In conclusion, the study could demonstrate large effects of stallions, routinely employed in a breeding programme, on semen characteristics analysed here. We could demonstrate that estimated breeding values (EBV) with sufficient high reliabilities can be predicted using data from these stallions and these EBV are useful in horse breeding programmes to achieve genetic improvement in semen quality.
      PubDate: 2014-05-30T00:38:59.378159-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12326
       
  • Induction of Ram Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Germ Cell Lineage
           using Transforming Growth Factor-β Superfamily Growth Factors
    • Authors: M Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei; MA Sedighi-Gilani, MB Eslaminejad
      Pages: 588 - 598
      Abstract: Several studies have proposed that in vitro generation of germ cells (GCs) from stem cells can be considered a future option for infertility treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capability to differentiate into male GCs with the use of inducers such as retinoic acid. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFb1) has been shown to play important roles in male fertility and spermatogenesis. Bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and BMP8b are also involved in the derivation of primordial GCs (PGCs) from epiblast cells. Therefore, this study aims to determine whether TGFb1, BMP4 and BMP8b can initiate transdifferentiation of MSCs into GCs in vitro and to determine the type of changes that occur in the expression of GC-specific markers. In this study, we have divided passage-3 ram bone marrow (BM)-MSCs into three main groups (BMP4, BMP8b and TGFb1) which were separately treated with 10 ng/ml TGFb1, 100 ng/ml BMP4 and 100 ng/ml BMP8b for a period of 21 days. We have evaluated the ability of these groups to differentiate into GCs by assessing expressions of GC-specific markers with reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemistry, morphological changes and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Our results showed that BMP4 and BMP8b induced PGCs properties in some BM-MSCs and TGFb1 formed spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and spermatogonia-like cells in BM-MSCs culture. The important results of this study provide the basis for additional studies to determine the exact mechanism of GCs differentiation and possibly solve the problem of infertility.
      PubDate: 2014-05-30T00:07:18.649776-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12327
       
  • Improvement in In Vitro Fertilization Rate, Decrease in Reactive Oxygen
           Species and Spermatozoa Death Incidence in Rams by Dietary Fish Oil
    • Authors: A Matini Behzad; B Ebrahimi, AR Alizadeh, V Esmaeili, A Dalman, L Rashki, AH Shahverdi
      Pages: 599 - 605
      Abstract: Our aim was to evaluate the effects of fish oil feeding on sperm classical parameters, level of reactive oxygen spices (ROS), spermatozoa death incidence and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate in rams. We randomly assigned nine rams, into two experimental groups (isoenergetic and isonitrogenous rations with constant level of vitamin E supplement): control (CTR; n = 5) and fish oil (FO; n = 4, 35 g/day/ram). Diets were fed for 70 days during the physiological breeding season. After a 21-day dietary adaptation period, semen was collected weekly from each ram by an artificial vagina. Sperm classical parameters were determined by the computer-assisted sperm analyzer system (CASA), and it was prepared for IVF process by swim-up technique. These evaluations were performed during the first and last weeks of sampling. Intracellular ROS level and spermatozoa death incidence were detected by flow cytometry on a weekly basis after adaptation. Data were analysed with SPSS 15. The volume, concentration (3.6 and 2.7 × 109/ml) and sperm progressive motility (60 and 48%) were significantly improved in the FO group compared with the CTR (p 
      PubDate: 2014-05-30T00:37:42.287732-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12328
       
  • Coexistence of Tuberculosis and Mammary Carcinoma in a Goat
    • Authors: H Quintas; N Alegria, A Mendonça, A Botelho, A Alves, I Pires
      First page: 606
      Abstract: Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions.
      PubDate: 2014-05-30T00:59:04.033589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12332
       
  • The Effects of Isoflavones on Androgens and Glucocorticoids During Puberty
           on Male Wistar Rats
    • Authors: S Caceres; G Silvan, L Martinez-Fernandez, MJ Illera, P Millan, B Monsalve, L Peña, JC Illera
      First page: 611
      Abstract: Isoflavones are the most common phytoestrogens found in human diets. However, it is still not clear whether isoflavones have effects on the reproductive and the endocrine systems under normal dietary intake and overdose. The aim of this study was to determine how the most important isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, affect androgen and glucorticoid levels on male prepuberal rats. A hundred and seventy-five 30-day-old male Wistar rats were dosed orally by stomach tube every day for 35 days, with saline solution, low and high doses of genistein, daidzein and a mixture of both. Serum samples were analysed by an enzyme immunoassay for hormone determinations. In control group, there was a peak of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone levels associated to the onset of puberty, at the third week. However, in low-dose groups, the same peak was found at the fourth week (p 
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T00:57:06.826161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12335
       
  • Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) Profile of Holstein–Friesian
           Cows as Compared to Dual-Purpose and Beef Cows
    • Authors: M Shahin; M Friedrich, M Gauly, W Holtz
      First page: 618
      Abstract: Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are produced by mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells in the ruminant placenta. PAG appears in maternal blood and, from approximately 4 weeks after fertilization onward, may serve as a reliable means of diagnosing pregnancy. A range of factors are said to affect plasma PAG concentrations, such as number and sex of foetus, mass of calf and placenta, level of milk production and genetic constitution. In this study, PAG pregnancy profiles of a dual-purpose (Simmental) and two beef breeds (Uckermark and Aubrac) are compared with the profile of the specialized dairy breed Holstein–Friesian. Holstein–Friesian cows were sampled weekly; the levels of the other breeds were presented at 3-week intervals. The overall significant breed difference (p = 0.013) was founded on deviations during the initial 3 weeks of pregnancy and from 23 weeks onward. During the period critical for the detection of pregnancy, between four and 22 weeks, agreement between PAG levels of various breeds was close (p > 0.05). No significant effect of body mass of cow or calf (relative to mass of dam) was detected. These findings imply that the PAG pregnancy test may be executed uniformly irrespective of breed or type of cow, affirming the suitability of the test as a valuable asset for the cattle industry.
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T00:06:58.288508-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12336
       
  • Evaluation of Oestrous Detection in Dairy Cattle Comparing an Automated
           Activity Monitoring System to Visual Observation
    • Authors: I Michaelis; O Burfeind, W Heuwieser
      First page: 621
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate an automated activity monitoring (AAM) system for oestrous detection in dairy cows. Specifically, we set out to determine the oestrous detection efficiency and accuracy of the AAM system and to compare reproductive performance of cows detected either by AAM, by visual observation (VO) or by at least 1 of the 2 methods (EOM). A total of 1004 potential cow-periods from 348 cows were analysed. Oestrous detection rates (EDR) were calculated for 21 day (VWP+21), 42 day (VWP+42), and 63 day (VWP+63) after voluntary waiting period (VWP). Oestrous detection rate did not differ between AAM (42.1%) and VO (37.3%) during VWP+21 (p > 0.05) but was significantly higher in EOM (56.3%, p 
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T00:07:05.211489-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12337
       
  • Effect of Exposure to Heatwave During Blastocyst Formation on Reproductive
           Performance of Female Rabbits
    • Authors: F Marco-Jiménez; C Naturil-Alfonso, DS Peñaranda, E Jiménez-Trigos, FJ García-Diego, JS Vicente
      First page: 629
      Abstract: We examined the effect of female exposure to heatwave during blastocyst formation on their reproductive performance and its effect on transcriptome in blastocyst and endometrial tissue. In this study, a total of 72 rabbit does were artificially inseminated and divided into two environmental groups 2 days later: does under conventional conditions (maintained between 14–22°C, n = 29) and does heat stressed in a climatic chamber (maintained between 32–37°C, n = 43). The heat-stressed group were kept under these conditions for 3 days and returned to conventional conditions thereafter. Five days post-insemination, 48 does were slaughtered to collect blastocyst and endometrium samples. mRNA transcripts from OCT-4, VEGF, erbB3, Ifn-ɣ, HSP70 and HSP90 were analysed by qRT-PCR. At day 12 of gestation, 24 females were examined by laparoscopy to evaluate implanted embryos and at birth the total kits born and individual weights were recorded. Results revealed no gene expression changes in blastocyst and endometrial tissue under heatwave exposure. Moreover, our results demonstrated that rabbit embryos developed from 8–16 cells to blastocyst during a heatwave did not affect implantation rates, total number of kits born and foetal losses. In summary, these results demonstrate that heatwave period is not a critical point in the reproductive performance of rabbits during blastocyst formation.
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T00:07:11.36654-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12338
       
  • ATP Content, Oxidative Stress and Motility of Beluga (Huso huso) Semen:
           Effect of Short-Term Storage
    • Authors: MS Aramli
      First page: 636
      Abstract: An effective technique for short-term storage of semen is essential when processing multiple sperm samples and when semen must be transported from collection sites to hatcheries for the fertilization of ova or to laboratories for cryopreservation. In this experiment, beluga (Huso huso) sperm were used to evaluate the effects of short-term storage on several quality parameters (i.e. motility, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and oxidative stress indices). Sperm cells exhibited> 50% motility during 3 days of storage with an average total duration of sperm motility varying from 13.33 ± 5.77 to 278.33 ± 25.65 s, and no motile spermatozoa were recorded after 9 days of storage. The levels of oxidative stress indices (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl derivatives of proteins) and antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase) increased significantly after 3 days of storage. The ATP content also decreased significantly after 2 days of storage. The results of this study can be used to develop effective reproduction management and cryopreservation protocols for this endangered fish.
      PubDate: 2014-05-30T00:59:02.598107-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12339
       
  • Measurement of C-reactive protein and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite
           Concentrations in Differentiation of Canine Pyometra and Cystic
           Endometrial Hyperplasia/Mucometra
    • Authors: SO Enginler; A Ateş, B Diren Sığırcı, BH Sontaş, K Sönmez, E Karaçam, H Ekici, G Evkuran Dal, A Gürel
      First page: 641
      Abstract: Canine pyometra is a dioestrus period disease in which systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common outcome due to the response of the body to the bacterial infection. The purpose of this study was i) to differentiate canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH)/mucometra by measuring serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM) concentrations in blood and ii) to compare serum concentrations of CRP and PGFM in bitches with a pathological uterus (pyometra or CEH/mucometra) to concentrations in bitches with a healthy uterus. Mean CRP concentrations were found significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-06-03T02:05:38.040664-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12340
       
  • Systemic Immunosuppression by Methylprednisolone and Pregnancy Rates in
           Goats Undergoing the Transfer of Cloned Embryos
    • Authors: C Feltrin; CA Cooper, N Mohamad-Fauzi, VHV Rodrigues, LH Aguiar, S Gaudencio-Neto, LT Martins, CEM Calderón, AS Morais, IS Carneiro, TM Almeida, ING Silva, JL Rodrigues, EA Maga, JD Murray, AB Libório, LR Bertolini, M Bertolini
      First page: 648
      Abstract: The presence of the zona pellucida has been perceived as a requirement for the oviductal transfer of cloned embryos at early stages of development while protecting the embryo from an immune system response. We hypothesized that steroid hormone therapy could reduce a potential cellular immune response after the transfer of zona-free cloned embryos into the oviduct of recipient female goats. In Experiment 1, seven does were used to study the systemic immunosuppressant effect of the methylprednisolone administration (for 3 days) on blood cell counts. Whole blood was collected prior to treatment with methyprednisolone and then on Days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first dose of methylprednisolone for the analysis of haematological parameters. Methylprednisolone treatment significantly reduced circulating white blood cells and neutrophils in comparison with pre-treatment levels, demonstrating a systemic immunosuppressant effect. In Experiment 2, a group of 58 does were used as recipient females to study the effect of administration of methylprednisolone for 3 days on the establishment of pregnancies after the transfer of zona-free cloned embryos into the oviducts. No effects on pregnancy rates on Day 30 were observed regarding the distinct treatment groups (control vs. methylprednisolone), the source of oocytes (in vivo- vs in vitro-matured) or the presence or absence of the zona pellucida in embryos. In summary, methylprednisolone was effective at inducing a systemic immunosuppressed state in goats, but the treatment prior to embryo transfer did not affect pregnancy rates. Moreover, pregnancy rates were similar between zona-free and zona-intact goat cloned embryos.
      PubDate: 2014-06-18T06:44:05.788907-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12342
       
  • Caspase Activation, Hydrogen Peroxide Production and Akt Dephosphorylation
           Occur During Stallion Sperm Senescence
    • Authors: JM Gallardo Bolaños; C Balao da Silva, P Martín Muñoz, M Plaza Dávila, J Ezquerra, IM Aparicio, JA Tapia, C Ortega Ferrusola, FJ Peña
      First page: 657
      Abstract: To investigate the mechanisms inducing sperm death after ejaculation, stallion ejaculates were incubated in BWW media during 6 h at 37°C. At the beginning of the incubation period and after 1, 2, 4 and 6 h sperm motility and kinematics (CASA), mitochondrial membrane potential and membrane permeability and integrity were evaluated (flow cytometry). Also, at the same time intervals, active caspase 3, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion (flow cytometry) and Akt phosphorylation (flow cytometry) were evaluated. Major decreases in sperm function occurred after 6 h of incubation, although after 1 h decrease in the percentages of motile and progressive motile sperm occurred. The decrease observed in sperm functionality after 6 h of incubation was accompanied by a significant increase in the production of hydrogen peroxide and the greatest increase in caspase 3 activity. Additionally, the percentage of phosphorylated Akt reached a minimum after 6 h of incubation. These results provide evidences that sperm death during in vitro incubation is largely an apoptotic phenomena, probably stimulated by endogenous production of hydrogen peroxide and the lack of prosurvival factors maintaining Akt in a phosphorylated status. Disclosing molecular mechanisms leading to sperm death may help to develop new strategies for stallion sperm conservation.
      PubDate: 2014-06-13T02:14:12.862843-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12343
       
  • Ghrelin Accelerates In Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes
    • Authors: E Dovolou; IE Messinis, E Periquesta, K Dafopoulos, A Gutierrez-Adan, GS Amiridis
      First page: 665
      Abstract: Ghrelin, apart from its metabolic role, is nowadays considered as a basic regulator of reproductive functions of mammals, acting at central and gonadal levels. Here, we investigated for possible direct actions of ghrelin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes and for its effects on blastocyst yield and quality. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in the presence of four different concentrations of ghrelin (0, 200, 800 and 2000 pg/ml). In vitro fertilization and embryo culture were carried out in the absence of ghrelin, and blastocyst formation rates were examined on days 7, 8 and 9. In experiment 2, only the 800 pg/ml dose of ghrelin was used. Four groups of COCs were matured for 18 or 24 h (C18, Ghr18, C24 and Ghr24), and subsequently, they were examined for oocyte nuclear maturation and cumulus layer expansion; blastocysts were produced as in experiment 1. The relative mRNA abundance of various genes related to metabolism, oxidation, developmental competence and apoptosis was examined in snap-frozen cumulus cells, oocytes and day-7 blastocysts. In experiment 1, ghrelin significantly suppressed blastocyst formation rates. In experiment 2, more ghrelin-treated oocytes matured for 18 h reached MII compared with controls, while no difference was observed when maturation lasted for 24 h. At 18 and 24 h, the cumulus layer was more expanded in ghrelin-treated COCs than in the controls. The blastocyst formation rate was higher in Ghr18 (27.7 ± 2.4%) compared with Ghr24 (17.5 ± 2.4%). Differences were detected in various genes’ expression, indicating that in the presence of ghrelin, incubation of COCs for 24 h caused over-maturation (induced ageing) of oocytes, but formed blastocysts had a higher hatching rate compared with the controls. We infer that ghrelin exerts a specific and direct role on the oocyte, accelerating its maturational process.
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T00:08:51.374073-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12344
       
  • Husbandry Factors and the Resumption of Luteal Activity in Open and
           Zero-Grazed Dairy Cows in Urban and Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda
    • Authors: BM Kanyima; R Båge, DO Owiny, T Ntallaris, J Lindahl, U Magnusson, MG Nassuna-Musoke
      First page: 673
      Abstract: The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1–6 were recruited starting 15–30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10–12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into ‘normal’ ( 56 days), ‘ceased’ or ‘prolonged’ (if started
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T00:58:37.985941-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12346
       
  • An Immunohistochemical Observations on the Oviduct of the Goat
    • Authors: E Marettová; M Maretta
      First page: 679
      Abstract: The oviduct has an important role in regulating transport of gametes and fertilization. The main role in these functions has a smooth muscle cells and ciliated epithelium lining the oviduct. All functions are under the influence of hormonal and nervous system. The objective of this study was immunohistochemically to examine the following structures: lining epithelium, smooth muscle cells, elastic fibres and nerve fibres. For this purpose, the following antibodies were used: cytokeratin 18, S-100 protein, acetylated α-tubulin, smooth muscle actin, desmin and elastin. Ciliary and secretory cells of the lining epithelium were positive for cytokeratin 18 and S-100 protein. Cilia and the basal body-associated structures of ciliary cells were positive to acetylated α-tubulin. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) in mucosa and of the muscular layer were positive for α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin. High density of nerve fibres positively reacted to acetylated α-tubulin and S100 protein was present in the mucosa, muscular layer and serosa. Elastic fibres positive for elastin form a dense network at the base of the mucosal folds and in the muscle layer. A dense network of these fibres is accompanying the blood vessels. It is supposed that together with smooth muscle cells they are involved in the transport of ovum and in blood flow regulation.
      PubDate: 2014-06-06T03:35:34.969967-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12349
       
  • Forced Collapse of the Blastocoel Cavity Improves Developmental Potential
           in Cryopreserved Bovine Blastocysts by Slow-Rate Freezing and
           Vitrification
    • Authors: S-H Min; J-W Kim, Y-H Lee, S-Y Park, P-S Jeong, J-Y Yeon, H Park, K-T Chang, D-B Koo
      First page: 684
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of forced collapse of the blastocoel before slow-rate freezing and vitrification of bovine blastocysts. Cryopreservation of bovine blastocysts has been proposed as a tool to improve the feasibility of cattle production using the embryo transfer technique. However, the low efficiency of frozen–thawed embryos survival and further development is a crucial problem. In this study, bovine in vitro and in vivo blastocysts were slow-rate frozen and vitrified after forced blastocoele collapse (FBC) of the blastocyst cavity by puncturing the blastocoele with a pulled Pasteur pipet. Differences in the developmental potential of frozen–thawed blastocysts derived from FBC and non-FBC groups were found in both slow-rate freezing and vitrification. Furthermore, we found that the total cell number of blastocysts in FBC groups was increased and the index of apoptosis in FBC groups was decreased. Consistent with these results, real-time RT-PCR analysis data showed that expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL gene was significantly increased by FBC groups, whereas expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax gene was significantly decreased by FBC groups. Our results also showed that pregnancy outcomes in both slow-rate frozen and vitrified bovine in vivo blastocysts could be improved by reducing the fluid content after FBC of the blastocyst cavity. Therefore, we suggest that FBC of the blastocyst cavity with a pulled Pasteur pipet is an effective pre-treatment technique for both slow-rate freezing and vitrification of bovine blastocysts.
      PubDate: 2014-06-18T06:44:01.947897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12354
       
  • Evaluation of Cheetah and Leopard Spermatozoa Developmental Capability
           after Interspecific ICSI with Domestic Cat Oocytes
    • Authors: LN Moro; AJ Sestelo, DF Salamone
      Pages: 693 - 700
      Abstract: The ICSI procedure is potentially of great value for felids, and it has not been extensively studied in these species. The objectives of this work were to determine the best conditions for ICSI in the domestic cat (DC) to generate interspecific embryos by injecting cheetah (Ch) and leopard (Leo) spermatozoa. Firstly, DC oocytes were matured with insulin–transferrin–selenium (ITS) or without it (MM) and cultured using atmospheric (21%) or low (5%) oxygen tension after ICSI. The group ITS-5%O2 showed the highest blastocyst rate (p 
      PubDate: 2014-06-26T05:57:15.065038-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12355
       
  • Quantity of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, INF-γ, TNF-α and KC-Like
           Cytokines in Serum of Bitches With Pyometra in Different Stages of
           Oestrous Cycle and Pregnancy
    • Authors: GS Maciel; RR Uscategui, VT Almeida, MEF Oliveira, MAR Feliciano, WRR Vicente
      Pages: 701 - 704
      Abstract: The occurrence of the pyometra is most common in the first half of the dioestrus when there is decreased cellular immunity associated with increased serum concentration of progesterone in females. The aim of this study was to determine the immunological profile of bitches with pyometra, studying serum levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, KC-like and TNF-α and comparing them with those of healthy bitches in anoestrus, dioestrus and pregnant. Forty females were divided into four experimental groups: group 1 (G1): with pyometra (n = 10); group 2 (G2): bitches in the second week of gestation (n = 10); group 3 (G3): in anoestrus (n = 10); and group 4 (G4): in dioestrus (n = 10). The serum levels for IL-2, KC-like, INF-γ and TNF-α were similar for all experimental groups. The values obtained for IL-10 were found increased (p 
      PubDate: 2014-06-29T23:56:41.834647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12360
       
  • Neuroendocrine, Metabolic and Genomic Cues Signalling the Onset of Puberty
           in Females
    • Authors: CA Meza‐Herrera; A Gonzalez‐Bulnes, RT Kridli, M Mellado, CF Arechiga‐Flores, H Salinas, JM Luginbuhl
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Puberty is the result of a dynamic interaction between genetic factors and environmental cues, all of which lead to the attainment of reproductive capacity. Thus, significant changes in hormone secretion occur from the pre‐pubertal to the pubertal stage. The objective of this review is to provide an update of some endocrine, physiological, metabolic and genetic concepts involved in the establishment of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis function promoting the onset of the reproductive function during puberty. To achieve this purpose, basic aspects of the function of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis, the control of the axis by neurotransmitters and the interaction between reproductive function and metabolic status will be considered. Finally, the role of the novel kisspeptin system and the GPR54 receptor as modulators of puberty will be considered, in addition to the hierarchical expression of the main genes acting as regulators of the onset of puberty.
      PubDate: 2009-04-08T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01355.x
       
  • Comparison of Two Different Programmes of Ovulation Synchronization in the
           Treatment of Ovarian Cysts in Dairy Cows
    • Authors: N Gundling; S Drews, M Hoedemaker
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: It was the aim of this field study to evaluate two different protocols of ovulation synchronization for the treatment of ovarian cysts and their effect on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In addition, factors with a possible influence on treatment success and pregnancy outcome as well as costs per pregnancy were analysed. The study was performed with 130 German Holsteins with ovarian cysts diagnosed on days 55 to 60 postpartum. Cows belonging to group 1 (n = 65) received a modified ovsynch protocol [day 0: 0.15 mg cloprostenol (PGF) + 0.02 mg buserelin acetate (GnRH); day 14: PGF; day 16: GnRH]. Group 2 (n = 65) was treated with the conventional ovsynch protocol (day 0: GnRH; day 7: PGF; day 9: GnRH). Timed artificial insemination was performed 20 to 24 h later. Cows without ovarian cysts served as controls. Treatment success (disappearance of the ovarian cyst) after the first ovsynch cycle was higher in group 1 (66.2%) than in group 2 (23.1%, p 
      PubDate: 2009-03-11T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01342.x
       
  • Luteal Characteristics and Progesterone Production on Day 5 of the Bovine
           Oestrous Cycle
    • Authors: MP Green; GE Mann, MG Hunter
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: In this study we have examined luteal function in non‐lactating and late lactation dairy cows on day 5 of the cycle, during the period of the post‐ovulatory progesterone rise. Comparison of luteal progesterone content and in vitro synthetic capacity with circulating plasma progesterone demonstrated that circulating progesterone concentration is a function of total luteal activity rather than the activity of individual units of tissue. Incubation of luteal tissue in vitro demonstrated stimulatory activity of LH and IGF‐I, and to a greater degree IGF‐II, on luteal progesterone synthesis. Finally the study showed no effect of double ovulation on luteal function. Occurrence of double ovulation in 35% of animals was not associated with any difference in luteal function or plasma progesterone concentrations.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00836.x
       
  • Effect of Time for Mating and Gestation Length on Reproductive Efficiency
           in Dogs
    • Authors: Y Shimatsu; H Yuzawa, K Aruga, M. Nakura
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of time for mating and gestation length on reproductive efficiency in dogs. Groups of eight, six and six beagle bitches were mated with a total of three sires on days 3, 5 and 7, respectively, after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. All the bitches whelped successfully. The gestation lengths (the intervals from the LH surge to the whelping) were 65.1 ± 1.9, 65.5 ± 1.9 and 68.0 ± 1.8 days, respectively. This length of mating 7 days after the LH surge was significantly longer than that of mating 3 and 5 days after the LH surge (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00840.x
       
  • Successful Low Dose Insemination of Flow Cytometrically Sorted Ram
           Spermatozoa in Sheep
    • Authors: SP De Graaf; G Evans, WMC Maxwell, JA Downing, JK O'Brien
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The fertility of ram spermatozoa that had undergone flow cytometric sorting (MoFlo® SX) and cryopreservation was assessed after low‐dose insemination of synchronized Merino ewes. Oestrus was synchronized with progestagen‐impregnated pessaries, PMSG and GnRH treatment. Ewes (n = 360) were inseminated with 1 × 106, 5 × 106 or 15 × 106 motile sorted frozen‐thawed (S1, S5, or S15 respectively) or non‐sorted frozen‐thawed (C1, C5 or C15 respectively) spermatozoa from three rams. An additional group of ewes were inseminated with 50 × 106 motile non‐sorted frozen‐thawed spermatozoa (C50) to provide a commercial dose control. The percentage of ewes lambing after insemination was similar for C50 (24/38, 63.2%), C15 (37/54, 68.5%), S15 (38/57, 66.7%), S5 (37/56, 66.1%) and S1 (32/52, 61.5%) groups (p > 0.05), but lower for C5 (19/48, 39.6%) and C1 (19/55, 34.5%) treatments (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00837.x
       
  • Bovine Endothelial Cells Interact with Fully‐luteinized, but Not
           Luteinizing, Granulosa Cells in the mRNA Expression of Endothelin‐1
           System in Response to Prostaglandin F2α
    • Authors: K Shirasuna; S Watanabe, D Yamamoto, M Hayashi, K Nagai, A Miyamoto
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The corpus luteum (CL) undergoes regression by prostaglandin (PG)F2α from uterus and endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) plays an important role during luteolysis as a local mediator of PGF2α in the cow. Endothelial cells (EC) and luteal cells are main cell types making up the CL and their interactions are vital for CL function. We aimed to examine the relevance of interactions between EC and luteal cells on stimulation of genes which involved ET‐1 synthesis by PGF2α. We further focused the impact of maturity of luteal cells on the stimulation of the genes. To make a microenvironment which resembles the CL, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and luteinizing or fully‐luteinized granulosa cells (GC) and evaluated the effect of PGF2α on the expression for mRNA of ET‐1 system by using real‐time RT‐PCR. PGF2α stimulated the expression of preproET‐1 and endothelin converting enzyme‐1 mRNA only in the co‐cultures of BAEC with fully‐luteinized GC, but not with luteinizing GC. The data suggest that interactions between BAEC and fully‐luteinized GC enhance the capability of BAEC to produce ET‐1 in response to PGF2α. This mechanism may contribute to the local induction of luteolytic action of PGF2α which is dependent on the age/maturation of the CL.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00835.x
       
  • Ovum Pick‐up in Dairy Heifers: Does it Affect Animal
           Well‐being?
    • Authors: S Petyim; R Båge, A Madej, B Larsson
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the ovum pick‐up (OPU) technique on animal well‐being. Eight dairy heifers were subjected to 4 months of twice‐weekly OPU. The physiological response to OPU was recorded in four heifers at two sessions, at the beginning (time 1) and at the end (time 2) of the 4‐month period. Heart rates were measured and blood was analysed for cortisol, vasopressin and PG‐metabolite before, during (every 5 and 2 min), and after the OPU sessions. Reactions to each subprocedure of OPU (‘restraint’, ‘epidural’, ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’) were closely observed. In all heifers, reactions to the OPU procedures were also noted throughout the experimental period, and changes in routine behaviour, oestrous behaviour, body temperature, or other clinical traits were recorded. Subsequent to the experiment, the ovaries and tails were carefully inspected. At time 1, there was an insignificant increase in heart rate and cortisol throughout the OPU procedure. At time 2, these two parameters increased significantly, but both parameters declined to pre‐OPU levels 10 min after completion of the procedure. No significant changes were seen in vasopressin or PG‐metabolite at time 1 and time 2. Behaviourally, the heifers showed the strongest response to epidural anaesthesia, with a tendency for more intense response during the late 4‐month sessions. The response to ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’ varied among individuals independently of time. There were no changes in the routine or oestrous behaviour throughout the experiment and no signs of clinical disorders. No major pathological changes were macroscopically seen in the ovaries and tails subsequent to the 4 months of OPU. In conclusion, the heifers showed a response to OPU, mostly to administration of epidural anaesthesia. However, we demonstrated that epidural anaesthesia can be administered in a way causing less discomfort.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00833.x
       
  • Infertility in a Dog due to Proximal Cytoplasmic Droplets in the
           Ejaculate: Investigation of the Significance for Sperm Functionality In
           Vitro
    • Authors: AI Peña; M Barrio, JJ Becerra, LA Quintela, PG Herradón
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: A 4‐year‐old Basque Shepherd male dog was presented for breeding soundness evaluation after the dog failed to impregnate the three bitches he had mated. Clinical examination showed no anomaly of the reproductive system. Semen evaluation showed normal sperm count (640 × 106), 80% had progressively motile spermatozoa, and 96% had morphologically abnormal sperm of which 84% had proximal cytoplasmic droplet and 12% had proximal droplet plus other anomaly. A zona pellucida‐binding assay, using canine oocytes derived from frozen‐thawed ovaries, was performed in order to investigate the zona‐binding ability of dog spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets. For the zona pellucida‐binding assay, ovaries were thawed and minced in phosphate‐buffered saline + 0.4% bovine serum albumin, the oocytes recovered were divided into two groups of 35–40 oocytes to be, respectively, used with the infertile dog and with a control fertile dog. Spermatozoa were capacitated in Canine Capacitating Medium (CCM) at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in air for 2 h before oocyte insemination. Groups of five to six oocytes placed in 45 μl droplets of CCM were incubated for 1 h. Afterwards, 5 μl of CCM containing 25 000 spermatozoa were added to each droplet and co‐incubated for 2 h before fixation and evaluation of the complexes. After oocyte insemination, sperm motility and viability were evaluated: the sample from the infertile dog had 85% sperm motility with fast and linear progressive movement, and sperm viability of 92%. The sample from the control dog showed 40% sperm motility with fast and highly curvilinear and erratic movement, high degree of sperm agglutination and sperm viability of 32%. For the infertile dog the mean number of bound spermatozoa/oocyte was 0.33 whereas for the control dog it was 1.80. It was concluded that dog sperm with proximal cytoplasmic droplets seem to lack normal capacitating ability in vitro, and consequently, they may have reduced capacity to bind to the zona pellucida of canine oocytes.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00809.x
       
  • Early Detection of Pregnancy and Embryonic Loss in Dairy Cattle by ELISA
           Tests
    • Authors: G Gábor; F Tóth, L Ózsvári, Zs Abonyi‐Tóth, RG Sasser
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Over a 25‐month period 8118 blood samples were assayed for the presence of the serum pregnancy specific‐protein B (PSPB) and progesteron (P4) concentrations on three Hungarian large‐scale dairy farms. Pregnancy (n = 4085) was checked by BioPRYN assay at 30–36 days post‐insemination (PI). Samples from all cows that tested not pregnant and from cows with an optical density (OD) reading in the BioPRYN test that was between 0% and 30% above the cutoff OD value were tested for serum P4 concentration. According to serum P4 concentration, cows were assigned to three categories: high (>4 ng/ml), medium (2–4 ng/ml) and low (
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00834.x
       
  • Distribution of Spermatozoa and Embryos in the Female Reproductive Tract
           after Unilateral Deep Intra Uterine Insemination in the Pig
    • Authors: P Tummaruk; P Sumransap, M Techakumphu, A Kunavongkrit
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The present study was performed to investigate the number of either the spermatozoa or the embryos in the reproductive tracts of sows after unilateral, deep, intra uterine insemination (DIUI). Two experiments were conducted, 10 sows were used in experiment I and eight sows were used in experiment II. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to examine the time when ovulation took place in relation to oestrus behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen 6–8 h prior to expected ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. In experimental I, five sows were inseminated by a conventional artificial insemination (AI) technique using 100 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 3000 × 106 motile spermatozoa and five sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique with 5 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized and ovario‐hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the uterine horns on each side of the reproductive tracts were divided into seven segments, namely ampulla, cranial isthmus, caudal isthmus, utero‐tubal junction (UTJ), cranial uterine horn, middle uterine horn and caudal uterine horn. Each segment of the reproductive tracts was flushed with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) through the lumen. The total number of spermatozoa in the flushing from each segment were determined. In experimental II, eight sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique using 5.0 ml diluted fresh semen containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized 61.1 ± 12 h after insemination (48–72 h) and the embryos were flushed from the oviduct through the proximal part of the uterine horn. It was revealed that, in experimental I, the spermatozoa were recovered from both sides of the reproductive tract in the AI‐group, and from unilateral side of the reproductive tract in the DIUI‐group (three sows from the left and two sows from the right sides). The number of spermatozoa recovered from the reproductive tracts was higher in the AI‐ than the DIUI‐group (p 
      PubDate: 2007-06-15T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00830.x
       
 
 
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