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        1 2     

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 182 journals)
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Brno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales UMCS, Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Diseases Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal  
In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
InVet     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Veterinary Science     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  

        1 2     

Journal Cover Reproduction in Domestic Animals
   [3 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0936-6768 - ISSN (Online) 1439-0531
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]   [SJR: 0.562]   [H-I: 35]
  • Tris–Egg Yolk–Glycerol (TEY) Extender Developed for Freezing
           Dog Semen is a Good Option to Cryopreserve Bovine Epididymal Sperm Cells
    • Authors: G Lopes; L Soares, P Ferreira, A Rocha
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is often performed after shipping the excised testis–epididymis complexes, under refrigeration, to a specialized laboratory. However, epididymal spermatozoa can be collected immediately after excision of the epididymis and sent extended and refrigerated to a laboratory for cryopreservation. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of both methods of cold storage bovine epididymal spermatozoa as well as of two different extenders on spermatozoa characteristics after freeze–thawing. For that, spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymis of 19 bulls were extended and cryopreserved in either AndroMed® or a Tris–egg yolk (TEY)‐based extender. Cryopreservation of sperm cells was performed immediately after castration (Group A, n = 9) or after cold storage for 24 h diluted in the two extenders and (Group B, n = 9) and also after cold storage for 24 h within the whole epididymis (Group C, n = 10). Sperm subjective progressive motility (light microscopy), plasma membrane integrity (hypoosmotic swelling test) and sperm viability (eosin–nigrosin) were evaluated. In vitro fertilization and culture (IVF) was performed to assess the blastocyst rate. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed on post‐thaw sperm parameters between samples from Group A, B and C. TEY extended samples presented a higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T00:16:10.549223-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12454
       
  • Presence of Membranous Vesicles in Cat Seminal Plasma: Ultrastructural
           Characteristics, Protein Profile and Enzymatic Activity
    • Authors: A Polisca; A Troisi, A Minelli, I Bellezza, A Fontbonne, R Zelli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study sought to verify the presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma by means of transmission electron microscopy and to identify protein profile and some of the enzymatic activities associated with these particles. The transmission electron microscopy observations showed the existence of different sized vesicular membranous structures of more or less spherical shape. These vesicles were surrounded by single‐, double‐ or multiple‐layered laminar membranes. The vesicle diameters ranged from 16.3 to 387.4 nm, with a mean of 116.5 ± 70.7 nm. Enzyme activity determinations showed the presence of dipeptilpeptidase IV, aminopeptidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies and characterizes the membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma. However, further studies are necessary to identify the exact site of production of these membranous vesicles in the cat male genital tract and to determine their specific roles in the reproductive events of this species.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21T00:15:23.287435-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12453
       
  • Hypothyroidism Affects Differentially the Cell Size of Epithelial Cells
           Among Oviductal Regions of Rabbits
    • Authors: A Anaya‐Hernández; J Rodríguez‐Castelán, L Nicolás, M Martínez‐Gómez, I Jiménez‐Estrada, F Castelán, E Cuevas
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Oviductal regions show particular histological characteristics and functions. Tubal pathologies and hypothyroidism are related to primary and secondary infertility. The impact of hypothyroidism on the histological characteristics of oviductal regions has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to analyse the histological characteristics of oviductal regions in control and hypothyroid rabbits. Hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of methimazole (MMI) for 30 days. For both groups, serum concentrations of thyroid and gonadal hormones were determined. Sections of oviductal regions were stained with the Masson's trichrome technique to analyse both epithelial and smooth muscle layers. The percentage of proliferative epithelial cells (anti‐Ki67) in diverse oviductal regions was also quantified. Data were compared with Student t‐test, Mann–Whitney U‐test, or Fischer's test. In comparison with the control group, the hypothyroid group showed: (i) a low concentration of T3 and T4, but a high level of TSH; (ii) similar values of serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone; (iii) a large size of ciliated cells in the ampulla (AMP), isthmus (IST) and utero‐tubal junction (UTJ); (iv) a large size of secretory cells in the IST region; (v) a low percentage of proliferative secretory cells in the fimbria‐infundibulum (FIM‐INF) region; and (vi) a similar thickness of the smooth muscle layer and the cross‐sectional area in the AMP and IST regions. Modifications in the size of the oviductal epithelium in hypothyroid rabbits could be related to changes in the cell metabolism that may impact on the reproductive functions achieved by oviduct.
      PubDate: 2014-11-18T06:47:49.59828-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12455
       
  • Effects of Addition of Tissue‐Type Plasminogen Activator in In Vitro
           Fertilization Medium on Bovine Embryo Development and Quality
    • Authors: F Krania; E Dovolou, CA Rekkas, EK Theodosiadou, I Pappas, GS Amiridis
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Plasminogen activators/Plasmin system plays pivotal role in regulating reproductive functions of mammals. Here, we examined the effects of modification of in vitro fertilization medium (IVF medium) with the addition of tissue‐type plasminogen activator (t‐PA), on bovine embryo development and quality, assessed by quantification of expression of various genes related to metabolism, oxidation, implantation and apoptosis. In addition, plasminogen activator activity (PAA) and plasminogen activator inhibition (PAI) were measured in the spent media. After conventional IVM, 2016 cumulus‐oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into four groups with modified composition of the IVF medium containing t‐PA and/or its inhibitor epsilon‐aminocaproic acid (control, t‐PA, t‐PA+ε‐ACA, ε‐ACA). Presumptive zygotes were cultured for 8 days in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) medium; gene expression studies were carried out on morulae and blastocysts. t‐PA alone significantly suppressed cleavage and blastocyst formation rates, but this effect was neutralized by the addition of ε‐ACA. PAA in the treated group was significantly reduced by ε‐ACA, but without total elimination. Significant differences were detected in the expression of genes related to apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest (BAX, BCL2L1, KAT2B) between embryos produced in t‐PA‐modified media and controls, giving an overall notion that the inferior developmental competence of treated embryos may be attributed to apoptotic phenomena induced by t‐PA. In conclusion, it appears that excessive t‐PA content in the IVF media, suppresses blastocyst formation rate, possibly due to induction of apoptotic phenomena.
      PubDate: 2014-11-18T06:47:05.741713-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12456
       
  • Differential Cytokine Expression in Natural and Experimental Mastitis
           Induced by Mycoplasma agalactiae in Dairy Goats
    • Authors: F Rodríguez; P Castro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cytokines, primarily produced by macrophages and lymphocytes, mobilize the immune system in response to infection, particularly at mucosal surfaces. Knowledge of the pathogenesis and persistence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) in the mammary gland is still insufficient. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of caprine mastitis caused by Ma. Cytokine expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods in the inflammatory lesions of 10 (5 naturally and 5 experimentally infected) goats with Ma‐induced mastitis. Immunolabelling for IL‐10, IFN‐γ, IL‐4 and TNF‐α was observed in inflammatory cells within the lumen of acini and ducts and in the interstitial spaces and was usually associated with the presence of Ma antigen. The results suggest that cytokines play a role in the pathophysiological processes during Ma infection as differential expression of these cytokines was detected in relation to the course of the infection.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15T00:36:53.045292-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12457
       
  • Use of Density Centrifugation for Delayed Cryopreservation of Stallion
           Sperm: Perform Sperm Selection Directly after Collection or after
           Storage?
    • Authors: A Heutelbeck; H Oldenhof, K Rohn, G Martinsson, JM Morrell, H Sieme
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Equipment for cryopreservation of stallion sperm is not always available. In such cases, diluted semen can be shipped to a facility for later cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate if selection of sperm via density centrifugation yields higher survival rates when cryopreservation is to be delayed (i.e. carried out after 1 day of storage at 5°C). Two‐layer iodixanol as well as single‐layer Androcoll density centrifugation were tested and compared with samples prepared with standard centrifugation. Special emphasis was placed on comparing centrifugation on the day of semen collection with centrifugation after 1‐day refrigerated storage. Sperm morphology and motility as well as membrane and chromatin integrity were evaluated before and after centrifugation. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were also assessed after cryopreservation. It was found that both two‐ and single‐layer density centrifugation processing resulted in higher percentages of morphologically normal and motile sperm with higher membrane and chromatin integrity, as compared to standard centrifugation or diluted samples. Differences were only in the order of magnitude of 5%. Recovery rates after density centrifugation were only approximately 30–40%. When cryopreservation was carried out after 1‐day refrigerated storage, centrifugation processing of sperm directly after semen collection resulted in higher percentages of plasma membrane intact sperm post‐thaw as compared to performing centrifugation processing of stored sperm just prior to cryopreservation. No significant differences in progressively motile sperm post‐thaw were seen. Taken together, for delayed cryopreservation, it is best to perform density centrifugation directly after collection rather than immediately prior to cryopreservation.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15T00:36:37.225431-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12451
       
  • Co‐Expression of c‐Fos with Oestradiol Receptor α or
           Somatostatin in the Arcuate Nucleus, Ventromedial Nucleus and Medial
           Preoptic Area in the Follicular Phase of Intact Ewes: Alteration after
           Insulin‐Induced Hypoglycaemia
    • Authors: C Fergani; JE Routly, DN Jones, LC Pickavance, RF Smith, H Dobson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate how acute insulin‐induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) alters the activity of cells containing oestradiol receptor α (ERα) or somatostatin (SST) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and ERα cells in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of intact ewes. Follicular phases were synchronized with progesterone vaginal pessaries. Control animals were killed at 0 h or 31 h (n = 5 and 6, respectively) after progesterone withdrawal (PW; time zero). At 28 h, five other animals received insulin (INS; 4 iu/kg) and were subsequently killed at 31 h. Hypothalamic sections were immunostained for ERα or SST each with c‐Fos, a marker of neuronal transcriptional activation. Insulin did not alter the percentage of activated ERα cells in the ARC; however, it appeared visually that two insulin‐treated animals (INS responders, with no LH surge) had an increase in the VMN (from 32 to 78%) and a decrease in the mPOA (from 40 to 12%) compared to no increase in the two INS non‐responders (with an LH surge). The percentage of activated SST cells in the ARC was greater in all four insulin‐treated animals (from 10 to 60%), whereas it was visually estimated that activated SST cells in the VMN increased only in the two insulin responders (from 10 to 70%). From these results, we suggest that IIH stimulates SST activation in the ARC as part of the glucose‐sensing mechanism but ERα activation is unaffected in this region. We present evidence to support a hypothesis that disruption of the GnRH/LH surge may occur in insulin responders via a mechanism that involves, at least in part, SST cell activation in the VMN along with decreased ERα cell activation in the mPOA.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15T00:36:24.269853-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12450
       
  • Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls 28, 30 and 118 on Bovine Spermatozoa
           In Vitro
    • Authors: B Yurdakok; K Tekin, A Daskin, A Filazi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Decline of semen quality due to endocrine‐disrupting chemicals is of concern globally. Among endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are associated with reduced semen quality in various epidemiological studies. In this study, we evaluated the direct effects of selected PCBs (28, 30 and 118) on fresh spermatozoa of Simmetial bulls aged 2–4 years were evaluated in vitro by 3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) (SCA; Microptics) analysis. IC50 values were found as 8.45, 5.45 and 9.55 ng/ml for PCB 28, 30 and 118, respectively. Total motility, progressive motility and viability decreased dependent on dose and duration of exposure (0, 2, 4 h). Total motility at IC50 doses decreased the most in PCB 28 (72.24%) followed by 30 (60.75%) and 118 (64.77%) at 2nd hour following exposure. Motility results were found to be in accordance with the vitality and morphology data where total abnormalities (especially reacted acrosome rate) were found to have increased.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15T00:36:06.717034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12447
       
  • Expression of Bovine Ecat1 Gene in Immature and in vitro Matured Oocytes
           as Well as During Early Embryonic Development
    • Authors: A Zahmatkesh; S Ansari Mahyari, M Daliri Joupari, A Shirazi, H Rahmani
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Ecat1 is a maternal effect gene that is exclusively expressed in oocytes and embryonic stem cells, and has an important role in pre‐implantation development. This study was designed to investigate the expression of bovine Ecat1 gene in immature and in vitro matured oocytes as well as during early embryonic development, and also Ecat1 protein localization. Samples were obtained from slaughtered animals. RNA extractions were carried out from ovary, immature and in vitro matured oocytes and also different stages of embryonic development (2‐, 4‐, 8‐ to 16‐cell stages and blastocysts). RT‐PCR analysis revealed the expression of Ecat1 in ovary, oocytes and embryos. Analysis in FGENESH online tool predicted three exons and one transcription start site (TSS) in Ecat1 gene, and the 3′ RACE‐PCR result showed that just one splice variant was amplified. By quantitative real‐time PCR technique, we showed that Ecat1 transcript increased at 8‐ to 16‐cell‐stage embryos and decreased in blastocyst stage (p 
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T23:37:47.906165-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12446
       
  • Alpha‐Linolenic Acid Supplementation in Tris Extender Can Improve
           Frozen–Thawed Bull Semen Quality
    • Authors: A Kaka; H Wahid, Y Rosnina, N Yimer, AM Khumran, AA Behan, M Ebrahimi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of α‐linolenic acid (ALA) on frozen–thawed quality and fatty acid composition of bull sperm. For that, twenty‐four ejaculates obtained from three bulls were diluted in a Tris extender containing 0 (control), 3, 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml of ALA. Extended semen was incubated at 37°C for 15 min, to allow absorption of ALA by sperm cell membrane. The sample was chilled for 2 h, packed into 0.25‐ml straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24 h. Subsequently, straws were thawed and evaluated for total sperm motility (computer‐assisted semen analysis), membrane functional integrity (hypo‐osmotic swelling test), viability (eosin‐nigrosin), fatty acid composition (gas chromatography) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substances (TBARS)). A higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T23:37:32.166651-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12445
       
  • The Effect of Season on Spermatozoa Motility, Plasma Membrane and Acrosome
           
    • Authors: W Wang; J Luo, S Sun, L Xi, Q Gao, AB Haile, H Shi, W Zhang, H Shi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the season of ejaculate collection influences seminal quality parameters of pre‐ and post‐freeze–thawing in Xinong Saanen bucks. Ejaculates were collected from eight bucks throughout the four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in a 12 months’ time period, identified in the Northern Hemisphere. Semen samples were evaluated by the combinations of conventional and Computer‐Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) when fresh and after frozen–thawed, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that season of ejaculate collection influenced (p 
      PubDate: 2014-11-03T23:37:05.6284-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12444
       
  • Analysis of Possible Influence of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Growth
           Performance and Losses of Piglets
    • Authors: Z Hadaš; M Čechová, P Nevrkla
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of supplementing the feed ration for lactating sows with the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance and losses of piglets from birth to weaning. The monitoring comprised 20 litters in control and 20 litters in experimental group of Czech Large White × Czech Landrace hybrid combination sows. The control group was given a standard feed mixture for lactating sows, and experimental group was fed with the feed mixture supplemented with 2% of CLA, from the day of farrowing to the weaning of piglets, that is for the time of 28 days. The results of the experiment indicate the significantly better parameters of the numbers of reared piglets in the experimental group and the related lower level of losses of piglets from birth to weaning (p  0.05). Sows in the experimental group showed earlier onset of post‐partal oestrus after weaning of piglets (p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T23:27:42.63326-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12443
       
  • Presence of Leptin and Its Receptor in the Hypothalamus, Uterus and
           Ovaries of Swine Females Culled with Distinct Ovarian Statuses and
           Parities
    • Authors: F Moreira; SMM Gheller, RG Mondadori, AS Varela Júnior, CD Corcini, T Lucia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Leptin acts on energy metabolism, affecting reproductive functions through activation of its receptors in the brain and in reproductive organs. This study compared the presence of leptin and its receptor (ObR‐b) in hypothalamus neurons, endometrial glands and oocytes of culled swine females across ovarian statuses and parities. Immunohistochemistry was done in samples of uterus, ovaries and hypothalamus from 28 culled females, using polyclonal antibodies antileptin and ObR‐b. Immunolabelling was compared for sows categorized by parity at culling (0, 1, 2–4 and
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T23:26:53.285466-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12438
       
  • Effects of Topical Application of Misoprostol on Cervical Relaxation in
           Mares
    • Authors: J McNaughten; M Pozor, M Macpherson, A Kelleman, E Woodward, M Troedsson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Mares who have not delivered a foal early in life may experience limitations in cervical relaxation, primarily during oestrus. A closed cervix prevents intrauterine deposition of semen during natural breeding, may delay uterine clearance after insemination leading to intrauterine fluid accumulation in, and subsequent infertility. Therefore, a reliable pharmacological method of dilating the equine cervix would have practical application in veterinary medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of topically applied, synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue (PGE1) for stimulating dilation of the equine cervix. Ten mares in dioestrus were randomly assigned to one of two treatments in a single‐blind crossover study: (treatment) PGE1 gel (1000 mcg compounded misoprostol cream) applied topically to the external cervical os (n = 5), and (control) a vehicle cream applied topically to the external cervical os (n = 5). Transrectal palpation and ultrasonographic measurements of the cervix were performed prior to, six and 24 h post‐treatment. Digital measurements were taken, per vagina, at six and 24 h post‐treatment. Mares were monitored through the subsequent oestrous cycle for ovulation. Mares were assigned to the opposite treatment group such that each mare served as her own control (crossover). Data were analysed using parametric (split‐plot anova), as well as nonparametric (Kruskal–Wallis anova, Wilcoxon's rank‐sum test) methods. At six and 24 h there were no significant differences for tone, length, height, degree of relaxation or echotexture between control and PGE1 treated groups at the measured time points (p > 0.05). Topical cervical application of PGE1 did not induce a measurable degree of cervical relaxation under the conditions of this experiment.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31T23:26:37.376113-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12435
       
  • Endoscopic Transcervical Catheterization in the Domestic Cat
    • Authors: D Zambelli; C Bini, M Cunto
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Feline‐assisted reproduction is still not routinely performed in veterinary practice, although there is an increasing interest on the subject by cat breeders. In recent years, many techniques for artificial insemination in the domestic cat have been developed with regard to the intrauterine deposition of sperm through the catheterization of the cervix. Transcervical catheterization has been described also for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This article provides the first description of a new method for cervical catheterization, under the direct visualization of the cervix, using a rigid endoscope and a new specially designed transcervical catheter. The procedure was performed on 14 queens with a success rate of 85.71%.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T23:33:35.597435-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12442
       
  • Effect of a Single Dose of Cadmium on Pregnant Wistar Rats and their
           Offspring
    • Authors: M del C Díaz; NV González, S Gómez, MA Quiroga, R Najle, CG Barbeito
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a well‐known toxicant targeting many organs, among them placenta. This heavy metal also has embryonary and foetal toxicity. This study was undertaken to analyse the effect of a single Cd dose administered at 4, 7, 10 or 15 days of gestation on the offspring of pregnant rats sacrificed at 20 days of gestation. Cadmium chloride was administered subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg body weight to Wistar pregnant dams; control animals received a proportionate volume of sterile normal saline by the same route. Maternal uteri, livers, kidneys and lungs, and foetuses were examined at necropsy. Samples of maternal organs and whole foetuses were collected for histopathologic examination, determination of Cd levels and staining by the Alizarin red S technique. Results revealed a clear embryotoxic and a teratogenic effect of this heavy metal, the former as a significant increase in the number of resorptions, and the latter as significant decrease of the gestational sac weight, and the size and weight of foetuses of Cd‐treated dams as well as induced malformations in skull bones, vertebrae and thoracic, and pelvian limbs. The deleterious effects found were similar to those previously reported for other animal models suggesting a high conservation of the pathogenic mechanisms of Cd. Additionally, many of the addressed aspects showed a slight dependence on the time of administration of the toxic that might be due to the accumulation of the metal in different organs, as we were able to demonstrate by the analysis of its concentration.
      PubDate: 2014-10-17T01:55:43.559517-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12439
       
  • Effect of Overnight Staining on the Quality of Flow Cytometric Sorted
           Stallion Sperm: Comparison with Tradtitional Protocols
    • Authors: CM Balao da Silva; C Ortega Ferrusola, JM Gallardo Bolaños, M Plaza Dávila, P Martín‐Muñoz, JM Morrell, H Rodriguez Martínez, FJ Peña
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Flow cytometry is considered the only reliable method for the separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa in equines. The MoFlo SX DP sorter is highly efficient, allowing the production of foals of the desired sex. However, to achieve acceptable pregnancy rates the currently used protocol requires working with fresh semen obtained close to, or at, the sorting facility. An alternative protocol was tested during two consecutive breeding seasons. Fresh stallion semen was cooled for 20 h, during which staining with Hoechst 33342 took place. On the following day, this sample was flow sorted and compared with spermatozoa from the same ejaculate that had been sexed on the previous day. All sperm parameters evaluated remained unchanged when fresh sorted and refrigerated sorted semen were compared. Pre‐sorting storage at 5°C did not alter sperm velocities nor kinetics, viability or membrane permeability, production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential or DNA fragmentation index of the sorted sample. The findings open for the possibility of using semen from stallions housed far from the sorting facilities. Processed and stained sperm could be shipped refrigerated on the previous day, sorted and inseminated on the next day.
      PubDate: 2014-10-12T23:15:32.998647-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12431
       
  • Phosphofructokinase and Malate Dehydrogenase Participate in the In Vitro
           Maturation of Porcine Oocytes
    • Authors: E Breininger; BE Vecchi Galenda, GM Alvarez, C Gutnisky, PD Cetica
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Oocyte maturation depends on the metabolic activity of cumulus–oocyte complex (COC) that performs nutritive and regulatory functions during this process. In this work, the enzymes [phosphofructokinase (PFK) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH)] were tested to elucidate the metabolic profile of porcine COCs during the in vitro maturation (IVM). Enzymatic activity was expressed in U/COC and U/mg protein (specific activity) as mean ± SEM. In vitro maturation was performed with 2‐oxoglutarate (5, 10 and 20 mm) or hydroxymalonate (30, 60 and 100 mm) inhibitors of PFK and MDH, respectively. The PFK and MDH activities (U) remained constant during maturation. For PFK, the U were (2.48 ± 0.23) 10−5 and (2.54 ± 0.32) 10−5, and for MDH, the U were (4.72 ± 0.42) 10−5 and (4.38 ± 0.25) 10−5 for immature and in vitro matured COCs, respectively. The specific activities were significantly lower after IVM, for PFK (4.29 ± 0.48) 10−3 and (0.94 ± 0.12) 10−3, and for MDH (9.08 ± 0.93) 10−3 and (1.89 ± 0.10) 10−3 for immature and in vitro matured COCs, respectively. In vitro maturation percentages and enzymatic activity diminished with 20 mm 2‐oxoglutarate or 60 mm hydroxymalonate (p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T23:27:00.604706-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12437
       
  • Validation of Bovine Oestrous‐Specific Synthetic Molecules with
           Trained Scent Dogs; Similarities Between Natural and Synthetic Oestrous
           Smell
    • Authors: C Fischer‐Tenhagen; D Johnen, C Le Danvic, J Gatien, P Salvetti, BA Tenhagen, W Heuwieser
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Oestrous detection is crucial for successful dairy cow reproduction. Bulls identify cows in oestrus by oestrous‐specific odours especially in urine and vaginal fluid. These have been used to train dogs to detect cows in heat. To improve and simplify the dog training, a spray containing synthetic oestrous molecules was developed. The objective of this study was to test the spray on similarities to the natural substance thus to assess its suitability as a training substance for heat detection dogs. Ten privately owned dogs of various breeds were trained. Dogs should be trained either to differentiate natural vaginal fluid from cows in oestrus and dioestrus (n = 5), or spray with or without synthetic oestrous molecules (n = 5). Dogs trained on natural fluid and on spray could detect the oestrous odour they had been trained on with an overall accuracy of 69.0% and 82.4%, respectively (p = 0.019). To validate the synthetic molecules, dogs trained with synthetic molecules had to detect oestrous odour in natural fluid without further training (accuracy 37.6%). Dogs trained on natural fluid detected the synthetic molecules with an accuracy of 50.0% (50% vs 37.4%, p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T23:20:58.472969-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12440
       
  • Standing Laparoscopic Peritoneal Flap Hernioplasty of the Vaginal Rings
           does not Modify the Sperm Production and Motility Characteristics in
           Intact Male Horses
    • Authors: LA Gracia‐Calvo; LJ Ezquerra, M Martín‐Cuervo, ME Durán, H Tapio, JM Gallardo, FJ Peña, C Ortega‐Ferrusola
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Laparoscopic hernioplasty techniques have been developed in the recent years to avoid the recurrence of inguinal hernias and to spare the testicles for breeding purposes in stallions. However, there have been no previous comprehensive and systematic studies of the reproductive outcomes and prognoses for stallions after inguinal hernioplasty. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the possible effects of one of these techniques (standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty) on the sperm production and motility characteristics of six healthy stallions that received this procedure based on 1‐year follow‐ups. There were no significant differences in the measured sperm variables (assessments based on the DSO, MOT, PMOT, VSL, VCL and VAP) during 1‐year follow‐ups.
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T23:20:43.375666-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12434
       
  • Calm Temperament Improves Reproductive Performance of Beef Cows
    • Authors: R Kasimanickam; M Asay, S Schroeder, V Kasimanickam, JM Gay, JP Kastelic, JB Hall, WD Whittier
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus‐cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85‐day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T06:24:19.167065-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12436
       
  • Effect of Oestrus Synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG on Luteal P4
           Synthesis in Early Pregnant Gilts
    • Authors: M Szymanska; E Morawska‐Pucinska, K Krawczynski, J Kiewisz, AJ Ziecik, A Blitek
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Administration of hormones to synchronize oestrus is a useful tool in animal breeding. However, exogenous ovarian stimulation may be detrimental to reproductive function. This study was aimed to examine whether an oestrus synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 9, 12 and 16 of pregnancy from gilts with natural (n = 16) and synchronized (n = 18) oestrus and analysed for (i) the expre‐ssion of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide (CYP11A1), and 3β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (ii) the concentration of P4 in the luteal tissue and blood; and (iii) the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors (LHR) and oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). Additionally, the effect of LH on P4 secretion from CL slices collected from synchronized and naturally ovulated animals has been studied in vitro. PGF2α/eCG/hCG administration increased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1, 3βHSD, and LHR on day 9 and CYP11A1 and LHR on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group (p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T06:24:06.466629-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12433
       
  • Epidemiological Description of Cystic Ovarian Disease in Argentine Dairy
           Herds: Risk Factors and Effects on the Reproductive Performance of
           Lactating Cows
    • Authors: L Cattaneo; ML Signorini, J Bertoli, JA Bartolomé, NC Gareis, PU Díaz, GA Bó, HH Ortega
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: To describe the epidemiology of cystic ovarian disease (COD), to find possible risk factors associated with the incidence of cysts and to analyse the impact of COD on the reproductive performance of dairy cows, databases from 22 dairy herds from the main dairy region in Argentina were retrospectively evaluated throughout a 3‐year period (2009–2011). A total of 248 COD cases over 9156 parturitions were recorded, resulting in a cumulative incidence rate of 2.7%. Cystic ovarian disease incidence density was lower during the first 100 days post‐partum (DPP) than during later stages of lactation. Seasonality had a significant influence on the disease presentation with higher incidence rates during winter and spring. Cows with a previous diagnosis of clinical mastitis showed 2.72 times more chances of developing ovarian cysts. Cystic cows had longer calving to first service and calving to conception intervals and lower conception rate than controls.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08T06:23:52.532983-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12432
       
  • Anti‐Mullerian Hormone Concentration and Antral Ovarian Follicle
           Population in Murrah Heifers Compared to Holstein and Gyr Kept Under the
           Same Management
    • Authors: JM Baldrighi; MF Sá Filho, EOS Batista, RNVR Lopes, JA Visintin, PS Baruselli, MEOA Assumpção
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate plasma concentrations of anti‐Mullerian hormone (AMH) and the ovarian antral follicle population (AFP) in different genetic groups. Cyclic heifers (13 Bubalus bubalis [Murrah]; 15 Bos taurus [Holstein] and 10 Bos indicus [Gyr]) were maintained under the same management and were synchronized with two doses of 150 μg IM d‐cloprostenol administered 14 days apart. After the second d‐cloprostenol treatment, heifers had their ovaries scanned daily by ultrasound to define the day of ovulation. On the same day, the AFP was determined and a plasma sample was collected to measure AMH. Murrah heifers had less AFP (25.6 ± 2.1 follicles; p = 0.01) and plasma AMH concentration (0.18 ± 0.03 ng/ml; p 
      PubDate: 2014-10-07T23:46:31.123177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12430
       
  • The Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and its Receptor (EGFR)
           During Post‐Natal Testes Development in the Yak
    • Authors: Y Pan; Y Cui, S Yu, Q Zhang, J Fan, B Abdul Rasheed, K Yang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Growth factors play critical role in cell proliferation, regulate tissue differentiation and modulate organogenesis. Several growth factors have been identified in the testes of various mammalian species in last few years. In present investigation, the objective was to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in yak testicular tissue by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR), Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) from mRNA and protein levels. The testicular tissues were collected from male yak at 6 and 24 months old. Results of RT‐PCR and WB showed that the expression quantity of EGF and EGFR at 24 months of age was higher than at 6 months, and the increase rate of EGFR on mRNA and protein levels was higher than the increase rate EGF during post‐natal testes development. Positive staining for EGF and EGFR was very low and mainly localized to Leydig cells testes at 6 months of age with immunohistochemistry, and seminiferous tubules were not observed. At 24 month of age, both the EGF and EGFR could be detected in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells, sertoli cells and germ cells of the yak testes. However, EGF and EGFR were localized to preferential adluminal compartment and basal compartment in the seminiferous tubules, respectively. In conclusion, the findings in present studies suggest that EGF and EGFR as important paracrine and/or autocrine regulators in yak testes development and spermatogenesis.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T22:58:03.422079-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12416
       
  • Influence of Dietary Zinc on Semen Traits and Seminal Plasma Antioxidant
           Enzymes and Trace Minerals of Beetal Bucks
    • Authors: HU Rahman; MS Qureshi, RU Khan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T22:55:50.619951-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12422
       
  • Genome‐Wide Association Study for Sperm Concentration in
           Holstein‐Friesian Bulls
    • Authors: DM Hering; K Olenski, S Kaminski
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to screen the entire bull genome to identify markers and candidate genes underlying sperm concentration. The analysed data set originates from a population of 877 Polish Holstein‐Friesian bulls. Based on sperm concentration value, two extreme groups of bulls were created: Low (L, n = 126) and High (H, n = 140). Each bull was genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Genome‐wide association analysis was performed with the use of GoldenHelix SVS7 software. An additive model with a Cohran–Armitage test, Correlation/Trend adjusted by a Bonferroni test, was used to estimate the effect of SNP marker for sperm concentration. Thirteen markers reached genome‐wide significance. The most significant SNPs were located on chromosome 3 (rs109154964 and rs108965556), 14 (rs41621145) and 18 (rs41615539), in the close vicinity of protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6), Sel1 repeat containing 1 (SELRC1), triple QxxK/R motif containing (TRIQK) and zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) genes, respectively. For three other candidate genes located close to significant markers (within a distance of ca 1 Mb), namely histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9), an inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) and glutathione S‐transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), their potential role in the production of male germ cells was confirmed in earlier studies. Six additional candidate genes (Vav3, GSTM1, CDK5, NOS3, PDP1 and GAL3ST1) were suspected of being significantly associated with sperm concentration or semen biochemistry. Our results indicate the genetic complexity of sperm concentration but also open the possibility for finding causal polymorphism useful in marker‐assisted selection.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T07:22:43.914466-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12423
       
  • Cloning and Spatio‐Temporal Expression of Bone Morphogenetic
           Proteins‐2,‐4 Gene During Ovarian Development in New Zealand
           White Rabbit
    • Authors: S‐Y Xie; D Wang, H Zhu, W Zhang, N‐Q Geng, X Feng, C‐X Sun, M Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In the transforming growth factor‐β(TGF‐β) superfamily, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are one of the largest subfamily, among which BMP‐2 and BMP‐4 are the most powerful molecules in biological activities. They have been shown to be involved in follicle development of ovary in mammals. However, whether these factors are involved in folliculogenesis in rabbit is still unknown. This study was performed to determine the relationships between ovarian development and the expression of BMP (BMP‐2,‐4) mRNAs in rabbit. Ovaries were removed from different development stages of rabbits (30‐, 60‐, 120‐, 180‐day age and 6‐day encyesis), and method of RT‐PCR was used for the cloning. The relative transcript levels of BMP‐2,‐4 genes were measured by real‐time quantitative PCR, with GAPDH as an internal control. Known from the results, the BMP‐2,‐4 genes showed similar but also different expression patterns during ovarian development; they both increased significantly (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T23:39:36.782818-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12421
       
  • Effect of Post‐Thaw Addition of Seminal Plasma on Motility,
           Viability and Chromatin Integrity of Cryopreserved Donkey Jack (Equus
           asinus) Spermatozoa
    • Authors: C Sabatini; G Mari, B Mislei, CC Love, D Panzani, F Camillo, A Rota
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pregnancy rates in donkeys after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen are still low, compared to the horse species. Addition of autologous seminal plasma to frozen‐thawed semen appeared to improve pregnancy rates. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity after thawing (T0) and after one and 2 h (T1 and T2) of post‐thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0) or 70% (SP70) autologous seminal plasma and (2) sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and DNA quality (%COMP‐αt) after thawing (T0) and after 2 and 4 h (T2 and T4) of post‐thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0), 5% (SP5) or 20% (SP20) homologous seminal plasma. In experiment 1, seminal plasma decreased total and progressive sperm motility and plasma membrane intact spermatozoa immediately after dilution and at all following time points (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T23:39:23.910968-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12419
       
  • Optimizing Electrical Activation of Porcine Oocytes by Adjusting
           Pre‐ and Post‐Activation Mannitol Exposure Times
    • Authors: D Kwon; IM Saadeldin, SJ Kim, SJ Park, JT Kang, HJ Park, JH Moon, OJ Koo, G Jang, BC Lee
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Modifying electrical activation conditions have been used to improve in vitro embryo production and development in pigs. However, there is insufficient information about correlations of porcine embryo development with oocyte pre‐ and post‐activation conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare the developmental rates of porcine oocytes subjected to different mannitol exposure times, either pre‐ or post‐electrical activation, and to elucidate the reason for the optimal mannitol exposure time. Mannitol exposure times around activation were adjusted as 0, 1, 2 or 3 min. Blastocyst development were checked on day 7. Exposure of oocytes to mannitol for 1 or 2 min before electrical activation produced significantly higher blastocyst rates than exposure for 0 or 3 min. There was no significant difference in blastocyst rates when activated oocytes were exposed to mannitol for 0, 1, 2 or 3 min after electrical activation. While exposure of oocytes to mannitol for 1 min pre‐ and 3 min post‐activation showed significantly higher blastocyst development than 0 min pre‐ and 0 min post‐activation. It also showed higher maintenance of normal oocyte morphology than exposure for 0 min pre‐ and 0 min post‐activation. In conclusion, exposure of oocytes to mannitol for 1 min pre‐ and 3 min post‐activation seems to be optimal for producing higher in vitro blastocyst development of porcine parthenogenetic embryos. The higher blastocyst development is correlated with higher maintenance of normal morphology in oocytes exposed to mannitol for 1 min pre‐ and 3 min post‐activation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T23:39:01.112475-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12420
       
  • Accurate Ultrasonographic Prediction of Progesterone Concentrations
           Greater than 1 ng/ml in Holstein lactating dairy cows
    • Authors: K Kaneko; N Takagi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: To develop an ultrasonographic assay for determining plasma progesterone concentration (P4) as
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T06:10:03.551815-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12418
       
  • Changes in Bull Sperm Kinematics after Single Layer Centrifugation
    • Authors: Y Yulnawati; MC Abraham, D Laskowski, A Johannisson, JM Morrell
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate bull sperm kinematics after centrifugation through a single layer of a colloid [Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC)]. Ejaculates from 20 bulls were extended and stored at 4–6°C for 24 h during transport to the laboratory for SLC through Androcoll‐B, followed by measurement of sperm kinematics in all samples. Total motility (86% and 88% for uncentrifuged and SLC samples, respectively) and progressive motility (84% for both the groups) were similar (p > 0.05). In contrast, straightness (STR) (0.65 vs 0.69), linearity (LIN) (0.32 vs 0.35) and beat cross frequency (BCF) (22.3 vs 23.6 Hz) were significantly higher in the SLC‐selected samples than in the uncentrifuged samples, whereas velocity of the average path (VAP) (95 vs 90 μm/s), curvilinear velocity (VCL) (192 vs 180 μm/s), amplitude of lateral head deviation (ALH) (7 μm vs 6.5 μm) and hypermotility (49% vs 38%) were significantly decreased. The kinematics of the samples with the poorest motility was improved most by SLC. In conclusion, even though SLC had no direct effect on total and progressive motility, it appeared to have a positive influence on several other kinematic parameters that may be important for fertilization after artificial insemination.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T00:12:55.381015-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12412
       
  • Fertility of a High‐Altitude Sheep Model is Compromised by
           Deficiencies in Both Preovulatory Follicle Development and Plasma LH
           Availability
    • Authors: VH Parraguez; F Diaz, E Cofré, B Urquieta, M De Los Reyes, S Astiz, A Gonzalez‐Bulnes
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: At high altitude, hypoxia and/or oxidative stress may compromise fertility. This study tested the relative effect of short‐ or long‐term exposure to high‐altitude hypobaric hypoxia and oxidative stress in sheep on preovulatory follicle dynamics and gonadotrophin secretion. Thus, growth dynamics, stereidogenic function and competence to ovulate of preovulatory follicles, as well as FSH and LH availability throughout the entire oestrous cycle, were compared among sheep native from low and high altitude, and sheep newcomers to high altitude. The results indicates that short‐term exposure in sheep newcomers to high altitude has a deleterious effect on both the ovarian function (affecting preovulatory follicular development) and the pituitary function (diminishing plasma LH availability). On the other hand, there were no detected differences in the preovulatory follicular development in sheep adapted to high altitude for generations and, conversely, LH secretion was increased, which suggests an adaptive mechanism. The treatment with antioxidant agents during a relative short period for the time of folliculogenesis (approximately 1 month and a half) changed substantially the development of preovulatory follicles in short‐term exposed sheep to similar patterns than in sheep native and living to both high and low altitude. These results highlight the role of oxidative stress in the detriment of the reproductive function in individuals recently exposed to high‐altitude hypoxic environment.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T00:12:53.301813-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12417
       
  • Effects of Flunixin Meglumine and Prostaglandin F2α Treatments on the
           Development and Quality of Bovine Embryos In Vitro
    • Authors: S‐S Kim; J‐I Bang, M Fakruzzaman, K‐L Lee, D‐H Ko, N Ghanem, Z Wang, I‐K Kong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Assisted reproduction procedures, such as embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI), in cattle could induce the secretion of prostaglandin F2‐alpha (PGF2α) from uterine horns which may in turn interrupt embryo development and implantation. This study investigated the effect of flunixin meglumine (FM), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) and FM combined with PGF2α supplementation in culture medium (IVC‐II) on the development and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. The development rate of embryos was significantly higher in the FM group (33.3%) than in control (24.3%), PGF2α (23.9%) and FM + PGF2α groups (24.5%). The percentage of hatched blastocysts was also higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T00:12:19.769024-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12413
       
  • Gonadotropin‐induced Puberty Does Not Impair Reproductive
           Performance of Gilts over Three Parities
    • Authors: OHO Eckhardt; SMMK Martins, ME Pinese, FC Horta, AC Rosseto, MA Torres, AFC De Andrade, BBD Muro, CT Marino, PHM Rodrigues, AS Moretti
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of three parities of gilts treated or not treated with gonadotropin to induce puberty. Sixty gilts received 600 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed by 2.5 mg of porcine luteinizing hormone (LH) 72 h later. Fifty‐nine other gilts were exposed only to a mature boar for 15 min twice daily. Artificial insemination (AI) was performed at 0, 12 and 24 h after the detection of oestrus, and gestation was confirmed by ultrasound after 35 days. Sows were inseminated at the first post‐weaning oestrus. The total numbers of piglets born, piglets born alive, stillborn, mummified foetuses, as well as pregnancy and farrowing rates were evaluated for each of the three parities. Culling rates, farrowing intervals and weaning‐to‐oestrous intervals (WEI) were also analysed. Mean age at puberty and oestrous manifestation were not significantly different between treatments (p = 0.0639; 179.20 ± 17.52 compared with 173.96 ± 16.94, 91.66% compared with 94.92%) across the experimental period. However, females that underwent puberty induction showed modest increases both in the number of total pigs born and in the number of piglets born alive. In conclusion, puberty induction through exogenous gonadotropin administration in field conditions did not induce a more concentrated first oestrous manifestation, but trended to a modest increase in the number of pigs born alive in the first parity and a reduced culling rate during the first gestation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T00:12:08.351261-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12415
       
  • Prepubertal and Pubertal Canine Reproductive Studies: Conflicting Aspects
    • Authors: C Gobello
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Insufficient knowledge has been acquired regarding the prepubertal and pubertal periods of domestic canids. Until further information becomes available, a better standardization of the definitions, a careful and complete description of experimental variables and end points is necessary to diminish experimental bias in published trials. The aim of this report is therefore to discuss the definition of puberty and some of the most conflicting conditions influencing the pubertal transition (e.g. age and body weight and condition score among others) that, in turn, will be useful for the future design of reproductive studies on the domestic dog. Only trials that could be easily processed by a meta‐analysis will contribute to an improvement of our general knowledge on the reproductive physiology of this particular species.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T23:29:05.29144-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12414
       
  • Metabolic Profile of Broodmares During Late Pregnancy and Early
           Post‐Partum
    • Authors: M Bazzano; C Giannetto, F Fazio, F Arfuso, E Giudice, G Piccione
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Pregnancy represents a specific physiological status characterized by continuous adjustments that affect maternal metabolism of all nutrients. In the last trimester of pregnancy, mare's nutrient requirements greatly increase and most pregnancy‐associated diseases are likely to occur. Therefore, we aimed to assess the metabolic profile of broodmares focusing on the last 3 months of pregnancy and the early post‐partum. Fifteen pregnant mares (Group A) were monitored from 263 ± 3 days of pregnancy until 21 days after foaling. Seven non‐pregnant mares (Group B) were used as the control group. Blood samples were collected weekly by jugular venipuncture throughout the experimental period, and additional blood samples were collected within 24 ± 12 h of foaling. Obtained sera were analyzed for urea (Ur), creatinine (Cre), total protein (TP), total, direct and indirect bilirubin (tB, dB, iB), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (tChol) and β‐hydroxybutyrate (BHB). During pregnancy, Ur (p = 0.015) and dB (p = 0.028) were higher in Group A than Group B. Serum Cre, tB, iB and TG (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T23:28:53.141413-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12411
       
  • Hyaluronic Acid as Capacitation Inductor: Metabolic Changes and
           Membrane‐Associated Adenylate Cyclase Regulation
    • Authors: S Fernández; M Córdoba
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the effect of hyaluronic acid on bovine cryopreserved spermatozoa compared with heparin as regards the variation of capacitation induction, cellular oxidative metabolism and intracellular signal induced by membrane‐associated adenylate cyclase to propose hyaluronic acid as a capacitation inductor. Heparin or hyaluronic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine were used to induce sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction, respectively. 2′,5′‐dideoxyadenosine was used as a membrane‐associated adenylate cyclase inhibitor. The highest percentages of capacitated spermatozoa and live spermatozoa with acrosome integrity were obtained by incubating sperm for 60 min using 1000 μg/ml hyaluronic acid. In these conditions, capacitation induced by hyaluronic acid was lower compared with heparin; nonetheless both glycosaminoglycans promote intracellular changes that allow true acrosome reaction in vitro induced by lysophosphatidylcholine in bovine spermatozoa. Oxygen consumption in heparin‐capacitated spermatozoa was significantly higher than in hyaluronic acid‐treated spermatozoa. With all treatments, mitochondrial coupling was observed when a specific uncoupler of the respiratory chain was added. The inhibition of membrane‐associated adenylate cyclase significantly blocked capacitation induction produced by hyaluronic acid, maintaining a basal sperm oxygen uptake in contrast to heparin effect in which both sperm parameters were inhibited, suggesting that the membrane‐associated adenylate cyclase activation is involved in the intracellular signal mechanisms induced by both capacitation inductors, but only regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in heparin‐capacitated spermatozoa.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T23:28:39.057575-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12410
       
  • Characterization of miR‐126‐3p and its Target Talin2 in the
           Bovine Corpus Luteum during the Oestrus Cycle
    • Authors: L Dai; J Xu, S Liu, T Ma, Y Zhu, F Xu, Y Gao, B Yuan, S Wang, Y Zhang, G Sun, J Zhang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Although clear advances have been made in understanding of gene transcriptional regulation in the corpous luteum (CL) during the oestrous cycle, little is known about the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this physiological process. In the present study, expression of miR‐126‐3p was preliminarily detected in bovine CL throughout the oestrous cycle, while the expression during the middle or late stages was significantly more abundant (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T00:48:18.83403-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12400
       
  • Cycle‐Characteristic Odour of Cow Urine Can Be Detected by the
           Female Face Fly (Musca autumnalis)
    • Authors: K Nordéus; B Webster, L Söderquist, R Båge, R Glinwood
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Due to declining dairy cow fertility rates, there is great interest in developing tools for oestrus detection. Compounds in the volatile profile of oestrous cows are suggested as oestrus‐specific, but consistent results have not been presented. Certain haematophagous arthropods can discriminate stages of the mammalian reproductive cycle based on host volatiles. This study investigated whether the face fly, Musca autumnalis de Geer (Diptera: Muscidae), can discriminate between urine from cows in oestrus and urine collected during the luteal phase. Individual flies were tested in a two‐choice behavioural assay with choice between odour of oestrous or luteal urine and water (control). Flies chose the control arm significantly more when exposed to oestrous urine than when exposed to luteal urine. Analysis of volatiles showed that 1‐hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol) was released in greater amounts from oestrous urine than from urine collected during the luteal phase. In a dose response assay, flies were significantly attracted by 0.01 ng of 1‐hexadecanol but significantly repelled by 0.1 ng, a pattern consistent with fly responses to urine. In conclusion, M. autumnalis can discriminate between oestrous and luteal urine, and this may be mediated by differences in 1‐hexadecanol concentration.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T00:45:20.881986-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12393
       
  • Bilateral Sertoli and Interstitial Cell Tumours in Abdominal Testes of a
           Goat with Polled Intersex Syndrome (PIS)
    • Authors: IF Canisso; LL Coffee, K Ortved, SL Fubini, LV Monteagudo, DH Schlafer, RO Gilbert
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: An 8‐year‐old, mixed breed, polled goat was presented for evaluation of male‐like behaviour. Clinical findings included clitoromegaly, a heavily muscled neck, pronounced beard, and erect dorsal guard hairs, which are phenotypic characteristics commonly observed in intersex animals. Transrectal ultrasonography revealed the presence of two abdominal masses caudolateral to the uterine horns. Serum concentration of estradiol was elevated. Genetic evaluation was compatible with polled intersex syndrome defined by an XX karyotype without a Y chromosome or SRY gene. Based on gross and histologic evaluation, the abdominal masses were determined to be intra‐abdominal testes, each of which was effaced by Sertoli cell and interstitial (Leydig) cell tumours. The Sertoli cell tumours (SCTs) represented two unique histologic patterns. Regardless of pattern, neoplastic Sertoli cells were consistently lipid laden and positive for vimentin. Interstitial cell tumours (ICTs) were negative for vimentin. Clinical and histopathologic findings suggest that prolonged exposure to steroids secreted by neoplastic Sertoli cells contributed to virilization. In addition, results from immunohistochemistry indicated that vimentin may be a valuable immunodiagnostic tool for differentiation between interstitial and Sertoli cell tumours in goats.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:24:03.160034-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12408
       
  • Cryopreservation of Ram Semen in Extenders Containing Soybean Lecithin as
           Cryoprotectant and Hyaluronic Acid as Antioxidant
    • Authors: A Najafi; MH Najafi, Z Zanganeh, M Sharafi, F Martinez‐Pastor, H Adeldust
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A soybean lecithin‐based extender supplemented with hyaluronic acid (HA) was assayed for effectiveness to improve the quality of frozen–thawed ram semen. HA has not been tested yet in an extender containing soybean lecithin for freezing ram semen. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of soybean lecithin at 1% or 1.5% along with HA at 0, 0.5 and 1 mg ml‐1 in a Tris‐based extender on the motion characteristics, membrane integrity (HOST), viability, GSH peroxidase (GSH‐PX) activity, lipid peroxidation and acrosomal status after freezing–thawing. Semen was collected from four Mehraban rams during the breeding season and frozen in the six lecithin×HA extenders. The extender containing 1.5% lecithin supplemented with no HA yielded higher total motility (52.5%±1.6), viability (55.8%±1.6) and membrane integrity (44.5%±1.7), but the effects of the lecithin concentration did not reach signification. Linearity‐related parameters, ALH, BCF, lipid peroxidation, GSH‐PX activity, morphology and acrosomal status were not affected by the extender composition. In general, adding HA significantly decreased sperm velocity (1 mg ml‐1 HA), total motility (only with 1.5% lecithin), viability (1 mg ml‐1 HA for 1% lecithin; both concentrations for 1.5% lecithin) and membrane integrity. In conclusion, adding HA to the freezing extender supplemented with soybean lecithin failed to improve quality‐related variables in ram semen. Increasing the lecithin content could have a positive effect, but further studies are needed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:23:49.733178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12405
       
  • The Induction of a Secondary Corpus Luteum on Day 12 Post‐Ovulation
           can Delay the Time of Luteolysis in High‐Producing Holstein Cows
    • Authors: M Saint‐Dizier; A‐C Legendre, M‐A Driancourt, S Chastant‐Maillard
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Luteolysis before the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy is one cause of low fertility in high‐producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether induction of a secondary corpus luteum (CL) late in the luteal phase would delay the time of luteolysis. Twenty high‐producing Holstein cows were synchronized to ovulation (Day 0) with the Ovsynch protocol and received hCG (1500 IU im) on Day 12. Corpora lutea formation (as evaluated by ultrasonography) and plasma P4 concentrations were monitored from Days 4 to 36. hCG treatment induced the formation of one secondary CL (CL2) in 11 of 20 cows (55%) from the dominant follicle (mean diameter: 14.2 ± 0.9 mm) of two‐wave (3/11) and three‐wave (8/11) cycles. The maximal diameter of the CL2 (23.3 ± 1.9 mm) was reached approximately 6 days after hCG treatment and was correlated with its structural lifespan (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:23:37.612525-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12401
       
  • Successful Use of Endoscopy for Transcervical Cannulation Procedures in
           the Goat
    • Authors: A Colagross‐Schouten; D Allison, L Brent, E Lissner
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Two methods for transcervical cannulation of the goat were evaluated during a contraception study in 15 adult female Nigerian dwarf and African pygmy goats. Twenty‐four transcervical cannulation procedures were conducted in which seven females underwent the procedure 2–3 times. Initially, a rigid 4‐mm stainless steel cannula and external light source were used in 19 procedures to introduce the contraceptive compound into the uterus. Placement of the cannula was directed by feel or depth assessment. Of seven females that were euthanized following this procedure, four evidenced complications including penetration of the cervix with the cannula and cervical damage. A 2‐mm custom‐made endoscope with a specially designed cannula was then used for the remaining five procedures. No complications were found. A single animal, that underwent the endoscopic procedure twice, was euthanized for study purposes and no abnormal findings of the reproductive tract were reported. The use of an endoscope resulted in better outcomes because the uterus could be visualized after traversing the cervix.
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:23:25.192811-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12399
       
  • Effect of Breeding Activity on the Microflora of the External Genitalia
           and in the Semen of Stallions, and the Relationship Between
           Micro‐organisms on the Skin and on the External Genitalia
    • Authors: T Guimarães; C Miranda, M Pinto, E Silva, L Damásio, AL Costa, MJ Correia, JC Duarte, C Cosinha, G Lopes, G Thompson, A Rocha
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A possible role of breeding activities in the composition of the microbial population in stallions' external genitalia (EG) and the relationship between micro‐organisms colonizing the skin of the abdomen and the ones colonizing the EG have not been studied. In experiment 1, EG microbiological samples were collected from 41 stallions used for both natural cover and semen collection (BST) and from 18 non‐breeding stallions (NBST). A higher (p 
      PubDate: 2014-09-15T05:23:12.391085-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12403
       
  • Sarcocystosis in a Stillborn Lamb
    • Authors: JS Agerholm; JP Dubey
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Confirmed congenital sarcocystosis has been reported extremely rarely in domestic ruminants. Sarcocystosis was diagnosed in a stillborn lamb with microscopic lesions predominantly in the central nervous system and placenta. Encephalitis was characterized by multiple foci of glial nodules some with central necrosis, perivascular cuffing and vascular occlusion, while placental lesions consisted of multifocal necroses, inflammation and mild calcification. Immature and mature schizonts were found in vascular endothelium of several organs. It is suggested that the protozoa were Sarcocystis tenella based on their morphology, location and as this is the most pathogenic Sarcocystis sp. parasitizing sheep.
      PubDate: 2014-09-14T23:56:51.154704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12398
       
  • A Field Study to Unravel Factors that are Significantly Associated with
           the Secretory Activity of the Corpus Luteum During the First Three
           Postpartum Cycles in High Yielding Dairy Cows, Based on the Amount of
           Steroidogenic and Endothelial Cells Present in the Luteal Tissue
    • Authors: S Cools; W Van den Broeck, P Bossaert, M Hostens, G Opsomer
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fourteen multi‐ and eight primiparous high‐yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3β‐hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-21T23:41:27.172312-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12348
       
  • Positive Effects of Melatonin Treatment on the Reproductive Performance of
           Young Border Leicester Rams Mated to Merino Ewes in Spring: Preliminary
           Observations
    • Authors: DO Kleemann; JM Kelly, LJ Arney, IL Farley, AJ Tilbrook, SK Walker
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Poor reproductive performance of Merino ewe flocks when mated to Border Leicester rams during spring may be due to seasonality of the Border Leicester breed. Two approaches were taken to test this assumption. Six young (12 months old) or six mixed‐age (12, 24 and ≥36 months old) Border Leicester rams were either treated or not treated with melatonin implants (2 × 2 design) 6 weeks before the four groups of rams were each put with approximately 300 Merino ewes for an 8‐week mating period. Implants were inserted in early September (experiment 1). The second approach was to yard or not yard ewes and mixed‐age rams on several occasions during the first 3 weeks of the mating period (experiment 2). Pregnancy rate and twinning percentage were assessed by ultrasonography. In experiment 1, melatonin treatment in young rams increased (p  0.05) for ewes mated to either melatonin or non‐melatonin‐treated young rams (36.8% vs 40.0%, respectively), whereas melatonin significantly improved (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-16T02:38:26.082074-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12387
       
  • Influence of Gonadotrophin‐Induced First Oestrus on Gilt Fertility
    • Authors: DM Hidalgo; RM Friendship, L Greiner, R Manjarín, MR Amezcua, JC Domínguez, RN Kirkwood
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the oestrous response of pre‐pubertal gilts to gonadotrophin injection or boar exposure and their subsequent farrowing rate and litter size. At 154 days of age, randomly selected pre‐pubertal gilts received an intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin plus 200 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (PG600®; Merck Animal Health; n = 181). From the remaining pool of animals not treated with hormones, the first gilts showing signs of oestrus were selected to act as controls (n = 201). Boar exposure began at 155 days of age for both groups, and gilts were bred at a weight of approximately 130 kg. Comparisons were made between PG600®‐treated gilts exhibiting oestrus or not within 7 days post‐injection (early and late responders, respectively) and control gilts exhibiting oestrus or not within 30 days after beginning of boar exposure (select and non‐select control gilts, respectively). By 162 days, oestrus was detected in 67.5% of PG600®‐treated gilts compared with 5.7% of control gilts (p 
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T07:27:17.994395-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/rda.12390
       
  • Neuroendocrine, Metabolic and Genomic Cues Signalling the Onset of Puberty
           in Females
    • Authors: CA Meza‐Herrera; A Gonzalez‐Bulnes, RT Kridli, M Mellado, CF Arechiga‐Flores, H Salinas, JM Luginbuhl
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Puberty is the result of a dynamic interaction between genetic factors and environmental cues, all of which lead to the attainment of reproductive capacity. Thus, significant changes in hormone secretion occur from the pre‐pubertal to the pubertal stage. The objective of this review is to provide an update of some endocrine, physiological, metabolic and genetic concepts involved in the establishment of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis function promoting the onset of the reproductive function during puberty. To achieve this purpose, basic aspects of the function of the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal‐gonadal axis, the control of the axis by neurotransmitters and the interaction between reproductive function and metabolic status will be considered. Finally, the role of the novel kisspeptin system and the GPR54 receptor as modulators of puberty will be considered, in addition to the hierarchical expression of the main genes acting as regulators of the onset of puberty.
      PubDate: 2009-04-08T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01355.x
       
  • Comparison of Two Different Programmes of Ovulation Synchronization in the
           Treatment of Ovarian Cysts in Dairy Cows
    • Authors: N Gundling; S Drews, M Hoedemaker
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: It was the aim of this field study to evaluate two different protocols of ovulation synchronization for the treatment of ovarian cysts and their effect on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In addition, factors with a possible influence on treatment success and pregnancy outcome as well as costs per pregnancy were analysed. The study was performed with 130 German Holsteins with ovarian cysts diagnosed on days 55 to 60 postpartum. Cows belonging to group 1 (n = 65) received a modified ovsynch protocol [day 0: 0.15 mg cloprostenol (PGF) + 0.02 mg buserelin acetate (GnRH); day 14: PGF; day 16: GnRH]. Group 2 (n = 65) was treated with the conventional ovsynch protocol (day 0: GnRH; day 7: PGF; day 9: GnRH). Timed artificial insemination was performed 20 to 24 h later. Cows without ovarian cysts served as controls. Treatment success (disappearance of the ovarian cyst) after the first ovsynch cycle was higher in group 1 (66.2%) than in group 2 (23.1%, p 
      PubDate: 2009-03-11T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01342.x
       
  • Luteal Characteristics and Progesterone Production on Day 5 of the Bovine
           Oestrous Cycle
    • Authors: MP Green; GE Mann, MG Hunter
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: In this study we have examined luteal function in non‐lactating and late lactation dairy cows on day 5 of the cycle, during the period of the post‐ovulatory progesterone rise. Comparison of luteal progesterone content and in vitro synthetic capacity with circulating plasma progesterone demonstrated that circulating progesterone concentration is a function of total luteal activity rather than the activity of individual units of tissue. Incubation of luteal tissue in vitro demonstrated stimulatory activity of LH and IGF‐I, and to a greater degree IGF‐II, on luteal progesterone synthesis. Finally the study showed no effect of double ovulation on luteal function. Occurrence of double ovulation in 35% of animals was not associated with any difference in luteal function or plasma progesterone concentrations.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00836.x
       
  • Effect of Time for Mating and Gestation Length on Reproductive Efficiency
           in Dogs
    • Authors: Y Shimatsu; H Yuzawa, K Aruga, M. Nakura
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of time for mating and gestation length on reproductive efficiency in dogs. Groups of eight, six and six beagle bitches were mated with a total of three sires on days 3, 5 and 7, respectively, after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. All the bitches whelped successfully. The gestation lengths (the intervals from the LH surge to the whelping) were 65.1 ± 1.9, 65.5 ± 1.9 and 68.0 ± 1.8 days, respectively. This length of mating 7 days after the LH surge was significantly longer than that of mating 3 and 5 days after the LH surge (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00840.x
       
  • Successful Low Dose Insemination of Flow Cytometrically Sorted Ram
           Spermatozoa in Sheep
    • Authors: SP De Graaf; G Evans, WMC Maxwell, JA Downing, JK O'Brien
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The fertility of ram spermatozoa that had undergone flow cytometric sorting (MoFlo® SX) and cryopreservation was assessed after low‐dose insemination of synchronized Merino ewes. Oestrus was synchronized with progestagen‐impregnated pessaries, PMSG and GnRH treatment. Ewes (n = 360) were inseminated with 1 × 106, 5 × 106 or 15 × 106 motile sorted frozen‐thawed (S1, S5, or S15 respectively) or non‐sorted frozen‐thawed (C1, C5 or C15 respectively) spermatozoa from three rams. An additional group of ewes were inseminated with 50 × 106 motile non‐sorted frozen‐thawed spermatozoa (C50) to provide a commercial dose control. The percentage of ewes lambing after insemination was similar for C50 (24/38, 63.2%), C15 (37/54, 68.5%), S15 (38/57, 66.7%), S5 (37/56, 66.1%) and S1 (32/52, 61.5%) groups (p > 0.05), but lower for C5 (19/48, 39.6%) and C1 (19/55, 34.5%) treatments (p 
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00837.x
       
  • Bovine Endothelial Cells Interact with Fully‐luteinized, but Not
           Luteinizing, Granulosa Cells in the mRNA Expression of Endothelin‐1
           System in Response to Prostaglandin F2α
    • Authors: K Shirasuna; S Watanabe, D Yamamoto, M Hayashi, K Nagai, A Miyamoto
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The corpus luteum (CL) undergoes regression by prostaglandin (PG)F2α from uterus and endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) plays an important role during luteolysis as a local mediator of PGF2α in the cow. Endothelial cells (EC) and luteal cells are main cell types making up the CL and their interactions are vital for CL function. We aimed to examine the relevance of interactions between EC and luteal cells on stimulation of genes which involved ET‐1 synthesis by PGF2α. We further focused the impact of maturity of luteal cells on the stimulation of the genes. To make a microenvironment which resembles the CL, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and luteinizing or fully‐luteinized granulosa cells (GC) and evaluated the effect of PGF2α on the expression for mRNA of ET‐1 system by using real‐time RT‐PCR. PGF2α stimulated the expression of preproET‐1 and endothelin converting enzyme‐1 mRNA only in the co‐cultures of BAEC with fully‐luteinized GC, but not with luteinizing GC. The data suggest that interactions between BAEC and fully‐luteinized GC enhance the capability of BAEC to produce ET‐1 in response to PGF2α. This mechanism may contribute to the local induction of luteolytic action of PGF2α which is dependent on the age/maturation of the CL.
      PubDate: 2007-07-20T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00835.x
       
  • Ovum Pick‐up in Dairy Heifers: Does it Affect Animal
           Well‐being?
    • Authors: S Petyim; R Båge, A Madej, B Larsson
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the ovum pick‐up (OPU) technique on animal well‐being. Eight dairy heifers were subjected to 4 months of twice‐weekly OPU. The physiological response to OPU was recorded in four heifers at two sessions, at the beginning (time 1) and at the end (time 2) of the 4‐month period. Heart rates were measured and blood was analysed for cortisol, vasopressin and PG‐metabolite before, during (every 5 and 2 min), and after the OPU sessions. Reactions to each subprocedure of OPU (‘restraint’, ‘epidural’, ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’) were closely observed. In all heifers, reactions to the OPU procedures were also noted throughout the experimental period, and changes in routine behaviour, oestrous behaviour, body temperature, or other clinical traits were recorded. Subsequent to the experiment, the ovaries and tails were carefully inspected. At time 1, there was an insignificant increase in heart rate and cortisol throughout the OPU procedure. At time 2, these two parameters increased significantly, but both parameters declined to pre‐OPU levels 10 min after completion of the procedure. No significant changes were seen in vasopressin or PG‐metabolite at time 1 and time 2. Behaviourally, the heifers showed the strongest response to epidural anaesthesia, with a tendency for more intense response during the late 4‐month sessions. The response to ‘device in’ and ‘puncture’ varied among individuals independently of time. There were no changes in the routine or oestrous behaviour throughout the experiment and no signs of clinical disorders. No major pathological changes were macroscopically seen in the ovaries and tails subsequent to the 4 months of OPU. In conclusion, the heifers showed a response to OPU, mostly to administration of epidural anaesthesia. However, we demonstrated that epidural anaesthesia can be administered in a way causing less discomfort.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00833.x
       
  • Infertility in a Dog due to Proximal Cytoplasmic Droplets in the
           Ejaculate: Investigation of the Significance for Sperm Functionality In
           Vitro
    • Authors: AI Peña; M Barrio, JJ Becerra, LA Quintela, PG Herradón
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: A 4‐year‐old Basque Shepherd male dog was presented for breeding soundness evaluation after the dog failed to impregnate the three bitches he had mated. Clinical examination showed no anomaly of the reproductive system. Semen evaluation showed normal sperm count (640 × 106), 80% had progressively motile spermatozoa, and 96% had morphologically abnormal sperm of which 84% had proximal cytoplasmic droplet and 12% had proximal droplet plus other anomaly. A zona pellucida‐binding assay, using canine oocytes derived from frozen‐thawed ovaries, was performed in order to investigate the zona‐binding ability of dog spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets. For the zona pellucida‐binding assay, ovaries were thawed and minced in phosphate‐buffered saline + 0.4% bovine serum albumin, the oocytes recovered were divided into two groups of 35–40 oocytes to be, respectively, used with the infertile dog and with a control fertile dog. Spermatozoa were capacitated in Canine Capacitating Medium (CCM) at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in air for 2 h before oocyte insemination. Groups of five to six oocytes placed in 45 μl droplets of CCM were incubated for 1 h. Afterwards, 5 μl of CCM containing 25 000 spermatozoa were added to each droplet and co‐incubated for 2 h before fixation and evaluation of the complexes. After oocyte insemination, sperm motility and viability were evaluated: the sample from the infertile dog had 85% sperm motility with fast and linear progressive movement, and sperm viability of 92%. The sample from the control dog showed 40% sperm motility with fast and highly curvilinear and erratic movement, high degree of sperm agglutination and sperm viability of 32%. For the infertile dog the mean number of bound spermatozoa/oocyte was 0.33 whereas for the control dog it was 1.80. It was concluded that dog sperm with proximal cytoplasmic droplets seem to lack normal capacitating ability in vitro, and consequently, they may have reduced capacity to bind to the zona pellucida of canine oocytes.
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00809.x
       
  • Early Detection of Pregnancy and Embryonic Loss in Dairy Cattle by ELISA
           Tests
    • Authors: G Gábor; F Tóth, L Ózsvári, Zs Abonyi‐Tóth, RG Sasser
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: Over a 25‐month period 8118 blood samples were assayed for the presence of the serum pregnancy specific‐protein B (PSPB) and progesteron (P4) concentrations on three Hungarian large‐scale dairy farms. Pregnancy (n = 4085) was checked by BioPRYN assay at 30–36 days post‐insemination (PI). Samples from all cows that tested not pregnant and from cows with an optical density (OD) reading in the BioPRYN test that was between 0% and 30% above the cutoff OD value were tested for serum P4 concentration. According to serum P4 concentration, cows were assigned to three categories: high (>4 ng/ml), medium (2–4 ng/ml) and low (
      PubDate: 2007-07-12T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00834.x
       
  • Distribution of Spermatozoa and Embryos in the Female Reproductive Tract
           after Unilateral Deep Intra Uterine Insemination in the Pig
    • Authors: P Tummaruk; P Sumransap, M Techakumphu, A Kunavongkrit
      Pages: no - no
      Abstract: The present study was performed to investigate the number of either the spermatozoa or the embryos in the reproductive tracts of sows after unilateral, deep, intra uterine insemination (DIUI). Two experiments were conducted, 10 sows were used in experiment I and eight sows were used in experiment II. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to examine the time when ovulation took place in relation to oestrus behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen 6–8 h prior to expected ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. In experimental I, five sows were inseminated by a conventional artificial insemination (AI) technique using 100 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 3000 × 106 motile spermatozoa and five sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique with 5 ml of diluted fresh semen, containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized and ovario‐hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the uterine horns on each side of the reproductive tracts were divided into seven segments, namely ampulla, cranial isthmus, caudal isthmus, utero‐tubal junction (UTJ), cranial uterine horn, middle uterine horn and caudal uterine horn. Each segment of the reproductive tracts was flushed with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) through the lumen. The total number of spermatozoa in the flushing from each segment were determined. In experimental II, eight sows were inseminated by the DIUI technique using 5.0 ml diluted fresh semen containing 150 × 106 motile spermatozoa. The sows were anesthetized 61.1 ± 12 h after insemination (48–72 h) and the embryos were flushed from the oviduct through the proximal part of the uterine horn. It was revealed that, in experimental I, the spermatozoa were recovered from both sides of the reproductive tract in the AI‐group, and from unilateral side of the reproductive tract in the DIUI‐group (three sows from the left and two sows from the right sides). The number of spermatozoa recovered from the reproductive tracts was higher in the AI‐ than the DIUI‐group (p 
      PubDate: 2007-06-15T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00830.x
       
 
 
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