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        1 2     

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 170 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (1 follower)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (1 follower)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (7 followers)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (15 followers)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (128 followers)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Animals     Open Access   (5 followers)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (1 follower)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (1 follower)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (1 follower)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (1 follower)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (5 followers)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (5 followers)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (3 followers)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (2 followers)
Companion Animal     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Continental Journal of Animal and Veterinary Research     Open Access   (3 followers)
Continental Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (3 followers)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (1 follower)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (5 followers)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (4 followers)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (3 followers)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (1 follower)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (2 followers)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access   (5 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (19 followers)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (8 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access  
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Hybrid Journal  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (3 followers)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (2 followers)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (2 followers)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (2 followers)

        1 2     

Reproduction in Domestic Animals    [3 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0936-6768 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0531
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1594 journals]   [SJR: 0.562]   [H-I: 35]
  • Use of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin to Control Reproduction of the Dairy
           Cow: A Review
    • Authors: F De Rensis; F López‐Gatius
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a member of the glycoprotein family of hormones along with LH, FSH and thyroid‐stimulating hormone. In non‐equid species, eCG shows high LH‐ and FSH‐like activities and has a high affinity for both FSH and LH receptors in the ovaries. On the granulosa and thecal cells of the follicle, eCG has long‐lasting LH‐ and FSH‐like effects that stimulate oestradiol and progesterone secretion. Thus, eCG administration in dairy cattle results in fewer atretic follicles, the recruitment of more small follicles showing an elevated growth rate, the sustained growth of medium and large follicles and improved development of the dominant and pre‐ovulatory follicle. In consequence, the quality of the ensuing CL is improved, and thereby progesterone secretion increased. Based on these characteristics, eCG treatment is utilized in veterinary medicine to control the reproductive activity of the cow by i) improving reproductive performance during early post‐partum stages; ii) increasing ovulation and pregnancy rates in non‐cyclic cows; iii) improving the conception rate in cows showing delayed ovulation; and finally, iv) eCG is currently included in protocols for fixed‐time artificial insemination since after inducing the synchrony of ovulation using a progesterone‐releasing device, eCG has beneficial effects on embryo development and survival. The above effects are not always observed in cyclic animals, but they are evident in animals in which LH secretion and ovarian activity are reduced or compromised, for instance, during the early post‐partum period, under seasonal heat stress, in anoestrus animals or in animals with a low body condition score.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23T07:36:41.723874-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12268
       
  • Gamma Interferon Production and Plasma Concentrations of
           Pregnancy‐Associated Glycoproteins 1 and 2 in Gestating Dairy Cows
           Naturally Infected With Neospora caninum
    • Authors: B Serrano‐Pérez; I Garcia‐Ispierto, NM Sousa, JF Beckers, S Almería, F López‐Gatius
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Gamma interferon (IFN‐γ) production and cross‐breed pregnancy have been attributed a role in protecting dairy cows infected with Neospora caninum against abortion. Plasma levels of pregnancy‐associated glycoproteins‐1 (PAG‐1) are a marker of placental/foetal well‐being and of PAG‐2 is an abortion risk indicator in chronically N. caninum‐infected animals. The present study examines, in cross‐breed pregnancies, interactions between IFN‐γ production and levels of PAG‐1 and PAG‐2 in non‐aborting naturally Neospora‐infected dairy cows. Data were obtained from 60 pregnant Holstein‐Friesian cows: 44 Neospora‐seropositive and 16 Neospora‐seronegative; 12 became pregnant using Holstein‐Friesian semen and 48 using Limousin semen. Blood samples were collected on Days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of gestation. Gamma interferon was only detected in the plasma of nine of the 44 Neospora‐seropositive cows, all of them became pregnant using Limousin semen. Through GLM procedures, in cows inseminated with Limousin semen and Neospora‐seropositive cows showing no IFN‐γ production, PAG‐1 concentrations were high and increased throughout gestation compared to the levels detected in cows inseminated with Holstein‐Friesian semen and Neospora‐seropositive cows producing IFN‐γ, respectively. In Neospora‐seronegative cows and in Neospora‐seropositive cows showing no IFN‐γ production, significantly increased PAG‐2 concentrations were observed on gestation Day 120. Our findings indicate that IFN‐γ production correlates negatively and the production of antibodies against N. caninum is uncorrelated with plasma PAG concentrations during gestation in Neospora‐infected dairy cows. Accordingly, IFN‐γ production could be linked to the transplacental migration of tachyzoites, which may cause a reduction in PAG levels.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23T07:36:25.906366-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12267
       
  • Comparison of In Vitro Developmental Competence of Cloned Caprine Embryos
           Using Donor Karyoplasts from Adult Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells vs
           Ear Fibroblast Cells
    • Authors: PJ Kwong; HY Nam, WE Wan Khadijah, T Kamarul, RB Abdullah
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to produce cloned caprine embryos using either caprine bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or ear fibroblast cells (EFCs) as donor karyoplasts. Caprine MSCs were isolated from male Boer goats of an average age of 1.5 years. To determine the pluripotency of MSCs, the cells were induced to differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Subsequently, MSCs were characterized through cell surface antigen profiles using specific markers, prior to their use as donor karyoplasts for nuclear transfer. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in fusion rates was observed between MSCs (87.7%) and EFCs (91.3%) used as donor karyoplasts. The cleavage rate of cloned embryos derived with MSCs (87.0%) was similar (p > 0.05) to those cloned using EFCs (84.4%). However, the in vitro development of MSCs‐derived cloned embryos (25.3%) to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-01-23T07:35:51.938301-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12262
       
  • Colloid Centrifugation Selects Normal Spermatozoa from Polymorphic Bull
           Ejaculates: A Case Study
    • Authors: JM Morrell; H Rodriguez‐Martinez, M Andersson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Semen from a Western Finncattle bull exhibiting a highly polymorphic spermiogram was processed by colloid centrifugation using Androcoll‐B, a species‐specific silane‐coated silica colloid. In the first experiment, Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) was used to identify which density colloids were needed to separate different cell populations. Colloids of the two chosen densities were then used in a density gradient resulting in two sperm subpopulations, one containing nearly all normally sized spermatozoa and the other enriched for the macrocephalic spermatozoa. Microcephalic spermatozoa did not appear in either of the selected subpopulations. Using a combination of SLC and DGC with this species‐specific colloid, it was possible to separate the spermatozoa into different subpopulations, that is, a subpopulation containing nearly all normally sized spermatozoa, and another one enriched for the macrocephalic spermatozoa. Thus, colloid centrifugation could be used to select sufficient normal spermatozoa from a highly polymorphic ejaculate for AI, if desired.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23T07:33:17.183443-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12269
       
  • Antral Follicle Populations and Embryo Production – In Vitro and In
           Vivo – of Bos indicus–taurus Donors from Weaning to Yearling
           Ages
    • Authors: KC Silva‐Santos; GMG Santos, C Koetz Júnior, F Morotti, LS Siloto, TN Marcantonio, MR Urbano, RL Oliveira, DCM Lima, MM Seneda
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Interest in indicus–taurus cattle has been increasing, as these animals are likely to present the best characteristics of Zebu and European bovine breeds. The aim of this study was to compare the embryo production of indicus–taurus donors with high vs low antral follicle counts obtained by ovum pickup/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) and superovulation (SOV)/embryo collection. Braford females at weaning age (3/8 Nelore × 5/8 Hereford, n = 137, 9 ± 1 month old) were subjected to six serial ovarian ultrasonographs and were assigned to two groups according to the number of antral follicles ≥3 mm as follows: G‐High antral follicular count (AFC, n = 20, mean ≥40 follicles) and G‐Low AFC (n = 20, mean ≤10 follicles). When the females (n = 40) reached 24 months of age, they were subjected to both OPU/IVP and SOV/embryo collection. The average number of follicles remained highly stable throughout all of the ultrasound evaluations (range 0.90–0.92). The mean number of COCs recovered (36.90 ± 13.68 vs 5.80 ± 3.40) was higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-01-23T07:33:11.934464-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12255
       
  • Profile of Bovine Proteins in Retained and Normally Expelled Placenta in
           Dairy Cows
    • Authors: M Kankofer; J Wawrzykowski, M Hoedemaker
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Tissue‐specific protein profile is determined by its function, structure, intensity of metabolism and usefulness. This profile remains under hormonal control. Any disturbance in the general metabolism may be reflected in changes in both protein quantity and quality. These changes can be of low or high specificity, and some can be used as clinical markers of pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the protein profile of caruncle and foetal villi of bovine placenta that was either properly released or retained. Placental tissues were collected from healthy cows, divided into releasing and retaining foetal membranes, homogenized and subjected to 1D and 2D electrophoresis. Computer‐aided analysis of gel images showed essential qualitative and quantitative alterations in protein profile between tissues that were properly released and retained. Alterations concerned both the number of fractions and spots as well as the intensity of staining. This preliminary study provides a general overview of the differences in the protein profile between released and retained foetal membranes. It may allow for selecting the group of proteins or single molecules, which should be further analysed in detail as possible markers differentiating the retention of foetal membranes in cows from placentas that were released spontaneously. The continuation of the study for the identification of particular spots detected in 2D gels is necessary.
      PubDate: 2013-12-11T06:23:14.822812-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12266
       
  • Ultrasonographic Characterization of Follicle Deviation in Follicular
           Waves with Single Dominant and Codominant Follicles in Dromedary Camels
           (Camelus dromedarius)
    • Authors: BM Manjunatha; S Al‐Bulushi, N Pratap
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Follicular wave emergence was synchronized by treating camels with GnRH when a dominant follicle (DF) was present in the ovaries. Animals were scanned twice a day from day 0 (day of GnRH treatment) to day 10, to characterize emergence and deviation of follicles during the development of the follicular wave. Follicle deviation in individual animals was determined by graphical method. Single DFs were found in 16, double DFs in 9 and triple DFs in two camels. The incidence of codominant (double and triple DFs) follicles was 41%. The interval from GnRH treatment to wave emergence, wave emergence to deviation, diameter and growth rate of F1 follicle before or after deviation did not differ between the animals with single and double DFs. The size difference between future DF(s) and the largest subordinate follicle (SF) was apparent from the day of wave emergence in single and double DFs. Overall, interval from GnRH treatment to wave emergence and wave emergence to the beginning of follicle deviation was 70.6 ± 1.4 and 58.6 ± 2.7 h, respectively. Mean size of the DF and largest SF at the beginning of deviation was 7.4 ± 0.2 and 6.3 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the characteristics of follicle deviation are similar between the animals that developed single or double DFs.
      PubDate: 2013-12-11T06:21:20.187968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12260
       
  • Development of a Multiplex PCR for the Identification of Major Pathogenic
           Bacteria of Post‐Partum Endometritis in Dairy Cows
    • Authors: SM Aghamiri; M Haghkhah, MR Ahmadi, HR Gheisari
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Post‐partum period has an important role in cows' breeding due to its effects on reproductive efficiency and subsequent pregnancy. Escherichia coli, Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes), Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus are recognized as major pathogens associated with uterine endometrial lesions. The objective of this study was to identify these pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a culture‐independent sensitive method. A total of 172 cows were examined 25–35 days post‐partum, and 128 cows were examined at 2 weeks later (39–49 days post‐partum). Uterine discharges were collected by covered plastic infusion pipettes. The prevalence of endometritis was greater in the first examination than the second (35.5% vs. 16%). E. coli was detected in eight of the samples, T. pyogenes was detected in 13 of the samples and F. necrophorum was detected in 11 of the samples. There was no positive sample of P. melaninogenicus. Uterine contamination by T. pyogenes and F. necrophorum in the first examination was higher than the second examination. T. pyogenes affected as a tendency the prevalence of clinical endometritis in first examination. Primiparous cows showed 4.02 times higher odds of clinical endometritis compared with second‐parity cows in first examination. A multiplex PCR protocol as a simple, less expensive, fast assay was introduced to identify E. coli, T. pyogenes and F. necrophorum.
      PubDate: 2013-12-11T06:21:18.332709-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12259
       
  • Effects of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein
           15 on the in vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes
    • Authors: Z‐L Lin; Y‐H Li, Y‐N Xu, Q‐L Wang, S Namgoong, X‐S Cui, N‐H Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are members of the transforming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) family, and their roles in oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion are well known in the mouse and human, but not in the pig. We investigated GDF9 and BMP15 expressions in porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation. A significant increase in the mRNA levels of GDF9 and BMP15 was observed at germinal vesicle breakdown, with expression levels peaking at metaphase I (MI), but decreasing at metaphase II (MII). GDF9 and BMP15 protein localized to the oocyte cytoplasm. While treatment with GDF9 and BMP15 increased the expression of genes involved in both oocyte maturation (c‐mos, cyclinb1 and cdc2) and cumulus expansion (has2, ptgs2, ptx3 and tnfaip6), SB431542 (a TGFβ–GDF9 inhibitor) decreased meiotic maturation at MII. Following parthenogenetic activation, the percentage of blastocysts in SB431542 treatment was lower than in the control (41.3% and 74.4%, respectively). Treatment with GDF9 and BMP15 also increased the mRNA levels of maternal genes such as c‐mos [a regulatory subunit of mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK)], and cyclinb1 and cdc2 [regulatory subunits of maturation/M‐phase‐promoting factor (MPF)]; however, SB431542 significantly decreased their mRNA levels. These data were supported by poly (A)‐test PCR and protein activity analyses. Our results show that GDF9 and BMP15 participate in cumulus expansion and that they stimulate MPF and MAPK activities in porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation.
      PubDate: 2013-12-09T00:21:15.228891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12254
       
  • In vitro Maturation of Oocytes from Santa Ines Ewes Subjected to
           Consecutive Sessions of Follicular Aspiration by Laparoscopy
    • Authors: LC Padilha; PPM Teixeira, EA Pires‐Buttler, M Apparício, TF Motheo, PAP Savi, EYO Nakaghi, AE Alves, WRR Vicente
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The success of embryo production in vitro depends upon the use of an efficient oocyte retrieval technique, and the best results have been obtained by laparoscopic aspiration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of consecutive sessions of follicular aspiration on the quantity, quality and in vitro maturation competence of oocytes obtained from ewes subjected to hormonal stimulation. Six Santa Ines ewes underwent nine sessions of follicular aspiration by laparoscopy with a 7‐day interval between sessions, totalling 56 aspirations. After 24 h of culture, oocytes were stained and classified according to the stage of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Oocyte retrieval rate was 61.4 ± 2%, resulting in a total of 249 oocytes. No significant variation was observed between sessions (p > 0.05). The average number of oocytes retrieved from each ewe was 6.4 ± 2 per session and 42 ± 4 in total. No significant difference was observed between the frequencies of the different stages of nuclear maturation: 32.72% mature, 40.74% immature and 26.54% degenerated/indeterminate oocytes; however, a significant difference was observed between the frequencies of the different stages of cytoplasmic maturation: 10.7% mature, 73.25% immature and 16.05% degenerated/indeterminate oocytes. No significant difference was observed in nuclear or cytoplasmic maturation between the weeks of procedure. We conclude that after nine consecutive sessions of follicular aspiration, the quantity and quality of retrieved oocytes remained unchanged as well as the levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation obtained, demonstrating the viability of this technique for repetitive follicular aspirations on the same donor.
      PubDate: 2013-12-09T00:20:13.121171-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12261
       
  • The Influence of Ovarian Stromal/Theca Cells During In Vitro Culture on
           Steroidogenesis, Proliferation and Apoptosis of Granulosa Cells Derived
           from the Goat Ovary
    • Authors: M Qiu; J Liu, C Han, B Wu, Z Yang, F Su, F Quan, Y Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Early follicular development is closely related to oocyte‐granulosa cells‐ovarian stromal cells/theca cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ovarian cortical, medullary stromal and theca cells on oestradiol and progesterone biosynthesis, proliferation and apoptosis of goat ovary granulosa cells in vitro. Using Transwell coculture system, we evaluated steroidogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and some molecular expressions regarding steroidogenic enzyme, luteinizing hormone receptor and apoptosis‐related genes in granulosa cells. The results indicated that ovarian stromal/theca cells were able to stimulate oestradiol and progesterone production, promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of granulosa cells. Among all the three kinds of cells, theca cells affected strongly on granulosa cell function, and ovarian medullary stromal cells had the weakest effect on granulosa cells. These findings would provide an important knowledge of cell interaction among follicular cells during follicular development.
      PubDate: 2013-11-21T03:13:39.80113-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12256
       
  • Impact of Ultra‐Rapid Freezing on the Motility, Morphology,
           Viability and Acrosome Integrity of Epididymal Cat Sperm Diluted in
           Sucrose‐Based Extenders
    • Authors: G Vizuete; E Jiménez, EI Agüera, CC Pérez‐Marín
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of different sucrose‐based extenders on the motility, morphology, viability and acrosomal integrity of epididymal cat spermatozoa cryopreserved by ultra‐rapid freezing method. Nine cats were castrated, and collected semen was diluted 1 : 1 with Dulbecco`s phosphate‐buffered saline‐BSA1%‐based extender supplemented with different sucrose concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.4 and 0.6 m). After ultra‐rapid freezing, samples were thawed and sperm motility, morphology, viability and acrosome status were assessed. At thawing, the number of progressively motile (p 
      PubDate: 2013-11-21T03:13:35.919842-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12253
       
  • Does a Boar's Season of Birth Determine Semen Parameters and Reproductive
           Performance?
    • Authors: D Knecht; S Środoń, K Duziński
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This article studies the effect of a boar's birth season and breed on semen parameters and its further reproductive performance. Research material consisted of 72 boars from three breeds (24 Polish Large White PLW, 24 Polish Landrace PL, 24 Duroc × Pietrain D×P). During the whole period of the study, selected semen parameters were analysed: semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, total number of motile spermatozoa, number of insemination doses and also reproductive indicators: farrowing rate, total born litter size, total number of piglets born live and still, and average piglet weight. Boars born in the winter and summer months demonstrated the highest spermatozoa concentrations (383.25 and 392.37 × 106/ml), total number of spermatozoa (91.75 and 93.21 × 109), total number of motile spermatozoa (76.10 and 77.99 × 109) and number of insemination doses (24.53 and 24.89; p ≤0.01). Statistically lower values for these parameters were observed for boars born in the spring and especially in autumn (p ≤0.01). The significant impact of birth season on farrowing rate (p ≤ 0.05) and average piglet weight (p ≤ 0.05) was confirmed for PLW boars. For the PL breed, only the total number of piglets born live was proven to be significantly affected (p ≤ 0.05). No impact of birth season was shown on semen quality or reproductive performance for D×P boars. In our study, we showed that the birth season of a boar had a more impact on the level of semen parameters, and less on the reproductive performance indicators. The results indicated that both the quality of semen and reproductive performance varied in terms of the study factors, as well as between individual breeds of boars involved in the experiment.
      PubDate: 2013-11-18T06:15:09.075261-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12258
       
  • Use of Contrast‐Enhanced Ultrasonography in Chronic Pathologic
           Canine Testes
    • Authors: A Volta; S Manfredi, M Vignoli, M Russo, GCW England, F Rossi, E Bigliardi, F Di Ianni, E Parmigiani, C Bresciani, G Gnudi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Contrast‐enhanced ultrasound with sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles was performed in seven healthy dogs without a history of reproductive pathology and with histologically confirmed normal testes and in 42 dogs with chronic scrotal anomalies. All dogs underwent orchiectomy and histological examination. Enhancement patterns and perfusion parameters (peak intensity and regional blood flow) of testes of healthy dogs and testes with chronic lesions were compared. Fourteen non‐pathologic and 60 pathologic testes were considered. Forty testes were neoplastic (24 interstitial cell tumours, 9 seminomas, 7 Sertoli cell tumours), 20 were non‐neoplastic (16 testicular degenerations, 2 chronic orchitis, 1 testicular atrophy, 1 interstitial cell hyperplasia). In healthy dogs, the contrast medium flow had a rapid homogeneous wash‐in and wash‐out, with a short peak phase. With contrast ultrasound, testes that were inhomogeneous with a hyperenhancing pattern were associated with neoplasia (sensitivity: 87.5%, specificity: 100%). Lesions with persistent inner vessels and a hypo‐to‐isoechoic background were significantly associated with seminomas (sensitivity: 77.8%, specificity: 100%). Testes with non‐neoplastic lesions were characterized by a scant/moderate homogeneous enhancement. Perfusion parameters were higher in neoplastic lesions. Contrast ultrasound was a feasible diagnostic tool in the assessment of testicular lesions, with hyperenhancement being an important feature in the diagnosis of malignancy.
      PubDate: 2013-11-18T06:10:18.739052-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12250
       
  • Optimization Protocol for Storage of Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Embryos
           in Chilled State
    • Authors: F Shaluei; MR Imanpoor, A Shabani, MH Nasr‐Esfahani
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A series of five experiments were conducted to explore suitable conditions for storing of goldfish embryos in a chilled state. The factors studied were embryo stage, storage temperature, physiological saline solutions and goldfish artificial coelomic fluid (GFACF) medium, antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C), buffer (Hepes, Tris) and BSA (bovine serum albumin). First, goldfish embryos at eight developmental stages were incubated in aerated and dechlorinated tap water at 0°C for 24 h. Result shows that early developmental stages were most sensitive to chilling. Heartbeat‐stage goldfish embryos were chilled at 0, 4 or 8°C for up to 72 h in water, and chilled storage was possible only for up to 18, 24 and 48 h at 0, 4 and 8°C, respectively, without a decrease in viability. Chilling of goldfish embryos at 8°C in GFACF medium and Dettlaff's solution instead of water and other physiological saline solutions prolonged their viability (p 
      PubDate: 2013-11-18T06:07:52.225905-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12251
       
  • Risk of Transmission of Bovine Herpesvirus‐1 (BHV‐1) by
           Infected Semen to Embryo Recipients and Offspring
    • Authors: A Bielanski; J Algire, A Lalonde, A Garceac
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Infection with bovine herpesvirus‐1 (BHV‐1), also called infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis virus, is associated with a variety of respiratory, neurological and infertility health problems causing worldwide economic losses and trading restrictions to the livestock industry. Although there is a considerable amount of information about the risk of BHV‐1 transmission through contaminated semen used for artificial insemination, there is no available evidence to indicate whether the resulting embryos, when used for embryo transfer (ET), can lead to the transmission of BHV‐1 to recipients and offspring. For this study, cryopreserved bull semen contaminated with BHV‐1 was used for artificial insemination (AI) of seronegative, superovulated heifers (N = 43). Embryos were collected post‐mortem at 7 days post‐insemination and were washed according to the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) guidelines. BHV‐1 was detected in all samples of follicular fluid, oviductal epithelial cells, endometrium and corpora lutea tissues and a proportion of unwashed (52 of 120, 43%) and washed oocytes and embryos (7 of 113, 6%) collected from embryo donors. Of the 396 collected, unfertilized oocytes and embryos, only 29 (7%) were of ET quality. Most of the embryos and oocytes were degenerated (N = 224, 57%) or unfertilized (N = 143, 36%). The 13 heifers, which each received a single morula‐stage washed embryo, maintained seronegative status, but only two (15%) became pregnant and delivered BHV‐1‐free calves. In conclusion, results suggest that embryos fertilized with BHV‐1‐contaminated semen may not result in disease transmission to embryo recipients or their offspring when embryos are processed according to IETS and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines. However, due to the transmission of BHV‐1 via AI to embryo donors and the apparent adverse effect of BHV‐1 on the quality of the embryos, it is unlikely that the procedure can be justified for a commercial application.
      PubDate: 2013-11-08T06:46:59.443129-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12249
       
  • Use of Eggs Derived From the Interspecific Charr Hybrids to Induce
           Androgenetic Development of the Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis
           Mitchill 1814)
    • Authors: O Michalik; S Dobosz, I Wójcik, T Zalewski, K Ocalewicz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Although, brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill 1814) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus Linnaeus 1758) are able to cross and give fertile offspring, their androgenetic nucleocytoplasmic hybrids are not viable. To overcome incompatibility between the egg cytoplasm of one charr species and the sperm nucleus of another charr species, application of F1 interspecific hybrids as egg donors for the purpose of androgenesis has been proposed. Here, androgenetic development of the brook charr was successfully induced in the brook charr eggs and the eggs derived from the reciprocal brook charr × Arctic charr F1 hybrids. A working androgenesis protocol included inactivation of the maternal nuclear DNA achieved by irradiation of the eggs with 420 Gy of X‐rays, insemination of such treated eggs with the haploid sperm cells and exposition of the haploid androgenetic zygotes to the high hydrostatic pressure shock (51 711 MPa for 4 min) applied 420 min after insemination. Androgenetic larvae that hatched from the brook charr and the hybrid eggs were shown to be homozygous brook charr individuals. Androgenetic individuals exhibited 84 chromosomes and 100 chromosome arms (FN), values characteristic for the brook charr diploid cells. Strategy hybridize first than induce androgenesis should be tested in order to provide androgenetic offspring in other salmonids that are able to cross and produce fertile offspring.
      PubDate: 2013-11-06T02:44:57.278696-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12248
       
  • Enrichment of Y‐Chromosome‐Bearing Bull Spermatozoa by
           Swim‐up Through a Column
    • Authors: A Azizeddin; FA Ashkar, WA King, T Revay
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: With the advancement of assisted reproductive biotechnologies, preselecting the sex of offspring has become an important goal for cattle and other livestock breeding as well as for research. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of producing enriched pools of X‐ or Y‐chromosome‐bearing sperm by vertical swim‐up through a long, narrow column. Sperm recovered from the top portion of the column was predominantly Y‐bearing (60%, p 
      PubDate: 2013-11-06T02:44:42.071148-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12252
       
  • Effect of Short‐Term Scrotal Hyperthermia on Spermatological
           Parameters, Testicular Blood Flow and Gonadal Tissue in Dogs
    • Authors: H Henning; C Masal, A Herr, K Wolf, C Urhausen, A Beineke, M Beyerbach, S Kramer, A‐R Günzel‐Apel
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective was to assess the effect of a short‐term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs on quantitative and qualitative ejaculate parameters, testicular blood flow and testicular and epididymal histology. After a control period, the scrotum of seven normospermic adult beagle dogs was insulated with a self‐made suspensory for 48 h. Nine weeks later, two animals were castrated, while in five animals, scrotal hyperthermia was repeated. Dogs were castrated either 10 or 40 days thereafter. In each phase of scrotal insulation, average scrotal surface temperature increased by 3.0°C. Semen was collected twice weekly throughout the experiment. Total sperm count did not change after the first hyperthermia, but it slightly decreased after the second (p  0.05). Histological examination of excised testes and epididymides for apoptotic (TUNEL and activated caspase‐3) and proliferating cells (Ki‐67 antigen) indicated only marginal effects of scrotal insulation on tissue morphology. In conclusion, a mild short‐term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs does not cause substantial changes in sperm quantity and quality. In contrast to other species, canine testes and epididymides may have a higher competence to compensate such thermal stress.
      PubDate: 2013-11-06T02:19:08.535758-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12244
       
  • Correlation of Blood Flow of the Preovulatory Follicle to its Diameter and
           Endocrine Profile in Dairy Buffalo
    • Authors: EE Varughese; PS Brar, M Honparkhe, SPS Ghuman
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Blood flow of the preovulatory follicle (POF) wall can be used as a predictor of the quality of POF. Our aim was to determine the correlation of blood flow of POF with the POF diameter, and intra‐follicular and plasma concentrations of Insulin‐like Growth Factor‐I (IGF‐1) and oestradiol in dairy buffalo. Nine Murrah buffalo subjected to an ovulation synchronization protocol (Ovsynch) were assessed on day 10 of the protocol for diameter and blood flow of POF, followed by the aspiration of follicle fluid. Prior to follicular aspiration, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein for estimation of IGF‐1 and oestradiol. The vascularity of POF was determined (Range: 250–967 pixel2) along with intra‐follicular and plasma concentration of IGF‐1 (Range: 9.3–31.8 ng/ml and 14.7–29.7 ng/ml respectively) and oestradiol (Range: 124.2–447.9 ng/ml and 0.25–1.05 ng/ml respectively). Diameter of the POF was weakly correlated (r = 0.21, p 
      PubDate: 2013-11-05T03:42:41.874625-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12242
       
  • The Construction of Cloned Sika Deer Embryos (Cervus nippon hortulorum) by
           Demecolcine Auxiliary Enucleation
    • Authors: Y Yin; M Mei, D Zhang, S Zhang, A Fan, H Zhou, Z Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of our study was to establish the feasibility of experimental protocols for cloning sika deer. We performed auxiliary enucleation to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer operation by optimizing the demecolcine concentration to induce cytoplasmic protrusions in the sika deer oocytes. In the present study,we had studied the impact of different demecolcine concentrations on cytoplasmic protrusions and enucleation rates. We determined that 95.9% of the sika deer oocytes formed cytoplasmic protrusions when treated for 1 h with 0.8 μg/ml demecolcine. The lowest observed rate of protrusion was 19.3% after overnight treatment with demecolcine. When the oocytes aged or had a poor cumulus expansion, they exhibited a significant decrease in the ability to form cytoplasmic protrusions. The rates of enucleation (94.9% vs 85.8%, p 
      PubDate: 2013-10-21T03:09:10.927863-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12246
       
  • Influence of Substituting Dietary Soybean for Air‐Classified
           Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Meal on Egg Production and Steroid
           Hormones in Early‐Phase Laying Hens
    • Authors: V Laudadio; E Ceci, SN Nahashon, M Introna, NMB Lastella, V Tufarelli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least‐cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air‐classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20‐week‐old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings‐based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air‐classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air‐classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p 
      PubDate: 2013-10-18T05:52:37.662583-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12245
       
  • The Effects of Hoechst 33342 Staining and the Male Sample Donor on the
           Sorting Efficiency of Canine Spermatozoa
    • Authors: C Rodenas; X Lucas, T Tarantini, D Del Olmo, J Roca, JM Vazquez, EA Martinez, I Parrilla
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Hoechst 33342 (H‐42) concentration and of the male donor on the efficiency of sex‐sorting procedure in canine spermatozoa. Semen samples from six dogs (three ejaculates/dog) were diluted to 100 × 106 sperm/ml, split into four aliquots, stained with increasing H‐42 concentrations (5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 μl, respectively) and sorted by flow cytometry. The rates of non‐viable (FDA+), oriented (OS) and selected spermatozoa (SS), as well as the average sorting rates (SR, sorted spermatozoa/s), were used to determine the sorting efficiency. The effects of the sorting procedure on the quality of sorted spermatozoa were evaluated in terms of total motility (TM), percentage of viable spermatozoa (spermatozoa with membrane and acrosomal integrity) and percentage of spermatozoa with reacted/damaged acrosomes. X‐ and Y‐chromosome‐bearing sperm populations were identified in all of the samples stained with 7.5, 10 and 12.5 μl of H‐42, while these two populations were only identified in 77.5% of samples stained with 5 μl. The values of OS, SS and SR were influenced by the male donor (p 
      PubDate: 2013-10-01T03:44:25.121807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12238
       
  • A Systematic Review of Studies Performing the Hypo‐Osmotic Swelling
           Test to Evaluate the Quality of Canine Spermatozoa
    • Authors: S Karger; S Arlt, P Haimerl, W Heuwieser
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: The hypo‐osmotic swelling test (HOS test) is a simple and inexpensive test to evaluate the functional integrity of sperm cell membranes. According to the existing literature, its simple applicability has turned it into a valuable additional parameter to standard canine semen analysis. In the recent years, much research has been conducted in this field. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the quality of published literature in canine reproduction concerning the HOS test. Using two distinguished databases, 38 articles were detected and analysed subsequently according to various aspects, for example study design, population, semen sampling and implementation concerning the HOS test. Although there are numerous articles available, the diagnostic value of the HOS test remains ambiguous. Until now, neither a recognized test protocol nor reliable reference values have been defined. Most of the trials evaluated show serious methodological flaws and therefore do not permit drawing reliable conclusions. According to our results, approximately half of the studies (n = 20) included a sample size of five or less animals. None of the studies examined the inter‐ or intraobserver agreement for the HOS test. Further research is warranted including appropriate statistical methods and a sufficient number of animals to establish a standardized test protocol as well as reliable reference values. Most importantly, it is required to clarify a correlation between the HOS test and the fertilizing capacity to determine the diagnostic value of the HOS test.
      PubDate: 2013-08-09T07:36:24.561662-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12216
       
  • Oxidative Stress in Neonatology. A Review
    • Authors: M Mutinati; M Pantaleo, M Roncetti, M Piccinno, A Rizzo, RL Sciorsci
      Pages: 7 - 16
      Abstract: Free radicals are highly reactive oxidizing agents containing one or more unpaired electrons. Both in human and veterinary neonathology, it is generally accepted that oxidative stress functions as an important catalysator of neonatal disease. Soon after birth, many sudden physiological and environmental conditions make the newborn vulnerable for the negative effects of oxidative stress, which potentially can impair neonatal vitality. As a clinician, it is important to have in depth knowledge about factors affecting maternal/neonatal oxidative status and the cascades of events that enrol when the neonate is subjected to oxidative stress. This report aims at providing clinicians with an up‐to‐date review about oxidative stress in neonates across animal species. It will be emphasized which handlings and treatments that are applied during neonatal care or resuscitation can actually impose oxidative stress upon the neonate. Views and opinions about maternal and/or neonatal antioxydative therapy will be shared.
      PubDate: 2013-09-23T07:36:49.38625-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12230
       
  • Immunolocalization of Aquaporin Water Channels in the Domestic Cat Male
           Genital Tract
    • Authors: S Arrighi; M Aralla
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Four different aquaporins (AQP1, 2, 5 and 9), integral membrane water channels that facilitate rapid passive movement of water, were immuno‐localized in the excurrent ducts collected from sexually mature cats during orchiectomy. Aquaporins 1, 2 and 9, were immuno‐localized at distinct levels, whereas AQP5 was undetectable all along the feline genital tract. No immunoreactivity was present at the level of the rete testis with any of the antibodies tested. In the efferent ducts, AQP1‐immunoreactivity was strongly evidenced at the apical surface of the non‐ciliated cells, and AQP9‐immunoreactivity was shown at the periphery of both ciliated and non‐ciliated cells. Aquaporins 2 was absent in the caput epididymidis, either in the efferent ducts or in the epididymal duct. Otherwise, AQP2 was increasingly localized at the adluminal surface of principal cells from the corpus to the cauda epididymidis and more weakly in the vas deferens epithelium. The supranuclear zone of the epididymal principal cells was AQP9‐immunoreactive throughout the duct, with the exclusion of the vacuolated sub‐region of the caput and with higher reaction intensity in the cauda region. AQP1 was present in the blood vessels all along the genital tract. AQP1 was expressed also in the smooth muscle layer of the vas deferens. The tested AQP molecules showed a different expression pattern in comparison with laboratory mammals, primates and the dog, unique other carnivore species studied to date. The present information is possibly useful in regard to the regional morphology of the feline epididymis and correlated functions, which are still a matter of debate.
      PubDate: 2013-07-05T05:13:19.181947-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12213
       
  • Percentage of Ubiquitinated Spermatozoa does not Correlate with
           Fertilizing Capacity of Thawed Bovine Semen
    • Authors: I Rodríguez‐Lozano; A Ávalos‐Rodríguez, H Castillo‐Juárez, F Borderas‐Tordesillas, JJ Roa‐Vidal, AM Rosales‐Torres
      Pages: 27 - 31
      Abstract: In the spermatozoa of some species, the ubiquitin–proteasome system detects altered proteins and tags them for elimination by the proteasome. In some species' ejaculates, a high proportion of ubiquitinated spermatozoa (i.e. those having ubiquitin bound to the altered or damaged membrane proteins) has been related to infertility. The aim of this study was to assess whether the percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa relates to fertility of dairy bulls and whether ubiquitination increases during protein remodelling that occurs during in vitro spermatic capacitation. Thirty‐two frozen semen straws from four high‐fertility (ReproMax®) and four normal‐fertility (Normal) Holstein‐Friesian sires were evaluated. Ubiquitinated and capacitated spermatozoa were quantified by sperm ubiquitin tag immunoassay and chlortetracycline stain, respectively. Fertilizing capacity of sires was assessed by in vitro fertilization. No differences were found between Normal and ReproMax® sires with regard to the observed percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa (42.97 ± 3.69% and 49.68 ± 9.27%, respectively; p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences were found in the percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa as a consequence of spermatic capacitation in either Normal (42.97 ± 3.69% before capacitation vs 44.67 ± 7.5% after; p > 0.05) or ReproMax® sires (49.68 ± 9.27% before vs 45.05 ± 7.51% after; p > 0.05). The percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa in a thawed sperm samples did not correlate with its in vitro fertilizing capacity; thus, this assay does not prove useful to detect in vivo fertility differences between sires. Additionally, protein degradation occurring during remodelling of the spermatozoon plasma membrane during the capacitation process does not seem to involve the ubiquitin–proteasome system.
      PubDate: 2013-07-23T05:51:45.2897-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12215
       
  • Identification of Conservative MicroRNAs in Saanen Dairy Goat Testis
           Through Deep Sequencing
    • Authors: J Wu; H Zhu, W Song, M Li, C Liu, N Li, F Tang, H Mu, M Liao, X Li, W Guan, X Li, J Hua
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: MicroRNA (miRNA) is a kind of small non‐coding RNA molecules that function as important gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post‐transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. In this study, small RNA libraries were constructed based on adult dairy goat testicular tissues and sequenced using the Illumina high‐throughput sequencing technology. Blasted to miRNAs of cow and sheep in miRBase 19.0, 373 conserved miRNAs were identified in dairy goat testis and 91 novel paired‐miRNAs were found. Expression of miRNAs in the dairy goat testis (miR‐10b, miR‐126‐3p, miR‐126‐5p, miR‐34c, miR‐449b and miR‐1468) was confirmed by qRT‐PCR. In addition, the 128 conserved miRNAs were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in dairy goat testis with those in cow and mouse, which all might be involved in dairy goat testis development and meiosis. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the biology of testis in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology and development in the dairy goat.
      PubDate: 2013-08-28T04:18:54.151703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12217
       
  • Trypan Blue/Giemsa Staining to Assess Sperm Membrane Integrity in
           Salernitano Stallions and its Relationship to Pregnancy Rates
    • Authors: R Serafini; V Longobardi, M Spadetta, D Neri, B Ariota, B Gasparrini, R Di Palo
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Aim of this study was to test the reliability of Trypan blue/Giemsa staining to evaluate sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal intactness and morphology in stallion to verify whether it could be applied in vitro as useful tool for sperm fertilizing ability. Fertility data on inseminated mares were collected to evaluate the relationship of sperm quality to pregnancy rates. Forty‐one ejaculates were collected from 3 stallions of Salernitano Horse Breed and evaluated for gross appearance, volume, visual motility and membrane integrity with Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and thirty‐five mares were inseminated during the breeding season from April to July. Differences among stallions were found in volume, sperm concentration (p 
      PubDate: 2013-07-24T06:22:05.015394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12221
       
  • Comparison of Antral and Preantral Ovarian Follicle Populations Between
           Bos indicus and Bos indicus‐taurus Cows with High or Low Antral
           Follicles Counts
    • Authors: KC Silva‐Santos; LS Siloto, GMG Santos, F Morotti, TN Marcantonio, MM Seneda
      Pages: 48 - 51
      Abstract: The objective was to compare populations of antral and pre‐antral ovarian follicles in Bos indicus and Bos indicus‐taurus cows with high and low antral follicle counts. Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 20) and Nelore X Angus (1/2 Bos indicus‐taurus, n = 20) cows were subjected to follicular aspiration without regard to the stage of their oestrous cycle (day of aspiration = D0) to remove all follicles ≥3 mm and induce growth of a new follicular wave. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on D4, D19, D34, D49 and D64, and antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted. Thereafter, cows were assigned to one of two groups: high or low antral follicular count (AFC, ≥30 and ≤15 antral follicles, respectively). After D64, ovaries were collected after slaughter and processed for histological evaluation. There was high repeatability in the numbers of antral follicles for all groups (range 0.77–0.96). The mean (±SD) numbers of antral follicles were 35 ± 9 (Bos indicus) and 38 ± 6 (Bos indicus‐taurus) for the high AFC group and 10 ± 3 (Bos indicus) and 12 ± 2 (Bos indicus‐taurus) follicles for the low AFC. The mean number of preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus‐taurus cows with high AFC (116 226 ± 83 156 follicles) was greater (p 
      PubDate: 2013-08-02T01:12:59.946653-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12222
       
  • Short‐Term Storage and Swim‐Up Selection Do Not Affect the X/Y
           Ratio in Equine Spermatozoa
    • Authors: M Orsztynowicz; P Pawlak, B Kociucka, S Mucha, J Klukowska‐Rotzler, D Lechniak
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: The standard procedure of artificial insemination with fresh equine spermatozoa involves short‐term storage (to 48 h at 5°C). This procedure is accompanied by a gradual loss of sperm viability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the X/Y ratio of equine spermatozoa is affected by short‐term storage and the swim‐up procedure. We used a standard protocol, for short‐term storage (0, 24 and 48 h at 5°C) of stallion semen diluted in the commercial extender EquiPro™ (Minitüb GmbH, Tiefenbach, Germany). After each set‐up storage period, the motile fraction of sperm cells was selected by the swim‐up method. The X/Y ratio was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the fresh, non‐selected sperm, and in motile spermatozoa selected after each of the storage periods. Molecular probes for the equine chromosomes X and Y were used. The X/Y ratio in all sperm samples analysed in this study (fresh and stored) was not different from the theoretical 1 : 1 value. The incidence of chromosomally abnormal sperm cells in the fresh (0.28%) and motile (0.13%) sperm samples was not significantly different. The two approaches (sperm storage up to 48 h and the swim‐up procedure) applied to this study did not affect the X/Y ratio in the motile fraction of equine spermatozoa. This finding does not conform to phenomena described for human and cattle. For this reason, the finding may imply species‐related differences.
      PubDate: 2013-08-07T01:37:21.580037-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12223
       
  • The Post‐Cervical Insemination does not Impair the Reproductive
           Performance of Primiparous Sows
    • Authors: PE Sbardella; RR Ulguim, DL Fontana, CV Ferrari, ML Bernardi, I Wentz, FP Bortolozzo
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: The study evaluated the reproductive performance of primiparous sows submitted to post‐cervical insemination (PCAI) compared with cervical artificial insemination (CAI). Difficulty with catheter introduction, the occurrence of bleeding or semen backflow during insemination, and volume and sperm cell backflow up to 60 min after insemination were also evaluated. Sows were homogenously distributed, according to body weight loss in lactation, lactation length, weaned piglets, weaning‐to‐oestrus interval and total born in previous farrowing, in two treatments: PCAI (n = 165) with 1.5 × 109 sperm cells in 45 ml (2.4 ± 0.04 doses per sow) and CAI (n = 165) with 3 × 109 sperm cells in 90 ml (2.5 ± 0.04 doses per sow). During PCAI, sows were inseminated in the absence of boars. Transabdominal real‐time ultrasonography was performed at oestrus onset, immediately before the first insemination and at 24 h after last insemination. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between treatments in farrowing rate (91.5% × 89.1%) and litter size (12.5 × 11.9 piglets born, respectively for PCAI and CAI sows). Successful passage of the intrauterine catheter in all the inseminations was possible in 86.8% (165/190) of sows initially allocated to PCAI treatment. Difficulty of introducing the catheter in at least one insemination did not affect the reproductive performance of PCAI sows (P > 0.05). Bleeding during insemination did not affect (P > 0.05) the farrowing rate in both treatments, but litter size was reduced in CAI and PCAI sows (P ≤ 0.06). Percentage of spermatozoa present in backflow within 1 h after insemination was greater in CAI than PCAI sows (P 
      PubDate: 2013-07-29T23:57:38.79608-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12224
       
  • Effect of Different Levels of Glycerol and Cholesterol‐Loaded
           Cyclodextrin on Cryosurvival of Ram Spermatozoa
    • Authors: R Motamedi‐Mojdehi; M Roostaei‐Ali Mehr, R Rajabi‐Toustani
      Pages: 65 - 70
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the optimum level of glycerol and cholesterol‐loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) in a Tris‐based diluent for cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa. Ram semen was treated with 0, 1.5, 3 or 4.5 mg CLC/120 × 106 cells in Tris‐based diluents containing 3, 5 or 7% glycerol in a factorial arrangement 3 × 4 and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour. Sperm motility, viability (eosin–nigrosin staining) and functional membrane integrity (hypo‐osmotic swelling test) were assessed immediately after thawing (0 h) and subsequently after 3 and 6 h at 37°C. There was an interaction between CLC and glycerol on the functional membrane integrity (p 
      PubDate: 2013-08-09T07:39:07.895516-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12225
       
  • Ejaculate Fractioning Effect on Llama Sperm Head Morphometry as Assessed
           by the ISAS® CASA system
    • Authors: C Soler; M Sancho, A García, MC Fuentes, J Núñez, H Cucho
      Pages: 71 - 78
      Abstract: South American camelid sperm characteristics are poorly known compared with those of other domestic animals. The long‐term duration of ejaculation makes difficult to gather all the seminal fluid, implying possible ejaculation portion losses. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the characteristics of the morphology and morphometry of the spermatozoa change during ejaculation. The morphometric characterization was tested on nine specimens of the Lanuda breed, using a special artificial vagina. In five of the animals, a fractioning of the ejaculate was performed by taking samples every 5 min. for a total of 20 min. Air‐dried seminal smears were stained with Hemacolor and mounted permanently with Eukitt. Morphometric analysis was carried out with the morphometry module of the ISAS® CASA system. Almost 350 cells were analysed per sample, with a total number of 3207 spermatozoa. Mean values were given as follows: length: 5.51 μm; width: 3.38 μm; area: 17.75 μm2; perimeter: 14.8 μm; ellipticity: 0.24; elongation: 0.56; rugosity: 0.87; regularity: 1.07; and shape factor: 1.41. Different animals showed differences in their morphometric values. When we compared the values from different fractions, only two samples showed differences in morphometric parameter values and four samples showed differences in shape parameters. Multivariate analysis allowed the size classification of the cells into three classes and five classes of shapes. The distribution of classes among fractions showed no differences. Despite the individual morphometric differences observed in some fractions, the characteristics of the sperm head morphometry can be considered constant along the ejaculatory period in the llama.
      PubDate: 2013-09-06T05:26:52.386949-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12226
       
  • Solid‐Surface Vitrification and In‐Straw Dilution After
           Warming of In Vitro‐Produced Bovine Embryos
    • Authors: P Rodriguez‐Villamil; FL Ongaratto, M Fernandez Taranco, GA Bó
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Three experiments were designed to test a solid‐surface vitrification system for bovine in vitro‐produced embryos and to develop a simple method of in‐straw dilution after warming, which can be potentially used for direct transfer in the field. Experiment 1 evaluated embryo survival rates (i.e. re‐expansion and hatching) after vitrification and warming in three different solutions: VS1 (20% ethylene glycol (EG) + 20% propanediol (PROH) + 0.25 m trehalose (Tr)), VS2 (20% EG + 1M Tr) or VS3 (30% EG + 0.75 m Tr). Re‐expansion and hatching rates were higher (p 
      PubDate: 2013-08-28T04:19:03.960472-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12229
       
  • Corpus Luteum Development and Function after Supplementation of
           Long‐Acting Progesterone During the Early Luteal Phase in Beef
           Cattle
    • Authors: G Pugliesi; ML Oliveria, SC Scolari, E Lopes, FV Pinaffi, BT Miagawa, YN Paiva, JRG Maio, GP Nogueira, M Binelli
      Pages: 85 - 91
      Abstract: Strategic supplementation of P4 may be used to increase conception rates in cattle, but timing of supplementation in relation to ovulation, mass of supplementary P4 and formulation of the P4‐containing supplement has not been determined for beef cattle. Effects of supplementation of long‐acting progesterone (P4) on Days 2 or 3 post‐ovulation on development, function and regression of corpus luteum (CL) were studied in beef cattle. Cows were synchronized with an oestradiol/P4‐based protocol and treated with 150 or 300 mg of long‐acting P4 on Day 2 or 3 post‐ovulation (6–7 cows/group). Colour‐doppler ultrasound scanning and blood sample collection were performed from Day 2–21.5. Plasma P4 concentrations were greater (p  0.05) among groups, suggesting no effect of P4 treatment on luteal development. The frequency of cows that began luteolysis before Day 15 was greater (p 
      PubDate: 2013-09-04T03:56:16.827239-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12231
       
  • Expression of Adrenergic Receptors in Bovine and Rabbit Oocytes and
           Preimplantation Embryos
    • Authors: Š Čikoš; S Czikková, P Chrenek, AV Makarevich, J Burkuš, Ž Janštová, D Fabian, J Koppel
      Pages: 92 - 100
      Abstract: Catecholamines play an important role in embryogenesis, and data obtained in the rodent model indicate that they can act even during the preimplantation period of development. Using RT‐PCR with specific oligonucleotide primers distinguishing among all members of the adrenergic receptor family, we examined expression of adrenergic receptors in bovine and rabbit oocytes, morulas and blastocysts. We found several profiles of adrenoceptor mRNA expression. Transcripts for some receptor subtypes (bovine alpha 2 receptors, rabbit α2A, α2C, β1 and β2 receptors) were detected at all examined stages, which suggests receptor expression throughout (or at most stages) the preimplantation developmental period. Expression in oocytes but not at later stages was found in only one adrenoceptor subtype (rabbit α1B). In contrast, mRNA for several adrenoceptors was found in embryos but not in oocytes (bovine beta adrenoceptors and rabbit α1A). Nucleotide sequences of our PCR products amplified in rabbit oocytes, and preimplantation embryos represent the first published mRNA sequences (partial sequences coding at least one transmembrane region) of rabbit α2C, β1 and β2 adrenoceptors. Our results suggest that the expression of adrenergic receptors can be a general feature of mammalian oocytes and preimplantation embryos. On the other hand, comparison of three mammalian species (cattle, rabbit and mouse) revealed possible interspecies differences in the expression of particular adrenoceptor subtypes. Our results support the opinion that stress mediators can act directly in cells of preimplantation embryos.
      PubDate: 2013-08-31T03:18:48.344535-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12233
       
  • Maternal Liver Damage Delays Meiotic Resumption in Bovine Oocytes through
           Impairment of Signalling Cascades Originated from Low p38MAPK Activity in
           Cumulus Cells
    • Authors: H Tanaka; S Takeo, Y Monji, T Kuwayama, H Iwata
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: The main objective of the present study is to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the delay in progression of nuclear maturation in oocytes derived from cows with damaged livers (DL cows), which was previously reported. In present study, delayed progression of nuclear maturation of oocytes derived from DL cows relative to oocytes derived from cows with healthy livers (HL cows) was accompanied by low maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity (0.43 fold, p 
      PubDate: 2013-09-17T04:11:39.352125-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12235
       
  • Prediction of Parturition in Bitches Utilizing Continuous Vaginal
           Temperature Measurement
    • Authors: B Geiser; O Burfeind, W Heuwieser, S Arlt
      Pages: 109 - 114
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine sensitivity and specificity of a body temperature decline in bitches to predict parturition. Temperature loggers were placed into the vaginal cavity of 16 pregnant bitches on day 56–61 after estimated ovulation or first mating. This measurement technique has been validated previously and enabled continuous sampling of body temperature. The temperature loggers were expelled from the vagina before delivery of the first pup. The computed values for specificity (77–92%) were higher than sensitivity (53–69%), indicating a more precise prognosis of parturition not occurring. In conclusion, our findings may assist interpreting vaginal temperature measurements in order to predict parturition in bitches.
      PubDate: 2013-09-16T04:45:25.64613-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12236
       
  • Arachidic Acid in Extender Improves Post‐thaw Parameters of
           Cryopreserved Nili‐Ravi Buffalo Bull Semen
    • Authors: R Ejaz; MS Ansari, BA Rakha, N Ullah, AU Husna, R Iqbal, S Akhter
      Pages: 122 - 125
      Abstract: Cryopreservation process reduces lipids and phospholipids from buffalo bull spermatozoa. It was therefore hypothesized that supplementation of fatty acid to extender may improve the post‐thaw quality of buffalo semen. The objective was to evaluate the effect of arachidic acid supplementation in extender on post‐thaw quality of buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa. Semen was collected from three adult Nili‐Ravi buffalo bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (42°C) for 3 weeks (replicate). Qualified semen ejaculates (n = 18) were split into four aliquots and diluted in tris–citric acid extender containing 0.0 (control), 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 ng/ml at 37°C having approximately 50 × 106 spermatozoa/ml. Diluted semen was cooled to 4°C in 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4°C. Cooled semen was filled in 0.5‐ml straws at 4°C, kept on liquid nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Thawing of frozen semen was performed after 24 h at 37°C for 30 s. Sperm progressive motility (%) was improved in a dose‐dependent manner by supplementing arachidic acid at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 ng/ml compared with control. Structural and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane (%), number of acrosome‐intact live sperm (%) and sperm chromatin integrity (%) were better (p  0.05) from those at 5.0 ng/ml. Further improvement in structural and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane, number of acrosome‐intact live sperm and chromatin integrity was observed at 20.0 ng/ml of arachidic acid in extender. In conclusion, arachidic acid supplementation in extender improved the post‐thaw quality parameters of cryopreserved Nili‐Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa. Among the arachidic acid concentrations studied, maximum improvement in post‐thaw semen quality parameters was observed at 20.0 ng/ml.
      PubDate: 2013-09-23T00:49:23.489661-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12239
       
  • Low Oxygen Tension and Relative Defined Culture Medium with 3,
           4‐Dihydroxyflavone are Beneficial for Yak–Bovine Interspecies
           Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryo
    • Authors: X Xiong; J Li, L Wang, J Zhong, X Zi, Y Wang
      Pages: 126 - 133
      Abstract: With an aim to improve the efficiency of yak–bovine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT), this study investigated the effect of different culture systems on the development, quality and gene expression profile of yak–bovine iSCNT embryo. Reconstructed embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF) or relative defined culture medium (RDCM) with 5% or 20% oxygen tension. Relative mRNA abundance of Oct‐4, IFNT, IGF‐2, Bax, GPX‐1, SOD‐1, CAT and GSS was analysed in blastocysts with qRT‐PCR. The blastocyst formation rate in RDCM under 5% oxygen tension was significantly higher than that under 20% oxygen tension (P 
      PubDate: 2013-09-17T04:12:00.564646-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12240
       
  • Role of Sperm Velocity Variables Associated with Poultry Breed in
           ‘Last Male Precedence’
    • Authors: J Santiago‐Moreno; C Castaño, A Toledano‐Díaz, MC Esteso, A López‐Sebastián, SG Dávila, JL Campo
      Pages: 134 - 139
      Abstract: It is well known that when a hen mates with multiple roosters, it is the sperm of the last male that usually fertilizes most of the eggs (‘last male precedence’). Sperm quality varies between males within a breed, but also between breeds, and thus, sperm competitiveness after mating may depend on the breeds of the roosters involved. The aim of the present work was to identify differences in sperm competitiveness between breeds, especially with respect to motility. A multibreed mating model was used. Blue Andaluza (BA) and Black Castellana (BC) hens left for 21 days with BA and BC roosters, respectively, were then left with Black‐barred Andaluza (Bb) roosters for another 21 days (experimental groups hBA‐rBC‐rBb and hBC‐rBA‐rBb). Bb roosters (as the second breed replacing the first) fertilized the majority of eggs in both the hBC‐rBA‐rBb and hBA‐rBC‐rBb groups. The percentage of offspring sired by BA roosters (8.0%) was higher (p 
      PubDate: 2013-09-23T00:41:57.889414-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12241
       
  • Neuroendocrine, Metabolic and Genomic Cues Signalling the Onset of Puberty
           in Females
    • Authors: CA Meza‐Herrera; A Gonzalez‐Bulnes, RT Kridli, M Mellado, CF Arechiga‐Flores, H Salinas, JM Luginbuhl
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Puberty is the result of a dynamic interaction between genetic factors and environmental cues, all of which lead to the attainment of reproductive capacity. Thus, significant changes in hormone secretion occur from the pre‐pubertal to the pubertal stage. The objective of this review is to provide an update of some endocrine, physiological, metabolic and genetic concepts involved in the establishment of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis function promoting the onset of the reproductive function during puberty. To achieve this purpose, basic aspects of the function of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis, the control of the axis by neurotransmitters and the interaction between reproductive function and metabolic status will be considered. Finally, the role of the novel kisspeptin system and the GPR54 receptor as modulators of puberty will be considered, in addition to the hierarchical expression of the main genes acting as regulators of the onset of puberty.
      PubDate: 2009-04-08T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01355.x
       
  • Comparison of Two Different Programmes of Ovulation Synchronization in the
           Treatment of Ovarian Cysts in Dairy Cows
    • Authors: N Gundling; S Drews, M Hoedemaker
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: It was the aim of this field study to evaluate two different protocols of ovulation synchronization for the treatment of ovarian cysts and their effect on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In addition, factors with a possible influence on treatment success and pregnancy outcome as well as costs per pregnancy were analysed. The study was performed with 130 German Holsteins with ovarian cysts diagnosed on days 55 to 60 postpartum. Cows belonging to group 1 (n = 65) received a modified ovsynch protocol [day 0: 0.15 mg cloprostenol (PGF) + 0.02 mg buserelin acetate (GnRH); day 14: PGF; day 16: GnRH]. Group 2 (n = 65) was treated with the conventional ovsynch protocol (day 0: GnRH; day 7: PGF; day 9: GnRH). Timed artificial insemination was performed 20 to 24 h later. Cows without ovarian cysts served as controls. Treatment success (disappearance of the ovarian cyst) after the first ovsynch cycle was higher in group 1 (66.2%) than in group 2 (23.1%, p 
      PubDate: 2009-03-11T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01342.x
       
  • Effect of Time for Mating and Gestation Length on Reproductive Efficiency
           in Dogs
    • Authors: Y Shimatsu; H Yuzawa, K Aruga, M. Nakura
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of time for mating and gestation length on reproductive efficiency in dogs. Groups of eight, six and six beagle bitches were mated with a total of three sires on days 3, 5 and 7, respectively, after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. All the bitches whelped successfully. The gestation lengths (the intervals from the LH surge to the whelping) were 65.1 ± 1.9, 65.5 ± 1.9 and 68.0 ± 1.8 days, respectively. This length of mating 7 days after the LH surge was significantly longer than that of mating 3 and 5 days after the LH surge (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00840.x
       
  • Successful Low Dose Insemination of Flow Cytometrically Sorted Ram
           Spermatozoa in Sheep
    • Authors: SP De Graaf; G Evans, WMC Maxwell, JA Downing, JK O'Brien
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The fertility of ram spermatozoa that had undergone flow cytometric sorting (MoFlo® SX) and cryopreservation was assessed after low‐dose insemination of synchronized Merino ewes. Oestrus was synchronized with progestagen‐impregnated pessaries, PMSG and GnRH treatment. Ewes (n = 360) were inseminated with 1 × 106, 5 × 106 or 15 × 106 motile sorted frozen‐thawed (S1, S5, or S15 respectively) or non‐sorted frozen‐thawed (C1, C5 or C15 respectively) spermatozoa from three rams. An additional group of ewes were inseminated with 50 × 106 motile non‐sorted frozen‐thawed spermatozoa (C50) to provide a commercial dose control. The percentage of ewes lambing after insemination was similar for C50 (24/38, 63.2%), C15 (37/54, 68.5%), S15 (38/57, 66.7%), S5 (37/56, 66.1%) and S1 (32/52, 61.5%) groups (p > 0.05), but lower for C5 (19/48, 39.6%) and C1 (19/55, 34.5%) treatments (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00837.x
       
  • Bovine Endothelial Cells Interact with Fully‐luteinized, but Not
           Luteinizing, Granulosa Cells in the mRNA Expression of Endothelin‐1
           System in Response to Prostaglandin F2α
    • Authors: K Shirasuna; S Watanabe, D Yamamoto, M Hayashi, K Nagai, A Miyamoto
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The corpus luteum (CL) undergoes regression by prostaglandin (PG)F2α from uterus and endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) plays an important role during luteolysis as a local mediator of PGF2α in the cow. Endothelial cells (EC) and luteal cells are main cell types making up the CL and their interactions are vital for CL function. We aimed to examine the relevance of interactions between EC and luteal cells on stimulation of genes which involved ET‐1 synthesis by PGF2α. We further focused the impact of maturity of luteal cells on the stimulation of the genes. To make a microenvironment which resembles the CL, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and luteinizing or fully‐luteinized granulosa cells (GC) and evaluated the effect of PGF2α on the expression for mRNA of ET‐1 system by using real‐time RT‐PCR. PGF2α stimulated the expression of preproET‐1 and endothelin converting enzyme‐1 mRNA only in the co‐cultures of BAEC with fully‐luteinized GC, but not with luteinizing GC. The data suggest that interactions between BAEC and fully‐luteinized GC enhance the capability of BAEC to produce ET‐1 in response to PGF2α. This mechanism may contribute to the local induction of luteolytic action of PGF2α which is dependent on the age/maturation of the CL.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00835.x
       
  • Flutamide Influences Placental Aldo–Keto Reductase Family 1 Member
           C1 (AKR1C1) Expression in Pigs
    • Abstract: Aldo–keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1) catalyses the conversion of progesterone into inactive 20α‐dihydroxyprogesterone. It is suggested that AKR1C1 expression in the placenta prevents from the cytotoxic effect of progesterone on foetuses during late pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anti‐androgen flutamide administered during late pregnancy (83–89 days of gestation) or before parturition (101–107 days of gestation) influences AKR1C1 expression in the porcine placenta. AKR1C1 mRNA and protein levels were measured using real‐time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunolocalization of AKR1C1 within placentas was also performed. Flutamide significantly increased AKR1C1 mRNA (p = 0.008) and protein (p = 0.019) expression only during the pre‐parturient period in pigs. AKR1C1 protein was immunolocalized in the epithelial and stromal cells of foetal and maternal part of placenta at both stages of gestation. Following flutamide treatment, the intensity of staining was higher (p = 0.045) on day 108 of gestation. In conclusion, porcine placental AKR1C1 expression seems to be regulated by an androgen signalling pathway and may be involved in foetal survival by preventing the detrimental effect of progesterone.
       
  • Storage of Bovine Reproductive Tissues and RNA Extracts on Ice for
           24 h or Repeated Freeze–Thaw Cycles do not Affect RNA Integrity
           
    • Abstract: The aims of this study were to test (i) the effect of time of tissue and RNA extracts storage on ice and (ii) the effect of repeated freeze–thaw cycles on RNA integrity and gene expression of bovine reproductive tissues. Fragments of endometrium (ENDO), corpus luteum (CL) and ampulla (AMP) were subdivided and incubated for 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h on ice. RNA extracts were incubated on ice for 0, 3, 12 or 24 h, or exposed to 1, 2, 4 or 6 freeze–thaw cycles. RNA integrity number (RIN) was estimated. Expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and cyclophilin genes from RNA extracts stored on ice for 0 or 24 h, and 1 or 6 freeze–thaw cycles was measured by qPCR. Tissue and RNA extract incubation on ice, and repeated freeze–thaw cycles did not affect RIN values of RNA from ENDO, CL or AMP. Storage on ice or exposure to freeze–thaw cycles did not affect Cq values for PGR or cyclophilin genes. In conclusion, neither generalized RNA degradation nor specific RNA degradation was affected by storage of tissue or RNA extracts on ice for up to 24 h, or by up to 6 freeze–thaw cycles of RNA extracts obtained from bovine ENDO, CL and AMP.
       
 
 
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