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        1 2     

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 189 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2     

Journal Cover   Reproduction in Domestic Animals
  [SJR: 0.656]   [H-I: 40]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0936-6768 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0531
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1611 journals]
  • The Usefulness of Captive Kept Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) as the
           Semen Donors for Artificial Insemination and Gene Pool Preservation In
           vitro
    • Authors: ET Łukaszewicz; AM Kowalczyk
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Captive breeding of birds threatened by extinction in zoological gardens or other closed aviary centres is one of the methods allowing their protection and gene pool preservation ex situ in vivo. Such birds are usually kept in captivity lifelong and serve as parents of several new generations that can be further released into natural environment, or males are used as semen donors for artificial insemination and gene banking. Therefore, the fecundity of such flocks (number of laid egg and spermatozoa quantity and quality) is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) as semen donors in three subsequent reproductive seasons, based on the assessment of manually collected semen quality. Male response to dorso‐abdominal massage, ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, motility and morphology were evaluated individually at three succeeding years. Depending on individual male properties and year of collection, the number of positive reactions to semen collection attempts (i.e. ending with ejaculation) varied from 44.4% to 100.0%; single ejaculate volume ranged from 10 to 300 μl, spermatozoa concentration from 10 × 106 per ml to 3520 × 106 per ml and percentage of live morphologically normal spermatozoa from 19.3 to 80.3%. The highest average value (66.7) of semen quality factor (SQF) was noted for a 2‐year‐old male (varying from 1.9 to 258.1), while the lowest for ten‐ (4.8; varying from 0.1 to 17.0) and 7‐year‐old (6.6; varying between 0.6 and 13.6). Assuming that for AI purposes, the ejaculate quality has to be at minimum 10 SQF, obtained results indicate that majority of capercaillie kept in captivity, both young (2–3 years old) and older (up to 10 years old), can be valuable semen producers in succeeding seasons.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T02:03:32.254835-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12512
       
  • Localization of CD9 Molecule on Bull Spermatozoa: Its Involvement in the
           Sperm–Egg Interaction
    • Authors: J Antalíková; J Jankovičová, M Simon, P Cupperová, K Michalková, Ľ Horovská
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Tetraspanin CD9 is one of the egg membrane proteins known to be essential in fertilization process. The presence and localization of CD9 molecule in spermatozoa and its possible function in reproduction are still unclear. In our study, we describe the localization of CD9 on bull spermatozoa. In the immunofluorescence assay, the positive signal has been observed in the high proportion of sperm cells as a fine grains either on the apical part or through the entire anterior region of sperm head. CD9 recognized by monoclonal antibody IVA‐50 was detected on freshly ejaculated (83.4 ± 3.7%) and frozen‐thawed (84.3 ± 2.3%) sperm. The same reaction pattern was observed on sperm capacitated for 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h (83.6 ± 2.0%; 84.0 ± 1.5%; 85.7 ± 0.8%; 77.5 ± 10.8%). The presence of CD9 exclusively on plasma membrane of the bovine sperm has been detected by Western blot analysis of the protein fractions after the discontinuous sucrose gradient fractionation of the bull sperm. Moreover, probable role of the sperm CD9 molecule in fertilization process of cattle has been suggested as sperm treatment with anti‐CD9 antibody significantly reduced (by 25%, p ≤ 0.001) the number of fertilized oocytes compared to control group in fertilization assay in vitro.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T01:57:30.892652-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12508
       
  • Reproductive Performance and Reconception of Nellore Cows According to
           Their Pure‐ or Cross‐Bred Calves
    • Authors: WB Rodrigues; FS Wechsler, E Nogueira
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of the present research was to evaluate the effect of a calf's genetic group on the productive and reproductive efficiency of its Nellore dam. Fixed‐time artificial insemination was applied to 800 cows using semen extracted from Nellore, Simmental and Angus Red bulls. Four hundred eleven cows calved, producing 119 Nellore, 103 ½Simmental–½Nellore and 189 ½Nellore–½Angus Red calves. The second mating period, which paired Nellore cows with Simmental bulls, was initiated 10 days after parturitions began and lasted for 5 months. Based on the two successive parturitions, the cumulative parturition rate for calving periods of 3, 4 and 5 months was calculated. Although no significant difference was observed for birth weight among the genetic groups, cross‐bred calves weighed, on average, 10% more than did pure‐bred calves at the age of 205 days. Nellore dams experienced a gestation period that was 7 days longer than did the cross‐bred dams, and the former showed a higher parturition rate at 90 and 120 days of the calving season, but not at 150 days (calving rates of 80.6, 76.4 and 76.2% for mothers of Nellore, ½Nellore–½Angus Red and ½Nellore–½Simmental, respectively, p > 0.05). At 90 and 120 days, Nellore dams produced more kg of calf per mated dam. In conclusion, in a short breeding season, Nellore dams nursing pure‐bred Nellore calves were found to have a higher biological efficiency compared with Nellore dams nursing cross‐bred calves.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T23:42:39.92221-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12509
       
  • Expression of Mitochondria‐Associated Genes (PPARGC1A, NRF‐1,
           BCL‐2 and BAX) in Follicular Development and Atresia of Goat Ovaries
           
    • Authors: G Zhang; Y Wan, Y Zhang, S Lan, R Jia, Z Wang, Y Fan, F Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Most follicles undergo atresia during the developmental process. Follicular atresia is predominantly regulated by apoptosis of granulosa cells, but the mechanism underlying apoptosis via the mitochondria‐dependent apoptotic pathway is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether the mitochondria‐associated genes peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐gamma, coactivator1‐alpha (PPARGC1A), nuclear respiratory factor‐1 (NRF‐1), B‐cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL‐2) and BCL2‐associated X protein (BAX) played a role in follicular atresia through this pathway. The four mitochondria‐associated proteins (PGC‐1α, which are encoded by the PPARGC1A gene, NRF‐1, BCL‐2 and BAX) mainly expressed in granulosa cells. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARGC1A/PGC‐1α and NRF‐1 in granulosa cells increased with the follicular development. These results showed that these genes may play a role in the regulation of the follicular development. In addition, compared with healthy follicles, the granulosa cell in atretic follicles had a reduced expression of NRF‐1, increased BAX expression and increased ratio of BAX to BCL‐2 expression. These results suggested that changes of the mitochondria‐associated gene expression patterns in granulosa cells may lead to follicular atresia during goat follicle development.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T23:42:19.392572-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12514
       
  • Expression of Heparin‐Binding EGF‐Like Growth Factor
           (HB‐EGF) in Bovine Endometrium: Effects of HB‐EGF and
           Interferon‐τ on Prostaglandin Production
    • Authors: K Takatsu; TJ Acosta
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Heparin‐binding EGF‐like growth factor (HB‐EGF) regulates several cell functions by binding to its membrane receptor (ErbB1 and ErbB4). Experimental evidences suggest that HB‐EGF, prostaglandins (PGs) and interferon‐τ (IFN‐τ) regulate uterine function for pregnancy establishment in ruminants. In this study, the mRNA expressions of HB‐EGF, ErbB1 and ErbB4 in bovine endometrium and the effects of HB‐EGF and IFN‐τ on PGE2 and PGF2‐α production by endometrial cells were investigated. RT‐PCR analysis revealed that HB‐EGF mRNA was greater at the mid‐luteal stage than at the early and regressed luteal stages (p 
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T23:41:39.590613-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12513
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: i - ii
      PubDate: 2015-03-10T23:49:47.716327-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12425
       
  • Malignant Seminoma in Two Unilaterally Cryptorchid Stallions
    • Authors: V De Lange; K Chiers, L Lefère, M Cools, C Ververs, J Govaere
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Two unilateral cryptorchid stallions were referred to the clinic because of chronic debilitating condition with emaciation. Rectal examination, and ultrasound and gross examination revealed in both animals an abdominal mass, caudally of the kidney, and multiple nodules spread over the abdomen. Histologic analysis revealed an intra‐abdominal malignant seminoma with intraperitoneal and renal metastasis. Interestingly, a seminoma was also present in the descended testis of the draught horse.
      PubDate: 2015-03-10T23:36:40.321413-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12488
       
  • P53‐Mediated Repression of the Reprogramming in Cloned Bovine
           Embryos Through Direct Interaction with HDAC1 and Indirect Interaction
           with DNMT3A
    • Authors: PJ Ma; H Zhang, R Li, YS Wang, Y Zhang, S Hua
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: P53 is a transcriptional activator, regulating growth arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. We found that the expression level of P53 and the epigenetic profiles were significantly different in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos from those in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. So we inferred that abnormally expression of P53 might contribute to the incomplete reprogramming. Using bovine foetal fibroblasts, we constructed and screened a highly efficient shRNA vector targeting bovine P53 gene and then reconstituted somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos (RNAi‐SCNT). The results indicated that expression levels of P53 were downregulated significantly in RNAi‐SCNT embryos, and the blastulation rate and the total number of cell increased significantly. Moreover, methylation levels of CpG islands located 5′ region of OCT4, NANOG, H19 and IGF2R in RNAi ‐SCNT embryos were significantly normalized to that IVF embryos, and the methylation levels of genome DNA, H3K9 and H4K5 acetylation levels were also returned to levels similar to the IVF embryos. Differentially expressed genes were identified by microarray, and 28 transcripts were found to be significantly different (> twofolds) in RNAi‐SCNT embryos compared to the control nuclear transfer embryos (SCNT). Among the 28 differentially expressed transcripts, just HDAC1 and DNMT3A were closely associated with the epigenetic modifications. Finally, ChIP further showed that P53 might repress the epigenetic reprogramming by regulating HDAC1 directly and DNMT3A indirectly. These findings offer significant references to further elucidate the mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming in SCNT embryos.
      PubDate: 2015-03-06T23:26:52.680585-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12502
       
  • Effect of Oil Overlay on Inhibition Potential of Roscovitine in Sheep
           Cumulus‐Oocyte Complexes
    • Authors: LF Crocomo; WC Marques Filho, CMV Ulian, NS Branchini, DT Silva, CL Ackermann, FC Landim‐Alvarenga, SD Bicudo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Inhibitors of cyclin‐dependent kinases, as roscovitine, have been used to prevent the spontaneous resumption of meiosis in vitro and to improve the oocyte developmental competence. In this study, the interference of oil overlay on the reversible arrest capacity of roscovitine in sheep oocytes as well as its effects on cumulus expansion was evaluated. For this, cumulus‐oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured for 20 h in TCM 199 with 10% foetal bovine serum (Control) containing 75 μm roscovitine (Rosco). Subsequently, they were in vitro matured (IVM) for further 18 h in inhibitor‐free medium with LH and FSH. The culture was performed in Petri dishes under mineral oil (+) or in 96 well plates without oil overlay (−) at 38.5°C and 5% CO2. At 20 and 38 h, the cumulus expansion and nuclear maturation were evaluated under stereomicroscope and by Hoechst 33342 staining, respectively. No group presented cumulus expansion at 20 h. After additional culture with gonadotrophins, a significant rate of COCs from both Control groups (+/−) exhibited total expansion while in both Rosco groups (+/−) the partial expansion prevailed. Among the oocytes treated with roscovitine, 65.2% were kept at GV in the absence of oil overlay while 40.6% of them reached MII under oil cover (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-27T23:41:31.636119-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12506
       
  • Assessment of Genetic Variability in the Coding Sequence of Melatonin
           Receptor Gene (MTNR1A) in Tropical Arid Sheep Breeds of India
    • Authors: VK Saxena; BK Jha, AS Meena, HK Narula, D Kumar, SMK Naqvi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Seasonal behaviour in sheep, which varies in tropical and temperate environmental conditions, is a matter of study, because it can provide a clue to address the problem of seasonality in sheep. Melatonin receptor is the membrane‐bound G‐coupled receptor, sensing the message of photoperiodic cues thorough melatonin. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies were carried out to assess the variability of gene at G612A and C606T SNPs in MTNR1A gene, which have been studied to be markers for out‐of‐season breeding. Allelic frequency distribution corresponded to higher frequency of GG and CC genotype, in tropical arid sheep breed in comparison with temperate region sheep breed. PCR amplification of MTNR1A gene of 30 animals was performed and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identification was carried out using Lasergene software. Seven SNPs/mutations were identified, but most of them were synonymous, except the one G706A, leading to substitution of valine by isoleucine. Polyphen‐2 analysis of G706A mutation revealed that it is a benign mutation. Two important SNPs C426T and G555A, which were identified in temperate sheep breeds, could not be traced in Magra and Marwari breeds of sheep. Thus, the Magra and Marwari breeds of tropical, arid region demonstrated the presence of both polymorphic SNPs markers G612A and C606T, associated with out‐of‐season breeding. GG and CC genotypes were having a higher prevalence in the studied population.
      PubDate: 2015-02-23T23:51:51.5713-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12503
       
  • Aquagrams of Raw Milk for Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows
    • Authors: G Takemura; G Bázár, K Ikuta, E Yamaguchi, S Ishikawa, A Furukawa, Y Kubota, Z Kovács, R Tsenkova
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop rapid and cost‐effective method for oestrus detection in dairy cows by means of near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics, using raw milk from individual cows. We found that aquaphotomics approach showed consistent specific water spectral pattern of milk at the oestrus periods of the investigated Holstein cows. Characteristic changes were detected especially in foremilk collected at morning milking. They were reflected in calculated aquagrams of milk spectra where distinctive spectral pattern of oestrus showed increased light absorbance of strongly hydrogen‐bonded water. Results showed that monitoring of raw milk near infrared spectra provides an opportunity for analysing hormone levels indirectly, through the changes of water spectral pattern caused by complex physiological changes related to fertile periods.
      PubDate: 2015-02-23T00:49:40.074989-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12504
       
  • Chlamydia abortus in Cows Oviducts, Occasional Event or Causal
           Connection?
    • Authors: S Appino; L Vincenti, A Rota, S Pellegrini, MN Chieppa, V Cadoni, P Pregel
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fifty‐seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.4 ± 4.3 years (mean ± SD), range: 2.6–15.6 years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR‐positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR‐positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24 = 37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33 = 18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C. abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported.
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:51:34.711747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12505
       
  • The Concentrations of Inflammatory Cytokines and Acute‐Phase
           Proteins in the Peripheral Blood and Uterine Washings in Cows with
           Pyometra
    • Authors: P Brodzki; K Kostro, A Brodzki, J Ziętek
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The development of pyometra in cows depends largely on the state of local immunity of the uterus. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentration of the following proinflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor (TNF‐α) and interleukin‐6 (IL‐6); anti‐inflammatory cytokine: interleukin‐10 (IL‐10); and acute‐phase proteins (APPs): haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), in serum and uterine washings in cows with pyometra and healthy animals. The study was performed on 20 cows divided into two groups based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests: a pyometra and a healthy group (10 cows per group). Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines, TNF‐α, IL‐6, IL‐10 and APPs – Hp and SAA, in the study material were determined by ELISA. The results showed that the values of TNF‐α, IL‐6, IL‐10 as well as SAA and Hp were significantly higher in serum of cows with pyometra compared to controls (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:51:22.624177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12507
       
  • Effects of Ovariohysterectomy on Oxidative Stress Markers in Female Dogs
    • Authors: M Szczubial; M Kankofer, M Bochniarz, R Dąbrowski
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Numerous studies reported an increase of oxidative stress increases in both women and female laboratory animals after ovariectomy. However, there is little information about the evaluation of antioxidative/oxidative status in ovariectomized dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in oxidative stress markers after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in female dogs. The study included eighteen healthy mongrel female dogs. Blood samples were collected immediately before surgery and 14 and 30 days after surgery. Following parameters of oxidative stress intensity were determined: the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH‐Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical cations of N,N, diethylpara‐phenylene diamine (RC‐DEPPD), sulfhydryl groups (SH groups), bityrosine and formylkynurenine. The activity of GSH‐Px increased markedly, although not significantly, 14 days after OHE and then significantly decreased at 30 days after OHE. A significant increase in plasma TBARS, bityrosine and formylkynurenine concentrations and a decrease in SH group content were concurrently noted at 30 days after surgery. Acquired results suggested that a loss of control over ROS production occurred in female dogs after OHE, which could lead to oxidative stress in the late post‐operative period. In conclusion, our findings indicated that OHE is related with the risk of oxidative stress in the late period after operations. Given that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, this may suggest an increased risk of disorders in ovariectomized female dogs; however, further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:51:00.990553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12501
       
  • Comparative Expression Analysis of Gametogenesis‐Associated Genes in
           Foetal and Adult Bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) Ovaries and Testes
    • Authors: SM Shah; N Saini, S Ashraf, M Zandi, MK Singh, RS Manik, SK Singla, P Palta, MS Chauhan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study was conducted to identify and analyse the expression of gametogenesis‐associated genes and proteins in foetal and adult buffalo gonads of both the sexes. Relative quantification of the genes was determined by qPCR and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was also performed for various gametogenesis‐associated proteins in foetal and adult gonads of both the sexes. We observed significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:50:51.24327-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12489
       
  • Stem Cells from Foetal Adnexa and Fluid in Domestic Animals: An Update on
           Their Features and Clinical Application
    • Authors: E Iacono; B Rossi, B Merlo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Over the past decade, stem cell research has emerged as an area of major interest for its potential in regenerative medicine applications. This is in constant need of new cell sources to conceive regenerative medicine approaches for diseases that are still without therapy. Scientists drew the attention towards alternative sources such as foetal adnexa and fluid, as these sources possess many advantages: first of all, cells can be extracted from discarded foetal material and it is non‐invasive and inexpensive for the patient; secondly, abundant stem cells can be obtained; and finally, these stem cell sources are free from ethical considerations. Cells derived from foetal adnexa and fluid preserve some of the characteristics of the primitive embryonic layers from which they originate. Many studies have demonstrated the differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo towards mesenchymal and non‐mesenchymal cell types; in addition, the immune‐modulatory properties make these cells a good candidate for allo‐ and xenotransplantation. Naturally occurring diseases in domestic animals can be more ideal as disease model of human genetic and acquired diseases and could help to define the potential therapeutic use efficiency and safety of stem cells therapies. This review offers an update on the state of the art of characterization of domestic animals' MSCs derived from foetal adnexa and fluid and on the latest findings in pre‐clinical or clinical setting of the stem cell populations isolated from these sources.
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:50:15.896582-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12499
       
  • Role of Embryonic and Maternal Genotype on Prenatal Survival and Foetal
           Growth in Rabbit
    • Authors: C Naturil‐Alfonso; F Marco‐Jiménez, E Jiménez‐Trigos, MD Saenz‐de‐Juano, MP Viudes‐de‐Castro, R Lavara, JS Vicente
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of maternal and embryonic genotype on prenatal survival and foetal growth during pregnancy. Embryos were recovered at 48 h of gestation from two different donor lines (R = 46 and A = 40) and transferred to nulliparous recipient does (26 R and 24 A). Each recipient doe received six embryos into one oviduct from line R, and six embryos form line A into the other. Laparoscopy was performed at Day 14 to determine implantation rate. Recipient females were slaughter at Days 14, 24 and 30 (12, 24, and 14, respectively) to determine the number of live foetuses and the weight of live foetuses, foetal placenta and maternal placenta. A transcriptome analysis was performed to search for differences between foetal placentas at Days 14 and 24 of development. Prenatal survival at Days 14, and 24 was affected by embryonic genotype and determined by maternal genotype at Day 30. Foetal weight at Day 14 was influenced by both genotypes, being the weight higher for group A/A (0.29 ± 0.01 g vs 0.19 ± 0.01 g, for group R/R). However, both genotypes were determinant for foetal placenta weight at Day 24, while those genotypes affected maternal placenta weight at Day 30. Nevertheless, no differences in foetal placenta at transcriptome level and progesterone and IGF‐I plasma levels in recipient does were found. In conclusion, results indicate that the influence of embryo and maternal genotype on the prenatal survival and growth seems to be changing over gestation.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T00:05:20.451702-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12493
       
  • Vocalizations During Electroejaculation in Anaesthetized Adult and Young
           Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) Males
    • Authors: F Fumagalli; JP Damián, R Ungerfeld
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (Fstart), maximal frequency (Fmax), minimal frequency (Fmin) and final frequency (Fend)] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-15T23:54:12.190891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12494
       
  • Effect of Seminal Plasma on Post‐Thaw Quality and Functionality of
           
    • Authors: A Ledesma; J Manes, G Ríos, J Aller, A Cesari, R Alberio, F Hozbor
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We have already shown that seminal collection method affects seminal plasma composition and sperm quality in Corriedale rams. In this study, we evaluated the effect of seminal plasma collected by electroejaculation or artificial vagina on sperm resistance to cryodamage. Seminal plasma of five rams of the Corriedale breed collected by artificial vagina or electroejaculation was added before freezing to sperm cells collected by the two methods, and post‐thaw quality parameters were evaluated. We found that seminal plasma has no effect on sperm resistance to cryodamage. However, we observed significantly higher percentages of sperm with intact and functional plasma membrane, intact acrosome and greater fertilizing potential after thawing in samples obtained by electroejaculation. This study demonstrates that sperm collected by electroejaculation are more resistant to damage caused by cryopreservation than those collected by artificial vagina.
      PubDate: 2015-02-15T23:53:28.330849-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12500
       
  • Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) in
           Feline Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and in Normal and Hyperplastic
           Endometria
    • Authors: AL Saraiva; R Payan‐Carreira, F Gärtner, I Santana, A Rêma, LM Lourenço, MA Pires
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) is overexpressed in several human and animal neoplasms, including the human endometrial carcinoma. It has been suggested as a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target. This study aimed to (i) clarify histological aspects of feline endometrial adenocarcinomas (FEA) of the papillary serous type and (ii) characterize COX‐2 immunohistochemical expression in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium in this species. Archived paraffin‐embedded tissue samples of 33 FEA, eight cystic endometrial hyperplasias (CEHs) and 21 samples of normal, healthy endometrium in the follicular (FS; n = 10) and luteal (LS; n = 11) stages were evaluated. Histological evaluation of haematoxylin and eosin‐stained sections of the FEA revealed a papillary proliferation of neoplastic cells of serous type, accompanied by clear and multinucleated cells. Other architectural arrangements mainly included solid and tubular growth. Randomly distributed areas of necrosis within the tumours were commonly observed. Invasion of the myometrium, of the serosa and of the vascular and/or lymphatic vessels was not constant features. The mean number of mitoses was higher in FEA compared to non‐neoplastic endometrium. COX‐2 scores were lower in FEA (p = 0.003) and CEH (p = 0.05) when compared to normal epithelium (NE). The loss of the membrane apical reinforcement in epithelial cells was observed in FEA samples, which was accompanied by the dislocation of COX‐2 labelling into the cytoplasm and the perinuclear area; in contrast, in epithelial cells in the healthy and hyperplastic endometria, the immunoreaction showed the characteristic pattern of apical membrane reinforcement, suggestive of the membrane polarization. COX‐2 epithelial scores were higher in the FS than in the LS. No differences were found in stromal COX‐2 expression between normal, CEH and FEA groups, but it was higher in the LS than in the FS. In summary, loss of COX‐2 compartmentalization in neoplastic epithelial cells might be one of the molecular events underlying endometrial carcinogenesis.
      PubDate: 2015-02-13T23:09:02.604213-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12497
       
  • Immunohistochemical Expression of Growth Factors in the Follicular Wall of
           Normal and Cystic Ovaries of Sows
    • Authors: FJF Sant'Ana; JL Reis Junior, GR Blume, EJ Gimeno, F Rey, HH Ortega
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The expression of growth factors was evaluated immunohistochemically in normal and cystic ovaries of sows. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA) was quantified by image analysis to analyse the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary and cystic follicles. IGF‐I immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC), moderate in the theca interna (TI) and mild in the theca externa (TE) of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the labelling to IGF‐I in the GC of the follicular and luteinized cysts. In the normal follicles, the reactivity for IGF‐II was very similar to pattern noted in IGF‐I. There was reduction of the IHCSAs in the GC of the follicular and luteinized cysts, but the decrease was not significant. The staining of the IGF‐II in the TI and TE of the cysts was increased, in comparison with normal follicles. The IHCSAs for VEGF were higher in the GC and TE of the normal follicles in contrast to TI, but this difference was noted only in the tertiary follicle. The VEGF reactivity increased in the GC of the cysts, in relation to normal follicles. The results of the current study show that the formation of ovarian cysts in sows is associated with alterations in the immunohistochemical expression of some growth factors.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T00:09:01.673199-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12495
       
  • Blood Metabolite Profiles in Cycling and Non‐cycling
           Friesian–Sanga Cross‐bred Cows Grazing Natural Pasture During
           the Post‐partum Period
    • Authors: FY Obese; C MacCarthy, R Osei‐Amponsah, RA Ayizanga, JK Damptey
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of the metabolic hormones [Growth hormone (GH), insulin and insulin‐like growth factor –I (IGF‐I)] and nutritional metabolites (Glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine) on the resumption of post‐partum ovarian activity in sixteen Friesian–Sanga cows grazing extensively on native grassland. Blood samples were taken from cows from week 1 to 16 post‐partum. Cows were classified as having resumed ovarian activity when a plasma progesterone concentration of ≥ 1.0 ng/ml was recorded for two consecutive weekly samples. Based on the resumption of ovarian activity, cows were classified as early‐cycling, late‐cycling or non‐cycling. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones were measured from week 1 to 10, while those of the nutritional metabolites were measured during week 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 during the study period. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones, GH and insulin were similar (p > 0.05) in the three ovarian activity groups, likewise the concentrations of the nutritional metabolites, glucose, total protein, globulin, urea and creatinine. Plasma IGF‐I concentration was higher (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T00:01:26.061955-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12492
       
  • Congenital Abnormality of the Vagina Complicated by
           Haemato‐Pyocolpos in a 1‐Year Labrador Retriever
    • Authors: S Alonge; S Romussi, V Grieco, GC Luvoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 1‐year‐old female Labrador retriever was referred with a few days history of haematic‐like vulvar discharge. Physical examination, vaginal inspection and palpation did not reveal any remarkable finding. Transabdominal ultrasound showed echogenic fluid accumulation in the vagina suggesting haemato‐pyocolpos. An exploratory laparotomy was performed: a well‐delimited ectasic vagina was identified. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy and vaginoplasty were performed to spay the bitch and to remove the ectasic vagina. Post‐operative recovery and 12‐month follow‐up were uneventful. Clinical, morphological and histological findings were consistent with a congenital abnormality of the muscular layer of the vagina complicated by haemato‐pyocolpos. The disorganization of the vaginal tunica muscularis may have acted as locus minoris resistentiae in the vaginal wall. The organ was dilated and atonic due to the gradual accumulation of physiological fluids complicated by an overgrowth of genital bacteria. This congenital disorder has to be taken into account as differential diagnosis of haemato‐pyocolpos with vaginal discharge in young bitches.
      PubDate: 2015-02-07T02:02:30.487587-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12491
       
  • Determination of Appropriate Cryopreservation Protocols for Epididymal Cat
           Spermatozoa
    • Authors: K Buranaamnuay
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Effects of Equex and glycerol additions and sample dilution step on frozen–thawed epididymal cat spermatozoa were investigated. The epididymal sperm pellets were resuspended in extenders using one‐ (groups III and IV) or two‐ (groups I, II, V and VI) step dilution. For one‐step dilution, the pellets were resuspended in plain egg yolk‐Tris medium (EYT) + 5% glycerol with (IV)/without (III) 0.5% Equex and cooled (4°C, 1 h). For two‐step dilution, the pellets were resuspended in EYT (I and V) and in EYT + 3% glycerol (II and VI), cooled and further diluted with EYT + 10% glycerol with (I)/without (V) 1% Equex and with EYT + 7% glycerol with (II)/without (VI) 1% Equex. Immediately after freeze–thawing, no differences (p > 0.05) were found in the motility, viability and membrane integrity (HOST) among the groups except the lowest HOST in IV (p = 0.005 to p = 0.04). The acrosome integrity (FITC) in group I was comparable to that in group II (p > 0.05) and was higher than the rest (p  0.05) except the lower percentages of viability in III (p = 0.008 to p = 0.3) and of HOST in IV (p = 0.005 to p = 0.2). Two‐step dilutions with Equex (I, II) were more beneficial for the FITC at 2 h than without Equex (V) (p = 0.005 and p = 0.02) and than one‐step dilutions (III, IV) (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-07T02:02:10.366094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12496
       
  • Insulin‐Like Growth Factor‐1 Regulates the Expression of
           Luteinizing Hormone Receptor and Steroid Production in Bovine Granulosa
           Cells
    • Authors: AF Rawan; S Yoshioka, H Abe, TJ Acosta
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Luteinizing hormone LH plays important roles in follicular maturation and ovulation. The effects of LH are mediated by LH receptor (LHR) in the ovary. However, the factors that regulate the expression of LHR in bovine granulosa cells (GCs) are not well known. Insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) is known to play a key role in the acquisition and maintenance of functional dominance. To better understand the roles of LHR expression and IGF‐1, we conducted three experiments to determine (i) mRNA expression of LHR in the GCs of developing follicles, (ii) the effects of IGF‐1 on LHR mRNA expression in cultured GCs and (iii) the effects of IGF‐1 on estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) and androstenedione (A4) production by non‐luteinized GCs. In experiment 1, small follicles (
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:48:18.585412-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12486
       
  • Season Does Not Influence Embryo Recovery Rate and Conceptus Size Until
           Day 14 After Ovulation in the Horse
    • Authors: C Aurich; S Budik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Although the horse is a seasonal breeding species, a considerable number of mares continue to cycle throughout autumn and winter. Slower equine embryo growth during the non‐breeding season has been hypothesized, and because smaller embryo size is beneficial for cryopreservation, embryo collection outside the breeding season could be an interesting approach for the production of frozen horse embryos. In the present retrospective study, we have therefore analysed embryo recovery rates and conceptus size in mares (n = 30) throughout the year. Conceptus diameter was either size determined after collection with a microscopic scale (day 7–10 after ovulation) or determined by transrectal ultrasound immediately before collection (day 11–14 after ovulation). In 19 of the 30 mares (63%), ovulatory cycles were detected throughout the year. A total of 352 embryo collections with a mean recovery rate of 64.2% were performed and not affected by season. The size was analysed in a total of 165 conceptuses. Conceptus diameter significantly increased (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:48:04.781049-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12490
       
  • Distribution Pattern(s) of Sperm Protein at 22 kDa (SP22) on Fresh,
           Cooled and Frozen/Thawed Equine Spermatozoa and Expression of SP22 in
           Tissues from the Testes and Epididymides of Normal Stallions
    • Authors: LMJ Miller; EM Woodward, JR Campos, EL Squires, MHT Troedsson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to (i) verify localization of SP22 on fresh, cooled, and frozen/thawed equine spermatozoa and to (ii) determine SP22 mRNA and protein expression in equine testicular and epididymal tissues. Immunocytochemistry and Western blots were performed on the spermatozoa samples. Northern blots and Western blots were performed on the tissue samples. The immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of SP22 in all samples tested. The fresh spermatozoa stained predominantly over the equatorial segment as did the samples cooled for 1 and 2 days. The samples cooled for 3 days, and the frozen/thawed samples had an increased proportion of no staining. The Western blots revealed SP22 was present on all semen samples tested. The Northern blot of the tissues revealed a 1.0 kb mRNA transcript present in each of the tissues, and the Western blot revealed the presence of SP22 in each of the tissues. As expected, SP22 was found to be altered on cooled and frozen/thawed spermatozoa. Our results suggest that the equatorial pattern is the normal pattern in spermatozoa, while a complete loss of SP22 from the surface of spermatozoa seems to be the staining pattern indicating the most extreme abnormality with scattered staining of the head indicating intermediate damage.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:47:03.733046-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12485
       
  • Effects of Bovine Serum Albumin on Boar Sperm Quality During Liquid
           Storage at 17°C
    • Authors: X‐G Zhang; G‐J Yan, J‐Y Hong, Z‐Z Su, G‐S Yang, Q‐W Li, J‐H Hu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Boar semen samples were collected and diluted with Modena containing different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 g/l) of BSA, and sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T‐AOC) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analysed. The results showed that Modena supplemented with 3, 4 and 5 g/l BSA could improve boar sperm motility, effective survival time and plasma membrane integrity (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T00:52:39.265744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12481
       
  • X monosomy in a Virilized Female Cat
    • Authors: I Szczerbal; W Nizanski, S Dzimira, J Nowacka‐Woszuk, M Ochota, M Switonski
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum‐like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G‐banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T02:50:09.403437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12483
       
  • Effect of Post‐Thaw Storage Time on Motility and Fertility of
           Cryopreserved Beluga Sturgeon (Huso huso) Sperm
    • Authors: MS Aramli; RM Nazari, MR Gharibi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the influence of post‐thaw storage time on the duration of sperm motility, percentage of motile sperm, and fertilization and hatching rates of fresh sperm and sperm stored for 0, 30 and 60 min at 4°C post‐thawing. After being frozen in liquid nitrogen and then thawed, the percentage of motile sperm and duration of motility were not affected by 30 min of storage at 4°C, whereas a significant decline in these parameters was observed after 60 min of storage. Similarly, fertilization and hatching rates were significantly affected within 60 min of storage at 4°C, and the fertility of frozen‐thawed sperm was significantly lower than that of fresh sperm. We conclude that cryopreserved sperm of beluga sturgeon could be stored for 30 min without the loss of sperm quality. This described procedure for beluga sturgeon cryopreservation is reliable and efficient and therefore can be recommended for hatchery practice after scaling up this technique.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T02:49:28.342181-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12484
       
  • The Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Profile and Acid–base Status in
           Preterm and Term Canine Neonates
    • Authors: CI Vannucchi; D Kishi, FM Regazzi, LCG Silva, GAL Veiga, DSR Angrimani, CF Lucio, M Nichi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: During the initiation of neonatal pulmonary respiration, there is an exponential increase in reactive oxygen species that must be scavenged by antioxidant defences. However, neonate and preterm newborns are known to possess immature antioxidant mechanisms to neutralize these toxic effects. The purposes of this study were to compare the development of antioxidant system between preterm and term canine neonates and to evaluate the magnitude of acid–base balance during the initial 4 h of life. A prospective study was conducted involving 18 neonatal puppies assigned to Term Group (63 days of gestation; n = 5), Preterm‐57 Group (57 days of gestation; n = 8) and Preterm‐55 Group (55 days of gestation; n = 5). Neonates were physically examined through Apgar score and venous haemogasometry within 5 min, 2 and 4 h after birth. No difference on amniotic fluid and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the marker of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) was verified. Irrespective of prematurity, all neonates presented low vitality, hypothermia, acidosis, hypoxaemia and hypercapnia at birth. However, term puppies clinically evolved more rapidly than preterm newborns. During the course of the study, premature neonates presented more severe complications, such as prolonged hypoxaemia and even death. In conclusion, premature puppies have no signs of immature enzymatic mechanisms for controlling oxidative stress, although SOD and GPx may participate in achieving acid–base balance. Aside from initial unremarkable symptoms, premature puppies should be carefully followed up, as they are at high risk of succumbing to odds of prematurity.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T23:46:16.306055-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12476
       
  • Vaginal Histological Changes after Using Intravaginal Sponges for Oestrous
           Synchronization in Anoestrous Ewes
    • Authors: J Manes; C Campero, F Hozbor, R Alberio, R Ungerfeld
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: To characterize the histological and cytological vaginal changes generated by the use of intravaginal sponge (IS) applied in oestrous synchronization treatments in ewes during mid‐non‐breeding season. Thirty‐five multiparous ewes were allocated to three experimental groups according to the moment in which the samples were taken: (i) ewes treated with IS containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days, sampled the day of IS removal (group ISR; n = 10), (ii) or after sponge removal at time of oestrus or 72 h after removal (group AR; n = 14) and (iii) ewes without sponge treatment that were sampled at the day of IS removal of the other groups (group CG; n = 11). Vaginal biopsies and cytological samples were taken from the anterior vaginal fornix area. The vagina of the CG group had a stratified squamous epithelium with a moderate degree of cellular infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propia. Treated ewes (ISR and AR) had epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy. ISR ewes had haemorrhage and perivascular infiltrate and an increased number of epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages and erythrocytes at IS removal. The use of IS generated histological and cytological alterations in the vaginal wall when used for oestrous synchronization in anoestrous ewes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T05:46:32.406693-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12482
       
  • Effects of Co‐culture of Cumulus Oocyte Complexes with Denuded
           Oocytes During In Vitro Maturation on the Developmental Competence of
           Cloned Bovine Embryos
    • Authors: A‐N Ha; M Fakruzzaman, K‐L Lee, J‐I Bang, G‐K Deb, Z Wang, I‐K Kong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of co‐culture of immature cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded immature oocytes (DO) during in vitro maturation on the developmental competence and quality of cloned bovine embryos. We demonstrated that developmental competence, judged by the blastocyst formation rate, was significantly higher in the co‐cultured somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT+DO, 37.1 ± 1.1%) group than that in the non‐co‐cultured somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT‐DO, 25.1 ± 0.9%) group and was very similar to that in the control IVF (IVF, 38.8 ± 2.8%) group. Moreover, the total cell number per blastocyst in the SCNT+DO group (101.7 ± 6.2) was higher than that in the SCNT‐DO group (81.7 ± 4.3), while still less than that in the IVF group (133.3 ± 6.0). Furthermore, our data showed that mRNA levels of the methylation‐related genes DNMT1 and DNMT3a in the SCNT+DO group were similar to that in the IVF group, while they were significantly higher in the SCNT‐DO group. Similarly, while the mRNA levels of the deacetylation‐related genes HDAC2 and HDAC3 were significantly higher in the SCNT‐DO group, they were comparable between the IVF and SCNT+DO groups. However, the mRNA levels of HDAC1 and DNMT3B were significantly higher in the SCNT+DO group than in the other groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that co‐culture of COCs with DO improves the in vitro developmental competence and quality of cloned embryos, as evidenced by increased total cell number.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T05:46:16.854676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12487
       
  • The Intrauterine Treatment of the Retained Foetal Membrane in Dairy Goats
           by Ozone: Novel Alternative to Antibiotic Therapy
    • Authors: D Djuricic; H Valpotic, M Samardzija
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: One of the major post‐parturient complications in dairy goats is the retention of foetal membrane (RFM), which negatively influences their health, reproductive efficacy and welfare. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of intrauterine either ozone (OZ) or antibiotic (AB) treatments to establish the use of OZ as a novel and potential alternative to AB therapy in does with the RFM. The study was performed on 7 herds of dairy goats (n = 563) kept in the farms in Croatia. The conception rate was 563 of 641 total matings or 87.83%. The does from selected farms were observed during early puerperium and were divided into animals without the RFM (n = 522) and with the RFM (n = 41), treated either with foam spray OZ (n = 21) or with foaming AB oxytetracycline tablets (n = 20). The does with the RFM were mated successfully and became pregnant next kidding season, regardless of the treatment applied. Treatment with OZ attained similar results to the standard AB therapy, indicating that it could be novel potential alternative therapy of the RFM in dairy goats.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T05:00:10.654971-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12475
       
  • Early Cleavage of Handmade Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos is an
           Indicator of Their Developmental Competence and Quality
    • Authors: S Kaith; M Saini, AK Raja, AA Sahare, B Jyotsana, P Madheshiya, P Palta, MS Chauhan, RS Manik, SK Singla
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Following IVF, embryos which cleave early have been shown to have higher developmental competence and quality than those that cleave relatively later across many species. We investigated the effect of time of cleavage on the developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression in buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning (HMC). Following classification of embryos as early cleaving (EC) or late cleaving (LC) based on whether they had cleaved or not at 24 h post in vitro culture, 54% (164/303) were found to be EC and the rest to be LC. The blastocyst rate (58.1 ± 3.4 vs 36.9 ± 1.6%, p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T05:00:05.814381-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12472
       
  • Effect of Cryopreservation on the Sperm DNA Fragmentation Dynamics of the
           Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
    • Authors: MJ Sánchez‐Calabuig; C López‐Fernández, SD Johnston, D Blyde, J Cooper, K Harrison, J Fuente, J Gosálvez
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Sperm DNA fragmentation is one of the major causes of infertility; the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) evaluates this parameter and offers the advantage of species‐specific validated protocol and ease of use under field conditions. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics in both fresh and post‐thaw bottlenose dolphin sperm using the SCDt following different cryopreservation protocols to gain new information about the post‐thaw differential sperm DNA longevity in this species. Fresh and cryopreserved semen samples from five bottlenose dolphins were examined for sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics using the SCDt (Halomax®). Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed immediately at collection and following cryopreservation (T0) and then after 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h incubation at 37°C. Serially collected ejaculates from four dolphins were frozen using different cryopreservation protocols in a TES‐TRIS‐fructose buffer (TTF), an egg‐yolk‐free vegetable lipid LP1 buffer (LP1) and human sperm preservation medium (HSPM). Fresh ejaculated spermatozoa initially showed low levels of DNA fragmentation for up to 48 h. Lower Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) was found in the second fresh ejaculate compared to the first when more than one sample was collected on the same day (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:59:58.112839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12474
       
  • Breed of Boar Influences the Optimal Concentration of Gamma‐oryzanol
           Needed for Semen Cryopreservation
    • Authors: P Chanapiwat; K Kaeoket
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of boar breed on the optimal concentration of gamma‐oryzanol on the qualities of cryopreserved boar semen. Semen was collected from 20 boars (10 Duroc, 5 Large white and 5 Landrace boars). The semen sample was divided into five groups (A–E) according to the concentration of gamma‐oryzanol in extender II, that is 0, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm, respectively. The semen was cryopreserved by nitrogen vapour and storage in nitrogen tank (−196°C). After storage for a week, samples were thawed at 50°C for 12 s and evaluated for progressive motility, sperm viability and acrosome integrity. The results demonstrated that gamma‐oryzanol significantly improved progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity of frozen–thawed boar semen. Considering the influence of breeds on the optimal concentration of gamma‐oryzanol, for Duroc boar, gamma‐oryzanol at 0.16 mm (group C) yielded the highest percentage of progressive motility, sperm viability and acrosome integrity. For Large white and Landrace boars, gamma‐oryzanol at 0.24 mm (group D) showed a significantly higher percentage of progressive motility, viability (not significant in Landrace) and acrosome integrity than other concentrations. In conclusion, the optimal concentration of gamma‐oryzanol needed for boar semen cryopreservation in lactose–egg yolk (LEY) freezing extender is not only depended on individual boar but also breed of boar, that is 0.16 mm for Duroc and 0.24 mm for Large white and Landrace.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:55:08.625948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12473
       
  • B‐Mode and Doppler Sonography of the Mammary Glands in Dairy Goats
           for Mastitis Diagnosis
    • Authors: VJC Santos; K Simplício, D Sanchez, L Coutinho, P Teixeira, F Barros, V Almeida, L Rodrigues, P Bartlewski, M Oliveira, M Feliciano, W Vicente
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B‐mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey‐scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B‐mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T07:13:55.478607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12479
       
  • Induction of Gynogenetic and Androgenetic Haploid and Doubled Haploid
           Development in the Brown Trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758)
    • Authors: O Michalik; S Dobosz, T Zalewski, M Sapota, K Ocalewicz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation‐induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation‐induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T07:13:24.013637-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12480
       
  • Orexin A Expression in the Ovary of Dog and Cat
    • Authors: M Levanti; A Germanà, F Abbate
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Orexin A and B, also known as hypocretin A and B, are hypothalamic neuropeptides arising from a precursor to the 130 amino acid, called pre–pro orexin. They are synthesized mainly in lateral and posterior hypothalamus and are involved in different functions such as regulation of food intake and energy balance. Orexins and orexin receptors were previously described also in different tissues and organs outside the brain. The aim of this study was to demonstrate by means of the immunofluorescence technique, the presence of orexin A in the ovary of cat and dog, to support the hypothesis of the role of this substance also at the level of the female genital system. The presence of orexin A in the ovary either in dog or in cat is in agreement with previous data on the presence and role of orexins in the female genital system of other species.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T07:12:58.520157-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12478
       
  • Two Methods of Vitrification Followed by In Vitro Culture of the Ovine
           Ovary: Evaluation of the Follicular Development and Ovarian Extracellular
           Matrix
    • Authors: FT Bandeira; AA Carvalho, SV Castro, LF Lima, DA Viana, JSAM Evangelista, MJS Pereira, CC Campello, JR Figueiredo, APR Rodrigues
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two vitrification techniques on the extra cellular matrix (ECM) and ovarian follicular development. The ovarian cortex was fragmented (9 mm3) and divided into six groups, viz. fresh control, cultured control, vitrified by the Ovarian Tissue Cryosystem (OTC) method, conventional solid surface vitrification (SSV) method, OTC/cultured and SSV/cultured. Follicles from all the fragments were analysed for morphology, development and viability. The ECM was evaluated based on the condition of collagen and reticular fibres and the immunolocalization of type I collagen and fibronectin. After 7 days of culture, the tissue vitrified by OTC revealed a higher percentage (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-26T04:17:33.32568-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12463
       
  • A Case of Bronze Turkey Twins Developing from Hatching
    • Authors: K Damaziak; M Michalczuk, Ż Zdanowska‐Sąsiadek, J Niemiec
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A double‐yolked egg that was laid by an 11‐month‐old bronze turkey hen on 2 April, 2013 was reported. The presented case of developing turkey twin embryos is the first ever described case for this species. The egg weighed 125 g and had 74.6 mm in length and 53.0 mm in width. The embryos died between the 23rd and 24th day of incubation. Both twin 1 and twin 2 were fully developed with body weights of: 37.7 g and 40.3 g, respectively. The likely causes of death include inappropriate arrangement of embryos and insufficient gas exchange in the last period of incubation. The embryos were arranged along the long axis of the egg, one underneath the other, and were closely adhering to one another. The twins were different in plumage pigmentation. In twin 1, a spontaneous mutation of plumage pigmentation (B) was observed, whereas twin 2 showed appropriate pigmentation (b+) in respect to parents.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24T00:23:05.089143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12477
       
  • Effect of Reproductive Seasonality on Gamete Quality in the North American
           Bison (Bison bison bison)
    • Authors: S Krishnakumar; DP Whiteside, B Elkin, JC Thundathil
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective was to investigate the effects of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in plains bison (Bison bison bison). Epididymal sperm (n = 61 per season), collected during the breeding season (July–September), had significantly higher post‐thaw total motility (36.76 ± 14.18 vs 31.24 ± 12.74%), and lower linearity (0.36 ± 0.06 vs 0.39 ± 0.04) and wobbliness (0.49 ± 0.04 vs 0.51 ± 0.03; mean ± SD) compared to non‐breeding season (January–March) samples. Representative samples (n = 4) from each season were used in heterologous IVF trials using cattle oocytes. Cleavage, morulae and blastocyst percentage were higher for breeding vs non‐breeding season sperm samples (81.88 ± 6.8 vs 49.94 ± 6.77; 41.89 ± 13.40 vs 27.08 ± 23.21; and 30.49 ± 17.87 vs 13.72 ± 18.98%, respectively). Plains bison ovaries collected during the breeding (n = 97 pairs) and non‐breeding (n = 100 pairs) seasons were classified as luteal or follicular. Oocytes recovered from these ovaries were classified into five grades based on morphology. There was no significant difference in the number of luteal ovaries or grades of oocytes recovered. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (with frozen sperm from three bison bulls) and cultured in vitro. Cleavage percentage was higher for oocytes collected during breeding vs non‐breeding season (83.72 ± 6.42 vs 73.98 ± 6.43), with no significant difference in subsequent development to blastocysts. In summary, epididymal sperm from non‐breeding season had decreased total motility and resulted in reduced embryo production in vitro. Oocytes collected during non‐breeding season had reduced ability to be matured, fertilized and/or undergo cleavage in vitro. Data suggested that season influenced gamete quality in plains bison.
      PubDate: 2014-12-22T00:05:55.699637-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12471
       
  • The Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Influences Porcine Oocyte In Vitro
           Maturation
    • Authors: GM Alvarez; SA Morado, MP Soto, GC Dalvit, PD Cetica
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during oocyte in vitro maturation with enzymatic ROS production systems (xanthine + xanthine oxidase or xanthine + xanthine oxidase + catalase), scavenger systems (catalase or superoxide dismutase + catalase) or cysteine on porcine oocyte maturation. Oocyte ROS levels showed an increase when H2O2 or O2∙‐ production systems were added to the culture medium (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-17T23:52:50.106883-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12469
       
  • Implication of FKBP6 for Male Fertility in Horses
    • Authors: R Schrimpf; J Metzger, G Martinsson, H Sieme, O Distl
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In stallions, impaired acrosome reaction (IAR) may often cause subfertility. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within FK506‐binding protein (FKBP6) seem to be associated with IAR in stallions. However, their effect on stallion fertility has not yet been quantified. Using whole‐genome sequence data of seven stallions, we searched FKBP6 for mutations to perform an association study in Hanoverian stallions with estimated breeding values for the paternal component of the pregnancy rate per oestrus cycle (EBV‐PAT) as target trait. Genotyping five exonic mutations within FKBP6 revealed a significant association of the SNP g.11040379C>A (p.167H>N) with EBV‐PAT in 216 Hanoverian stallions. The difference among the two homozygous genotypes was 7.62% in EBV‐PAT, corresponding to one standard deviation of EBV‐PAT. In conclusion, in Hanoverian stallions, the FKBP6‐associated SNP g.11040379C>A confers higher conception rates in A/A homozygous and lower conception rates in C/C homozygous Hanoverian stallions. Thus, an FKBP6‐associated missense mutation is significantly associated with stallion fertility.
      PubDate: 2014-12-12T03:46:31.581968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12467
       
  • Fatty Acid Composition of Eggs and its Relationships to Egg and Larval
           Viability from Domesticated Common Sole (Solea solea) Breeders
    • Authors: L Parma; A Bonaldo, M Pirini, C Viroli, A Parmeggiani, E Bonvini, PP Gatta
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The study of lipids and fatty acids (FAs) has been used in the assessment of egg quality because their composition can influence the fertilization rate, hatching, survival and growth of marine fish larvae. For these reasons, the lipid content (TL) and fatty acid composition of common sole (Solea solea) eggs were measured and correlated to egg and larval viability parameters throughout an entire reproductive season. Seventeen batches of fertile eggs obtained from natural spawning of captive breeders were characterized for the TL, FA profile, hatching rate (HR) and survival rate of larvae (SR) at 0–6 days post‐hatching (dph). The egg FA composition reflected the composition of the feed supplied to the broodstock during summer and autumn (before and during vitellogenesis) rather than that supplied during the spawning season. In general, the egg FA profile showed minimal differences among the early‐, mid‐ and late‐spawning periods (possibly due to the change of the diet and/or water temperature) indicating that it is possible to obtain a similar egg quality in terms of egg FA profile over 2 months of spawning. Saturated FAs and monounsaturated FAs (MUFA) were positively correlated with HR, while TL, 22 : 6n‐3 (DHA), 20 : 4n‐6 (ARA), polyunsaturated FAs of the (n‐3) series (n‐3 PUFA) and polyunsaturated FAs of the (n‐6) series were negatively correlated (p ≤ 0.05). MUFA, 20 : 5n‐3 (EPA), n‐6/n‐3 were positively correlated with SR, while DHA, n‐3 PUFA, DHA/EPA were negatively correlated (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the feed supplied before and during vitellogenesis has a major role in determining the egg FA profile in common sole. The relationships found between TL and FAs with egg and larval viability parameters differ from many other farmed marine fish species, which may suggest the need for a specific broodstock feed for this species.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T00:06:07.65984-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12466
       
  • Neuroendocrine, Metabolic and Genomic Cues Signalling the Onset of Puberty
           in Females
    • Authors: CA Meza‐Herrera; A Gonzalez‐Bulnes, RT Kridli, M Mellado, CF Arechiga‐Flores, H Salinas, JM Luginbuhl
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Puberty is the result of a dynamic interaction between genetic factors and environmental cues, all of which lead to the attainment of reproductive capacity. Thus, significant changes in hormone secretion occur from the pre‐pubertal to the pubertal stage. The objective of this review is to provide an update of some endocrine, physiological, metabolic and genetic concepts involved in the establishment of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis function promoting the onset of the reproductive function during puberty. To achieve this purpose, basic aspects of the function of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis, the control of the axis by neurotransmitters and the interaction between reproductive function and metabolic status will be considered. Finally, the role of the novel kisspeptin system and the GPR54 receptor as modulators of puberty will be considered, in addition to the hierarchical expression of the main genes acting as regulators of the onset of puberty.
      PubDate: 2009-04-08T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01355.x
       
  • Comparison of Two Different Programmes of Ovulation Synchronization in the
           Treatment of Ovarian Cysts in Dairy Cows
    • Authors: N Gundling; S Drews, M Hoedemaker
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: It was the aim of this field study to evaluate two different protocols of ovulation synchronization for the treatment of ovarian cysts and their effect on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In addition, factors with a possible influence on treatment success and pregnancy outcome as well as costs per pregnancy were analysed. The study was performed with 130 German Holsteins with ovarian cysts diagnosed on days 55 to 60 postpartum. Cows belonging to group 1 (n = 65) received a modified ovsynch protocol [day 0: 0.15 mg cloprostenol (PGF) + 0.02 mg buserelin acetate (GnRH); day 14: PGF; day 16: GnRH]. Group 2 (n = 65) was treated with the conventional ovsynch protocol (day 0: GnRH; day 7: PGF; day 9: GnRH). Timed artificial insemination was performed 20 to 24 h later. Cows without ovarian cysts served as controls. Treatment success (disappearance of the ovarian cyst) after the first ovsynch cycle was higher in group 1 (66.2%) than in group 2 (23.1%, p 
      PubDate: 2009-03-11T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01342.x
       
  • Luteal Characteristics and Progesterone Production on Day 5 of the Bovine
           Oestrous Cycle
    • Authors: MP Green; GE Mann, MG Hunter
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: In this study we have examined luteal function in non‐lactating and late lactation dairy cows on day 5 of the cycle, during the period of the post‐ovulatory progesterone rise. Comparison of luteal progesterone content and in vitro synthetic capacity with circulating plasma progesterone demonstrated that circulating progesterone concentration is a function of total luteal activity rather than the activity of individual units of tissue. Incubation of luteal tissue in vitro demonstrated stimulatory activity of LH and IGF‐I, and to a greater degree IGF‐II, on luteal progesterone synthesis. Finally the study showed no effect of double ovulation on luteal function. Occurrence of double ovulation in 35% of animals was not associated with any difference in luteal function or plasma progesterone concentrations.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00836.x
       
  • Effect of Time for Mating and Gestation Length on Reproductive Efficiency
           in Dogs
    • Authors: Y Shimatsu; H Yuzawa, K Aruga, M. Nakura
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of time for mating and gestation length on reproductive efficiency in dogs. Groups of eight, six and six beagle bitches were mated with a total of three sires on days 3, 5 and 7, respectively, after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. All the bitches whelped successfully. The gestation lengths (the intervals from the LH surge to the whelping) were 65.1 ± 1.9, 65.5 ± 1.9 and 68.0 ± 1.8 days, respectively. This length of mating 7 days after the LH surge was significantly longer than that of mating 3 and 5 days after the LH surge (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00840.x
       
  • Successful Low Dose Insemination of Flow Cytometrically Sorted Ram
           Spermatozoa in Sheep
    • Authors: SP De Graaf; G Evans, WMC Maxwell, JA Downing, JK O'Brien
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The fertility of ram spermatozoa that had undergone flow cytometric sorting (MoFlo® SX) and cryopreservation was assessed after low‐dose insemination of synchronized Merino ewes. Oestrus was synchronized with progestagen‐impregnated pessaries, PMSG and GnRH treatment. Ewes (n = 360) were inseminated with 1 × 106, 5 × 106 or 15 × 106 motile sorted frozen‐thawed (S1, S5, or S15 respectively) or non‐sorted frozen‐thawed (C1, C5 or C15 respectively) spermatozoa from three rams. An additional group of ewes were inseminated with 50 × 106 motile non‐sorted frozen‐thawed spermatozoa (C50) to provide a commercial dose control. The percentage of ewes lambing after insemination was similar for C50 (24/38, 63.2%), C15 (37/54, 68.5%), S15 (38/57, 66.7%), S5 (37/56, 66.1%) and S1 (32/52, 61.5%) groups (p > 0.05), but lower for C5 (19/48, 39.6%) and C1 (19/55, 34.5%) treatments (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00837.x
       
  • Bovine Endothelial Cells Interact with Fully‐luteinized, but Not
           Luteinizing, Granulosa Cells in the mRNA Expression of Endothelin‐1
           System in Response to Prostaglandin F2α
    • Authors: K Shirasuna; S Watanabe, D Yamamoto, M Hayashi, K Nagai, A Miyamoto
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The corpus luteum (CL) undergoes regression by prostaglandin (PG)F2α from uterus and endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) plays an important role during luteolysis as a local mediator of PGF2α in the cow. Endothelial cells (EC) and luteal cells are main cell types making up the CL and their interactions are vital for CL function. We aimed to examine the relevance of interactions between EC and luteal cells on stimulation of genes which involved ET‐1 synthesis by PGF2α. We further focused the impact of maturity of luteal cells on the stimulation of the genes. To make a microenvironment which resembles the CL, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and luteinizing or fully‐luteinized granulosa cells (GC) and evaluated the effect of PGF2α on the expression for mRNA of ET‐1 system by using real‐time RT‐PCR. PGF2α stimulated the expression of preproET‐1 and endothelin converting enzyme‐1 mRNA only in the co‐cultures of BAEC with fully‐luteinized GC, but not with luteinizing GC. The data suggest that interactions between BAEC and fully‐luteinized GC enhance the capability of BAEC to produce ET‐1 in response to PGF2α. This mechanism may contribute to the local induction of luteolytic action of PGF2α which is dependent on the age/maturation of the CL.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00835.x
       
  • Ovum Pick‐up in Dairy Heifers: Does it Affect Animal
           Well‐being?
    • Authors: S Petyim; R Båge, A Madej, B Larsson
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the ovum pick‐up (OPU) technique on animal well‐being. Eight dairy heifers were subjected to 4 months of twice‐weekly OPU. The physiological response to OPU was recorded in four heifers at two sessions, at the beginning (time 1) and at the end (time 2) of the 4‐month period. Heart rates were measured and blood was analysed for cortisol, vasopressin and PG‐metabolite before, during (every 5 and 2 min), and after the OPU sessions. Reactions to each subprocedure of OPU (‘restraint’, ‘epidural’, ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’) were closely observed. In all heifers, reactions to the OPU procedures were also noted throughout the experimental period, and changes in routine behaviour, oestrous behaviour, body temperature, or other clinical traits were recorded. Subsequent to the experiment, the ovaries and tails were carefully inspected. At time 1, there was an insignificant increase in heart rate and cortisol throughout the OPU procedure. At time 2, these two parameters increased significantly, but both parameters declined to pre‐OPU levels 10 min after completion of the procedure. No significant changes were seen in vasopressin or PG‐metabolite at time 1 and time 2. Behaviourally, the heifers showed the strongest response to epidural anaesthesia, with a tendency for more intense response during the late 4‐month sessions. The response to ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’ varied among individuals independently of time. There were no changes in the routine or oestrous behaviour throughout the experiment and no signs of clinical disorders. No major pathological changes were macroscopically seen in the ovaries and tails subsequent to the 4 months of OPU. In conclusion, the heifers showed a response to OPU, mostly to administration of epidural anaesthesia. However, we demonstrated that epidural anaesthesia can be administered in a way causing less discomfort.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00833.x
       
  • Infertility in a Dog due to Proximal Cytoplasmic Droplets in the
           Ejaculate: Investigation of the Significance for Sperm Functionality In
           Vitro
    • Authors: AI Peña; M Barrio, JJ Becerra, LA Quintela, PG Herradón
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: A 4‐year‐old Basque Shepherd male dog was presented for breeding soundness evaluation after the dog failed to impregnate the three bitches he had mated. Clinical examination showed no anomaly of the reproductive system. Semen evaluation showed normal sperm count (640 × 106), 80% had progressively motile spermatozoa, and 96% had morphologically abnormal sperm of which 84% had proximal cytoplasmic droplet and 12% had proximal droplet plus other anomaly. A zona pellucida‐binding assay, using canine oocytes derived from frozen‐thawed ovaries, was performed in order to investigate the zona‐binding ability of dog spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets. For the zona pellucida‐binding assay, ovaries were thawed and minced in phosphate‐buffered saline + 0.4% bovine serum albumin, the oocytes recovered were divided into two groups of 35–40 oocytes to be, respectively, used with the infertile dog and with a control fertile dog. Spermatozoa were capacitated in Canine Capacitating Medium (CCM) at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in air for 2 h before oocyte insemination. Groups of five to six oocytes placed in 45 μl droplets of CCM were incubated for 1 h. Afterwards, 5 μl of CCM containing 25 000 spermatozoa were added to each droplet and co‐incubated for 2 h before fixation and evaluation of the complexes. After oocyte insemination, sperm motility and viability were evaluated: the sample from the infertile dog had 85% sperm motility with fast and linear progressive movement, and sperm viability of 92%. The sample from the control dog showed 40% sperm motility with fast and highly curvilinear and erratic movement, high degree of sperm agglutination and sperm viability of 32%. For the infertile dog the mean number of bound spermatozoa/oocyte was 0.33 whereas for the control dog it was 1.80. It was concluded that dog sperm with proximal cytoplasmic droplets seem to lack normal capacitating ability in vitro, and consequently, they may have reduced capacity to bind to the zona pellucida of canine oocytes.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00809.x
       
  • Early Detection of Pregnancy and Embryonic Loss in Dairy Cattle by ELISA
           Tests
    • Authors: G Gábor; F Tóth, L Ózsvári, Zs Abonyi‐Tóth, RG Sasser
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Over a 25‐month period 8118 blood samples were assayed for the presence of the serum pregnancy specific‐protein B (PSPB) and progesteron (P4) concentrations on three Hungarian large‐scale dairy farms. Pregnancy (n = 4085) was checked by BioPRYN assay at 30–36 days post‐insemination (PI). Samples from all cows that tested not pregnant and from cows with an optical density (OD) reading in the BioPRYN test that was between 0% and 30% above the cutoff OD value were tested for serum P4 concentration. According to serum P4 concentration, cows were assigned to three categories: high (>4 ng/ml), medium (2–4 ng/ml) and low (
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00834.x
       
  • Distribution of Spermatozoa and Embryos in the Female Reproductive Tract
           after Unilateral Deep Intra Uterine Insemination in the Pig
    • Authors: P Tummaruk; P Sumransap, M Techakumphu, A Kunavongkrit
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The present study was performed to investigate the number of either the spermatozoa or the embryos in the reproductive tracts of sows after unilateral, deep, intra uterine insemination (DIUI). Two experiments were conducted, 10 sows were used in experiment I and eight sows were used in experiment II. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to examine the time when ovulation took place in relation to oestrus behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen 6–8 h prior to expected ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. In experimental I, five sows were inseminated by a conventional artificial insemination (AI) technique using 100 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 3000 × 106 motile spermatozoa and five sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique with 5 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized and ovario‐hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the uterine horns on each side of the reproductive tracts were divided into seven segments, namely ampulla, cranial isthmus, caudal isthmus, utero‐tubal junction (UTJ), cranial uterine horn, middle uterine horn and caudal uterine horn. Each segment of the reproductive tracts was flushed with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) through the lumen. The total number of spermatozoa in the flushing from each segment were determined. In experimental II, eight sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique using 5.0 ml diluted fresh semen containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized 61.1 ± 12 h after insemination (48–72 h) and the embryos were flushed from the oviduct through the proximal part of the uterine horn. It was revealed that, in experimental I, the spermatozoa were recovered from both sides of the reproductive tract in the AI‐group, and from unilateral side of the reproductive tract in the DIUI‐group (three sows from the left and two sows from the right sides). The number of spermatozoa recovered from the reproductive tracts was higher in the AI‐ than the DIUI‐group (p 
      PubDate: 2007-06-15T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00830.x
       
 
 
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