- Selection of red deer spermatozoa with different cryoresistance using
- Abstract: The objective of sperm selection media is selecting the best spermatozoa and to remove seminal plasma and diluent for using them in assisted reproductive techniques. It is known that individuals show different cryoresistance in response to the same freezing procedure. Our hypothesis was that the efficacy of selection media could be dissimilar for samples with different sperm quality after thawing. Epididymal sperm samples from mature Iberian red deer were collected and frozen. Males were classified as with high post‐thaw sperm quality when sperm motility (SM) ≥ 70%, or as with low post‐thaw sperm quality when SM ≤ 69%. Samples were centrifuged using the following density gradients (DG): Percoll®, Puresperm® and Bovipure™, and several functional sperm parameters were assessed after sperm selecting and washing. Males classified with high sperm quality had higher post‐thawing values (p > .05) for all parameters evaluated, except for linearity index, than those categorized as low sperm quality. After selection, some sperm characteristics improved (viability, apoptosis and mitochondrial activity) for both groups, showing the males with high sperm quality higher values in all sperm parameters except for kinematic traits and DNA fragmentation index (%DFI), regardless of DG. Bovipure™ yield lower values of sperm motility, viability, apoptosis and mitochondrial activity in relation to Percoll® and Puresperm® considering both quality groups. There was an interaction between the type of DG and sperm quality group for sperm viability (p = .040) and apoptosis (p = .003). Thus, Percoll® selected less live and more apoptotic spermatozoa than Puresperm® and Bovipure™ for males with low sperm quality. In conclusion, the DG are more efficient selecting spermatozoa from samples with high sperm quality, acting differently depending on initial sperm quality.
- GnRH and prostaglandin‐based synchronization protocols as alternatives
to progestogen‐based treatments in sheep
- Abstract: The study investigated, for cycling sheep, synchronizing protocols simultaneously to the standard “P” protocol using progestogens priming with intravaginal devices and gonadotropin. In November 2014, 90 adult Menz ewes were assigned to either the “P” protocol, “PGF” treatment where oestrus and ovulation were synchronized using two injections of prostaglandin 11 days apart or a “GnRH” treatment where the ewes had their oestrus and ovulation synchronized with GnRH (day 0)–prostaglandin (day 6)–GnRH (day 9) sequence. The ewes were naturally mated at the induced oestrus and the following 36 days. Plasma progesterone revealed that 92% of the ewes were ovulating before synchronization and all, except one, ovulated in response to the applied treatments. All “P” ewes exhibited oestrus during the 96‐hr period after the end of the treatments in comparison with only 79.3% and 73.3% for “PGF” and “GnRH” ewes, respectively (p
- Identification of candidate miRNAs and expression profile of yak oocytes
before and after in vitro maturation by high‐throughput sequencing
- Authors: XR Xiong; DL Lan, J Li, XD Zi, MY Li
Abstract: Small RNA represents several unique non‐coding RNA classes that have important function in a wide range of biological processes including development of germ cells and early embryonic, cell differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in diverse organisms. However, little is known about their expression profiles and effects in yak oocytes maturation and early development. To investigate the function of small RNAs in the maturation process of yak oocyte and early development, two small RNA libraries of oocytes were constructed from germinal vesicle stage (GV) and maturation in vitro to metaphase II‐arrested stage (M II) and then sequenced using small RNA high‐throughput sequencing technology. A total of 9,742,592 and 12,168,523 clean reads were obtained from GV and M II oocytes, respectively. In total, 801 and 1,018 known miRNAs were acquired from GV and M II oocytes, and 75 miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed: 47 miRNAs were upregulated and 28 miRNAs were downregulated in the M II oocytes compared to the GV stage. Among the upregulated miRNAs, miR‐342 has the largest fold change (9.25‐fold). Six highly expressed miRNAs (let‐7i, miR‐10b, miR‐10c, miR‐143, miR‐146b and miR‐148) were validated by real‐time quantitative PCR (RT‐qPCR) and consistent with the sequencing results. Furthermore, the expression patterns of two miRNAs and their potential targets were analysed in different developmental stages of oocytes and early embryos. This study provides the first miRNA profile in the mature process of yak oocyte. Seventy‐five miRNAs are expressed differentially in GV and M II oocytes as well as among different development stages of early embryos, suggesting miRNAs involved in regulating oocyte maturation and early development of yak. These results showed specific miRNAs in yak oocytes had dynamic changes during meiosis. Further functional and mechanistic studies on the miRNAs during meiosis may beneficial to understanding the role of miRNAs on meiotic division.
- Effects of donor cells’ sex on nuclear transfer efficiency and telomere
lengths of cloned goats
- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of donor cells’ sex on nuclear transfer efficiency and telomere length of cloned goats from adult skin fibroblast cells. The telomere length of somatic cell cloned goats and their offspring was determined by measuring their mean terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length. The result showed that (i) reconstructed embryos with fibroblast cells from males Boer goats obtained significantly higher kids rate and rate of live kids than those of female embryos and (ii) the telomere lengths of four female cloned goats were shorter compared to their donor cells, but five male cloned goats had the same telomere length with their donor cells, mainly due to great variation existed among them. The offspring from female cloned goats had the same telomere length with their age‐matched counterparts. In conclusion, the donor cells’ sex had significant effects on nuclear transfer efficiency and telomere lengths of cloned goats.
- Development of the cardiorespiratory system in dogs from days 16 to 46 of
- Abstract: Dogs have been studied for several reasons, such as the genetic improvement, their use as experimental models, in zoonotic research, cell therapy and as a model for human diseases. However, many features relating to the embryonic development of dogs remain unknown because of the absence of embryological studies. Considering the importance of the cardiorespiratory system in the development of embryos, the aim of this study was to investigate the development of the main cardiorespiratory organs of dog embryos and foetuses with estimated gestational ages from 16 to 46 days using macro‐ and microscopic descriptions. On day 16 of development, the neural tube and crest were formed, the anterior and posterior neuropore closure had begun and the somites had developed. Between days 22 and 27 of gestation, the lung buds and the initial formation of the primary bronchi and heart chambers were observed. The heart chambers exhibited the endo‐, myo‐ and epicardial layers but did not have obvious differences in thickness among each other. Between days 41 and 46 of gestation, the nasal conchae and septa and trachea were formed, which exhibited characteristic epithelia. The lung formation and lobation were complete. The heart and major vessels exhibited mature histological architecture when their anatomical development was complete. The results of this study contribute to a more accurate definition of the embryonic and foetal developmental stages in dogs.
- Effects of concanavalin A on the progesterone production by bovine
steroidogenic luteal cells in vitro
- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of concanavalin A (CONA) on the progesterone (P4) production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells (LCs) in vitro. Luteal cells were collected during the mid‐luteal stage (at 10–12 days following ovulation) and processed in the laboratory. Luteal cells were grown for 7 days in a humid atmosphere with 5% CO2, with or without 10% foetal bovine serum, and were subjected to the following treatments: control: no treatment; CONA (10 μg/ml); LH (100 μg/ml); CONA + LH; LH (100 μg/ml) + prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (10 ng/ml); CONA + LH + PGF2α. Samples of the culture media were collected on days 1 (D1) and 7 (D7) for P4 quantification. The cells were counted on D7 of culture. Differences between treatments were considered statistically significant at p
- Metabolic blood profile of beef heifers during oestrous and
- Authors: EM Crane; JC Munro, SL Bourgon, M Diel de Amorim, R Ventura, AH Fredeen, YR Montanholi
Abstract: Haematological metabolic profiles in heifers could contribute to the development of proxies for oestrous detection and provide clues to further characterize biological changes during oestrus. One hundred and seven beef heifers were observed for oestrous behaviour twice daily for 124 days. Feed intake and productive performance (body weight and composition) traits were measured, and feed efficiency was determined using residual feed intake (kg DM/day). Blood plasma samples were collected when signs of oestrus were observed and every 30 ± 2 days. Heifers were considered in oestrus (n = 71) when plasma progesterone concentrations were
- Relationship between endometritis and oxidative stress in the follicular
fluid and luteal function in the buffalo
- Authors: BK Behera; CG Sharma, SK Singh, H Kumar, RK Chaudhari, AS Mahla, GK Das, N Krishnaswamy
Abstract: In this study, alteration in the follicular fluid composition and luteal function was investigated in the buffalo with endometritis. Genitalia were classified into cytological and purulent endometritis on the basis of polymorphonuclear cell cut off while non‐endometritis served as control (n = 10/group). In the follicular phase, the number of surface follicles was counted, diameter of the largest follicle was measured and the follicular fluid was assayed for total protein, cholesterol, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). The P4 content of corpus luteum during mid‐luteal phase was estimated by radioimmunoassay. Ovaries from the follicular phase of oestrous cycle showed no significant difference in the total number of surface follicles, size of the largest follicle and volume of follicular fluid in the buffaloes with and without endometritis (p > .05). However, the antral fluid of the largest follicle from the genitalia of buffalo with cytological and purulent endometritis showed a significant decrease in the concentration of total protein, cholesterol, TAC and E2 and a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and P4 (p
- Effect of growth differentiation factor‐9 (GDF‐9) on the progression
of buffalo follicles in vitrified–warmed ovarian tissues
- Abstract: To improve the reproductive performance of water buffalo to level can satisfy our needs, the mechanisms controlling ovarian follicular growth and development should be thoroughly investigated. Therefore, in this study, the expressions of growth differentiation factor‐9 (GDF‐9) in buffalo ovaries were examined by immunohistochemistry, and the effects of GDF‐9 treatment on follicle progression were investigated using a buffalo ovary organ culture system. Frozen–thawed buffalo ovarian follicles within slices of ovarian cortical tissue were cultured for 14 days in the presence or absence of GDF‐9. After culture, ovarian slices were fixed, sectioned and stained. The follicles were morphologically analysed and counted. Expression pattern of GDF‐9 was detected in oocytes from primordial follicles onwards, besides, also presented in granulosa cells. Moreover, GDF‐9 was detected in mural granulosa cells and theca cells of pre‐antral follicles. In antral follicles, cumulus cells and theca cells displayed positive expression of GDF‐9. In corpora lutea, GDF‐9 was expressed in both granulosa and theca lutein cells. After in vitro culture, there was no difference in the number of primordial follicles between cultured plus GDF‐9 and cultured control that indicated the GDF‐9 treatment has no effect on the primordial to primary follicle transition. GDF‐9 treatment caused a significant decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles compared with controls accompanied with a significant increase in pre‐antral and antral follicles. These results suggest that a larger number of primary and secondary follicles were stimulated to progress to later developmental stages when treated with GDF‐9. Vitrification/warming of buffalo ovarian tissue had a little remarkable effect, in contrast to culturing for 14 days, on the expression of GDF‐9. In conclusion, treatment with GDF‐9 was found to promote progression of primary follicle that could provide an alternative approach to stimulate early follicle development and to improve therapies for the most common infertility problem in buffaloes (ovarian inactivity).
- The benefits of cooling boar semen in long‐term extenders prior to
cryopreservation on sperm quality characteristics
- Abstract: This study investigated the effects of long‐term extenders on post‐thaw sperm quality characteristics following different holding times (HT) of boar semen at 17 and 10°C. Sperm‐rich fractions, collected from five boars, were diluted in Androhep® Plus (AHP), Androstar® Plus (ASP), Safecell® Plus and TRIXcell® Plus (TCP) extenders. The extended semen samples were held for 2 hr at 17°C (HT 1) and additionally for 24 hr at 10°C (HT 2), after they were evaluated and frozen. CASA sperm motility and motion patterns, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosome integrity were assessed in the pre‐freeze and frozen‐thawed semen. The Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit was used to analyse the proportions of viable and plasma membrane apoptotic‐like changes in spermatozoa. Results indicated that boar variability, extender and HT significantly affected the sperm quality characteristics, particularly after freezing‐thawing. Differences in the pre‐freeze semen were more marked in the sperm motion patterns between the HTs. Pre‐freeze semen in HT 2 showed significantly higher VCL and VAP, whereas no marked effects were observed in the sperm membrane integrity and viability (YO‐PRO‐1−/PI−) among the extenders. Post‐thaw sperm TMOT and PMOT were significantly higher in the AHP and ASP extenders of HT 2 group, whereas VSL, VCL and VAP were markedly lower in the TCP extender. Furthermore, spermatozoa from the AHP‐ and ASP‐extended semen of HT 2 group were characterized by higher MMP, PMI and NAR acrosome integrity following freezing‐thawing. In most of the extenders, the incidence of frozen‐thawed spermatozoa with apoptotic‐like changes was greater in HT 1. The findings of this study indicate that holding of boar semen at 10°C for 24 hr in long‐term preservation extenders modulates post‐thaw sperm quality characteristics in an extender‐dependent manner. These results will further contribute to the improvement in the cryopreservation technology of boar semen.
- Genomewide analysis of bull sperm quality and fertility traits
- Authors: R Puglisi; G Gaspa, D Balduzzi, A Severgnini, R Vanni, NPP Macciotta, A Galli
Abstract: Because the priority of AI industry is to identify subfertile bulls, a predictive model that allowed for the prediction of 91% bulls of low fertility was implemented based on seminological (motility) parameters and DNA status assessed both as DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and by TUNEL assay using sperm of 105 Holstein–Friesian bulls (four batches per bull) selected based on in vivo estimated relative conception rates (ERCR). Thereafter, sperm quality and male fertility traits of bulls were explored by GWAS using a high‐density (777K) Illumina chip. After data editing, 85 bulls and 591,988 SNPs were retained for GWAS. Of 12 SNPs with false discovery rate
- Elevating glucose and insulin secretion by carbohydrate formulation diets
- Authors: TY Chen; D Lines, C Dickson, C Go, RN Kirkwood, P Langendijk
Abstract: Primiparous (P1) sows commonly lose excessive body reserves to meet energy requirements for maintenance and milk production during lactation, and consequently, post‐weaning reproductive performance may be compromised. The present studies determined whether ad libitum feeding a glucogenic carbohydrate diet (CHO) during late lactation could stimulate insulin and glucose secretion (experiment 1) and improve subsequent litter size (experiment 2). For experiment 1, 15 P1 sows, and for experiment 2, 99 P1 sows (198.5 ± 2.7 kg) were allocated randomly according to suckled litter size (≥10 piglets), either to a CHO diet (14.3 MJ DE/kg, 19.8% crude protein) or a standard lactation diet (control; 14.2 DE MJ/kg, 19.5% crude protein) at 8 days before weaning. The CHO diet aimed to provide glucogenic content (extruded wheat, dextrose and sugar) as energy sources instead of fat sources without changing total dietary energy. Pre‐prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not influenced by treatments. However, post‐prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and their peaks were both higher (p .05). Second litter size was not influenced by diet (p > .05), but the weaning‐to‐mating interval was shorter in CHO sows (p
- Mechanistic target of rapamycin is activated in bovine granulosa cells
after LH surge but is not essential for ovulation
- Abstract: The LH surge induces functional and morphological changes in granulosa cells. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an integrator of signalling pathways in multiple cell types. We hypothesized that mTOR kinase activity integrates and modulates molecular pathways induced by LH in granulosa cells during the preovulatory period. Cows were ovariectomized and granulosa cells collected at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr after GnRH injection. While RHEB mRNA levels increased at 3 and 6 hr, returning to basal levels by 12 hr after GnRH treatment, RHOA mRNA levels increased at 6 hr and remained high thereafter. Western blot analyses revealed increased S6K phosphorylation at 3 and 6 hr after GnRH injection. Similarly, mRNA levels of ERK1/2, STAR and EGR‐1 were higher 3 hr after GnRH treatment. Rapamycin treatment inhibited mTOR activity and increased AKT activity, but did not alter ERK1/2 phosphorylation and EGR1 protein levels in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Rapamycin also inhibited LH‐induced increase in EREG mRNA abundance in granulosa cells in vitro. However, intrafollicular injection of rapamycin did not suppress ovulation. These findings suggest that mTOR is involved in the control of EREG expression in cattle, which may be triggered by LH surge stimulating RHEB and S6K activity.
- Dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation in raw boar semen and fertility
- Authors: C Batista; E Lier, H Petrocelli
Abstract: The aims were to evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in boars through the dispersion of their chromatin in raw semen samples, quantifying the extent of SDF, and to assess dynamic aspects of sperm DNA damage after incubation to obtain the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation (rSDF) under thermal conditions similar to the uterus (37°C) over a period of up to 24 hr and to correlate the reproductive outcome of the sows with the SDF of the boars at ejaculation. The study was performed on a pig‐breeding farm in southern Uruguay. Sixty‐one ejaculates from five of the most frequently used hybrid boars were evaluated. Semen was collected weekly from each of the boars, using the gloved‐hand technique and discarding the jelly‐like fraction of the ejaculate. Fresh semen was kept in a water bath at 37°C and protected from light, and was thereafter processed with Sperm‐Sus‐Halomax® to evaluate SDF. The smears for time 0 (T0) were made on farm, and thereafter smears were made at the laboratory at 4 hr of obtaining the semen (T4), then every 2 hr (T6, T8, T10, T12) and a final fixation at 24 hr (T24). Differences in SDF were observed among exposure times for all boars (p
- The first case of genetically confirmed monozygotic twinning in the dog
- Abstract: Monozygotic twinning has not previously been genetically confirmed in the dog. This case report describes the finding of two viable male monozygotic foetuses within one placental site during caesarean section. Their umbilical cords attached to a single placenta. Genetic profiling using a total of 38 microsatellite markers, as well as amelogenin and SRY for sex determination, revealed identical DNA profiles, whether derived from blood or tissue (buccal swabs) samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of monozygotic twinning in the dog confirmed using DNA profiling.
- Influence of different anaesthetic protocols over the sperm quality on the
fresh, chilled (4°C) and frozen‐thawed epididymal sperm samples in
- Authors: M Batista; J Vilar, I Rosario, E Terradas
Abstract: This study assessed the influence of three different anaesthetic protocols on semen quality obtained from the epididymis. Sixty male dogs undergoing to routine sterilization were assigned to three anaesthetic protocols: thiopental group (TG, n = 20), propofol group (PG, n = 20) and ketamine–dexmedetomidine group (KDG, n = 20). Immediately after orchidectomy, the cauda epididymides and vas deferent ducts were isolated and then a retrograde flushing was performed to collect spermatozoa. In experiment 1, after the initial evaluation of the semen (sperm concentration, sperm motility and the percentages of live spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosome membrane integrity), semen samples were diluted in Tris‐glucose‐egg yolk extender and chilled for 48 hr, and the sperm motility was assessed at 6, 24 and 48 hr. In experiment 2, semen samples were diluted in Tris‐glucose‐egg yolk extender and chilled for 24 hr, and then samples were frozen in two extenders with different glycerol concentrations, to reach a final concentration of 50–100 × 106 spermatozoa ml−1, 20% egg yolk, 0.5% Equex and 4% and 5% glycerol, respectively. Mean values of total sperm concentration, sperm viability and the percentages of intact acrosome and abnormal spermatozoa were not significantly different between experimental groups, and therefore, the anaesthetic protocols assessed did not affect sperm parameters mentioned above. However, our study confirmed a detrimental effect of the use of thiopental (TG) over the total sperm motility (p
- Oestrous sheep serum balances ROS levels to supply in vitro capacitation
of ram spermatozoa
- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are fundamental for intracellular signalling. In spermatozoa, they are involved both to apoptosis and to capacitation, and changes in ROS levels can alter the balance between these two processes. Oestrous sheep serum (OSS) is considered an efficient agent for in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa. We have explored the effects of OSS on ram sperm physiology, especially on ROS production, during in vitro capacitation. Semen samples from 15 rams were cryopreserved. After thawing, samples were submitted to four treatments: control (CTL), 10% OSS supplementation for in vitro sperm capacitation, caspase inhibitor (INH, Z‐VAD‐FMK 100 μM) and OSS (10%) plus caspase inhibitor (I + E). Sperm samples were incubated for 30 min at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 and evaluated motility and kinetic parameters by computer‐assisted semen analysis (CASA) and viability (propidium iodide), apoptotic‐like membrane changes (YO‐PRO‐1), acrosomal status (PNA‐FITC), intracellular calcium (FLUO‐3), membrane fluidity (M540) and ROS production (CM‐H2DCFDA) by flow cytometry. OSS induced changes in kinetic parameters compatible with capacitation, with a decrease in the percentage of progressive motility and linearity, and an increase in the amplitude of the lateral displacement of the sperm head (p
- Laminin‐111 Inhibits Bovine Fertilization but Improves Embryonic
Development in vitro, and Receptor Integrin‐β1 is Involved in
- Abstract: This study detected the distribution of laminin during embryonic formation by immunofluorescence. To determine the possible function of laminin on developmental ability of in vitro fertilized embryos, the presumptive zygotes were divided and transferred to CR1aa medium supplemented with different concentrations (0 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml) of laminin. To explore the association with sperm–oocyte fusion, oocytes and/or sperm were pre‐incubated with laminin or anti‐β1 antibody before insemination. Laminin was absent in mature oocytes and could be detected first at the 8‐cell stage and then displayed an increasing tendency. Adding 10 μg/ml laminin to the culture medium improved embryonic development including cleavage rate, blastocyst rate, total cell numbers in the blastocyst and cell numbers in the inner cell mass. Laminin inhibited sperm–oocyte fusion when incubated with oocytes and/or sperm before in vitro fertilization, and only integrin‐β1 of sperm was involved in sperm–oocyte binding. Inhibition may be caused by blocking β1, but why laminin inhibits fertilization is still unknown. The results suggest that laminin plays an important role during embryonic formation and has a negative function in sperm–oocyte fusion, but improves embryonic development. However, only integrin‐β1 is involved in sperm–oocyte binding.
- Distribution of inflammation and association between active and chronic
alterations within the endometrium of dairy cows
- Authors: O Bogado Pascottini; M Hostens, P Dini, J Vandepitte, R Ducatelle, G Opsomer
Abstract: Objectives of this study were twofold: (i) to assess the association between polymorphonuclear (PMN) counts and chronic alterations within the bovine endometrium and (ii) to determine the distribution of inflammation throughout the endometrium of clinically healthy dairy cows. Holstein‐Friesian cows (n = 32) from a single dairy farm were selected for this experiment. Before slaughtering, a complete reproductive examination was performed to discard any type of clinical disease. After slaughtering, reproductive tracts were collected, and the endometrium was sampled at 8 pre‐defined locations. At each location, endometrial biopsies (EBs) and cytology (CY) samples were harvested. Histopathology samples were stained with haematoxylin–eosin (EB‐HE) and naphthol‐AS‐D‐chloroacetate‐esterase (EB‐naphthol), while CY samples were stained with Wright–Giemsa. In the EB‐HE samples, parameters assessed were epithelium height, mononuclear cells infiltration, lymphocytic aggregates, periglandular fibrosis, angiosclerosis and haemorrhage. In EB‐naphthol and CY slides, PMNs counts were evaluated. Binomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between the number of PMNs present in both the EB‐naphthol and CY samples and alterations identified in the EB‐HE samples and to analyse the distribution of the histopathological alterations (EB‐HE). A Poisson mixed‐effect model was used to analyse the distribution of PMNs within the endometrium. A significant positive association was found between the PMN counts and the mononuclear cells infiltration. The presence of erythrocytes was associated with higher odds to detect PMNs in the stratum compactum. Significantly, higher infiltration of PMNs and mononuclear cells were detected in the uterine body and the right horn region. Concluding, CY is a technique that allows the evaluation of PMN counts and therefore only evaluates active inflammation. A complete assessment of endometrial health can only be obtained using EB. To optimize the sensitivity to diagnose endometrial inflammation in cows, adjacencies of the corpus uteri should be considered as the preferred region to harvest samples.
- A review on prolificacy genes in sheep
- Abstract: Ovulation rate and litter size are important reproduction traits in sheep and are of high economic value. Reproduction traits typically have low to medium heritabilities and do not exhibit a noticeable response to phenotypic selection. Therefore, inclusion of genetic information of the genes associated with reproductive ability could efficiently enhance the selection response. The most important major genes affecting prolificacy and their genetic diversities in different sheep breeds were reviewed. Different causative mutations with major effects on reproductive traits including ovulation rate and litter size have been found in various sheep breeds around the world. A general overview of the studies on main prolificacy genes showed that some alleles may express different phenotypic effects in different breeds, and thus, further studies on epistatic effects are necessary for more understanding of genetic control of reproductivity in sheep. Regarding the polygenic control of fertility traits, application of new high‐throughput technologies to find new variants is essential for future studies. Moreover, genomewide association studies and genomic best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values are likely to be effective tools for genetic improvement of sheep reproductive performance traits.
- Expression pattern of matrix metalloproteinases changes during
folliculogenesis in the cat ovary
- Authors: M Fujihara; K Yamamizu, DE Wildt, N Songsasen
Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) has been implicated as having roles in ovarian folliculogenesis. Here, we determined the expression pattern of six MMPs (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP9 and MMP13) and their endogenous tissue inhibitor, TIMP1, during cat follicle growth. Different developmental stage follicles were mechanically isolated and gene expression analysed by real‐time qPCR while MMP1, 2, 9 and 13 localization was determined by immunohistochemistry. With the exception of MMP13, the amount of MMP mRNA was lowest in primordial follicles and increased thereafter. Peak levels were detected in early antral follicles for MMP1 (72.2‐fold increase above primordial follicle amount), MMP2 (10‐fold), MMP3 (57‐fold) and MMP9 (2.8‐fold). MMP7 transcripts increased 2‐fold by the primary follicle stage and then plateaued. MMP13 mRNA peaked in primary follicles (2.5‐fold) and was lower in more advanced counterparts. TIMP1 sharply increased (6‐fold) in secondary follicles and gradually declined in the later stages. MMP1 and MMP9 expression were expressed in the granulosa cells of all follicle stages. MMP2 was immunoreactive in early and antral follicles, especially at granulosa cells adjacent to the antral cavity. By contrast, the MMP13 was weakly detected in primary follicles onward. In summary, there are distinctive and consistent changes in MMPs and TIMP1 expression during follicle development, suggesting that these enzymes play one or more roles in cat folliculogenesis. In particular, high mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP1 and MMP2, especially at the antral stage, indicate that these enzymes likely are involved in antrum formation and expansion.
- Exogenous paraoxonase‐1 during oocyte maturation improves bovine
embryo development in vitro
- Abstract: Paraoxonase‐1 (PON1) is an enzyme found in serum and follicular fluid that protects cell membrane and circulating lipids against oxidative damage. The aims of this study were to measure the direct effects of recombinant PON1 (rPON1) on bovine oocyte maturation at the molecular level (gene expression) and to measure the carry‐over effects of PON1 on pre‐implantation embryo development in vitro. COCs were submitted to IVM with the addition of 0.0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg ml−1 of rPON1, corresponding to an average PON1 arylesterase enzyme activity of 2.2 ± 0.4, 15.5 ± 1.5, 30.2 ± 3.0 and 57.9 ± 5.0 U ml−1, respectively. The results indicated that addition of rPON1 during IVM improved embryo development in a dose‐dependent manner as D7 embryo development was 22.2%, 29.4%, 32.2% and 37.0% for the treatment groups, respectively (p = 0.02). In conclusion, addition of PON1 enzyme during IVM exerted dose‐related positive effects on embryo development rates to blastocysts.
- Monitoring the reproductive physiology of six‐banded armadillos
(Euphractus sexcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758) through different techniques
- Authors: LB Campos; GCX Peixoto, GL Lima, TS Castelo, AM Silva, CIA Freitas, AR Silva
Abstract: The aim of this study was to monitor the oestrous cycle using vaginal cytology, ultrasound and measurement of hormone levels associated with the modification of external genitalia in female Euphractus sexcinctus. Five adult female six‐banded armadillos were used for the study. Every three days, we chemically restrained the animals with a combined dose of ketamine and xylazine for 90 days. On each occasion, we conducted vaginal cytology and monitored the alterations in the vulval appearance. In addition, we obtained blood samples for serum estradiol and progesterone analysis and evaluated the ovaries by ultrasonography (8 MHz). As results, at least two entire cycles were monitored per female as based on external oestrous signs. We determined that six‐banded armadillos' oestrous cycle lasts 23.5 ± 3.12 days, comprising 8.8 ± 1.4 days for oestrogen phase, in which we verified vaginal bloody discharge, vulvar oedema, presence of mucus and ease of introduction of the swab. During oestrus, females presented an oestrogen peak of 240.66 ± 12.69 pg ml−1, on average, with a positive visualization of ovary follicles by ultrasound. The progesterone phase lasts 15.62 ± 2.1 days, characterized by the absence of bloody secretion and difficulty in introducing the swab; there was verification of a progesterone plateau of 10.83 ± 1.86 ng ml−1, on average, with identification of corpora lutea in 60% of the ovaries. This is apparently the first description of the six‐banded armadillos' oestrous cycle, which proves the efficiency of a multiparametric analysis to monitor it.
- Transcriptome analyses of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells isolated
by magnetic‐activated cell sorting from bovine blastocysts using single
- Abstract: Research on bovine embryonic stem cells (bESCs) has been hampered because bESCs are cultured in conditions that are based on information obtained from culturing mouse and human inner cell mass (ICM) cells. The aim of this study was to compare gene expression in ICM and trophectoderm (TE) cell lineages of bovine embryos and to discuss the findings relative to information available for mice and humans. We separated a high‐purity (>90%) ICM and TE from bovine blastocysts by magnetic‐activated cell sorting and analysed their transcriptomes by single cell RNA‐seq. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were assessed using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Finally, qRT‐PCR was performed to validate the RNA‐seq results. From 207 DEGs identified (adjusted p ≤ .05; fold change ≥2), 159 and 48 had greater expression in the ICM and TE cells respectively. We validated 27 genes using qRT‐PCR and found their expression patterns were mostly similar to those of RNA‐seq, including 12 novel ICM‐dominant (HNF4A, CCL24, FGFR4, IFITM3, PTCHD2, GJB5, FN1, KLK7, PRDM14, GRP, FGF19 and GCM1) and two novel TE‐dominant (SLC10A1 and WNT4) genes. Bioinformatics analysis showed that these DEGs are involved in many important pathways, such as MAPK and cancer cell pathways, and these pathways have been shown to play essential roles in mouse and human ESCs in the self‐renewal and pluripotent maintenance. As a conclusion, there were sufficient differences to allow us to conclude that the control of pluripotency in bovine ICM cells is species‐specific.
- Feto‐maternal heart rate ratio in pregnant bitches: effect of
gestational age and maternal size
- Authors: S Alonge; M Mauri, M Faustini, GC Luvoni
Abstract: Few information is available on parameters that can be used to objectively assess the foetal health during canine pregnancy. To identify a reliable parameter for the evaluation of foetal well‐being, the effect of pre‐gestational maternal bodyweight and gestational age on foetal heart rate (FHR) and on feto‐maternal heart rate ratio (FHR/MHR) was investigated. Seventeen client‐owned pregnant bitches of different pre‐gestational maternal bodyweight were examined by serial echo colour Doppler. Only data from 11 uncomplicated pregnancies were included in the statistical analysis. The relationship between FHR, and FHR/MHR, and independent variables was analysed by polynomial regression (p ≤ .05). The FHR and the FHR/MHR significantly fitted a multiple quadratic regression for all independent variables. They both increased from 35 to 20 days before parturition and then a decreasing pattern followed. Higher values of both parameters were observed in bitches of lowest and highest bodyweight. Patterns of FHR and FHR/MHR were similar, but the ratio better describes the effect of the independent variables on the data. Thus, the highest significance of FHR/MHR compared to FHR alone encourages the application of this ratio to evaluate foetal well‐being. The equation derived by the regression analysis of FHR/MHR could be applied in clinical practice to obtain its expected values in healthy pregnancies.
- Reliable collection of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) sperm
using a catheter
- Authors: MS Aramli; K Golshahi, A Banan, E Sotoudeh
Abstract: The traditional stripping procedure for collecting fish semen is associated with the risk of urine contamination, which may significantly affect semen quality and quantity. The use of a catheter as an alternative method for semen collection may overcome this problem. Therefore, this study compared Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) semen parameters (i.e. sperm density, seminal plasma osmolality, motility parameters of spermatozoa analysed using computer‐assisted sperm analysis and fertility) between the traditional stripping method and the use of a catheter. All parameter values of the semen collected with a catheter were significantly higher (p
- Effects of low‐density lipoproteins as additive on quality parameters
and oxidative stress following cryopreservation of mithun (Bos frontalis)
- Authors: P Perumal; SK Srivastava, SK Ghosh, KK Baruah, S Bag, JS Rajoria, K Kumar, C Rajkhowa, M Pande, N Srivastava
Abstract: Artificial breeding of mithun poses several challenges including lack of standard protocol for cryopreservation of spermatozoa. This is further complicated by harmful effects of hen's egg yolk (EY) as additive in extender. Purified low‐density lipoproteins (LDL) extracted from EY have been shown as beneficial over EY extender for long‐term semen storage in several species. This investigation explored use of LDL versus EY on semen quality and oxidative stress following freezing–thawing of spermatozoa. A total of 25 of 50 ejaculates based on biophysical parameters were selected for the experiment. After diluting with the Tris‐citrate‐glycerol (TCG) extender, each sample was split into three equal aliquots: Group I, control, EY; Group II and Group III contained 8% and 10% purified LDL, respectively. Frozen–thawed samples were evaluated for motility parameters (progressive, and in the bovine cervical mucus penetration test [BCMPT]), viability, sperm and nuclear abnormality, acrosome integrity, and enzymatic (leakage of intracellular contents) and biochemical (oxidative stress) profiles and in vitro fertility (IVF) assay. Study revealed a significant (p
- The use of gelatine in long‐term storage (up to 48 hr) at 5°C
preserves the pre‐freezing and post‐thawing quality of brown bear
- Abstract: Sedimentation of spermatozoa occurs during long‐term liquid storage and this may produce deleterious changes. Our aim was to apply gelatine supplementation during long‐term pre‐freezing storage of bear sperm, applying final dilution and 6% glycerol at room temperature and cool in straws. We tested four models of sperm storage using a 1:1 dilution in TTF‐ULE‐Bear extender (TesT‐fructose‐egg yolk‐glycerol 6%): (i) second 1:1 dilution at room temperature (RT), cooling at 5°C in a tube and final dilution (100 × 106 sperm ml−1) (Standard); (ii) final dilution at RT and cooling in a tube (FD‐Tube); (iii) final dilution at RT and cooling in 0.25 ml plastic straw (FD‐Straw); and (iv) final dilution at RT in extender supplemented with 1.5% gelatine (Gelatine) and cooling in a 0.25 ml plastic straw. A Standard sample was stored at 5°C for 1 hr (Control); the rest of the samples (Standard, FD‐Tube, FD‐Straw, Gelatine) were stored for 24 or 48 hrs before freezing (100 × 106 sperm ml−1, glycerol 6%). The quality of the samples was assessed for motility by CASA, and viability (SYBR‐14/propidium iodide‐PI‐; VIAB), acrosomal status (PNA‐FITC/PI; iACR) and apoptotic status (YO‐PRO‐1/PI; YOPRO‐) by flow cytometry. At pre‐freezing, after 48 hr, Gelatine showed significantly higher viability (for VIAB and YOPRO‐) and progressiveness (PM, LIN and STR). At 48 hr, Gelatine showed similar YOPRO‐, iACR, LIN, STR and ALH respect to Control. At both 24 and 48 h post‐thawing, Gelatine sample had similar scores for YOPRO‐, iACR, LIN, STR, WOB and VIAB (only 24 hr) when compared with Control, and lower for TM, PM, rapidPM, VAP and ALH. No differences were found among others experimental groups with respect to Control. In conclusion, gelatine could be a suitable alternative to preserve the viability and progressive motility of brown bear ejaculates during long‐term pre‐freezing storage at 5°C.
- Effect of estradiol cypionate and GnRH treatment on plasma
estradiol‐17β concentrations, synchronization of ovulation and on
pregnancy rates in suckled beef cows treated with FTAI‐based protocols
- Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different ovulation inducers on E‐17β plasma concentrations, synchronized ovulations and pregnancy rates. In Experiment 1, cows received a progesterone intravaginal device (PID) with 1 g of progesterone (P4) plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) (day 0). At PID removal (day 8), cows received 0.150 mg of D‐cloprostenol and were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 10/treatment): Group ECP: 1 mg of estradiol cypionate at PID removal, Group EB: 1 mg of EB 24 hr after PID removal, Group GnRH: 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr after PID removal, Group ECP‐GnRH: 1 mg of ECP at PID removal plus 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr later. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed to detect the dominant follicle and ovulation. GnRH‐treated cows ovulated later (p
- Long‐term Effects of Pyrethrin and Cyfluthrin, a Type II Synthetic
Pyrethroid, Insecticide Applications on Bull Reproductive Parameters
- Authors: JL Stewart; CF Shipley, FA Ireland, VL Jarrell, CL Timlin, DW Shike, TL Felix
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine effects of cyfluthrin and pyrethrin spray products, used in combination with cyfluthrin topical and ear tag applications, on bull reproductive parameters over 18 weeks. Angus or Angus x Simmental bulls were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (i) no exposure to pyrethrins/cyfluthrin (CONT; n = 10), (ii) cyfluthrin ear tag and topical applications (ET; n = 10), or (iii) cyfluthrin ear tag, topical, premise spray and pyrethrin fog spray applications (ET+S; n = 8). Bull body weight was measured every 3 week, and body condition score and scrotal circumference were recorded on weeks 0, 9 and 18. Semen and serum were collected every 3 weeks for sperm evaluation and testosterone measurement, respectively. There was a treatment × week interaction (p
- Inhibition of FGF Signalling Pathway Augments the Expression of
Pluripotency and Trophoblast Lineage Marker Genes in Porcine
- Authors: LY Li; MM Li, SF Yang, J Zhang, Z Li, H Zhang, L Zhu, X Zhu, V Verma, Q Liu, D Shi, B Huang
Abstract: The consistent failure to isolate bona fide pluripotent cell lines from livestock indicates that the underlying mechanisms of early lineage specification are poorly defined. Unlike other species, the contrivances of segregation have been comprehensively studied in the mouse. In mouse, FGF/MAPK signalling pathway dictates the segregation of hypoblast (primitive endoderm). However, it is not evident whether this mechanism is also conserved in livestock. Here, in this study, we examined the roles of FGF/MAP kinase signalling pathways in porcine parthenogenetic embryos during the early development. Porcine parthenogenetic embryos were cultured in the medium addition with FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 (10 μm) or DEMOS. Pluripotency‐ and lineage‐related gene expressions in the early porcine embryos were determined. Compared to control, total cell numbers on day 7 were significantly higher (55 ± 5.96 vs 47 ± 1.97, p 0.05). Nonetheless, BGJ398 treatment significantly augmented the expression of pluripotency and trophoblast marker genes (SOX2, OCT4, KLF4 and CDX2), but did not significantly change the expression of NANOG and hypoblast marker gene (GATA4). Furthermore, the addition of FGF signalling agonist (FGF2) during the embryo development significantly decreased the expression of pluripotency and trophoblast marker genes (SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 and CDX2), but no significant effect on the expression of OCT4 and GATA4 was observed. Here, we exhibit that inhibition of FGF signalling could improve the quality of the porcine embryo and escalate the chance to capture pluripotency. Besides, it also promotes the trophoblast development of porcine parthenogenetic embryo. In addition, the data suggested that FGF signalling pathway is dispensable for the segregation of hypoblast and epiblast lineages in porcine embryo during the early development.
- Impact of Food Restriction on the Expression of the Adiponectin System and
Genes in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Ovarian Axis of Pre‐Pubertal
- Authors: R Wang; M Kuang, H Nie, W Bai, L Sun, F Wang, D Mao, Z Wang
Abstract: Adiponectin, a cytokine secreted typically by adipocytes, has been implicated as a molecular switch between female reproduction and energy balance. The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of adiponectin system and patterns of genes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovary (HPO) axis of food‐restricted pre‐pubertal ewes. Eighteen 2‐month‐old female ewes were assigned to 3 groups after a pre‐feeding ad libitum for 10 days (six in each group): the control group (C), the low‐food‐restricted group (LR) and the high‐food‐restricted group (HR), which were fed with 100%, 70% and 50% of ad libitum food intake, respectively. The hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary and serum were collected after food restriction for 2 months. Results by ELISA showed that food restriction increased serum adiponectin concentrations. Quantitative real‐time PCR showed that the gene transcriptions for adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and 2 (AdipoR2) were enhanced in the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian (HPO) axis, while KISS‐1/GPR‐54 and gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus and luteinizing hormone β‐subunit (LHβ) and follicle‐stimulating hormone β‐subunit (FSHβ) in the pituitary were reduced after food restriction. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that AdipoR1 localized in the oocytes of follicles in the ovary. These results suggest that the alterations in the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in response to food restriction might negatively influence the HPO axis.
- Membrane Stress During Thawing Elicits Redistribution of Aquaporin 7 But
Not of Aquaporin 9 in Boar Spermatozoa
- Abstract: Freezing of boar spermatozoa includes the cryoprotectant glycerol, but renders low cryosurvival, owing to major changes in osmolarity during freezing/thawing. We hypothesize that aquaporins (AQPs) 7 and 9 adapt their membrane domain location to these osmotic challenges, thus maintaining sperm homeostasis. Western blotting (WB) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) at light and electron microscope levels with several commercial primary antibodies and protocols explored AQP location on cauda epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa (from different fractions of the ejaculate), unprocessed, extended, chilled and frozen‐thawed. Although differences in WB and ICC labelling were seen among antibodies, AQP‐7 was conspicuously located in the entire tail and cytoplasmic droplet in caudal spermatozoa, being restricted to the mid‐piece and principal piece domains in ejaculated spermatozoa. AQP‐9 was mainly localized in the sperm head in both caudal and ejaculated spermatozoa. While unaffected by chilling (+5°C), freezing and thawing of ejaculated spermatozoa clearly relocated the head labelling of AQP‐7, but not that of AQP‐9. In vitro mimicking of cell membrane expansion during quick thawing maintained the localization of AQP‐9 but relocated AQP‐7 towards the acrosome. AQP‐7, but not AQP‐9, appears as a relevant marker for non‐empirical studies of sperm handling.
- Effects of Growth Hormone on In Situ Culture of Bovine Preantral Follicles
are Dose Dependent
- Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of growth hormone (GH) on the development of bovine preantral follicles cultured included in the ovarian tissue (in situ) on the rates of morphologically normal, viable, primordial and developing follicles, as well as the oocyte and follicle diameter and ultrastructural analysis. Ovarian fragments collected from cows with no cross‐breeds defined were cultured in situ for 1 and 7 days in minimal essential medium (α‐MEM+) supplemented with different concentrations of recombinant human GH (0, 10, 25, 50 ng/ml). The ovarian fragments non‐cultured (control) and cultured were processed for classic histology, mechanical isolation and electron transmission microscopy (MET). The parameters underwent anova (Tukey′s and Dunnett′s tests) and chi‐square test (χ2). After 7 days of culture, the treatment with 50 ng/ml GH showed no differences with fresh control (p > 0.05) and had greater effectiveness than in the 0, 10 and 25 ng/ml GH concentrations of the morphologically normal follicles. Regarding the primordial follicles, a reduction was observed in the 50 ng/ml GH concentration concomitant with the significant increase in developing follicles, differing from both the fresh control and the other GH concentrations tested. In addition, 50 ng/ml GH showed a larger follicle and oocyte diameter when compared to the other treatments cultured. Similar structures were ultrastructurally observed in the control group, 50 ng/ml GH. Follicles cultured in 10 ng/ml GH showed nuclear invagination, vacuoles and lesioned basal membrane. Hence, it is concluded that 50 ng/ml GH is the most effective concentration for the development of preantral follicles cultured in situ.
- Associations of Leptin and Pituitary‐Specific Transcription Factor
Genes’ Polymorphisms with Reproduction and Production Traits in Dairy
- Authors: MAF Nasr; A Awad, IE El Araby
Abstract: This study aimed to detect the genetic variability in Leptin and Pit‐1 genes using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing also to explore their possible associations with reproductive and productive traits of Egyptian buffaloes. Regarding Leptin gene, three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) were identified with frequency of 0.54, 0.40 and 0.06, respectively, and the genotypes were distributed according to the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Allele A was comparatively higher than G with frequency of 0.74 and 0.26, respectively. For Pit‐1 gene, the association could not be performed due to the monomorphism (BB). The results showed that AA genotypes were found to be superior in most of production and reproduction traits. AA genotypes yielded more milk (2332.34 kg, p = 0.04) with higher fat% (6.10, p = 0.004) and fat yield (155.75 kg, p = 0.06), reach peak milk production at 42.19 days and required 2.19 services for conception in comparison with GG genotypes. Birthweight of animals with AA genotype was lesser than with GG genotype (39.35 and 43.67 kg, p = 0.02, respectively). The days open is numerically better in AA genotype animals (99.35 days), but the difference between the three genotypes was non‐significant. The distinct significant associations reported in this study suggested that Leptin is reputable candidate genetic marker, which might be used to enhance animals’ genetic potential for milk production in conjunction with reproduction.
- Overexpression of C/EBPβ Affects The Cell Cycle Regulators and
Spermatogenesis Related Genes Expression And Function of Bovine Sertoli
- Authors: K Tang; Y Jin, F Chen, L Wang
Abstract: CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein beta (C/EBPβ), an important transcriptional factor, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of female germ cell development. However, the role of C/EBPβ on the development of male germ cells has not been reported. In this study, we constructed the recombinant adenovirus plasmids of bovine C/EBPβ gene and harvested the subsequent adenoviruses, and then assessed the mRNA levels of spermatogenesis‐related genes (real‐time PCR) and secretion of inhibin B after 48 h of Ad‐C/EBPβ recombinant adenovirus infection in bovine sertoli cells (SCs). We found that overexpression of exogenous C/EBPβ gene upregulated the mRNA expressions of spermatogenesis‐related genes, including Pdgfa, Claudin, Caspase‐3, Occludin, kit1 and Cyclin E, and decreased the mRNA levels of Cyclin D1. Meanwhile, overexpression of exogenous C/EBPβ gene significantly increases the amounts of secreted inhibin B. In conclusion, the results indicate that the C/EBPβ gene plays an important regulatory role in regulation of the cell cycle regulators and spermatogenesis‐related genes expression and function of bovine SCs.
- Lysophosphatidic Acid Synthesis and its Receptors’ Expression in the
Bovine Oviduct During the Oestrous Cycle
- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring simple phospholipid which in the bovine reproductive system can be produced in the endometrium, corpus luteum, ovarian follicle and embryo. In this study, we examined the possibility that LPA receptors are expressed, and LPA synthesized, in the bovine oviduct. We found that the concentration of LPA was highest in infundibulum in the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle and was relatively high during the early‐luteal phase in all examined parts of the oviduct. We also documented that LPA synthesis engages both available pathways for LPA production. The autotaxin (ATX) protein expression was significantly higher in the infundibulum compared to the isthmus during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle. During the early‐luteal phase of the oestrous cycle, ATX and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) protein expression was highest in ampulla, although the expression of LPARs was not as dynamic as LPA concentration in the oviduct tissue, and we presume that in the bovine oviduct, the most abundantly expressed receptor is LPAR2. In conclusion, our results indicate that the bovine oviduct is a site of LPA synthesis and a target for LPA action in the bovine reproductive tract. We documented that LPAR2 is the most abundantly expressed in the bovine oviduct. We hypothesize that in the bovine oviduct, LPA may be involved in the transport of gametes, fertilization and cellular signalling between the oviduct and cumulus–oocyte complex.
- The Central Effect of β‐Endorphin and Naloxone on The Biosynthesis of
GnRH and GnRH Receptor (GnRHR) in The Hypothalamic‐Pituitary Unit of
- Abstract: The effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of β‐endorphin or naloxone into the third cerebral ventricle of follicular‐phase ewes on the expression of genes encoding GnRH and GnRHR in the hypothalamus and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) were examined by an enzyme‐linked immunoabsorbent assay. Activation or blockade of μ‐opioid receptors significantly decreased or increased the GnRH concentration and GnRHR abundance in the hypothalamus, respectively, and affected in the same way GnRHR quantity in the AP gland. The changes in the levels of GnRH and GnRHR after treatment with β‐endorphin as well as following action of naloxone were reflected in fluctuations of plasma LH concentrations. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that β‐endorphinergic system in the hypothalamus of follicular‐phase ewes affects directly or via β‐endorphin‐sensitive interneurons GnRH and GnRHR biosynthesis leading to suppression in secretory activity of the hypothalamic‐pituitary axis.
- Changes in the Expression of the Prolactin Receptor (PRLR) Gene in
Different Physiological Stages in the Mammary Gland of the Iranian Adani
- Authors: S Morammazi; AA Masoudi, R Vaez Torshizi, A Pakdel
Abstract: The actions of prolactin hormone are mediated by prolactin receptor (PRLR), and proliferation and differentiation of secretory mammary epithelium are dependent on the presence of its receptors. To understand the PRLR expression pattern in mammary gland of dairy goat during different lactation stages, in this study, we first estimated the milk yield breeding value by multitrait random regression model and then compared the expression of the gene in different physiological stage of mammary gland between high‐ and low‐breeding value groups. We assayed the transcription level of the gene by quantitative real‐time PCR method, and its outcomes were analysed by a statistical model containing breeding value groups, sampling times and their interactions as fixed effects. The results indicated that the expression levels of PRLR gene were significantly upregulated in the drying stage (p
- Comparison of DNA Fragmentation Assay in Frozen‐Thawed Cat
- Abstract: DNA fragmentation of frozen‐thawed feline epididymal sperm from corpus and cauda regions was evaluated by three different techniques. The DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was compared between techniques: the sperm chromatin structural assay (SCSA®), acridine orange staining techniques (AOT) and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD). There were significant differences in DFI among the techniques (p
- Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation
Increase the Number of Luteinized Follicles and the Progesterone Level
Compared with Cabergoline Stimulation in Anoestrus Bitches
- Abstract: In this study, ovarian morphologies and blood progesterone concentrations following oestrous induction in bitches were examined. Fifty‐three clinically healthy anoestrus bitches received cabergoline at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg of body weight per os for 21 days (group I) or subcutaneous equine chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 20 IU/kg of body weight for five consecutive days with an additional 500 IU s.c. per bitch of human chorionic gonadotropin on the last day of treatment (group II). Twenty bitches that spontaneously displayed oestrous signs were left untreated and served as controls (group III). The induced oestrous rates and ovulation rates in groups I and II were 60.0% vs 64.3% and 86.7% vs 83.3%, respectively. Morphological assessments of the ovarian structures after ovariohysterectomy revealed an increase in the number of luteinized follicles and cysts in group II compared with the two other groups (p
- Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin and Caproic Acid on Storage of Ram
Semen in Liquid Form
- Abstract: Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of silymarin on stored spermatozoa using four rams. In experiment 1, silymarin was evaluated as a supplement for Tris–glucose extender. Semen samples (n = 20) were diluted with extender containing 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μg/ml silymarin and incubated at 5°C for 72 h. Membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, sperm viability and motility were evaluated at 72 h. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined after 48 h. Membrane integrity was higher in 100 μg/ml silymarin (65.2%) than control group (43.2%, p
- Detection and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from fresh semen of naturally
infected dogs in Southern Brazil
- Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate Toxoplasma gondii and determine the viability of the parasite in fresh semen samples of clinically healthy adult dogs naturally infected. Eleven seropositive dogs with T. gondii IgG antibodies from southern Brazil were selected to confirm the presence and viability of T. gondii in fresh semen samples using in vitro isolation in Vero cell culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The presence of viable T. gondii was confirmed by in vitro isolation and PCR in five semen samples. The ITS1 region of the isolated protozoa (TG S4) was amplified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence obtained was 99% compatible with the T. gondii DNA sequences stored in the GenBank. It has been shown that T. gondii tachyzoites may be isolated in vitro from fresh semen samples of clinically healthy dogs seropositive for T. gondii.
- Comparison of Intrauterine Antibiotics versus Ozone Medical Use in Sheep
with Retained Placenta and Following Obstetric Assistance
- Abstract: This study outlines a new approach to reproductive tract treatment using ozone foam spray for certain ovine obstetrical problems, such as retained foetal membranes and possible uterine infections following obstetric assistance (OA), in comparison with classical antibiotics treatments. The study was conducted on 256 ewes from 11 sheep farms in north‐western Croatia. A total of 139 ewes were diagnosed with dystocia (DT) and 49 with retention of placenta (RP). Ewes with RP were treated either with ozone foam spray (Riger spray G; Novagen®) applied into the body of the uterus for 2–3 s (first or RPO group; n = 24) or with two foaming, intrauterine tablets of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (Geomycin® F) (second or RPA group; n = 25). The third and fourth groups consisted of ewes that received OA for dystocia (including ringwomb, foetal oversize and assistance of abnormal position and posture). The third group (DTO; n = 70) was treated with ozone foam spray, while ewes in fourth group (DTA; n = 69) were treated with antibiotics. The ewes in the control group (CTL) with physiological puerperium were randomly selected (n = 70) from all herds. Transrectal ultrasonography (transversal diameter of uterine horns) was used for the control of uterus regression on days 2 and 25 after parturition. There was a difference in transversal uterine horn diameter in the RP groups, that is RPO and RPA (5.40 ± 0.53 cm vs. 5.43 ± 0.40 cm), ewes with dystocia, that is DTO and DTA (5.37 ± 0.49 cm vs. 5.54 ± 0.60 cm) and ewes from the CTL group (4.98 ± 0.35 cm) one day after parturition. Average transversal uterine diameter of all groups at day 25 post‐partum was 1.80 ± 0.15 cm. The intrauterine ozone treatment in ewes with RP and after manual obstetrics attained similar results to spontaneously delivered ewes (CTL group), showed as the physiological regression of the uterus with a similar transversal diameter without the presence of lochia in the uterine lumen, indicating that this could be a novel potential alternative therapy.
- Buffalo (Bubalus bubali) Late Embryo and Foetus Development: A
- Abstract: Many researches describe the embryonic developmental features in domestic animals; however, in farm animals, they are scarce. Most farm animal studies are related to assisted reproduction and embryos transfer techniques. But, morphological features and size measure to estimate the age gestation are rarely reported in literature. Thus, in this study, we described the developmental changes in the bubaline (Bubalus bubali) concepts from 21 to 60 days of gestation. Our results revealed that buffalo embryos similar morphological characteristics similar to other mammalian species. Also, similarities between bovine and bubaline persist; except on foetal stages when buffalos have a faster development than bovine. Therefore, buffalo's gestation period exhibits some varieties and accurate embryo age is more difficult. Yet, when we use a combination of the crown–rump, macroscopic analysis and alizarin red, it is possible to describe better the whole embryogenesis stages of the buffalo and which can contribute for future reproduction researches and applications in veterinary practice.
- Protective Effects of Quercetin on Selected Oxidative Biomarkers in Bovine
Spermatozoa Subjected to Ferrous Ascorbate
- Abstract: Quercetin (QUE) is a natural flavonol‐type flavonoid with antibacterial, anti‐inflammatory and anti‐aggregatory properties. It is also a powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and chelating agent. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of QUE to reverse ROS‐mediated alterations to the motility, viability and intracellular antioxidant profile of bovine spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were washed out of fresh bovine semen, suspended in 2.9% sodium citrate and subjected to QUE treatment (7.5, 25, 50 and 100 μmol/l) in the presence or absence of a pro‐oxidant, that is ferrous ascorbate (FeAA; 150 μmol/l FeSO4 and 750 μmol/l ascorbic acid) during a 6‐h in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motion characteristics were assessed using the SpermVision computer‐aided sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, ROS generation was quantified via luminometry, and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. Cell lysates were prepared at the end of the in vitro culture to investigate the intracellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FeAA treatment led to a reduced sperm motility (p
- Vesicles Cytoplasmic Injection: An Efficient Technique to Produce Porcine
- Authors: CG Luchetti; RJ Bevacqua, MS Lorenzo, MF Tello, M Willis, CP Buemo, DM Lombardo, DF Salamone
Abstract: The use of vesicles co‐incubated with plasmids showed to improve the efficiency of cytoplasmic injection of transgenes in cattle. Here, this technique was tested as a simplified alternative for transgenes delivery in porcine zygotes. To this aim, cytoplasmic injection of the plasmid alone was compared to the injection with plasmids co‐incubated with vesicles both in diploid parthenogenic and IVF zygotes. The plasmid pcx‐egfp was injected circular (CP) at 3, 30 and 300 ng/μl and linear (LP) at 30 ng/μl. The experimental groups using parthenogenetic zygotes were as follows: CP naked at 3 ng/μl (N = 105), 30 ng/μl (N = 95) and 300 ng/μl (N = 65); Sham (N = 105); control not injected (N = 223); LP naked at 30 ng/μl (N = 78); LP vesicles (N = 115) and Sham vesicles (N = 59). For IVF zygotes: LP naked (N = 44) LP vesicles (N = 94), Sham (N = 59) and control (N = 79). Cleavage, blastocyst and GFP+ rates were analysed by Fisher's test (p
- Seasonal and Ageing‐Depending Changes of Aquaporins 1 and 9 Expression
in the Genital Tract of Buffalo Bulls (Bubalus bubalis)
- Authors: S. Arrighi; G. Bosi, G. Accogli, S. Desantis
Abstract: The presence of Aquaporins 1 (AQP1) and 9 (AQP9), integral membrane water channels that facilitate rapid passive movement of water and solutes, was immunohistochemically detected in the excurrent ducts collected from sexually mature buffalo bulls of proven fertility during the mating (late autumn–winter) and non‐mating (late spring to the beginning of autumn) seasons. Furthermore, the research was performed also on the epididymal cauda of a senile buffalo bull with inactive testis. Aquaporins 1 and 9 were immunolocalized at distinct levels. In the efferent ducts, AQP1 immunoreactivity was strongly evidenced at the apical surface of the non‐ciliated cells and weakly along the basal membrane of the epithelial cells. The latter reactivity disappeared during the non‐mating season. No AQP1 immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium of epididymis and vas deferens, whereas AQP1 was expressed in the smooth muscle layer of the vas deferens. Aquaporin 1 was present in the blood vessels and in small nerve bundles all along the genital tract. The supranuclear zone of the epididymal principal cells was AQP9 immunoreactive, limited to the corpus and cauda regions, and vas deferens. The samples collected in the two reproductive seasons showed a weaker AQP9 immunoreactivity during the non‐mating season. A typical AQP9 immunoreactivity was noticed in the old buffalo examined. The tested AQP molecules showed a different expression pattern in comparison with laboratory mammals, primates, equine, dog and cat. In addition, seasonal differences were noticed which are possibly useful in regard to the comprehension of the morphophysiology of reproduction in the bubaline species, which are still a matter of debate.
- Sperm Morphology Assessment in Captive Neotropical Primates
- Abstract: The main objective of this study was to evaluate sperm morphology in four neotropical primate species to compare the sperm morphological traits and the sperm morphometric parameters as a basis for establishing normative sperm standards for each species. Data from 80 ejaculates collected from four primate species, Callithrix jacchus, Callimico goeldii, Alouatta caraya and Ateles geoffroyi, were analysed for detection of sperm morphological alterations using subjective World Health Organization (WHO‐2010) standards and Sperm Deformity Index (SDI) criteria, objective computer‐assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA) and subpopulation sperm determination (SSD) methods. There were multiple differences (p
- Fusion of Boar Sperm with Nanoliposomes Prepared from Synthetic
- Authors: VR Kasimanickam; MM Buhr
Abstract: Liposomes are artificial membrane vesicles that can be used to test and model the functions and interactions of various biological membranes, or as a carrier system to deliver biologically active substances into the cells, or to incorporate lipids into the plasma membrane of target cells to modify membrane structure–function relationships. Sperm plasma membrane undergoes lipid modification during maturation in epididymis and during capacitation in the female reproductive tract to facilitate fertilization. Natural variation in the amounts and composition of lipids in the sperm plasma membrane may also contribute to the species‐specific sperm sensitivities to handling and storage conditions. Boar sperm are notoriously susceptible to membrane damage and are resistant to compositional alteration by artificial liposomes. This study used flow cytometry to demonstrate stable incorporation of nanoliposomes prepared from a complex mixture of various phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine : phosphatidylethanolamine : sphingomyelin : phosphatidylserine : phosphatidylinositol) with high fusion efficiency. Over 90% of sperm rapidly took up fluorescently labelled liposomes and retained the lipids for at least 60 min, in a significant time‐ and concentration‐dependent manner. This unique fusion efficacy could be used to alter sperm plasma membrane composition and hence membrane‐based functional responses.
- Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood
Pregnancy‐Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables
- Abstract: Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy‐specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein‐Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29–42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29–35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 –70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p
- First Production of Larvae Using Cryopreserved Sperm: Effects of
Preservation Temperature and Cryopreservation on European Eel Sperm
- Abstract: Sperm cryopreservation is a useful tool in captive fish reproduction management, that is to synchronize gamete production, especially in the case of species as the European eel, where the time of female spawning readiness is unpredictable. Several protocols to cryopreserve sperm of this species have been described, but until recently fertilization trials were not feasible. This study evaluated the effect of cold storage of diluted sperm prior to fertilizations and tested whether a previously defined protocol for European eel sperm cryopreservation can be successfully applied in fertilization trials to produce viable offspring. In our experiment, the sperm motility was evaluated after the extraction and the best samples were selected and pooled. Until stripping of eggs and fertilization, diluted sperm samples were maintained at either 4 or 20°C, or cryopreserved, following existing protocols. Fertilization of two egg batches was attempted. Diluted sperm caused a similar percentage of fertilized eggs and a similar number of embryos and larvae, independently of storage temperature (4 or 20°C). The cryopreserved sperm resulted in a lower percentage of fertilized eggs, but embryos developed and a few larvae (‘cryolarvae’) were obtained 55 h after fertilization in one of the two egg batches. This result evidences that the tested cryopreservation protocol is applicable for eel reproduction management, although improvements will be required to enhance fertilization success.
- Serum MX2 Protein as Candidate Biomarker for Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in
- Authors: L Buragohain; R Kumar, T Nanda, SK Phulia, AK Mohanty, S Kumar, S Balhara, SPS Ghuman, I Singh, AK Balhara
Abstract: Interferon‐tau (IFN‐τ)‐induced molecular markers such as ubiquitin‐like modifier (ISG15), 2′,5′‐oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and myxovirus resistance genes (MX1 and MX2) have generated immense attention towards developing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis of pregnancy in bovine. These molecules are expressed at transcriptional level in peripheral nucleated cells. However, their presence in the serum is still a question mark. This study reports sequential changes in expression of MX2 transcript in whole blood and serum MX2 protein level on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 in pregnant (n = 9) buffalo heifers, and on days 0, 7 and 14 in non‐inseminated (n = 8) and inseminated non‐pregnant (n = 10) control animals. In non‐inseminated and inseminated non‐pregnant heifers, the differential expression of MX2 transcript and MX2 protein level remained similar between day 7 and 14 post‐oestrus. However, in pregnant heifers, on 14th and 28th day post‐insemination MX2 transcript was 16.38 ± 1.57 and 28.16 ± 1.91 times upregulated as compared to day 0. Similarly, serum MX2 protein concentration followed analogous trend as MX2 transcript and increased gradually with the progression of pregnancy. Correlation analysis between expression of MX2 transcript and its serum protein level showed a significant positive correlation in pregnant animals, while it was random in other two groups. Therefore, MX2 surge at transcriptional and serum protein level after day 14–28 of pregnancy in buffalo holds potential for its use in early pregnancy detection.
- Can Microfiltered Seminal Plasma Preserve the Morphofunctional
Characteristics of Porcine Spermatozoa in the Absence of Antibiotics? A
- Authors: F Barone; D Ventrella, A Zannoni, M Forni, ML Bacci
Abstract: Artificial insemination is extensively performed in pig farms in Europe, the United States and Canada. Antibiotics are typically added to the inseminating dose to limit bacterial growth during liquid phase storage at 16°C, as bacterial contamination is unavoidable. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) take action to control and reduce antibiotic use in animals as more bacteria are becoming resistant to antimicrobials. To avoid the use of antibiotics, we prepared inseminating doses using microfiltered seminal plasma (SP). Microfiltration is a common technology used to reduce bacterial contamination but may retain seminal substances, influencing sperm quality during storage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphofunctional parameters of spermatozoa during storage at 16°C in doses prepared with or without microfiltered SP, with or without the addition of antibiotics, in a Latin square design. Artificial insemination doses with microfiltered SP and without antibiotic addition preserved spermatozoa viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, acrosome integrity and objective motility, with absolute values equal or even better than those observed in conventional doses. In conclusion, although the results could be considered preliminary due to the small sample size, this study suggests that microfiltration of SP can be a simple method, feasible on farms, to replace antibiotic use in extended doses stored in the liquid phase at 16°C for up to 7 days.
- Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low‐ or High‐Fat Diets on
Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows
- Authors: YS Wang; P Zhou, H Liu, S Li, Y Zhao, K Deng, DD Cao, LQ Che, ZF Fang, SY Xu, Y Lin, B Feng, J Li, D Wu
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low‐ or high‐fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low‐fat diet (L), low‐fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high‐fat diet (H) and high‐fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin‐rich diets lowered the within‐litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0–1.5 kg at farrowing (p
- Effect of Ca Ionophore On Blastocyst Production Following Intracytoplasmic
Sperm Injection in Caprine Oocytes
- Authors: SD Kharche; J Pathak, S Agarwal, B Kushwah, AKS Sikarwar
Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of calcium ionophore activation on blastocyst production following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in in vitro‐matured Caprine oocytes. A total of 470 in vitro‐matured oocytes were selected and randomly divided in to three groups. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered by slicing the Caprine ovaries were matured in TCM199 supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) + 10% follicular fluid + FSH (5 μg/ml) + LH (10 μg/ml) + estradiol (1 μg/ml) + EGF (10 ng/ml) + BSA (3 mg/ml) for 27 h in humidified atmosphere at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 in CO2 incubator. After 27 h of culture, selected COCs (n = 470) were separated from cumulus cells by treating with 0.1% hyaluronidase enzyme and passing repeatedly through a fine pipette and randomly divided into three groups. In group 1, (n = 168) matured oocytes were injected with injection micropipette without sperm as control. In group 2, (n = 152) capacitated spermatozoa were injected into cytoplasm of in vitro‐matured oocytes through injection micropipette. In group 3, (n = 150) capacitated spermatozoa were injected into cytoplasm of in vitro‐matured oocytes through injection micropipette and then activated with 5 μm Ca ionophore for 5 min. The oocytes of all groups were then culture in RVCL media for embryo development. The cleavage rate was observed after 48–72 h of injection. The cleavage rate and blastocyst production in group 1, 2 and 3 were 0.00 and 0.00, 18.42 and 3.57 and 61.33% and 16.30%, respectively. The result indicated that mechanical activation failed to induce cleavage in in vitro‐matured Caprine oocytes, whereas chemical activation of intracytoplasmic sperm‐injected in vitro‐matured Caprine oocytes showed significantly higher cleavage rate and blastocyst production as compare to non‐activated oocytes.
- Impact of Buserelin Acetate or hCG Administration on the Day of First
Artificial Insemination on Subsequent Luteal Profile and Conception Rate
in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
- Authors: AK Pandey; SPS Ghuman, GS Dhaliwal, SK Agarwal, JB Phogat
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the impact of buserelin acetate (BA) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the day of first artificial insemination (AI) on subsequent luteal profile (diameter of corpus luteum (CL) and plasma progesterone) and conception rate in Murrah buffalo. The present experiment was carried out at two locations in 117 buffalo that were oestrus‐synchronized using cloprostenol (500 μg) administered (i.m.) 11 days apart followed by AI during standing oestrus. Based on treatment (i.m.) at the time of AI, buffalo were randomly categorized (n = 39 in each group) into control (isotonic saline solution, 5 ml), dAI‐BA (buserelin acetate, 20 μg) and dAI‐hCG (hCG, 3000 IU) group. Out of these, 14 buffalo of each group were subjected to ovarian ultrasonography on the day of oestrus to monitor the preovulatory follicle and on days 5, 12, 16 and 21 post‐ovulation to monitor CL diameter. On the day of each sonography, jugular vein blood samples were collected for the estimation of progesterone concentrations. All the buffalo (n = 117) were confirmed for pregnancy on day 40 post‐ovulation. The conception rate was better (p
- Influence of Glutamine Supplementation on Motility and Fertilization
Success of Frozen–Thawed Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) Sperm
- Authors: MS Aramli; K Golshahi, RM Nazari, A Golpour, S Aramli
Abstract: Amino acids have an important biological role for the prevention of cell damage during cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of glutamine on post‐thaw sperm motility and fertilization success in the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). Sperm collected from six fish was cryopreserved in extenders containing different glutamine concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10 mm). Sperm samples diluted at the ratio of 1 : 1 using the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. After dilution, the sperm suspensions were sucked into 250‐μl straws; the straws were placed on the tray, frozen in nitrogen vapour and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Then, sperm were thawed in a water bath at 40°C for 5 s and used for analysis. Our results revealed that an increase in the concentration of glutamine caused a significant increase in the motility percentage, curvilinear velocity (VCL) and also fertilization success in the Persian sturgeon (p
- Issue Information
- Pages: 451 - 452