Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 394 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (280 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (280 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access  
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grain & Oil Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Food Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.366
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0168-1605 - ISSN (Online) 1879-3460
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • Effectiveness of a peracetic acid solution on Escherichia coli reduction
           during fresh-cut lettuce processing at the laboratory and industrial
           scales
    • Abstract: Publication date: 16 May 2020Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 321Author(s): J.L. Banach, H. van Bokhorst-van de Veen, L.S. van Overbeek, P.S. van der Zouwen, M.H. Zwietering, H.J. van der Fels-KlerxAbstractFresh leafy greens like lettuce can be consumed raw and are susceptible to foodborne pathogens if they become contaminated. Recently, the number of reported pathogenic foodborne outbreaks related to leafy greens has increased. Therefore, it is important to try to alleviate the human health burden associated with these outbreaks. Processing of fresh-cut lettuce, including washing, is a step in the supply chain that needs to be well controlled to avoid cross-contamination. Current measures to control the quality of lettuce during washing include the use of chemicals like chlorine; however, questions regarding the safety of chlorine have prompted research for alternative solutions with peracetic acid (PAA). This study evaluates the effectiveness of a PAA (c.a. 75 mg/L) solution on the reduction of a commensal E. coli strain during the washing of fresh-cut lettuce. Experiments were performed at the laboratory scale and validated at the industrial scale. We observed that the use of PAA was not adversely affected by the organic load in the water. The contact time and dose of the PAA showed to be relevant factors, as observed by the approximately 5-log reduction of E. coli in the water. Results showed that once introduced during washing, E. coli remained attached to the lettuce, thus supporting the need to control for pathogenic bacteria earlier in the supply chain (e.g., during primary production) as well as during washing. Moreover, our results showed that the use of PAA during washing did not have an apparent effect on the levels of fluorescent pseudomonads (FP) and total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) in lettuce. Overall, our results at the laboratory and industrial scales confirmed that during the processing of fresh-cut produce, where the accumulation of soil, debris, and other plant exudates can negatively affect washing, the use of a PAA (c.a. 75 mg/L) solution was an effective and safe wash water disinfectant that can potentially be used at the industrial scale.
       
  • A farm-to-fork quantitative risk assessment model for Salmonella
           Heidelberg resistant to third-generation cephalosporins in broiler
           chickens in Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Lucie Collineau, Brennan Chapman, Xu Bao, Branavan Sivapathasundaram, Carolee A. Carson, Aamir Fazil, Richard J. Reid-Smith, Ben A. SmithAbstractSalmonella Heidelberg resistant to ceftiofur (a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial agent) in broiler chicken products pose a risk to public health in Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the extent of that risk and to evaluate the effect of intervention measures along the agri-food chain. A stochastic farm-to-fork quantitative microbial risk assessment model was developed following the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance. Different scenarios were analyzed to assess the individual relative effects of 18 possible interventions in comparison to a baseline scenario. The baseline scenario represented the first year of on-farm antimicrobial use surveillance in the Canadian broiler industry and the year before an industry-imposed ban on the preventive use of antimicrobials of very high importance to human health (2013), where 31.3% of broiler flocks consisted of birds to which ceftiofur was administered.The baseline scenario predicted an average probability of illness of 5.18 per 100,000 servings (SE: 0.140 per 100,000), corresponding to an average of 93,573 human cases (SE: 3002) of ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg per year, which is likely an overestimation. This risk was reduced by 90% or 20% when two separate scenarios designed to capture the effect of withdrawing preventive ceftiofur use from poultry production were simulated using different approaches; data used for the former scenario were confounded by other potential concomitant control measures (e.g. Salmonella vaccination programme), so the true effect likely lies somewhere between the two estimates. A theoretical ‘worst case’ scenario where all flocks had birds exposed to ceftiofur increased the risk by 100%. A 50% reduction in the probability of human prior exposure to antimicrobials, which has a selective and competitive effect for Salmonella spp. following ingestion of contaminated products, reduced the risk by 65%. Other promising measures that could be considered for further risk management included improved cleaning and disinfection between broiler flocks on farm (risk reduction by 16%), decreasing cross contamination during evisceration of carcasses by 50% (risk reduction by 44%) and the improvement of meat storage and preparation conditions, e.g., no temperature abuse at retail (risk reduction by 74%). These findings showed the importance of a structured approach to assessing and potentially implementing effective interventions to reduce the risk associated with ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg at different steps along the agri-food chain.Major data gaps included information on concentrations of resistant bacteria, cross contamination at processing and on how ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg behave in comparison with susceptible ones, e.g., in terms of growth and survival ability, as well as pathogenicity and virulence.
       
  • Impact of sodium lactate, encapsulated or unencapsulated polyphosphates
           and their combinations on Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7
           and Staphylococcus aureus growth in cooked ground beef
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): B. Tenderis, B. Kılıç, H. Yalçın, A. ŞimşekAbstractFoodborne illnesses affect the health of consumers worldwide, and thus searching for potential antimicrobial agents against foodborne pathogens is given an increased focus. This research evaluated the influence of sodium lactate (SL), encapsulated (e) and unencapsulated (u) polyphosphates (PP; sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium acid pyrophosphate, SPP), and their combinations on Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus growth in cooked ground beef during 30 day storage at 4 or 10 °C. pH, water activity (aw), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus counts were determined. S. Typhimurium was not found in SPP-SL combination groups after 30 day storage at 4 °C (P 
       
  • Design and preparation of antimicrobial meat wrapping nanopaper with
           bacterial cellulose and postbiotics of lactic acid bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Aidin Shafipour Yordshahi, Mehran Moradi, Hossein Tajik, Rahim MolaeiAbstractLyophilized postbiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum was prepared and impregnated in bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) by ex-situ method to develop an antimicrobial ground meat wrapping nanopaper. The postbiotics incorporated BNC (P-BNC) films were optimized by response surface methodology and their antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes were examined. The BNC with postbiotics at 21.21% concentration and 28 min impregnation time was chosen as an optimized P-BNC film. The FTIR results confirmed the immobilization of postbiotics in BNC. The P-BNC film represented a significant reduction (~5 log cycles) in L. monocytogenes counts in ground meat at the end of the storage period (9 days at 4 °C). Meat wrapped by P-BNC film displayed a significant decrease in total mesophilic and psychrophiles count and TBA values than the controls. BNC can be considered as a proper carrier for development of antimicrobial film using postbiotics of LAB for food application.
       
  • Using hydrochloric acid and bile resistance for optimized detection and
           isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from sprouts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Marina C. Lamparter, Annica Seemann, Carolin Hobe, Elisabeth SchuhAbstractShiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in sprouts have caused large scale outbreaks in the past involving severe illness. The combination of this very diverse pathogen and a food matrix with high numbers of background microbiota poses a particular challenge for detection and isolation. An acid treatment of the enrichment before plating on agar has been shown to improve the recovery of STEC from sprouts. After enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW) at 37 °C we applied an acid treatment, followed by plating on tryptone bile x-glucuronide (TBX) agar (acid bile method). An inter-laboratory study was organized with 21 laboratories taking part to evaluate the performance parameters and applicability of the acid bile method. A sample set of six sprout samples was prepared consisting of two uninoculated samples and four spiked samples, each containing one of two STEC strains at one of two concentrations (low and high). Analyzing a set of six samples at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL E. coli), we determined the relative abundance of STEC without, after acid-, after bile- and after acid-bile treatment using real-time PCR. The participating laboratories successfully applied the acid bile method and were better able to detect (sensitivity 92.9% vs. 70.0%) and isolate (sensitivity 87.5% vs. 31.3%) STEC from positive samples using the acid bile method compared to non-acid methods. The relative limit of detection (RLOD) after isolation using the acid bile method (vs. non-acid method) was
       
  • Comparison of the antifungal effect of undissociated lactic and acetic
           acid in sourdough bread and in chemically acidified wheat bread
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Els Debonne, Fien Van Schoors, Peter Maene, Filip Van Bockstaele, Pieter Vermeir, Jan Verwaeren, Mia Eeckhout, Frank DevlieghereAbstractSourdough is a very interesting natural preservation system to prolong mould free shelf-life of bread. Numerous studies have reported that the antifungal activity of sourdough is mainly correlated with the presence of lactic (LA) and acetic acid (AA), but very few information is available on the effect of undissociated acid concentrations in the aqueous phase of bread (CHA; mmole/L). This study was conducted to provide additional information about the mode of action of the acids in sourdough bread, enabling a better shelf-life prediction. This study was divided into two parts. In part 1, three industrial biological sourdoughs were characterized (dough yield, pH, aw, fermentation quotient, microbiota). During 7 weeks, a shelf-life test with natural flora was conducted with daily checks of visible mould growth (21 °C). In part 2, the effect of the acids present in the antifungal active sourdough breads was validated in chemically acidified wheat breads. Complete growth inhibition was observed in full-baked sourdough bread (30 g/100 g dough) containing Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as dominant sourdough micro-organisms, whereas in control bread the shelf-life was limited to 4.4–9.2 days. These full-baked sourdough breads contained 36 mmole undissociated LA/L and 220 mmole undissociated AA/L. The data were used to make General Linear Regression models for shelf-life prediction and resulted in a fit of R2 = 0.79 when expressing the shelf-life in function of CHA,LA and CHA,AA. In acidified breads, the role of lactic acid was not significant and only impacted shelf-life indirectly through acidification. No difference between antifungal activity of sourdough breads and chemically acidified bread with comparable CHA,AA concentrations was observed. Shelf-life increased when 150–200 mmole undissociated AA/L aqueous phase in bread was present. To conclude, this study showed the importance of the undissociated acid fraction of acetic acid in relation to bread shelf-life, together with bread pH and moisture content.
       
  • Lethality of high-pressure carbon dioxide on Shiga toxin-producing
           Escherichia coli, Salmonella and surrogate organisms on beef jerky
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Danielle M. Schultze, Ricardo Couto, Feral Temelli, Lynn M. McMullen, Michael GänzleAbstractLow water activity (aW) foods permit the survival of low-infectious dose pathogens including Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Desiccation of non-heat resistant E. coli and Salmonella enterica increases their heat resistance; therefore, alternative methods are necessary to ensure the safety of low aW foods. High-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) reduced microbial contaminants in high aW foods. This study aimed to identify HPCD conditions that reduce pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella in low aW conditions. Four strains of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and one strain of enteropathogenic E. coli were treated as a cocktail, and five strains of Salmonella were treated individually. The suitability of E. coli AW1.7, Pediococcus acidilactici FUA 3072, Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 and Staphylococcus carnosus R6 FUA 2133 as surrogate organisms was evaluated. Treatments were validated in beef jerky. Samples were equilibrated to aW 0.75 and treated with heat, HPCD or pressurized N2. Treatment of desiccated E. coli AW1.7 and the STEC cocktail with dry gaseous CO2 (5.7 MPa and 65 °C) did not reduce cell counts; however, treatment with gaseous CO2 saturated with water reduced cell counts of all strains of E. coli. Treatment of beef jerky inoculated with E. coli and Salmonella with saturated gaseous CO2 resulted in>5-log reductions for all strains. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 and S. carnosus R6 were suitable surrogates for Salmonella on beef jerky treated with HPCD. Treatment of beef jerky with water-saturated gaseous CO2 was more effective than treatment with supercritical CO2 or treatments with N2 at the same temperature and pressure. Overall, the treatment of low aW foods with water-saturated gaseous HPCD can meet industry standards by achieving a>5-log reductions of E. coli and Salmonella. Additionally, surrogate organisms representing pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella have been validated.
       
  • Histamine production in Lactobacillus vaginalis improves cell survival at
           low pH by counteracting the acidification of the cytosol
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Maria Diaz, Beatriz del Rio, Victor Ladero, Begoña Redruello, María Fernández, Maria Cruz Martin, Miguel A. AlvarezAbstractHistamine, one of the most toxic and commonly encountered biogenic amines (BA) in food, is produced by the microbial decarboxylation of histidine. It may accumulate at high concentrations in fish and fermented food. Cheese has some of the highest histamine concentrations, the result of the histidine-decarboxylase activity of certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The present work describes the nucleotide sequence and transcriptional organization of the gene cluster responsible for histamine biosynthesis (the HDC cluster) in Lactobacillus vaginalis IPLA 11064 isolated from cheese. The influence of histidine availability and pH on histamine production and the expression of the HDC cluster genes is also examined. As expected, the results suggest that the production of histamine under acidic conditions improves cell survival by maintaining the cytosol at an appropriate pH. However, the transcriptional regulation of the HDC cluster is quite different from that described in other dairy histamine-producing LAB, probably due to the lack of a termination-antitermination system in the histidyl-tRNA synthetase gene (hisS).
       
  • Isolation, characterisation and exploitation of lactic acid bacteria
           capable of efficient conversion of sugars to mannitol
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Tom Rice, Aylin W. Sahin, Kieran M. Lynch, Elke K. Arendt, Aidan CoffeyAbstractThe demand for sugar reduction in products across the food and beverage industries has evoked the development of novel processes including the application of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are diverse in their ability to utilise fermentable sugars and can also convert fructose into the sweet tasting polyol, mannitol. The sourdough microbiota has long been recognised as an ecological niche for a range of homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. A leading determinant in the biodiversity of sourdough microbial populations is the type of flour used. Ten non-wheat flours were used and back-slopped for 7 days resulting in the isolation of 52 mannitol producing isolates which spanned six heterofermentative species of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella. Assessment of mannitol productivity in fructose concentrations up to 100 g/L found Leuconostoc citreum TR116, to have the best mannitol producing characteristics, consuming 95% of available fructose and yielding 0.68 g of mannitol per gram of fructose consumed which equates to the maximal theoretical yield. Investigation of the effects of initial pH on mannitol production and other fermentation parameters in the isolates found pH 7 to be best for isolates Lactobacillus brevis TR052, Leuconostoc fallax TR111, Leuconostoc citreum TR116, Leuconostoc mesenteroides TR154 and Weissella paramesenteroides TR212, while pH 6 was optimal for Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides TR080. The fermentation of apple juice with each isolate resulted in sugar reduction ranging from 30.3–74.0 g/L (34–72%). When apple juice fermentation with Leuconostoc citreum TR116 was scaled up to 1 L bioreactor a reduction in sugar of 98.6 g/L (83%) was achieved along with the production of 61.6 g/L mannitol. This demonstrates a fermentative process for sugar reduction in fruit juice with concomitant production of the sweet metabolite mannitol to create a fermentate that is suitable for further development as a low sugar fruit juice alternative.
       
  • Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a traditional
           Ivoirian beer process to develop starter cultures for safe sorghum-based
           beverages
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Solange Aka, Bedis Dridi, Alexandre Bolotin, Elysée Armel Yapo, Marina Koussemon-Camara, Bassirou Bonfoh, Pierre RenaultAbstractThe present study aimed to characterize lactic acid bacteria involved in the different processing steps of tchapalo, a traditional Ivoirian beverage, for their potential application as starter cultures in food and beverages. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were therefore isolated and enumerated at different steps of the process on MRS and BEA agars. Of the 465 isolates, 27 produced bacteriocins that inhibit Lactobacillus delbrueckii F/31 strain. Of those, two also inhibited Listeria innocua ATCC 33090, while two others displayed inhibitory activity against L. innocua ATCC 33090, E. faecalis CIP 105042, E. faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus sp. clinical LNSP, E. faecalis CIP 105042 and E. faecium ATCC 51558. The dominant species involved in tchapalo LAB fermentation, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were Lactobacillus fermentum (64%), followed by Pediococcus acidilactici (14%). Two strains representing the two dominant species, L. fermentum S6 and P. acidilactici S7, and two potential bacteriocin producers, Weissella confusa AB3E41 and Enterococcus faecium AT1E22, were selected for further characterization. First, genome analysis showed that these strains do not display potential harmful genes such as pathogenic factors or transmissible antibiotic resistance genes. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses were performed to assess evidence of eventual links to groups of strains with particular properties. They revealed that (i) L. fermentum S6 and P. acidilactici S7 are closely related to strains that ferment plants, (ii) E. faecium AT1E22 belongs to the environmental clade B of E. faecium, while W. confusa is quite similar to other strains also isolated from plant fermentations. Further genome analysis showed that E. faecium AT1E22 contains the Enterocin P gene probably carried by a megaplasmid, whereas no evidence of a bacteriocin gene was found in W. confusa AB3E41. The metabolic and the first step of the probiotic potentials of the different strains were analyzed. Lactobacillus fermentum S6 and P. acidilactici S7 are good candidates to develop starter cultures, and E. faecium AT1E22 should be further tested to confirm its potential as a probiotic strain in the production of sorghum wort.
       
  • PVOH/protein blend films embedded with lactic acid bacteria and their
           antilisterial activity in pasteurized milk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Laura Settier-Ramírez, Gracia López-Carballo, Rafael Gavara, Pilar Hernández-MuñozAbstractPVOH-based polymer matrices in the form of films were evaluated as carriers of living Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. These lactic acid bacteria are capable of producing nisin, which is an effective antilisterial peptide. A low percentage (1:0.125 w/w) of yeast extract, gelatin, sodium caseinate, gelatin, or casein hydrolysates was incorporated in PVOH matrices with the aim of increasing the viability of bacteria in the film. The films were obtained by casting after incorporating L. lactis. Then they were evaluated for antilisterial activity in liquid medium at 37 °C for 24 h, and also at 4 °C for 21 days in order to simulate the storage of liquid foods in refrigeration conditions. The survival of the lactic acid bacteria was also evaluated at both temperatures during the experiment. L. lactis remained viable in all the films tested at 37 and 4 °C. The antimicrobial activity of the films was greater at 4 °C than at 37 °C. With regard to the effect of the film composition, the activity of the films was higher when protein hydrolysates and sodium caseinate were incorporated in the formulation. Films supplemented with protein hydrolysates or sodium caseinate inhibited growth of the pathogen during the 21 days of storage at 4 °C. At 37 °C, after 24 h the films had slowed the growth of the inoculated pathogen by between 2 and 4 log CFU/mL.Finally, as the films developed are intended to be used in the design of active packaging of foods, they were tested in pasteurized milk inoculated with 4 log CFU/mL of Listeria monocytogenes and stored at 4 °C for 21 days. The pathogen began to grow after the second day of storage with or without film, but when the films were added to the medium the growth of the pathogen was slowed down, without reaching>6 log CFU, whereas the control reached a maximum growth of 8.5 log CFU. The pH of the milk was monitored throughout the experiment, and it decreased with time. This was due to the generation of organic acids by the lactic bacteria. Buffering the food stabilized the pH without modifying the activity of the films. Thus, the current study shows that PVOH films supplemented with nutrients can act as carriers of L. lactis, and they can help to increase the safety of refrigerated dairy beverages and sauces.
       
  • Assessment of growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk
           butter by durability tests
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): El-Hajjaji Soundous, Gérard Amaury, De Laubier Juliette, Di Tanna Sybille, Lainé Aurélie, Patz Viviane, Sindic MarianneAbstractButter is a complex matrix characterized by a high fat content. Existing publications on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in this type of food reported contrasted results. This study was performed to provide further information and data about raw milk butter's ability to support survival or growth of L. monocytogenes. Durability tests were performed on naturally contaminated samples of raw milk butter with various physico-chemical characteristics. At the end of shelf life, no growth of L. monocytogenes was observed in the studied butters, regardless of their physico-chemical characteristics (pH, aw, water dispersion index and salt concentration) and the initial level of contamination. The number of positive samples and the colony counts of L. monocytogenes were even decreased at the end of the storage period.
       
  • Indications of biopesticidal Bacillus thuringiensis strains in
           bell pepper and tomato
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hendrik Frentzel, Katharina Juraschek, Natalie Pauly, Ylanna Kelner-Burgos, Heidi Wichmann-SchauerAbstractMembers of the Bacillus cereus group are common contaminants of vegetables. One potential source of contamination is the application of B. thuringiensis based biopesticides. Although evidence of the presence of biopesticidal strains on food products is scarce, this information is essential for assessing potential risks associated with the application of these biopesticides.In order to contribute to knowledge about the presence of biopesticidal B. thuringiensis strains in foodstuffs, we investigated the occurrence of B. thuringiensis on tomatoes and bell pepper.We analyzed 99 samples of fresh bell pepper for B. cereus group members, while 426 samples of tomatoes were tested by the competent food control laboratories of the federal states in Germany. The isolates recovered from these samples were further characterized in terms of their capability to produce parasporal crystals as well as enterotoxins. A possible correlation between the B. thuringiensis isolates and biopesticidal strains was investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and whole genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (wgSNP) analyses.The prevalence of B. cereus group members was 41% for bell pepper and 28% for tomato samples. Isolates recovered from these samples were dominated by B. thuringiensis (93% and 99%, respectively). All B. thuringiensis isolates carried the enterotoxin genes nheA, hblD and cytK-2. In a subset of 83 B. thuringiensis isolates analyzed by MLST, 99% of the isolates matched the sequence types (ST) 8 and 15, which are also shared by the biopesticidal strains B. thuringiensis kurstaki ABTS-351 and B. thuringiensis aizawai ABTS-1857. Of the 82 isolates assigned to ST 8 or ST 15, a selection of 42 isolates was further characterized by wgSNP analysis. Of these, seven isolates differed from strain ABTS-351 by ≤4 core SNPs and 18 isolates differed from strain ABTS-1857 by ≤2 core SNPs, indicating a relationship of these isolates with the respective biopesticidal strain. These isolates originated from samples with maximum colony counts of 5.3 × 103 cfu/g for bell pepper and 1.0 × 105 cfu/g for tomatoes.
       
  • Ecological diversity, evolution and metabolism of microbial communities in
           the wet fermentation of Australian coffee beans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hosam Elhalis, Julian Cox, Jian ZhaoAbstractThe microbial ecology in the fermentation of Australian coffee beans was investigated in this study. Pulped coffee beans were kept underwater for 36 h before air dried. Samples were collected periodically, and the microbial communities were analyzed by culture-dependent and independent methods. Changes in sugars, organic acids and microbial metabolites in the mucilage and endosperm of the coffee beans during fermentation were monitored by HPLC. Culture-dependent methods identified 6 yeast and 17 bacterial species, while the culture-independent methods, multiple-step total direct DNA extraction and high throughput sequencing, identified 212 fungal and 40 bacterial species. Most of the microbial species in the community have been reported for wet fermentation of coffee beans in other parts of the world, but the yeast Pichia kudriavzevii was isolated for the first time in wet coffee bean fermentation. The bacterial community was dominated by aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) with Citrobacter being the predominant genus. Hanseniaspora uvarum and Pichia kudriavzevii were the predominant yeasts while Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus lactis were the predominant LAB. The yeasts and bacteria grew significantly during fermentation, utilizing sugars in the mucilage and produced mannitol, glycerol, and lactic acid, leading to a significant decrease in pH. The results of this study provided a preliminary understanding of the microbial ecology of wet coffee fermentation under Australian conditions. Further studies are needed to explore the impact of microbial growth and metabolism on coffee quality, especially flavour.
       
  • The effect of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) cooking on survival of
           potentially pathogenic Clostridium perfringens in beef
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hani El Kadri, Teyfik Celen, Alaa Alaizoki, Madeleine Smith, Helen OnyeakaLow-temperature long-time (LTLT) cooking may lead to risk of potential survival of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens in cooked meat. In this study, the effect of LTLT cooking on C. perfringens was investigated at temperatures commonly used by caterers. Brain heart infusion broth (BHIB) and meat cubes in pouches (vacuumed or non-vacuumed) were inoculated with C. perfringens (NCTC 8238) and heated at temperatures of 48 °C, 53 °C, 55 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. The viability of C. perfringens in BHIB and meat was monitored using plate counting and the D-value of each thermal treatment was determined. The recovery of C. perfringens after thermal treatment was assessed using optical density measurements. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the physiological status (death/injury) of C. perfringens cells in BHIB. The results showed that the required log reduction (6-log) of C. perfringens can be achieved at 55 °C but not at 48 °C or 53 °C. The D-values at all temperatures were higher in meat compared to BHIB while the D-value at 55 °C was higher in non-vacuum compared to vacuum sealed meat. C. perfringens cells were able to recover and grow to pathogenic levels when thermal treatment was unable to achieve the required 6-log reduction. In BHIB, percentage of dead cells increased gradually at 48 °C, 53 °C and 55 °C while an immediate increase (>95%) was observed at 60 °C and 70 °C. These results are important to food safety authorities allowing to set the time-temperature combinations to be used in LTLT cooking to obtain safe meat.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Milk fat influences proteolytic enzyme activity of dairy
           Pseudomonas species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Dong Zhang, Jon Palmer, Koon Hoong Teh, Miranda Maru Angeli Calinisan, Steve FlintAbstractThis study investigated the effect of growth conditions on proteolytic activity of six Pseudomonas strains, (Pseudomonas fragi DZ1, Pseudomonas koreensis DZ138, Pseudomonas rhodesiae DZ351, Pseudomonas fluorescens DZ390, Pseudomonas synxantha DZ832 and Pseudomonas lundensis DZ845), isolated from raw milk. The proteolytic activity of all Pseudomonas strains in dairy media (skim milk and whole milk) was significantly higher (p 
       
  • Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of rambutan (Nephelium
           lappaceum
    L.) peel extracts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Nguyen Nhat Minh Phuong, Thien Trung Le, John Van Camp, Katleen RaesAbstractMicrobial safety in food products is not always adequately controlled. Chemical antimicrobials which are recognized as hazards to human health are gradually replaced by natural antimicrobial compounds. In the current study, the antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria by the methanolic extract from rambutan fruit peels was evaluated using both in vitro (medium) and in situ (food matrices i.e. raw chicken breast and pangasius fillet fish) methods. Methanolic rambutan peel extract (lyophilized to powder with total phenolic content of 310 ± 14.5 mg GAE/g) with geraniin, ellagic acid, rutin, quercetin, and corilagin as main phenolic compounds was a potent inhibitor towards E. coli, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. anguillarum, P. aeruginosa, S. enteritidis, St. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and C. albicans using in vitro tests. In in situ tests, the extract inhibited S. enteritidis in raw chicken breast during 14 days of cold storage at 4 °C. Even though food matrices partly protected bacteria, the extract showed a 1.5 log CFU/g reduction of V. parahaemolyticus in fish during 10 days of cold storage. These results provide useful information on the utilization of rambutan fruit peel as natural antimicrobial agent in food products.
       
  • Microbial safety of cheese in Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Kyle Ganz, Etsuko Yamamoto, Kate Hardie, Christine Hum, Hussein Hussein, Annie Locas, Marina SteeleAbstractA profile of the microbial safety of cheese in Canada was established based on the analysis of 2955 pasteurized and raw-milk cheeses tested under Canada's National Microbiological Monitoring Program (NMMP) and 2009 raw-milk cheeses tested under the Targeted Survey Program. 97.8% of NMMP and 99.6% of Targeted Survey cheese samples were assessed as being of satisfactory microbiological safety. Under the NMMP, Salmonella spp. was detected in 2 samples, Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 15 samples and no Escherichia coli O157/H7:NM (non-motile) was detected. Cheese samples assessed as having unsatisfactory levels of S. aureus and generic E. coli were found in 18 and 41 samples, respectively. Under the Targeted Survey, L. monocytogenes was detected in 2 samples, while no Salmonella spp. or E. coli O157/H7:NM were detected. Cheese samples assessed as having investigative and unsatisfactory levels of S. aureus were found in 4 and 2 samples respectively. No samples were found to have investigative or unsatisfactory levels of generic E. coli. For cheese samples collected under the NMMP, logistic regression models indicated that contamination was more frequent in raw-milk cheeses compared to pasteurized-milk cheeses (OR = 5.0, 95% CI (3.0, 8.3)), and in imported cheeses compared to domestic cheeses (OR = 8.18, 95% CI (4.1, 16.1)). A statistically significant association was found between cheese samples assessed as having unsatisfactory levels of generic E. coli and detection of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. or levels of S. aureus that were assessed as unsatisfactory (p 
       
  • Analysis of Neutral Electrolyzed Water anti-bacterial activity on
           contaminated eggshells with Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Jocelyn Medina-Gudiño, Andres Rivera-Garcia, Liliana Santos-Ferro, Juan C. Ramirez-Orejel, Lourdes T. Agredano-Moreno, Luis F. Jimenez-Garcia, David Paez-Esquiliano, Sandra Martinez-Vidal, Eduardo Andrade-Esquivel, Jose A. Cano-BuendiaAbstractNeutral Electrolyzed Water (NEW) was tested in vitro and on artificially contaminated eggs against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica or Escherichia coli. The antibacterial effect was measured 30 s after treatment. NEW microbicide activity results were compared against 2% citric acid and 0.9% saline solutions. NEW caused an in vitro decrease in Salmonella titers by ˃5.56 Log10 CFU mL−1 and in artificially contaminated eggs by ˃1.45 Log10 CFU/egg. When it was tested against E. coli, it decreased in vitro bacterial titers by ˃3.28 Log10 CFU mL−1 and on artificially contaminated eggs by ˃6.39 Log10 CFU/egg. The 2% citric acid solution caused an in vitro decrease of 0.4 Log10 CFU mL−1 of Salmonella and E. coli and on eggs artificially contaminated with E. coli or Salmonella there was a decrease of 0.06 and 0.62 Log10 CFU/egg respectively. We evaluated egg cuticle integrity by scanning electron microscopy after treatments with evaluated solutions; the 2% citric acid solution caused damage to the cuticle and exposed eggshell pores and no interaction of NEW or NaCl with the cuticle was observed. NEW treatment showed a fast-bactericidal effect in vitro and table eggs.
       
  • Substrate specificities of Fusarium biosynthetic enzymes explain the
           genetic basis of a mixed chemotype producing both deoxynivalenol and
           nivalenol-type trichothecenes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Kazuyuki Maeda, Yuya Tanaka, Momoko Matsuyama, Masayuki Sato, Kazuki Sadamatsu, Tamotsu Suzuki, Kosuke Matsui, Yuichi Nakajima, Takeshi Tokai, Kyoko Kanamaru, Shuichi Ohsato, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Makoto Fujimura, Takumi Nishiuchi, Naoko Takahashi-Ando, Makoto KimuraAbstractFusarium species are traditionally grouped into type A and type B trichothecene producers based on structural differences in the mycotoxin they synthesize. The type B trichothecene-producing Fusarium graminearum strains are further divided into 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), and nivalenol (NIV) chemotypes. The former two chemotypes, collectively termed a deoxynivalenol (DON) chemotype, evolved from a NIV chemotype by inactivation of FgTri13, which encodes trichothecene C-4 hydroxylase, during the evolutionary process. Despite stable overexpression of FgTri13, however, both 3-acetylnivalenol (3-ANIV) and 3-ADON accumulate equally in shake flask culture of a transgenic 3-ADON chemotype. In this study, we investigated why the “3-ANIV chemotype” could not be obtained using this strategy. When analysis was extended to the transgenic NIV chemotype, in which FgTri7 C-4 acetylase gene was disrupted and FgTri8 deacetylase gene was replaced with the 3-ADON chemotype's orthologue, C-4 unoxygenated 3-ADON, as well as C-4 oxygenated 3-ANIV, accumulated as the end product. A feeding experiment with an ΔFgtri5ΔFgtri3 double gene disruptant, a trichothecene non-producing mutant unable to acetylate C-15 of the trichothecene ring, revealed the importance of the 15-O-acetyl group for efficient C-4 hydroxylation of DON-type trichothecenes. This implies that traditional DON and NIV chemotype diversification is not solely explained by FgTri13, but is also explained by the function of the FgTri8 trichothecene deacetylase gene. None of the crude cell extracts from existing chemotypes showed highly specific C-15 deacetylation activity against 3,15-diacetylnivalenol (3,15-diANIV) without deacetylating C-15 of the C-4 unoxygenated earlier intermediate, 3,15-diacetyldeoxynivalenol. Thus, an unnatural Fusarium trichothecene, 3-ANIV, could only be synthesized as part of a mixture with 3-ADON, unless the esterase encoded by FgTri8 evolves to act on the 15-O-acetyl of 3,15-diANIV with high specificity. We also explain why the transgenic “15-ANIV chemotype”, which can be generated through functional inactivation of FgTri7, uses an engineered pathway via 3,15-diANIV, but not 15-ADON, to generate 15-ANIV. Tri genes appear to evolve continuously, and altered functions of trichothecene pathway enzymes result in the generation of new trichothecenes, such as NX-2 and NX-3, which have been recently discovered in field isolates of F. graminearum. As recombination of FgTri8 between existing F. graminearum isolates could give rise to a strain that produces mixtures of DON and NIV-type trichothecenes, it may also be noteworthy to monitor the emergence of a field isolate that invalidates traditional chemotype classification.
       
  • Genetic determinants of Salmonella enterica critical for
           attachment and biofilm formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Jinru Chen, Yin WangAbstractSalmonella is a bacterial pathogen frequently involved in human gastrointestinal infections including those associated with low-moisture foods such as dehydrated food powders/spices, vegetable seeds, and tree nuts. The survival/persistence of Salmonella on low moisture foods and in dry environments is enhance by its ability in developing biofilms. This study was undertaken to identify the genetic determinants critical for Salmonella attachment and biofilm formation. E. coli SM10 lambda pir, with a kanamycin resistant marker on mini-Tn10 (mini-Tn10:lacZ:kanr), an ampicillin resistant marker on the mini-Tn10-bearing suicidal plasmid pLBT and a streptomycin sensitive marker on the SM10 chromosome, was used as a donor (ampr, kanr, streps), and three Salmonella strains (amps, kans, strepr) were used as recipients in a transposon mutagenesis study. The donor and each recipient were co-incubated overnight on tryptic soy agar at 37 °C, and mutant colonies (amps, kanr, strepr) were subsequently selected. A single-banded degenerate PCR product, amplified from each mutant genome using oligonucleotide primers derived from the end of min-Tn10 and restriction enzyme EcoR I- or Pst I-recognizing sequence, were analyzed using the Sanger sequencing technology. Acquired DNA sequences were compared to those deposited in the Genbank using BLAST search. Cells of Salmonella mutants accumulated either significantly more or less (P 
       
  • Bacterial and fungal diversity in Laphet, traditional fermented tea leaves
           in Myanmar, analyzed by culturing, DNA amplicon-based sequencing, and
           PCR-DGGE methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Bo Bo, Seul-Ah Kim, Nam Soo HanAbstractLaphet is a traditional fermented food in Myanmar, made from tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) under anaerobic condition. We performed microbial diversity analyses on 14 Laphet products collected from different locations in Myanmar. Amplicon-based sequencing results revealed Lactobacillus and Acetobacter were abundant bacteria and Candida, Pichia, Cyberlindnera, and Debaryomyces were abundant yeast. Using selective media, eight species of lactic acid bacteria and nine species of yeast were isolated; Lactobacillus plantarum and L. collinoides were dominant bacteria and Pichia manshurica, Candida boidinii, and Cyberlindnera jadinii were major yeasts. PCR-DGGE analysis confirmed that most of the dominant bacterial and yeast species found in culture dependent analysis were present in Laphet samples. Microbial diversity and pH of Laphet were different between samples from tea plantation area and local markets due to possible differences in incubation time periods. When tannase activity was tested, 25 among 29 bacterial isolates and two among 36 yeast isolates showed positive activities. These findings provide new insights into microbial diversity of Laphet and increased our understanding of the core bacterial and yeast species involved in the manufacture of Laphet.
       
  • Inactivation by osmotic dehydration and air drying of Salmonella, Shiga
           toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, hepatitis A
           virus and selected surrogates on blueberries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Xi Bai, Matteo Campagnoli, Sophie Butot, Thierry Putallaz, Lise Michot, Sophie ZuberAbstractOsmotically dehydrated and air dried berry fruits are used as ingredients for the production of yoghurts, chocolates, cereal bars and mixes, ice creams and cakes and are often subjected to mild thermal treatments only, posing questions around their microbiological safety. As osmotic dehydration methods and parameters vary considerably within the industry and minimally processed high quality fruits are increasingly sought, the scope of this study was to determine which temperatures are required for the inactivation of relevant bacteria and viruses during osmotic dehydration of berries, using blueberries as a model berry in a thawed state to mimic common industrial practices. Additionally, we studied the inactivation of osmotic dehydration at 23 °C, sometimes referred to “cold infusion” followed by air drying at 100 °C to determine the microbiological safety achieved by this combined treatment. Four pathogens (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and hepatitis A virus (HAV)) and five surrogates (Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli P1, Listeria innocua, murine Norovirus (MNV) and bacteriophage MS2) were inoculated on blueberries and reductions were measured after different treatment combinations. After osmotic dehydration of bacterial strains at 40 °C no survivors were detected on blueberries, with the exception of E. faecium. Inactivation of the viruses at 45 °C showed no survivors for MS2 and mean reductions of 1.5 and 3.4 log10 median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/g for HAV and MNV, respectively. Similarly, in the sugar solution at 40 °C, no survivors were observed, with the exception of E. faecium and the three viruses. The combined process (osmotic dehydration at 23 °C followed by air-drying at 100 °C) achieved an>6 log reduction of all tested bacterial strains and MS2. For HAV and MNV, 2.6 and>3.4 log10 TCID50/g were measured. In summary, the present study shows that osmotic dehydration appears an efficient control measure for the control of L. monocytogenes, S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 if carried out at 40 °C or at 23 °C and followed by air-drying at 100 °C. Based on the results generated with MNV, the combined treatment is also expected to reduce human Norovirus (NoV) but does not appear to be sufficient to fully control HAV. The results contribute to a better management of the microbial safety of osmotically dehydrated and dried berries and especially the results generated for the viruses emphasize that within a robust food safety management system, safety must be assured through the entire food supply chain and therefore must start at primary production with the implementation of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP).
       
  • Development and evaluation of pullulan-based composite antimicrobial films
           (CAF) incorporated with nisin, thymol and lauric arginate to reduce
           foodborne pathogens associated with muscle foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Abdelrahim H.A. Hassan, Catherine N. CutterAbstractA novel composite antimicrobial film (CAF), made from a pullulan-based biopolymer and polyethylene (PE) was developed and evaluated for controlling pathogens associated with muscle foods. Initially, CAFs were developed by incorporating thymol (T), nisin (N) and/or lauric arginate (LAE) into the pullulan layer and layering it on top of PE. The antimicrobial activity of the resulting CAFs was evaluated against cocktails of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in disk diffusion assays (DDAs). CAFs containing N were ineffective, while those containing T were effective for inhibiting the pathogens in DDAs. However, CAFs made with them did not exhibit desirable physical and mechanical properties since solvents (HCl and ethanol, respectively) interfered with the binding of pullulan to PE. Conversely, CAFs made with 0.5, 1 and 2.5% LAE maintained proper physical and mechanical characteristics and inhibited the four bacterial pathogens in DDAs. Based on these preliminary results, cocktails consisting of approximately 8 log10 CFU/ml of STEC, Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, or S. aureus were experimentally-inoculated onto raw beef, raw chicken breast, or ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey breast to obtain approximately 6.6 log10 CFU/cm2, aseptically transferred to CAFs containing 0.5, 1, or 2.5% LAE that were made into sachets/bags, vacuum packaged, sealed, and remaining microbial populations determined up to 28 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). By day 28, CAFs containing 0.5, 1, and 2.5% LAE reduced: STEC by 1.13, 1.33 and 2.88 log10 CFU/cm2 respectively, on raw beef; Salmonella by 2.03, 2.12 and 3.01 log10 CFU/cm2 respectively, on raw chicken breast; L. monocytogenes by 1.12, 1.81 and 3.56 log10 CFU/cm2 respectively, on RTE turkey breast; and S. aureus by 0.68, 2.02 and 3.43 log10 CFU/cm2, respectively, on RTE turkey breast. CAFs may be of interest to the meat and poultry industry to control foodborne pathogens associated with these food products.
       
  • Genome based safety assessment for Bacillus coagulans strain LBSC (DSM
           17654) for probiotic application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Dina B. Saroj, Anil K. GuptaAbstractThe present study on Bacillus coagulans strain LBSC (DSM 17654) describes the use of whole genome sequencing, in correlation with the phenotypic properties to assess the safety of the strain. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence of the B. coagulans strain LBSC (DSM 17654), showed 100% homology with 99% coverage with B. coagulans strain HM-08. BLAT (BLAST Like Analysis Tool) analysis for whole genome comparison with B. coagulans ATCC 7050, B. coagulans HM-08 and B. coagulans Slac showed 96%, 99% and 99% sequence identity respectively. Whole genome sequencing results demonstrated a single scaffold of 36,35,902 bp and 3331 coding sequences. Gene ontology segregated the proteins as those with molecular function, cellular component and biological process of the predicted genes from assembled genome. Risk associated sequences like antibiotic resistance genes, biogenic amine producing genes, virulence factor genes and other safety related genes were identified with focus on horizontal gene transfer and its non-functionality. The absence of mobile elements in the vicinity of the genes, render it non-transferable and non-toxic phenotypic properties confirm the non-functionality of the genes. Absence of functional genes of concern and confirmation of absence of mobile elements in the vicinity of other non-clinically significant genes indicated no safety concern. The absence of complete and functional prophage sequences which are deleterious for the genome stability and presence of CRISPR system which are advantageous for genome stability by acting as a barrier to entry of foreign DNA elements indicated the stability of the genome. The molecular approach used in this study satisfies the requirements for the safety assessment of the probiotic strain which could indicate it to be potentially safe.
       
  • Use of yeasts from different environments for the control of Penicillium
           expansum on table grapes at storage temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): L.A. Rodríguez Assaf, L.P. Pedrozo, M.C. Nally, V.M. Pesce, M.E. Toro, L.I. Castellanos de Figueroa, F. VazquezAbstractA wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables is attacked by Penicillium species causing diseases during their postharvest handling. Many of these species are psychrotrophic and they are able to cause food spoilage at refrigeration temperature as happens with table grapes. After the harvest, grape bunches are stored inside boxes with SO2 generator pads to reduce the contamination with fungal conidia. However, SO2 residues are dangerous to people allergic to sulfites and they negatively affect the quality of fresh fruit. Biological control of phytopathogens with microbial antagonists naturally present on fruit surfaces could be helpful against postharvest diseases. The present study aimed to select native yeasts isolated from fermentation microenvironments and the surface of refrigerated grapes for their use in the biological control of P. expansum on table grapes stored in cold rooms. Non-pathogenic and pathogenic Penicillium species were isolated, and the four most aggressive pathogen isolates were identified as Penicillium expansum. Twenty yeast isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Rhodotorula glutinis presented positive antagonistic activity against Penicillium expansum; they controlled the development of at least one of the fungi, significantly reducing the disease incidence. The results showed that three antagonistic yeasts (M. pulcherrima 22, 36 and 43) reduced the disease incidence and severity of all 4 P. expansum isolates. It was also found that the fruit surface is not the only source for isolation of biological control agents. Microenvironments with different stress conditions could be a promising source to isolate antagonistic microorganisms.
       
  • Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula using
           triglycerol monolaurate and its effect on the sensory properties of infant
           formula
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Song Zhang, Jian Xiong, Wenyong Lou, Zhengxiang Ning, Denghui Zhang, Jiguo YangAbstractCronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen in infant formula. This study was designed to explore the inhibitory effect of TGML on C. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula (RIF). Firstly, the growth curve of C. sakazakii in RIF treated by TGML and the effect of different temperatures (4, 10, 21, 30 and 37 °C), pH values (5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) and ionic strengths (25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mM) on its activity were assessed. The results showed that the inhibitory effect of TGML on C. sakazakii was dose-dependent, and 1, 2 and 5 μg/mL TGML delayed the visible growth of pathogen by 4, 12 and 24 h, respectively. Storage temperature above or below room temperature enhanced the bioactivity of TGML. And a decrease in pH also increased the antibacterial effect of TGML. However, the effect of ionic strength on its activity was not obvious. Subsequently, the antibacterial effect of TGML in physiological gastric acid and simulated gastric juice in vitro was further explored. We found that only 5 μg/mL TGML could inhibit the growth of pathogen below the infectious dose (10,000 CFU in total) in simulated gastric juice during the whole gastric emptying period (3.5–21 h), weaker than its antibacterial effect in physiological gastric acid and room temperature culture. Finally, the effect of TGML and the above environmental factors on the color and aroma of infant milk was evaluated by a 12-person panel. The results revealed that TGML did not affect the sensory flavor of milk, and the color and odor scores of infant milk under different environmental conditions did not show any significant differences. Therefore, it is concluded that TGML has a good inhibitory effect on C. sakazakii in RIF and a high sensory acceptability for consumers. Adjusting the temperature or lowering the pH enhances its bacteriostatic activity. However, the presence of infant gastric juice can impair the bioactivity of TGML. Overall, this study will provide some new ideas for controlling and eliminating the potential risk of C. sakazakii infection during infant feeding.
       
  • Assessment of the microbiological quality and safety of marinated chicken
           products from Greek retail outlets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Anastasia E. Lytou, Chrissanthi T. Renieri, Agapi I. Doulgeraki, George-John E. Nychas, Efstathios Z. PanagouAbstractThe prevalence of three pathogens in marinated chicken products and the evaluation of their quality by microbiological and sensory analysis were assessed. Eighty (80) samples obtained from several meat retail markets in Greece were analyzed for the presence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Concerning Campylobacter, rep-PCR and species specific PCR were applied for the differentiation and identification of isolates, respectively. The samples were subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C for 5 days. Microbiological analysis, sensory assessment and HPLC analysis were carried out for the evaluation of spoilage microorganisms, sensory quality and the presence of preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate). Τhe prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes was 50%, 11% and 44%, respectively. In the case of Campylobacter, from a total of 40 isolates, 27 were identified as Campylobacter coli, 4 as Campylobacter jejuni, whereas the remaining 9 belonged to unidentified Campylobacter species. Pseudomonas spp. was the dominant spoilage microbial genus in 43% of the samples, while in 31% of them a co-dominance of Pseudomonas spp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta was observed. Total aerobic counts increased to 7.0 log CFU/g at the 1st, 2nd or 3rd day of storage in 71% of the samples, while sensory analysis showed that 80% of the samples were characterized as spoiled after 3, 4 or 5 days. The presence of preservatives was confirmed in 31% of the samples and slightly affected the microbiological profile. In conclusion, the obtained data demonstrated the occurrence of foodborne pathogens and allowed the acquisition of an overall view about the microbiological quality of marinated chicken products.
       
  • High prevalence of multidrug resistant S. aureus-CC398 and frequent
           detection of enterotoxin genes among non-CC398 S. aureus from pig-derived
           food in Spain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Olouwafemi Mistourath Mama, Liliana Morales, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Myriam Zarazaga, Carmen TorresAbstractMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398 is a livestock-associated (LA) lineage, mainly detected in swine. Its dissemination via the food-chain could be a food-safety issue. This work aimed to study the diversity of S. aureus lineages in pork-products, to determine the prevalence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) of lineage CC398, and to study the antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype and the virulence traits of recovered isolates.One hundred and one samples of pig-derived food were collected in Northern Spain for S. aureus isolation. Antibiotic resistance profile was analysed, and associated resistance genes were screened by PCR. Detection of CC398 lineage, spa-type, multilocus sequence-type (ST), virulence factors, immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes, and phage ΦSa3 integrase was performed by PCR/sequencing.The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA among pig-derived food was 33.6% and 21.8%, respectively. Thirty-nine S. aureus isolates were recovered and attributed to 19 spa-types and 12 STs, ST398 being the predominant lineage (n = 25; 64%). MRSA-CC398 isolates (n = 23) were mainly spa-t011 (n = 16) and 82.6% were multidrug-resistant (MDR). All MRSA-CC398 were tetracycline-resistant and IEC-negative and four hosted either eta, tst or sea gene. The two MSSA-CC398 isolates detected were spa-t5452, IEC-positive, and were resistant to penicillin (blaZ) and erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible) (ermT with/without ermC + msrA). Among the 14 non-CC398 isolates, only two were MRSA (ST8, PVL-positive, enterotoxin-positive, IEC-negative). The 12 isolates MSSA included two of CC45 IEC-positive.CC398 lineage is prevalent among S. aureus of pig-derived food (both MRSA and MSSA), LA-MRSA-CC398/t011 being the clone most represented. The presence of the IEC-positive MSSA-CC398 and MSSA-CC45 in food products highlights the potential implication of handlers in transmission of foodborne pathogens. Moreover, given the high frequency of MDR isolates and virulence genes detected, hygienic practices should be improved to limit the dissemination risk of S. aureus via the food chain.
       
  • Inheritance of winemaking stress factors tolerance in Saccharomyces
           uvarum/S. eubayanus × S. cerevisiae artificial hybrids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Origone Andrea Cecilia, González Flores Melisa, Rodríguez María Eugenia, Querol Amparo, Lopes Christian ArielAbstractStress has been defined as any environmental factor that impairs the growth of a living organism. High concentrations of ethanol, sugars and SO2 as well as temperature variations occurring during winemaking processes are some recognized stress factors that yeasts must overcome in order to avoid stuck or sluggish fermentations. At least two of these factors -sugar and ethanol concentrations- are strongly influenced by the global warming, which become them a worry for the future years in the winemaking industry. One of the most interesting strategies to face this complex situation is the generation of hybrids possessing, in a single yeast strain, a broader range of stress factors tolerance than their parents. In the present study, we evaluated four artificial hybrids generated with S. cerevisiae, S. uvarum and S. eubayanus using a non-GMO-generating method, in their tolerance to a set of winemaking stress factors. Their capacity to overcome specific artificial winemaking situations associated with global warming was also analyzed. All four hybrids were able to grow in a wider temperature range (8–37 °C) than their parents. Hybrids showed intermediate tolerance to higher ethanol, sugar and sulphite concentrations than their parents. Additionally, the hybrids showed an excellent fermentative behaviour in musts containing high fructose concentrations at low temperature as well as under a condition mimicking a stuck fermentation.
       
  • Different carbon sources result in differential activation of sigma B and
           stress resistance in Listeria monocytogenes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Natalia Crespo Tapia, Amber L. Dorey, Cormac G.M. Gahan, Heidy M.W. den Besten, Conor P. O'Byrne, Tjakko AbeeAbstractListeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is able to utilize a variety of carbon sources, to produce biofilms on food-processing surfaces and to survive food preservation–associated stresses. In this study, we investigated the effect of three common carbon sources, namely glucose, glycerol and lactose, on growth and activation of the general stress response Sigma factor, SigB, and corresponding phenotypes including stress resistance. A fluorescent reporter coupled to the promoter of lmo2230, a highly SigB-dependent gene, was used to determine SigB activation via quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy. This approach, combined with Western blotting and fluorescence microscopy, showed the highest SigB activation in lactose grown cells and lowest in glucose grown cells. In line with this observation, lactose grown cells showed the highest resistance to lethal heat and acid stress, the highest biofilm formation, and had the highest adhesion/invasion capacity in Caco-2-derived C2Bbe1 cell lines. Our data suggest that lactose utilisation triggers a strong SigB dependent stress response and this may have implications for the resistance of L. monocytogenes along the food chain.
       
  • Microbial interaction between Salmonella enterica and main postharvest
           fungal pathogens on strawberry fruit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: International Journal of Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): J. Ortiz-Solà, A. Valero, I. Viñas, P. Colás-Medà, M. AbadiasAbstractThe microbial interaction between Salmonella enterica and the main postharvest fungal pathogens of strawberries was evaluated. Inoculation of fungal suspension was done 2 (D2) and 1 (D1) day(s) before and at the same time (D0) as S. enterica. Fruits were stored at 20 °C and 4 °C. At both temperatures, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer caused a decrease in S. enterica population. Treatments where the mould was inoculated (D2, D1 and D0) achieved a significant logarithmic reduction (P 
       
 
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