Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 387 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access  
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Technology, Siam University     Open Access  
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Travel     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Food Research International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.472
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0963-9969 - ISSN (Online) 1873-7145
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Molecular hybridization of grape seed extract: Synthesis, structural
           characterization and anti-proliferative activity in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Caiyu Lei, Xiangyi Tang, He Li, Hualei Chen, Shujuan YuThe grape seed extract (GSE) hybridized with medium-chain saturated fatty acids (decanoic acid) exhibited higher lipophilicity, antioxidant activity, and anti-proliferative activity than its parents. The chemical structures of individual hybridized GSE derivatives were identified as 3'-O-decanoyl catechin, 3′-O-decanoyl epicatechin, 3', 5'-2-O-decanoyl epigallocatechin, and 3', 4', 3'', 5''-4-O-decanoyl epicatechin gallate by HPLC-MS2 and 1H and 13C NMR. For growth inhibitory effect on HepG2 cells, hybridized GSE derivatives (EC50 = 44.38 μg/mL) were significantly (p < 0.01) stronger than natural GSE (EC50 = 60.83 μg/mL) due to increased lipophilicity. The effects of GSE derivatives on apoptosis and cell cycle in HepG2 cells were further evaluated by flow cytometry. The results showed that the percentage of apoptotic cells increased markedly in the presence of hybridized GSE derivatives. Moreover, hybridized GSE derivatives were capable of inducing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. This research suggests that hybridized GSE derivatives are effective lipophilic antioxidants and show the potential as adjuvant therapy for cancer.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Comparison of two rapid descriptive sensory techniques for profiling and
           screening of drivers of liking of sorghum breads
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Lorena Andrade de Aguiar, Daniele Bobrowski Rodrigues, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Lauro Melo, Lívia de Lacerda de OliveiraRapid descriptive methods have emerged as a relatively simple alternative for screening the sensory attributes of products that drive their liking, and may contribute to identify sorghum genotypes with potential for development of gluten-free breads with higher consumer acceptance. Two rapid techniques, Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) and Optimized Descriptive Profile (ODP), were herein compared on their ability to describe, discriminate and identify the drivers of liking of sorghum breads. Gluten-free bread formulations were developed using flours from selected sorghum genotypes (CMSS005, BR 501, BRS 332, BRS 330, BRS 305 and 1167048), besides commercial sorghum and rice flours. A semi-trained panel (n=18) evaluated the samples using the ODP method, whereas consumers (n=124) completed the CATA questionnaire and rated the liking in a 9-point hedonic scale. A total of 24 and 11 sensory descriptors were perceived by assessors as different among samples for CATA and ODP, respectively, with color and appearance-related attributes critical to discriminate samples in CATA, whereas flavor and texture descriptors had also prominent contribution in ODP. A similar pattern of sample distribution was noticed for both methods, which were shown to be highly and positively correlated (RV=0.92, p
       
  • Analysis and Reduction of Heterocyclic Amines and Cholesterol Oxidation
           Products in Chicken by Controlling Flavorings and Roasting Condition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Kai-Yu Hsu, Bing-Huei ChenRoasting of chicken generates many toxic compounds such as heterocyclic amines (HAs) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). The objectives of this study were to evaluate analysis of HAs and COPs in raw, boiled and roasted chicken by QuEChERS coupled with UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS, respectively, and study their formation as affected by different flavorings (red pepper, black pepper, rosemary, soy sauce) and roasting methods (fan oven and superheated steam oven). Results showed that the average recovery respectively ranged from 54.1–109.3% and 65.1–116.6% for 20 HAs and from 87.9–102.8% and 87.5–101.3% for 7 COPs in the skin and meat portions of boiled chicken breast, while the coefficient of variation (CV) of the intra-day and inter-day variability for HAs respectively ranged from 5.27–12.09% and 4.23–12.68% in chicken skin, as well as 7.34–18.32% and 6.13–15.54% in chicken meat. For COPs, the CV of the intra-day and inter-day variability respectively ranged from 0.82–4.14% and 1.80–6.30% in chicken skin, as well as 1.40–9.04% and 3.02–9.81% in chicken meat. A total of 8 HAs were formed in roasted chicken, with a higher level of total HAs being shown in the skin portion of roasted chicken flavored with soy sauce and cooked in a fan oven. Also, for both roasting methods, the skin portion contained a higher level of total HAs than the meat portion, but a reversed trend was shown for total COPs with the exception of black pepper flavoring. Furthermore, in roasted chicken with 4 different flavorings, all of which showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the correlation between formation of HAs and COPs in the skin portion, while in the meat portion, only rosemary showed significant correlation (p
       
  • Ozone and plasma processing effect on green coconut water
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Elaine Porto, Elenilson G. Alves Filho, Lorena Mara A. Silva, Thatyane Vidal Fonteles, Ronnyely Braz Reis do Nascimento, Fabiano A.N. Fernandes, Edy Sousa de Brito, Sueli RodriguesIn this study, the effect of plasma and ozone processing on the quality of coconut water was evaluated. For ozone processing, the samples were submitted to different ozone loads and temperatures. For atmospheric cold plasma processing (ACP), samples were exposed to plasma under different frequencies and voltages. The coconut water pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, color, total phenolic content, and enzymatic activity were determined before and after treatments. The main compounds were also determined by NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Both processes did not change the pH values, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and color. Chemometrics analysis of 1H NMR dataset showed no relevant changes after the processing. All ozone treatments promoted complete inactivation of POD activity and did not affect the content of phenolic compounds. After ACP, the smallest POD residual activity was observed when higher frequencies were applied, and slight changes in phenolic compounds content were observed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Characterization of important sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Lang baijiu
           by application of gas chromatography-olfactometry, flame photometric
           detection, nitrogen phosphorus detector and odor activity value
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): JianCai Zhu, YunWei Niu, ZuoBing XiaoThe volatile compounds in three Lang baijiu (“Honghualangshi, Y1”, “Langjiulangge, Y2”, and “Laolangjiu, Y3”) were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame photometric detection (FPD), and nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD) with the aid of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The results showed that a total of 60, 62, and 61 compounds with aroma contribution were present in samples Y1, Y2, and Y3, respectively. Additionally, the odor activity value (OAV) was used to evaluate the important compounds. The results indicated that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (OAV: 20-30), 3-mercaporhexyl acetate (OAV: 13-20), β-damascenone (OAV: 30-57), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 9-22), heptanal (OAV: 4-13), hexanal (OAV: 9-12) and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (OAV: 4-14) contributed to the aroma of Lang baijiu. Finally, six compounds (ethyl hexanoate, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, (E)-2-decenal, guaiacol, 3-mercaporhexyl acetate, and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine) with different OAVs were used to determine the effect on the threshold of aromatic reconstitution (AR). It can be seen that ethyl hexanoate, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-mercaporhexyl acetate, and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine could significantly decrease the threshold of AR. The possible reason was that these four compounds had synergistic effects with the aroma compounds in AR. Compared to ethyl hexanoate and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, the threshold of AR had a slight difference in the presence of (E)-2-decenal in AR. After the addition of guaiacol, the threshold value of AR was significantly increased, indicating a masking effect between guaiacol and the original aroma compounds in AR.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Development of an innovative phytosterol derivatization method to improve
           the HPLC-DAD analysis and the ESI-MS detection of plant sterols/stanols
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Franks Kamgang Nzekoue, Giovanni Caprioli, Massimo Ricciutelli, Manuela Cortese, Alessandro Alesi, Sauro Vittori, Gianni SagratiniHPLC analyses of phytosterols are associated with the issues of sensitivity due to their high lipophilicity and their lack of chromophore. These problems could be solved through chemical modifications of plant sterols/stanols structures. Therefore, the present study aims to develop a new method for phytosterols derivatization. This method was performed using dansyl chloride (4 mg ml-1) as derivatizing agent and different reaction parameters have been optimized. The highest yields of phytosterol derivatization were obtained with 4‐dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as catalyst at a concentration of 8 mg ml-1 and dichloromethane as reaction solvent. In addition, 40 ˚C was the best reaction temperature for 30 min as the best reaction time. This derivatization method presented a high reproducibility (%RSD = 1.2 – 2.7%) and a good linearity (R2=0.9982 – 0.9999). The UV absorption intensities after derivatization showed a 23-fold increment for plant sterols and a 400-fold increment for plant stanols. Moreover, this derivatization method allowed the use of high and more selective wavelengths of detection and improved the chromatographic separation of phytosterols. Furthermore, the developed method allowed the ESI-MS ionization and analysis of phytosterols. This method can therefore contribute to the improvement of the HPLC analyses of plant sterols/stanols.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Cold-pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus) oil: Chemistry and
           functionality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Sook Chin ChewRapeseed oil is the second most abundant produced edible oil in the world with low erucic acid and low glucosinolate. Thus, the quality of rapeseed oil had attracted global attention. Cold-pressed rapeseed oil appeared to be a preferred choice than refined oil as no solvent and less processing involved in the cold-pressing. The methods of cold-pressing and microwave pre-treatment on the extraction yield and bioactive compounds of rapeseed oil have been reviewed in this paper. Cold-pressed rapeseed oil offers health benefits due to its preserved fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds. High phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phytosterols, and carotenoids contents in the cold-pressed rapeseed oil offer health benefits like regulating blood lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control, as well as offer antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. Besides using as edible oil, cold-pressed rapeseed oil find applications in animal feed, chemical, and fuel.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Protein digestion of different protein sources using the INFOGEST static
           digestion model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Raquel Sousa, Reto Portmann, Sébastien Dubois, Isidra Recio, Lotti EggerIn vitro digestion systems are valuable tools for understanding and monitoring the complex behavior of food degradation during digestion, thus proving to be good candidates for replacing in vivo assays. The aim of the present work was to study protein hydrolysis in a selection of different protein sources using the harmonized INFOGEST static protocol: three isolated proteins (collagen, zein, and whey protein) and five foods (sorghum flour, wheat bran cereals, peanuts, black beans, and pigeon peas). The proteins of all the substrates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and HPLC-MS/MS. Individual amino acid composition was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). EAA/NEAA (essential amino acids/ nonessential amino acids) ratios in the substrates from low to high were as follows: wheat bran cereals, peanuts, collagen, zein, whey protein, sorghum, pigeon peas, and black beans. The results revealed sorghum, whey protein, and zein as good sources of BCAA. In all substrates, no intact protein from the substrates was visually detected by SDS-PAGE after the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion with the INFOGEST protocol. However, digestion-resistant peptides were detected in all substrates after the intestinal digestion phase. Protein hydrolysis was high in whey protein isolate and pigeon pea and low for wheat bran cereals and bovine collagen.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Customized oxygenation barrels as a new strategy for controlled wine aging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): S. Prat-García, I. Nevares, V. Martínez-Martínez, M. del Alamo-SanzaThe process of aging red wines in barrels is a common practice that aims to improve the quality of the wine. Oxygen, together with the compounds released by the oak wood, is responsible for this improvement through interaction with the wine compounds during the process. Wood as a natural product presents a series of highly significant discontinuities in its characteristics, not only between trees of the same species, but even between different areas of the same log. It is not surprising that, despite the homogenization of the characteristics of the wood due to the number of staves in a barrel (around 30 pieces), barrels made from the same batch of wood show very different behavior when aging the same wine. This work presents the results of applying a new way of classifying wood in cooperage by means of image analysis of the staves, based on its anatomical characteristics besides grain and handling of the staves, in order to achieve the production of barrels with a desired oxygen transfer rate (OTR) potential and also with great homogeneity between manufacturing batches. The two batches of barrels built with high and low OTR proved to be very homogeneous and the oxygen dosage of the high OTR barrels was more than twice that of the low OTR barrels, which confirmed the success of the system developed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Oleic acid and hydroxytyrosol present in olive oil promote ROS and
           inflammatory response in normal cultures of murine dermal fibroblasts
           through the NF-κB and NRF2 pathways
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Bruna Romana-Souza, Bianca Oliveira Saguie, Natália Pereira de Almeida Nogueira, Marcia Paes, Samuel dos Santos Valença, Georgia Correa Atella, Andréa Monte-Alto-CostaFew studies have evaluated the effects of olive oil on normal tissues like skin and its components. Hence, we investigated whether olive oil could increase the production of ROS and oxidative damage in murine dermal fibroblast cultures in a short-term exposition. In addition, we evaluated the role of oleic acid and hydroxytyrosol, which are the two most important components of olive oil, in the associated mechanisms of action, and the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids from olive oil. To study this, neonatal murine dermal fibroblasts (NMDF) were incubated with olive oil, oleic acid, or hydroxytyrosol for 24 or 72 hours. The NMDF incubated with olive oil or oleic acid showed an increase in the production of ROS after 24 hours, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation after 72 hours, as well as increased expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after 72 hours. However, NMDF treated with olive oil or hydroxytyrosol demonstrated an increase in the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) after 72 hours. In addition, NMDF treated with olive oil also showed an increase in the protein expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), which promotes triacylglycerol synthesis, and in the levels of triacylglycerols. The microscopic analysis showed Nile red-positive lipid droplets inside olive oil-treated NMDF after 72 hours. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated high levels of oleic acid in the olive oil-treated NMDF after 72 hours. In conclusion, oleic acid present in the olive oil promotes the production of ROS and oxidative damage in murine dermal fibroblasts, which leads to NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression, while hydroxytyrosol promotes NRF2 and HO-1 expression. In addition, NMDF area capable of absorbing long-chain fatty acids derived from olive oil, which promotes the synthesis and the accumulation of triacylglycerols into cytoplasm of NMDF through DGAT1 activation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Oxidative stability of extra-virgin olive oil enriched or not with
           lycopene. Importance of the initial quality of the oil for its performance
           during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Bárbara Nieva-Echevarría, Encarnación Goicoechea, María D. GuillénThe performance of commercial non-enriched and lycopene-enriched extra-virgin olive oils (EVOO) during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was studied in order to elucidate potential benefits of lycopene addition. Samples were analyzed before and after digestion by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). EVOO samples differed in both main (oleic and linoleic acyl groups) and minor components (phenolic and oxidation compounds). Regardless of the presence of lycopene, all the samples reached a high degree of lipolysis and showed high stability towards oxidation under digestion conditions. Rather than oxidation reactions, the hydroperoxides initially present in the oil were reduced to more stable hydroxides. Likewise, hydroxy-diene isomerization from cis,trans to trans,trans occurred. Hence, the presumed antioxidant effect of lycopene was not noticed during in vitro digestion of EVOO. Similar experiments carried out with a more polyunsaturated oil (sunflower oil) indicated that lycopene slowed down the advance of oxidation slightly. However, in the case of EVOO, its initial quality prevailed over the slight antioxidant effect exerted by lycopene at the concentration present in commercial samples, determining the oxidation compound profile of the digests.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Measuring consumer emotional response and acceptance to sustainable food
           products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Qian Yang, Yuchi Shen, Tim Foster, Joanne HortWith current global challenges such as population growth, climate change and water scarcity, it is critical to develop sustainable strategies to achieve food security. One way to tackle this is by developing new products that use alternative and more sustainable ingredients. Bambara groundnut is a low-impact African legume as it can be grown on marginal soils and is resistant to high temperatures. The aim of this study was to investigate UK consumer acceptability and emotional response to snack products containing Bambara groundnut flour as an alternative sustainable ingredient. A key objective was to understand the contribution that measuring emotional response would reveal. Additionally the impact of extrinsic information on consumer acceptability and emotional response to snack products was investigated by sharing information concerning Bambara groundnut’s sustainability and nutritional credentials. 100 UK participants were recruited to evaluate two biscotti and two cracker products. For each category a standard product made from standard ingredients sourced commercially, and one made replacing some of standard flour with Bambara flour were obtained. For each sample, participants were asked to rate their overall liking and emotional response based on sensory properties of the product (the blind condition). Participants were invited back for a second session, where they were informed about global resource challenges, and the sustainable features and nutritional value of Bambara, and which products contained this as an ingredient (informed condition). Under the blind condition, no significant differences in overall liking were observed between standard and Bambara products, indicating UK consumers accept the sensory properties of products that contain Bambara flour. Interestingly, the extrinsic information shifted consumer emotional response towards more positive emotions and less negative emotions when consuming products containing Bambara flour. It also made them felt less guilty when consuming the Bambara products, suggesting consumers engage with the idea of sustainable ingredients, and that this sustainable ingredient has potential for future new product development. It also highlighted the value of measuring emotional response for novel products to understand what may drive purchase behaviour when products are matched for liking. Food neophobia status did not impact product acceptability and emotional response between Bambara and standard products, however overall a lower emotional response was found for medium neophobic consumers in general who are more likely to evade novel products.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The mechanistic effect of bromelain and papain on tenderization in jumbo
           squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Xu Jun-hui, Cao Hui-juan, Zhang Bin, Yao HuiJumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle is rather hard and tough, which directly affects consumer acceptance. In this study, the tenderization effect of bromelain and papain on squid muscle during enzymolysis is examined and compared with an untreated control and water-treated sample. Squid mantle were incubated with different solutions (water, bromelain, and papain solution) for 40 min in a 30°C water bath. Then, the mantle samples were subjected to water holding capacity (WHC) analysis, texture evaluation, biochemical determination, and histological observations. The results revealed that bromelain and papain disadvantageously decrease the water holding capacity when compared to the control and water-treated samples. Furthermore, following tenderization with bromelain or papain, muscle hardness, shear force, myofibrillar protein content, and Ca2+ ATPase activity were all significantly decreased. Additionally, some essential amino acids were released following tenderization. When examining the myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), bromelain and papain were shown to cause high levels of hydrolysis in myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Moreover, microstructural imaging indicated that the tenderization treatments disrupted myofibrils and generated a larger number of small fragments in the muscle tissues, subsequently decreasing microstructure stability and integrity. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed that bromelain and papain have a high proteolytic activity, with some small peptides and/or short fragments detected post-tenderization. The results presented herein demonstrated that bromelain and papain improved squid muscle tenderness and can be utilized to ensure a more desirable squid product.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Characterization of Perceptual Interactions among Ester Aroma Compounds
           Found in Chinese Moutai Baijiu by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Odor
           Intensity, Olfactory Threshold and Odor Activity Value
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Yunwei Niu, Quan Zhu, Zuobing XiaoEster aroma compounds in Chinese Moutai Baijiu were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC−MS), and 13 of them were recognized as the important aroma compounds based on their flavor dilution (FD) values and odor activity values (OAVs). The perceptual interactions of ethyl isobutyrate and ethyl isovalerate for the overall esters aroma in 53% aqueous ethanol solution were studied through the odor intensity, olfactory threshold and OAV. The Vector Model showed that odor partial addition had occurred after mixing. The Feller’s additive model and OAV analysis revealed that various concentrations of ethyl isobutyrate and ethyl isovalerate gave additive or synergistic odor effects for mixtures. In particular, as the concentration of ethyl isobutyrate was increased before mixing, the trend of increasing degree of interaction was observed in the mixture.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Flocculation behavior and gel properties of egg yolk/κ-carrageenan
           composite aqueous and emulsion systems: effect of NaCl
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Junhua Li, Lilan Xu, Yujie Su, Cuihua Chang, Yanjun Yang, Luping GuIn this study, the influence of NaCl on the flocculation behavior and gel properties of egg yolk/κ-carrageenan mixed dispersions or emulsions were studied. As a result of NaCl incorporation, there was a decrease in the mean droplet size, zeta potential, degree of flocculation and viscosity of the mixed dispersions/emulsions, and the onset point of gelation was also brought forward. Increasing the concentration of NaCl led to a significant increase in gel strength and decrease in gel cohesiveness. Results from low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) confirmed that the addition of NaCl could significantly reduce the hydration ability of gel molecules and increase the content of immobilized water of hydrogels as the gel strength increased, while the water holding capacity of emulsion gels was depressed with the incorporation of oil. These findings suggested the flocculation state and gel properties of egg yolk/κ-carrageenan mixed dispersions/emulsions can be tailored by adjusting NaCl for food formulations.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • In vitro digestion effect on mineral bioaccessibility and antioxidant
           bioactive compounds of plant-based beverages
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Joyce Grazielle Siqueira Silva, Ana Paula Rebellato, Elem Tamirys dos Santos Caramês, Ralf Greiner, Juliana Azevedo Lima PalloneConsumption of plant-based beverages (PBB) is a growing trend; and have been used as viable substitutes for dairy based products. To date, no study has comparatively analyzed mineral composition and effect of in vitro digestion on the bioaccessibility of different PBB. The aim of this research was to investigate the content of essential minerals (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn)) and to estimate the effect of in vitro digestion in plant-based beverages, and their antioxidant bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity). Moreover, the presence of antinutritional factors, such as myo-inositol phosphates fractions, were evaluated. Samples of PBB (rice, cashew nut, almond, peanut, coconut, oat, soy, blended or not with another ingredients, fortified with minerals or naturally present) and milk for comparison were evaluated. TPC ranged from 0.2 mg GAEq/L for coconut to 12.4 mg GAEq/L for rice and, the antioxidant capacity (DPPH) ranged from 3.1 to 306.5 µmol TE/L for samples containing peanut and oat, respectively. Only a few samples presented myo-inositol phosphates fractions in their composition, mostly IP5 and IP6, especially cashew nut beverages. Mineral content showed a wide range for Ca, ranging from 10 to 1697.33 mg/L for rice and coconut, respectively. The Mg content ranged from 6.29 to 251.23-268.43 mg/L for rice and cashew nut beverages, respectively. Fe content ranged from 0.76 mg/L to 12.89 mg/L for the samples of rice. Zinc content ranged from 0.57 mg/L to 8.13 mg/L for samples of oat and soy, respectively. Significant variation was observed for Ca (8.2-306.6 mg/L) and Mg (1.9-107.4 mg/L) dialyzed between the beverages, with lower concentrations of Fe (1.0 mg/L) and Zn (0.5 mg/L) in dialyzed fractions. This study provides at least 975 analytically determined laboratory results, providing important information for characterization and comparison of different plant-based beverages.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Evaluation of geographical label in consumers’ decision-making process:
           A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Fabio Gaetano Santeramo, Emilia LamonacaThe Geographical origin of agri-food products has become astrategic tool of differentiation: it is a unique attribute which makes productsdifficult to reproduce, and presumed to be a quality cue for agri-food products. Consumer studies on the relevance of geographical labelling provide heterogeneous evidence on the relevance of this extrinsic attribute as compared to the relevance of other product characteristics.A systematic review of consumer studies on the relevance of geographical labelling has been conducted, and collected data have been quantitatively analysed through a meta-regression approach, in order to assess drivers of differences in relevance of geographical labelling across studies. An ad hoc index has been built to measure the relevance of geographical labelling as compared to other attributes of a product. Several chosen control factors allowed to explain differences in the relevance of geographical label across studies in terms of characteristics of studies (structural heterogeneity), methodological issues (methodological heterogeneity), and publication processes.Results show that the relevance of geographical label, although not biased by publication selection, is influenced by the structural characteristics of studies and, to a lower extent, by issues related to the publication process. In particular, the attitude of consumers towards geographical labels tend to be product- and origin-specific: geographical labelling is the main differentiation tool for expensive products (e.g., wine), but is of low relevance for several countries depending on country-specific factors (e.g., nationality, culture, image and reputation). Managerial and policy implications are provided.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Semnostachya menglaensis
           Tsui by gas chromatography-olfactometry, odor activity values, aroma
           recombination, and omission analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 131Author(s): Chaojun He, Ziyong Li, Hongxia Liu, Haining Zhang, Liye Wang, Hong ChenThe aroma profile of Semnostachya menglaensis Tsui (S. menglaensis) was identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A total of 29 odor-active compounds, which have aroma intensities ranging from 0.2 ± 0.5 to 10.0 ± 0.0 were detected by GC-O, whereas 14 compounds were detected as important odorants by quantitative analysis and odor activity values (OAVs). An aroma recombination model prepared by mixing 12 odor-active compounds with OAVs ≥ 1 in an “aroma-free” S. menglaensis matrix showed good similarity to the aroma of original S. menglaensis. Omission tests showed that in the overall aroma of S. menglaensis, 2-propionyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 1-octen-3-ol, and linalool were the key odorants, and 2-acetyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, 2-propionylpyridine, and α-ionone were also important.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Change in taste-altering non-volatile components of blood and common
           orange fruit during cold storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 131Author(s): Simona Fabroni, Margherita Amenta, Nicolina Timpanaro, Aldo Todaro, Paolo RapisardaCold storage may cause changes in the volatile and non-volatile components of orange fruit, in association with the decrement of the characteristic fruit flavour and sensory acceptability. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes of some non-volatile taste-altering components (total and individual sugars, acids, anthocyanins, putrescine and limonin) that may affect the organoleptic perception of cold-stored orange fruit. Three blood orange varieties ('Tarocco TDV', 'Tarocco Gallo', and 'Moro') and a common variety ('Washington navel') were stored at 6 ± 1 °C and 90–95% Relative Humidity (RH) for 60 d. Chemical and sensory assessments were performed during fruit storage at 15 d intervals. During storage, no dramatic change of the physicochemical parameters was recorded and the ascorbic acid content remained almost unchanged in all varieties. As expected, total anthocyanins significantly increased during storage. Limonin significantly decreased in all varieties. A consistent and significant increase in putrescine occurred during storage in the fruit of the pigmented varieties, not recorded in the common orange variety. Putrescine behaviour showed direct correlation with the accumulation of off-flavour in cold-stored 'Moro' and 'T. TDV' fruit, showing a clear influence of its relative concentration on the sensory perception of fruit. Finally, principal component analysis showed that the complete quality profile of the four investigated varieties represented clear differentiation without overlapping clusters. Our results suggest that the arise of a negative sensory perception in cold stored blood orange fruit might be linked to their accumulation of putrescine.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Importance of digestive mucus and mucins for designing new functional food
           ingredients
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 131Author(s): Mounira Kebouchi, Zeeshan Hafeez, Yves Le Roux, Annie Dary-Mourot, Magali GenayThe mucus, mainly composed of the glycoproteins mucins, is a rheological substance that covers the intestinal epithelium and acts as a protective barrier against a variety of harmful molecules, microbial infection and varying lumen environment conditions. Alterations in the composition or structure of the mucus could lead to various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer. Recent studies revealed that an exogenous intake of probiotic bacteria or other dietary components (such as bioactive peptides and probiotics) derived from food influence mucus layer properties as well as modulate gene expression and secretion of mucins. Therefore, the use of such components for designing new functional ingredients and then foods, could constitute a novel approach to preserve the properties of mucus. After presenting some aspects of the mucus and mucins in the gastrointestinal tract as well as mucus role in the gut health, this review will address role of dietary ingredients in improving mucus/mucin production and provides new suggestions for further investigations of how dietary ingredients/probiotics based functional foods can be developed to maintain or improve the gut health.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Food protein-derived iron-chelating peptides: The binding mode and
           promotive effects of iron bioavailability
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 131Author(s): Wenfei Wu, Yiying Yang, Na Sun, Zhijie Bao, Songyi LinIron is known as an essential nutrient in the human body. Insufficient iron uptake is easy to result in iron deficiency anemia, which is a public health problem in both developing and developed countries. Iron, complexed by iron-chelating peptides, have been proposed as a superior candidate to ionized iron for improving iron absorption and bioavailability. Nowadays, as more and more iron-chelating peptides are identified from different food sources, the iron-peptide binding mode attracts much attention. Meanwhile, many studies have been conducted on the iron-chelating peptides to make clear their iron bioavailability enhancement potential. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of research progress in food protein-derived iron-chelating peptides. The review would be of particular value for iron-peptide complexes as functional ingredients or iron supplements.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Metabolome and proteome of ethylene-treated papayas reveal different
           pathways to volatile compounds biosynthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 131Author(s): Roberta Ghedini Der Agopian, João Paulo Fabi, Beatriz Rosana Cordenunsi-LysenkoPapayas undergo fast postharvest changes triggered by the plant hormone ethylene. Some important pathways have been analyzed in limited studies (transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics); however, broad use of proteomics or untargeted metabolomics have not yet been used in papayas. In this study, two groups of green papayas (150 days after anthesis—physiological maturity for papayas) were treated with ethylene at different times (6 and 12 h) and their metabolic changes in fruit pulp were evaluated with untargeted metabolomics (general metabolites and volatile compounds) and proteomics. Polar metabolites exhibited distinct patterns, especially with regard to some amino and fatty acids during stimulated ripening. In particular, glutamate increased through a possible gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt and/or proteases activity. Moreover, the stimulated ripening altered the volatile compounds and the protein profiles. The results suggest that changes in membrane breakdown and the resulting oxidative processes could be responsible for volatile compound production, altering some sensorial qualities of papayas, such as pulp softening and the specific papaya linalool volatile compound increment. Thus, GABA levels could also be a strong biological marker for papaya development and ripening stages. This study applied two “omic” techniques that provided insight into how the plant hormone ethylene could influence papaya postharvest quality.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of lyophilization on the physicochemical and rheological properties
           of food grade liposomes that encapsulate rutin
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Johana Lopez-Polo, Andrea Silva-Weiss, Begoña Giménez, Plinio Cantero-López, Ricardo Vega, Fernando A. OsorioThe potential use of liposomes as carriers for food active ingredients can be limited by their physical and chemical instabilities in aqueous dispersions, especially for long-term storage. Lyophilization, a process commonly used in the food industry, can also be applied to stabilize and preserve liposomes and to extend their shelf-life. In this work, liposomes with potential use for designing functional foods were prepared with soy phospholipids and rutin. Homogenization and ultrasound were used for particle size reduction. Liposomal stability was evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering, microscopy and rheological properties. Spherical and unilamellar liposomes were obtained in this work. Zeta potential (ξ = values were around −40 mV), which indicates a great suspension stability even for more than 30 days of storage. Rutin exerted a protective effect by both preventing damage to the liposome bilayer and maintaining the spherical structure after 56 days of storage. Lyophilization caused an increase in the size of the vesicles, reaching sizes around 419 nm and aggregation of vesicles with probably structural damage after 21 storage days. However, it helped to keep the rutin encapsulated (81.9%) for longer time, when compared to refrigerated liposomes. Rheological measurements showed, in general, that the power law model fitted most of the experimental results and dynamic rheological tests showed a sol-gel phase transition between 35 and 45 °C. Lyophilization caused a significant change in all evaluated rheological parameters. For the in vitro release tests, the liposomal bilayer acted as a barrier for the rutin release to the food simulating medium; therefore, the release rate of the antioxidant from the rutin encapsulated liposome was slow compared to the free rutin release rate.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • One-step rapid extraction of phytosterols from vegetable oils
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Claudia Aparecida Silva Almeida, Sueli Regina Baggio, Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti, Neura BragagnoloThe conditions for the extraction of phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) from vegetal oils were optimized by means of response surface methodology (RSM). A 24 central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to investigate the effects of four independent variables: sample weight (g), saponification temperature (°C), saponification time (h) and number of extractions (n). The CCRD was carried out in 27 trials, including eight axial and three central points; and the response variables were the contents of campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and total phytosterols. The optimized conditions established by the RSM were 0.3 g of sample, saponification for 3 h at 50 °C and 4 extractions with n-hexane. Satisfactory values for linearity, recovery, repeatability, accuracy, precision, limits of detection (2.0–2.3 mg/100 g) and quantification (6.5–7.7 mg/100 g) were achieved. The optimized method was also validated by comparison with the official AOCS method, and the contents of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol did not show significant differences (p > 0.05) when determined by both methods. However, low values (p 
       
  • Compositional identification and authentication of Chinese honeys by 1H
           NMR combined with multivariate analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Chenxi He, Yun Liu, Huili Liu, Xin Zheng, Guiping Shen, Jianghua FengHoney authentication has been becoming more and more important and necessary to the honey producers, the consumers and the market regulatory authority due to its favorite organoleptic and healthy properties, high value and increasing export but prevalent falsification practice for economic motivation in China and the potential health risk of adulterated honey. In this study, we obtained the spectral profiles of 90 authentic and 75 adulterated Chinese honey samples by means of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and 65 kinds of major and minor components in honey were identified and quantified from their NMR spectra. Combining with the multivariate statistical analyses including principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and orthogonal partial least squared-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), the discrimination models were successfully established to identify the adulterated honeys from the authentic ones with an accurate rate of 97.6%. Furthermore, the corresponding volcano plot was used to screen out 8 components including proline, xylobiose, uridine, β-glucose, melezitose, turanose, lysine and an unknown component, which are responsible for the differentiation between the authentic and adulterated honeys and will help to control Chinese domestic honey market.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Seed isoflavone profiling of 1168 soybean accessions from major growing
           ecoregions in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Muhammad Azam, Shengrui Zhang, Ahmed M. Abdelghany, Abdulwahab S. Shaibu, Yue Feng, Yanfei Li, Yu Tian, Huilong Hong, Bin Li, Junming SunSoybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) isoflavones are secondary metabolites of great interest because of their beneficial impact on human health. We profiled the seed isoflavone composition of 1168 soybean accessions collected from diverse ecoregions of China in three locations over two years. We observed significant differences in isoflavone content among the accessions, accession types, years of growth and ecoregions of origin. Total isoflavone (TIF) concentration of the soybean accessions ranged from 745 μg g−1 to 5,253.98 μg g−1, which represents a 7-fold difference. The highest mean TIF concentration (2689.27 μg g−1) was observed in the Huang Huai Hai Valley Region (HR) accessions, followed by accessions from the Southern Region (SR) and Northern Region (NR) with TIF concentration of 2518.91 μg g−1 and 1942.78 μg g−1, respectively. Thirty-five accessions were identified as elite soybean resources based on their higher TIF concentration (4024.74 μg g−1 to 5253.98 μg g−1). Pairwise correlation analysis showed significant positive correlations between individual isoflavones and TIF concentrations. Malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin showed the highest correlations with TIF concentration (r = 0.90 and r = 0.92, respectively), whereas acetyldaidzin showed the lowest correlation. The main isoflavone components had significant negative correlations with latitude and longitude, indicating that the geographical origin of the accessions influenced their seed isoflavone composition. Based on principal component analysis, glycosides and malonylglycosides of isoflavones were the major discriminative components for the soybean accessions. The present study demonstrated the geographical distribution of soybean seed isoflavone concentrations across the main ecoregion of China. The identified soybean accessions with both high and low TIF concentrations, which are desirable materials for industrial uses and could also be used as parents to breed soybean lines with improved isoflavone quantity and composition in the seeds.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of okra fruit powder supplementation on metabolic syndrome and gut
           microbiota diversity in high fat diet-induced obese mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Jin Zhang, Yan Zhao, Daoyuan Ren, Xingbin YangThis study aimed to explore a novel strategy for dietary okra fruit powder (OFP) consumption on attenuation of non-alcohol fatty liver damage, lipid metabolic disorder and gut microbiota dysbiosis and associated mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet and HFD feeds supplemented with or without OFP (2.5%, 5% and 10%, n = 10) for 12 weeks. The results showed that supplementation of OFP caused strong inhibition on HFD-caused high blood glucose, body weight gain and liver fat accumulation, as well as dyslipidemia involved in a dose-dependent modulation of hepatic FAS and CD36 expressions of obese mice. The hepatic LXR-α energy metabolism and PPAR-α pathway were also doubly activated by OFP to alleviate lipogenesis, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Malonaldehyde production was effectively antagonized, and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were elevated by OFP supplementation in HFD-fed mice. OFP also significantly improved colonic SCFAs (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyrate acid) formation, especially for butyrate production via increasing the proportion of selected butyrate-producing bacteria. OFP also dramatically modified the gut microbial species at the family level with suppressing an increase in Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and F/B ratio, and the decrease in Bacteroidetes caused by HFD. These findings support that dietary OFP consumption is a novel strategy to prevent obesity, metabolic syndrome and gut microbiota imbalance.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Microbial dynamics and volatilome profiles during the fermentation of
           Chinese northeast sauerkraut by Leuconostoc mesenteroides ORC 2 and
           Lactobacillus plantarum HBUAS 51041 under different salt concentrations
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Xiaozhe Yang, Wenzhong Hu, Zhilong Xiu, Aili Jiang, Xiangyan Yang, Sarengaowa, Yaru Ji, Yuge Guan, Ke FengThis study aimed to investigate the effects of salt concentration on the microbial community and flavor metabolites formed during northeast sauerkraut fermentation using a starter culture consisting of a combination Leuconostoc mesenteroides ORC 2 and Lactobacillus plantarum HBUAS 51041. The results revealed a correlation between microbiota and flavor metabolites, with the top 20 genera being identified using Illumina MiSeq. Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc were dominant genera throughout the fermentation process, and PCoA showed that the salt concentration had distinct impacts on the microbial community. The most abundant genus Lactobacillus (88.46%) was observed in the 0.5% salted sauerkraut at day 30. Forty-six flavor metabolites were identified by HS-SPME/GC–MS. The relative contents of esters, aldehydes and ketones showed the highest values in sauerkraut fermented with a 0.5% salt concentration. Sauerkraut fermented at 2.5 and 3.5% salt were characterized by higher relative contents of acids, alcohols, isothiocyanates and hydrocarbons. Spearman’s rank correlation test results showed that Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were closely related to flavor metabolites. These results showed the effects of salt concentration on fermentation of northeast sauerkraut, revealing that sauerkraut fermented with 0.5% salt possessed a higher abundance of Lactobacillus and accumulated more flavor compounds (esters, aldehydes, ketones, nitriles and sulfides), providing a potential alternative approach to meet the preference of consumers for desirable aromatic quality. The results of this study may contribute to the industrial production of sauerkraut in Northeastern China.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Food allergomics based on high-throughput and bioinformatics technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Chong Wang, Yanbo Wang, Guangming Liu, Linglin FuFood allergy is a serious food safety problem worldwide, and the investigation of food allergens is the foundation of preventing and treating them, but relevant knowledge is far from sufficient. With the advent of the “big data era”, it has been possible to investigate food allergens by high-throughput methods, proposing the concept of allergomics. Allergomics is the discipline studying the repertoire of allergens, which has relatively higher throughput and is faster and more sensitive than conventional methods. This review introduces the basis of allergomics and summarizes its major strategies and applications. Particularly, strategies based on immunoblotting, phage display, allergen microarray, and bioinformatics are reviewed in detail, and the advantages and limitations of each strategy are discussed. Finally, further development of allergomics is predicted. This provides basic theories and recent advances in food allergomics research, which could be insightful for both food allergy research and practical applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Novel insights into prebiotic properties on human health: a review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Iramaia Angelica Neri-Numa, Glaucia Maria PastoreDietary prebiotics can be metabolized by different colonic microorganisms and release several classes of metabolites, particularly SCFAs into the intestine lumen, influencing the host physiology. Thus, human microbiota has been the focus of one of the most dynamic research fields of our time and their efforts are directed to understand how prebiotics structures and the microbiota-derived metabolites acts on signaling cell pathways and epigenetic control. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview about the new concept of prebiotics and their mechanistic local and systemically insights related to the host health.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Dextrose equivalence of maltodextrins determines particle morphology
           development during single sessile droplet drying
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): I. Siemons, R.G.A. Politiek, R.M. Boom, R.G.M. van der Sman, M.A.I. SchutyserParticle morphology development during spray drying is critical to powder properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the dextrose equivalence (DE) of maltodextrins can be used as an indicator for the final particle morphology. Maltodextrins were characterized on glass transition temperature (Tg) and viscosity, where low DE-value maltodextrins exhibited higher Tg and viscosity than high DE maltodextrins (≥21). A new custom-built sessile single droplet dryer was used to analyse morphology development of minute maltodextrin droplets (R0∼100 μm) at 60°C and 90°C. Droplets with low DE showed early skin formation (2-5s) and developed smoothly shaped particles with large cavities. Rheology on low DE maltodextrin films at dry matter of 82% (w/w) suggested that drying droplets acquired elasticity after locking providing resistance against surface compression. After locking morphology development is probably halted as the glassy state is approached. On the contrary, rheology on high DE maltodextrin (≥21) films at dry matter of 93% (w/w) suggested that drying droplets with high DE developed viscous skins, which are susceptible to surface deformations, leading to wrinkling, folding or creasing particle morphologies. The results demonstrated that DE-value may be used as an indicator for particle morphology development when interpreted in view of the process conditions.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Rapid discrimination of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ by headspace-gas
           chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry fingerprints combined with
           principal component analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Weisheng Lv, Tong Lin, Zhongyuan Ren, Yingqiao Jiang, Jun Zhang, Fujun Bi, Lihong Gu, Huichan Hou, Jinna HeDried pericarps of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’, named Guangchenpi (GCP), have been used as both food and medicine in China for centuries. Due to its special flavour and taste, the price of GCP is much higher than those of dried pericarps from other Citrus reticulata Blanco varieties (collectively called “Chenpi”, CP). Therefore, some CP have been disguised has GCP by dishonest businessmen to obtain a higher profit. In this study, a simple, rapid, effective and economic analytical method based on headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) was established to discriminate GCP and CP by their volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to extract meaningful attributes from VOCs based on the GC-IMS chromatograms and to give the analysis results. Twelve, 12 and 14 markers were identified and established as the characteristic fingerprints of GCP analysis of 45 batches of samples via SE-54, OV-1701 and Inter Cap WAX gas chromatographic columns, respectively. The PCA results indicated that GCP and CP could be effectively discriminated. This study confirmed the potential of HS-GC-IMS combined with PCA as a reliable analytical screening technique to discriminate between GCP and CP.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • β-lactoglobulin micro- and nanostructures as bioactive compounds vehicle:
           In vitro studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Lívia S. Simões, Joana T. Martins, Ana C. Pinheiro, António A. Vicente, Oscar L. Ramosβ-Lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is known to be capable to bind hydrophilic and hydrophobic bioactive compounds. This research aimed to assess the in vitro performance of β-Lg micro- (diameter ranging from 200 to 300 nm) and nano (diameter < 100 nm) structures associated to hydrophilic and hydrophobic model compounds on Caco-2 cells and under simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. Riboflavin and quercetin were studied as hydrophilic and hydrophobic model compounds, respectively. Cytotoxicity experiment was conducted using in vitro cellular model based on human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells. Moreover, the digestion process was simulated using the harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion model, where samples were taken at each phase of digestion process - oral, gastric and intestinal - and characterized in terms of particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), surface charge by dynamic light scattering (DLS); protein hydrolysis degree by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBSA) assay and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; and bioactive compound concentration. Caco-2 cell viability was not affected up to 21 x 10-3 mg mL-1 of riboflavin and 16 x 10-3 mg mL-1 quercetin on β-Lg micro- and nanostructures. In the oral phase, β-Lg structures’ particle size, PDI and surface charge values were not changed comparing to the initial β-Lg structures (i.e., before being subjected to in vitro GI digestion). During gastric digestion, β-Lg structures were resistant to proteolytic enzymes and to acid environment of the stomach – confirmed by TNBSA and native gel electrophoresis. In vitro digestion results indicated that β-Lg micro- and nanostructures protected both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds from gastric conditions and deliver them to target site (i.e., intestinal phase). In addition, β-Lg structures were capable to enhance riboflavin and quercetin bioaccessibility and bioavailability potential compared to bioactive compounds in their free form. This study indicated that β-Lg micro- and nanostructures were capable to enhance hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds bioavailability potential and they can be used as oral delivery systems.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Health Issues and Technological Aspects of Plant-based Alternative Milk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Aline R.A. Silva, Marselle M.N. Silva, Bernardo D. RibeiroA growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons, like cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA), lactose intolerance (LI), or as a lifestyle choice. Plant-based milk substitutes, or plant extracts, are water-soluble extracts of legumes, oilseeds, cereals or pseudocereals that resemble bovine milk in appearance. It is produced by reducing the size of the raw material, extracted in water and subsequently homogenized, being an alternative to cow's milk. They are considered cow's milk replacers due to similar chemical composition and can also be used as a substitute for direct use or in some animal milk-based preparations. On the other hand, these substitutes exhibit different sensory characteristics, stability and nutritional composition from cow's milk. They are manufactured by extracting the raw material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Others process like homogenization and thermal treatments are indispensable to improve the suspension and microbiological stabilities of the final product so that can be consumed. However new and advanced non-thermal processing technologies such as ultra-high pressure homogenization and pulsed electric field processing are being researched for tackling the problems related to increase of shelf life, emulsion stability, nutritional completeness and sensory acceptability without the use of high temperatures. Some pre-treatments such as peeling, bleaching or soaking can be performed on the raw material in order to improve the final product. The nutritional properties are influenced by the plant source, processing, and fortification. The addition of other ingredients as sugar, oil and flavorings is done to the plant-based milk substitute to make them more palatable and be more acceptable to consumers. Thus, the aim is to review the main reasons for the consumption of plant-based milk substitute as well as the raw materials used and the technological aspects of its production.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Isolation, characterization and application of a polyvalent phage capable
           of controlling Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in different food
           matrices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Hoang Minh Duc, Hoang Minh Son, Hazel Pang Shu Yi, Jun Sato, Pham Hong Ngan, Yoshimitsu Masuda, Ken-ichi Honjoh, Takahisa MiyamotoSalmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are the most important foodborne pathogens, causing serious food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. Bacteriophages are increasingly considered as novel antibacterial agents to control foodborne pathogens. In this study, 8 Salmonella phages and 10 E. coli O157:H7 phages were isolated from chicken products. A polyvalent phage PS5 capable of infecting S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 was further characterized and its efficacy in reducing these foodborne pathogens was evaluated in in vitro and in foods. Morphology, one-step growth, and stability assay showed that phage PS5 was a myovirus, with relatively short latent periods, large burst sizes, and high stability. Genome sequencing analysis revealed that the genome of PS5 does not contain any genes associated to antibiotic resistance, toxins, lysogeny, and virulence factors. In broth, phage PS5 significantly decreased the viable counts of all the three bacterial hosts by more than 1.3 log CFU/mL compared to controls after 2 h of incubation at 4˚C and 24˚C. In foods, treatment with PS5 also resulted in significant reductions of viable counts of all the three bacterial hosts compared to controls at temperatures tested. This is the first report on single phage capable of simultaneously controlling S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 in both in vitro and in foods.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Children’s liking and wanting of foods vary over multiple bites/sips of
           consumption: A case study of foods containing wild blueberry powder in the
           amounts targeted to deliver bioactive phytonutrients for children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Han-Seok Seo, Sean H. Adams, Luke Howard, Cindy Brownmiller, Victoria Hogan, Jin-Ran Chen, Ragita C. PramudyaTo encourage children to frequently consume wild blueberries as part of their dietary patterns, incorporating blueberry powder into specific foods may be an effective strategy. Thus, it is important to determine appropriate types of food products that both minimize food processing-induced loss of beneficial components of blueberries (e.g., anthocyanins) and satisfy at the same time both nutritional and sensory aspects. For clinical studies assessing the health benefits of blueberry-containing food samples, it would be important to ensure children consume the entire portion of the test samples. This study, therefore, aimed at determining how sensory acceptability (liking) and psychological reward (wanting) of wild blueberry-based foods vary over multiple steps of ad libitum consumption: appearance, first bite/sip, half bite/sip, and full consumption. Five different types of foods containing the targeted amount of wild blueberry powder were prepared for sensory testing (oatmeal bar, beverage, ice pop, gummy, and cookie), and the residual amounts of total anthocyanin and chlorogenic acid were measured to confirm levels targeted to deliver bioactive amounts of these phytochemicals. Results showed that while overall liking and desire to eat did not differ among the five samples at the appearance and first bite/sip steps, they differed significantly at the end of consumption. Although children liked and wanted to consume the cookies more when compared to beverages, ice pops, and/or gummies, total anthocyanin contents were lower in cookies and gummies than in wild blueberry powder, beverage, and ice pop samples. Notably, the oatmeal bars with significant amounts of total anthocyanin and chlorogenic acid did not significantly differ from the cookies with respect to overall liking, desire to eat, and the amount consumed. In conclusion, this study shows that sensory evaluation using multiple bites/sips of ad libitum food consumption, along with a measurement of beneficial compounds, is efficient in determining appropriate vehicles for clinical studies of wild blueberry-containing foods.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Comprehensive identification and quantification of unexploited phenolic
           compounds from red and yellow araçá (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) by
           LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Luana P. Mallmann, Bruna Tischer, Márcia Vizzotto, Eliseu Rodrigues, Vitor ManfroiLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS was used to comprehensively characterise the non-extractable phenolic compounds (NEPC) in red and yellow araçá genotypes. Results showed a total of 45 and 43 phenolic compounds in the NEPC fraction and, similarly, 51 and 50 compounds in extractable phenolic compounds (EPC) fraction from red and yellow araçá, respectively. Gallic acid and ellagic acid were the unique compounds found in both fractions. The NEPC fraction represented about 35% (m/m) of the total phenolic content and was characterised by an abundance of phenolic acids, while the EPC fraction was rich in flavanols. Although NEPC represented one-third of the total phenolic compounds found in araçá, its antioxidant capacity (against peroxyl radical) was 50% higher than the EPC fraction. The results of this work show that the NEPC fraction of araçá has great diversity and a relatively high concentration of low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Hygiene and humanization: breaking the traditional view of food safety
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Rayane Stephanie Gomes de Freitas, Elke StedefeldtDespite efforts at various levels, foodborne diseases are an extremely relevant global public health issue. This letter emphasizes the differences between the hygienist approach and the concept of sanitary risk in order to stimulate insights for researchers and decision-makers on the necessary changes in the working, training, and education modes of all agents involved in food production in the face of the new and old challenges in the food safety field.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Aluminium content and effect of in vitro digestion on bioaccessible
           fraction in cereal-based baby foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Esther Lima de Paiva, Camila Medeiros, Raquel Fernanda Milani, Marcelo Antônio Morgano, Juliana Azevedo Lima Pallone, Adriana Pavesi Arisseto-BragottoThe aim of this work was to determine the total concentration and the effect of in vitro digestion on the bioaccessible fraction of aluminium (Al) in 35 different cereal-based baby food samples and estimate the exposure to this element considering the consumption of this product. Total Al content was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after oxidative microwave digestion. An in vitro digestion method was applied and optimized to evaluate the bioaccessible fraction. The methods performance was efficient for both approached analysis and presented limits of detection and quantitation of 53 μg kg-1 and 89 μg kg-1, respectively. Total concentration and bioaccessibility varied according to the product composition (rice, oat, wheat, barley, corn, multicereal and fruit). Multicereals and fruit-based (plum) cereals presented the highest total Al concentrations (8.82 mg kg-1 and 7.49 mg kg-1, respectively), whilst lower values were observed for corn and rice flour cereals (0.92 mg kg-1 and 1.09 mg kg-1, respectively). The bioaccessible fraction varied from 1.5% to 10.4% in the evaluated samples. Exposure to Al was estimated and compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 2 mg kg-1 body weight. The results showed that the daily consumption of three portions of cereals contributes up to 10.48% of the PTWI, when considering the total Al concentration reported in this study.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Olive oil by-product as functional ingredient in bakery products.
           influence of processing and evaluation of biological effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Mattia Di Nunzio, Gianfranco Picone, Federica Pasini, Elena Chiarello, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Francesco Capozzi, Andrea Gianotti, Alessandra BordoniNowadays, the strong demand for adequate nutrition is accompanied by concern about environmental pollution and there is a considerable emphasis on the recovery and recycling of food by-products and wastes. In this study, we focused on the exploitation of olive pomace as functional ingredient in biscuits and bread. Standard and enriched bakery products were made using different flours and fermentation protocols. After characterization, they were in vitro digested and used for supplementation of intestinal cells (Caco-2), which underwent exogenous inflammation. The enrichment caused a significant increase in the phenolic content in all products, particularly in the sourdough fermented ones. Sourdough fermentation also increased tocol concentration. The increased concentration of bioactive molecules did not reflect the anti-inflammatory effect, which was modulated by the baking procedure. Conventionally fermented bread enriched with 4% pomace and sourdough fermented, not-enriched bread had the greatest anti-inflammatory effect, significantly reducing IL-8 secretion in Caco-2 cells. The cell metabolome was modified only after supplementation with sourdough fermented bread enriched with 4% pomace, probably due to the high concentration of tocopherol that acted synergistically with polyphenols. Our data highlight that changes in chemical composition cannot predict changes in functionality. It is conceivable that matrices (including enrichment) and processing differently modulated bioactive bioaccessibility, and consequently functionality.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Proteomic analysis of pyridoxal oxime derivatives treated Listeria
           monocytogenes reveals down-regulation of the main virulence factor,
           Listeriolysin O
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Martina Šrajer Gajdošik, Uroš Andjelković, Dajana Gašo-Sokač, Hrvoje Pavlović, Olga Shevchuk, Tamara Martinović, James Clifton, Marija Begić, Djuro JosićProteomic analysis of foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes after treatment with three disinfectants based on ammonium salts of pyridoxal oxime (POD) reveal perturbation of cellular processes. These inhibitors caused disturbance in the synthesis of plasma membrane proteins and cell wall proteoglycans. Some of key proteins and proteoglycans from these two groups that are important for bacterial growth are down-regulated. Additionally, we demonstrated that the main bacterial toxin Listeriolysin O (LLO) is significantly down-regulated after treatment with each of three investigated inhibitors. These investigations confirm already postulated mechanism of action of POD-based inhibitors that results in disturbance of key cell surface proteins and proteoglycans in Gram-positive bacteria. Additionally, the use of some proteins such as LLO, as potential biomarker candidates of food poisoning with this bacterium is discussed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Assessment of acoustic-mechanical measurements for texture of French
           fries: Comparison of deep-fat frying and air frying
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Têko Gouyo, Christian Mestres, Isabelle Maraval, Bénédicte Fontez, Céline Hofleitner, Philippe BohuonThe aim of this study was to develop an instrumental method for measuring the texture of French fries and correlated it with sensory measurements. For seven samples of French fries with different crispness levels, a cone penetrometer test was conducted simultaneously with microphone recording of sound emissions. A descriptive sensory analysis was also performed on these samples. The results showed that the number of sound peaks, the linear distance of sound peaks, the area under the sound-displacement curve and the mean sound pressure were strongly positively correlated (r ≥ 0.80; P-value 
       
  • Effect of aroma perception on taste and mouthfeel dimensions of red wines:
           Correlation of sensory and chemical measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): María-Pilar Sáenz-Navajas, Sara Ferrero-del-Teso, David W. Jeffery, Vicente Ferreira, Purificación Fernández-ZurbanoThe present study was aimed at increasing the understanding of red wine mouthfeel by investigating the potential cross-modal effect of aroma and establishing relationships between sensory dimensions and chemical measurements. Investigations involved a set of 42 non-wooded red wines that were described with a novel application of a variant of the rate-all-that-apply sensory methodology (“rate-K attributes”) by a group of Spanish wine experts under two conditions: 1) with no aroma perception (using nose clips) and 2) with aroma perception. In parallel, ethanol content, pH, titratable acidity, tannin activity, concentration of tannins, and spectroscopic measures of wines were determined. Results suggest that aroma does not play a main effect on taste or mouthfeel perception of red wines, except for oily mouthfeel, which was hypothesised to be masked by earthy aromas and enhanced by alcoholic nuances attributed to cognitive interactions. Independent and non-correlated mouthfeel dimensions such as dry/silky and sticky, grainy, prickly or oily were also identified. Tannin activity was shown to be highly positively correlated to dry on the palate, and tannin concentration with both overall dry and dry on the palate. A significant partial least squares regression model showed that tannin concentration and activity (positive contribution) as well as pH values (negative) were good predictors of the mouthfeel dimension mainly related to dry and sticky terms.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Evaluation of the effect of Lactobacillus sakei strain L115 on Listeria
           monocytogenes at different conditions of temperature by using predictive
           interaction models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): J.C.C.P. Costa, A. Bolívar, A. Valero, E. Carrasco, G. Zurera, F. Pérez-RodríguezIn this study, the inhibitory capacity of the LAB Lactobacillus sakei strain L115 against Listeria monocytogenes has been assayed at 4, 8, 11, 15 and 20 °C in broth culture. Besides, the use of predictive microbiology models for describing growth of both microorganisms in monoculture and coculture has been proposed. A preliminary inhibitory test confirmed the ability of Lb. sakei strain L115 to prevent the growth of a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes. Next, the growth of microorganisms in isolation, i.e. in monoculture, was monitored and kinetic parameters maximum specific growth rate (μsp;max) and maximum population density (Nmax) were estimated by fitting the Baranyi model to recorded data. Inhibition coefficients (α) were calculated for the two kinetic parameters tested (μsp:max and Nmax) to quantify the percentage of reduction of growth when the microorganisms were in coculture in comparison with monoculture. The kinetic parameters were input into three interaction models, developed based on modifications of the Baranyi growth model, namely Jameson effect, new modified version of the Jameson effect and Lotka-Volterra models. Two approaches were utilized for simulation, one using the monoculture μsp;max, under the hypothesis that the growth potential is similar under monoculture and coculture conditions provided the environmental conditions are not modified, and the other one, based on adjusting the monoculture kinetic parameter by applying the corresponding α to reproduce the observed μsp;max under coculture conditions, assuming, in this approach, that the existence of a heterogeneous population can change the growth potential of each microbial population. It was observed that in coculture, μsp;max of L. monocytogenes decreased (e.g., α= 31% at 4 °C) and the Nmax was much lower than that of monoculture (e.g., α= 36% at 4 °C). The best simulation performance was achieved applying α to adjust the estimated monoculture growth rate, with the modified Jameson and Lotka-Volterra models showing better fit to the observed microbial interaction data as demonstrated by the fact that 100% data points fell within the acceptable simulation zone (±0.5 log CFU/g from the simulated data). More research is needed to clarify the mechanisms of interaction between the microorganisms as well as the role of temperature.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The chemical, thermal and textural characterization of fractions from
           Macauba kernel oil
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Kassiana Teixeira Magalhães, Talita de Sousa Tavares, Cleiton Antônio NunesMacauba (Acrocomia aculeata) kernel oil is rich in short- and medium-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, the most abundant of which are lauric and oleic acids. The oil also has high oxidative stability and contains bioactive compounds. Like other oils rich in lauric acid, Macauba kernel oil is solid at low temperatures but has a low solid fat content at room temperature. The hypothesis of this study is that the thermal and textural characteristics of Macauba kernel oil can be modified by fractionation. Fractions were obtained and analysed with respect to their fatty acid profile, oxidative stability, crystallization and melting profile, firmness and physical state at different temperatures. The fatty acid profiles of the fractions remained virtually unchanged, but the oxidative stability of stearins was greater than that of oleins. An increase in the percent enthalpy of crystallization and melting at lower temperatures was observed in oleins, with a consequent decrease in solid fat content, firmness and oxidative stability (compared with stearins) without a relevant change in the fatty acid profile, suggesting that triacylglycerols with unsaturated fatty acids were prevalent in positions sn1 and sn3 in oleins and in position sn2 in stearins. Thus, it was possible to obtain an olein with 26% less solid fat at 25 °C that was 22% less firm and that remained liquid until 3 °C below the oil, as well as a 23% firmer stearin.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • In vitro static digestion reveals how plant proteins modulate model infant
           formula digestibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Linda Le Roux, Raphaël Chacon, Didier Dupont, Romain Jeantet, Amélie Deglaire, Françoise NauInfant formulas (IFs) are the key nutritional source for infants who cannot be breastfed. There is currently a growing interest in these sensitive products in order to control their quality and to design their composition with regard to nutritional balance. In a context of sustainable development and increasing growth of the world population, it seems essential to search for alternative to animal protein in food today. Plant proteins offer interesting nutritional and functional benefits thanks to the latest improvement through research and development. In this context, five model IFs were developed with identical composition, except that 50% of the proteins were either whey proteins in the “milk-reference IF”, pea, faba bean, rice or potato proteins in the four “plant IFs” tested. The IFs were evaluated using an in vitro static gastro-intestinal model simulating infant conditions. The protein hydrolysis degree (DH) and the amino acid bioaccessibility (AAB) were used as indicators of protein digestibility. Results showed that both DH and AAB were very similar between the milk-reference IF, pea and faba bean IFs, but significantly lower for the rice and potato IFs. This study provides new insights into the impact of protein sources on IF digestibility.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Reducing carotenoid loss during storage by co-encapsulation of pequi and
           buriti oils in oil-in-water emulsions followed by freeze-drying: Use of
           heated and unheated whey protein isolates as emulsifiers
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Talita Aline Comunian, Marluci P. Silva, Izabel Cristina Freitas Moraes, Carmen S. Favaro-TrindadeBuriti and pequi oils are rich in carotenoids and beneficial to human health; however, carotenoid oxidation during storage causes color loss in foods, making it difficult to use these oils in food products. This research aimed to encapsulate pequi oil and co-encapsulate pequi and buriti oils by emulsification using whey protein isolate (WPI) as an emulsifier in two forms, natural (unheated) and heated, followed by freeze-drying. The emulsions were studied by droplet size under different stress conditions, instability index, and rheology. The freeze-dried (FD) samples were studied after accelerated oxidation and the total carotenoid retention was determined; for the reconstituted FD, the zeta potential and droplet size were recorded after storage at 37 °C for 30 days. The emulsions were stable in all conditions, with average droplet sizes between 0.88 ± 0.03 and 2.33 ± 0.02 μm, and formulations with heated WPI presented the lowest instability index values. The FD’s zeta potential values ranged from −50 ± 3 to –32 ± 3 mV. The co-encapsulated oils presented higher carotenoid retention (50 ± 1 and 48 ± 1%) than the free oils (31 ± 2%) after 30 days. The oxidative stability indexes were 51 ± 4 and 46 ± 3 for the co-encapsulated oils with unheated and heated WPI, respectively, and 20.5 ± 0.1 h for the free oils. FD formulations with 1:3 ratio of oil: aqueous phase and heated or unheated WPI showed the best carotenoid retention and oxidative stability, indicating that FD oil emulsions have potential as next-generation bioactive compound carriers.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Genomic and phenotypic assessments of safety and probiotic properties of
           Streptococcus macedonicus strains of dairy origin
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Armin Tarrah, Vinícius da Silva Duarte, Shadi Pakroo, Viviana Corich, Alessio GiacominiIn this work, we studied the genomes and characterized some probiotic features of four S. macedonicus strains isolated from dairy environments in Italy that already had indicated some technological potential. The genomes of these strains were sequenced and used for genomic in silico studies. All strains were also evaluated for hemolytic activity, susceptibility to most commonly used antibiotics and probiotic potential, such as resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions, bile salts hydrolytic activity and adhesion ability to HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Results revealed that one strain, namely S. macedonicus 211MA, was found to possess probiotic properties, such as resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions as well as adherence capability to human epithelial cells. In silico analyses revealed that S. macedonicus 211MA displayed the least number of single copy genes, genomic islands regions and gene content classified as virulence factors when compared to other S. macedonicus and S. gallolyticus strains. Moreover, the maximum gene content associated with bacterial stress response category and the presence of the opuCABCD operon, not detected in the other strains, were correlated with S. macedonicus 211MA capability to resist to low pH and to show higher adhesion to HT-29 human cells. This is the first report on the presence of opuCABCD operon in S. macedonicus and its possible relation with attachment ability and stress response.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Development of fermented chestnut with Bacillus natto: Functional
           and sensory properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Ming-Zhu Dong, Juan-Yan An, Li-Tao Wang, Xiao-Hong Fan, Mu-Jie Lv, Ya-Wei Zhu, Yuan-Hang Chang, Dong Meng, Qing Yang, Yu-Jie FuFood fermentation can improve food nutritional value and sensory performance, it is considered as an ecofriendly bioprocessing technology. In this work, a fermented natto chestnut food was firstly developed and its active ingredients and functional properties were systematically studied. Through systematic experimental screening, including a single factor experiment and Box-Behnken design, the fermentation parameters of chestnut were optimized and selected. Under the optimal fermentation conditions, fermentation time 56 h, temperature 38 ℃ and 5% inoculum concentration, the fibrinolytic activity of the natto-chestnut reached 6479 IU/g. Meanwhile, higher antioxidant activity of the natto-chestnut was obtained due to the increased contents of total phenolic, total flavonoid and VC. In addition, α-glucosidase inhibition activity was also improved in the natto-chestnut. These results indicated that fermented chestnut could be a new dietary supplement with higher quality and better activities for people′s health.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Dietary adzuki bean paste dose-dependently reduces visceral fat
           accumulation in rats fed a normal diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Kyu-Ho Han, Shunsuke Ohashi, Keiko Sasaki, Ryuji Nagata, Samanthi Pelpolage, Naoki Fukuma, Jess D. Reed, Ken-ichiro Shimada, Norimichi Kadoya, Michihiro FukushimaThe aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effect of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) paste (ABP) on visceral fat accumulation in rats. ABP is a rich source of indigestible carbohydrates (18.5%) with fiber and resistant starch (RS) contents of 14.5% and 4.0%, respectively. Animals were fed one of the following diets, control (CON), 30% ABP or 58.9% ABP for 28 days. The daily dietary energy intake was lowered (p 
       
  • Assessment of phytochemical compounds in functional couscous:
           Determination of free and bound phenols and alkylresorcinols
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Manuela Oriente, Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio, Vito Verardo, Maria Cristina Messia, Ana María Gómez-Caravaca, Emanuele MarconiThe aim of this study was to evaluate the content of free and bound phenols and alkylresorcinols in functional couscous enriched with barley coarse fraction obtained by air classification. Two different levels of enriched barley flour (20 and 30%) were used for the formulation of couscous and they were compared with a control couscous made with 100% of semolina. HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS was used to determine the phenolic composition in couscous samples. Total free phenolic compounds content in control couscous was 182 μg/100 g d.m. This amount increases significantly when coarse barley flour is added reaching value of 2273 μg/100 g d.m. and 2978 μg/100 g d.m. when 20 and 30% of barley coarse fraction was used, respectively. Moreover, the main free phenolic compounds in enriched barley samples are represented by flavan-3-ols. Bound phenols ranged from 5242 μg/100 g d.m. for control couscous to 27,092 μg/100 g d.m. for couscous with 30% of barley coarse fraction with a strong prevalence of phenolic acids. Finally, regarding alkylresorcinol compounds, they ranged from 1.01 mg/g d.m. for control couscous to 2.46 mg/g d.m. for couscous with 30% of barley coarse fraction. In conclusion, on the basis of obtained results, barley coarse fraction can be considered a good ingredient to develop functional couscous naturally enriched of phenolic compounds and alkylresorcinols.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Exploring microbial dynamics associated with flavours production during
           highland barley wine fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Lingxi Guo, Yeming Luo, Yuan Zhou, Ciren Bianba, Hui Guo, Yemeng Zhao, Hongfei FuHighland barley wine (HBW) is a well-known grain wine in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China and is mainly fermented by local Qu (a traditional starter) with highland barley (Hordeum vulgare, Qingke (Tibetan hulless barley)), and the flavors profiles associated with microbiota succession during HBW fermentation are unrevealed. Hence, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology was used to investigate the dynamic changes of microbial community for the duration of the fermentation. In addition, metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 66 volatile compounds and 7 organic acids were identified during the traditional brewing process. Results showed that the composition of microbiota varied over the fermentation process. The bacterial genera (relative abundance > 0.1%) decreased from 13 at 0 h to 4 encompassing Leuconostoc (13.53%) and Acetobacter (74.60%) after 48 h fermentation, whilst the structure of fungal community was more uniform in comparison with bacteria, as Rhizopus and Saccharomyces were predominant throughout the fermentation. Furthermore, the correlations between microbiota and the detected compounds were also explored, which highlighted that three bacterial genera, including Acetobacter, Leuconostoc, Bacillus and one fungal genus Rhizopus were significantly correlated with main flavours compounds ( r > 0.7, FDR 
       
  • UPLC-ESI-MS/MS based identification and antioxidant, antibacterial,
           cytotoxic activities of aqueous extracts from storey onion (Allium cepa L.
           var. proliferum Regel)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Yanyan Zhou, Cong Li, Bang Feng, Bang Chen, Lihua Jin, Yehua ShenStorey onion (Allium cepa L. var. proliferum Regel) is a variety of onion commonly grown in northern China that has not been researched in detail. This study aimed to identify the chemical compositions of storey onion aqueous extracts by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, as well as characterize the antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities, compared with welsh onion and onion. A total of 42 compounds were identified, among which the contents of organosulfur compounds (962.20 ± 34.55 μg/g), polyphenols (100.40 ± 12.55 μg/g) and organic acids (54.04 ± 2.69 μg/g) in storey onion were higher than those in welsh onion and onion. Additionally, the contents of cycloalliin (551.74 ± 8.12 μg/g), ajoene (159.31 ± 5.30 μg/g) and (E)-1-propene-1-sulfenic acid (72.12 ± 2.98 μg/g) in storey onion were the highest. Storey onion had pronounced DPPH• (IC50 = 1.24 ± 0.52 mg/mL) and OH• scavenging activities (IC50 = 14.45 ± 1.29 mg/mL) as well as ferric ion reducing power (absorbance from 0.32 to 2.21). Onion had the highest ABTS•+ scavenging activity (IC50 = 1.64 ± 0.64 mg/mL), while welsh onion had the lowest antioxidant activity. Storey onion had the strongest inhibitory effect on all the tested strains (MIC 31.3–125 mg/mL), and cell viability assays against human liver (HepG2) cancer cell lines also illustrated that aqueous extracts from storey onion significantly inhibited cell proliferation (when incubated for 24 h, IC50 = 33.21 ± 1.12 mg/mL) and induced cell apoptosis. Welsh onion and onion also had weaker antibacterial and anticancer activites, with those of onion being the weakest. The results showed that storey onion with excellent biological activity may benefit to human health and can be developed into functional foods.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Metabolic effect of AOS-iron in rats with iron deficiency anemia using
           LC-MS/MS based metabolomics
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Hong He, Fengping An, Qun Huang, Yuting Kong, Dan He, Lei Chen, Hongbo SongIron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a worldwide nutritional problem. The metabolic mechanism of IDA is still unclear. So, the underlying metabolic mechanism of iron supplementation has not been reported even if various iron supplements to treat IDA have been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic mechanisms of IDA and agar oligosaccharide-iron complex (AOS-iron) supplementation in IDA rats by assessing the changes of endogenous metabolites in serum and liver using LC-MS/MS metabolomics approach. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plots showed significant separation of metabolites in serum and liver among the normal, anemia model and AOS-iron groups. Seventeen and eight metabolites were identified from serum and liver, respectively. Pathway enrichment analysis suggested that potential biomarkers were strongly involved in the biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis, pancreatic cancer metabolism, regulation of autophagy, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling pathway, fatty acid metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism and primary bile acid biosynthesis. After supplementing 2 mg Fe/kg·bw AOS-iron for 4 weeks, the major metabolites in related pathways disrupted by IDA were restored to normal levels. Therefore, AOS-iron effectively treated IDA by regulating metabolic disorders.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The influence of sodium alginate and genipin on physico-chemical
           properties and stability of WPI coated liposomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): A. Zamani Ghaleshahi, Gh. RajabzadehIn this work, coated liposome as a novel delivery system assembled from genipin-crosslinked with whey protein isolate (WPI) and sodium alginate (SA) as the second layer on WPI-coated liposomal was developed in order to increase its bioavailability and prolong release for drug and nutraceuticals. Therefore, the influence of GP and SA on physico-chemical properties, long term stability and in vitro release behavior of WPI coated nanoliposomes (NLs) for encapsulation of flaxseed oil were investigated successively. Compared with WPI-NLs and uncoated NLs, GP-WPI-NLs and SA-WPI-NLs displayed more significant changes in average diameter, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, morphology, FT-IR, thermal properties, with lower n-3 fatty acids released. In terms of physical and oxidative stability during storage at 45 °C for 30 days, the GP was remarkably more effective than the SA. The results suggested that the coating with SA and cross-linking with GP altered the surface properties, and provided more chemical stability for the flaxseed oil as core material.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Nutrition, hedonic or environmental' The effect of front-of-pack
           messages on consumers’ perception and purchase intention of a novel food
           product with multiple attributes
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Beatrice Biondi, Luca CamanziThe present study aims to assess the effect of different Front-Of-Pack messages on consumer perception, willingness to buy and willingness to pay for a new food product, with multiple attributes, such as particular nutritional information, sensory characteristics, and a potentially positive environmental impact. Furthermore, this study explores the differences between consumers based on their individual latent traits in order to evaluate how these factors affect the willingness to buy the new product, as well as to outline a profile of target consumers attracted by innovative food products. A consumer survey was conducted on a representative sample of 1250 Italian consumers, using a between-subject design with different Front-Of-Pack messages as stimuli. Messages were related to different attributes: nutrition, environmental impact, hedonic characteristics, and process innovation. Empirical findings show that Front-Of-Pack messages do not directly affect consumer willingness to buy, but they do influence consumer perception of the product. The most effective message is the nutrition one. Consumer willingness to buy is particularly influenced by product perception and by their novelty seeking orientation in consumption. Furthermore, consumers were segmented through hierarchical clustering based on their novelty seeking orientation. The results obtained provide valuable suggestions for the design of new products’ labeling and for the outline of the profile of potential target customers for innovative food products.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Global transcriptomic analysis of Cronobacter sakazakii CICC 21544 by
           RNA-seq under inorganic acid and organic acid stresses
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Ailian Zhou, Yifang Cao, Donggen Zhou, Shuangfang Hu, Wanjing Tan, Xinglong Xiao, Yigang Yu, Xiaofeng LiCronobacter sakazakii is a common foodborne pathogen that can tolerate various stress conditions. Acidic environment is a common stress condition encountered by bacteria in food processing and gastrointestinal digestion, including both inorganic and organic acids. In order to elucidate the Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) of C. sakazakii, we performed high-throughput RNA-seq to compare gene expression under hydrochloric acid and citric acid stresses. In this study, 107 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in both acids, of which 85 DEGs were functionally related to the regulation of acid tolerance. Multiple layers of mechanisms may be applied by C. sakazakii in response to acid stress: Firstly, in order to reduce excessive intracellular protons, C. sakazakii pumps them out through trans-membrane proteins or consumes them through metabolic reactions. Secondly, under acidic conditions, a large amount of reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radicals accumulate in the cells, resulting in oxidative damage. C. sakazakii protects cells by up-regulating the antioxidant stress genes such as soxS and madB. Thirdly, C. sakazakii chooses energy efficient metabolic pathways to reduce energy consumption and maintain necessary processes. Finally, genes involved in chemotaxis and motility were differentially expressed to respond to different acidic conditions. This study systematically analyzed the acid-resistant mechanism of C. sakazakii under the stress of organic and inorganic acids, and provided a theoretical basis for better control of its contamination in food.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Physiological and transcriptomic analysis reveals the roles of 1-MCP in
           the ripening and fruit aroma quality of banana fruit (Fenjiao)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Xiaoyang Zhu, Zunyang Song, Qiumian Li, Jun Li, Weixin Chen, Xueping LiFenjiao (Musa ABB Pisang Awak) is a popular banana cultivar due to its good taste and stress resistance, but it has a short shelf-life and deteriorates rapidly post-harvest. The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on fruit physiology and quality and transcriptomic profiles are investigated in this study. The results showed that 1-MCP significantly delayed fruit ripening by repressing fruit softening and inhibiting the respiratory rate and ethylene production. The 1-MCP treatment delayed sugar accumulation and influenced the content of the precursors of the biosynthesis of aroma volatiles. 1-MCP reduced the production of flavor-contributing volatile esters isoamyl isobutyrate, isoamyl acetate and trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, but dramatically increased the hexyl acetate production at the full-ripening stage. The transcriptomic analysis showed that 1-MCP dramatically affected the transcript profiles during fruit ripening, especially the KEGG pathways involved in amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, signal transduction, and translation classes. The key genes and the corresponding enzyme activities involved in the volatile and ethylene synthesis were severely repressed due to the 1-MCP treatment. The 1-MCP treatment effectively delayed Fenjiao fruit ripening, but affected volatile production by reducing the precursor production and expression level of genes involved in the metabolism pathways of ethylene, auxin and volatiles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Metabolomic analysis of acerola cherry (Malpighia emarginata) fruit during
           ripening development via UPLC-Q-TOF and contribution to the antioxidant
           activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Mingfeng Xu, Chenjia Shen, Han Zheng, Yunsheng Xu, Changfeng Xue, Beiwei Zhu, Jiangning HuAcerola cherry (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) is a tropical fruit of great economic and nutritional value due to its high content of vitamin C. However, there is little information available about which ripening stage of Acerola cherry can provide the best nutrients. In the current study, the chemical variation at two developmental stages (immature and mature) were investigated by metabolic profiling, and the biological properties of Acerola cherry and its antioxidant assays at four developmental stages were measured, respectively. Through comprehensive metabolites analysis via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry system (UPLC-QTOF), 1896 annotated metabolite features were obtained, and 133 metabolites were finally identified according to the MS/MS fragments compared with these standards in in-house database. Statistically differences in the levels of amino acids, flavonoids, lipids, terpenoids and ascorbic acids were found between mature and immature fruits. Interestingly, most of differential accumulated amino acids, flavonoids, lipids, and terpenoids predominantly accumulated in the mature fruits and ascorbic acid predominantly accumulated in the immature fruits. On the other hand, their antioxidant activities were compared. The alcoholic extract of immature acerola fruit possessed better scavenging ability of DPPH and ABTS than the mature one. The well correlations were found between the antioxidant potential with its content of ascorbic acid (r = 0.9803 and 0.9897, respectively). In conclusion, Acerola cherry showed very different metabolite profile and antioxidant activities during the fruit ripening development. The maturity of Acerola cherry has to be considered when it is being used for health food products.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Foodomics evaluation of the anti-proliferative potential of Passiflora
           mollissima
    seeds
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Diego Ballesteros-Vivas, Gerardo Alvarez-Rivera, Carlos León, Sandra Johanna Morantes, Elena Ibánez, Fabián Parada-Alfonso, Alejandro Cifuentes, Alberto ValdésThe anti-proliferative potential of Passiflora mollissima seeds, an underexplored agri-food waste, was investigated in this work by evaluating the molecular changes induced at transcript and metabolite expression levels on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. For this purpose, a pressurized-liquid extract from P. mollissima seeds obtained under optimized conditions was used for the treatment of HT-29 cells and a multi-omics strategy applied, integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis, along with viability and cell cycle assays to study the molecular mechanisms that explain the anti-proliferative activity of this fruit by-product. After treatment for 48 and 72 h, the viability of HT-29 colon cancer cells was markedly affected, whereas minor effects were observed on normal human colon fibroblast cells. The bioactive extract was shown to arrest HT-29 cells in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, which might be mediated by the inactivation of the FAT10 cancer signalling pathway among other genes identified as altered in the transcriptomic analysis. In addition, cellular redox homeostasis, as well as the polyamines pathway and methionine metabolism were found to be affected as suggested from the metabolomics data. Finally, the Foodomics integration enabled the identification of genes, such as MAD2L1, involved in the polyamine and glutathione metabolism, or the inactivation of the NUPR1 transcription factor, that might be related with the alteration of the intracellular ceramide levels in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effects of long-term intake of anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murray
           on the organism health and gut microbiota in vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Yujia Peng, Yamei Yan, Peng Wan, Wei Dong, Kaiyin Huang, Linwu Ran, Jia Mi, Lu Lu, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Youlong CaoThe relationship between diet, especially polyphenols, and health has been receiving increasing attention. Polyphenols were degraded by gut microbiota into metabolites and acted on the body to exert many bioactivities from several targets such as antioxidative stress, anti-inflammation, intestinal barrier and gut microbiota modulation. After long-term treatment of mice with anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murray (ACN), antioxidant status in liver (T-AOC, T-SOD, CAT, GSH and GSH-Px were increased and AST, ALT, ALP and MDA were decreased), anti-inflammatory status in colon (the expression of mRNA of iNos, Cox-2, Tnf-α, Il-6, Il-1β and Ifn-γ were significantly reduced), intestinal barrier (the expression of mRNA of Zo-1, Occludin, Claudin-1 and Muc1 were significantly increased) and gut microbiota (Barnesiella, Alistipes, Eisenbergiella, Coprobacter and Odoribacter were proliferated) were all regulated in ACN group. Meanwhile, the content of short-chain fatty acids in cecal contents and feces were increased. Taken together, long-term intake of ACN could promote organism healthy and these results have important implications for the development of ACN as a functional food ingredient.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of different soluble dietary fibres on the phenolic profile of
           blackberry puree subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and
           large intestine fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Merve Tomas, Gabriele Rocchetti, Silvia Ghisoni, Gianluca Giuberti, Esra Capanoglu, Luigi LuciniThe aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of polyphenols profile of blackberry purees by soluble dietary fibres (inulin or pectin), during a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and large intestine fermentation process. Untargeted profiling evidenced that the free phenolic fraction of blackberry puree was characterized mainly by flavonoids, followed by phenolic acids, lignans and other low molecular weight polyphenols, showing clear differences from the bound phenolic fraction detected. This trend could be related to the interactions of dietary fibre and polyphenols, showing synergistic and/or antagonist effect on the bioactivity of polyphenols. On the other hand, in vitro large intestine fermentation of blackberry purees following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion revealed that the highest inclusion level (10% w/w) of soluble dietary fibres was effective in modulating the bioaccessibility of some phenolic classes (mainly phenolic acids, lignans and flavones) characterizing the blackberry puree. In addition, multivariate statistics following metabolomics-based profiling showed that the interaction between fibres and blackberry purees determined a marked modification of both anthocyanins and flavonols during in vitro large intestine fermentation, thus leading to the formation of low-molecular-weight compounds (such as tyrosol, followed by gallic and benzoic acids).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Tetraconazole alters the methionine and ergosterol biosynthesis pathways
           in Saccharomyces yeasts promoting changes on volatile derived compounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): T. Sieiro-Sampedro, N. Briz-Cid, E. Pose-Juan, M. Figueiredo-González, C. González-Barreiro, J. Simal-Gándara, B. Cancho-Grande, R. Rial-OteroThe influence of antifungal tetraconazole residues (either as an active substance or as a commercial formulation product) on the fermentative activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was evaluated in pasteurized Garnacha red must by using laboratory-scale fermentation assays. The presence of this fungicide promoted a slight decrease in glucose consumption. Volatile fermentative-derived compounds were evaluated in deep. Statistically significant changes were found in methionol (with a mean decrease of around 24%), fatty acids (with increments ranged from 23% to 66%), and ethyl esters (with increases ranged from 23% to 145%) contents when grape musts were enriched with the commercial formulation at both contamination levels assayed. Based on protein mass fingerprinting analysis, it was possible to relate these variations on volatiles content with changes in the activity of several enzymes (Met3p, Met14p, Adh2p, Hmg1p, Erg5p, Erg6p, Erg11p, and Erg20p) involved in the secondary metabolism of yeasts.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Non-volatile and volatile composition of West African bulk and Ecuadorian
           fine-flavor cocoa liquor and chocolate
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Emmy Tuenter, Claudia Delbaere, Ann De Winne, Sebastiaan Bijttebier, Deborah Custers, Kenn Foubert, Jim Van Durme, Kathy Messens, Koen Dewettinck, Luc PietersCocoa products are obtained from the seeds of Theobroma cacao L. In this research, cocoa liquor and chocolate produced from cocoa beans from West Africa (Forastero, “bulk” cacao) and Ecuador (Nacional variety, “fine-flavor” cacao), were investigated, using a novel approach in which various analytical techniques are combined in order to obtain in-depth knowledge of the studied cocoa samples. The levels of various classes of primary metabolites were determined and a wide range of secondary metabolites, including volatile organic acids, aldehydes, esters, pyrazines, polyphenols, methylxanthines and biogenic amines, were identified and/or quantified by HS-SPME GC–MS (headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry). and UPLC-HRMS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry). Odor Activity Values (OAV) were calculated to assess the contribution of individual volatiles on the final aroma.Various volatile aroma compounds were more abundant in the West African cocoa liquor and chocolate, while the Ecuadorian samples were richer in most quantified non-volatile metabolites. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the four samples can be clearly distinguished. Alcohols, pyrazines, amino acids and biogenic amines were found to be highly influential in causing this differentiation. The proposed approach can be useful in future studies on more extensive cocoa sample collections, in order to highlight similarities and pinpoint typical differences in chemical composition among these samples.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Proximate composition, amino acid profile, pasting and process
           characteristics of flour from different Tartary buckwheat varieties
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Seerat Bhinder, Amritpal Kaur, Balwinder Singh, Madhav P. Yadav, Narpinder SinghFlour from twenty-three Tartary buckwheat varieties were evaluated and compared for proximate composition, mineral and amino acid profile. Further, pasting properties and process characteristics such as foaming, oil and water absorption capacities, emulsification properties were determined for identifying the efficient application of Tartary buckwheat in food systems. Ash, protein and fat contents of the flours ranged between 1.76–2.80%, 9.06–14.88%, and 2.02–3.60%, respectively. Buckwheat flours from all varieties had abundant K, Mg and Ca content, with the highest in B-121, IC-329200 and IC-274439, respectively. All essential amino acids were detected in all varieties with leucine present in abundance. Isoleucine, cystine and asparagine were limiting. Emulsifying and foaming properties of all buckwheat flours improved as the pH increased from 4 to 10. Emulsion activity index (pH 10) showed a significant positive correlation with hydrophobic amino acids. Flours from most of the buckwheat varieties had unique pasting properties with very low set back and breakdown viscosities indicating paste stability and lower retrogradation tendency, making them suitable for thickening of sauces and soups.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effects of exogenous starch on the structural–thermal properties of
           gluten in wheat with HMW-GS variations at Glu-D1 locus
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Lijun Song, Liye Zhao, Zhenzhen Liu, Liqun Li, Jinjuan Zheng, Xuejun LiTo further understand the gluten–starch interactions in dough, this study investigated the effects of exogenous starch on the structural–thermal properties of gluten via reconstituting Xinong 836 starch with gluten from near-isogenic lines HMW-D1a (Dy12) and HMW-D1p (Dx2 + Dy12) according to the following proportions (gluten/starch): 9/91 (G09), 12/88 (G12), 15/85 (G15), and two controls, where G00 and G01 represent the original and self-reconstituted flours, respectively. Adding exogenous starch significantly improved the dough strength for the reconstituted flours containing gluten from HMW-D1a and HMW-D1p, especially those with HMW-D1a. When the ratios of gluten to starch were 15/85 and 12/88 in the HMW-D1a and HMW-D1p reconstituted flours, respectively, the concentrations of free sulfhydryl groups were minimized in the flour, and thus more glutenin polymers were formed. Changes in the secondary structure, such as the proportion of β-sheets and the α-helices differed among the gluten types after adding starch. Compared with G00, the microstructures of dough obtained from G15 with HMW-D1a and G12 with HMW-D1p were more compact and denser, respectively; the thermal stability was also improved significantly for G15 with HMW-D1a and G12 with HMW-D1p. The effects of adding starch on the gluten characteristics were greater in HMW-D1a than HMW-D1p, attributing to differences in gluten-starch interactions. These findings indicate that adding exogenous starch was more readily to modify the structural properties of HMW-D1a gluten with inferior subunits, which helps to improve the quality of dough prepared with inferior gluten.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Ethanol extract of propolis prevents high-fat diet-induced insulin
           resistance and obesity in association with modulation of gut microbiota in
           mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Wei Cai, Jixiong Xu, Gang Li, Tao Liu, Xiali Guo, Huajie Wang, Liping LuoPropolis has beneficial effects anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes and anti-obesity in human or murine models, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. This study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on the gut microbiota, and to analyze the associations between these alterations of gut microbiota and insulin resistance and obesity in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with chow diet, high-fat diet, and high-fat diet supplemented with 1% EEP or 2%EEP. EEP supplementation reduced HFD-induced weight gain and liver fat accumulation, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Meanwhile, EEP supplementation in HFD-fed mice increased anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory bacteria such as genera Roseburia and Intestinimonas and species Parabacteroides goldsteinii and Parabacteroides distasonis, and reduced pro-inflammatory bacteria such as genera Faecalibaculum and Prevotella and species Bacteroides vulgatus. These dominant bacterial taxa altered by EEP were significantly associated with the metabolic parameters of insulin resistance and obesityin HFD-fed mice. The results in this study indicated that EEP reduced HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistant, which may be mediated by modulating the composition and function of gut microbiota.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Phytochemicals screening, antioxidant capacity and chemometric
           characterization of four edible flowers from Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Romy Gleyse Chagas Barros, Julianna Karla Santana Andrade, Ubatã Corrêa Pereira, Christean Santos de Oliveira, Yara Rafaella Ribeiro Santos Rezende, Tais Oliveira Matos Silva, Juliete Pedreira Nogueira, Nayjara Carvalho Gualberto, Hannah Caroline Santos Araujo, Narendra NarainEdible flowers are receiving renewed interest as potential sources of bioactive compounds. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of some exotic flowers present in Brazil such as Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Tropaeolum majus (red), Tropaeolum majus (orange) and Spilanthes oleracea L. The content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, condensed, hydrolysable tannins and antioxidante capacity were determined. The identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds was performed through the UHPLC-QDa-MS system. The compounds p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in all flowers. Tropaeolum majus (red) presented the hightest amounts of total phenolic compounds and hydrolysable tannins. Also, it presented the highest antioxidant capacity for ORAC and FRAP assays. Thus, this study showed the diversity and abudance of natural antioxidants present in edible flowers, which could be explored for application in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of post inoculation drying procedures on the reduction of
           Salmonella on almonds by thermal treatments
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Zahra H. Mohammad, Elsa A. Murano, Rosana G. Moreira, Alejandro CastilloSince two outbreaks of salmonellosis were linked to the consumption of almonds in 2001 and 2004, the study of pathogen inactivation kinetics in almonds has been encouraged, often by conducting inoculated challenge studies. The inoculation method could affect the results of such challenge studies, because of the possible increase of moisture on the almonds resulting from a wet inoculation procedure, which may result in a potential overestimation of the effectiveness of treatments used to pasteurize almonds in industrial settings. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 30 (PT30) isolated from an almond-linked outbreak was inoculated on nonpareil almonds and dried by accelerated (drying the inoculated almonds at 37 °C for 12 h) and conventional (drying inoculated almonds overnight at room temperature) drying methods, before treating the almonds with hot water (blanching) at 88 °C or hot oil (oil roasting) at 127 °C. The Weibull model explained the death of this pathogen on almonds better than log-linear model for oil roasting, whereas both log-linear and Weibull models were similarly effective for blanching. For blanching, the D values for Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 were 12.7 and 10.7 s with accelerated and conventional drying, respectively. For oil roasting, the b-values were 4.59 and 4.18 s with accelerated and conventional drying, respectively. Based on the models, it was concluded that the accelerated drying process resulted in a significantly smaller reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 on almonds in comparison to conventional drying for both blanching and roasting. Although conventional drying led to significantly lower D or b – values (depending on the model), this difference is not likely to affect the current processing parameters used by the almond industry.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Shelf-life and bacterial community dynamics of vacuum packaged beef during
           long-term super-chilled storage sourced from two Chinese abattoirs
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Xue Chen, Lixian Zhu, Rongrong Liang, Yanwei Mao, David L. Hopkins, Ke Li, Pengcheng Dong, Xiaoyin Yang, Lebao Niu, Yimin Zhang, Xin LuoThis study explored the shelf-life and bacterial community dynamics of beef cuts stored at super-chilled conditions (−1 ± 0.5 °C) for 20 weeks when sourced from two Chinese abattoirs, in order to determine whether domestic beef has equivalent quality as that imported from Australia. The initial total viable counts (TVC) were 4.15 and 4.87 log CFU/cm2 in beef from abattoirs A and B, respectively at the commencement of the storage period. The TVC of beef from abattoir A was above 6.0 log CFU/cm2 at 6 weeks and kept below 7.0 log CFU/cm2 at 20 weeks; while the counts were above 6.0 log CFU/cm2 at 3 weeks and reached at 7.3~7.6 log CFU/cm2 in beef from abattoir B. The beef shelf-life was deemed less than 12 and 9 weeks in abattoirs A and B, respectively, based on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) threshold, although all samples were acceptable organoleptically. High-throughput sequencing showed that the initial bacteria community and bacterial succession during storage were different between the two abattoirs. Carnobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. dominated in both abattoirs throughout 3–9 weeks while Serratia spp. co-dominated in abattoir B, and Lactobacillus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. were dominant for the rest of storage in abattoir A and B, respectively. Overall, the high initial TVC is a concern compared to imported beef from Australia. To achieve comparable shelf-life, domestic super-chilled stored beef would need to be sourced from abattoirs employing effective decontamination technologies or where strict hygiene procedures are adopted.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Low-energy short-term cold atmospheric plasma: Controlling the
           inactivation efficacy of bacterial spores in powders
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): M.C. Pina-Perez, D. Martinet, C. Palacios-Gorba, C. Ellert, M. BeyrerThe present research work aims to elucidate kinetics and mechanisms of the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by a surface micro-discharge (SMD) - cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP). Regarding industrial applications, the inactivation of spores was also studied for a static layer of a biopolymer powder or film, with an air plasma and at ambient pressure. Close to 4 log10 cycles of inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores were achieved when exposing spores on flat glass to the SMD-CAPP. This effect can be reached at a very low plasma power density of 5 mW/cm2 in 7 min exposure time. The maximum inactivation level of spores drops when treating corn-starch powder to 2.6 log10 cycles at 7 mW/cm2 plasma power density for 5 min and with a polymer load of 5 mg/cm2. Similar is true for films produced with hydroxymethyl cellulose (HMC). The inactivation efficacy can be tuned and is a function of applied surface energy (product of the plasma power density and the exposure time) and the polymer load. Plasma diagnostics reveal the fundamental importance of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the inactivation. Etching of spore hull is supposed to be triggered by the plasma density, while UV-C and UV-B radiation do not contribute directly and significantly to the inactivation effect at least in a biopolymer matrix. Fluidization of a fixed powder layer is supposed to overcome limitations of the inactivation efficacy by reducing the diffusion distance of active plasma species between the source and the sample. The combination of low plasma power density with short treatment time is supposed to reduce the risk of the formation of side-products from the matrix.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Application of Ultrasound-Ultrafiltration-Assisted alkaline isoelectric
           precipitation (UUAAIP) technique for producing alfalfa protein isolate for
           human consumption: Optimization, comparison, physicochemical, and
           functional properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Milad Hadidi, Fatemeh Baradaran Khaksar, Jordi Pagan, Albert IbarzA new Ultrasound-Ultrafiltration-Assisted Alkaline Isoelectric Precipitation (UUAAIP) technique was employed for producing alfalfa protein isolate from alfalfa leaves. A five-factor-three-level Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize the UUAAIP process for maximizing both extraction yield and protein content simultaneously. The optimum conditions were as follows: solvent/solid material ratio of 43.3 mL/g, pH of 10.1, extraction temperature of 42.5 °C, extraction time of 102 min, and flow rate of 9.7 L/h. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted extraction yield and protein content were 14.5 g/100 g and 91.1 g/100 g, respectively. UUAAIP technique improved the average molecular weight and color of the isolate. Moreover, it was efficient in removing the saponins and phenolic compounds as anti-nutritional factors compared to heat-coagulation extraction (HCE) and alkaline isoelectric precipitation extraction (AIPE). The protein isolate extracted by UUAAIP had greater solubility, water-holding and oil-binding capacities but lower emulsifying and foaming properties than those extracted by HCE and AIPE.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Release mechanisms of bioactive compounds in fruits submitted to high
           hydrostatic pressure: A dynamic microstructural analysis based on prickly
           pear cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Andrea Gómez-Maqueo, Jorge Welti-Chanes, M. Pilar CanoHigh hydrostatic pressure (HHP) promotes the release of bioactive compounds from their intracellular compartments making them more bioaccessible. Our aim was to propose a schematic tissue model to explain the release mechanisms of betalains and phenolic compounds in vegetable cells submitted to HHP by analyzing cell microstructure, cell morphology, cell viability and the localization of bioactive compounds in prickly pear fruits. Prickly pear slices were pressurized at 100, 350 and 600 MPa at 20 °C. Chlorenchyma cells (in peels) and parenchyma cells (in pulps) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical microscopy. After pressurization, the respiration and ethylene production of processed fruits were measured every 6 h (during storage at 16 °C and 75% RH for 24 h). In chlorenchyma cells, HHP ruptured betalain-storing vesicles in the cytoplasm and possibly increased the activity of endogenous enzymes. Contrarily, HHP released betalains from the vacuoles of parenchyma cells due to breaking of the tonoplast where they presented higher stability. In both tissues, phenolic compounds were released from cell walls with increasing pressure and enhanced by cell wall ultrastructural modifications (100 MPa), rupture (350 MPa) and the rearrangement of microfibrillated cellulose (600 MPa). Prickly pears submitted to HHP presented advanced senescence marked by considerable ethylene increase and the gradual loss of CO2 production after 6 h. Cells were viable at 100 MPa by conserving intact cell membranes and after 24 h their respiration rates presented no significant differences compared to controls therefore indicating the possibility of synthesis of bioactive compound as a response to abiotic stress. We have proposed a new approach for analyzing the effects of HHP and have identified the storing of betalains in vesicles located in the cytoplasm of chlorenchyma cells for the first time. This study is the first to fathom the dynamic morphological changes and release mechanisms of bioactive compounds in vegetable cells subjected to HHP.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Structural characteristics of triacylglycerols contribute to the distinct
           in vitro gastric digestibility of sheep and cow milk fat prior to and
           after homogenisation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Fei Teng, Mariza Gomes Reis, Lin Yang, Ying Ma, Li DayThe regiodistribution of fatty acids (FAs) in triacylglycerols (TAGs) is highly correlated to the digestion and absorption of dietary fats. During in vitro gastric digestion, medium-long-medium/short chain triacylglycerols (MLM) showed the fastest digestibility among 105 TAG molecular species, for both raw and homogenised milk, resulting from the higher activity of gastric lipase towards medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) than towards long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). After 60 min of in vitro gastric digestion, the percentage of digestion of each MLM was 16.6–31.2% and 12.3–18.6% respectively in raw sheep and cow milk, and it reached 33.4–45.5% and 23.0–38.9% respectively, after homogenisation. Sheep milk TAGs were digested faster than cow milk TAGs in raw milk (16.1% and 12.4%, respectively) as well as after homogenisation (24.1% and 20.3%, respectively). This is due to the higher percentages of MCFAs esterified on the sn-1/3 positions of sheep milk TAGs (48.3–67.3% and 11.9–51.5% respectively for sheep and cow milk prior to and after homogenisation). Homogenisation favoured TAG lipolysis due to the increased fat globule surface area; however, it did not affect lipase regiospecificity towards TAG molecular species.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Cross-modal interactions as a strategy for sugar reduction in products
           targeted at children: Case study with vanilla milk desserts
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Ana Laura Velázquez, Leticia Vidal, Paula Varela, Gastón AresThe high availability of products with high sugar content, particularly among those targeted as children, has been identified as one of the factors that contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. For this reason, product reformulation has been recommended as one of the strategies that can be implemented to achieve short-term reductions in children’s sugar intake. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using cross-modal (taste-odor-texture) interactions as a strategy for reducing the sugar content of products targeted at children, using milk desserts as case study. A series of 5 vanilla milk desserts were formulated: a control sample with 12% added sugar and 4 sugar-reduced samples (7% added sugar) prepared following a 2 × 2 experimental design by varying vanilla (0.4% and 0.6% w/w) and starch (4.3% and 4.7% w/w) concentrations. A total of 112 children (8–12 years old) tasted the desserts and performed a dynamic sensory characterization task using either temporal check-all-that-apply or temporal dominance of sensations. In addition, they assessed the overall liking of all samples. Results showed that sugar-reduced samples did not significantly differ from the control sample in terms of their average overall liking scores. However, individual differences in children’s hedonic reaction were found; three clusters of children with distinctive liking patterns were identified. The increase in vanilla and starch concentration led to an increase in overall liking for over 80% of the children. Sensory dynamic profiles revealed significant but subtle differences among samples. Results from the present work suggest that cross-modal interactions could contribute to minimizing the sensory changes caused by sugar reduction, which could enable to achieve larger reductions if implemented in the context of gradual sugar reduction programs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Evaluation of the effect of berry extracts on carboxymethyllysine and
           lysine in ultra-high temperature treated milk
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Sarah Prestel, Bruna de Falco, Slim Blidi, Alberto Fiore, Keith SturrockBoth the Maillard reaction (MR) and thermal treatment influence the nutritional value of milk. In this paper, the capability of polyphenolic berry extract (PBE) to inhibit MR in an ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk was investigated. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of blueberry (BE) and raspberry extracts (RE) were also tested. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method was developed to monitor the MR product N ε-(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML) and L-lysine (LYS). PBE was added to milk at 0.05 and 0.1% w/v prior to UHT processing. Data revealed that formation of CML was significantly reduced (23.4 ± 5.1%) by addition of 0.1% w/v BE. The final concentrations of LYS measured following the addition of PBE prior to thermal treatment were statistically similar to the control milk which was not subjected to thermal processing. Additionally, the metabolic profile of milk samples was investigated by GC–MS and visualised using ‘FancyTiles’.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The overexpression of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit Bx7 improves
           the dough rheological properties by altering secondary and
           micro-structures of wheat gluten
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Shaopeng Li, Yingchun Liu, Jingyang Tong, Liwei Yu, Mengyun Ding, Zhengmao Zhang, Ata-ur Rehman, Mahsa Majzoobi, Zhonghua Wang, Xin GaoBread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the crucial cereals consumed by human beings and wheat gluten, the natural macromolecules, mainly determines the processing quality of wheat dough. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) of gluten proteins are recognized as one of the main components regulating the rheological properties of dough. The overexpressed Bx7 subunit (Bx7OE) has been reported to improve wheat quality and rheological properties of dough, however its effect on secondary and micro- structures of gluten is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the composition of main storage proteins in wheat grains of two near-isogenic lines and studied the effect of Bx7 subunit expression level on the secondary structures of gluten and micro-structure of gluten during dough mixing process. Results showed the protein content, HMW-GSs proportion in total glutenins and free sulfhydryl content increased in the flour of HMW-Bx7OE wheat line, and the accumulation of unextractable polymeric protein during grain filling stage accelerated. It was found that the content of β-sheets in secondary structures of gluten increased and a more compact micro-structure of gluten network formed in the dough. Protein network analysis characterized and quantified the alterations in the gluten micro-structure. In the process of dough mixing, protein area, total protein length, number of junctions and branching rate reach the peak at dough development time, which was consistent with Chopin mixing profile. Interestingly, during dough mixing, the above-mentioned parameters of HMW-Bx7OE showed less changes than those of HMW-Bx7 wheat line, indicating Bx7OE improved the dough stability during mixing. To conclude, Bx7OE alters the secondary and micro- structures of gluten and thus improves the mixing and rheological properties of wheat dough.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Predictive modelling for the growth kinetics of Pseudomonas spp. on button
           mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) under isothermal and non-isothermal
           conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Fatih Tarlak, Murat Ozdemir, Mehmet MelikogluBaranyi model was fitted to experimental growth data of Pseudomonas spp. on the button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) stored at different isothermal conditions (4, 12, 20 and 28 °C), and the kinetic growth parameters of Pseudomonas spp. on the button mushrooms were obtained. The goodness of fit of the Baranyi model was evaluated by considering the root mean squared error (RMSE) and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adjusted-R2). The Baranyi model gave RMSE values lower than 0.193 and adjusted-R2 values higher than 0.975 for all isothermal storage temperatures. The maximum specific growth rate (µmax) was described as a function of temperature using secondary models namely, Ratkowsky and Arrhenius models. The Ratkowsky model described the temperature dependence of µmax better than the Arrhenius model. Therefore, the differential form of the Baranyi model was merged with the Ratkowsky model, and solved numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to predict the concentration of Pseudomonas spp. populations on button mushrooms under non-isothermal conditions in which they are frequently subjected to during storage, delivery and retail marketing. The validation performance of the dynamic model used was assessed by considering bias (Bf) and accuracy (Af) factors which were found to be 0.998 and 1.016, respectively. The dynamic model developed also exhibited quite small mean deviation (MD) and mean absolute deviation (MAD) values being −0.013 and 0.126 log CFU/g, respectively. The modelling approach used in this work could be an alternative to traditional enumeration techniques to determine the number of Pseudomonas spp. on mushrooms as a function of temperature and time.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Longjing tea using stir bar
           sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with gas chromatography-mass
           spectrometry (GC–MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), odor
           activity value (OAV), and aroma recombination
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Meng-Qi Wang, Wan-Jun Ma, Jiang Shi, Yin Zhu, Zhi Lin, Hai-Peng LvLongjing tea is the most famous premium green tea, and is regarded as the national tea in China, with its attractive aroma contributing as a prime factor for its general acceptability; however, its key aroma compounds are essentially unknown. In the present study, volatile compounds from Longjing tea were extracted and examined using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Data obtained from the present study revealed that 151 volatile compounds from 16 different chemical classes were identified by GC–MS analysis. Enols (8096 µg/kg), alkanes (6744 µg/kg), aldehydes (6442 µg/kg), and esters (6161 µg/kg) were the four major chemical classes and accounted for 54% of the total content of volatile compounds. Geraniol (6736 µg/kg) was the most abundant volatile compound in Longjing tea, followed by hexanal (1876 µg/kg) and β-ionone (1837 µg/kg). Moreover, 14 volatile compounds were distinguished as the key aroma compounds of Longjing tea based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, odor activity value (OAV) calculations, and a preliminary aroma recombination experiment, including 2-methyl butyraldehyde, dimethyl sulfoxide, heptanal, benzaldehyde, 1-octen-3-ol, (E, E)-2,4-heptadienal, benzeneacetaldehyde, linalool oxide I, (E, E)-3,5-octadien-2-one, linalool, nonanal, methyl salicylate, geraniol, and β-ionone. This is the first comprehensive report describing the aroma characterizations and the key aroma compounds in Longjing tea using SBSE/GC–MS. The findings from this study contribute to the scientific elucidation of the chemical basis for the aromatic qualities of Longjing tea.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the microbial inactivation and
           extraction of bioactive compounds from açaí (Euterpe oleracea Martius)
           pulp
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Ana Laura Tibério de Jesus, Marcelo Cristianini, Nathalia Medina dos Santos, Mário Roberto Maróstica JúniorThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the inactivation of Lactobacillus fructivorans, on the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores and on the extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolics from açaí pulp. The tested conditions comprised pressures of 400–600 MPa, treatment times of 5–15 min, and temperatures of 25 °C and 65 °C. Results were compared to those of conventional thermal treatments (85 °C/1 min). Regarding A. acidoterrestris spores, applying HHP for 13.5 min, resulted in a value of four-decimal reduction. L. fructivorans presented considerable sensitivity to HHP treatment, achieving inactivation rates above 6.7 log cycles at process conditions at 600 MPa and 65 °C for 5 min. All samples of açaí pulp processed showed absence of thermotolerant coliforms during the 28 days of refrigerated storage (shelf life study). The açaí pulps processed by HHP (600 MPa/5 min/25 °C) had anthocyanin extraction increased by 37% on average. In contrast, conventional thermal treatment reduced anthocyanin content by 16.3%. For phenolic compounds, the process at 600 MPa/5 min/65 °C increases extraction by 10.25%. A combination of HHP treatment and moderate heat (65 °C) was shown to be an alternative to thermal pasteurization, leading to microbiologically safe products while preserving functional compounds.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Production and characterization of promising β-stable seed crystals to
           modulate the crystallization of fat-based industrial products
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Camilia Aoyagui dos Santos, Crystopher Stanley Carpenter, Júlia Delgado Arid, Álan Ávila da Silva, Lisandro Pavie Cardoso, Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro, Priscilla EfraimSpray cooling or spray chilling is a technique for obtaining solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) within the diameter range in micrometers using low temperatures and no organic solvents. It is a low-cost technique and is easy to scale-up. The production of SLMs into β-form represents a technological challenge due to the fast crystallization given by the spray cooling system, which generally results in SLMs crystallized into the metastable polymorphic form α. This study focuses on the production and characterization of SLMs by spray cooling using hard fat soybean oil (HS) added of D-limonene or canola oil, aiming to their application as β-seed crystals into lipid systems. The β-seed crystals could turn into an alternative lipid material to be used in fat-based products that present the preferential β′ crystallization, like palm oil, increasing its compatibility with cocoa butter (CB) and allowing for the development of substitutes. The obtained SLMs showed spherical geometry and no agglomeration during storage at 25 °C for up to 30 days, verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean diameters (D50) were between 150 and 200 μm and the β′ and β-form, determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), appeared immediately after the crystallization process by spray cooling using HS added of 5% D-limonene (the HS control sample presented only the α-form). The SLMs of this study demonstrated their potential use as β-seed crystals into lipid systems.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Nutraceuticals: Some remarks by a choice experiment on food, health and
           new technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Flavio Boccia, Gennaro PunzoNowadays people are increasingly interested in health foods, which are foods considered beneficial to well-being in ways that go beyond a normal healthy diet required for human nutrition. This study aims at providing a better understanding of the main factors leading to the purchase of a relatively new category of technological foods, namely nutraceuticals. Based on data collected on a sample of Italian families through a cross-sectional survey, which included choice experiment questions and socio-demographic characteristics, two specifications of discrete choice models allowed us to formalise the behavioural response linked to that purchase and to preference heterogeneity across consumers, and the willingness to pay for these products. Findings show that not all nutraceutical features are equally important in shaping consumers’ preferences for health-oriented foods. The role played by formal education in describing the behavioural response towards nutraceuticals and the significant preference heterogeneity across consumers in relation to specific nutraceutical features provide interesting insights to assist researchers and marketers in developing more market-oriented functional foods that gain consumer acceptance.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Development and validation of a new method for the simultaneous
           determination of spinetoram J and L in honey from different botanical
           origins employing solid-phase extraction with a polymeric sorbent and
           liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass
           spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Paola Ruiz, Ana M. Ares, Silvia Valverde, María T. Martín, José BernalThe objective of this study was to propose a novel method to determine residues of the bio-insecticide spinetoram, which is a mixture of two components (spinetoram J and L), in honey from multifloral, rosemary and heather botanical origins; liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was the technique employed. An efficient sample treatment (recoveries between 82% and 95%) involving a solid-phase extraction with a polymeric sorbent has been recommended, and no matrix effect was observed. Chromatographic analysis (4 min) was performed in reverse phase mode by using a fused-core column (Kinetex® EVO C18) with acetonitrile and ammonium formate as the mobile phase components, which was applied in isocratic elution mode. Method was validated according to the current European legislation. Not only was it selective, but it also displayed a wide linear range, good precision (relative standard deviation values lower than 9%) and sensitivity (low limits of detection (spinetoram J, 0.1–0.3 μg/kg; spinetoram L, 0.1–0.2 μg/kg) and quantification (spinetoram J, 0.3–1.2 μg/kg; spinetoram L, 0.4–0.7 μg/kg)). Several honey samples were analyzed with this method and no spinetoram residues were found above the limits of detection.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Characterization and differentiation of boiled pork from Tibetan,
           Sanmenxia and Duroc × (Landrac × Yorkshire) pigs by volatiles
           profiling and chemometrics analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Dong Han, Chun-Hui Zhang, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Si MiTo characterize and differentiate boiled pork from three different pig breeds (Tibetan, Sanmenxia and Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire)), the volatile compounds in each were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC–MS/O) and electronic nose (E-nose) combined with chemometrics analysis. In total, 61 volatile compounds were identified, among which 25 compounds were selected as odour-active compounds in boiled pork. Moreover, seven odour-active compounds (hexanal, nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, dimethyl disulphide, heptanal, 2-pentylfuran and 2-ethylfuran) were the main contributors to the integral flavour of boiled pork due to their higher odour activity values (OAVs) ranging from 17.3 to 524.2. The odour-active compounds were examined by principal component analysis (PCA), agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The results showed that boiled pork from the three pig breeds could be clearly distinguished, and twelve odour-active compounds, including (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, ethyl hexanoate, dimethyl disulphide, hexanal, 2-acetylthiazole, (E)-2-nonenal, 1-octen-3-ol, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, heptanal, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, styrene and (E)-2-octenal, were determined as potential flavour markers for discrimination. This study indicated that GC–MS/O and E-nose with chemometrics analysis are feasible methods to characterize and discriminate boiled pork from three pig breeds.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Bio-synthesized sardine oil concentrate alters the composition of hepatic
           lipids in rats: A lipidomic approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Mari Uyeda, Gustavo Henrique Bueno Duarte, Anna Maria Alves de Piloto Fernandes, Fabiano Jares Contesini, Márcia Cristina Fernandes Messias, Gabrielle Kristine Doratiotto de Santis, Karina Vieira Barros, Ana Valéria Colnaghi Simionato, Patricia de Oliveira CarvalhoBoth preventive and curative therapies have created a considerable demand for n-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) from fish oil, such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, for human use. Bio-synthesized sardine oil (bioSO) concentrate containing an acylglycerols mixture with 50% n-3 PUFAs was obtained by Candida cylindracea lipase hydrolysis and subsequently used for in vivo tests in animals. Wistar rats received, by gavage, a dose of 0.2 g/kg/day of bioSO or unmodified sardine oil (unSO) or saline solution (control) for three consecutive days and the liver tissue was evaluated by a selective and sensitive lipidomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography–quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MSE) and gas chromatography (GC). In addition, antioxidant parameters, response of oxidative stress marker and estimated fatty acid desaturase indexes were determined. The use of bioSO led to an increase in Cer d18:1/16:0, PE-Cer d14:2/18:0 and highly unsaturated phosphatylcholines (PC 38:4, PC 40:6 and PC 42:8) in the hepatic tissue membranes. There was also an increase in DHA incorporation in animals that received bioSO in comparison with the control animals. No differences in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity levels were observed between the groups, and malondialdehyde levels and delta 5-desaturase activity were higher in animals supplemented with bioSO. These results indicate that bioSO increase the hepatic incorporation of DHA, especially those esterified as PCs, and are probably absorbed and transported more effectively than the unSO. Enzymatically hydrolyzed compounds containing antioxidants may be a viable alternative for obtaining n-3 PUFA-enriched functional lipids.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effects of water activity, sugars, and proteins on lipid oxidative
           stability of low moisture model crackers
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Thanh Phuong Vu, Lili He, David Julian McClements, Eric Andrew DeckerUnderstanding lipid oxidation mechanisms in low moisture foods is necessary to develop antioxidant strategies to increase shelf life and/or to improve nutritional quality by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. In this study, we examined the influence of water activity (aw), sugars (glucose, maltose, maltodextrin, and cyclodextrin), and proteins (casein and gluten) on the lipid hydroperoxide and hexanal lag phases of model crackers. Oxidative stability of crackers was in an order: aw 0.7 > aw 0.4 > aw 0.2 > aw 0.05. Higher water activities resulted in bigger differences between hydroperoxide lag phases and hexanal lag phases. Compared to non-reducing cyclodextrin and no added sugar controls, reducing sugars including glucose, maltose, and maltodextrin at the same dextrose equivalence increased both hydroperoxide and hexanal lag phases. At the same dextrose equivalence, oxidative stability was in the order of maltose > maltodextrin > glucose > control (no sugar added). The antioxidant effectiveness of maltose, a low sweetness profile sugar, increased with increasing concentrations from 1.1 to 13.8%. Increasing aw increased the antioxidant activity of maltose. For example, 1.1% maltose increased both hydroperoxides and hexanal lag phases by 9 days at an aw of 0.2, but increased hydroperoxide lag phase by 24 days and hexanal lag phase by 15 days at an aw of 0.7. Gluten was able to inhibit lipid oxidation with activity increasing with increasing aw while casein showed minimal antioxidant impact. Antioxidant activity of gluten decreased when its sulfhydryl groups were blocked by N-ethylmaleimide suggesting that cysteine was an important antioxidant component of gluten. Adjusting water activity and addition of reducing sugars and gluten could be strategies to increase oxidative stability of low moisture crackers.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Blending strategies for wine color modification Ⅰ: Color improvement by
           blending wines of different phenolic profiles testified under extreme
           oxygen exposures
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Si-Yu Li, Pei-Ru Zhao, Meng-Qi Ling, Meng-Yao Qi, Ignacio García-Estévez, María Teresa Escribano-Bailón, Xin-Jun Chen, Ying Shi, Chang-Qing DuanLimited oxygenation and over-oxidation experiments were designed to compare the phenolic and chromatic characters of base wines Cabernet Franc (CF), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), and their counterparts that blended with modifier wines Marselan (MA) and Petit Verdot (PV). In both limited oxygenation and over-oxidation conditions, all blend wines generally contained higher C*ab, a* and Red%, and lower hab, b* and Yellow% than their base wine counterparts, because MA contributed flavonols (copigments) and anthocyanins, and PV contributed flavanols (anthocyanin derived pigments precursors). Chromatic changes that can be perceived by human eye (ΔE*ab) in CF based blend wines were more obvious than that of CS based blend wines, which indicate that base wine with lower phenolic concentrations and weak phenolic profiles (CF) might be more prone to be chromatically modified than base wine with higher phenolic concentrations and distinct phenolic profiles (CS). Chemical influences of different blending strategies on anthocyanin derivatives' formations were depending on phenolic profiles of the modifier wines and base wines, and also on the oxygen exposure. The results suggest that the chromatic improvement of base wines could be realized by blending modifier wines under different oxygen exposures.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The roles of pollution concerns and environmental knowledge in making
           green food choices: Evidence from Chinese consumers
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Qingmeng Tong, Sven Anders, Junbiao Zhang, Lu ZhangIn the face of growing environmental concerns among Chinese consumers over food contamination, this study investigates the determinants of Chinese consumers’ purchase intentions and willingness to pay for rice with environmental attributes (green rice). The analysis focused especially on latent consumer traits of environmental pollution concerns and subjective environmental knowledge. The data was collected through survey questionnaires administered in three Chinese cities: Guangzhou, Wuhan and Lanzhou (n = 622). A structural equation model was estimated to generate direct and indirect effect estimates of latent and observables factors that determine consumer purchase intentions and willingness to pay for green rice. This study finds significant effects of subjective environmental knowledge on purchase intentions as well as pollution concerns on willingness to pay for green rice. While food quality concerns mediate purchase intentions and willingness to pay; individuals’ socio-demographic characteristics including age, education, health status and income influence consumer choice for green rice. A relevant policy finding is that respondents who regard the government as the main agent in protecting the environment were less likely to choose green rice. Overall, the results suggest that strengthening environmental education and targeted market segmentation are necessary conditions for successfully establishing food products with labelled environmental credentials in the Chinese market.Graphical abstractSimplified diagram showing the direction of statistically significant direct effects of environmental knowledge and pollution concerns on Chinese consumers’ purchase intention and willingness to pay for green rice.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Plants: A natural solution to enhance raw milk cheese preservation'
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Coralie Dupas, Benjamin Métoyer, Halima El Hatmi, Isabelle Adt, Samir A. Mahgoub, Emilie DumasPlants have been traditionnally used for centuries in cheese manufacturing, either for their aromatic properties or as technological auxiliaries (e.g. milk-clotting enzyme preparations, cheese wrappers). Some of these plants are known to have antimicrobial and/or antioxidant properties and could also act as natural preservatives for raw milk and derived dairy products.This review examined the traditional uses of plants in dairy processing, and then focuses on known antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of their extracts (e.g. maceration, decoction, essential oil). Known effects of theses plants on technological flora (starter cultures and microorganisms implicated in cheese ripening) were also summarized, and the potential for plant extracts used in combination with hurdle technologies was explored. Then, legal restriction and bioactivity variations from a culture media to a food matrix was reviewed: non-toxic bioactive molecules found in plants, extract preparation modes suitable with foodgrade processing restrictions, the role of the food matrix as a hindrance to the efficiency of bioactive compounds, and a review of food legislation. Finally, some commercial plant extracts for milk preservation were discussed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal electrospun nanofibers for food
           packaging applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Fuat Topuz, Tamer UyarFood packaging is a multidisciplinary area that encompasses food science and engineering, microbiology, as well as chemistry, and ignited tremendous interest in maintaining the freshness and quality of foods and their raw materials from oxidation and microbial spoilage. With the advances in the packaging industry, they could be engineered as easy-to-open, resealable, active, as well as intelligent with the incorporation of sensory elements while offering desired barrier properties against oxygen and water vapor. In this regard, the use of the electrospinning approach allows producing nanofibrous packaging materials with large surface-to-volume ratios and enables the higher loading of active agents into packaging materials. Electrospun packaging materials have been produced from various polymers (i.e., synthetic and natural) and their (nano)composites, and were mainly exploited for the encapsulation of active agents for their use as active food packaging materials. The electrospinning process was also used for the deposition of electrospun fibers on films to enhance their performance (e.g., as reinforcement material, or to enhance barrier properties). They could be even engineered to provide nutraceuticals to food, or antioxidant, antimicrobial or antifungal protection to the packaged food. In this article, first, introductory descriptions of food packaging, barrier properties, and electrospinning are given. Afterward, active and intelligent food packaging materials are briefly discussed, and the use of electrospinning for the fabrication of active food packaging materials is elaborated. Particular interest has been given to the polymer-type used in the production of electrospun fibers and active properties of the resultant packaging materials (e.g., antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal). Finally, this review paper concludes with a summary and future outlook towards the development of electrospun food packaging materials.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Peruvian Andean maize: General characteristics, nutritional properties,
           bioactive compounds, and culinary uses
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Rebeca Salvador-Reyes, Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva ClericiAncient grains are considered to have been minimally changed by selective breeding, thus they are resistant to pests and environmental adversities and have stood out as a healthy food for consumption. This article aimed to review Peruvian Andean maize (PAM), which despite being used in local cuisine, little information has been found in literature about its characteristics and bioactive properties. The highest yielding varieties of PAM include Chullpi, Piscorunto, Sacsa, Giant Cuzco, and Purple, which differs from the commercial maize by their greater variety of color, size, and higher levels of protein, lipids, and bioactive compounds. The genetic characteristics of PAM associated with a geographical origin allow for the production of agricultural products with higher added value, without exhausting the existing plantations and maintaining the sustainability of the Andean region.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds and plant extracts on the
           formation of advance glycation end products: A comprehensive review
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Majid Khan, Huilin Liu, Jing Wang, Baoguo SunAdvance glycation end products (AGEs) are a diverse group of compounds formed through the non-enzymatic maillard reaction of reducing sugars with the free amino groups in proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. Accumulation of AGEs has been suggested to be a pathogenic mechanism of oxidative stress, inflammation and structural tissue damage leading to chronic vascular problems in many ailments including diabetes, atherosclerosis, neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, aging, and chronic renal disease. Treatment with AGEs inhibitors is believed to be a potential strategy for preventing lifestyle-related diseases. To inhibit the AGEs development is supposed to show part in the inhibition of diabetic problems. Study of dietary bioactive combinations with antiglycation properties delivers future views for inhibition or mediation associated to AGEs complications. Many study show the possibility of dietary constituents to stop AGE development. Therefore, search for natural compounds able to prevent glycation and have the potential therapeutic ability to inhibit diabetes and age associated diseases. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the existing literature on different phenolics on AGEs inhibition.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A paradigm of volatile aroma compounds in rice and their product with
           extraction and identification methods: A comprehensive review
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Deepak Kumar Verma, Prem Prakash SrivastavThe aroma in rice and its products is one of the important quality characteristics. It is contributed by more than 500 different volatile compounds and the extraction and quantification of aroma compounds are equally essential, determining the threshold of aroma. Till date, a complete review of the aromatic consideration of rice is lacking in the literature. Therefore, the present paper is prepared with the aim of summarizing the data and other significant information in respect of the aroma characteristics of different types of rice and rice products from the early 1980s to 2019. This review discusses all the studies on extraction, isolation, and characterization of volatile aroma compounds (VACs) done in different types of rice and their products which will further help researchers to continue their work on the lacking aspects of rice aroma. A special focus has been given to the 2-AP compound which signified the difference between aromatic and non-aromatic rice cultivars.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Bioactive proteins and phytochemicals from legumes: Mechanisms of action
           preventing obesity and type-2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): Cecilia A. Moreno-Valdespino, Diego Luna-Vital, Rosa M. Camacho-Ruiz, Luis MojicaThe Fabaceae family of plants include a variety of seeds with multiple shapes, sizes, and colors; with a great diversity of bioactive compounds found in legume seeds. Legumes are an excellent source of protein, peptides and phytochemicals which are present in significant amounts. These bioactive compounds have been reported to reduce the risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as obesity and type-2 diabetes. In this narrative review, we discuss the biological potential of bioactive compounds found in legumes and the health benefits associated with their consumption as an alternative approach in the management of NCD. Current extraction methods, characteristics of the bioactive compounds, and different in vitro and in vivo studies evaluating the bioactivity of legume bioactives are reviewed and discussed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Nanoemulsions and acidified milk gels as a strategy for improving
           stability and antioxidant activity of yarrow phenolic compounds after
           gastrointestinal digestion
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Food Research International, Volume 130Author(s): M. Villalva, L. Jaime, E. Arranz, Z. Zhao, M. Corredig, G. Reglero, S. SantoyoThe aim of this study was to improve the stability and antioxidant activity of yarrow phenolic compounds upon an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, two types of caseins-based delivery systems, sodium caseinate stabilized nanoemulsions (NEs) and glucono delta-lactone acidified milk gels (MGs), were formulated containing an ultrasound-assisted yarrow extract (YE) at two concentrations (1 and 2.5 mg/mL). Formulations with 1 mg/mL of YE were chosen based on their higher encapsulation efficiency to perform the in vitro digestion experiments. After digestion, YE-loaded NEs only partially protected phenolic compounds from degradation; meanwhile the phenolic composition of YE including in MGs after digestion was quite similar to undigested YE. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of MGs after digestion was higher than NEs digested samples, which confirms the higher protection of YE phenolic compound by the milk gels systems.This research demonstrated the potential use of acidified MGs as carriers to improve the stability and antioxidant activity of yarrow phenolic compounds. Therefore, these matrices could be employed to develop new dairy products enriched with phenolic compounds.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The role of Optimistic Bias in safe food handling behaviours in the food
           service sector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Kelly Lameiro Rodrigues, Anita Eves, Caroline Pereira das Neves, Bruna Kerstner Souto, Sara Joana Gadotti dos AnjosThis study evaluates the influences on food handlers’ intention to conduct safe handling behaviours in food service settings in Brazil and the United Kingdom, focusing on Optimistic bias (OB). Although OB has been identified in food handlers in other studies, this is the first study evaluating the role of OB in determining behavioural intention. Three hundred participants, from the United Kingdom (n=150) and Brazil (n=150), completed a Theory of Planned Behaviour – based questionnaire, including additional questions about OB. For Brazilian food handlers, Attitude had a significant influence on Behavioural Intention followed by Subjective Norm, while Perceived Behavioural Control and OB did not significantly influence Behavioural Intention. For the United Kingdom, Perceived Behavioural Control had the largest influence, followed by Attitude, and then OB. Results suggest that cultural differences may influence predictors of behavioural intention, and that OB can contribute to predicting engagement in safe handling behaviours. Results contribute to a better understanding of the influences on food safety related behaviours.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
 
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