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        1 2     

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 188 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Animal Brasileira     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences     Open Access  

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Journal Cover   Reproduction in Domestic Animals
  [SJR: 0.562]   [H-I: 35]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0936-6768 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0531
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • Assessment of Genetic Variability in the Coding Sequence of Melatonin
           Receptor Gene (MTNR1A) in Tropical Arid Sheep Breeds of India
    • Authors: VK Saxena; BK Jha, AS Meena, HK Narula, D Kumar, SMK Naqvi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Seasonal behaviour in sheep, which varies in tropical and temperate environmental conditions, is a matter of study, because it can provide a clue to address the problem of seasonality in sheep. Melatonin receptor is the membrane‐bound G‐coupled receptor, sensing the message of photoperiodic cues thorough melatonin. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies were carried out to assess the variability of gene at G612A and C606T SNPs in MTNR1A gene, which have been studied to be markers for out‐of‐season breeding. Allelic frequency distribution corresponded to higher frequency of GG and CC genotype, in tropical arid sheep breed in comparison with temperate region sheep breed. PCR amplification of MTNR1A gene of 30 animals was performed and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identification was carried out using Lasergene software. Seven SNPs/mutations were identified, but most of them were synonymous, except the one G706A, leading to substitution of valine by isoleucine. Polyphen‐2 analysis of G706A mutation revealed that it is a benign mutation. Two important SNPs C426T and G555A, which were identified in temperate sheep breeds, could not be traced in Magra and Marwari breeds of sheep. Thus, the Magra and Marwari breeds of tropical, arid region demonstrated the presence of both polymorphic SNPs markers G612A and C606T, associated with out‐of‐season breeding. GG and CC genotypes were having a higher prevalence in the studied population.
      PubDate: 2015-02-23T23:51:51.5713-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12503
       
  • Aquagrams of Raw Milk for Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows
    • Authors: G Takemura; G Bázár, K Ikuta, E Yamaguchi, S Ishikawa, A Furukawa, Y Kubota, Z Kovács, R Tsenkova
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop rapid and cost‐effective method for oestrus detection in dairy cows by means of near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics, using raw milk from individual cows. We found that aquaphotomics approach showed consistent specific water spectral pattern of milk at the oestrus periods of the investigated Holstein cows. Characteristic changes were detected especially in foremilk collected at morning milking. They were reflected in calculated aquagrams of milk spectra where distinctive spectral pattern of oestrus showed increased light absorbance of strongly hydrogen‐bonded water. Results showed that monitoring of raw milk near infrared spectra provides an opportunity for analysing hormone levels indirectly, through the changes of water spectral pattern caused by complex physiological changes related to fertile periods.
      PubDate: 2015-02-23T00:49:40.074989-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12504
       
  • Chlamydia abortus in Cows Oviducts, Occasional Event or Causal
           Connection?
    • Authors: S Appino; L Vincenti, A Rota, S Pellegrini, MN Chieppa, V Cadoni, P Pregel
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fifty‐seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.4 ± 4.3 years (mean ± SD), range: 2.6–15.6 years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR‐positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR‐positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24 = 37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33 = 18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C. abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported.
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:51:34.711747-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12505
       
  • The Concentrations of Inflammatory Cytokines and Acute‐Phase
           Proteins in the Peripheral Blood and Uterine Washings in Cows with
           Pyometra
    • Authors: P Brodzki; K Kostro, A Brodzki, J Ziętek
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The development of pyometra in cows depends largely on the state of local immunity of the uterus. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentration of the following proinflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor (TNF‐α) and interleukin‐6 (IL‐6); anti‐inflammatory cytokine: interleukin‐10 (IL‐10); and acute‐phase proteins (APPs): haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), in serum and uterine washings in cows with pyometra and healthy animals. The study was performed on 20 cows divided into two groups based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests: a pyometra and a healthy group (10 cows per group). Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines, TNF‐α, IL‐6, IL‐10 and APPs – Hp and SAA, in the study material were determined by ELISA. The results showed that the values of TNF‐α, IL‐6, IL‐10 as well as SAA and Hp were significantly higher in serum of cows with pyometra compared to controls (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:51:22.624177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12507
       
  • Effects of Ovariohysterectomy on Oxidative Stress Markers in Female Dogs
    • Authors: M Szczubial; M Kankofer, M Bochniarz, R Dąbrowski
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Numerous studies reported an increase of oxidative stress increases in both women and female laboratory animals after ovariectomy. However, there is little information about the evaluation of antioxidative/oxidative status in ovariectomized dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in oxidative stress markers after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in female dogs. The study included eighteen healthy mongrel female dogs. Blood samples were collected immediately before surgery and 14 and 30 days after surgery. Following parameters of oxidative stress intensity were determined: the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH‐Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical cations of N,N, diethylpara‐phenylene diamine (RC‐DEPPD), sulfhydryl groups (SH groups), bityrosine and formylkynurenine. The activity of GSH‐Px increased markedly, although not significantly, 14 days after OHE and then significantly decreased at 30 days after OHE. A significant increase in plasma TBARS, bityrosine and formylkynurenine concentrations and a decrease in SH group content were concurrently noted at 30 days after surgery. Acquired results suggested that a loss of control over ROS production occurred in female dogs after OHE, which could lead to oxidative stress in the late post‐operative period. In conclusion, our findings indicated that OHE is related with the risk of oxidative stress in the late period after operations. Given that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, this may suggest an increased risk of disorders in ovariectomized female dogs; however, further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:51:00.990553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12501
       
  • Comparative Expression Analysis of Gametogenesis‐Associated Genes in
           Foetal and Adult Bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) Ovaries and Testes
    • Authors: SM Shah; N Saini, S Ashraf, M Zandi, MK Singh, RS Manik, SK Singla, P Palta, MS Chauhan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study was conducted to identify and analyse the expression of gametogenesis‐associated genes and proteins in foetal and adult buffalo gonads of both the sexes. Relative quantification of the genes was determined by qPCR and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was also performed for various gametogenesis‐associated proteins in foetal and adult gonads of both the sexes. We observed significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:50:51.24327-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12489
       
  • Stem Cells from Foetal Adnexa and Fluid in Domestic Animals: An Update on
           Their Features and Clinical Application
    • Authors: E Iacono; B Rossi, B Merlo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Over the past decade, stem cell research has emerged as an area of major interest for its potential in regenerative medicine applications. This is in constant need of new cell sources to conceive regenerative medicine approaches for diseases that are still without therapy. Scientists drew the attention towards alternative sources such as foetal adnexa and fluid, as these sources possess many advantages: first of all, cells can be extracted from discarded foetal material and it is non‐invasive and inexpensive for the patient; secondly, abundant stem cells can be obtained; and finally, these stem cell sources are free from ethical considerations. Cells derived from foetal adnexa and fluid preserve some of the characteristics of the primitive embryonic layers from which they originate. Many studies have demonstrated the differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo towards mesenchymal and non‐mesenchymal cell types; in addition, the immune‐modulatory properties make these cells a good candidate for allo‐ and xenotransplantation. Naturally occurring diseases in domestic animals can be more ideal as disease model of human genetic and acquired diseases and could help to define the potential therapeutic use efficiency and safety of stem cells therapies. This review offers an update on the state of the art of characterization of domestic animals' MSCs derived from foetal adnexa and fluid and on the latest findings in pre‐clinical or clinical setting of the stem cell populations isolated from these sources.
      PubDate: 2015-02-21T01:50:15.896582-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12499
       
  • Role of Embryonic and Maternal Genotype on Prenatal Survival and Foetal
           Growth in Rabbit
    • Authors: C Naturil‐Alfonso; F Marco‐Jiménez, E Jiménez‐Trigos, MD Saenz‐de‐Juano, MP Viudes‐de‐Castro, R Lavara, JS Vicente
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of maternal and embryonic genotype on prenatal survival and foetal growth during pregnancy. Embryos were recovered at 48 h of gestation from two different donor lines (R = 46 and A = 40) and transferred to nulliparous recipient does (26 R and 24 A). Each recipient doe received six embryos into one oviduct from line R, and six embryos form line A into the other. Laparoscopy was performed at Day 14 to determine implantation rate. Recipient females were slaughter at Days 14, 24 and 30 (12, 24, and 14, respectively) to determine the number of live foetuses and the weight of live foetuses, foetal placenta and maternal placenta. A transcriptome analysis was performed to search for differences between foetal placentas at Days 14 and 24 of development. Prenatal survival at Days 14, and 24 was affected by embryonic genotype and determined by maternal genotype at Day 30. Foetal weight at Day 14 was influenced by both genotypes, being the weight higher for group A/A (0.29 ± 0.01 g vs 0.19 ± 0.01 g, for group R/R). However, both genotypes were determinant for foetal placenta weight at Day 24, while those genotypes affected maternal placenta weight at Day 30. Nevertheless, no differences in foetal placenta at transcriptome level and progesterone and IGF‐I plasma levels in recipient does were found. In conclusion, results indicate that the influence of embryo and maternal genotype on the prenatal survival and growth seems to be changing over gestation.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16T00:05:20.451702-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12493
       
  • Vocalizations During Electroejaculation in Anaesthetized Adult and Young
           Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) Males
    • Authors: F Fumagalli; JP Damián, R Ungerfeld
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (Fstart), maximal frequency (Fmax), minimal frequency (Fmin) and final frequency (Fend)] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-15T23:54:12.190891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12494
       
  • Effect of Seminal Plasma on Post‐Thaw Quality and Functionality of
           
    • Authors: A Ledesma; J Manes, G Ríos, J Aller, A Cesari, R Alberio, F Hozbor
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: We have already shown that seminal collection method affects seminal plasma composition and sperm quality in Corriedale rams. In this study, we evaluated the effect of seminal plasma collected by electroejaculation or artificial vagina on sperm resistance to cryodamage. Seminal plasma of five rams of the Corriedale breed collected by artificial vagina or electroejaculation was added before freezing to sperm cells collected by the two methods, and post‐thaw quality parameters were evaluated. We found that seminal plasma has no effect on sperm resistance to cryodamage. However, we observed significantly higher percentages of sperm with intact and functional plasma membrane, intact acrosome and greater fertilizing potential after thawing in samples obtained by electroejaculation. This study demonstrates that sperm collected by electroejaculation are more resistant to damage caused by cryopreservation than those collected by artificial vagina.
      PubDate: 2015-02-15T23:53:28.330849-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12500
       
  • Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) in
           Feline Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and in Normal and Hyperplastic
           Endometria
    • Authors: AL Saraiva; R Payan‐Carreira, F Gärtner, I Santana, A Rêma, LM Lourenço, MA Pires
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) is overexpressed in several human and animal neoplasms, including the human endometrial carcinoma. It has been suggested as a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target. This study aimed to (i) clarify histological aspects of feline endometrial adenocarcinomas (FEA) of the papillary serous type and (ii) characterize COX‐2 immunohistochemical expression in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium in this species. Archived paraffin‐embedded tissue samples of 33 FEA, eight cystic endometrial hyperplasias (CEHs) and 21 samples of normal, healthy endometrium in the follicular (FS; n = 10) and luteal (LS; n = 11) stages were evaluated. Histological evaluation of haematoxylin and eosin‐stained sections of the FEA revealed a papillary proliferation of neoplastic cells of serous type, accompanied by clear and multinucleated cells. Other architectural arrangements mainly included solid and tubular growth. Randomly distributed areas of necrosis within the tumours were commonly observed. Invasion of the myometrium, of the serosa and of the vascular and/or lymphatic vessels was not constant features. The mean number of mitoses was higher in FEA compared to non‐neoplastic endometrium. COX‐2 scores were lower in FEA (p = 0.003) and CEH (p = 0.05) when compared to normal epithelium (NE). The loss of the membrane apical reinforcement in epithelial cells was observed in FEA samples, which was accompanied by the dislocation of COX‐2 labelling into the cytoplasm and the perinuclear area; in contrast, in epithelial cells in the healthy and hyperplastic endometria, the immunoreaction showed the characteristic pattern of apical membrane reinforcement, suggestive of the membrane polarization. COX‐2 epithelial scores were higher in the FS than in the LS. No differences were found in stromal COX‐2 expression between normal, CEH and FEA groups, but it was higher in the LS than in the FS. In summary, loss of COX‐2 compartmentalization in neoplastic epithelial cells might be one of the molecular events underlying endometrial carcinogenesis.
      PubDate: 2015-02-13T23:09:02.604213-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12497
       
  • Immunohistochemical Expression of Growth Factors in the Follicular Wall of
           Normal and Cystic Ovaries of Sows
    • Authors: FJF Sant'Ana; JL Reis Junior, GR Blume, EJ Gimeno, F Rey, HH Ortega
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The expression of growth factors was evaluated immunohistochemically in normal and cystic ovaries of sows. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA) was quantified by image analysis to analyse the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary and cystic follicles. IGF‐I immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC), moderate in the theca interna (TI) and mild in the theca externa (TE) of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the labelling to IGF‐I in the GC of the follicular and luteinized cysts. In the normal follicles, the reactivity for IGF‐II was very similar to pattern noted in IGF‐I. There was reduction of the IHCSAs in the GC of the follicular and luteinized cysts, but the decrease was not significant. The staining of the IGF‐II in the TI and TE of the cysts was increased, in comparison with normal follicles. The IHCSAs for VEGF were higher in the GC and TE of the normal follicles in contrast to TI, but this difference was noted only in the tertiary follicle. The VEGF reactivity increased in the GC of the cysts, in relation to normal follicles. The results of the current study show that the formation of ovarian cysts in sows is associated with alterations in the immunohistochemical expression of some growth factors.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T00:09:01.673199-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12495
       
  • Blood Metabolite Profiles in Cycling and Non‐cycling
           Friesian–Sanga Cross‐bred Cows Grazing Natural Pasture During
           the Post‐partum Period
    • Authors: FY Obese; C MacCarthy, R Osei‐Amponsah, RA Ayizanga, JK Damptey
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of the metabolic hormones [Growth hormone (GH), insulin and insulin‐like growth factor –I (IGF‐I)] and nutritional metabolites (Glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine) on the resumption of post‐partum ovarian activity in sixteen Friesian–Sanga cows grazing extensively on native grassland. Blood samples were taken from cows from week 1 to 16 post‐partum. Cows were classified as having resumed ovarian activity when a plasma progesterone concentration of ≥ 1.0 ng/ml was recorded for two consecutive weekly samples. Based on the resumption of ovarian activity, cows were classified as early‐cycling, late‐cycling or non‐cycling. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones were measured from week 1 to 10, while those of the nutritional metabolites were measured during week 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 during the study period. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones, GH and insulin were similar (p > 0.05) in the three ovarian activity groups, likewise the concentrations of the nutritional metabolites, glucose, total protein, globulin, urea and creatinine. Plasma IGF‐I concentration was higher (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-12T00:01:26.061955-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12492
       
  • Congenital Abnormality of the Vagina Complicated by
           Haemato‐Pyocolpos in a 1‐Year Labrador Retriever
    • Authors: S Alonge; S Romussi, V Grieco, GC Luvoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A 1‐year‐old female Labrador retriever was referred with a few days history of haematic‐like vulvar discharge. Physical examination, vaginal inspection and palpation did not reveal any remarkable finding. Transabdominal ultrasound showed echogenic fluid accumulation in the vagina suggesting haemato‐pyocolpos. An exploratory laparotomy was performed: a well‐delimited ectasic vagina was identified. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy and vaginoplasty were performed to spay the bitch and to remove the ectasic vagina. Post‐operative recovery and 12‐month follow‐up were uneventful. Clinical, morphological and histological findings were consistent with a congenital abnormality of the muscular layer of the vagina complicated by haemato‐pyocolpos. The disorganization of the vaginal tunica muscularis may have acted as locus minoris resistentiae in the vaginal wall. The organ was dilated and atonic due to the gradual accumulation of physiological fluids complicated by an overgrowth of genital bacteria. This congenital disorder has to be taken into account as differential diagnosis of haemato‐pyocolpos with vaginal discharge in young bitches.
      PubDate: 2015-02-07T02:02:30.487587-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12491
       
  • Determination of Appropriate Cryopreservation Protocols for Epididymal Cat
           Spermatozoa
    • Authors: K Buranaamnuay
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Effects of Equex and glycerol additions and sample dilution step on frozen–thawed epididymal cat spermatozoa were investigated. The epididymal sperm pellets were resuspended in extenders using one‐ (groups III and IV) or two‐ (groups I, II, V and VI) step dilution. For one‐step dilution, the pellets were resuspended in plain egg yolk‐Tris medium (EYT) + 5% glycerol with (IV)/without (III) 0.5% Equex and cooled (4°C, 1 h). For two‐step dilution, the pellets were resuspended in EYT (I and V) and in EYT + 3% glycerol (II and VI), cooled and further diluted with EYT + 10% glycerol with (I)/without (V) 1% Equex and with EYT + 7% glycerol with (II)/without (VI) 1% Equex. Immediately after freeze–thawing, no differences (p > 0.05) were found in the motility, viability and membrane integrity (HOST) among the groups except the lowest HOST in IV (p = 0.005 to p = 0.04). The acrosome integrity (FITC) in group I was comparable to that in group II (p > 0.05) and was higher than the rest (p  0.05) except the lower percentages of viability in III (p = 0.008 to p = 0.3) and of HOST in IV (p = 0.005 to p = 0.2). Two‐step dilutions with Equex (I, II) were more beneficial for the FITC at 2 h than without Equex (V) (p = 0.005 and p = 0.02) and than one‐step dilutions (III, IV) (p 
      PubDate: 2015-02-07T02:02:10.366094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12496
       
  • Insulin‐Like Growth Factor‐1 Regulates the Expression of
           Luteinizing Hormone Receptor and Steroid Production in Bovine Granulosa
           Cells
    • Authors: AF Rawan; S Yoshioka, H Abe, TJ Acosta
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Luteinizing hormone LH plays important roles in follicular maturation and ovulation. The effects of LH are mediated by LH receptor (LHR) in the ovary. However, the factors that regulate the expression of LHR in bovine granulosa cells (GCs) are not well known. Insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) is known to play a key role in the acquisition and maintenance of functional dominance. To better understand the roles of LHR expression and IGF‐1, we conducted three experiments to determine (i) mRNA expression of LHR in the GCs of developing follicles, (ii) the effects of IGF‐1 on LHR mRNA expression in cultured GCs and (iii) the effects of IGF‐1 on estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) and androstenedione (A4) production by non‐luteinized GCs. In experiment 1, small follicles (
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:48:18.585412-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12486
       
  • Season Does Not Influence Embryo Recovery Rate and Conceptus Size Until
           Day 14 After Ovulation in the Horse
    • Authors: C Aurich; S Budik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Although the horse is a seasonal breeding species, a considerable number of mares continue to cycle throughout autumn and winter. Slower equine embryo growth during the non‐breeding season has been hypothesized, and because smaller embryo size is beneficial for cryopreservation, embryo collection outside the breeding season could be an interesting approach for the production of frozen horse embryos. In the present retrospective study, we have therefore analysed embryo recovery rates and conceptus size in mares (n = 30) throughout the year. Conceptus diameter was either size determined after collection with a microscopic scale (day 7–10 after ovulation) or determined by transrectal ultrasound immediately before collection (day 11–14 after ovulation). In 19 of the 30 mares (63%), ovulatory cycles were detected throughout the year. A total of 352 embryo collections with a mean recovery rate of 64.2% were performed and not affected by season. The size was analysed in a total of 165 conceptuses. Conceptus diameter significantly increased (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:48:04.781049-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12490
       
  • Distribution Pattern(s) of Sperm Protein at 22 kDa (SP22) on Fresh,
           Cooled and Frozen/Thawed Equine Spermatozoa and Expression of SP22 in
           Tissues from the Testes and Epididymides of Normal Stallions
    • Authors: LMJ Miller; EM Woodward, JR Campos, EL Squires, MHT Troedsson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to (i) verify localization of SP22 on fresh, cooled, and frozen/thawed equine spermatozoa and to (ii) determine SP22 mRNA and protein expression in equine testicular and epididymal tissues. Immunocytochemistry and Western blots were performed on the spermatozoa samples. Northern blots and Western blots were performed on the tissue samples. The immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of SP22 in all samples tested. The fresh spermatozoa stained predominantly over the equatorial segment as did the samples cooled for 1 and 2 days. The samples cooled for 3 days, and the frozen/thawed samples had an increased proportion of no staining. The Western blots revealed SP22 was present on all semen samples tested. The Northern blot of the tissues revealed a 1.0 kb mRNA transcript present in each of the tissues, and the Western blot revealed the presence of SP22 in each of the tissues. As expected, SP22 was found to be altered on cooled and frozen/thawed spermatozoa. Our results suggest that the equatorial pattern is the normal pattern in spermatozoa, while a complete loss of SP22 from the surface of spermatozoa seems to be the staining pattern indicating the most extreme abnormality with scattered staining of the head indicating intermediate damage.
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T06:47:03.733046-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12485
       
  • Effects of Bovine Serum Albumin on Boar Sperm Quality During Liquid
           Storage at 17°C
    • Authors: X‐G Zhang; G‐J Yan, J‐Y Hong, Z‐Z Su, G‐S Yang, Q‐W Li, J‐H Hu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Boar semen samples were collected and diluted with Modena containing different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 g/l) of BSA, and sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T‐AOC) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analysed. The results showed that Modena supplemented with 3, 4 and 5 g/l BSA could improve boar sperm motility, effective survival time and plasma membrane integrity (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-27T00:52:39.265744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12481
       
  • X monosomy in a Virilized Female Cat
    • Authors: I Szczerbal; W Nizanski, S Dzimira, J Nowacka‐Woszuk, M Ochota, M Switonski
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum‐like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G‐banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T02:50:09.403437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12483
       
  • Effect of Post‐Thaw Storage Time on Motility and Fertility of
           Cryopreserved Beluga Sturgeon (Huso huso) Sperm
    • Authors: MS Aramli; RM Nazari, MR Gharibi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the influence of post‐thaw storage time on the duration of sperm motility, percentage of motile sperm, and fertilization and hatching rates of fresh sperm and sperm stored for 0, 30 and 60 min at 4°C post‐thawing. After being frozen in liquid nitrogen and then thawed, the percentage of motile sperm and duration of motility were not affected by 30 min of storage at 4°C, whereas a significant decline in these parameters was observed after 60 min of storage. Similarly, fertilization and hatching rates were significantly affected within 60 min of storage at 4°C, and the fertility of frozen‐thawed sperm was significantly lower than that of fresh sperm. We conclude that cryopreserved sperm of beluga sturgeon could be stored for 30 min without the loss of sperm quality. This described procedure for beluga sturgeon cryopreservation is reliable and efficient and therefore can be recommended for hatchery practice after scaling up this technique.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T02:49:28.342181-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12484
       
  • The Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Profile and Acid–base Status in
           Preterm and Term Canine Neonates
    • Authors: CI Vannucchi; D Kishi, FM Regazzi, LCG Silva, GAL Veiga, DSR Angrimani, CF Lucio, M Nichi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: During the initiation of neonatal pulmonary respiration, there is an exponential increase in reactive oxygen species that must be scavenged by antioxidant defences. However, neonate and preterm newborns are known to possess immature antioxidant mechanisms to neutralize these toxic effects. The purposes of this study were to compare the development of antioxidant system between preterm and term canine neonates and to evaluate the magnitude of acid–base balance during the initial 4 h of life. A prospective study was conducted involving 18 neonatal puppies assigned to Term Group (63 days of gestation; n = 5), Preterm‐57 Group (57 days of gestation; n = 8) and Preterm‐55 Group (55 days of gestation; n = 5). Neonates were physically examined through Apgar score and venous haemogasometry within 5 min, 2 and 4 h after birth. No difference on amniotic fluid and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the marker of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) was verified. Irrespective of prematurity, all neonates presented low vitality, hypothermia, acidosis, hypoxaemia and hypercapnia at birth. However, term puppies clinically evolved more rapidly than preterm newborns. During the course of the study, premature neonates presented more severe complications, such as prolonged hypoxaemia and even death. In conclusion, premature puppies have no signs of immature enzymatic mechanisms for controlling oxidative stress, although SOD and GPx may participate in achieving acid–base balance. Aside from initial unremarkable symptoms, premature puppies should be carefully followed up, as they are at high risk of succumbing to odds of prematurity.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T23:46:16.306055-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12476
       
  • Vaginal Histological Changes after Using Intravaginal Sponges for Oestrous
           Synchronization in Anoestrous Ewes
    • Authors: J Manes; C Campero, F Hozbor, R Alberio, R Ungerfeld
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: To characterize the histological and cytological vaginal changes generated by the use of intravaginal sponge (IS) applied in oestrous synchronization treatments in ewes during mid‐non‐breeding season. Thirty‐five multiparous ewes were allocated to three experimental groups according to the moment in which the samples were taken: (i) ewes treated with IS containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days, sampled the day of IS removal (group ISR; n = 10), (ii) or after sponge removal at time of oestrus or 72 h after removal (group AR; n = 14) and (iii) ewes without sponge treatment that were sampled at the day of IS removal of the other groups (group CG; n = 11). Vaginal biopsies and cytological samples were taken from the anterior vaginal fornix area. The vagina of the CG group had a stratified squamous epithelium with a moderate degree of cellular infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propia. Treated ewes (ISR and AR) had epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy. ISR ewes had haemorrhage and perivascular infiltrate and an increased number of epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages and erythrocytes at IS removal. The use of IS generated histological and cytological alterations in the vaginal wall when used for oestrous synchronization in anoestrous ewes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T05:46:32.406693-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12482
       
  • Effects of Co‐culture of Cumulus Oocyte Complexes with Denuded
           Oocytes During In Vitro Maturation on the Developmental Competence of
           Cloned Bovine Embryos
    • Authors: A‐N Ha; M Fakruzzaman, K‐L Lee, J‐I Bang, G‐K Deb, Z Wang, I‐K Kong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of co‐culture of immature cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded immature oocytes (DO) during in vitro maturation on the developmental competence and quality of cloned bovine embryos. We demonstrated that developmental competence, judged by the blastocyst formation rate, was significantly higher in the co‐cultured somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT+DO, 37.1 ± 1.1%) group than that in the non‐co‐cultured somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT‐DO, 25.1 ± 0.9%) group and was very similar to that in the control IVF (IVF, 38.8 ± 2.8%) group. Moreover, the total cell number per blastocyst in the SCNT+DO group (101.7 ± 6.2) was higher than that in the SCNT‐DO group (81.7 ± 4.3), while still less than that in the IVF group (133.3 ± 6.0). Furthermore, our data showed that mRNA levels of the methylation‐related genes DNMT1 and DNMT3a in the SCNT+DO group were similar to that in the IVF group, while they were significantly higher in the SCNT‐DO group. Similarly, while the mRNA levels of the deacetylation‐related genes HDAC2 and HDAC3 were significantly higher in the SCNT‐DO group, they were comparable between the IVF and SCNT+DO groups. However, the mRNA levels of HDAC1 and DNMT3B were significantly higher in the SCNT+DO group than in the other groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that co‐culture of COCs with DO improves the in vitro developmental competence and quality of cloned embryos, as evidenced by increased total cell number.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T05:46:16.854676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12487
       
  • The Intrauterine Treatment of the Retained Foetal Membrane in Dairy Goats
           by Ozone: Novel Alternative to Antibiotic Therapy
    • Authors: D Djuricic; H Valpotic, M Samardzija
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: One of the major post‐parturient complications in dairy goats is the retention of foetal membrane (RFM), which negatively influences their health, reproductive efficacy and welfare. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of intrauterine either ozone (OZ) or antibiotic (AB) treatments to establish the use of OZ as a novel and potential alternative to AB therapy in does with the RFM. The study was performed on 7 herds of dairy goats (n = 563) kept in the farms in Croatia. The conception rate was 563 of 641 total matings or 87.83%. The does from selected farms were observed during early puerperium and were divided into animals without the RFM (n = 522) and with the RFM (n = 41), treated either with foam spray OZ (n = 21) or with foaming AB oxytetracycline tablets (n = 20). The does with the RFM were mated successfully and became pregnant next kidding season, regardless of the treatment applied. Treatment with OZ attained similar results to the standard AB therapy, indicating that it could be novel potential alternative therapy of the RFM in dairy goats.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T05:00:10.654971-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12475
       
  • Early Cleavage of Handmade Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos is an
           Indicator of Their Developmental Competence and Quality
    • Authors: S Kaith; M Saini, AK Raja, AA Sahare, B Jyotsana, P Madheshiya, P Palta, MS Chauhan, RS Manik, SK Singla
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Following IVF, embryos which cleave early have been shown to have higher developmental competence and quality than those that cleave relatively later across many species. We investigated the effect of time of cleavage on the developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression in buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning (HMC). Following classification of embryos as early cleaving (EC) or late cleaving (LC) based on whether they had cleaved or not at 24 h post in vitro culture, 54% (164/303) were found to be EC and the rest to be LC. The blastocyst rate (58.1 ± 3.4 vs 36.9 ± 1.6%, p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T05:00:05.814381-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12472
       
  • Effect of Cryopreservation on the Sperm DNA Fragmentation Dynamics of the
           Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
    • Authors: MJ Sánchez‐Calabuig; C López‐Fernández, SD Johnston, D Blyde, J Cooper, K Harrison, J Fuente, J Gosálvez
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Sperm DNA fragmentation is one of the major causes of infertility; the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) evaluates this parameter and offers the advantage of species‐specific validated protocol and ease of use under field conditions. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics in both fresh and post‐thaw bottlenose dolphin sperm using the SCDt following different cryopreservation protocols to gain new information about the post‐thaw differential sperm DNA longevity in this species. Fresh and cryopreserved semen samples from five bottlenose dolphins were examined for sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics using the SCDt (Halomax®). Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed immediately at collection and following cryopreservation (T0) and then after 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h incubation at 37°C. Serially collected ejaculates from four dolphins were frozen using different cryopreservation protocols in a TES‐TRIS‐fructose buffer (TTF), an egg‐yolk‐free vegetable lipid LP1 buffer (LP1) and human sperm preservation medium (HSPM). Fresh ejaculated spermatozoa initially showed low levels of DNA fragmentation for up to 48 h. Lower Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) was found in the second fresh ejaculate compared to the first when more than one sample was collected on the same day (p 
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:59:58.112839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12474
       
  • Breed of Boar Influences the Optimal Concentration of Gamma‐oryzanol
           Needed for Semen Cryopreservation
    • Authors: P Chanapiwat; K Kaeoket
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of boar breed on the optimal concentration of gamma‐oryzanol on the qualities of cryopreserved boar semen. Semen was collected from 20 boars (10 Duroc, 5 Large white and 5 Landrace boars). The semen sample was divided into five groups (A–E) according to the concentration of gamma‐oryzanol in extender II, that is 0, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm, respectively. The semen was cryopreserved by nitrogen vapour and storage in nitrogen tank (−196°C). After storage for a week, samples were thawed at 50°C for 12 s and evaluated for progressive motility, sperm viability and acrosome integrity. The results demonstrated that gamma‐oryzanol significantly improved progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity of frozen–thawed boar semen. Considering the influence of breeds on the optimal concentration of gamma‐oryzanol, for Duroc boar, gamma‐oryzanol at 0.16 mm (group C) yielded the highest percentage of progressive motility, sperm viability and acrosome integrity. For Large white and Landrace boars, gamma‐oryzanol at 0.24 mm (group D) showed a significantly higher percentage of progressive motility, viability (not significant in Landrace) and acrosome integrity than other concentrations. In conclusion, the optimal concentration of gamma‐oryzanol needed for boar semen cryopreservation in lactose–egg yolk (LEY) freezing extender is not only depended on individual boar but also breed of boar, that is 0.16 mm for Duroc and 0.24 mm for Large white and Landrace.
      PubDate: 2015-01-21T04:55:08.625948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12473
       
  • B‐Mode and Doppler Sonography of the Mammary Glands in Dairy Goats
           for Mastitis Diagnosis
    • Authors: VJC Santos; K Simplício, D Sanchez, L Coutinho, P Teixeira, F Barros, V Almeida, L Rodrigues, P Bartlewski, M Oliveira, M Feliciano, W Vicente
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B‐mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey‐scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B‐mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T07:13:55.478607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12479
       
  • Induction of Gynogenetic and Androgenetic Haploid and Doubled Haploid
           Development in the Brown Trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758)
    • Authors: O Michalik; S Dobosz, T Zalewski, M Sapota, K Ocalewicz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation‐induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation‐induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T07:13:24.013637-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12480
       
  • Orexin A Expression in the Ovary of Dog and Cat
    • Authors: M Levanti; A Germanà, F Abbate
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Orexin A and B, also known as hypocretin A and B, are hypothalamic neuropeptides arising from a precursor to the 130 amino acid, called pre–pro orexin. They are synthesized mainly in lateral and posterior hypothalamus and are involved in different functions such as regulation of food intake and energy balance. Orexins and orexin receptors were previously described also in different tissues and organs outside the brain. The aim of this study was to demonstrate by means of the immunofluorescence technique, the presence of orexin A in the ovary of cat and dog, to support the hypothesis of the role of this substance also at the level of the female genital system. The presence of orexin A in the ovary either in dog or in cat is in agreement with previous data on the presence and role of orexins in the female genital system of other species.
      PubDate: 2015-01-20T07:12:58.520157-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12478
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: i - ii
      PubDate: 2015-01-19T01:59:03.376762-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12424
       
  • Evaluation of Subclinical Endometritis and Consequences on Fertility in
           Piedmontese Beef Cows
    • Authors: A Ricci; S Gallo, F Molinaro, A Dondo, S Zoppi, L Vincenti
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Subclinical endometritis (SEM) is poorly investigated in beef cows, as stated in the literature. This project aims to evaluate the rate and the consequences of SEM in Piedmontese cows, with a focus on bacteriological findings and fertility parameters. Uterine cytology was performed for 97 subjects; a total of 31% of the cows were diagnosed as being positive for SEM and as having an 8% neutrophil (PMN) presence on the slide, which is considered as the best cut‐off to diagnose the pathology. Only 13% of the cows positive for SEM were pregnant within 130 dpp and generally showed increases of 40 days in the partum to conception interval compared with the negative cows (142 vs 182, p = 0.01). Cows positive for both bacteriology and cytology showed a lower fertility than cows with only inflammation or only a bacterial presence (p = 0.0004). Bacterial isolation detected different species, but no difference in regard to the impact of these bacteria on SEM was shown. Parity, presence of calves, hygiene condition, age and number of service did not affect whether a cow was positive for subclinical endometritis (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-30T06:46:01.602518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12465
       
  • Two Methods of Vitrification Followed by In Vitro Culture of the Ovine
           Ovary: Evaluation of the Follicular Development and Ovarian Extracellular
           Matrix
    • Authors: FT Bandeira; AA Carvalho, SV Castro, LF Lima, DA Viana, JSAM Evangelista, MJS Pereira, CC Campello, JR Figueiredo, APR Rodrigues
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two vitrification techniques on the extra cellular matrix (ECM) and ovarian follicular development. The ovarian cortex was fragmented (9 mm3) and divided into six groups, viz. fresh control, cultured control, vitrified by the Ovarian Tissue Cryosystem (OTC) method, conventional solid surface vitrification (SSV) method, OTC/cultured and SSV/cultured. Follicles from all the fragments were analysed for morphology, development and viability. The ECM was evaluated based on the condition of collagen and reticular fibres and the immunolocalization of type I collagen and fibronectin. After 7 days of culture, the tissue vitrified by OTC revealed a higher percentage (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-26T04:17:33.32568-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12463
       
  • A Case of Bronze Turkey Twins Developing from Hatching
    • Authors: K Damaziak; M Michalczuk, Ż Zdanowska‐Sąsiadek, J Niemiec
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A double‐yolked egg that was laid by an 11‐month‐old bronze turkey hen on 2 April, 2013 was reported. The presented case of developing turkey twin embryos is the first ever described case for this species. The egg weighed 125 g and had 74.6 mm in length and 53.0 mm in width. The embryos died between the 23rd and 24th day of incubation. Both twin 1 and twin 2 were fully developed with body weights of: 37.7 g and 40.3 g, respectively. The likely causes of death include inappropriate arrangement of embryos and insufficient gas exchange in the last period of incubation. The embryos were arranged along the long axis of the egg, one underneath the other, and were closely adhering to one another. The twins were different in plumage pigmentation. In twin 1, a spontaneous mutation of plumage pigmentation (B) was observed, whereas twin 2 showed appropriate pigmentation (b+) in respect to parents.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24T00:23:05.089143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12477
       
  • Impact of Endocrine‐Disrupting Chemicals on Reproductive Function in
           Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    • Authors: Y Huang; XL Wang, JW Zhang, KS Wu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The prevalence of endocrine‐disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the aquatic environment has been associated with the wide detection of alterations in the development and physiology of vertebrates. Zebrafish, as a model species, has been extensively used in toxicological research. In this review, we focus on recent published evidence of the harmful effects of EDCs on reproductive function in zebrafish, including skewed sex ratio, immature gonads, diminished sexual behaviour, decreased sperm count, reduced spawning and fertilization. These impairments mostly result from disruption to sex‐steroid hormones induced by endocrine disruptors. We also discuss other effects of exposure to EDCs. In EDC exposure research, despite incomplete assessments of altered gonad histopathology and sexual behaviour, these present potential effective biomarkers or pathways for evaluating the reproductive function in zebrafish on EDC exposure. To date, the pernicious effects of some EDCs on the reproductive performance in laboratory zebrafish are well understood; however, similar alterations remain for further determination in wild‐type fish and more kinds of EDCs. More studies should be performed under established scientific regulatory criteria to investigate the impact of EDCs on reproduction in zebrafish. Moreover, further research is required to explain the definite mechanism of sexual differentiation, which helps in understanding the shift of sexual phenotype with EDC exposure.
      PubDate: 2014-12-22T01:31:18.809398-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12468
       
  • Ovarian Follicular Activity During Late Gestation and Postpartum in
           Guanaco (Lama guanicoe)
    • Authors: JL Riveros; G Schuler, B Urquieta, B Hoffmann, C Bonacic
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study evaluated ovarian activity in late gestation and post‐partum in guanacos in captivity. Follicular dynamics was monitored every second day from 40 days before and other 40 after delivery by transrectal sonography and by plasma steroids concentrations. Seven out of eight (87.5%) of gestating females presented ovarian follicular activity under progesterone levels >3 nmol/l with maximum follicular size of 8.42 ± 0.83 mm from days 23 to 1 before delivery. After delivery, all females have follicular wave development from day 0 to 38, with larger follicular size and longer follicular wave phases and interwave interval when compared with pre‐partum data. During post‐partum period, there was a close relationship between follicle size and estradiol‐17β concentration, with r = 0.69 at the beginning of growth phase and r = 0.86 in association with the largest dominant follicle. Plasma estradiol‐17β concentration varied from 11.92 to 198.55 pmol/l. Plasma estrone sulfate, free estrone and progesterone returned to baseline concentrations during peripartal period and remained basal thereafter. The results described follicular activity during late gestation and early post‐partum period. These findings provide relevant information to understand physiological changes occurring during this reproductive key period in seasonal breeders with long gestation duration as New and Old World camelids.
      PubDate: 2014-12-22T01:17:37.828405-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12462
       
  • Effect of Reproductive Seasonality on Gamete Quality in the North American
           Bison (Bison bison bison)
    • Authors: S Krishnakumar; DP Whiteside, B Elkin, JC Thundathil
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective was to investigate the effects of reproductive seasonality on gamete quality in plains bison (Bison bison bison). Epididymal sperm (n = 61 per season), collected during the breeding season (July–September), had significantly higher post‐thaw total motility (36.76 ± 14.18 vs 31.24 ± 12.74%), and lower linearity (0.36 ± 0.06 vs 0.39 ± 0.04) and wobbliness (0.49 ± 0.04 vs 0.51 ± 0.03; mean ± SD) compared to non‐breeding season (January–March) samples. Representative samples (n = 4) from each season were used in heterologous IVF trials using cattle oocytes. Cleavage, morulae and blastocyst percentage were higher for breeding vs non‐breeding season sperm samples (81.88 ± 6.8 vs 49.94 ± 6.77; 41.89 ± 13.40 vs 27.08 ± 23.21; and 30.49 ± 17.87 vs 13.72 ± 18.98%, respectively). Plains bison ovaries collected during the breeding (n = 97 pairs) and non‐breeding (n = 100 pairs) seasons were classified as luteal or follicular. Oocytes recovered from these ovaries were classified into five grades based on morphology. There was no significant difference in the number of luteal ovaries or grades of oocytes recovered. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (with frozen sperm from three bison bulls) and cultured in vitro. Cleavage percentage was higher for oocytes collected during breeding vs non‐breeding season (83.72 ± 6.42 vs 73.98 ± 6.43), with no significant difference in subsequent development to blastocysts. In summary, epididymal sperm from non‐breeding season had decreased total motility and resulted in reduced embryo production in vitro. Oocytes collected during non‐breeding season had reduced ability to be matured, fertilized and/or undergo cleavage in vitro. Data suggested that season influenced gamete quality in plains bison.
      PubDate: 2014-12-22T00:05:55.699637-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12471
       
  • Serial Transrectal Ultrasonography for Monitoring the Reproductive
           Activity of the Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus ussuricus)
    • Authors: HG Kang; DH Jeong, JJ Yang, BK Lee, JY Kong, JW Lee, IH Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study evaluated the structural changes in the reproductive tract of Asiatic black bears using serial transrectal ultrasonography. In addition, the ultrasonographic observations were compared with the results of vaginal cytology and hormonal analyses. The collection of blood for hormonal analysis, vaginal cytology and transrectal ultrasonography was performed in two bears (Bears 1 and 2) from June 2011 to August 2013 without mating and in a third bear (Bear 3) from April to December 2012, allowing natural mating. Serial ultrasonographic observations showed cyclic changes in ovarian structures (e.g. emergence of small follicles, growth and ovulation of dominant follicles and corpus luteum (CL) formation) during the reproductive cycles of the three bears. The diameter of the uterine horns remained similar throughout the reproductive cycle in Bears 1 and 2, and it remained similar from April until October, but an enlargement containing foetuses was observed in Bear 3 in December. The ultrasonographic observations were consistent with the data obtained through vaginal cytology and progesterone analysis during the reproductive cycle. An average of 4.0 (±0.4) dominant follicles was observed during the oestrous stage (May‐August), during which the superficial cells accounted for >90% of the total vaginal cells. In addition, the detection of an average of 2.6 (±0.2) CL was associated with increased plasma progesterone concentrations (3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml) between June and December (near hibernation). In conclusion, serial transrectal ultrasonography demonstrated yearly oestrous (ovulation) cycles via follicular dynamics and CL formation on ovaries, accordingly with vaginal cytology and hormonal level in the Asiatic black bear.
      PubDate: 2014-12-17T23:54:55.434871-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12470
       
  • The Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Influences Porcine Oocyte In Vitro
           Maturation
    • Authors: GM Alvarez; SA Morado, MP Soto, GC Dalvit, PD Cetica
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during oocyte in vitro maturation with enzymatic ROS production systems (xanthine + xanthine oxidase or xanthine + xanthine oxidase + catalase), scavenger systems (catalase or superoxide dismutase + catalase) or cysteine on porcine oocyte maturation. Oocyte ROS levels showed an increase when H2O2 or O2∙‐ production systems were added to the culture medium (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-17T23:52:50.106883-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12469
       
  • Effects of FGF10 on Bovine Oocyte Meiosis Progression, Apoptosis, Embryo
           Development and Relative Abundance of Developmentally Important Genes In
           Vitro
    • Authors: RF Pomini Pinto; PK Fontes, B Loureiro, AC Sousa Castilho, J Sousa Ticianelli, E Montanari Razza, RA Satrapa, J Buratini, C Moraes Barros
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) acts at the cumulus oocyte complex, increasing the expression of cumulus cell expansion‐related genes and oocyte competency genes. We tested the hypothesis that addition of FGF10 to the maturation medium improves oocyte maturation, decreases the percentage of apoptotic oocytes and increases development to the blastocyst stage while increasing the relative abundance of developmentally important genes (COX2, CDX2 and PLAC8). In all experiments, oocytes were matured for 22 h in TCM‐199 supplemented with 0, 2.5, 10 or 50 ng/ml FGF10. In Experiment 1, after maturation, oocytes were stained with Hoechst to evaluate meiosis progression (metaphase I, intermediary phases and extrusion of the first polar body) and submitted to the TUNEL assay to evaluate apoptosis. In Experiment 2, oocytes were fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage. Blastocysts were frozen for analysis of COX2, CDX2 and PLAC8 relative abundance. In Experiment 1, 2.5 ng/ml FGF10 increased (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-13T00:47:36.368437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12452
       
  • Implication of FKBP6 for Male Fertility in Horses
    • Authors: R Schrimpf; J Metzger, G Martinsson, H Sieme, O Distl
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In stallions, impaired acrosome reaction (IAR) may often cause subfertility. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within FK506‐binding protein (FKBP6) seem to be associated with IAR in stallions. However, their effect on stallion fertility has not yet been quantified. Using whole‐genome sequence data of seven stallions, we searched FKBP6 for mutations to perform an association study in Hanoverian stallions with estimated breeding values for the paternal component of the pregnancy rate per oestrus cycle (EBV‐PAT) as target trait. Genotyping five exonic mutations within FKBP6 revealed a significant association of the SNP g.11040379C>A (p.167H>N) with EBV‐PAT in 216 Hanoverian stallions. The difference among the two homozygous genotypes was 7.62% in EBV‐PAT, corresponding to one standard deviation of EBV‐PAT. In conclusion, in Hanoverian stallions, the FKBP6‐associated SNP g.11040379C>A confers higher conception rates in A/A homozygous and lower conception rates in C/C homozygous Hanoverian stallions. Thus, an FKBP6‐associated missense mutation is significantly associated with stallion fertility.
      PubDate: 2014-12-12T03:46:31.581968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12467
       
  • Fatty Acid Composition of Eggs and its Relationships to Egg and Larval
           Viability from Domesticated Common Sole (Solea solea) Breeders
    • Authors: L Parma; A Bonaldo, M Pirini, C Viroli, A Parmeggiani, E Bonvini, PP Gatta
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The study of lipids and fatty acids (FAs) has been used in the assessment of egg quality because their composition can influence the fertilization rate, hatching, survival and growth of marine fish larvae. For these reasons, the lipid content (TL) and fatty acid composition of common sole (Solea solea) eggs were measured and correlated to egg and larval viability parameters throughout an entire reproductive season. Seventeen batches of fertile eggs obtained from natural spawning of captive breeders were characterized for the TL, FA profile, hatching rate (HR) and survival rate of larvae (SR) at 0–6 days post‐hatching (dph). The egg FA composition reflected the composition of the feed supplied to the broodstock during summer and autumn (before and during vitellogenesis) rather than that supplied during the spawning season. In general, the egg FA profile showed minimal differences among the early‐, mid‐ and late‐spawning periods (possibly due to the change of the diet and/or water temperature) indicating that it is possible to obtain a similar egg quality in terms of egg FA profile over 2 months of spawning. Saturated FAs and monounsaturated FAs (MUFA) were positively correlated with HR, while TL, 22 : 6n‐3 (DHA), 20 : 4n‐6 (ARA), polyunsaturated FAs of the (n‐3) series (n‐3 PUFA) and polyunsaturated FAs of the (n‐6) series were negatively correlated (p ≤ 0.05). MUFA, 20 : 5n‐3 (EPA), n‐6/n‐3 were positively correlated with SR, while DHA, n‐3 PUFA, DHA/EPA were negatively correlated (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the feed supplied before and during vitellogenesis has a major role in determining the egg FA profile in common sole. The relationships found between TL and FAs with egg and larval viability parameters differ from many other farmed marine fish species, which may suggest the need for a specific broodstock feed for this species.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T00:06:07.65984-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12466
       
  • Effect of the Interaction Between Cryoprotectant Concentration and
           Cryopreservation Method on Frozen/Thawed Chicken Sperm Variables
    • Authors: FMK Abouelezz; C Castaño, A Toledano‐Díaz, MC Esteso, A López‐Sebastián, JL Campo, J Santiago‐Moreno
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This work examines the effect of the interaction between different concentrations of two cryoprotectants – glycerol (GLY) and dimethylacetamide (DMA) – and two methods of cryopreservation – pellets produced by plunging into liquid nitrogen and gradual in‐straw freezing – on frozen/thawed chicken sperm variables. Sperm was cryopreserved using: (i) 6% DMA, following the in‐straw and the pellet methods (ii) 11% GLY, following the in‐straw and the pellet methods; and (iii) 8% GLY in the in‐straw method and 3% DMA in the pellet method (i.e. reduced cryoprotectant concentrations). When 6% DMA was used as the cryoprotectant, no differences were seen between the in‐straw and pellet methods in terms of frozen/thawed sperm variables or fertility (10.8% and 12.8%, respectively). The viability and motility variables of the frozen/thawed sperm produced using the in‐straw method with 11% GLY were higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T00:02:53.358498-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12464
       
  • A Rare Case of Polyorchidism in a Cat with Four Intra‐abdominal
           Testes
    • Authors: J Roca‐Ferrer; E Rodríguez, GA Ramírez, C Moragas, M Sala
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly defined as the presence of more than two histologically proven testes. We report a case of a 9‐month‐old European cat with four intra‐abdominal testes. The diagnosis was performed by means of ultrasonography, intra‐operative examination and histological confirmation. The case reported here presents an extremely rare anomaly, as no previous studies in veterinary medicine have reported the presence of four testes. This case suggests that supernumerary testes should be included as differential diagnoses for intra‐abdominal masses.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T23:50:39.996437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12461
       
  • Biochemical and Protein Profile of Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) Uterine Horn
           Fluid During Early Pregnancy
    • Authors: ME Argañaraz; SA Apichela, R Zampini, J Vencato, C Stelletta
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: South American camelids show high embryo loss rate, during the first 60 days of pregnancy. One of the factors which may be related to this situation is that over 98% of the embryos implant in the left uterine horn (LUH) even though both ovaries contribute similarly to ovulation. There is scarce information about the uterine environment of female camelids at any physiological state that could explain the capability of the LUH to attract the embryo and maintain pregnancy. We describe, for the first time, the biochemical and protein profile of uterine fluid (UF), addressing the right and LUH environment in non‐pregnant and pregnant alpacas. Different substrates, electrolytes and metabolites were assayed in both uterine horn fluids. Small changes were observed in glucose and total protein levels, which were more noticeable during pregnancy. In addition, 10 specific proteins were found in the left horn fluid in 5‐week‐pregnant alpacas, and two protein bands were identified in non‐pregnant alpaca right horn fluid. These results would provide basic information for identification of possible markers for pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive diseases and hormone‐treated animals evaluation and hence contributing to improve the pregnancy rate.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T23:50:02.731489-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12460
       
  • Expression of Steroid Hormone Receptors in the Genital Structures of a
           True Hermaphrodite Pug Dog
    • Authors: C Bartel; F Meyer, S Schäfer‐Somi, I Walter
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Hermaphroditism is a rare and a not well‐understood disordered sexual development (DSD) in dogs. The objective of the study was to analyse the sex steroid hormone receptor (STHR) expression patterns in the internal genital structures, because the responsiveness of the different tissue types to the steroid hormones may have a key role in pathological alterations based on DSDs. Furthermore, the adhesion molecule β‐catenin was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry because of its important role in development, tissue integrity and disease. Molecular sexing was performed via PCR targeting DBX/DBY genes to identify the pug dog as a true XX hermaphrodite. The portions of uterine tissue revealed comparable expression patterns for STHRs as investigated in normal female reproductive tissue. In the male parts, β‐catenin showed strong expression in the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules; this was in contrast to normal testicular tissue. Likewise, the layers of smooth muscle actin‐positive cells surrounding the seminiferous tubules were reduced in the hermaphrodite. The results of this study deepen the knowledge of tissue characteristics in a hermaphrodite dog and highlight the importance of early diagnosis because the STH responsiveness in maldeveloped reproductive tissue might lead to serious problems for the dog.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T23:42:13.421314-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12458
       
  • Association Between ETFA Genotype and Activity of Superoxide Dismutase,
           Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase in Cryopreserved Sperm of
           Holstein–Friesian Bulls
    • Authors: DM Hering; M Lecewicz, W Kordan, S Kamiński
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine whether C/T missense mutation within the ETFA gene is associated with sperm antioxidant enzymatic activity. One hundred and twenty Holstein–Friesian bulls were genotyped by the PCR‐RFLP technique (MwoI). Commercial straws of frozen‐thawed semen were used to evaluate the activity of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Among all bulls investigated, genotype CT was the most frequent (44.2%), in comparison with CC (42.5%) and TT (13.3%). Significant differences in glutathione peroxidase activity were observed between homozygous individuals (CC vs TT) with heterozygous CT having intermediate values. Dismutase activity was significantly associated with ETFA genotype, although only bulls with the CT genotype were significantly different from bulls carrying the CC genotype. The activity of catalase showed a similar trend (but was not statistically significant). In conclusion, we found that bulls with the ETFA TT genotype produce sperm with the highest glutathione peroxidase activity and can therefore be more efficiently protected from reactive oxygen. The mechanism of this interaction needs to be elucidated in future research.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T23:41:30.367539-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12459
       
  • Telomere Length and Telomerase Activity in Bovine Pre‐implantation
           Embryos In Vitro
    • Authors: GC Gilchrist; P Kurjanowicz, FV Mereilles, WA King, J LaMarre
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Telomeres are specialized structures that cap the ends of chromosomes and help to maintain genomic integrity and stability. Telomeres undergo dynamic changes during embryo development, which also represents an important stage for telomere elongation through telomerase enzyme activity. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in telomere length and telomerase activity from the early oocyte, through to the blastocysts stage of development, and the expression of factors with the potential to directly regulate telomeres. In vitro‐produced bovine embryos were lysed and analysed for either relative telomere length, or telomerase activity using quantitative real‐time PCR protocols. Our results reveal that relative telomere length is the shortest in the presumptive zygote stage of development and gradually increases to the blastocyst stage. We also demonstrate that differences between the mean telomere lengths throughout these stages are statistically significant (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T06:05:50.107304-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12449
       
  • Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP‐2, MMP‐9) and
           their Inhibitors (TIMP‐1, TIMP‐2) in Canine Testis, Epididymis
           and Semen
    • Authors: C Warinrak; J‐T Wu, W‐L Hsu, J‐W Liao, S‐C Chang, F‐P Cheng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in determining semen quality and to evaluate the expression and cellular localization of MMP‐2, MMP‐9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase‐1 (TIMP‐1) and TIMP‐2 in the testes, epididymis and ejaculated spermatozoa. Gelatinase activities between normal (n = 21) and abnormal (n = 25) semen samples showed a significant, sixfold increase in proMMP‐2 and MMP‐2 activity in high than low sperm concentration samples (p 
      PubDate: 2014-12-01T23:42:33.838704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12448
       
  • Tris–Egg Yolk–Glycerol (TEY) Extender Developed for Freezing
           Dog Semen is a Good Option to Cryopreserve Bovine Epididymal Sperm Cells
    • Authors: G Lopes; L Soares, P Ferreira, A Rocha
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is often performed after shipping the excised testis–epididymis complexes, under refrigeration, to a specialized laboratory. However, epididymal spermatozoa can be collected immediately after excision of the epididymis and sent extended and refrigerated to a laboratory for cryopreservation. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of both methods of cold storage bovine epididymal spermatozoa as well as of two different extenders on spermatozoa characteristics after freeze–thawing. For that, spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymis of 19 bulls were extended and cryopreserved in either AndroMed® or a Tris–egg yolk (TEY)‐based extender. Cryopreservation of sperm cells was performed immediately after castration (Group A, n = 9) or after cold storage for 24 h diluted in the two extenders and (Group B, n = 9) and also after cold storage for 24 h within the whole epididymis (Group C, n = 10). Sperm subjective progressive motility (light microscopy), plasma membrane integrity (hypoosmotic swelling test) and sperm viability (eosin–nigrosin) were evaluated. In vitro fertilization and culture (IVF) was performed to assess the blastocyst rate. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed on post‐thaw sperm parameters between samples from Group A, B and C. TEY extended samples presented a higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T00:16:10.549223-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12454
       
  • Presence of Membranous Vesicles in Cat Seminal Plasma: Ultrastructural
           Characteristics, Protein Profile and Enzymatic Activity
    • Authors: A Polisca; A Troisi, A Minelli, I Bellezza, A Fontbonne, R Zelli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study sought to verify the presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma by means of transmission electron microscopy and to identify protein profile and some of the enzymatic activities associated with these particles. The transmission electron microscopy observations showed the existence of different sized vesicular membranous structures of more or less spherical shape. These vesicles were surrounded by single‐, double‐ or multiple‐layered laminar membranes. The vesicle diameters ranged from 16.3 to 387.4 nm, with a mean of 116.5 ± 70.7 nm. Enzyme activity determinations showed the presence of dipeptilpeptidase IV, aminopeptidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies and characterizes the membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma. However, further studies are necessary to identify the exact site of production of these membranous vesicles in the cat male genital tract and to determine their specific roles in the reproductive events of this species.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T00:15:23.287435-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12453
       
  • Hypothyroidism Affects Differentially the Cell Size of Epithelial Cells
           Among Oviductal Regions of Rabbits
    • Authors: A Anaya‐Hernández; J Rodríguez‐Castelán, L Nicolás, M Martínez‐Gómez, I Jiménez‐Estrada, F Castelán, E Cuevas
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Oviductal regions show particular histological characteristics and functions. Tubal pathologies and hypothyroidism are related to primary and secondary infertility. The impact of hypothyroidism on the histological characteristics of oviductal regions has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to analyse the histological characteristics of oviductal regions in control and hypothyroid rabbits. Hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of methimazole (MMI) for 30 days. For both groups, serum concentrations of thyroid and gonadal hormones were determined. Sections of oviductal regions were stained with the Masson's trichrome technique to analyse both epithelial and smooth muscle layers. The percentage of proliferative epithelial cells (anti‐Ki67) in diverse oviductal regions was also quantified. Data were compared with Student t‐test, Mann–Whitney U‐test, or Fischer's test. In comparison with the control group, the hypothyroid group showed: (i) a low concentration of T3 and T4, but a high level of TSH; (ii) similar values of serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone; (iii) a large size of ciliated cells in the ampulla (AMP), isthmus (IST) and utero‐tubal junction (UTJ); (iv) a large size of secretory cells in the IST region; (v) a low percentage of proliferative secretory cells in the fimbria‐infundibulum (FIM‐INF) region; and (vi) a similar thickness of the smooth muscle layer and the cross‐sectional area in the AMP and IST regions. Modifications in the size of the oviductal epithelium in hypothyroid rabbits could be related to changes in the cell metabolism that may impact on the reproductive functions achieved by oviduct.
      PubDate: 2014-11-18T06:47:49.59828-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12455
       
  • Effects of Addition of Tissue‐Type Plasminogen Activator in In Vitro
           Fertilization Medium on Bovine Embryo Development and Quality
    • Authors: F Krania; E Dovolou, CA Rekkas, EK Theodosiadou, I Pappas, GS Amiridis
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Plasminogen activators/Plasmin system plays pivotal role in regulating reproductive functions of mammals. Here, we examined the effects of modification of in vitro fertilization medium (IVF medium) with the addition of tissue‐type plasminogen activator (t‐PA), on bovine embryo development and quality, assessed by quantification of expression of various genes related to metabolism, oxidation, implantation and apoptosis. In addition, plasminogen activator activity (PAA) and plasminogen activator inhibition (PAI) were measured in the spent media. After conventional IVM, 2016 cumulus‐oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into four groups with modified composition of the IVF medium containing t‐PA and/or its inhibitor epsilon‐aminocaproic acid (control, t‐PA, t‐PA+ε‐ACA, ε‐ACA). Presumptive zygotes were cultured for 8 days in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) medium; gene expression studies were carried out on morulae and blastocysts. t‐PA alone significantly suppressed cleavage and blastocyst formation rates, but this effect was neutralized by the addition of ε‐ACA. PAA in the treated group was significantly reduced by ε‐ACA, but without total elimination. Significant differences were detected in the expression of genes related to apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest (BAX, BCL2L1, KAT2B) between embryos produced in t‐PA‐modified media and controls, giving an overall notion that the inferior developmental competence of treated embryos may be attributed to apoptotic phenomena induced by t‐PA. In conclusion, it appears that excessive t‐PA content in the IVF media, suppresses blastocyst formation rate, possibly due to induction of apoptotic phenomena.
      PubDate: 2014-11-18T06:47:05.741713-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12456
       
  • Differential Cytokine Expression in Natural and Experimental Mastitis
           Induced by Mycoplasma agalactiae in Dairy Goats
    • Authors: F Rodríguez; P Castro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cytokines, primarily produced by macrophages and lymphocytes, mobilize the immune system in response to infection, particularly at mucosal surfaces. Knowledge of the pathogenesis and persistence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) in the mammary gland is still insufficient. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of caprine mastitis caused by Ma. Cytokine expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods in the inflammatory lesions of 10 (5 naturally and 5 experimentally infected) goats with Ma‐induced mastitis. Immunolabelling for IL‐10, IFN‐γ, IL‐4 and TNF‐α was observed in inflammatory cells within the lumen of acini and ducts and in the interstitial spaces and was usually associated with the presence of Ma antigen. The results suggest that cytokines play a role in the pathophysiological processes during Ma infection as differential expression of these cytokines was detected in relation to the course of the infection.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15T00:36:53.045292-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12457
       
  • Use of Density Centrifugation for Delayed Cryopreservation of Stallion
           Sperm: Perform Sperm Selection Directly after Collection or after
           Storage?
    • Authors: A Heutelbeck; H Oldenhof, K Rohn, G Martinsson, JM Morrell, H Sieme
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Equipment for cryopreservation of stallion sperm is not always available. In such cases, diluted semen can be shipped to a facility for later cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate if selection of sperm via density centrifugation yields higher survival rates when cryopreservation is to be delayed (i.e. carried out after 1 day of storage at 5°C). Two‐layer iodixanol as well as single‐layer Androcoll density centrifugation were tested and compared with samples prepared with standard centrifugation. Special emphasis was placed on comparing centrifugation on the day of semen collection with centrifugation after 1‐day refrigerated storage. Sperm morphology and motility as well as membrane and chromatin integrity were evaluated before and after centrifugation. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were also assessed after cryopreservation. It was found that both two‐ and single‐layer density centrifugation processing resulted in higher percentages of morphologically normal and motile sperm with higher membrane and chromatin integrity, as compared to standard centrifugation or diluted samples. Differences were only in the order of magnitude of 5%. Recovery rates after density centrifugation were only approximately 30–40%. When cryopreservation was carried out after 1‐day refrigerated storage, centrifugation processing of sperm directly after semen collection resulted in higher percentages of plasma membrane intact sperm post‐thaw as compared to performing centrifugation processing of stored sperm just prior to cryopreservation. No significant differences in progressively motile sperm post‐thaw were seen. Taken together, for delayed cryopreservation, it is best to perform density centrifugation directly after collection rather than immediately prior to cryopreservation.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15T00:36:37.225431-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12451
       
  • Co‐Expression of c‐Fos with Oestradiol Receptor α or
           Somatostatin in the Arcuate Nucleus, Ventromedial Nucleus and Medial
           Preoptic Area in the Follicular Phase of Intact Ewes: Alteration after
           Insulin‐Induced Hypoglycaemia
    • Authors: C Fergani; JE Routly, DN Jones, LC Pickavance, RF Smith, H Dobson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate how acute insulin‐induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) alters the activity of cells containing oestradiol receptor α (ERα) or somatostatin (SST) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and ERα cells in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of intact ewes. Follicular phases were synchronized with progesterone vaginal pessaries. Control animals were killed at 0 h or 31 h (n = 5 and 6, respectively) after progesterone withdrawal (PW; time zero). At 28 h, five other animals received insulin (INS; 4 iu/kg) and were subsequently killed at 31 h. Hypothalamic sections were immunostained for ERα or SST each with c‐Fos, a marker of neuronal transcriptional activation. Insulin did not alter the percentage of activated ERα cells in the ARC; however, it appeared visually that two insulin‐treated animals (INS responders, with no LH surge) had an increase in the VMN (from 32 to 78%) and a decrease in the mPOA (from 40 to 12%) compared to no increase in the two INS non‐responders (with an LH surge). The percentage of activated SST cells in the ARC was greater in all four insulin‐treated animals (from 10 to 60%), whereas it was visually estimated that activated SST cells in the VMN increased only in the two insulin responders (from 10 to 70%). From these results, we suggest that IIH stimulates SST activation in the ARC as part of the glucose‐sensing mechanism but ERα activation is unaffected in this region. We present evidence to support a hypothesis that disruption of the GnRH/LH surge may occur in insulin responders via a mechanism that involves, at least in part, SST cell activation in the VMN along with decreased ERα cell activation in the mPOA.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15T00:36:24.269853-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12450
       
  • Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls 28, 30 and 118 on Bovine Spermatozoa
           In Vitro
    • Authors: B Yurdakok; K Tekin, A Daskin, A Filazi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Decline of semen quality due to endocrine‐disrupting chemicals is of concern globally. Among endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are associated with reduced semen quality in various epidemiological studies. In this study, we evaluated the direct effects of selected PCBs (28, 30 and 118) on fresh spermatozoa of Simmetial bulls aged 2–4 years were evaluated in vitro by 3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) (SCA; Microptics) analysis. IC50 values were found as 8.45, 5.45 and 9.55 ng/ml for PCB 28, 30 and 118, respectively. Total motility, progressive motility and viability decreased dependent on dose and duration of exposure (0, 2, 4 h). Total motility at IC50 doses decreased the most in PCB 28 (72.24%) followed by 30 (60.75%) and 118 (64.77%) at 2nd hour following exposure. Motility results were found to be in accordance with the vitality and morphology data where total abnormalities (especially reacted acrosome rate) were found to have increased.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15T00:36:06.717034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12447
       
  • Expression of Bovine Ecat1 Gene in Immature and in vitro Matured Oocytes
           as Well as During Early Embryonic Development
    • Authors: A Zahmatkesh; S Ansari Mahyari, M Daliri Joupari, A Shirazi, H Rahmani
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Ecat1 is a maternal effect gene that is exclusively expressed in oocytes and embryonic stem cells, and has an important role in pre‐implantation development. This study was designed to investigate the expression of bovine Ecat1 gene in immature and in vitro matured oocytes as well as during early embryonic development, and also Ecat1 protein localization. Samples were obtained from slaughtered animals. RNA extractions were carried out from ovary, immature and in vitro matured oocytes and also different stages of embryonic development (2‐, 4‐, 8‐ to 16‐cell stages and blastocysts). RT‐PCR analysis revealed the expression of Ecat1 in ovary, oocytes and embryos. Analysis in FGENESH online tool predicted three exons and one transcription start site (TSS) in Ecat1 gene, and the 3′ RACE‐PCR result showed that just one splice variant was amplified. By quantitative real‐time PCR technique, we showed that Ecat1 transcript increased at 8‐ to 16‐cell‐stage embryos and decreased in blastocyst stage (p 
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T23:37:47.906165-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12446
       
  • Alpha‐Linolenic Acid Supplementation in Tris Extender Can Improve
           Frozen–Thawed Bull Semen Quality
    • Authors: A Kaka; H Wahid, Y Rosnina, N Yimer, AM Khumran, AA Behan, M Ebrahimi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of α‐linolenic acid (ALA) on frozen–thawed quality and fatty acid composition of bull sperm. For that, twenty‐four ejaculates obtained from three bulls were diluted in a Tris extender containing 0 (control), 3, 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml of ALA. Extended semen was incubated at 37°C for 15 min, to allow absorption of ALA by sperm cell membrane. The sample was chilled for 2 h, packed into 0.25‐ml straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24 h. Subsequently, straws were thawed and evaluated for total sperm motility (computer‐assisted semen analysis), membrane functional integrity (hypo‐osmotic swelling test), viability (eosin‐nigrosin), fatty acid composition (gas chromatography) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substances (TBARS)). A higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T23:37:32.166651-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12445
       
  • The Effect of Season on Spermatozoa Motility, Plasma Membrane and Acrosome
           
    • Authors: W Wang; J Luo, S Sun, L Xi, Q Gao, AB Haile, H Shi, W Zhang, H Shi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the season of ejaculate collection influences seminal quality parameters of pre‐ and post‐freeze–thawing in Xinong Saanen bucks. Ejaculates were collected from eight bucks throughout the four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in a 12 months’ time period, identified in the Northern Hemisphere. Semen samples were evaluated by the combinations of conventional and Computer‐Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) when fresh and after frozen–thawed, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that season of ejaculate collection influenced (p 
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T23:37:05.6284-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12444
       
  • Analysis of Possible Influence of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Growth
           Performance and Losses of Piglets
    • Authors: Z Hadaš; M Čechová, P Nevrkla
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of supplementing the feed ration for lactating sows with the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance and losses of piglets from birth to weaning. The monitoring comprised 20 litters in control and 20 litters in experimental group of Czech Large White × Czech Landrace hybrid combination sows. The control group was given a standard feed mixture for lactating sows, and experimental group was fed with the feed mixture supplemented with 2% of CLA, from the day of farrowing to the weaning of piglets, that is for the time of 28 days. The results of the experiment indicate the significantly better parameters of the numbers of reared piglets in the experimental group and the related lower level of losses of piglets from birth to weaning (p  0.05). Sows in the experimental group showed earlier onset of post‐partal oestrus after weaning of piglets (p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T23:27:42.63326-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12443
       
  • Endoscopic Transcervical Catheterization in the Domestic Cat
    • Authors: D Zambelli; C Bini, M Cunto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Feline‐assisted reproduction is still not routinely performed in veterinary practice, although there is an increasing interest on the subject by cat breeders. In recent years, many techniques for artificial insemination in the domestic cat have been developed with regard to the intrauterine deposition of sperm through the catheterization of the cervix. Transcervical catheterization has been described also for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This article provides the first description of a new method for cervical catheterization, under the direct visualization of the cervix, using a rigid endoscope and a new specially designed transcervical catheter. The procedure was performed on 14 queens with a success rate of 85.71%.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T23:33:35.597435-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12442
       
  • Validation of Bovine Oestrous‐Specific Synthetic Molecules with
           Trained Scent Dogs; Similarities Between Natural and Synthetic Oestrous
           Smell
    • Authors: C Fischer‐Tenhagen; D Johnen, C Le Danvic, J Gatien, P Salvetti, BA Tenhagen, W Heuwieser
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Oestrous detection is crucial for successful dairy cow reproduction. Bulls identify cows in oestrus by oestrous‐specific odours especially in urine and vaginal fluid. These have been used to train dogs to detect cows in heat. To improve and simplify the dog training, a spray containing synthetic oestrous molecules was developed. The objective of this study was to test the spray on similarities to the natural substance thus to assess its suitability as a training substance for heat detection dogs. Ten privately owned dogs of various breeds were trained. Dogs should be trained either to differentiate natural vaginal fluid from cows in oestrus and dioestrus (n = 5), or spray with or without synthetic oestrous molecules (n = 5). Dogs trained on natural fluid and on spray could detect the oestrous odour they had been trained on with an overall accuracy of 69.0% and 82.4%, respectively (p = 0.019). To validate the synthetic molecules, dogs trained with synthetic molecules had to detect oestrous odour in natural fluid without further training (accuracy 37.6%). Dogs trained on natural fluid detected the synthetic molecules with an accuracy of 50.0% (50% vs 37.4%, p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T23:20:58.472969-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12440
       
  • Neuroendocrine, Metabolic and Genomic Cues Signalling the Onset of Puberty
           in Females
    • Authors: CA Meza‐Herrera; A Gonzalez‐Bulnes, RT Kridli, M Mellado, CF Arechiga‐Flores, H Salinas, JM Luginbuhl
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Puberty is the result of a dynamic interaction between genetic factors and environmental cues, all of which lead to the attainment of reproductive capacity. Thus, significant changes in hormone secretion occur from the pre‐pubertal to the pubertal stage. The objective of this review is to provide an update of some endocrine, physiological, metabolic and genetic concepts involved in the establishment of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis function promoting the onset of the reproductive function during puberty. To achieve this purpose, basic aspects of the function of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis, the control of the axis by neurotransmitters and the interaction between reproductive function and metabolic status will be considered. Finally, the role of the novel kisspeptin system and the GPR54 receptor as modulators of puberty will be considered, in addition to the hierarchical expression of the main genes acting as regulators of the onset of puberty.
      PubDate: 2009-04-08T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01355.x
       
  • Comparison of Two Different Programmes of Ovulation Synchronization in the
           Treatment of Ovarian Cysts in Dairy Cows
    • Authors: N Gundling; S Drews, M Hoedemaker
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: It was the aim of this field study to evaluate two different protocols of ovulation synchronization for the treatment of ovarian cysts and their effect on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In addition, factors with a possible influence on treatment success and pregnancy outcome as well as costs per pregnancy were analysed. The study was performed with 130 German Holsteins with ovarian cysts diagnosed on days 55 to 60 postpartum. Cows belonging to group 1 (n = 65) received a modified ovsynch protocol [day 0: 0.15 mg cloprostenol (PGF) + 0.02 mg buserelin acetate (GnRH); day 14: PGF; day 16: GnRH]. Group 2 (n = 65) was treated with the conventional ovsynch protocol (day 0: GnRH; day 7: PGF; day 9: GnRH). Timed artificial insemination was performed 20 to 24 h later. Cows without ovarian cysts served as controls. Treatment success (disappearance of the ovarian cyst) after the first ovsynch cycle was higher in group 1 (66.2%) than in group 2 (23.1%, p 
      PubDate: 2009-03-11T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01342.x
       
  • Luteal Characteristics and Progesterone Production on Day 5 of the Bovine
           Oestrous Cycle
    • Authors: MP Green; GE Mann, MG Hunter
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: In this study we have examined luteal function in non‐lactating and late lactation dairy cows on day 5 of the cycle, during the period of the post‐ovulatory progesterone rise. Comparison of luteal progesterone content and in vitro synthetic capacity with circulating plasma progesterone demonstrated that circulating progesterone concentration is a function of total luteal activity rather than the activity of individual units of tissue. Incubation of luteal tissue in vitro demonstrated stimulatory activity of LH and IGF‐I, and to a greater degree IGF‐II, on luteal progesterone synthesis. Finally the study showed no effect of double ovulation on luteal function. Occurrence of double ovulation in 35% of animals was not associated with any difference in luteal function or plasma progesterone concentrations.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00836.x
       
  • Effect of Time for Mating and Gestation Length on Reproductive Efficiency
           in Dogs
    • Authors: Y Shimatsu; H Yuzawa, K Aruga, M. Nakura
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of time for mating and gestation length on reproductive efficiency in dogs. Groups of eight, six and six beagle bitches were mated with a total of three sires on days 3, 5 and 7, respectively, after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. All the bitches whelped successfully. The gestation lengths (the intervals from the LH surge to the whelping) were 65.1 ± 1.9, 65.5 ± 1.9 and 68.0 ± 1.8 days, respectively. This length of mating 7 days after the LH surge was significantly longer than that of mating 3 and 5 days after the LH surge (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00840.x
       
  • Successful Low Dose Insemination of Flow Cytometrically Sorted Ram
           Spermatozoa in Sheep
    • Authors: SP De Graaf; G Evans, WMC Maxwell, JA Downing, JK O'Brien
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The fertility of ram spermatozoa that had undergone flow cytometric sorting (MoFlo® SX) and cryopreservation was assessed after low‐dose insemination of synchronized Merino ewes. Oestrus was synchronized with progestagen‐impregnated pessaries, PMSG and GnRH treatment. Ewes (n = 360) were inseminated with 1 × 106, 5 × 106 or 15 × 106 motile sorted frozen‐thawed (S1, S5, or S15 respectively) or non‐sorted frozen‐thawed (C1, C5 or C15 respectively) spermatozoa from three rams. An additional group of ewes were inseminated with 50 × 106 motile non‐sorted frozen‐thawed spermatozoa (C50) to provide a commercial dose control. The percentage of ewes lambing after insemination was similar for C50 (24/38, 63.2%), C15 (37/54, 68.5%), S15 (38/57, 66.7%), S5 (37/56, 66.1%) and S1 (32/52, 61.5%) groups (p > 0.05), but lower for C5 (19/48, 39.6%) and C1 (19/55, 34.5%) treatments (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00837.x
       
  • Bovine Endothelial Cells Interact with Fully‐luteinized, but Not
           Luteinizing, Granulosa Cells in the mRNA Expression of Endothelin‐1
           System in Response to Prostaglandin F2α
    • Authors: K Shirasuna; S Watanabe, D Yamamoto, M Hayashi, K Nagai, A Miyamoto
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The corpus luteum (CL) undergoes regression by prostaglandin (PG)F2α from uterus and endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) plays an important role during luteolysis as a local mediator of PGF2α in the cow. Endothelial cells (EC) and luteal cells are main cell types making up the CL and their interactions are vital for CL function. We aimed to examine the relevance of interactions between EC and luteal cells on stimulation of genes which involved ET‐1 synthesis by PGF2α. We further focused the impact of maturity of luteal cells on the stimulation of the genes. To make a microenvironment which resembles the CL, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and luteinizing or fully‐luteinized granulosa cells (GC) and evaluated the effect of PGF2α on the expression for mRNA of ET‐1 system by using real‐time RT‐PCR. PGF2α stimulated the expression of preproET‐1 and endothelin converting enzyme‐1 mRNA only in the co‐cultures of BAEC with fully‐luteinized GC, but not with luteinizing GC. The data suggest that interactions between BAEC and fully‐luteinized GC enhance the capability of BAEC to produce ET‐1 in response to PGF2α. This mechanism may contribute to the local induction of luteolytic action of PGF2α which is dependent on the age/maturation of the CL.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00835.x
       
  • Ovum Pick‐up in Dairy Heifers: Does it Affect Animal
           Well‐being?
    • Authors: S Petyim; R Båge, A Madej, B Larsson
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the ovum pick‐up (OPU) technique on animal well‐being. Eight dairy heifers were subjected to 4 months of twice‐weekly OPU. The physiological response to OPU was recorded in four heifers at two sessions, at the beginning (time 1) and at the end (time 2) of the 4‐month period. Heart rates were measured and blood was analysed for cortisol, vasopressin and PG‐metabolite before, during (every 5 and 2 min), and after the OPU sessions. Reactions to each subprocedure of OPU (‘restraint’, ‘epidural’, ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’) were closely observed. In all heifers, reactions to the OPU procedures were also noted throughout the experimental period, and changes in routine behaviour, oestrous behaviour, body temperature, or other clinical traits were recorded. Subsequent to the experiment, the ovaries and tails were carefully inspected. At time 1, there was an insignificant increase in heart rate and cortisol throughout the OPU procedure. At time 2, these two parameters increased significantly, but both parameters declined to pre‐OPU levels 10 min after completion of the procedure. No significant changes were seen in vasopressin or PG‐metabolite at time 1 and time 2. Behaviourally, the heifers showed the strongest response to epidural anaesthesia, with a tendency for more intense response during the late 4‐month sessions. The response to ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’ varied among individuals independently of time. There were no changes in the routine or oestrous behaviour throughout the experiment and no signs of clinical disorders. No major pathological changes were macroscopically seen in the ovaries and tails subsequent to the 4 months of OPU. In conclusion, the heifers showed a response to OPU, mostly to administration of epidural anaesthesia. However, we demonstrated that epidural anaesthesia can be administered in a way causing less discomfort.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00833.x
       
  • Infertility in a Dog due to Proximal Cytoplasmic Droplets in the
           Ejaculate: Investigation of the Significance for Sperm Functionality In
           Vitro
    • Authors: AI Peña; M Barrio, JJ Becerra, LA Quintela, PG Herradón
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: A 4‐year‐old Basque Shepherd male dog was presented for breeding soundness evaluation after the dog failed to impregnate the three bitches he had mated. Clinical examination showed no anomaly of the reproductive system. Semen evaluation showed normal sperm count (640 × 106), 80% had progressively motile spermatozoa, and 96% had morphologically abnormal sperm of which 84% had proximal cytoplasmic droplet and 12% had proximal droplet plus other anomaly. A zona pellucida‐binding assay, using canine oocytes derived from frozen‐thawed ovaries, was performed in order to investigate the zona‐binding ability of dog spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets. For the zona pellucida‐binding assay, ovaries were thawed and minced in phosphate‐buffered saline + 0.4% bovine serum albumin, the oocytes recovered were divided into two groups of 35–40 oocytes to be, respectively, used with the infertile dog and with a control fertile dog. Spermatozoa were capacitated in Canine Capacitating Medium (CCM) at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in air for 2 h before oocyte insemination. Groups of five to six oocytes placed in 45 μl droplets of CCM were incubated for 1 h. Afterwards, 5 μl of CCM containing 25 000 spermatozoa were added to each droplet and co‐incubated for 2 h before fixation and evaluation of the complexes. After oocyte insemination, sperm motility and viability were evaluated: the sample from the infertile dog had 85% sperm motility with fast and linear progressive movement, and sperm viability of 92%. The sample from the control dog showed 40% sperm motility with fast and highly curvilinear and erratic movement, high degree of sperm agglutination and sperm viability of 32%. For the infertile dog the mean number of bound spermatozoa/oocyte was 0.33 whereas for the control dog it was 1.80. It was concluded that dog sperm with proximal cytoplasmic droplets seem to lack normal capacitating ability in vitro, and consequently, they may have reduced capacity to bind to the zona pellucida of canine oocytes.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00809.x
       
  • Early Detection of Pregnancy and Embryonic Loss in Dairy Cattle by ELISA
           Tests
    • Authors: G Gábor; F Tóth, L Ózsvári, Zs Abonyi‐Tóth, RG Sasser
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Over a 25‐month period 8118 blood samples were assayed for the presence of the serum pregnancy specific‐protein B (PSPB) and progesteron (P4) concentrations on three Hungarian large‐scale dairy farms. Pregnancy (n = 4085) was checked by BioPRYN assay at 30–36 days post‐insemination (PI). Samples from all cows that tested not pregnant and from cows with an optical density (OD) reading in the BioPRYN test that was between 0% and 30% above the cutoff OD value were tested for serum P4 concentration. According to serum P4 concentration, cows were assigned to three categories: high (>4 ng/ml), medium (2–4 ng/ml) and low (
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00834.x
       
  • Distribution of Spermatozoa and Embryos in the Female Reproductive Tract
           after Unilateral Deep Intra Uterine Insemination in the Pig
    • Authors: P Tummaruk; P Sumransap, M Techakumphu, A Kunavongkrit
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The present study was performed to investigate the number of either the spermatozoa or the embryos in the reproductive tracts of sows after unilateral, deep, intra uterine insemination (DIUI). Two experiments were conducted, 10 sows were used in experiment I and eight sows were used in experiment II. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to examine the time when ovulation took place in relation to oestrus behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen 6–8 h prior to expected ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. In experimental I, five sows were inseminated by a conventional artificial insemination (AI) technique using 100 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 3000 × 106 motile spermatozoa and five sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique with 5 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized and ovario‐hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the uterine horns on each side of the reproductive tracts were divided into seven segments, namely ampulla, cranial isthmus, caudal isthmus, utero‐tubal junction (UTJ), cranial uterine horn, middle uterine horn and caudal uterine horn. Each segment of the reproductive tracts was flushed with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) through the lumen. The total number of spermatozoa in the flushing from each segment were determined. In experimental II, eight sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique using 5.0 ml diluted fresh semen containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized 61.1 ± 12 h after insemination (48–72 h) and the embryos were flushed from the oviduct through the proximal part of the uterine horn. It was revealed that, in experimental I, the spermatozoa were recovered from both sides of the reproductive tract in the AI‐group, and from unilateral side of the reproductive tract in the DIUI‐group (three sows from the left and two sows from the right sides). The number of spermatozoa recovered from the reproductive tracts was higher in the AI‐ than the DIUI‐group (p 
      PubDate: 2007-06-15T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00830.x
       
 
 
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