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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 212 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Ars Veterinaria     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GISAP : Biology, Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Media Peternakan - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Access Animal Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
REDVET. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Científica     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência em Animais de Laboratório     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
SA Stud Breeder / SA Stoetteler     Full-text available via subscription  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Wildlife Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
team.konkret     Open Access  
The Dairy Mail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tierärztliche Praxis Großtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinária em Foco     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinária Notícias     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Journal Cover Reproduction in Domestic Animals
  [SJR: 0.626]   [H-I: 47]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0936-6768 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0531
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Effect of local scrotal heating on the expression of tight
           junction-associated molecule Occludin in boar testes
    • Authors: Z Zhang; X Fan, H Xi, R Ji, H Shen, A Shi, J He
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine whether local scrotal heating (42°C, for 1 hr) had an effect on the expression of tight junction (TJ)-associated molecule Occludin in boar testes. Adult boars (Landrace, n = 6) were used and randomly divided into two groups (n = 3 each). Three boars were given local scrotal exposure to 42°C for approximately 1 h with a home-made electric blanket of controlled temperature as local scrotal heating group, the other three boars received no heat treatment and were left at standard room temperature as control group. After 6 hr, all boars were castrated and the testes were harvested. qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to explore the expression and localization of Occludin. qRT-PCR and Western blotting showed that the protein and mRNA levels of Occludin significantly decreased in local scrotal heating group as compared to the control. Furthermore, immunoreactivity staining of Occludin was localized at the sites of the blood–testis barrier (BTB) and formed an almost consecutive and strong immunoreactivity strand in the control, while Occludin was limited to Sertoli cells (SCs) and no obvious immunoreactivity strand was present in local scrotal heating group. These data indicated that local scrotal heating decreased the expression of TJ-associated molecule Occludin, which may be involved in heat-induced spermatogenesis damage.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12T23:15:58.475578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13131
       
  • The impact of bisphenol S on bovine granulosa and theca cells
    • Authors: KA Campen; M Lavallee, CMH Combelles
      Abstract: Bisphenol S (BPS) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical with multiple potential mechanisms of action, including as an oestrogen receptor agonist. BPS is increasingly used in plastics and thermal receipts as a substitute for bisphenol A, which has been phased out due to concerns about human health implications. The ability of BPS to alter female reproductive function in mammals has not been widely studied, despite the importance of normal hormone signalling for female reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate how BPS (in a wide range of doses, including very low doses) affects granulosa cell and theca cell steroid hormone production and cell viability in the bovine. Granulosa cell oestradiol production was stimulated when cells were exposed to 100 μM BPS under basal conditions, but there was no effect of BPS when cells were stimulated with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Additionally, there was no effect of BPS on granulosa cell progesterone production or cell viability under basal or FSH-stimulated conditions. BPS did not affect theca cell androstenedione or progesterone production, or theca cell viability under basal or luteinizing hormone-stimulated conditions. This study suggests for the first time that BPS may alter oestradiol production by bovine granulosa cells, albeit at a concentration that is unlikely to be physiologically relevant. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of BPS on the bovine oocyte and on other functions of follicular cells.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12T23:15:52.11155-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13130
       
  • Association analysis of novel polymorphisms in 2′, 5′-oligoadenylate
           synthetase gene with reproductive traits in indigenous and cross-bred
           cattle of Indian Origin
    • Authors: R Alex; KP Ramesha, U Singh, S Kumar, RR Alyethodi, R Deb, S Rai, S Sharma, GS Sengar, A Kumar, B Prakash
      Abstract: 2′, 5′-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are important components of an interferon-mediated antiviral pathway. No polymorphisms in exonic regions of bovine OAS1 gene have been identified and associated with reproduction traits. The objective of the study was to detect and evaluate the effects of mutations in exonic region of bovine OAS1 gene with reproduction traits in cattle. DNA samples collected from 250 individual cows of two Indian dairy breeds (Sahiwal and Frieswal) of cattle were used in the study. The genetic variants of the OAS1 gene were identified with polymerase chain reaction–single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequence analysis using seven set of primer pairs. The PCR-SSCP analysis revealed polymorphism in the fragments comprising of exon 2, exon 5 and first fragment of exon 6 while the fragments of exons 1, 3, 4 and second fragment of exon 6 were monomorphic in Sahiwal and Frieswal cattle. The mutations in the amplified region comprising of exon 2 were found to have significant association with age at first breeding and calving, service period, dry period and pregnancy rate. Significant associations were found between SNPs in the exon 5 and service and dry periods of the animal, whereas the genetic variants in the first fragment of the exon 6 showed significant association with age at first breeding and calving. To our knowledge, this study demonstrated for the first time that the polymorphisms in OAS1 gene were associated with reproductive traits and it can be chosen as a candidate gene for improvement of reproductive performance of cattle.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25T22:55:25.374046-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13129
       
  • Antioxidant supplementation, effect on post-thaw spermatozoan function in
           three sturgeon species
    • Authors: P. Li; MD. Xi, H. Du, XM. Qiao, ZG. Liu, QW. Wei
      Abstract: High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be associated with reduced sperm quality, can be detected during cryopreservation of sperm of some species. Our objective was to investigate whether the addition of antioxidants to cryopreservation extenders influenced post-thaw sperm characteristics and fertility in Acipenser dabryanus, Acipenser sinensis and Acipenser baerii. Prior to freezing, sperm samples were diluted with a base extender as control or in extender supplemented with catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid (VC) or their paired combinations. Protective concentrations of CAT, GSH and VC in the three species were 25 U/ml, 0.25-0.5 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. Cysteine showed no protective effect against ROS. The addition of CAT, GSH and VC positively affected either acrosome or membrane integrity of post-thawed sperm in the three species, as well as spermatozoan motility in A. sinensis. The combination of antioxidants did not show a positive synergistic effect. This study suggested that the use of antioxidants in the cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm has potential to decrease intracellular ROS, and consequently preserve acrosome and membrane integrity, as well as spermatozoan motility.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T02:05:37.875312-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13103
       
  • Supplemented Morus nigra extract-based medium associated with FSH enables
           the survival and growth of isolated ovine secondary ovarian follicles
    • Authors: AYP Cavalcante; TLBG Lins, JMS Santos, VRP Barros, APO Monte, RS Barberino, JRGS Almeida, MHT Matos
      Abstract: The effects of Morus nigra ethanolic extract, without or with addition of supplements associated or not with FSH, on in vitro culture of ovine secondary follicles were evaluated. In experiment 1, isolated secondary follicles were cultured for 12 days in α-MEM alone (control) or in different concentrations of M. nigra extract (MN 0.025; 0.05 or 0.1 mg/ml). In experiment 2, culture media were α-MEM supplemented with BSA, insulin, transferrin, selenium, glutamine, hypoxanthine and ascorbic acid (α-MEM+) or this medium associated with FSH (α-MEM+ + FSH), or 0.1 mg/ml M. nigra without supplements (MN 0.1) or supplemented (MN 0.1+) without or with FSH (MN 0.1+ + FSH). In experiment 1, 0.1 mg/ml M. nigra showed the highest percentages (p  .05) to α-MEM+ + FSH for all parameters evaluated, except for the daily growth rate, which was higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T00:51:03.71125-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13122
       
  • Therapeutic potential of amniotic fluid stem cells to treat bilateral
           ovarian dystrophy in dairy cows in a subtropical region
    • Authors: L-B Chang; S-Y Peng, C-J Chou, Y-J Chen, J-S Shiu, P-A Tu, S-X Gao, Y-C Chen, T-K Lin, S-C Wu
      Abstract: Amniotic fluid is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) have become a new source of stem cells; they have low immunogenicity and are easily harvested. For this reason, they may be useful in clinical tissue engineering. Moreover, AFSCs have anti-inflammatory properties and can repair tissues. This study evaluated the utility of AFSC injection to treat bilateral ovarian dystrophy in Holstein-Friesian cows. Bovine AFSCs (BAFSCs) were collected at slaughter from Holstein-Friesian cows during the third or fourth month of pregnancy and cultured in vitro. The BAFSCs began to show a fibroblast-like morphology. They were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73, CD106 and Oct4 and negative for CD34 and CD45. After induction, the cells differentiated into mesodermal lineages. Bilateral ovarian dystrophy was confirmed by ultrasonography in 16 lactating cows. The subsequent experiment lasted 15 weeks. Serum was collected weekly to analyse progesterone concentrations, and weekly ultrasonography recorded ovarian changes. Each cow was equipped with an automatic heat detection system to facilitate oestrus observation and breeding records. The progesterone concentration of two cows in the treatment group (25%) significantly increased during weeks 10–15. On ultrasonography, the treatment group demonstrated mature follicles after BAFSCs injection, and foetuses were visualized approximately 40 days after artificial insemination (AI). Oestrus rates in the control and treatment groups were 0% (0/8) and 50% (4/8), respectively; pregnancy rates were 0% (0/8) and 25% (2/8), respectively. Calves were successfully delivered in both cases of pregnancy. These results show that BAFSCs can alleviate bovine ovarian dystrophy and restore fertility.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T01:11:23.542961-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13123
       
  • Sperm preparation through Sephadex™ filtration improves in vitro
           fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes
    • Authors: AU Husna; A Azam, S Qadeer, MA Awan, S Nasreen, Q Shahzad, A Fouladi-Nashta, M Khalid, S Akhter
      Abstract: Routinely, swim-up method is used to separate high-quality sperm; however, long processing time and close cell-to-cell contact during the centrifugation step are inevitable elements of oxidative stress to sperm. The objective was to evaluate Sephadex™ and glass wool filtration to separate motile, intact and viable sperm for in vitro fertilization in buffalo. The cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes by aspiration and matured for 24 hr in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C and 5% CO2. Matured COCs were rinsed twice in fertilization TALP and placed in the pre-warmed fertilization medium without sperm. Cryopreserved buffalo semen was thawed at 37°C for 30 s and processed through Sephadex™, glass wool filtration and swim-up (control). Total and motile sperm recovery rates were assessed, resuspended in fertilization TALP and incubated for 15–20 min in CO2 incubator. Samples prepared by each method were divided into two aliquots: one aliquot was studied for sperm quality (progressive motility, membrane integrity, viability, liveability), while the other was subjected to co-incubation with sets of 10–15 in vitro matured oocytes. Data on sperm quality were analysed by ANOVA, while in vitro fertilizing rates were compared by chi-squared test using SPSS-20. Least significant difference (LSD) test was used to compare treatment means. Glass wool filtration yielded higher total and motile sperm recovery rate, while Sephadex™ filtration improved (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T01:10:57.131518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13117
       
  • SNP g.1007A>G within the porcine DNAL4 gene affects sperm motility traits
           and percentage of midpiece abnormalities
    • Authors: I Wiedemann; A Maehlmeyer, S Jansen, AR Sharifi, C Knorr
      Abstract: The flagellar beating of a spermatozoa's axoneme is caused by the varying activation and inactivation of dynein molecules. Dynein, axonemal, light chain 4 (DNAL4) is a functional candidate gene for sperm motility as it encodes a small subunit of the dyneins. We resequenced the porcine DNAL4 using three artificial insemination (AI) boars each with high (>68%) or low (G, located in the second intron, reduces motility significantly (MOTUD -4.59%; MOT1 -10.33%; MOT2 -19.37%). According to the dominant-recessive model (DRM), genotype AA is always superior compared to genotypes AG and GG (i.e. MOTUD 67.67%, 64.16% and 53.91%; MOT1 54.17%, 43.75% and 28.44%; MOT2 44.12%, 24.91% and 4.97%). The average effect of gene substitution (g.1007A>G) on abnormal midpiece (AM) was 0.71%, the genotypic values—as expressed by LSmeans—were 0.1 (AA) and 0.81 (AG).
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T23:47:04.436993-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13120
       
  • Investigation of in vitro measurable sperm attributes and their influence
           on electroejaculated bull semen with a fixed-time artificial insemination
           protocol in Australian Bos indicus cattle
    • Authors: N Satake; SAA Edwards, D Tutt, MR McGowan, GB Boe-Hansen
      Abstract: Increasing use of fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef cattle production has presented an opportunity for the use of fresh or chilled semen as an alternative to standard cryopreserved semen. The objective of this study was to examine in vitro sperm function and pregnancy rate of electroejaculated semen, chilled and stored for 48 hr, compared to conventionally cryopreserved semen with an optimized FTAI protocol in Brahman cattle. Semen from three Brahman bulls was collected, and aliquots were extended in either chilled (at 5°C) or frozen (LN2) in a Tris-egg yolk extender base with 2.4% or 7.0% glycerol, respectively. Semen samples were assessed 48 hr after collection or post-thaw and warming, for sperm motility, in vitro sperm function and fertilizing ability, and used in a FTAI programme. The overall pregnancy rates was significantly different (p 
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T04:26:48.43549-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13121
       
  • Deep insemination with sex-sorted Cashmere goat sperm processed in the
           presence of antioxidants
    • Authors: Y Qin; S Yang, J Xu, C Xia, X Li, L An, J Tian
      Abstract: Flow cytometrically sex-sorted sperm have been widely used for improving reproductive management in the dairy industry. However, the industrial application of this technology in other domestic species is largely limited by the lower fertility after insemination. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of antioxidant supplementation during the sex-sorting and freezing process on the quality and functions of sorted sperm from Liaoning Cashmere goats. We tested the effects of antioxidant supplementation during sex-sorting and freezing process, including ascorbic acid-2-glucoside AA-2G, glutathione, melatonin and vitamin C (VC), on the quality and functions of sex-sorted fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. Based on these experiments, we performed deep insemination with sex-sorted sperm using our improved strategy, in comparison to unsorted sperm. In Experiment 1, compared with control group and other antioxidants, AA-2G supplementation significantly alleviated the degradation of motility and viability of fresh sperm after sorting and showed the highest percentage of sperm with normal morphology. In addition, AA-2G supplementation showed an evident protection against the sorting process-induced membrane and acrosome damage. In Experiment 2, AA-2G supplementation was most effective in protecting motility, while melatonin supplementation appears to facilitate the degradation of quality of frozen-thawed sex-sorted sperm. In Experiment 3, we performed deep insemination with sperm that were sorted and frozen in the presence of AA-2G and obtained a satisfying pregnancy rate comparable to that from unsorted sperm. The results showed that AA-2G supplementation efficiently protects quality and function of both fresh and frozen-thawed sex-sorted sperm of Cashmere goats, thus obtaining a satisfying pregnancy outcome.
      PubDate: 2017-12-03T23:45:27.794704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13045
       
  • Melatonin reduces apoptotic cells, SOD2 and HSPB1 and improves the in
           vitro production and quality of bovine blastocysts
    • Authors: TC Marques; EC Silva Santos, TO Diesel, LO Leme, CF Martins, MAN Dode, BG Alves, FPH Costa, EB Oliveira, ML Gambarini
      Abstract: Effects of adding different concentrations of melatonin (10−7, 10−9 and 10−11 M) to maturation (Experiment 1; Control, IVM + 10−7, IVM + 10−9, IVM + 10−11) and culture media (Experiment 2; Control, IVC + 10−7, IVC + 10−9, IVC + 10−11) were evaluated on in vitro bovine embryonic development. The optimal concentration of melatonin (10−9 M) from Experiments 1–2 was tested in both maturation and/or culture media of Experiment 3 (Control, IVM + 10−9, IVC + 10−9, IVM/IVC + 10−9). In Experiment 1, maturated oocytes from Control and IVM + 10−9 treatments showed increased glutathione content, mitochondrial membrane potential and percentage of Grade I blastocysts (40.6% and 43%, respectively). In Experiment 2, an increase in the percentage of Grade I blastocysts was detected in IVC + 10−7 (43.5%; 56.7%) and IVC + 10−9 (47.4%; 57.4%). Moreover, a lower number and percentage of apoptotic cells in blastocysts were observed in the IVC + 10−9 group compared to Control (3.8 ± 0.6; 3.6% versus 6.1 ± 0.6; 5.3%). In Experiment 3, the IVC + 10−9 treatment increased percentage of Grade I blastocysts with a lower number of apoptotic cells compared to IVM/IVC + 10−9 group (52.6%; 3.0 ± 0.5 versus 46.0%; 5.4 ± 1.0). The IVC + 10−9 treatment also had a higher mRNA expression of antioxidant gene (SOD2) compared to the Control, as well as the heat shock protein (HSPB1) compared to the IVM + 10−9. Reactive oxygen species production was greater in the IVM/IVC + 10−9 treatment group. In conclusion, the 10−9 M concentration of melatonin and the in vitro production phase in which it is used directly affected embryonic development and quality.
      PubDate: 2017-12-03T23:40:29.357082-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13097
       
  • The use of ultrasonography in the reproductive evaluation of boars
    • Authors: RO Pinho; BS Camilo, DMA Lima, FAC Villadiego, JCM Vergara, HH Shiomi, RE Cardoso, PS Lopes, SEF Guimarães, JD Guimarães
      Abstract: The objective was to study the use of ultrasound as a complementary test in the breeding soundness evaluation in male pigs and study the pattern of echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in boars of different racial groups. Twenty-six adult boars from four different racial groups were used, 10 from the Piau breed (group 1), four from the commercial and finishing group (group 2), six Pietrain breed (group 3) and six from the Duroc breed (group 4). All animals were evaluated for breeding soundness evaluation and the ultrasound examination of the testicles. The groups of animals that were evaluated showed no difference in the main semen parameters that were evaluated, except for the sperm volume, concentration of the ejaculated sperm and the supravital staining; the lowest figures were for the animals from the Piau breed (group 1). In relation to the testicular biometrics, Duroc animals (group 4) had a greater scrotal width compared to the other groups. But when we assessed the intensity of pixels of the testicles, there was a difference between groups. The groups 2 (finishing animals), 3 (Pietrain) and 4 had no difference between themselves. Group 3 had greater pixel intensity in relation to group 1. Of the 26 animals studied, five showed an abnormality during ultrasound evaluation, like hydrocele, hyperechoic mass in the testicular parenchyma, cyst in the head of the epididymis and the presence of fluid in the head and tail of the epididymis. The various animal groups studied did not differ in the principal reproductive parameters evaluated, showing that despite the great variability of reproductive traits between breeds and within the same breed, the breeding soundness evaluation, the more complete it is, is essential for the selection of breeders and the ultrasonography of the reproductive system becomes an important addition in this examination.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T06:02:20.611518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13119
       
  • Prevalence of the AMHR2 mutation in Miniature Schnauzers and genetic
           investigation of a Belgian Malinois with persistent Müllerian duct
           syndrome
    • Authors: MM Smit; KJ Ekenstedt, KM Minor, CK Lim, PAJ Leegwater, E Furrow
      Abstract: Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a sex-limited disorder in which males develop portions of the female reproductive tract. Important consequences of PMDS are cryptorchidism and its sequelae of infertility and increased risk of testicular cancer. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and its receptor (AMHR2) induce the regression of the Müllerian ducts in male embryos. In Miniature Schnauzer dogs, the genetic basis has been identified as an autosomal recessive nonsense mutation in AMHR2, but the allele frequency of the mutation is unknown. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the AMHR2 mutation in North American Miniature Schnauzers, in order to ascertain the value of genetic testing in this breed. An additional objective was to determine whether mutations in AMH or AMHR2 were responsible for PMDS in a Belgian Malinois; this would aid development of a genetic test for the Belgian Malinois breed. Genomic DNA from 216 Miniature Schnauzers (including one known PMDS case) was genotyped for the AMHR2 mutation, and DNA from a single PMDS-affected Belgian Malinois was sequenced for all coding exons of AMH and AMHR2. The Miniature Schnauzer cohort had an AMHR2 mutation allele frequency of 0.16 and a carrier genotypic frequency of 0.27. The genetic basis for PMDS in the Belgian Malinois was not determined, as no coding or splicing mutations were identified in either AMH or AMHR2. These findings support a benefit to AMHR2 mutation testing Miniature Schnauzers used for breeding or with cryptorchidism.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T05:55:57.181527-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13116
       
  • Expression of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 in cattle placenta during early pregnancy
    • Authors: W Wang; R Liu, X Liang, Q Zhao, P Qu, K Yao, M Jiang, Y Luo, W Zhang, S Qing
      Abstract: Interferon-tau (IFNT), a type I interferon, is an antiluteolytic factor secreted by trophoderm during pregnancy. IFNT transmitted signals or stimulated the expression of some factors to build maternal recognition and keep pregnancy by binding its receptors, IFNT receptor 1(IFNAR1) and IFNT receptor 2 (IFNAR2). Up to now, the expression model and roles of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 in placenta have not been investigated in cattle. In this study, the localization and expression of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 in the cattle placenta at days 18–50 of pregnancy were detected by histological examination, immunofluorescence staining and real-time qPCR. The results showed that IFNAR1 mainly distributed in chorioallantoic membrane, endometrial epithelium, cotyledon and caruncle during the early pregnancy of cattle with change in time- and position-dependent. IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 mRNA expression were mainly detected in chorioallantoic membrane and cotyledon, and markedly increased along with pregnancy process. Moreover, the mRNA expression level of IFNAR1 in chorioallantoic membrane and cotyledon was higher than that of IFNAR2. IFNAR mRNA was also expressed in caruncle tissues, which experienced a tendency of decrease from days 21 to 36, followed by increase after days 36. These results provide morphological basis and quantitative data for investigating the roles of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 on development of cattle placenta and pregnancy maintenance.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T05:55:43.118972-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13118
       
  • Canine prostate specific esterase (CPSE) as an useful biomarker in
           preventive screening programme of canine prostate: CPSE threshold value
           assessment and its correlation with ultrasonographic prostatic
           abnormalities in asymptomatic dogs
    • Authors: S Alonge; M Melandri, R Leoci, GM Lacalandra, G Aiudi
      Abstract: Due to the increased attention that pet-owners devote to their animals and to the improved veterinary care, investigations regarding methods to early detect prostatic disorders that might affect canine life quality have been performed. Canine prostate specific esterase (CPSE) concentration was reported to be higher in dogs suffering from prostatic diseases. This study aimed to estimate the CPSE threshold as a biomarker to early identify prostatic diseases in asymptomatic dogs. The ultrasonographic examination of the prostate was performed in 19 dogs (6–40 kg; 1–5 years) with no symptoms of prostatic diseases. Dogs were grouped according to the presence (Group A) or absence (Group B) of prostatic disorders at the ultrasound (altered appearance, the presence of cysts or irregular borders). For each dog, a venous blood sample was collected to measure serum CPSE and the ratio between calculated and normal expected prostatic volume was assessed for each dog. The CPSE data were statistically analysed (t test, p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T03:41:21.65425-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13113
       
  • In vitro studies of Norwegian Red bovine semen immobilized and
           cryopreserved in alginate solid gel network
    • Authors: AH Alm-Kristiansen; ER Gaustad, G Bai, FB Standerholen, G Klinkenberg, E Kommisrud, KE Waterhouse
      Abstract: Development of new semen cryopreservation techniques improving sperm survival and ensuring availability of viable spermatozoa for a prolonged time-period after AI is promising tools to reduce sensitivity of timing of AI and enhance overall fertility. The SpermVital® technology utilizes immobilization of bull spermatozoa in a solid network of alginate gel prior to freezing, which will provide a gradual release of spermatozoa after AI. The objective of this study was to compare post-thaw sperm quality and in vitro sperm survival over time of Norwegian Red bull semen processed by the SpermVital® (SV) technology, the first commercialized production line of SpermVital® (C) and by conventional procedure applying Biladyl® extender (B). Post-thaw sperm motility was not significantly different between SV, C and B semen (p > .05). However, sperm viability and acrosome intactness were higher for SV than C and B semen (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T03:41:03.673293-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13115
       
  • Expression profiles of immunity and reproductive genes during transition
           period in Holstein cattle
    • Authors: AI Ateya; MS Hussein, HM Ghanem, RM Saleh, WB El-Domany, YY Elseady
      Abstract: The transition period is a critical time for dairy cows as the animal is subjected to the physiological stress accompanying parturition. Immunosuppression and health status were examined during this period in 80 Holstein cows. Blood samples were taken from each cow 3, 2 and 1 week before and after calving, and at calving (0 day). RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR to determine mRNA levels for the immune-related genes TLR 2, 4, 6, 7 and β-defensin 5 in addition to the reproduction-related genes prolactin and IGF-I. Results showed significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory-selected genes, TLR 4, 6 7 and β-defensin 5 at the third-week post-calving; however, earlier periods had lower expression of such genes. In contrast, the immunosuppression biomarker TLR2 gene was up-regulated at calving and 1 week after parturition and then down-regulated again at second and third week. Prolactin and IGF-I genes expression levels were significantly and gradually increased mainly post-partum. This research highlights that the expression patterns of TLRs, BNBD5, PRL and IGF-I could be biomarkers to follow up immune and reproductive status of dairy cow at peri-parturient period to predict the most susceptible risk time for disease incidence and to build up management protocol.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T23:21:24.996672-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13112
       
  • Importance of oil overlay for production of porcine embryos in vitro
    • Authors: CA Martinez; EA Martinez, MA Gil
      Abstract: Technologies to edit the zygote genome have revolutionized biomedical research not only for the creation of animal models for the study of human disease but also for the generation of functional human cells and tissues through interspecies blastocyst complementation technology. The pig is the ideal species for these purposes due to its great similarity in anatomy and physiology to humans. Emerging biotechnologies require the use of oocytes and/or embryos of good quality, which might be obtained using in vitro production (IVP) techniques. However, the current porcine embryo IVP systems are still suboptimal and result in low monospermic fertilization and blastocyst formation rates and poor embryo quality. During recent years, intensive investigations have been performed to evaluate the influence of specific compounds on gametes and embryos and to avoid the use of undefined supplements (serum and serum derivate) in the incubation media. However, little consideration has been given to the use of the mineral oil (MO) to overlay incubation droplets, which, albeit being a routine component of the IVP systems, is a totally undefined and thus problematic product for the safety of gametes and embryos. In this review, we provide an overview on the advantages and disadvantages of using MO to cover the incubation media. We also review one important concern in IVP laboratories: the use of oils containing undetected contamination. Finally, we discuss the effects of different types of oils on the in vitro embryo production outcomes and the transfer of compounds from oil into the culture media.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T23:21:23.030071-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13114
       
  • Polo-like kinase 1 inhibition results in misaligned chromosomes and
           aberrant spindles in porcine oocytes during the first meiotic division
    • Authors: Y Liao; D Lin, P Cui, B Abbasi, C Chen, Z Zhang, Y Zhang, Y Dong, R Rui, S Ju
      Abstract: Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a type of serine/threonine protein kinase, has been implicated in various functions in the regulation of mitotic processes. However, these kinase's roles in meiotic division are not fully understood, particularly in the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. In this study, the expression and spatiotemporal localization of Plk1 were initially assessed in the meiotic process of pig oocytes by utilizing Western blotting with immunofluorescent staining combined with confocal microscopy imaging technique. The results showed that Plk1 was expressed and exhibited a dynamic subcellular localization throughout the meiotic process. After germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), Plk1 was detected prominently around the condensed chromosomes and subsequently exhibited a similar subcellular localization to α-tubulin throughout subsequent meiotic phases, with particular enrichment being observed near spindle poles at MI and MII. Inhibition of Plk1 via a highly selective inhibitor, GSK461364, led to the failure of first polar body extrusion in porcine oocytes, with the majority of the treated oocytes being arrested in GVBD. Further subcellular structure examination results indicated that Plk1 inhibition caused the great majority of oocytes with spindle abnormalities and chromosome misalignment during the first meiotic division. The results of this study illustrate that Plk1 is critical for the first meiotic division in porcine oocytes through its influence on spindle organization and chromosome alignment, which further affects the ensuing meiotic cell cycle progression.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T00:51:05.734276-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13102
       
  • The effect of resveratrol on the developmental competence of porcine
           oocytes vitrified at germinal vesicle stage
    • Authors: ECS Santos; R Appeltant, TQ Dang-Nguyen, J Noguchi, H Kaneko, K Kikuchi, T Somfai
      Abstract: We tested the effects of resveratrol both as a pre-treatment and as a recovery treatment after warming during in vitro maturation (IVM) on the viability and developmental competence of porcine oocytes vitrified at the germinal vesicle stage. Pre-treatment before vitrification of oocytes for 3 hr with 2 μM resveratrol did not affect survival, oocyte maturation and embryo developmental competence to the blastocyst stage after parthenogenetic activation. However, supplementation of the medium with resveratrol during subsequent IVM after vitrification and warming significantly improved the ability of surviving oocytes to develop to the blastocyst stage, and this effect was observed only on vitrified, but not on non-vitrified oocytes. The intracellular levels of glutathione and hydrogen peroxide in oocytes were not affected by vitrification and resveratrol treatment. Also, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of apoptosis measured by annexin V binding between vitrified and non-vitrified oocytes, regardless of the resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, resveratrol did not prevent the cellular damages in immature porcine oocytes during vitrification; however, when added to the IVM medium, it specifically improved the developmental competence of vitrified oocytes. Further research will be necessary to clarify the mechanisms of action of resveratrol on the recovery of vitrified oocytes from vitrification-related damages.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T00:50:23.570472-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13105
       
  • Effects of voltage strength during electroporation on the development and
           quality of in vitro-produced porcine embryos
    • Authors: K Nishio; F Tanihara, T-V Nguyen, T Kunihara, M Nii, M Hirata, T Takemoto, T Otoi
      Abstract: This study was conducted to determine suitable conditions for an experimental method in which the CRISPR/Cas9 system is introduced into in vitro-produced porcine zygotes by electroporation. In the first experiment, when putative zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) were electroporated by either unipolar or bipolar pulses, keeping the voltage, pulse duration and pulse number fixed at 30 V/mm, 1 msec and five repeats, respectively, the rate of blastocyst formation from zygotes electroporated by bipolar pulses decreased compared to zygotes electroporated by unipolar pulses. In the second experiment, the putative zygotes were electroporated by electroporation voltages ranging from 20 V/mm–40 V/mm with five 1-msec unipolar pulses. The rate of cleavage and blastocyst formation of zygotes electroporated at 40 V/mm was significantly lower (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T07:05:21.514429-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13106
       
  • Comparative analysis of ovarian transcriptomes between prolific and
           non-prolific goat breeds via high-throughput sequencing
    • Authors: X-D Zi; J-Y Lu, H Zhou, L Ma, W Xia, X-R Xiong, D-L Lan, X-H Wu
      Abstract: To increase the current understanding of the gene expression in the pre-ovulatory ovary and identify the key genes involved in the regulation of ovulation rate, we compared the transcriptomes of ovaries from the prolific Jintang black goat (JTG) and the non-prolific Tibetan goat (TBG) during the follicular phase using the Illumina RNA-Seq method. Three ovarian libraries were constructed for each breed. On average, we obtained approximately 49.2 and 45.9 million reads for each individual ovary of TBGs and JTGs, respectively, of which 79.76% and 78.67% reads were covered in the genome database. A total of 407 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were detected between these two breeds, in which 316 were upregulated, and 91 were downregulated in the ovaries of JTGs versus TBGs. Based on the results of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment, some of these DEGs potentially play an important role in controlling the development of ovarian follicles. SRD5A2, MSMB, STAR and 3BHSD, etc. were the most significantly differentially expressed between these two distinct breeds. In addition, each ovary expressed 1,066 versus 989 novel transcripts, and 171,829 versus 140,529 putative SNPs in TBGs versus JTBs, respectively. All data sets (GEO and dbSNP) were available via public repositories. Our study provides insight into the transcriptional regulation of the ovaries of two distinct breeds of goats that might serve as a key resource for understanding goat fecundity. SRD5A2, MSMB, STAR and 3BHSD may be associated with the high fecundity of JTGs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T01:15:48.407134-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13111
       
  • Differential effects of follistatin on porcine oocyte competence and
           cumulus cell gene expression in vitro
    • Authors: Z Guo; MS Islam, D Liu, G Liu, L Lv, Y Yang, B Fu, L Wang, Z Liu, H He, H Wu
      Abstract: Several oocyte-derived genes/proteins are essential to early embryonic development. The expression and stability of these proteins are influenced by the autocrine/paracrine activity of factors released by oocytes and cumulus cells. This study investigated the paracrine and autocrine activity of follistatin (FS), which is secreted by oocytes and cumulus cells as part of porcine embryogenesis. Immunohistochemical (IHC) localization of follistatin was conducted on 100 randomly selected early- and late-cleaving two-cell embryos. Dissociated cumulus cells were treated with various doses of follistatin for determination of the follistatin gene (FST) mRNA expression levels by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Microinjection of siRNA induced a downregulation of FST mRNA during embryonic development, thereby decreasing the proportion embryos developing to the blastocyst stage (19.33%). Immunolocalization analysis showed enhanced staining for follistatin in early-cleavage stage embryos. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significantly lower FST transcript level in cumulus cells after application of the highest dose of follistatin (100 ng/ml). Exogenous follistatin treatment of in vitro maturation embryos resulted in statistically significant dose-dependent changes during development. Application of the highest concentration (100 ng/ml) of follistatin decreased the maturation rate of the oocytes. On the other hand, the application of 10 ng/ml follistatin resulted in an increase in the number of embryos. The observed differential effect of exogenous follistatin might be due to maternal FST and autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by cumulus cells.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T01:15:25.803907-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13035
       
  • Cytological endometritis diagnosed at artificial insemination in repeat
           breeder dairy cows
    • Authors: O Bogado Pascottini; M Hostens, G Opsomer
      Abstract: This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence of cytological endometritis (CYTO) diagnosed at artificial insemination (AI); (ii) evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of the same AI sample; and (iii) determine the risk factors associated with CYTO diagnosed at AI in repeat breeder (RB) dairy cows. We analysed the productive and reproductive performances of 146 RB Holstein-Friesian cows. To obtain a CYTO sample at AI, we used the cytotape technique. Generalized mixed effect models were computed to find the risk factors associated with the pregnancy and CYTO outcome. Based on ≥1% PMN cut-off point, the CYTO prevalence at AI in RB cows was 25.3%. The overall pregnancy at AI was 44.2%. The conception rate in CYTO-positive (n = 37) RB cows was 29.7% versus 49.5% for CYTO-negative (n = 109) cows. A RB cow diagnosed CYTO positive at AI had 0.47 [odds ratio (OR)] odds to become pregnant in comparison with a CYTO-negative cow. Cows that produced more milk than their counterparts in this study had increased odds (OR = 1.01) to be CYTO positive at AI. A novel risk factor positively associated with CYTO diagnosed at AI in RB cows was the level of daily milk urea (OR = 1.11). To conclude, CYTO at the moment of AI had a significantly negative effect on the pregnancy outcome in RB dairy cows. However, as only one of fourth of RB cows is affected with CYTO at AI, it may not be considered a key element associated with the RB syndrome.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T01:15:19.61312-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13110
       
  • Identification of perivascular and stromal mesenchymal stem/progenitor
           cells in porcine endometrium
    • Authors: J Wiater; M Niedziela, A Posmysz, K Wartalski, B Gajda, Z Smorąg, Z Rajfur, J Karasiński
      Abstract: Mammalian uterus contains a population of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells that likely contribute to endometrial regeneration during each reproductive cycle. In human and mouse, they reside in perivascular, epithelial and stromal compartments of the endometrial functionalis and basalis. Here, we aimed to identify tissue resident cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD140b and CD146 in the porcine endometrium. We used single immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Each of these markers was detected in small cells surrounding endometrial blood vessels. CD105 and CD146 were also expressed in single stromal cells. A few stromal and perivascular cells showed the presence of pluripotency marker Oct4 in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus, which may imply they are not truly pluripotent. Endometrial cell cultures were examined for the expression of CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105 and CD140b proteins and tested in wound-healing assay and culture model of chemotaxis. In conclusion, our results demonstrate perivascular location of prospective mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in the porcine endometrium and may suggest that stromal CD105+ and CD146+ cells represent more mature precursors originating from their perivascular ancestors.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T00:53:20.433576-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13109
       
  • Effectiveness of controlled internal drug release device treatment to
           alleviate reproductive seasonality in anestrus lactating or dry Barki and
           Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season
    • Authors: MY EL-Mokadem; ANM Nour El-Din, TA Ramadan, AM Rashad, TA Taha, MA Samak, MH Salem
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Barki and Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season. Forty-eight multiparous ewes, 24 Barki and 24 Rahmani ewes were divided into two groups, 12 lactating and 12 dry ewes for each breed. Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted in all ewes for 14 days in conjunction with intramuscular 500 IU equine chronic gonadotrophin (eCG) at day of CIDR removal. Data were analysed using PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures. Breed, physiological status and days were used as fixed effects and individual ewes as random effects. Barki ewes recorded higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T00:52:35.568941-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13107
       
  • Acute stimulation of a smooth muscle constrictor by oestradiol-17β
           via GPER1 in bovine oviducts
    • Authors: T Nishie; Y Kobayashi, K Kimura, K Okuda
      Abstract: Oviducts play roles in reproductive processes, including gametes transport, fertilization and early embryo development. Oviductal transport is controlled by various factors such as endothelins (EDNs) and nitric oxide (NO), smooth muscle contracting and relaxing factor, respectively. EDNs and NO production depend on an ovarian steroid hormone, oestradiol-17β (E2) and E2 quickly exerts their biological functions through G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), which mediates rapid intracellular signalling. Because follicular fluid which contains a high concentration of E2 enters the oviduct, we hypothesized that E2 in the follicular fluid participates via GPER1 in producing EDNs and NO. To test this hypothesis, we investigated 1) the expression and localization of GPER1 in bovine oviductal tissues and 2) rapid effects of E2 via GPER1 on EDN1, EDN2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in cultured bovine oviductal isthmic epithelial cells. GPER1 was observed in the oviductal epithelium, stroma and smooth muscle, and its expression was highest in the isthmus. Short-term treatments (≤1 hr) of E2 increased EDN2 mRNA expression in the isthmic epithelial cells, although E2 did not affect EDN1 and iNOS mRNA expressions. Results of GPER1-selective agonist G-1 and GPER1-selective antagonist G-15 treatments revealed acute stimulation by E2, which is mediated via GPER1. The overall findings suggested that E2 in follicular fluid rapidly stimulates EDN2 expression via GPER1 in the isthmic epithelial cells. Follicular fluid may play a role in retention of the ovulated oocyte in the end of ampulla by contracting the isthmus for successful fertilization.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T00:52:33.432601-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13108
       
  • Effects of body condition score (BCS) on steroid- and
           eicosanoid-metabolizing enzyme activity in various mare tissues during
           winter anoestrus
    • Authors: MPT Owen; EN Ferjak, CA Cavinder, KJ McCarty, KC Yankey, CG Hart, DD Burnett, TTN Dinh, CO Lemley
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the activity of steroid- and eicosanoid-metabolizing enzymes in horses with varying BCSs. The BCSs of twenty non-pregnant, anoestrous mares were determined prior to euthanasia, and tissue samples were collected from the liver, kidney, adrenal gland, ovary and endometrium. Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), 2C (CYP2C), 3A (CYP3A) and uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities were determined using luminogenic substrates. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to test the effect of BCS on enzyme activity and differences between tissues. Activity of CYP1A in adrenals was increased (p ≤ .05) in BCS 5 versus BCSs 4 and 6. Activity of CYP1A in the liver was increased (p = .05) in BCS 4 versus BCSs 5 and 6. Activity of CYP1A was 100-fold greater (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T23:17:09.812785-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13104
       
  • Fertilizing ability of canine spermatozoa cryopreserved with skim
           milk-based extender in a retrospective study
    • Authors: Y Abe; S Yokozawa, R Umemiya-Shirafuji, PFA Moumouni, Y Suwa, H Suzuki
      Abstract: We previously reported that skim milk (SM) is an effective cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of canine spermatozoa instead of egg yolk (EY), which is the conventional cryoprotectant. In this study, the fertilizing ability and practical use of frozen canine spermatozoa prepared with SM were evaluated by transcervical insemination. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa were inseminated one to four times on days 2–9 after the LH surge. In SM group, a single transcervical insemination (TCI) on Day 5 led to higher delivery rate (83%) than any other days (33%–50%) post-LH surge. In EY group, delivery rate in double TCI on days 5 and 6 (71%) was higher compared to any other experimental groups (0%–44%). Regardless of single or double, TCI on Day 5 or Day 6 led to higher litter sizes in SM or EY groups, respectively. The breeding efficiency and litter size of single TCI on Day 5 (4.2) and double TCI on Day 5 and Day 6 (3.7) were significantly higher than in the other experimental groups in SM and EY groups, respectively (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T00:06:35.959537-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13098
       
  • Pyometra and unilateral uterine horn torsion in a sheep
    • Authors: JM Castillo; JC Dockweiler, SH Cheong, M Diel de Amorim
      Abstract: A 13-year-old Romanov sheep presented for evaluation of vaginal discharge, depression and anorexia. Blood work demonstrated mature neutrophilia and marked hyperlactatemia. Transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound revealed echogenic fluid (pus) within the uterus. Purulent uterine fluid culture yield Escherichia coli. A diagnosis of pyometra was made. After medical treatment without clinical improvement, an exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a 360-degree uterine left horn torsion was identified with the pyometra and multiple corpora lutea on both ovaries. Ovariohysterectomy was performed and the ewe recovered uneventfully.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T00:06:33.559798-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13101
       
  • Oocyte holding in the Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus): Effect
           of initial oocyte quality and epidermal growth factor addition on in vitro
           maturation
    • Authors: B Macías-García; L González-Fernández, E Matilla, N Hernández, J Mijares, FM Sánchez-Margallo
      Abstract: Current in vitro embryo production protocols in the Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) need to be optimized; oocyte harvesting in situ followed by overnight holding could reduce the human effort and shipping costs. In our work, post-mortem ovaries were retrieved, and the oocytes were harvested and allocated to G1 group (good quality) or G2 + G3 group (low quality). The oocytes were separately subjected to immediate in vitro maturation (IVM) or held overnight in a holding medium composed of 40% of TCM 199 with Earle's salts, 40% TCM 199 with Hanks' salts and 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), at room temperature (16 hr). In vitro maturation was carried out in a basal medium supplemented or not with 50 ng/ml of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Our data showed that addition of EGF to the maturation medium increases the percentage of G1 oocytes reaching metaphase II (3.9% vs. 50%, basal vs. EGF; p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T00:05:56.198869-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13099
       
  • Evaporative cooling in late gestation heat-stressed Murrah buffaloes
           increases efficiency of next reproductive cycle
    • Authors: O Aarif; A Aggarwal, AA Sheikh
      Abstract: Evaporative cooling during late gestation period improves post-partum reproductive performance in Murrah buffaloes. To prove this hypothesis, sixteen pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes at sixty days pre-partum were selected and divided into two groups of eight animals each. Group 1 of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling during dry period, whereas second group of buffaloes (non-cooled/NCL) remained without the provision of cooling. After parturition, all the animals were managed under evaporative cooling till the end of experimental period. Reproductive performance in cooled (CL) and non-cooled (NCL) groups, respectively, viz. 1st and 2nd ovulation from calving (48.63 ± 2.41, 69.25 ± 2.34 days and 57.75 ± 3.35, 93.63 ± 2.84 days); calving to conception interval (117.88 ± 4.21 days and 117.88± 4.21 days); conception rate (87.5% ± 2.16% and 57% ± 2.26%); and follicular diameter at the time of 1st and 2nd ovulation (14.84 ± 0.16, 15.75 ± 0.13 mm and 12.65 ± 0.13, 13.35 ± 0.11 mm) varied significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T00:05:51.660952-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13100
       
  • Generation of embryonic stem-like cells from in vivo-derived porcine
           blastocysts at a low concentration of basic fibroblast growth factor
    • Authors: H-J Cha; JI Yun, NR Han, H-Y Kim, S Baek, S-H Lee, J Lee, E Lee, C-K Park, ST Lee
      Abstract: Although basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an essential factor supporting the maintenance of porcine embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and pluripotency, its high cost has limited previous studies, and the development of a low-cost culture system is required. For these systems, in vivo blastocysts were progressively cultured under various conditions consisting of different culture mediums and/or different feeder cell numbers at a low concentration of bFGF. As the results, the sequential culture of in vivo-derived porcine blastocysts on 5.0 × 105 mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells in alpha minimum essential medium-based medium for primary culture, on 2.5 × 105 MEF feeder cells in Mixture medium for the 1st subpassage, and on 2.5 × 105 MEF feeder cells in DMEM/Ham's F10-based medium for the post-2nd subpassage could support the establishment and maintenance of porcine ES-like cells at the low concentration of bFGF. The established porcine ES-like cells showed ES cell-specific characteristics such as self-renewal and pluripotency. We confirmed that porcine ES-like cells could be generated from in vivo-derived porcine blastocysts at a low concentration of bFGF.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T23:51:04.366408-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13088
       
  • Treatment with the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126 during the first two hours
           of in vitro maturation improves bovine oocyte developmental competence
    • Authors: T Shinohara; Y Ohta, N Kawate, M Takahashi, N Sakagami, T Inaba, H Tamada
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of treatment with U0126, which inhibits MAPK by inhibiting MAPK kinase, during the first 2 hr of in vitro maturation on bovine developmental competence and on gap junction (GAPJ) communication between the oocyte and cumulus cells. The percentage of oocytes developing to the blastocyst stage in the group treated with 5 μM U0126 (28%) was significantly higher than that in controls (15%, p 
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T23:50:26.204019-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13096
       
  • Morphometric study of the porcine placental vascularization
    • Authors: A Cristofolini; M Fiorimanti, M Campos, E Sanchis, T Diaz, E Moschetti, C Merkis
      Abstract: The early development in mammals is characterized by the contribution of nutrients from the maternal tissues through the placenta, which is in apposition with foetal membranes and the endometrium, allowing the physiological interchange between the embryos/foetuses and the mother. The aim of this work was to study the number of placental blood vessels and their vascular area through morphometric analyses and the haemotrophic diffusion distance in porcine placental tissues from early gestations, intermediates gestations, advanced gestations and term gestations. For those purposes, morphometric measurements, blood vessel quantification, high-resolution light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were performed. The implementation of the high-resolution light microscopy allowed studying the placental vascular and tissue histoarchitecture with higher definition and resolution than using a conventional light microscopy. We highlight the close location of the subepithelial capillaries to the maternal/foetal interface as pregnancy progresses. We found statistically significant evidence to state that the area of blood vessels is dependent on the gestation period. In advanced gestations, the presence of numerous small blood vessels and its near location to foetal/maternal interface agree with the great remodelling reported in our previous studies. In conclusion, in gilts, given the type of non-invasive epithelial placentation, the new blood vessels generation and of haemotrophic diffusion distance reduction, determined in this report, assure the maternal/foetal haemotrophic exchange efficiency during gestation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:02:51.77135-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13095
       
  • Effect of bovine seminal plasma on bovine endometrial epithelial cells in
           culture
    • Authors: T Nongbua; Y Guo, A Edman, P Humblot, JM Morrell
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of seminal plasma (SP) from bulls of known fertility on bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEEC) in culture. The bEEC from passage 5, approximately 5.0–13 × 105 cells per flask, were challenged with SP from bulls of high or low fertility (n = 3 and 2, respectively) or PBS (control), at 1% (75 μl) or 4% (300 μl) and were incubated for 72 hr (n = 13 per challenge). Total cell number and viability of bEEC after challenge with 1% SP from either high- or low-fertility bulls (75H or 75L, respectively) did not differ from controls. In contrast, challenge with 4% of SP from high- or low-fertility bulls (300H or 300L) negatively affected bEEC cell number and viability. Challenge with 300 L had a greater adverse effect than 300H. These results suggest that the negative effect of bovine SP on bEEC is both dose-dependent and fertility-dependent.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:01:51.633245-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13069
       
  • A fast, low-cost and efficient method for the diagnosis of sperm DNA
           fragmentation in several species
    • Authors: BR Rui; DSR Angrimani, LC Bicudo, JDA Losano, M Nichi, RJG Pereira
      Abstract: Sperm DNA fragmentation is a condition that interferes directly in the reproductive efficiency. Currently, there are several methods for assessing the sperm DNA integrity, such as Alkaline Comet, TUNEL and Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay. However, many of these techniques are laborious and require high-precision equipment. Thus, the development of new techniques can optimize the evaluation of sperm DNA damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to standardize the toluidine blue (TB) stain technique for the analysis of DNA fragmentation of dog, cat, bull, stallion and ram spermatozoa. For this purpose, we used six animals of each specie (n = 30), in reproductive age. Sperm was collected by different methods according to the particularities of each species, and such samples were divided into two aliquots: a sperm sample was kept at 5°C (considered as intact sperm DNA), and the remaining samples were submitted to the induction of DNA fragmentation by exposure to ultraviolet light for 4 hr. Samples were then mixed with the intact sample to obtain known and progressive proportions of sperm with fragmented DNA (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Semen smears were performed and subjected to staining with TB. Blue-stained spermatozoa were considered to have DNA fragmentation. We observed high linear regression coefficients between the expected proportion of damaged DNA and the results of TB for dog, cat, ram, bull and stallion samples. In conclusion, TB stain was considered a fast and effective technique for the study of spermatozoa DNA in several species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T22:40:49.688331-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13087
       
  • Spermatic and oxidative profile of domestic cat (Felis catus) epididymal
           sperm subjected to different cooling times (24, 48 and 72 hours)
    • Authors: DSR Angrimani; KK Nagai, BR Rui, LC Bicudo, JDA Losano, MM Brito, MCP Francischini, M Nichi
      Abstract: Cooling stored epididymal samples for several days allows facilities to transport and process genetic material post-mortem. Improvements to this practice allow the preservation of sperm from domestic cats, which are the ideal study model for wild felids. However, the modifications in spermatic features and the oxidative profile are not fully understood in cats. This information is necessary for the development of biotechniques, such as new extenders for cryopreservation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the spermatic and oxidative profile in samples from the epididymal cauda of domestic cats cooled at 5°C for 24, 48 and 72 hr. Spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis cauda. Evaluations consisted of computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), plasma membrane integrity (eosin/nigrosin), acrosome integrity (fast green/rose bengal), sperm morphology, sperm DNA integrity (toluidine blue), mitochondrial activity (3′3 diaminobenzidine), activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), measurement of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein oxidation. A decrease in sperm motility parameters was observed after 72 hr of cooling (i.e. total and progressive) with a higher percentage of minor (37.7 ± 6.3%) and total defects (53.4 ± 6.3%). Additionally, a decrease in high mitochondrial activity (Class I: 16.6 ± 2.2%) occurred after 72 hr. The decrease in motility rates after a long cooling time probably was caused by the increase in sperm abnormalities. A long cooling time causes cold shock and mitochondrial exhaustion, but there was no observed change with the oxidative stress condition. Therefore, cat epididymal sperm stored at 5°C appear to maintain a high quality for up to 48 hr of cooling time.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T22:40:38.002537-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13086
       
  • Proteomic profiling of follicle fluids after superstimulation in
           one-month-old lambs
    • Authors: Y Wu; J Lin, B Han, L Wang, Y Chen, M Liu, J Huang
      Abstract: Follicular fluid (FF) accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle. In addition, FF provides the microenvironment for oocyte development, oocyte maturation and competence, which are acquired during follicular development. Superstimulatory treatment of 1-month-old lambs can achieve synchronous development of numerous growing follicles. However, these growing follicles are unable to completely mature and ovulate. Furthermore, the oocytes exhibit lower competence compared with those of ewes. In this study, we utilized an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomics analysis and compare protein composition between pre-pubertal and adult superstimulated follicle FF in sheep. In total, 243 differentially expressed proteins were identified, including 155 downregulated and 88 upregulated between lamb and ewe. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the differentially expressed proteins are involved in signal transduction, anatomical structure development, stress response, metabolic pathways, and the complement and coagulation cascades. Many of the proteins known to affect follicle development were observed in lower abundance in FF of lamb (e.g. ADAMTS9, CD14, CTNNB1, FST, GCLC, HSPG2, IGFBP2, IGFBP6, INHBA, PRL, PAPPA, POSTN, PRDX1, SERPINA1, SOD3, STC1, VEGFC, etc.). However, a higher abundance was observed for proteasome proteins. Inadequate amounts of these proteins in FF may be lead to the unique characteristics of follicular development in lamb. These differentially expressed proteins illuminate the age-dependent changes in protein expression in the follicle microenvironment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28T00:45:34.373203-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13091
       
  • Comparison of in vitro and in vivo fertilizing potential of buffalo bull
           semen frozen in egg yolk-, soya bean lecithin- and liposome-based
           extenders
    • Authors: AK Singh; A Kumar, M Honparkhe, S Kaur, H Kaur, SPS Ghuman, PS Brar
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare different extenders for post-thaw in vitro sperm function and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Accordingly, sperm of 30 ejaculates extended in egg yolk (TRIS with 20% egg yolk; EY), two soya lecithin-based (SL-1; AndroMed® and SL-2; Bioxcell®) and a liposome-based extender (LS; OptiXcell®) were tested. The post-thaw semen was evaluated for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), sperm viability, membrane and acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and acrosome reaction and first service pregnancy rate (FSPR) in a fixed-time artificial insemination programme. Total motility and VCL were the only CASA-based parameters that exhibited significantly higher (p  .05) in EY, SL-1, SL-2 and LS extender, respectively. However, a variable response in terms of efficacy of different extenders for sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity was observed. Assessment of inducibility of acrosome reaction showed significant differences between extenders (51.9 ± 2.1, 44.3 ± 2.4, 46.1 ± 2.3 and 58.1 ± 3.1%, respectively, for EY, SL-1, SL-2 and LS). Furthermore, field trials revealed significantly higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-28T00:45:23.25573-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13092
       
  • Concentration effect of prostaglandin E2 on the growth factor expression
           and cell proliferation in bovine endometrial explants and their kinetic
           characteristics
    • Authors: S Zhang; W Mao, Q Li, R Gao, Y Zhang, L Gao, C Fu, J Wu, Y Deng, Y Shen, T Li, B Liu, J Cao
      Abstract: Bovine endometrium undergoes various physiological and histological changes that are necessary for blastocyst implantation during oestrous cycle. From pro-oestrus to late-oestrus, endometrium thickens gradually for implantation preparation and exhibits remarkable capacity for self-repair after uterine lining shedding while implantation does not occur. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion pattern is synchronized with endometrial growth during oestrous cycles in bovine endometrium; however, limited information is available regarding the association between PGE2 secretion and endometrial growth. In this study, the concentration (10−9 to 10−5 M) and time effect (2–36 hr) of PGE2 treatment on a series of growth factors are essential for endometrial growth including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA and protein expression, and proliferation of epithelial and fibroblast cells was investigated in bovine endometrial explants in vitro. The results indicated that PGE2 at concentration about 10−7 to 10−5 M could up-regulate CTGF, FGF-2, IL-8, MMP-2, TGF-β1, VEGFA mRNA and protein expression, and could induce the proliferation of epithelial and fibroblast cells and reduce the proapoptotic factor (caspase-3) expression in bovine endometrial explants in vitro. These results collectively improved the possibility of PGE2 functions in endometrial growth during oestrous cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28T00:40:38.939113-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13083
       
  • Puncture and drainage of the subordinate follicles at timed artificial
           insemination prevents the risk of twin pregnancy in dairy cows
    • Authors: F López-Gatius; RHF Hunter
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine whether fluid drainage from the subordinate follicles by ovum pickup procedures prevents the risk of twin pregnancy without reducing the fertility of the cow. Lactating dairy cows with at least two follicles over 12 mm diameter located one on each ovary and selected from synchronized groups for fixed-time insemination were assigned to a Control (n = 49) or Drainage (n = 49) group. The largest follicle was considered as the dominant follicle. Draining of all subordinate follicles (≥10 mm) was performed in the Drainage group. All drained follicles developed as a corpus luteum 7 days later. In the Control cows, the presence of two corpora lutea (55.1%) was lower (p = .003) than those in the Drainage cows (87.8%), whereas the incidence of twin pregnancies was 50% and 0% for the Control and Drainage groups, respectively (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T06:35:30.922034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13094
       
  • DNA methylation and expression of imprinted genes are associated with the
           viability of different sexual cloned buffaloes
    • Authors: Z Ruan; X Zhao, X Qin, C Luo, X Liu, Y Deng, P Zhu, Z Li, B Huang, D Shi, F Lu
      Abstract: The DNA methylation of imprinted genes is an important way to regulate epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, the effects of sexual distinction on the DNA methylation of imprinted genes in cloned animals have seldom been reported. In this study, we analysed the DNA methylation status of three imprinted genes (Xist, IGF2 and H19) from liveborn cloned buffaloes (L group, three female and three male), stillborn cloned buffaloes (S group, three female and three male) and natural reproduction buffaloes (N group, three female and three male), using bisulphite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BS-PCR). The expression levels of these imprinted genes were also investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). The DNA methylation levels of H19 were not significantly different among the groups. However, the Xist in female and IGF2 in male of the S group were found to be significantly hypomethylated in comparison with the same sexual buffaloes in L group and N group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T04:54:37.041905-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13093
       
  • Detection of APAF1 mutation in Holstein cows and mummified foetuses in
           Japanese dairy herds
    • Authors: ME Ghanem; M Nishibori, N Isobe, K Hisaeda
      Abstract: Some of the highest genetic merit sires have been shown to harbour recessive mutations affecting fertility, which may spread rapidly in the population through AI. These disorders may result in abortion and decline in pregnancy per insemination in cows. This study was carried out on 240 Holstein-Friesian cows and 15 mummified foetuses. Blood and tissue samples were collected from the cows and mummified foetuses, respectively, for DNA extraction. Allele-specific PCR was designed for the detection of the cows and foetuses carrying the nonsense mutation (C/T) in apoptosis peptide activating factor 1 gene (APAF1). The mutant allele frequency of the APAF1 in carrier cows and mummified foetuses was calculated. Milk samples were taken from the carrier and non-carrier cows for progesterone assay. The allele-specific PCR reaction efficiently distinguished the C/T mutation in APAF1. Of 240 cows, seven cows (2.9%) were diagnosed to carry one copy of the mutant allele of APAF1. However, the carrier frequency was 33.3% in mummified foetuses (five of 15). The mutant allele frequency was 0.02 and 0.17 in the cows and mummified foetuses, respectively. Concentrations of progesterone did not differ between cows with APAF1 mutation and non-carrier cows during 45 days post-insemination. This study provided allele-specific PCR for the detection of APAF1 mutation in cows. Moreover, it reports the carrier and mutant allele frequencies of APAF1 in dairy cows and mummified foetuses in Japan.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T04:54:25.090893-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13081
       
  • Evaluation of reproductive performance and genetic variation in bulls of
           the Polish White-Backed breed
    • Authors: W Sawicka-Zugaj; W Chabuz, Z Litwińczuk, K Kasprzak-Filipek
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic variation, reproductive performance and the degree of relationship of White-Backed bulls entered in the breed registry and approved for breeding. The study included 32 bulls of the White-Backed (WB) breed with an entry in the breed registry and used for breeding in the years 2003–2015. Eleven microsatellite DNA sequences (TGLA222, BM2113, TGLA53, ETH10, SPS115, TGLA126, TGLA122, INRA23, ETH3, ETH225 and BM1824) were used to analyse variation in the WB bulls. The bulls most often used for breeding were Chilon (1,073 doses), Mak (939 doses) and Jaguar (858 doses). The bulls Mak, Chilon and Jak had the greatest influence on the active population of White-Backed cattle, with the most daughters. In the analysed population of White-Backed bulls, a total of 79 different alleles were identified, with a mean 7.27 per locus. The analysed pool of microsatellite loci was characterized by high values for PIC, HO and HE (>0.6), and the entire population was in genetic equilibrium. The estimated level of inbreeding within the population ranged from −0.2277 (ETH225) to 0.0775 (SPS115), with a mean value of −0.0587.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T04:54:13.855161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13085
       
  • Colour-Doppler ultrasound imaging as a laparoscopy substitute to count
           corpora lutea in superovulated sheep
    • Authors: PHN Pinto; GM Bragança, MFA Balaro, EKN Arashiro, GB dos Santos, GN Souza, JMG Souza-Fabjan, JF Da Fonseca, FZ Brandão
      Abstract: This study evaluated colour-Doppler ultrasound imaging (UI) as a substitute for laparoscopy to count the corpora lutea (CL) in superovulated sheep. Twenty-five Santa Ines ewes were superovulated three times at 21-day intervals. Corpora lutea were counted by colour-Doppler UI (CLDOPPLER) 6 days after each superovulation and confirmed by laparoscopy (CLLAP) 12 hr later. The mean number of CL was similar for both techniques (2.1 ± 2.5 vs. 2.1 ± 2.7 for CLDOPPLER and CLLAP, respectively) with a significant positive correlation (r = .94; r2=.89). Colour-Doppler UI effectively evaluated the ovarian response in superovulated ewes and efficiently identified animals that did not respond to superovulation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T04:48:04.576406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13089
       
  • Effect of freezing bull semen in two non-egg yolk extenders on post-thaw
           sperm quality
    • Authors: IB Lima-Verde; A Johannisson, T Ntallaris, E Al-Essawe, Z Al-Kass, T Nongbua, F Dórea, N Lundeheim, K Kupisiewicz, A Edman, JM Morrell
      Abstract: Traditionally, extenders for bull semen included egg yolk or milk, but recently there has been a move to avoid material of animal origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two commercial extenders (based on soya lecithin and liposomes) on bull sperm quality after cryopreservation. Post-thaw sperm quality was evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometric assessment of membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species and tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, an artificial insemination (AI) trial was conducted, and 56-day non-return rates were evaluated. Semen frozen in the liposome-based extender showed similar membrane integrity and higher mitochondrial membrane potential compared to those in the soya lecithin-based extender. Chromatin integrity and production of live H2O2+ reactive oxygen species were similar in both extenders. Less superoxide was produced in the samples extended with liposome-based extender, with or without menadione stimulation. Chromatin integrity and tyrosine phosphorylation were not affected by either type of extender. No differences in 56-day non-return rate between extenders containing soya lecithin and liposomes were observed in the AI trial (66% ± 0.8 and 65% ± 0.8, respectively). In conclusion, the sperm quality of bull semen frozen in the two extenders that do not contain material of animal origin was similar, although the semen frozen in the liposome-based extender had higher mitochondrial membrane potential. Either extender could be used in situations where extenders containing material of animal origin are to be avoided.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T01:35:27.035078-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13080
       
  • Effect of oestrous synchrony between embryo donors and recipients, embryo
           quality and state on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle
    • Authors: MCC Rodrigues; ALM Bonotto, DAV Acosta, AA Boligon, MN Corrêa, CC Brauner
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oestrous synchrony between donors and recipients and the embryo quality on the pregnancy rate in beef cow recipients. The experiment was performed over two years at an embryo transfer (ET) centre in Southern Brazil. Ninety Aberdeen Angus cows were subjected to superovulation (SOV) protocols, resulting in the recovery of 1,048 transferable embryos. Eleven groups were formed with intervals of 6 hr, from −30 to +30 hr, with respect to recipient versus donor oestrous detection. Evaluation of embryo quality was according to the IETS guidelines. The overall pregnancy rate was 52%. Effects related to donor and recipient oestrous synchronization on pregnancy rate were observed (p = .01), ranging from 36% to 50%. The embryo quality rate affected the pregnancy rate, where Grade I resulted in 57% and Grade III in 43% of pregnancy (p  .05) effect on pregnancy rate: 53% for fresh embryos and 44% for frozen embryos. The odds ratio for explanatory variables causing pregnancy indicated that Grade III embryos had 31% less chance of conception compared to Grade I. Thus, oestrous synchrony between donor and recipient, considering ±30 hr apart, can affect the pregnancy rate along with embryo quality.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T03:10:29.054321-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13084
       
  • Peri-conceptional under-nutrition alters transcriptomic profile in the
           endometrium during the peri-implantation period—The study in domestic
           pigs
    • Authors: K Zglejc; M Martyniak, E Waszkiewicz, G Kotwica, A Franczak
      Abstract: Female under-nutrition during early pregnancy may affect the physiological pattern of the transcriptomic profile in the endometrium. We aimed to determine if restricted diet applied to females during peri-conceptional period, that is, from the onset of the oestrus until day nine of pregnancy, alters transcriptomic profile in the endometrium during the peri-implantation period. The restricted diet gilts were fed forage, in which the dose of proteins and energy had been reduced by 30% compared to normal diet. Microarray analysis revealed that approximately 4% of transcripts, that is 1690 of 43803 probes from The Porcine (V2) Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) were consistently altered (p ≤ .05) in the endometrium harvested from pigs fed restricted diet. In pigs fed restricted diet out of 1690 genes, 714 genes were upregulated and 976 genes were downregulated versus in pigs fed normal diet. From 1690 genes, 510 (30%) were genes with known biological functions in the KEGG database. The proportions of the differentially expressed transcripts were organized into six major categories and 39 subcategories containing 259 pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes. The largest amount of differentially expressed genes was involved in metabolism category. The most relevant genes were involved in gene ontology (GO) cellular component (CC) term. These findings suggest that females under-nutrition during peri-conceptional period may create changes in endometrial transcriptome during the peri-implantation period creating the potential changes in physiological functions of peri-implantation endometrium.
      PubDate: 2017-09-24T23:21:09.124582-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13068
       
  • Preliminary data on possible protein markers of parturition in cows
    • Authors: J Wawrzykowski; M Franczyk, M Hoedemaker, M Pries, B Streuff, M Kankofer
      Abstract: Parturition is one of the most important events in reproduction. Regardless of many studies, exact time for pregnancy termination and onset of parturition is impossible to determine. The aim of this study was to describe and to compare protein profile of plasma from healthy pregnant cows (n = 6) at following five time points: 2 weeks, 1 week before, at parturition, 1 week and 2 weeks after parturition to search for possible protein markers of parturition. Plasma samples were analysed by 1D and 2D electrophoresis, and selected spots were identified by mass spectrometry. Protein profile showed no uniform pattern. Seventy spots differed at least for one sampling point from the time point 2 weeks before parturition which served as reference. Thirty spots expressed higher intensity of staining 1 week as 2 weeks before parturition while 13 showed opposite relationship. Twenty two spots expressed higher intensity of staining at parturition as 2 weeks before delivery while 15 showed opposite relationship. Eighteen spots expressed higher intensity of staining 2 weeks before parturition as 1 week post-partum while 2 showed opposite relationship. Fifteen spots expressed higher intensity of staining 2 weeks before parturition as 2 weeks after delivery while 14 showed opposite relationship. Thirty-five proteins, belonging to different functional groups, were identified. Of them, 15 spots differed significantly between parturition and 2 weeks before delivery. Among them were metalloproteinase inhibitor and LDH which seem to be the most promising molecules considered as parturition markers due to their functions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-24T23:20:49.261251-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13079
       
  • Measurement of urinary concentrations of the mycotoxins zearalenone and
           sterigmatocystin as biomarkers of exposure in mares
    • Authors: M Takagi; S Uno, E Kokushi, F Sato, MMP Wijayagunawardane, J Fink-Gremmels
      Abstract: Mycotoxins may affect animal health, including reproduction. Little is known about the clinical relevance of exposure of horses to contaminated feed. This study aimed at (i) monitoring the levels of the mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEN), with its metabolites α- and β-zearalenol (α- and β-ZOL), and sterigmatocystin (STC) in urine samples from thoroughbred mares in Japan and (ii) relating these findings to the potential effects on reproductive efficacy of breeding mares. Sixty-three urine samples of breeding mares from 59 breeding farms were used. Urine samples and reproductive records were collected from each mare when it was presented to the stallion station. Urinary concentrations of ZEN, α- and β-ZOL, and STC were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). ZEN, α- and β-ZOL were measurable in the urine of all examined mares, indicating the prevalence of ZEN in equine feeds. In seven of the 63 samples, STC was also detected at levels ranging from 1.3 to 18.0 pg/mg creatinine. No significant correlation between the concentrations of mycotoxins and pregnancy status was observed. In conclusion, measurement of mycotoxins in urine samples is a useful non-invasive method for monitoring the systemic exposure of mares to multiple mycotoxins.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T05:41:07.681916-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13054
       
  • Lipopolysaccharide and cytokines modulate leukotriene (LT)B4 and LTC4
           production by porcine endometrial endothelial cells
    • Authors: J Czarzasta; K Meller, A Andronowska, B Jana
      Abstract: Uterine inflammatory response is mediated by inflammatory mediators including eicosanoids and cytokines produced by immune and endometrial cells. Interactions between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokines, and leukotrienes (LTs) in endothelium, important for the host defence during the inflammation, are unknown. We studied the effect of LPS, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4 and IL-10 on 5-lipooxygenase (5-LO), LTA4 hydrolase (LTAH) and LTC4 synthase (LTCS) mRNA and protein expression, LTB4 and LTC4 release from porcine endometrial endothelial cells, and cell viability. For 24 hr, cells were exposed to LPS (10 or 100 ng/ml of medium) and cytokines (each 1 or 10 ng/ml). 5-LO mRNA/protein expression augmented after incubation with larger doses of LPS, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 and smaller dose of IL-1β. Larger dose of TNF-α, smaller doses of LPS and IL-1β and both doses of IL-10 increased LTAH mRNA/protein expression. LTAH protein content was up-regulated by larger dose of LPS, but it was reduced in response to both doses of IL-4. LTCS mRNA expression was elevated by larger doses of LPS, IL-4 and IL-10 or both doses of TNF-α and IL-1β. LTCS protein level increased after treatment with both doses of IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-10, smaller dose of LPS and larger dose of TNF-α. Both doses of LPS and larger doses of TNF-α and IL-10 increased LTB4 release. LPS, IL-1β and IL-10 at smaller doses, or TNF-α and IL-4 at larger doses stimulated LTC4 release. Smaller doses of TNF-α and IL-1β or both doses of IL-4 enhanced the cell viability. This work provides new insight on the participation of LPS, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-10 in LTB4 and LTC4 production/release from porcine endometrial endothelial cells, and the effect of above factors on these cells viability. The used cellular model gives the possibility to further establish the interactions between inflammatory mediators.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T00:45:53.673682-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13077
       
  • Prostate vascular flow: The effect of the ejaculation on the power doppler
           ultrasonographic examination
    • Authors: S Alonge; M Melandri, L Fanciullo, GM Lacalandra, G Aiudi
      Abstract: Power Doppler sonography (PD) can accurately depict tissue perfusion, recognize slow flows, and is relatively angle independent. The monitoring of local blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography is helpful in differentiating prostatic physio-pathological conditions, but the recognizing of physiological variables that could affect it is crucial to apply this technique in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate if ejaculation affects blood flow to the prostate and to state how long this effect lasts. Serial PD examinations of prostate were performed in 18 dogs (1–5 years, 6–40 kg) immediately before (T0) and after (T1) the ejaculation, and repeated 6 (T2), 18 (T3) and 24 (T4) hours later. For each examination, two representative PD images were chosen and ranked by two independent observers according to the following scoring system: 0 = mild subcapsular (S) vascularization without clear evidence of parenchymal (P) vascularization; 1 = moderate P and S vascularization; 2 = severe S and moderate P vascularization; 3 = severe P and moderate S vascularization; 4 = severe P and S vascularization. Interobserver agreement was assessed using Kappa of Cohen. Ranked data, grouped according to time, were compared by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T00:45:40.73873-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13078
       
  • Effect of cryoprotectants and thawing temperatures on chicken sperm
           quality
    • Authors: M Miranda; B Kulíková, J Vašíček, L Olexiková, N Iaffaldano, P Chrenek
      Abstract: There is need for standardization of freezing–thawing protocol for rooster semen to minimize variability among results. Therefore, we aimed to compare effect of four different permeating cryoprotectants and two thawing temperatures (37 vs. 5°C) on sperm post-thaw motility and to analyse combined effect of the best permeating cryoprotectant (P-CPA) with one of four non-permeating cryoprotectants (N-CPA) on post-thaw quality of rooster semen evaluated in vitro. Pooled semen from Ross PM3 rooster heavy line was diluted in Kobidil extender and frozen in cryoprotectant solution containing 6% dimethylacetamide, 7.5% dimethylformamide, 9% N-methylacetamide or 8% ethylene glycol (EG) in liquid nitrogen vapours. To determine the best thawing rate, straws were thawed either at 37 or 5°C. Furthermore, samples were frozen in the presence of the best N-CPA either with 0.75 mol/L ficoll, 0.2 mol/L sucrose, 0.2 mol/L trehalose or 0.05 mol/L glycine. Sperm motility, membrane destabilization and viability were analysed to compare different freezing–thawing conditions. In addition, morphology and ultrastructure analysis were performed to compare fresh and frozen-thawed sperm quality. Our results indicate that the combination of EG and the thawing at 5°C improves (p ≤ .05) sperm post-thaw motility. Moreover, ficoll addition to EG-based freezing extender provided additional beneficial effect (p ≤ .05) on progressive movement and apoptosis incidence. Further work should evaluate different N-CPA concentrations to improve freezing protocol. In addition, fertility evaluation and testing on different chicken lines are needed in order to contribute to animal genetic resources bank.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T00:40:37.454944-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13070
       
  • Effect of different mini-volume colloid centrifugation configurations on
           flow cytometrically sorted sperm recovery efficiency and quality using a
           computer-assisted semen analyzer
    • Authors: LB Ferré; JL Chitwood, C Fresno, HH Ortega, ME Kjelland, PJ Ross
      Abstract: Straws of sex-sorted sperm are usually packaged at a low concentration (e.g., ~2.1 × 106 sperm/ml) and cost significantly more than unsorted conventional semen from the same sire. In order to maximize the efficiency of using sex-sorted sperm under in vitro fertilization conditions, the selection of an appropriate sperm separation technique is essential. In this study, the effect of using different silane-coated silica colloid dilutions and layering configurations during centrifugation of sex-sorted sperm was examined over an extended period of incubation time. Sperm recovery and viability after centrifugation using the colloid separation technique were measured along with several sperm motility parameters using CASA. For this purpose, frozen and thawed sex-sorted sperm samples were centrifuged using mini-volume single-layer (40%, 60% and 80%) and mini-volume two-layer (45%/90%, 40%/80% and 30%/60%) separation configurations using PureSperm®. A single layer of 40% PureSperm® recovered significantly more sex-sorted sperm (78.07% ± 2.28%) followed by a single layer of 80% PureSperm® (68.43% ± 2.33%). The lowest sperm recovery was obtained using a two-layer PureSperm® dilution of 45%/90% (47.57% ± 2.33%). Single-layer centrifugation recovered more sorted sperm (68.67% ± 1.74%) than two layer (53.74% ± 1.74%) (p 
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T00:40:30.589661-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13048
       
  • Redox cycling induces spermptosis and necrosis in stallion spermatozoa
           while the hydroxyl radical (OH•) only induces spermptosis
    • Authors: P Martín Muñoz; L Anel-López, JM Ortiz-Rodríguez, M Álvarez, P Paz, C Balao da Silva, H Rodríguez Martinez, MC Gil, L Anel, FJ Peña, C Ortega Ferrusola
      Abstract: Oxidative stress is a major factor explaining sperm dysfunction of spermatozoa surviving freezing and thawing and is also considered a major inducer of a special form of apoptosis, visible after thawing, in cryopreserved spermatozoa. To obtain further insights into the link between oxidative stress and the induction of apoptotic changes, stallion spermatozoa were induced to oxidative stress through redox cycling after exposure to 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), or hydroxyl radical formation after FeSO4 exposure. Either exposure induced significant increases (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T23:10:47.005355-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13052
       
  • Biochemical analysis of uterine fluid for identification of indicators for
           subclinical endometritis in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
    • Authors: SC Gahlot; S Kumar, A Kumaresan, S Vairamuthu, KK Saraf, L Sreela, RK Baithalu, SS Lathwal, TK Mohanty
      Abstract: Alterations in biochemical constituents of uterine fluid have been suggested for diagnosis of subclinical uterine infection in the bovine. This study was undertaken to investigate whether uterine fluid biomolecules could act as tool for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in the buffalo. Uterine fluid samples from normal (n = 22) and subclinical endometritis (n = 18; diagnosed based on uterine cytology)-affected buffaloes were subjected to biochemical analysis. Among the different biochemical constituents estimated, urea, urea N, cholesterol, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations were significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T03:10:21.350585-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13051
       
  • Effect of housing system on reproductive behaviour and on some
           endocrinological and seminal parameters of donkey stallions
    • Authors: A Rota; M Sgorbini, D Panzani, F Bonelli, P Baragli, N Ille, D Gatta, C Sighieri, L Casini, MM Maggiorelli, C Aurich, F Camillo
      Abstract: Reproductive management of male donkeys employed for artificial breeding has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of housing system, with the animals grouped together in a paddock or kept in individual boxes, on sexual behaviour, cortisol and testosterone concentration and seminal characteristics of adult male donkeys. The study included four Amiata donkey jacks (stallions) from which ejaculates, saliva and blood were collected during two distinct 3 weeks periods, one in the group and one in the box housing system. Time needed for semen collection was shorter when donkeys were kept in paddocks compared to when they were kept in single boxes (14:57 ± 07:27 and 20:52 ± 09:31 min, p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T02:21:18.787957-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13050
       
  • Effects of service number on conception rate in Japanese Black cattle
    • Authors: N Irikura; M Uematsu, G Kitahara, T Osawa, Y Sasaki
      Abstract: The conception rate (CR) of Japanese Black cattle has been decreasing since 1990. The objectives of this study were to compare CR by artificial insemination (AI) number, and to assess the interaction between AI number and possible factors related to CR in Japanese Black cattle. Records of 11,182 AI records for 6,741 heifers and 61,302 AI records for 13,139 cows on 977 farms were analysed. The average CR of heifers was 47.0%, and CR at the first, second and third AI was higher than at the fourth or subsequent AI (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T00:40:23.148022-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13049
       
  • Dominant follicles development and estradiol-17β concentrations in
           non-ovulating and ovulating post-partum Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes
    • Authors: S Yotov; A Atanasov
      Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the dominant follicles development and the estradiol-17β concentrations in non-ovulating and ovulating post-partum buffaloes. Sixteen Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes were submitted to transrectal ultrasonographic examination from the 1st post-partum day until day 50, 3 days apart. The follicular diameter of the different categories of follicles and the ovulations was recorded. The animals were allocated into two groups: I (n = 6) non-ovulating and II (n = 10) ovulating buffaloes. Serum estradiol-17β concentrations on the days for dominant follicle registration were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were statistically processed by analysis of variance, non-parametric and correlation analysis. The mean intervals between calving and first dominant follicle detection differed significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-30T23:10:26.871423-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13046
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 919 - 920
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T00:35:07.061553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12811
       
  • Flow cytometry in Spermatology: A bright future ahead
    • Authors: C Ortega-Ferrusola; MC Gil, H Rodríguez-Martínez, L Anel, FJ Peña, P Martín-Muñoz
      Pages: 921 - 931
      Abstract: Techniques such as mass spectrometry have led to unprecedented knowledge of the proteins that are present in the spermatozoa of humans and other mammals. However, in spite of their high-throughput and fractioning techniques, most of the techniques in use only offer average values for the entire sperm population. Yet, ejaculate is very heterogeneous, and average values may mask relevant biological information.The application of flow cytometry may overcome this disadvantage, allowing proteomic analysis at the single-cell level. Moreover, recent advances in cytometry, allowing multiple analyses within a single cell combined with powerful statistical tools, as an expanding subfield in spermatology, are described. The increased use of advanced flow cytometers in andrology laboratories will allow the rapid development of multiparametric, multicolour flow cytometry in andrology that will expand the clinical applications and research possibilities of flow cytometry-based proteomic approaches, especially in the subfields of clinical andrology and sperm biotechnology.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T23:30:28.330029-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13043
       
  • Oocyte viability and cortical activation under different salt solutions in
           Prochilodus lineatus (Teleostei: Prochilodontidae)
    • Authors: DC Ribeiro; JMA Chagas, C Bashiyo-Silva, RS Costa, R Veríssimo-Silveira, A Ninhaus-Silveira
      Pages: 932 - 938
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of five salt solutions in the maintenance of morphological features of cortical alveolus, hydration and fertilization capacity of Prochilodus lineatus oocytes. For this purpose, five saline solutions were tested: Ringer's solution, Ringer's lactate solution, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium (HBSS without calcium) and solution for salmonid eggs. Oocytes were maintained for 2 hr in saline solution with controlled temperature subsequently evaluated for hydration, cortical activation and fertilization ability. In the evaluation of the fertilization ability, two controls were used: C1—fertilized oocytes after extrusion—and C2—oocytes kept in ovarian fluid and fertilized after 2 hr.There was a significant reduction in the viability of oocytes C2 (28.8% ± 12.9%) compared to C1 (65.3% ± 26.7%), and no significant differences were found between treatments HBSS and HBSS without calcium and C2. Only HBSS and HBSS without calcium maintained the non-activated state of the gametes, with a fertilization rate of 16.4% ± 6.7% and 5.6% ± 2.3%, respectively; however, they did not extend the viability of oocytes, such that they continued to undergo degradation during the storage period, similar to oocytes retained only in ovarian fluid.
      PubDate: 2017-05-28T23:07:35.406875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12997
       
  • Radiographic assessment of pulmonary fluid clearance and lung aeration in
           newborn calves delivered by elective Caesarean section
    • Authors: MK Abdelmegeid; O Kutasi, MN Nassiff, K Wirth, E Bodai, F Farrag, L Molnár, O Szenci
      Pages: 939 - 944
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a radiographic standard for the assessment of pulmonary fluid clearance and lung aeration in newborn calves. Caesarean-delivered mature calves (n = 9) underwent lung assessment by thoracic radiography as well as arterial and venous blood gas analysis within the first 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr after birth. The results indicated that newborn calves delivered by elective Caesarean section suffered from a physiological combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis with the dominance of respiratory acidosis, and an improvement in these conditions was recorded within 24 hr after birth. Concerning the radiographic results, clear lung fields, improvement in lung expansion, air content of the lung and absence of lung opacification occurred within 24 hr of birth. Furthermore, the ventral lung quadrant showed an improvement in radiographic opacification and lung expansion earlier than the dorsal lung regions. The findings of this study support the potential role of thoracic radiography in the assessment of pulmonary fluid clearance and lung aeration in newborn calves.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T22:50:24.061679-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12998
       
  • Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on semen quality
           in Cairn Terriers with normospermia
    • Authors: KT Kirchhoff; K Failing, S Goericke-Pesch
      Pages: 945 - 952
      Abstract: Among others, selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VitE) have been provided to dogs to improve semen quality. However, scientific evidence documenting an effect in dogs is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of these antioxidants on various ejaculate parameters in a randomized, double-blinded trial using Cairn Terrier males exhibiting normal seminal quality parameters. Three dogs each were fed a standardized diet and supplemented with 0.1 mg Se, 100 mg VitE or 0.1 mg Se + 100 mg VitE/dog for 3 months. Ejaculate analyses (volume, progressive motility, vitality, morphology, concentration) were performed before inclusion (D0) and after 1, 2 and 3 months (+1, +2, +3). At the same time, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and VitE in seminal plasma (SP) and GSH-PX in blood samples were determined. Vitamin E levels in SP were below the detection limit (1.0 mg/L) in all samples. GSH-PX in blood (164.0–2794.4 IU/L) and SP (18.4–4326.0 IU/L) was highly variable. Supplementation only significantly affected the total percentage of sperm head abnormalities (p = .011). Time significantly affected the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm (p = .025), sperm head abnormalities (p = .007), proximal droplets (p = .001) and GSH-PX in SP (p = .015). Additionally, a significant interaction between time and group was identified for the percentage of membrane-intact sperm (p = .048), head abnormalities (p = .018), acrosomal defects (p = .043) and proximal droplets (p = .002). Although some effects could be identified for selected parameters, we failed to identify a clear trend about how a 3 months VitE and/or Se supplementation affects semen parameters in normospermic Cairn Terriers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T05:32:04.750079-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13000
       
  • Monitoring of libido and semen quality parameters in melatonin-treated
           French alpine bucks during the non-breeding season
    • Authors: S Vince; H Valpotić, V Berta, S Milinković-Tur, M Samardžija, J Grizelj, B Špoljarić, D Đuričić, I Nazansky, I Žura Žaja
      Pages: 953 - 961
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin on libido and semen quality parameters in bucks during the non-breeding season. Twelve bucks of the French alpine breed from 1.5 to 4 years of age were assigned into melatonin (MG) and control (CG) groups, with 6 bucks in each group. The experimental period was 3 months (March–May), divided into six periods of 15 days each. The bucks in the MG group received four melatonin implants at the end of March. Two semen samples were taken from the bucks by artificial vagina once per week and their libido estimated. Volume and spermatozoa concentration, their mass motility and motility, proportion of live and total abnormal and forms with abnormal head and tail were determined in the obtained ejaculate samples. The total number of spermatozoa and functional spermatozoa fraction in the ejaculate was also calculated. The MG bucks had significantly higher mass motility and motility of spermatozoa in the first half of April, and a higher proportion of live spermatozoa in the first and second half of April (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T03:15:28.5125-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13003
       
  • Relationship of temperament with oestrous behaviour, resumption of ovarian
           cyclicity and milk yield in post-partum Murrah buffaloes
    • Authors: KK Choudhary; A Bharadwaj, RK Sharma, A Jerome, S Khanna
      Pages: 962 - 968
      Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the relationship of temperament with oestrus, resumption of ovarian cyclicity and milk yield in post-partum buffaloes. For this study, 102 post-partum Murrah buffaloes were observed for temperament in open paddock and during milking. Based on the temperament score (1–5 score), they were classified into docile, slightly restless, restless, aggressive and nervous. Oestrous behaviour was monitored twice daily in all the buffaloes along with milk yield (weekly), body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 post-partum. Based on the temperament score, the number of buffaloes classified as docile, slightly restless, restless and aggressive was 37 (36.27%), 28 (27.45%), 30 (29.41%) and 7 (6.86%), respectively, but none under nervous category. Number of buffaloes resuming cyclicity in various temperaments groups were as follows: docile (n = 35; 94.59%), slightly restless (n = 22; 78.57%), restless (n = 20; 66.67%) and aggressive (n = 7; 85.71%). Temperament was not correlated (p = .128; r=−.152) with oestrous behaviour. But, temperament was correlated (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T23:20:23.244643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13004
       
  • Chlorogenic acid supplementation during in vitro maturation improves
           
    • Authors: T-V Nguyen; F Tanihara, LTK Do, Y Sato, M Taniguchi, M Takagi, T Van Nguyen, T Otoi
      Pages: 969 - 975
      Abstract: Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a quinic acid conjugate of caffeic acid, and a phytochemical found in many fruits and beverages that acts as an antioxidant. The present study investigated the effects of CGA supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM), on in vitro development of porcine oocytes, to improve the porcine in vitro production (IVP) system. Oocytes were matured either without (control) or with CGA (10, 50, 100 and 200 μM). Subsequently, the matured oocytes were fertilized and cultured in vitro for 7 day. The rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst formation of oocytes matured with 50 μM CGA were significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T23:26:28.445543-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13005
       
  • Feed restriction regime in a rabbit line selected for growth rate alters
           oocyte maturation manifested by alteration in MSY2 gene expression
    • Authors: C Naturil-Alfonso; DS Peñaranda, JS Vicente, F Marco-Jiménez
      Pages: 976 - 984
      Abstract: Young rabbit females selected for growth rate may have nutritional needs, which may not be met with the common practice of feed restriction during rearing in commercial rabbit production. The aim of this study was to analyse whether two different feeding programmes: ad libitum or restricted (130 g/day) feeding, applied in young rabbit females for 1 month at the end of rearing, could modulate the origin of ovulation process and the quality of the oocytes. At 16 weeks of age, 34 females were randomly assigned to restricted or ad libitum feeding, maintaining these conditions for a month. Then, in an initial experiment, transcriptional profiling of hypothalamus–hypophysis tissue was performed to assess failure to ovulate. In the second experiment, the gene expression analysis of some candidate genes related to oocytes quality was performed. Our results demonstrated that neither of the two feeding programmes modified the transcription of hypothalamus–hypophysis tissue, while the only differences in MSYR expression were found in in vivo mature oocytes ready for successful fertilization. Specifically, MSYR was over-expressed in oocytes from females fed ad libitum. MSYR is one of the most abundant proteins in the oocyte and has proven to be a key regulator of maternal RNA transcription and translation. This finding suggests that MSYR gene is a promising gene in our understanding of the relationship between high growth rate and reproductive performance decline.
      PubDate: 2017-06-18T22:55:30.346087-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13006
       
  • Antioxidative effect of BHA in soya bean lecithin-based extender
           containing Glycerol or DMSO on freezing capacity of goat semen
    • Authors: M Rahmatzadeh; H Kohram, A Zare Shahneh, A Seifi-Jamadi, E Ahmad
      Pages: 985 - 991
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (0 or 4 mM) along with different concentrations (5 or 7%) of glycerol (G) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant (CPAs) on freezability of goat semen. Semen was collected from four bucks (3–4 years) twice a week for five weeks. The pooled ejaculates were diluted with extender containing two different concentrations of G or DMSO in combination with BHA. Afterwards, the diluted samples were loaded into 0.25 ml straws and frozen using a standard protocol. After thawing motility parameters, viability, membrane integrity and total abnormality were assessed. The Results showed that the presence of BHA in extender, type and level of CPAs as main factors had significant effects on goat sperm viability, total and progressive motility after freezing–thawing processes (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T23:26:06.396306-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13007
       
  • Cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen in
           AndroMed® extender; in vitro and in vivo evaluation
    • Authors: MS Ansari; BA Rakha, S Akhter
      Pages: 992 - 997
      Abstract: The study was designed to evaluate AndroMed® for the freezability and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo semen. Semen was collected from four adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls for 3 weeks (replicate). Semen ejaculates from each buffalo bull were divided into three aliquots. One aliquot was used for evaluation of motility, plasma membrane integrity, livability, viability, DNA integrity and normal apical ridge. Remaining two aliquots were diluted (37°C; 50 × 106 spermatozoa/ml) in tris-citric egg yolk or AndroMed® extender and cryopreserved in 0.5 ml French straws. After thawing, per cent post-thaw motility (47.9 ± 0.8, 49.2 ± 1.7), plasma membrane integrity (44.4 ± 1.2, 46.8 ± 1.8) and normal apical ridge (81.4 ± 0.3, 83.2 ± 0.3) were recorded similar (p > .05) in tris-citric egg yolk and AndroMed® extender. Higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T23:25:22.95466-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13008
       
  • Serum testosterone, sperm quality, cytological, physicochemical and
           biochemical characteristics of the prostatic fraction of dogs with
           prostatomegaly
    • Authors: A Aquino-Cortez; BQ Pinheiro, HVR Silva, DBC Lima, TFP Silva, MB Souza, DA Viana, FAF Xavier Júnior, JSAM Evangelista, FZ Brandão, LDM Silva
      Pages: 998 - 1003
      Abstract: Prostatomegaly is a common finding in older non-neutered dogs. This study compared the serum testosterone, sperm quality and characteristics of the prostatic fraction between healthy dogs and dogs with prostatomegaly. Blood samples of ten dogs (five dogs from each group) were taken for serum testosterone measurement. Sperm motility, vigour, concentration, viability, membrane functionality and morphology were analysed in sperm-rich fraction. Osmolality, pH, cell types, and albumin, haemoglobin, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and chloride were analysed in prostatic fraction. Dogs with prostatomegaly have the lowest sperm motility, vigour, concentration and functional membrane. Dogs with prostatomegaly have the highest glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Glucose was the only constituent positively correlated with serum testosterone and prostate volume. It can be concluded that dogs with prostatomegaly have poorer sperm quality, and glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in prostatic fraction can be used as prostatomegaly biomarkers.
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:45:34.468683-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13009
       
  • Orally administered Chrysin improves post-thawed sperm quality and
           fertility of rooster
    • Authors: M Zhandi; M Ansari, P Roknabadi, A Zare Shahneh, M Sharafi
      Pages: 1004 - 1010
      Abstract: Chrysin is a bioflavonoid compound found in passion flower, chamomile, propolis and honey at high levels. Post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of Chrysin-fed roosters were assessed in this study. Twenty 40-week-old male broiler breeders were randomly divided into four groups and fed basal diet supplemented with different levels of Chrysin including 0 (Ch-0), 25 (Ch-25), 50 (Ch-50) or 75 (Ch-75) mg/day for 12 consecutive weeks. Semen samples were weekly collected from 6th to 9th week of experiment to evaluate some sperm quality parameters including total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality (in fresh and post-thawed samples) and mitochondrial activity (only in post-thawed samples). Also, collected semen samples from 10th, 11th and 12th week of experiment were frozen and then artificially inseminated to test fertility rate. According to the results, an improvement in both fresh and post-thawed sperm quality including total [fresh: 88.00 ± 0.58 and 87.25 ± 0.67 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T22:55:47.172424-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13014
       
  • Seasonal or pathological findings' Morphofunctional characteristics of
           the equine endometrium during the autumn and spring transition
    • Authors: R Killisch; D Böttcher, T Theuß, H Edzards, G Martinsson, A Einspanier, J Gottschalk, H-A Schoon
      Pages: 1011 - 1018
      Abstract: The deep anoestrous phase in winter is part of the anovulatory season in mares and is bordered by the autumn and spring transitional periods (ATP/STP). To define an annual time span for effective prognostic biopsy sampling, the aim of this study was to provide a morphofunctional characterization of the endometrium during ATP and STP. To outline both transitional periods, endometrial specimens were taken in September, October and November (n = 76) as well as February, March and April (n = 184) with the requirement of a detailed clinical documentation. Tissue samples were examined histologically with special emphasis on the functional endometrial morphology. Additionally, an immunohistochemical evaluation was performed on selected specimens regarding the expression of oestrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor and Ki67-antigen. An absent to low endometrial activity was ascertained in more than 60% of all specimens from late October onwards, whereas a comparably lacking or low activity in STP was observed until early April. Approximately 30% (ATP) to 22% (STP) of all samples exhibited a predominantly “irregular” endometrial differentiation. During the transitional periods, the clinically evaluated ovarian status (transrectal palpation, transrectal ultrasonography and/or serum progesterone and oestrogen analyses) and the endometrial functional morphology were in accordance with approximately 70% of all cases. The expression of steroid hormone receptors and Ki67-antigen was generally low. Given that endometrial maldifferentiations were frequently found during ATP and STP, its occurence might display a characteristic and physiological feature of the transitional periods. Regarding the functional endometrial morphology, a diagnostic biopsy sampling should therefore be performed between late April and before September.
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:45:56.607493-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13016
       
  • Reproductive performance of immobilized cryopreserved bovine semen used
           for timed artificial insemination
    • Authors: AH Alm-Kristiansen; G Dalen, G Klinkenberg, L Bekk, LT Thorkildsen, KE Waterhouse, E Kommisrud
      Pages: 1019 - 1024
      Abstract: The SpermVital® technology comprises embedding of spermatozoa within an alginate gel to facilitate release of sperm cells over a prolonged period in utero after AI. The aim of this study was to examine whether the survival time of spermatozoa is extended when applying this immobilization technology in combination with cryopreservation. Sperm cell survival (acrosome and plasma membrane integrity) was studied in vitro for 48 hr at physiological temperature. One dose of SpermVital® (SV) semen was compared with single doses of Biladyl® (B) processed semen as well as double doses of B (B double). B double was obtained by adding a second B dose the following day, thereby mimicking double AI. Furthermore, reproductive performance applying single early timed AI (TAI) with SV following oestrus synchronization was studied in a field trial. Double insemination (TAI on two consecutive days) with B semen served as control. Number of acrosome-intact live sperm cells decreased over time in vitro for all treatments (p  .05). However, after 48 hr, SV sperm cell survival was higher than B double (p  .05). Likelihood of pregnancy and calving in the heifer group was higher than in the cow group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:45:36.068323-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13017
       
  • Foetal pulmonary maturity in dogs: Estimated from bubble tests in amniotic
           fluid obtained via amniocentesis
    • Authors: T Bonte; A Del Carro, J Paquette, A Charlot Valdieu, S Buff, E Rosset
      Pages: 1025 - 1029
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to evaluate the reliability of amniocentesis during late pregnancy to assess lung maturity in puppies using a bubble test as described by Gunston and Davey (South African Medical Journal, 54, 1978, 495). Thirty-five bitches from eight different breeds were followed during late pregnancy before undergoing elective Caesarean (C)-section on days 61–62 after ovulation. Bubble tests were performed the day before the C-section (n = 11 bitches) and before the administration of aglepristone on amniotic fluid samples obtained via amniocentesis and were repeated the day of the surgery on amniotic fluid samples collected via puncture of the amniotic bags before they were opened (n = 35 bitches). No complications were observed following amniocenteses and the C-sections. The mortality rate (2.3%) was similar to the result of other studies using the same protocol for an elective C-section. Of the non-contaminated samples collected the day of the C-section, 89.6% were positive in the bubble test, which was consistent with observations of clinical maturity the day of the surgery and on the following days. In contrast, 70% of the samples collected the day before the C-section (when progesterone concentrations were still high) were negative, suggesting that the puppies were still immature at this point in the pregnancy. Additionally, we observed a significant difference in the bubble test results before and 18 hr after the administration of aglepristone, suggesting that aglepristone may act as an inducer of the final maturation of the puppies by inactivating progesterone receptors and simulating a physiological decrease in progesterone. Finally, we confirmed the need to exclude all contaminated samples, which could lead to false-negative results.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T22:55:39.304974-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13018
       
  • Ovsynch Plus protocol improves ovarian response in anovular Murrah
           buffaloes in low-breeding season
    • Authors: RK Sharma; SK Phulia, A Jerome, I Singh
      Pages: 1030 - 1035
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of ovarian response and pregnancy rate in anovular buffaloes following Ovsynch and Ovsynch Plus protocols. Buffaloes (n = 55) were divided into two groups: Ovsynch group (n = 26): GnRH (10 μg, GnRH1) on Day 0, PGF2α (25 mg) on Day 7, GnRH (10 μg, GnRH2) on Day 9; Ovsynch Plus group (n = 29): 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) 72 hr (day −3) prior to Ovsynch protocol, followed by fixed timed artificial insemination (FTAI) 6 and 24 hr after GnRH2 injection in bot groups. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily, that is, from day 0 and −3 in Ovsynch and Ovsynch Plus group, respectively for ovarian response and pregnancy diagnosis at day 30 post-insemination. In Ovsynch Plus group, administration of eCG prior to GnRH1 increased (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:45:58.537455-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13020
       
  • Cellular and extracellular vesicular origins of miRNAs within the bovine
           ovarian follicle
    • Authors: GM Andrade; FV Meirelles, F Perecin, JC Silveira
      Pages: 1036 - 1045
      Abstract: The ovarian follicle components must provide an ideal environment to ensure the success of reproductive processes, and communication between follicular cells is crucial to support proper oocyte growth. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) carrying microRNAs (miRNAs) in follicular fluid represents an important autocrine and paracrine communication mechanism inside the ovarian follicle. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the miRNA content of EVs isolated from ovarian follicular (granulosa and cumulus–oocyte complexes) cell-conditioned culture media is dependent upon cell type. We initially screened bovine granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs), as well as their derived EVs for 348 miRNAs using real-time PCR, and detected 326 miRNAs in GCs and COCs cells and 62 miRNAs in GCs and COCs EVs. A bioinformatics analysis of the identified cell-specific and differentially expressed miRNAs predicted that they likely modulate important cellular processes, including signalling pathways such as the PI3K-Akt, MAPK and Wnt pathways. By investigating the origins of miRNAs within the follicular fluid, the results of this study provide novel insights into follicular miRNA content and intercellular communication that may be of invaluable use in the context of reproductive technologies, diagnostic of ovarian-related diseases and/or the identification of biomarkers for oocyte and embryo quality.
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:46:07.543229-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13021
       
  • Taurine does not improve the quality of short-term stored rabbit
           spermatozoa in vitro
    • Authors: D Paál; F Strejček, E Tvrdá, J Vašíček, A Baláži, P Chrenek, P Massányi
      Pages: 1046 - 1051
      Abstract: This study examines the impact of taurine on the viability, morphology and acrosome integrity of rabbit spermatozoa in vitro. Semen samples, obtained from four to five sexually mature and healthy New Zealand White rabbits, were pooled in heterospermic semen sample. This was divided and treated with taurine in a concentration of 0 (control), 1.5, 7, 12.5, 50 mM to a final concentration of 108 spermatozoa/ml. The samples were then incubated at 37°C for 4 hr. A combination of fluorescent probes SYBR-14/propidium iodide/PNA-Alexa Fluor 647 was used to assess spermatozoa viability and acrosome integrity on a flow cytometer. The sperm morphology was evaluated under a light microscope following fixation in 1.5% paraformaldehyde. The experiment was repeated three times. According to the obtained results, the spermatozoa neither could have benefit from immediate taurine treatment, nor had they after 4-hr incubation with respect to viability and acrosome integrity. Taurine did not initially alter the total and acrosome morphology of treated spermatozoa nor has it by 4 hr upon treatment. In conclusion, taurine may have no protective effect on the viability, morphology and acrosome integrity of short-term stored rabbit spermatozoa.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T22:56:44.035191-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13022
       
  • Antioxidants protect proteins' anchorage to the bilayer by improving
           plasma membrane integrity of ram spermatozoa during liquid preservation in
           a soya lecithin-based diluent
    • Authors: RK Paul; D Kumar, SMK Naqvi
      Pages: 1052 - 1060
      Abstract: Antioxidants are known to prevent the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated peroxidative damage to the membrane lipids during hypothermic storage of mammalian spermatozoa. We hypothesized here that ROS also affect the lipid–protein interactions, thereby diminishing the membrane's integrity and proteins' anchorage to the bilayer. Antioxidants prevent these damages by scavenging the ROS. Ejaculates from Patanwadi rams were pooled after subjective evaluation and centrifuged using Percoll®. Sperm pellet was resuspended in soya lecithin–Tris–fructose diluent (400 × 106 cells/ml) containing either antioxidants (100 IU/ml catalase + 10 mM reduced glutathione) or no antioxidant. Aliquots were chilled to 5°C in a cabinet and stored in a refrigerator at 3–5°C for 72 hr. Sperm motility, viability, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) were performed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hr. Sperm proteins extracted with 0.5% Triton X-100 were resolved by SDS-PAGE and quantified using Quantity One software (Bio-Rad, USA). The rapid motility, linearity and straight-line velocity (VSL) were found significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T06:10:50.328208-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13023
       
  • Effects of iodine methionine on boar sperm quality during liquid storage
           at 17°C
    • Authors: Q Fang; J Wang, YY Hao, H Li, JX Hu, GS Yang, JH Hu
      Pages: 1061 - 1066
      Abstract: Microbial environment is one of the important factors that affect the quality of preserved semen. Iodine methionine (IM), participating in the production and activation of metabolic enzymes, is a new type of amino acid chelate. To date, there has been no report to evaluate the effects of IM on boar semen preservation at 17°C. This study was designed to investigate the effects of IM on boar sperm quality and reproductive performance during liquid storage at 17°C and its antibacterial effect. Semen samples collected from six Yorkshire boars were diluted with basic liquid containing different concentrations of IM (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 μM). Subsequently, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were determined. After 6 days of preservation, the difference in microbial composition between control group and 80 μM IM group was compared using 16S rDNA sequencing, and the effects of IM on reproductive performance were also compared and analysed between the two groups. The results demonstrated that 20, 40 and 80 μM IM improved boar sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity. 80 μM IM was the optimum concentration. Conversely, 160 and 320 μM IM resulted in deleterious consequences to boar sperm quality compared to the control group and other treatment groups (p  .05). But the litter size of 80 μM IM group was significantly higher than that of control group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:46:10.00151-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13024
       
  • Differential expression of insulin-like growth factor family members in
           immature cumulus–oocyte complexes from dairy cows with different
           genotypes
    • Authors: AC Lopes; MP Palhão, CAC Fernandes, MJ Sudano, ACS Castilho, ES Caixeta
      Pages: 1067 - 1073
      Abstract: It has been evident the improvement of in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in dairy cows. Nevertheless, it is known that differences in the number and quality of oocytes between taurine and zebu females impact the efficiency and economic viability of IVEP. As the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is related to follicular and oocyte development, we aimed to quantify mRNA abundance of IGF system members and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA) in the cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) of Gir, 1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir and Holstein cows. Four pools of 30 immature COCs from Gir, 1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir and Holstein cows were obtained by ovum pickup (OPU), and the oocytes and cumulus cells (CC) were mechanically separated and stored at −80°C. Total RNA was extracted from pools of 30 oocytes and their respective CC. Expression of target genes was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In oocytes, the abundance of IGFR1 mRNA was higher (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T23:15:26.830751-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13028
       
  • Effect of exogenous progesterone administration on luteal sensitivity to
           PGF during the early development of the corpus luteum in mares and cows
    • Authors: A Garcia-Muñoz; X Valldecabres-Torres, JR Newcombe, J Cuervo-Arango, E Garcia-Rosello
      Pages: 1074 - 1080
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous progesterone administration at ovulation and during the early development of the CL, on its future sensitivity to a single administration of PGF2a in mares and cows. Horse Retrospective reproductive data from an equine clinic in the UK during three breeding seasons were used. Mares were divided into: control group, cycles with single ovulations; double ovulation group cycles with asynchronous double ovulations; and PRID group: cycles with single ovulations and treatment with intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR) immediately after the ovulation. All mares were treated with d-cloprostenol (PGF) at either: (i) 88 hr; (ii) 96 hr; (iii) 104 hr; or (iv) 112 hr after the last ovulation. Cattle A total of nine non-lactating Holstein cows were used. All cows were administered PGF14 d apart and allocated to one of two groups control group GnRH was administered 56 hr after the second PGF administration. CIDR group CIDR was inserted at the same time of GnRH administration. All cows were administered PGF at 120 hr post-ovulation. The complete luteolysis rate of mares with double ovulation (66.7%) and those treated with exogenous progesterone (68.4%) was significantly higher than the rate of mares with single ovulation (35.6%) at 104 hr. In the cow, however, the treatment with CIDR did not increase the luteolytic response in cows treated at 120 hr post-ovulation. In conclusion, the degree of complete luteolysis can be influenced by increasing the concentration of progesterone during the early luteal development in mares.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T06:10:24.831145-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13029
       
  • miR-182 selectively targets HOXA10 in goat endometrial epithelium cells in
           vitro
    • Authors: L Zhang; X-R Liu, J-Z Liu, Y-X Song, Z-Q Zhou, B-Y Cao
      Pages: 1081 - 1092
      Abstract: Proper HOXA10 expression was essential for endometrial receptivity what was crucial for successful embryo implantation in mammalian. This study confirmed that miR-182 regulated the expression levels of HOXA10 by binding to its 3′ UTR, selectively downregulated HOXA10 in goat endometrial epithelium cells (gEECs) but not stromal cell (gESCs) in vitro. However, HOXA10 and miR-182 both up-expressed in the goat endometrium at gestational day 15 (D15) compared with gestational day 5 (D5), suggesting that there were some other factors regulated the expression of HOXA10 during the development of goat endometrium in vivo. What's more, HOXA10 gene silencing (HOXA10-siRNA) resulted in gEECs apoptosis in vitro, and it regulated the protein levels of oestrogen receptor a (ERa), progesterone receptor B (PRb), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), BCL-2, pleiotrophin (PTN), AKT and p-JNK in gEECs. Furthermore, HOXA10 might regulate the protein levels of endometrial receptivity biomarker genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), osteopontin (OPN), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) in gEECs. In conclusion, miR-182 targeted HOXA10 selectively in EECs in vitro, and HOXA10 played an important role in maintaining the function of EECs in dairy goats.
      PubDate: 2017-07-30T23:10:59.910654-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13031
       
  • Abortion in goats by Caprine alphaherpesvirus 1 in Spain
    • Authors: J Gonzalez; G Passantino, A Esnal, N Cuesta, JA García Vera, L Mechelli, A Saez, JF García Marín, M Tempesta
      Pages: 1093 - 1096
      Abstract: An abortion outbreak occurred in a goat herd of Murciano-Granadina breed in Almeria Region in Spain where 80 pregnant females aborted. All bacteriological and parasitological examinations resulted negative, whereas virological investigations and real-time PCR assay showed the presence of Caprine alphaherpesvirus 1 DNA in the pathological specimens from aborted foetuses. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the DNA was highly close related to the Swiss strain E-CH (99.7%) and a little less extent to the Italian BA.1 strain (99.4%). Histopathological examination revealed multifocal, well-circumscribed, 50- to 200-μm-diameter foci of coagulative necrosis in the liver, lungs and kidneys of three foetuses. In the periphery of the necrosis, there were frequently epithelial cells with the chromatin emarginated by large, round, amphophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies. The source of the infection in the herd could not clearly find out even some hypothesis were formulated. This seems to be the first report of an abortion outbreak due to Caprine alphaherpesvirus 1 in a goat herd in Spain.
      PubDate: 2017-08-13T23:05:29.75069-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13034
       
  • Single layer centrifugation of fresh dromedary camel semen improves sperm
           quality and in vitro fertilization capacity compared with simple sperm
           washing
    • Authors: C Malo; EG Crichton, JM Morrell, BS Pukazhenthi, JA Skidmore
      Pages: 1097 - 1103
      Abstract: Single layer centrifugation (SLC) through a colloid is a tool for selecting viable mammalian spermatozoa but has not been used previously for fresh dromedary camel sperm. Semen from six camels (2 ejaculates/male) was diluted 1:5 (v:v) or 1:10 (v:v) in a Tris–citrate–fructose buffer for mechanical liquefaction by gentle pipetting. Following liquefaction, semen was processed either by SLC or by centrifugation without a colloid (control). Total and progressive motilities, CASA kinematics, vitality and acrosome integrity (eosin–nigrosin) and plasma membrane integrity (Hypo-osmotic swelling test; HOST), and fertilizing ability in a heterologous assay (zona-free goat oocytes) were evaluated. Both total (p = .003) and progressive motilities (p = .003) were higher in SLC-processed than in control semen samples, irrespective of dilution. Positive HOST values increased when using colloid in 1:5 (p = .001) and 1:10 dilution (p = .010). Colloid-selected sperm had higher penetration rates than controls (p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T00:40:21.229546-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13036
       
  • Expression of GnRH receptor in the canine corpus luteum, and luteal
           function following deslorelin acetate-induced puberty delay
    • Authors: D Kaya; A Gram, MP Kowalewski, S Schäfer-Somi, M Kuru, A Boos, S Aslan
      Pages: 1104 - 1112
      Abstract: The goals of this study were as follows: (Experiment 1) to examine the basic capability of canine corpora lutea (CL) to respond to GnRH by assessing expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) in luteal samples collected throughout the luteal lifespan from non-pregnant dogs, and (Experiment 2) to investigate the effects of pre-pubertal application of the GnRH agonist deslorelin acetate on luteal function following the first oestrus. Mature CL were collected during the mid-luteal phase (days 30–45) from treated and control bitches. Transcript levels of several factors were determined: estrogen receptors (ESR1/ERα, ESR2/ERβ), progesterone (P4)-receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR), PGE2-synthase (PTGES) and PGE2 receptors (PTGER2/EP2, PTGER4/EP4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2/PTGS2), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD). Additionally, levels of Kisspeptin 1 (Kiss1) and its receptor (KISS1-R) were evaluated. Although generally low, GnRH-R expression was time dependent and was elevated during early dioestrus, with a significant decrease towards luteal regression. In deslorelin-treated and control dogs, its expression was either low or frequently below the detection limit. EP2 and VEGFR1 were higher in the treated group, which could be caused by a feedback mechanism after long-term suppression of reproductive activity. Despite large individual variations, 3βHSD was higher in the deslorelin-treated group. This, along with unchanged STAR expression, was apparently not mirrored in increased luteal functionality, because similar P4 levels were detected in both groups. Finally, the deslorelin-mediated long-term delay of puberty does not have negative carry-over effects on subsequent ovarian functionality in bitches.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T00:40:33.045497-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13038
       
  • Leucemia inhibitory factor; investigating the time-dependent effect on
           viability of vitrified bovine embryos
    • Authors: A Kocyigit; M Cevik
      Pages: 1113 - 1119
      Abstract: Leucemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is involved in various reproductive processes, including sperm development, regulation of ovulation, as well as blastocyst formation, hatching and implantation in embryos. Moreover, LIF has also been shown significantly to enhance the blastocyst formation rates of bovine embryos, a finding that remains controversial. Our purpose was to investigate time-dependent effect of LIF on bovine embryo culture, especially in terms of addition timing. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in five different groups. In this study, 100 ng/ml LIF was added to the culture medium were as follows; control: SOF alone, group A: at day 0 (fertilization day), group B: at day 4 post-insemination (p.i.), group C: at day 4 to 7 (p.i. before vitrification) and group D: at day 8 (p.i. after thawing). Addition of LIF to the culture medium at day 4 significantly increased the percentage of blastocyst rate when compared day 0, day 4 at 6/7 and control group (41.8% versus 24.3%, 19.7%, 34.6%). In conclusion, the addition of LIF only on day 4 (p.i.) to the culture medium was found to be beneficial for bovine embryonic development based on several measures, including blastocysts rate, re-expansion rate and cellular cryotolerance after vitrification.
      PubDate: 2017-07-30T23:11:08.219803-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13040
       
  • Comparative proteomic analysis of different developmental stages of swamp
           buffalo testicular seminiferous tubules
    • Authors: P-F Zhang; Y-L Huang, Q Fu, F-M Chen, Y-Q Lu, X-W Liang, M Zhang
      Pages: 1120 - 1128
      Abstract: With ageing, many protein components change markedly during mammalian spermatogenesis. Most of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. Here, we have employed two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to explore the different proteins from pre-pubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal swamp buffalo testicular seminiferous tubules. The results showed that 25 protein spots were differentially expressed among developmental stages, and 13 of them were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. Of which four proteins were up-regulated and three proteins were down-regulated with age, and the remaining six proteins were fluctuated among developmental stages. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that these proteins were probably related to cellular developmental process (53.8%), cell differentiation (53.8%), spermatogenesis (15.4%), apoptotic process and cell death (30.8%). Expression profiles of calumenin (CALU) and galectin-1 (LGALS1) were further verified via Western blotting. In summary, the results help to develop an understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with buffalo spermatogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-13T23:05:58.972581-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13044
       
  • Daylight effect on melatonin secretion in adult female guanacos (Lama
           guanicoe)
    • Authors: JL Riveros; LM Correa, G Schuler
      Pages: 1129 - 1132
      Abstract: The wild South American camelids developed a strategy of seasonal reproduction during spring and summer with singleton birth. The photoperiod is one of the factors that may modulate this seasonality where light would be translated into a hormonal signal. This study evaluated the influence of changes in daily light intensity on melatonin concentration in captive guanacos under a long-day photoperiod (16 hr light/8 hr dark; 33 ‘28′S). Mean melatonin concentration was 28.3 ± 20.3 pg/ml, with a maximum of 52.14 ± 17.19 pg/ml at 23:30 and minimum of 14.29 ± 6.64 pg/ml at 08:30 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T06:21:05.416722-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13001
       
  • Genetic screening of FecB, FecXG and FecXI mutations and their linkage
           with litter size in Barki and Rahmani sheep breeds
    • Authors: AS El-Seedy; NM Hashem, KM El-Azrak, ANM Nour El-Din, TA Ramadan, TA Taha, MH Salem
      Pages: 1133 - 1137
      Abstract: Characterization of fecundity genes offers the opportunity to improve production efficiency, and the consequent increase in litter size in livestock industry, through utilizing them in breeding programs. The main objective of this study was to detect the BMPR-IB, BMP15 and GDF9 gene mutations and to investigate whether these mutations are associated with litter size in Egyptian sheep breeds. To achieve this goal, 73 adult ewes representing Barki (n = 33) and Rahmani (n = 40) breeds were used. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) screening approach was used to detect the presence of FecB, FecXG and FecXI mutations in the two selected breeds. Results of this study showed that the three different candidate gene mutations, namely FecB, FecXG and FecXI are not present among these selected populations of the Egyptian breeds. Further studies regarding other mutations and/or other genes, which may influence ovulation rate, should be carried out to determine the type and mode of inheritance of such genes in Egyptian sheep breeds.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T23:10:23.394807-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13002
       
  • Different origins of two corpora lutea recovered from a pregnant African
           elephant (Loxodonta africana)
    • Authors: Y Yamamoto; K Nagaoka, Y Kamite, G Watanabe, T Allen, F Stansfield, K Taya
      Pages: 1138 - 1141
      Abstract: Elephant ovaries contain multiple corpora lutea (CLs) throughout pregnancy. Two CLs (P-1 and P-2) collected from a pregnant African elephant were used to investigate their origin and physiological state in this study. The mRNA expressions of prolactin receptor, CYP11A and inhibin betaB subunit were higher in P-2 than in P-1, while LHCGR and inhibin betaA subunit mRNA were higher in P-1 than in P-2. Protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 was detected in P-1 but not in P-2. These results suggest different origins for the two CLs in this one pregnant elephant, and we also demonstrated the production of bioactive prolactin by the elephant placenta.
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:45:30.083334-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13010
       
  • Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity in serum, follicular fluid and seminal
           plasma of sheep
    • Authors: J Pradieé; FT Campos, JAA Rincon, L Collares, K Goularte, PAS Silveira, LMC Pegoraro, A Schneider
      Pages: 1142 - 1144
      Abstract: This work aimed to describe the activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in serum, follicular fluid and seminal plasma of sheep. Average serum PON1 activity was 286.8 ± 96.2 U/ml in females and 237.6 ± 18.9 U/ml in males. There was a positive correlation between PON1 activity in serum and follicular fluid in females, being twice higher in serum than in follicular fluid (148.8 ± 15.7 U/ml). PON1 activity in males’ serum was 10-fold higher than in seminal plasma (21.18 ± 14.2 U/ml), and there was no correlation between PON1 activity in both compartments. Finally, this work suggests that PON1 activity of in sheep is higher compared to other mammalian species, and there is an association between PON1 in serum and follicular fluid only.
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:45:20.080419-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13015
       
  • Influence of practitioner expertise during early pregnancy diagnosis on
           pregnancy loss rate: A controlled, blinded trial
    • Authors: R Patron; I López-Helguera, F Sebastián, J-L Pesantez-Pacheco, N Pérez-Villalobos, J Vicente González Martín, O Fargas, S Astiz
      Pages: 1145 - 1148
      Abstract: A controlled field trial was conducted to assess the potential influence of practitioner inexperience during early pregnancy diagnosis with ultrasound (PD-US) on the risk of pregnancy loss. A veterinarian with more than 10 years’ experience in PD-US (Vet-A) and a veterinarian with fewer than 12 months’ experience at the start of the study (Vet-B) visited the same dairy farm once a week for 33 and 26 weeks, respectively. The two veterinarians did not interact with each other at any time during the study, nor did they know that their data would later be used in this study. Using the same farm scanner, they performed PD-US at 28–34 day after breeding, together diagnosing 915 pregnancies. All cows were re-checked at 49–56 day after artificial insemination, and cows no longer pregnant were recorded as having suffered pregnancy loss. Although Vet-A and Vet-B diagnosed a similar proportion of pregnancies (58.44 ± 16% vs 56.96 ± 18%, p > .05), the rate of pregnancy loss was significantly higher among cows diagnosed by Vet-B (10.41 ± 11.2% vs 4.87 ± 9.0, p = .029). In addition, among cows diagnosed by Vet-B, the rate of pregnancy loss was significantly higher among cows diagnosed, while he had fewer than 12 months’ PD-US experience (11.17 ± 12.14%) than among cows that he diagnosed later (7.14 ± 11.01%, p = .038); in fact, this latter loss rate was comparable to that among cows diagnosed by Vet-A during the same period (3.51 ± 9.83%, p = .620). These results suggest that inexperience with PD-US during the late embryonic period can increase risk of early pregnancy loss, supporting the need for proper training.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T22:55:33.987718-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13033
       
  • The Comet assay for detection of DNA damage in canine sperm
    • Authors: AF Pereira; P Borges, A Fontbonne, L Cardoso, I Gaivão, A Martins-Bessa
      Pages: 1149 - 1152
      Abstract: Sperm DNA integrity is a fundamental prerequisite in fertilization and embryo development. Among DNA integrity tests, the Comet assay is an accurate and sensitive test for the detection of sperm oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate sperm oxidative damage using the Comet assay and to study the correlation between Comet and routine assays for the evaluation of semen quality. Dogs were divided in two groups: group A (n = 6), comprising dogs with abnormal spermiogram, that is astheno-, terato- or oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT); and group B (n = 8), comprising normospermic dogs. The distribution of sperm oxidative damage was significantly different between the two groups (p = .001): group A—median: 31.55%, interquartile range (IQR): 30.18–38.01; group B—median: 0.90%, IQR: 0.65–1.96. The correlation between oxidative damage and abnormal morphology was high (r = .846; p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-13T23:05:38.365871-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13042
       
  • Cytobrush: A tool for sequential evaluation of gene expression in bovine
           endometrium
    • Authors: B Cardoso; ML Oliveira, G Pugliesi, EOS Batista, M Binelli
      Pages: 1153 - 1157
      Abstract: Aims were to (i) compare specific transcript abundance between endometrial samples collected by transcervical biopsy and cytobrush and (ii) measure the abundance of endometrial transcripts involved in PGF2α synthesis in samples collected by cytobrush. In Experiment 1, endometrial samples were taken transcervically by cytobrush and biopsy 10 days after ovulation. Compared to biopsy samples, abundance of transcripts for MSTN, AKR1C4 and PGR was similar, VIM, FLT1 and PTGES was lower (p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T23:35:34.047863-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.13037
       
 
 
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