Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 387 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (15 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (99 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access  
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Technology, Siam University     Open Access  
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Travel     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Food Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.279
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0260-8774 - ISSN (Online) 0260-8774
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Effect of high-pressure homogenization on gelling and rheological
           properties of soybean protein isolate emulsion gel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Chong-hao Bi, Peng-lin Wang, Dong-yu Sun, Zi-ming Yan, Yi Liu, Zhi-gang Huang, Fei GaoAbstractThe effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the functional properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) emulsion gel was studied in this paper. The results show that, with the increase of HPH pressure, the strength of SPI emulsion gel raised from G’ = 291 Pa (5 MPa) to G’ = 528 Pa (80 MPa). The higher HPH pressure also reduced the frequency dependence of the SPI emulsion gel (n’ descended from 0.105 to 0.065). However, there is no monotonous relationship between the recovery rate and the HPH pressure. Water holding capacity of the emulsion gel increased from 87.7% to 91.4% (when the pressure rose from 5 to 20 MPa), and then remain stable (when the pressure rose from 20 to 80 MPa). The microscopic fractal dimension of SPI emulsion gel ranges from 2.96 to 2.99. Generally speaking, at a higher HPH pressure, the emulsion tends to form a more stable isotropic network gel structure.
       
  • Groove fabrication on surface of soft gelatin gel utilizing
           micro-electrical discharge machining (Micro-EDM)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Takayuki Tamura, Ryotaro Akiyama, Ryu-ichiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Kawamoto, Shinjiro UmezuAbstractThis paper reports the utilization of micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) to process gelatin gel, which is a soft food material. The influence of the applied voltage and selected electrodes on the processed shape was investigated. In addition, using safflower oil in the process can produce narrow grooves. The results showed that micro-EDM with safflower oil can produce micro-grooves (width equal to 2 μm), and alphabet characters can be engraved into gummy candy and jelly, which are foods containing gelatin. These findings are indicating a potentially powerful tool to produce impressive appearance by fabricating micro texture on gelatin foods.
       
  • In-line and non-destructive monitoring of core temperature in sausages
           during industrial heat treatment by NIR interaction spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Jens Petter Wold, Marion O'Farrell, Jon Tschudi, Carl Emil Eskildsen, Petter Vejle Andersen, Silje OttestadAbstractDuring industrial heat treatment of food products, the core temperature is a critical control parameter with respect to food quality and in particular food safety. This paper presents a novel prototype system based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) that enables continuous in-line and non-contact monitoring of core temperature in sausages during heat treatment in an industrial oven. NIRS interaction measurements in the 761–1081 nm region were used to probe the interior of the sausages. NIRS calibrations for the estimation of core temperature were developed for three different sausage types in the temperature range 60–90 °C. The best accuracy obtained for core temperature with NIRS was about ±1.0 °C. Results indicate that calibrations for core temperature can be transferred between different sausage types, which will ease implementation of such a method. The method was successfully tested in a modern sausage production plant.
       
  • Morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of polyamide and ethylene
           vinyl alcohol copolymer multilayer flexible packaging after high-pressure
           processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Luís Marangoni Júnior, Léa Mariza de Oliveira, Paula Fernanda Janetti Bócoli, Marcelo Cristianini, Marisa Padula, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues AnjosAbstractThe effect of high-pressure processing on the morphological surface, thermal and mechanical properties of three PA and EVOH based multilayer flexible packaging materials were evaluated. LDPE/PA/LDPE, LDPE/EVOH/LDPE and PET/LDPE/PA/EVOH/PA/LDPE packaging samples were processed under three different conditions (600 MPa/25 °C/10 min, 600 MPa/90 °C/10 min and 0.1 MPa/90 °C/10 min) and an unprocessed sample was used as control. The LDPE/PA/LDPE and LDPE/EVOH/LDPE samples showed good thermal stability and no surface defects after processing, because of the greater thickness of the external material, the film withstood the compression and decompression of the processing, consequently resulting in the protection of the other layers. The PET/LDPE/PA/EVOH/PA/LDPE sample showed a significant increase in the Tm of PET, LDPE and PA after processing at 600 MPa/90 °C/10 min. Regarding the mechanical properties, reductions in the tensile strength of the PET/LDPE/PA/EVOH/PA/LDPE sample were observed after processing at 600 MPa/90 °C/10 min. In addition, a significant reduction in heat seal strength was observed in the three materials after processing at 600 MPa, but these values are accepted in practice. Therefore, in terms of morphological, thermal and mechanical properties, LDPE/PA/LDPE and LDPE/EVOH/LDPE materials are recommended for the processing conditions of this study, whereas PET/LDPE/PA/EVOH/LDPE materials require further evaluation of other functional properties.
       
  • Physical properties and storage stability of reverse osmosis skim milk
           concentrates: effects of skim milk pasteurisation, solid content and
           thermal treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Morten Vormsborg Christiansen, Troels Bjerregaard Pedersen, Jesper Nagstrup Brønd, Leif H. Skibsted, Lilia AhrnéAbstractConcentrated dairy products are of increasing interest within the dairy industry. Skim milk concentrates can be produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration, which can be considered a non-thermal process. Therefore, the physical properties of concentrates differ from the properties of concentrates produced by evaporation. In this study, reverse osmosis filtration of raw and pasteurised skim milk was carried out in batch up to 28% total solids content and the effect of thermal treatment (65-110 °C, 15 seconds) and storage at 5 °C up to ten days on rheological and physical properties of concentrates, were evaluated. Concentrates produced from pasteurised skim milk required longer concentration times and showed larger average casein micelle sizes, but limited structure build-up capability during storage compared to concentrates produced from raw milk which more readily created structural networks between the milk constituents and consequently had higher viscosity. Thermal treatment of concentrates increased their average particle size and viscosity, an effect enhanced by increasing the total solids content. Concentrates produced from non-pasteurised milk showed the strongest shear-thinning behaviour during storage. Thus, the thermal treatment of milk before or after the concentration process, controls the structure formation of skim milk concentrates during storage.
       
  • Radio-frequency dielectric relaxation behavior of selected vegetable
           tissues: spectra analysis with logarithmic derivative method and
           simulation with double-shell model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Ying Li, Mingjuan Han, Wei Zhou, Zhen ChenAbstractThe dielectric relaxation behaviors in the radio-frequency range, where Image 1- relaxation is predominant, of flesh tissues of several vegetables are studied in this work. By taking advantage of the logarithmic derivative method, three sub -Image 2- relaxations were revealed for all vegetable tissues under study, and their relaxation characteristics were accurately determined. The relaxation behaviors were further simulated by means of the double-shell model. With reasonable values of involved morphological and physiological parameters, fairly satisfying simulations were achieved, where the simulated relaxations have consistent relaxation times to those of the measured relaxations. The simulation suggests that the low-frequency sub -Image 3- relaxation arises from polarization of plasma membrane, while the middle- and high-frequency sub -Image 4- relaxations are due to interfacial polarization at interfaces of tonoplast/protoplasm and cell sap/tonoplast, respectively.
       
  • Effects of single- and dual-frequency ultrasound on the functionality of
           egg white protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Sun Jun, Mu Yaoyao, Jing Hui, Mohammed Obadi, Chen Zhongwei, Xu BinAbstractThe effects of high-power ultrasound (HP-US) treatment with different frequencies, temperatures, and durations on the physicochemical and structural properties of untreated and HP-US-treated egg white protein (EWP) were evaluated. Results indicated that the solubility of EWP was significantly improved after HP-US treatment, especially under the continuous dual frequency of 20/40 kHz. The foaming capacity of the EWP also depended on the treatment frequency, temperature, and duration, and foaming stability increased considerably in the HP-US-treated EWP compared with the untreated one. The particle size of the HP-US-treated EWP greatly decreased compared with that of untreated EWP. Results of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that more water molecules were trapped in the EWP gel structure as free water after HP-US treatment. Therefore, the green technology of HP-US treatment can improve the physicochemical properties of EWP because of its sonochemical effect on the molecular conformation of EWP.
       
  • Assessment of a solid-state bulk acoustic wave sensor to measure viscosity
           of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids under static and flow conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Yuanyuan Pu, Norah O'Shea, Sean A. Hogan, John T. TobinAbstractMonitoring and control of inline viscosity is crucial for process optimisation and for ensuring a high quality final product but currently this parameter is still under-utilised in the dairy industry. This study investigated a solid-state bulk acoustic wave sensor to measure the viscosity of Newtonian (oil standards) and Non-Newtonian fluids (reconstituted skim milk (RSM) at different concentrations) under static (off-line measurements) and flow conditions (in-line measurements). Results illustrated that an increase in total solids (TS) of RSM gave an increase in acoustic viscosity. Non-linear regression was applied to the experimental data to successfully transform the acoustic viscosity outputs into commonly-used reference viscosity values. RSM at higher TS presented a non-Newtonian behaviour and demonstrated shear-thinning properties. Under flow conditions the viscosity of the RSM decreased as a result of shearing experienced in the pipe. This study demonstrated the potential of an acoustic wave sensor to measure in-line viscosity in dairy applications.
       
  • In-vitro digestion of whey protein- and soy lecithin-stabilized High Oleic
           Palm Oil emulsions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Camilo E. Sandoval-Cuellar, María de Jesus Perea-Flores, Maria Ximena Quintanilla-CarvajalAbstractSweet whey- and soy lecithin-stabilized emulsions have been studied as potential delivery systems of High Oleic Palm Oil bioactive compounds. However, the gastrointestinal behavior of these systems has not been investigated. In this work, two High Oleic Palm Oil emulsions were submitted to in vitro digestion using a standardized static method. Stability of the emulsions was followed in each digestive phase and the final extent and kinetics release as well as the bioaccessibility of free fatty acids were measured and compared against non-encapsulated control. No changes were found in the droplet size of the emulsion after oral digestion, however, during gastric digestion, destabilization was observed due to the pH and the ionic strength of the medium. During the intestinal phase, nanoemulsions showed the highest rate constant followed and the least free fatty acids release final extent (78.48 ± 3.08 wt%) in comparison with macroemulsions (86.06 ± 2.04 wt%) and control (107.77 ± 1.45 wt%). Saturated fatty acids showed lower bioaccessibility in both emulsions than for control, meanwhile it increased for unsaturated ones. The results obtained allow addressing future research in formulation and design of delivery systems to improve the High Oleic Palm Oil digestibility and bioactive compounds bioaccessibility.
       
  • An application to analyzing and correcting for the effects of irregular
           topographies on NIR hyperspectral images to improve identification of
           moldy peanuts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Deshuai Yuan, Jinbao Jiang, Xiaojun Qiao, Xiaotong Qi, Wenjia WangAbstractNear-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) can be used for nondestructive, rapid, real-time detection in food safety; however, irregular sample topographies introduce variations in the spectral intensity that impair subsequent classification and inversion processes. In this study, the spectral variations in HSI images of peanut samples with irregular topographies were assessed via the classification gradient and singular spectrum analysis (SSA). An SSA based correction model (CMSSA) is proposed that assumes the spectral intensity of all pixels of peanuts should be equal. The method was validated via classification and the coefficient of variation (CV) and was found to eliminate the spectral variation caused by the irregular kernel topography while retaining chemical differences of interest. We anticipate this method will prove useful in food safety detection applications involving the quantitative inversion of parameters.
       
  • Rapid determination of spore germinability of Clostridium perfringens
           based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology and chemometrics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Yaodi Zhu, Jiaye Zhang, Miaoyun Li, Lijun Zhao, Hongrong Ren, Longgnag Yan, Gaiming Zhao, Chaozhi ZhuAbstractThe Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) causes a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Spore germination is thought to be the first stage of infection by C. perfringens. AGFK, a mixture of l-asparagine, d-glucose, d-fructose, and potassium ions, is an effective nutrient germinant. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different AGFK concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 mM/mL) on C. perfringens spore germination. This paper proposes a novel rapid method for the measurement of spore germinability based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology (HSIT). The spore germination rate (Srate), the OD600% and Ca2+-DPA% of C. perfringens were determined by chemical methods under different concentrations of AGFK. The results showed that spores have a maximum germination rate of 94.59% after 80 min with 100 mM/mL AGFK. Microscopic HSIT revealed that the spectral and spatial characteristics of spores varied during the spore germination process. Multivariate analyses (GA-siPLS and GA-PLS) and the gray symbiotic matrix (GLCM) were used to extract highly correlated spectral and spatial descriptors from the time-series data from microscopic HSIT, respectively. Single spectral, spatial signals and data fusion of spectral and spatial information were then used to predict the Srate, the OD600% and Ca2+-DPA % by GA-PLS, respectively. The result show that the Srate calibration was built by GA-PLS using data fusion variables and yielded acceptable results (Rc = 0.96, RMSEC = 0.64, Rcv = 0.93, RMSEP = 0.87, Rp = 0.94). The OD600% optimal model was built by GA-PLS using image variables and yielded acceptable results (Rc = 0.93, RMSEC = 19.36, Rcv = 0.91, RMSEP = 24.36, Rp = 0.89). For Ca2+-DPA %, the model based on the fusion of spectral and imaging data was optimal. The Ca2+-DPA % calibration yielded acceptable results (Rc = 0.95, RMSEC = 49.83, Rcv = 0.93, RMSEP = 58.98, Rp = 0.92). This work demonstrates the potential of microscopic HSIT for the non-destructive detection of spore germinability. The data fusion models also significantly improved the prediction of spore germinability. In conclusion, microscopic HSIT exhibits considerable promise for nondestructive diagnostics of spore germination.
       
  • SHORT CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS APPLIED TO THE RECOGNITION OF THE
           BROWNING STAGES OF BREAD CRUST
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Weskley da Silva Cotrim, Valéria Paula Rodrigues Minim, Leonardo Bonato Felix, Luis Antonio MinimAbstractA Computational Vision System (CVS) based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), operating with the module Inception v3 and reduced number of convolutional layers (Short-CNN), was proposed for the classification of browning degree of bread crust during baking. The training (70%), validation (15%), and testing (15%) of the CNN was performed using a dataset composed of 374 bread crust image fragments (600 x 600 pixels) over seven baking periods. The resulting CVS does not depend on process variables, overcoming a limitation present in ordinary models. In addition, the CVS was able to correctly classify the images from the test dataset uniformly, being able to extract the main colors present in the images from the dataset already in the first convolutional layer. The results showed a potential use of CNN in the food industry process control system involving color changes.
       
  • Estimating permeability and porosity of plant tissues: Evolution from raw
           to the processed states of potato
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Younas Dadmohammadi, Apostolos Kantzas, Xiaoli Yu, Ashim K. DattaAbstractDuring the processing of water containing food materials, water transport can be driven by pressure from gas, capillarity, swelling, or gravity. To describe these various modes of pressure-driven transport using Darcy's law, permeability is a critical parameter for which few data are available, primarily as a result of measurement difficulties. Permeability in the flow of liquid water through potato tissue was estimated by approximating the plant cellular structure, measured directly using flow-through and indirectly using nuclear magnetic resonance. The data from the three approaches show the same order of magnitude 10−18 m2, and thus are in agreement with each other and results reported in the literature. The dynamics of porosity and permeability changes in fresh, water-saturated, and cooked samples were described using cellular structure changes as observed in microscopy images. Simple mechanistic equations for predicting permeability and porosity, which can include swelling and shrinkage, are proposed based on approximating the geometry of the cellular tissue. Data corroborated in three ways will provide permeability values with confidence, while the simple prediction equation will make a reasonable estimation of permeability possible for a large class of food products.
       
  • Modeling of compression pressure of heated raw fish during pressing liquid
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): Andrzej Dowgiałło, Marta Stachnik, Józef Grochowicz, Marek JakubowskiAbstractThe aim of the present study was to develop models describing the pressure and the dewatering rate of preheated fish raw material in terms of expression parameters (i.e., compression ratio, compression speed, and preheating temperature of the material). The effects of independent and dependent variables were studied using the Box-Behnken experimental design. The obtained results showed that the proposed power law models fit well with the experimental data with correlation coefficient (R^2) of 90.3% for dewatering efficiency and 97.8% for pressure and that dewatering efficiency and pressure were significantly (p 
       
  • Fabrication and characterization of water-soluble phytosterol ester
           nanodispersion by emulsification-evaporation combined ultrasonic method
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): Simin Feng, Zhangtie Wang, Jinjin Zhao, Zisheng Luo, Ping Shao, Ning Xiang, Peilong SunAbstractThe purpose of this study was to fabricate a water-soluble phytosterol ester (PE) nanodispersion using emulsification-evaporation combined high-energy approaches (ultrasonic and microfluidization treatment). The effects of different surfactants, fabricating condition on the characterization of PE nanodispersions were investigated. Our results indicated that soybean protein isolate (SPI) was more suitable for the fabrication of PE nanodispersion than konjac gum, rice protein and sodium caseinate (NaCas). The average particle size, ζ-potential, encapsulation efficiency and loading amount of PE nanodispersion were 97.2 ± 5.0 nm, −38.9 ± 3.2 mV, 95.4 ± 0.4% and 19.1 ± 0.8%, respectively. Hydrophobic interaction played a significant role in the formation of nanodispersion. Microfluidization and high-speed shearing affected the secondary structure of SPI by breaking hydrogen bonds. Ultrasonic treatment could facilitate hydrogen bond formation, and increase hydrophobic interaction between SPI and PE. Emulsification-evaporation combined with ultrasonic method was gentler than microfluidization in the preparation of PE nanodispersion. The present method can be used to increase the water-solubility of PE and may be extended for other hydrophobic compounds.
       
  • Apparent density of compressible food powders under storage conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): C. LanzerstorferAbstractThe stress-dependence of the apparent density and the wall friction angle of various food powders like salt, sugar, flour, starch and protein powders were studied using a ring shear tester. The approximation of the stress-dependence of the apparent density using a power function showed a very good correlation (r2 > 0.97). The two parameters of the approximation function are the apparent density at 1.0 kPa and the exponent, which characterizes the compressibility of the powder. The first correlates very well with the apparent density measured according to ISO 697 or EN ISO 60 (r2 = 0.98), while the second shows some correlation (r2 = 0.76) with the particle size. Combining the powder properties apparent density, the mass median diameter and the spread of the particle size distribution in a power function allows a reasonably good estimate of the exponent (r2 = 0.93). The wall friction angle usually decreases at higher values of the wall normal stress. This dependence can often be approximated using a simple function. However, for powders with a low stress-dependence of the wall friction angle it is better to use a constant average value. Thus, the apparent density of compressible food powders under storage conditions can be described well.
       
  • Improved recovery of protein from soy grit by enzyme-assisted alkaline
           extraction
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): Milica N. Perović, Zorica D. Knežević Jugović, Mirjana G. AntovAbstractRecovery of protein from soy grit, its functional properties and possibility for the reduction of time of conventional alkaline extraction by the assistance of enzymes were studied. Enzymatic treatment was performed by commercial preparations of cellulase (NS22086), xylanase (NS22083) and pectinase (Vinozym) (applied separately or in combination) as well as by commercial carbohydrases cocktail (Enzyme complex, NS22119). Three different extractions were investigated - alkaline (at pH 8 for 1 h, 2 h or 3 h), enzyme-assisted aqueous (at pH 5.5 for 3 h) and enzyme-assisted alkaline extractions (enzymatic extraction for 1 h followed by alkaline extraction for 1 h or 2 h) at 50 °C and solid:liquid ratio 1:10 (w/v). The highest enhancement of recovery of protein was achieved by pretreatment of soy grit with enzyme cocktails. Treatment with Enzyme complex followed by 1 h alkaline extraction increased protein yield for 21% compared to 2 h alkaline extraction. Treatment by combination of individual cellulase, xylanase and pectinase followed by 2 h alkaline extraction enhanced protein yield for 13% in comparison to 3 h alkaline extraction. So, reduced time of alkaline extraction was attained by the assistance of carbohydrases cocktails with even positive effect on protein yield. In addition, protein from enzyme-assisted alkaline extraction exhibited ameliorated solubility, emulsifying and whipping properties compared to alkaline extracted protein.
       
  • Efficient single-step rapeseed oleosome extraction using twin-screw press
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): M.J. Romero-Guzmán, L. Jung, K. Kyriakopoulou, R.M. Boom, C.V. NikiforidisAbstractOil in seeds is encapsulated in oleosomes, which are small lipid droplets surrounded by a phospholipid-protein monolayer. The currently proposed method to extract intact oleosomes includes mixing seeds with alkaline media in a ratio 1:7, batch blending and filtering. In this work, we propose the use of a twin-screw press to perform the oleosome extraction at pH 7. The results show that similarly to blender extraction, twin-screw press recovers ⁓60% of the oleosomes; however the twin-screw press is able to achieve this yield even when just pure water is used. While in the blender extraction, the yield depends on ionic strength and pH of the extraction media, when using twin-screw press, the oleosome extraction yield predominantly depends on the mechanical forces. These shear forces are able to break the cell walls and release the cellular material while maintaining the integrity of oleosomes. The oleosomes extracted with twin-screw press have similar characteristics than those obtained by the blending process. Overall, twin-screw press seems a promising alternative to scale-up the oleosome aqueous extraction, especially as neutral pH can be used and the water usage is significantly reduced. Additionally, preliminary results showed that the yield can increase up to 90 wt%.
       
  • Investigation of nanoemulsion interfacial properties: A mesoscopic
           simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): Zehan Hong, Nan Xiao, Lu Li, Xinan XieThe interfacial and structural properties of lycopene nanoemulsions stabilized by modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch were studied by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. These dynamics simulations accurately reproduce nanoemulsion formation from dispersion to aggregation. NMR diffusivity studies provided data that were consistent with the model output, indicating that the model successfully reveals lycopene embedment in the emulsion as well as interactions between lycopene and starch molecules, which limit their respective movements. The interface between the oil and water phases, and emulsifier amphiphilicity, were apparent in the simulation snapshots and OSA starch density profiles. The simulations and experimental studies reveal that the emulsifier reduces interfacial tension more effectively within a suitable concentration range. The root mean square (RMS) end-to-end distance and Raman spectroscopic analysis both show that the emulsifiers at the interface are aligned and become more ordered at higher concentrations. These findings expand our understanding of this nanoemulsion system.Graphical abstractImage 10899
       
  • Microfiltration of raw milk for production of high-purity milk fat globule
           membrane material
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): Steffen F. Hansen, Sean A. Hogan, John Tobin, Jan T. Rasmussen, Lotte B. Larsen, Lars WikingAbstractCommercial ingredients containing milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) material are currently isolated from heavily processed dairy streams. The aim of this study was to achieve a more gentle isolation of MFGM material by means of ceramic dia-microfiltration of raw whole milk to separate fat globules from casein micelles and whey proteins prior to MFGM extraction. A pilot-scale experiment with 1.4 μm pore size (membrane surface area 1.05 m2) resulted in an optimal outcome of low permeation of fat (2.5% permeation) and high permeation of proteins (97% permeation). This yielded an MFGM isolate with 7% w/w polar lipids and 30% w/w proteins, where contamination of non-MFGM proteins was only 25% of total protein content. Furthermore, mild pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s) introduced either before or after microfiltration had no impact on filtration efficiency or MFGM yield and composition. The work describes an industrially relevant production method for a less-processed MFGM material of high purity with potential for further separation and valorisation of protein-rich permeate streams.
       
  • CO2 laser drilling coupled with moderate electric fields for enhancement
           of the mass transfer phenomenon in a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
           peeling process
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): Wladimir Silva-Vera, Natalia Avendaño-Muñoz, Helena Nuñez, Cristian Ramírez, Sergio Almonacid, Ricardo SimpsonAbstractTomatoes are listed as the most consumed vegetables around the world, with a profitable market into the peeled-canned tomato industry. In this sense, the lye method is commonly performed as peeling method, but with severe impact on the environment. Therefore, this study focuses on modifying the surface of tomato skin by using laser CO2 drilling under different pore size (127.92–194.39 μm), pore density (2–9 pore·cm−2) and coupled with moderate electric field (MEF) at 1333 V m−1 to facilitate its removal. The variables NaOH concentration, pore density and pore size were tested. As a result, the effective diffusion coefficient for the drilled skin ranged between 4.45 × 10−11 and 24.95 × 10−11 m2 s−1 at 60 °C (p-value 
       
  • Optimization of physicochemical properties of novel multiple nanoemulsion
           for complex food matrices through iterative mathematical modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): J. Cortés-Ríos, R.Y. Valdivia-Olivares, M.J. Álvarez-Figueroa, M. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.V. González-AramundizUnfavorable characteristics of certain complex food matrices, such as unpleasant flavors, chemical instability and/or low bioavailability, present a challenge for the food industry. Nanosystems present a solution to these problems, by encapsulating the matrix of interest. In this work a multiple nanoemulsion that encapsulates honeybee pollen extract has been designed and optimized as a natural complex matrix model. Optimization of size and zeta potential was carried out using an iterative mathematical modeling method through a guided experimental design varying the quantities of raw materials (honeybee pollen extract, Lauroglycol 90®, Pluronic F-68 and Chitosan). A total of 29 formulations were performed, 4 of them in triplicate, and an optimal formulation of size 90 ± 1 nm and a zeta potential of +33 ± 2 mV were obtained at the end of the process. The proposed methodology allowed the optimal combination of quantities of raw materials that simultaneously optimize size and zeta potential to be found.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Impacts of preliminary vacuum drying and pulsed electric field treatment
           on characteristics of fried potatoes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2020Source: Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 276Author(s): Caiyun Liu, Nabil Grimi, Nikolai Lebovka, Eugene VorobievAbstractThe effects of preliminary vacuum drying (VD) and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on characteristics of fried potatoes were studied. The samples were preliminary dehydrated to a different levels (with moisture ratio of MR ≥ 0.2) using VD at sub-atmospheric pressure of p = 30 kPa, and two different drying temperatures, Tv = 40 °C and 70 °C. After dehydration the samples were fried for different frying time at 130 °C. The effects of PEF included significant shortening the VD time and absence of starch gelatinizing during the VD. Both application of PEF treatment and increase of temperature allowed shortening the drying time. For example, the drying time for the untreated sample dried at 40 °C was by ≈ 2.45 times higher than for the PEF treated sample dried at 70 °C. Increase in level of preliminary VD dehydration resulted in decrease of moisture content and oil uptake in fried samples. For PEF treated samples the moisture contents were significantly smaller than for untreated ones and the PEF treatment also resulted in significant decrease in oil contents. For example, at Tv = 40 °C and MRv 
       
  • Spatial-frequency domain imaging coupled with frequency optimization for
           estimating optical properties of two-layered food and agricultural
           products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Dong Hu, Renfu Lu, Yibin YingAbstractUnderstanding optical properties of food and agricultural products is essential to apply optical techniques for quality and safety assessment. This research was aimed at optimizing the frequency region through an inverse algorithm for better quantification of the optical absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs´) coefficients of two-layered food and agricultural products from spatial-frequency domain reflectance. The frequency region, defined by start and end frequencies, was first optimized for parameter estimations of the first and second layers, respectively. Estimation accuracies were then validated by comparing with the conventional all-at-once method through Monte Carlo simulations. On average, accuracies for estimating μa1, μa2 and μs2´ by using the optimized frequency region were improved by 52.9%, 63.0% and 62.1%, respectively, compared to the results by using fixed frequency region before optimization. No improvement for the estimated μs1´ was found because its mean absolute error was already very low (2.4%) and well within the acceptable level. Experimental results for two-layered solid phantoms and liquid milk samples in the wavelengths of 650-830 nm further validated the effectiveness of stepwise method with the optimized frequency region. Finally, the stepwise method, coupled with the optimized frequency region was used to estimate the optical properties of skin and flesh of apples for four cultivars (i.e., Delicious, Golden Delicious, Jonagold and Red Rome). The results were compared with those obtained using the single integrating sphere technique, followed with a discussion on the optical property discrepancies obtained by these two methods.
       
  • The removal of phospholipid from crude rapeseed oil by enzyme-membrane
           binding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): ZhiGang Hou, XinMin Cao, Lili Cao, GuoQing Ling, ZhenYu Yu, Ming Pang, PeiZhou Yang, ShaoTong JiangAbstract:Membrane technology has unique advantages over centrifugal equipment and has been widely applied. In this work, the hydrophobic ceramic membranes were used to remove phospholipid micelles from crude rapeseed oil, and their fouling mechanism, control, cleaning and influence on oil quality were investigated. The results of four different treatments showed that enzyme-membrane binding was the most effective degumming method. The flux performance can meet the needs of small-scale oil production. Concentration experimental results showed that the fouling mechanism was a combination of intermediate blockage and cake. Although increasing pressure, temperature, concentration, flow rate, and pore size could all reduce available area and increase resistance, the effects of TMP and pore size are the most significant in these factors. Non-cleaning resistance was very small under all conditions, and increasing transmembrane pressure and pore size promoted non-cleaning resistance. Increasing temperature and cross-flow velocity significantly reduced the resistance of cleanable pollution. In terms of membrane fouling control, the critical and threshold transmembrane pressures of the large-pore membrane were lower than those of the small-pore membrane and decreased with increasing concentration. Fouled membranes can be cleaned and restored by oil without phospholipid micelles, and the flux recovery rate of the membranes can exceed 85% after 10 reuses. The membranes removed phospholipids and water and were beneficial for decreasing free fatty acids and peroxide values. Therefore, the enzyme-membrane binding can be considered for gradual use in the production of small-scale oil.
       
  • Retraction notice to “Neural network based identification of meat
           spoilage using fourier-transform infrared spectra” [Journal of Food
           Engineering 142(2014) 118–131]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Vassilis S. Kodogiannis, Eva Kontogianni, John N. Lygouras
       
  • Encapsulation of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate by electrospraying for food
           applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 January 2020Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Petra Ložnjak Švarc, Pedro J. García-Moreno, Ana C. Mendes, Elnaz Z. Fallahasghari, Jette JakobsenBiologically active natural folate form L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate is less stable than synthetic folate form folic acid commonly used for food fortification. The production of electrosprayed capsules using a combination of carbohydrates such as glucose syrup and pullulan was investigated to provide higher stability of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate in food products. Additionally, the protective effect of ascorbic acid, if added to the biopolymer solution for capsules production was investigated. During the production of electrosprayed capsules containing L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate, both with and without ascorbic acid, the recovery of folate was>97%. During storage at 22 °C for 21 days, the electrosprayed capsules (with or without ascorbic acid) showed significantly higher folate recovery compared to free L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (91% vs. 61%, p ≤ 0.05). In buns baked with all-purpose flour fortified with the free form or the electrosprayed capsules, which were stored at 22 °C for 9 days, no significant difference was shown for the retention of the L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of high-pressure homogenization on the rheology, microstructure and
           fractal dimension of citrus fiber-oil dispersions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Dian-bin Su, Xin-di Zhu, Benu Adhikari, Dong Li, Li-jun WangAbstractThis study investigated the rheological properties, microstructure and fractal dimensions of the citrus fiber-oil dispersion. Different concentrations of citrus fiber (1.5% w/w, 2.0% w/w, and 2.5% w/w) were keeping the oil concentration at 0% (control) and 0.75% w/w. The dispersions were produced through high-pressure homogenization (HPH) at two pressures (80 MPa and 160 MPa). The HPH process significantly increased the apparent viscosity, storage and loss moduli, but reduced the activation energy associated with temperature dependence of apparent viscosity of dispersions. The microstructure of citrus fiber was significantly altered by the HPH process. The fractal dimension of dispersions produced through the HPH was close to 3.00 indicating that these dispersions were homogeneous and stable. These citrus fiber-oil dispersions produced using HPH will be preferentially used in food and pharmaceutical industry in the future.
       
  • Asymmetric Al2O3 and PES/Al2O3 hollow fiber membranes for green tea
           extract clarification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Marlon Menezes Maciel Bindes, Natália Mazzarioli Terra, Gregory Scott Patience, Daria Camilla Boffitoorcid, Vicelma Luiz Cardoso, Miria Hespanhol Miranda ReisGreen tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves are particularly rich in polyphenols. Here we propose the clarification of green tea extract by an innovative process consisting of a two-stage filtration through asymmetric alumina (Al2O3) hollow fibers, which we specially designed for this application by the phase inversion technique. The fibers presented outer sponge like-layers, mainly responsible for the membrane selectivity (turbidity of green tea extract was reduced by 90%) and mechanical strength (135 MPa), and an inner finger-like layer that reduced the resistance to flux permeation (water permeability of 2.56 × 10−9 m3 s−1 m−2 Pa−1). In order to increase the membrane retention coefficient, we deposited a polyethersulfone (PES) coating layer on the fiber outer surface. This polymeric layer further reduced the green tea extract turbidity by 97.8% in the permeate. As a consequence, no team cream formed even after 30 days of refrigerated storage. Thus, the membranes that we conceived enabled to obtain a product with superior clarity and stability. Additionally, a mathematical description of flux decay during the filtration processes showed that cake formation and internal pore blockage models better described flux decay through Al2O3 and PES/Al2O3 hollow fibers, respectively.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of storage at high temperature on chemical (composition) and
           techno-functional characteristics of E471 food emulsifiers applied to
           aerosol whipping cream
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Max Blankart, Claudia Oellig, Sonja Averweg, Wolfgang Schwack, Jörg HinrichsAbstractVarious foods are processed with addition of mono- and diacylglycerol (MAG and DAG) emulsifiers to adjust techno-functional properties. Exposure to and application of high temperatures during production, processing and transport of these emulsifiers can induce compositional changes and thereby affect techno-functional properties. Emulsifiers were stored above their respective melting point and their chemical composition was determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography–fluorescence detection. Storage for 8 weeks decreased the MAG content of a saturated MAG by about 36% by transesterification into 1,3-DAG, while a rearrangement of 1,2- into 1,3-DAG was observed for a saturated MAG/DAG emulsifier. Emulsifiers were applied to aerosol whipping cream, and viscosity, particle size, overrun, foam firmness and drainage were determined. The increasing 1,3-DAG content of the saturated MAG emulsifier was found to increase the drainage of aerosol whipping cream from 15% to 50%.
       
  • Alkalinization of acid whey by means of electrodialysis with bipolar
           membranes and analysis of induced membrane fouling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Vitalii Kravtsov, Irina Kulikova, Sergey Mikhaylin, Laurent BazinetAbstractAn issue of acid whey processing, well known in the dairy industry, is its high amount of lactic acid, a key feature that hampers acid whey industrial utilization. As a result, dried products of acid whey treatment possess a number of undesirable properties such as elevated acidity, hygroscopicity and caking. In the present study, electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) was used to alkalinize acid whey at laboratory scale. Two alternative configurations of electrodialysis cells were designed, where the whey stream was directly connected to the bipolar membrane generating hydroxide ions. pH of acid whey was raised up to 6.5. The above said pH adjustment corresponded to 25% lactic acid removal rate and 24–34% demineralization rate. The operation of EDBM, although efficient, induced fouling on the anion-exchange side of bipolar membranes after acid whey alkalinization. A complex analysis of membranes after whey processing was conducted. The analysis of whey precipitate and membrane fouling revealed 13 and 7% protein content in respective dried samples. Membrane fouling displayed minor protein content; thus, mineral fraction was likely to be dominant in the fouling matter.
       
  • Influence of electrostatic interactions on the formation and stability of
           multilayer fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey
           protein-xanthan-locust bean complexes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Kristen Griffin, Hanna KhouryiehAbstractThe purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of electrostatic interactions on the stability of multilayered fish oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI)-xanthan (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG) complexes. Emulsions were prepared using the layer-by-layer deposition technique with salt concentrations (0, 5, and 50 mM NaCl) at pH below (pH 3) and above (pH 7) the isoelectric point of WPI. Results indicated that zeta potential at pH 3 resulted in positive values, whereas at pH 7 resulted in negative values, with the magnitude of the ζ-potentials increasing as the NaCl concentration increased. NaCl did not have any major impact on the particle size of the emulsions. XG emulsions had the highest viscosity at pH 3 regardless of time, though XG-LBG emulsions showed a significant increase at 0 and 5 mM NaCl over time. XG emulsions at pH 3 showed the highest viscosity at every salt concentration. At pH 7, XG-LBG emulsions had the highest viscosity results, yet decreased over time, indicating the negative salt effect the synergistic interaction between XG and LBG. With 0 mM and 5 mM NaCl at pH 7, XG-LBG emulsions had the highest creaming stability; while with 50 mM NaCl, XG emulsions had the highest creaming stability. For both the primary and secondary lipid oxidation tests, XG-LBG emulsions had the highest oxidative stability at every salt concentration at pH 7. These results have important implications in the design of biopolymer-based delivery systems for microencapsulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for use in functional foods.
       
  • Development of a microfluidic route for the formation of gellan-based
           microgels incorporating jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) extract
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Tatiana Porto Santos, Ana Letícia Rodrigues Costa, Mariano Michelon, Letícia Pontes Costa, Rosiane Lopes CunhaAbstractGellan microgels incorporated with jabuticaba extract were produced by external gelation of monodisperse water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. This extract, rich in anthocyanins, has shown antioxidant effect and benefits associated to intestinal issues. The W/O emulsions were produced using a three-dimensional microfluidic device operated in an intermittent dripping regime flow. Microgels were obtained from external gelation of emulsions by calcium ions present in the continuous phase. Our results showed how to produce and control the microgel diameter and polydispersity by varying the flow rate of continuous and dispersed phases. Diameter of microgels ranged from 185 μm to 342 μm, and coefficient of variation values varied between 1.6 and 8.6%. The low stability of microgels loaded with jabuticaba extract was mainly associated with both the low gellan concentration and the osmotic pressure difference during storage. In spite of this, the microfluidic route proposed can potentially be used to incorporate and protect anthocyanins extracts and might be extended for other hydrophilic molecules.
       
  • Inline control of yoghurt fermentation process using a near infrared light
           backscatter sensor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Oscar Arango, Antonio José Trujillo, Manuel CastilloAbstractIn industrial yoghurt production, continuous process monitoring using pH meters is a cumbersome and non-appropriate technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of an optical sensor as a new method for the inline control of yoghurt fermentation. Tests were conducted with three fat and three inulin concentrations and fermentation was monitored simultaneously using an inline light backscatter sensor, pH-meters and a rheometer. A mathematical model that correlates the near infrared light backscatter ratio with the pH, at real time during milk fermentation, was developed. The model was calibrated and successfully validated at the different experimental conditions, predicting the evolution of pH from 5.2 to 4.6 with determination coefficient values higher than 0.993 and standard error of prediction values between 0.02 and 0.11 pH units. The results demonstrated that this is a promising method for the inline control of pH in industrial yoghurt production.
       
  • Oil extraction from semi-defatted babassu bagasse with ethanol:
           Liquid-liquid equilibrium and solid-liquid extraction in a single stage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Oscar Zalla Sampaio Neto, Daniel Gonçalves, Selma de Freitas Bergara, Eduardo Augusto Caldas Batista, Antonio José de Almeida MeirellesAbstractThis study presents liquid-liquid (LLE) and solid-liquid extraction (SLE) data for systems involving babassu oil and ethanol at temperature range from 298.2 to 318.2 K. The babassu oil has a majority composition in saturated triacylglycerols, whereas the semi-defatted babassu bagasse had a moisture content of 6.9% ± 0.2 and oil mass fraction of 11.45% ± 0.01. The LLE data were well described by the NRTL thermodynamic model with an overall mean deviation of 0.67% in mass. The good oil solubility in the anhydrous ethanol was evidenced by its total miscibility at 318.2 K. SLE results revealed that the preferential oil retention in the raffinate phase was the determining factor for low oil concentrations in the extract phase. Comparing both LLE and SLE results it was verified that, despite the high oil solubility in ethanol, lower extraction yields were related to lower oil amounts in the extract, indicating the predominance of the solid-solute interaction.
       
  • Effects of Morphology on the Dispersibility of Instant Whole Milk Powder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Haohan Ding, Wei Yu, Irina Boiarkina, Nick Depree, Brent R. YoungAbstractThe functionality and performance of instant whole milk powder (IWMP) can be related to its physical and chemical properties; i.e. particle size, morphology and fat distribution. Dispersibility, a measure of rehydration, has become one of the most important quality characteristics of IWMP. Many milk powder properties may affect the dispersibility. Based on literature and our own experience, particle size and morphology may be the two most important factors. This work investigated the quantitative relationship between particle size, morphology and dispersibility. Samples of different brands of IWMPs were fractionated using sieving and then remixed. The powder dispersibility was then measured, and the particle morphology characteristics obtained using light microscopy combined with image processing. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods were used to process the data. It was found that IWMP produced by different plants have different shape factors (circularity, convexity, and area) and the trends of the dispersibility versus the changes in the shape factors (circularity, convexity and area) for different particle size groups are different. Then, by the use of the size fractions and shape factors, prediction models for dispersibility were developed. A further experiment addressed the validity of the ANN model.
       
  • In memory of Bengt Hallström, the exceptional professor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Yasmine Motarjemii
       
 
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