Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 399 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (15 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (102 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (282 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (282 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access  
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grain & Oil Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Food Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.66
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0740-0020 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9998
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3204 journals]
  • Study of the microbiological quality, prevalence of foodborne pathogens
           and product shelf-life of Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass
           (Dicentrarchus labrax) from aquaculture in estuarine ecosystems of
           Andalusia (Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Costa Jean Carlos Correia Peres, Belén Floriano, Isabel María Bascón Villegas, Juan Pablo Rodríguez-Ruiz, Guiomar Denisse Posada-Izquierdo, Gonzalo Zurera, Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez
       
  • Bacillus cereus spores and toxins – The potential role of
           biofilms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Yiying Huang, Steve H. Flint, Jon S. Palmer
       
  • Tracing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in artisanal cheese to the
           processing environments in cheese producers in southern Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Carla Barría, Randall S. Singer, Irene Bueno, Erika Estrada, Dácil Rivera, Soledad Ulloa, Jorge Fernandez, Fernando O. Mardones, Andrea I. Moreno-Switt
       
  • How we can improve the antimicrobial performances of lactic acid
           bacteria' A new strategy to control Listeria monocytogenes in
           Gorgonzola cheese
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Morandi Stefano, Tiziana Silvetti, Vito Vezzini, Elena Morozzo, Milena Brasca
       
  • Correlations between microbiota succession and flavor formation during
           fermentation of Chinese low-salt fermented common carp (Cyprinus carpio
           L.) inoculated with mixed starter cultures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Jinhong Zang, Yanshun Xu, Wenshui Xia, Joe M. Regenstein, Dawei Yu, Fang Yang, Qixing Jiang
       
  • Efficient isolation of Campylobacter bacteriophages from chicken skin,
           analysis of several isolation protocols
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Ibai Nafarrate, Felix Amárita, Estibaliz Mateo, Iñigo Martínez de Marañón, Amaia Lasagabaster
       
  • Novel real-time PCR assay for Lactobacillus casei group species
           using comparative genomics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Eiseul Kim, Seung-Min Yang, Eun-Ji Cho, Hae-Yeong Kim
       
  • A time course metabolism comparison among Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S.
           uvarum and S. kudriavzevii species in wine fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Romain Minebois, Roberto Pérez-Torrado, Amparo Querol
       
  • Transcriptomics unravels the adaptive molecular mechanisms of
           Brettanomyces bruxellensis under SO2 stress in wine condition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Federica Valdetara, Miha Skalic, Daniela Fracassetti, Marli Louw, Concetta Compagno, Maret du Toit, Roberto Foschino, Uroš Petrovič, Benoit Divol, Ileana Vigentini
       
  • Novel insights into the enterotoxigenic potential and genomic background
           of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Daniele Chieffi, Francesca Fanelli, Gyu-Sung Cho, Justyna Schubert, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Charles M.A.P. Franz, Jacek Bania, Vincenzina Fusco
       
  • Amino acids other than glutamate affect the expression of the GAD system
           in Listeria monocytogenes enhancing acid resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Ranju Paudyal, Conor P. O'Byrne, Kimon-Andreas Karatzas
       
  • Amino Acid and Microbial Community Dynamics during the Fermentation of
           Hong Qu Glutinous Rice Wine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Zhangcheng Liang, Xiaozi Lin, Zhigang He, Hao Su, Weixin Li, Xiangyun Ren
       
  • A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection
           of fumonisin producing Aspergillus species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Massimo Ferrara, Antonio F. Logrieco, Antonio Moretti, Antonia Susca
       
  • Survival of Salmonella enterica and Shifts in the Culturable Mesophilic
           Aerobic Bacterial Community as Impacted by Tomato Wash Water Particulate
           Size and Chlorine Treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Sam Van Haute, Yaguang Luo, Samantha Bolten, Ganyu Gu, Xiangwu Nou, Patricia Millner
       
  • Prevalence of Listeria spp. in Produce Handling and Processing Facilities
           in the Pacific Northwest
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Jorgensen John, Waite-Cusic Joy, Kovacevic Jovana
       
  • Campylobacter in chicken – Critical parameters for international,
           multicentre evaluation of air sampling and detection methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2020Source: Food Microbiology, Volume 90Author(s): Gro S. Johannessen, Giuliano Garofolo, Gabriella Di Serafino, Ivana Koláčková, Renáta Karpíšková, Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek, Julia Christensen, Mona Torp, Jeffrey Hoorfar
       
  • Detection of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in food by droplet
           digital PCR to detect simultaneous virulence factors in a single genome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Li He, David Simpson, Michael G. Gänzle
       
  • Early adaptation strategies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora
           delbrueckii to co-inoculation in high sugar grape must-like media
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Federico Tondini, Cristobal A. Onetto, Vladimir Jiranek
       
  • Attribution of Listeria monocytogenes human infections to food and animal
           sources in Northern Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Virginia Filipello, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Silvia Gallina, Nicoletta Vitale, Alessandro Mannelli, Mirella Pontello, Lucia Decastelli, Marc W. Allard, Eric W. Brown, Sara Lomonaco
       
  • Comparative genetic and physiological characterisation of Pectinatus
           species reveals shared tolerance to beer-associated stressors but
           halotolerance specific to pickle-associated strains
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Timo Kramer, Philip Kelleher, Julia van der Meer, Tadhg O’Sullivan, Jan-Maarten A. Geertman, Sylvia H. Duncan, Harry J. Flint, Petra LouisAbstractObligate anaerobic bacteria from the genus Pectinatus have been known to cause beer spoilage for over 40 years. Whole genome sequencing was performed on eleven beer spoilage strains (nine Pectinatus frisingensis, one Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus and one Pectinatus haikarae isolate), as well as two pickle spoilage species (Pectinatus brassicae MB591 and Pectinatus sottacetonis MB620) and the tolerance of all species to a range of environmental conditions was tested. Exploration of metabolic pathways for carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins showed little difference between beer spoilage- and pickle spoilage-associated strains. However, genes for certain carbohydrate and sulphur-containing amino acid-associated enzymes were only present in the beer spoilage group and genes for specific transporters and regulatory genes were uniquely found in the pickle spoilage group. Transporters for compatible solutes, only present in pickle-associated strains, likely explain their experimentally observed higher halotolerance compared to the beer spoilers. Genes involved in biofilm formation and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters potentially capable of exporting hop-derived antimicrobial compounds were found in all strains. All species grew in the presence of alcohol up to 5% alcohol by volume (ABV) and hops extract up to 80 ppm of iso-α-acids. Therefore, the species isolated from pickle processes may pose novel hazards in brewing.
       
  • Application of mannitol producing Leuconostoc citreum TR116 to reduce
           sugar content of barley, oat and wheat malt-based worts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Tom Rice, Aylin W. Sahin, Mareile Heitmann, Kieran M. Lynch, Fritz Jacob, Elke K. Arendt, Aidan CoffeyAbstractAchieving a high monosaccharide composition in malt wort is instrumental to achieve successful lactic acid bacteria fermentation of malt based beverages. The conversion of monosaccharides to alternative metabolites such as the sweet polyol, mannitol with heterofermentative strains presents a novel approach for sugar reduction and to compensate for the loss of sweetness. This work outlines the application of an adopted mashing regimen with the addition of exogenous enzymes to produce wort with high fructose content which can be applied to different malted grain types with consistently efficacious monosaccharide production for bacterial fermentation. The so produced worts are then fermented with Leuconostoc citreum TR116 a mannitol hyper-producer. Malted barley, oat and wheat were mashed to stimulate protein degradation and release of free amino acids along with the enzymatic conversion of starch to fermentable sugars. Amyloglucosidase and glucose isomerase treatment converted di- and oligo-saccharides to glucose and provided a moderate fructose concentration in malt worts which was consistent across the three cereals. Fructose was completely depleted during fermentation with Lc. citreum TR116 and converted to mannitol with high efficiency (>90%) while overall sugar reduction was> 25% in all malt worts. Differences in amino acid composition of malt worts did not significantly affect growth of Lc. citreum TR116 but did affect the formation of the aroma compounds diacetyl and isoamyl alcohol. Organic acid production and acidification of wort was similar across cereal substrates and acetic acid formation was linked to yield of mannitol. The results suggest that differences in amino acid and fructose content of malt worts considerably change metabolite formation during fermentation with Lc. citreum TR116, a mannitol hyper-producer. This work gives new insight into the development of consumer acceptable malt based beverages which will provide further options for the health conscious and diabetic consumer, an important step in the age of sugar overconsumption.
       
  • Lactobacillus fermentum: Could the EPS production ability be responsible
           for the functional properties'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Elisa Ale, C. Rojas, María Florencia Reinheimer, Jorge A. Binetti, G. AnaAbstractExopolysaccharides (EPS) production is a characteristic that has been widely described for many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of different genera and species, but little is known about the relationship between the functional properties of the producing bacteria and EPS synthesis. Although many studies were addressed towards the application of EPS-producing LAB in the manufacture of several dairy products (fermented milk, cheese) due to their interesting technological properties (increased hardness, water holding capacity, viscosity, etc.), there are not many reports about the functional properties of the EPS extract itself, especially for the genus Lactobacillus. The aim of the present revision is to focus on the species Lactobacillus fermentum with reported functional properties, with particular emphasis on those strains capable of producing EPS, and try to establish if there is any linkage between this property and their functional/probiotic roles, considering the most recent bibliography.
       
  • Regulation of trehalose, a typical stress protectant, on central
           metabolisms, cell growth and division of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
           CEN.PK113-7D
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Xiaoru Zhang, Yaxian Zhang, Hao LiAbstractTrehalose could protect the typical food microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell against environmental stresses; however, the other regulation effects of trehalose on yeast cells during the fermentation are still poorly understood. In this manuscript, different concentrations (i.e., 0, 2 and 5% g/v) of trehalose were respectively added into the medium to evaluate the effect of trehalose on growth, central metabolisms and division of S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D strain that could uptake exogenous trehalose. Results indicated that addition of trehalose could inhibit yeast cell growth in the presence or absence of 8% v/v ethanol stress. Exogenous trehalose inhibited the glucose transporting efficiency and reduced intracellular glucose content. Simultaneously, increased intracellular trehalose content destroyed the steady state of trehalose cycle and caused the imbalance between the upper glycolysis part and the lower part, thereby leading to the dysfunction of glycolysis and further inhibiting the normal yeast cell growth. Moreover, energy metabolisms were impaired and the ATP production was reduced by addition of trehalose. Finally, exogenous trehalose-associated inhibition on yeast cell growth and metabolisms delayed cell cycle. These results also highlighted our knowledge about relationship between trehalose and growth, metabolisms and division of S. cerevisiae cells during fermentation.
       
  • Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid against Aspergillus
           nomius in Brazil nuts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): M.S.S. Ribeiro, O. Freitas-Silva, I.M. Castro, A. Teixeira, S.H. Marques-da-Silva, A.C.S. Moraes, L.F. Abreu, C.L. SousaAbstractThe objective of this work was to assess the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid for sanitization of Brazil nuts. To evaluate the natural microbiota of the nuts, the total bacteria and fungi as well as the Aspergillus section Flavi were counted. The moisture, water activity and the presence of aflatoxins was quantified. The response surface method was used to determine the influence of exposure time and sanitizers concentration on the reduction of Aspergillus nomius inoculated on the nuts. Microbiological, sensory and quantification analyzes of aflatoxins were performed under optimum conditions The evaluation of the initial contamination of the nuts, despite presenting high microbiological contamination, humidity and water activity, was not detected aflatoxins in any samples. In artificially inoculated samples, the response surface and the desirability function were obtained to determine the optimal point of use for each sanitizer. The nuts had high microbiological contamination, moisture content and water activity. Aflatoxins were not detected in any samples. The response surface and desirability function indicated the optimal sanitization conditions were 250 mg/L and 8.5 minutes and 140 mg/L and 15 minutes for sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, respectively. Reductions greater than 2 log CFU/g were obtained with sodium hypochlorite and of 1 log CFU/g for peracetic acid. In the tests performed with new Brazil nuts samples under the optimized conditions, reductions of less than 2 log CFU/g were obtained. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in one untreated sample (1.51 μg/kg), one sample treated with sodium hypochlorite (0.60 μg/kg) and two samples treated with peracetic acid (0.64 and 0.72 μg/kg). Demonstrating that the sanitizers in the concentrations used had no action on aflatoxins, despite being efficient for fungal control. The treatments did not cause an unacceptable sensorial impact on the samples.
       
  • Heat sensitization of hepatitis A virus and Tulane virus using grape seed
           extract, gingerol and curcumin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Mayuri Patwardhan, Mark T. Morgan, Vermont Dia, Doris H. D’SouzaAbstractHuman noroviruses (HNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are predominantly linked to foodborne outbreaks worldwide. As cell-culture systems to propagate HNoV in laboratories are not easily available, Tulane virus (TV) is used as a cultivable HNoV surrogate to determine inactivation. Heat-sensitization of HAV and TV by “generally recognized as safe’’ (GRAS) substances can potentially reduce their time-temperature inactivation parameters during processing to ensure food safety. Curcumin, gingerol (from ginger), and grape seed extract (GSE) reportedly have anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating and antiviral properties. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the D-values and z-values of HAV and TV at 52 to 68oC with or without curcumin (0.015 mg/ml), gingerol (0.1 mg/ml), or GSE (1 mg/ml) in 2-ml glass vials. HAV at ∼7 log PFU/ml and TV at ∼6 log PFU/ml were diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and added to two sets of six 2-mL sterile glass vials. One set served as the control and the second set had the three extracts individually added for thermal treatments in a circulating water bath for 0 to 10 min. The D-values for TV in PBS ranged from 4.55±0.28 to 1.08±0.16 min, and for HAV in PBS ranged from to 9.21±0.24 to 0.67±0.19 min at 52 to 68oC. Decreased D-values (52 to 58oC) for TV with curcumin ranging from 4.32±0.25 to 0.62±0.17 min, gingerol from 4.09±0.18 to 0.72±0.09 min and GSE from 3.82±0.18 to 0.80±0.07 min, with similar trends for HAV were observed. The linear model showed significant differences (p
       
  • Tolerance to Acid and Alkali by Streptococcus infantarius subsp.
           infantarius Strain 25124 Isolated from Fermented Nixtamal Dough: Pozol.
           Studies in APT broth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Lila Lubianka Domínguez-Ramírez, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja, Mariano García-Garibay, Teresita Sainz, Carmen WacherAbstractPozol is a beverage prepared with maize dough made after boiling the kernels in limewater. This pretreatment could act as a selective force that shapes the starter microbiota, with microorganisms able to survive the fermentation. Since Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) dominates in pozol, we evaluated the effect of acid and alkali stresses on strain Sii-25124 in commercial APT broth as a first attempt to assess its adaptation capacity. Results suggest that Sii-25124 has adaptative advantages to pH changes that possibly contribute to its persistence even after the acidification of the dough. Its cardinal pH values were 4.0 and 11.0, with an optimum between 6.6 and 8.0. It showed alkali tolerance unlike other pozol Sii strains. Adaptation at pH 4.0, 10.0 and 11.0, compared with non-adapted cells, induced acid tolerance enhancing survival at pH 3.6 (P
       
  • Effects of initial oxygenation on chemical and aromatic composition of
           wine in mixed starters of Hanseniaspora vineae and Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Guoliang Yan, Boqing Zhang, Lucy Joseph, Andrew L. WaterhouseThe use of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species as mixed starters has potential advantages over pure culture fermentation due to increased wine complexity based on modification of metabolites of oenological interest. In this work, the effects of initial oxygenation on fermentation performance, chemical and volatile composition of French Colombard wine fermented with Hanseniaspora vineae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sequential inoculations were investigated in 1 L flasks. Although dominated by S. cerevisiae at the middle-end of fermentation, initial aeration for 1 day boosted H. vineae populations, and allowed H. vineae to coexist longer with S. cerevisiae in mixed cultures compared to no aeration, and suppressed S. cerevisiae later in the fermentation, which resulted in extended fermentation time. More important, the major fermentation products and volatile compounds were significantly modified by aeration and different from no aeration fermentation. The wines produced by aeration of mixed fermentations were characterized with higher amounts of glycerol, lactic acid and acetate esters, and lower levels of ethanol, higher alcohol and ethyl fatty acid esters. The aeration had more potential to shape the quality of wines and diversify the aromatic characteristics relative to simple mixed inoculation, as indicated by PCA analysis. Our results suggested that the impact of early aeration on yeast physiology extends beyond the aeration phase and influences fermentation activity, chemical and aromatic compounds in the following anaerobic stage. The aeration for a short time during the cell growth stage in mixed fermentation is therefore a potential means to increase the aromatic diversity and quality of wine, possibly providing an alternative approach to meet the expectations of wine consumers for diverse aromatic qualities.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Development of an S-layer gene-based PCR-DGGE assay for monitoring
           dominant Lactobacillus helveticus strains in natural whey starters of
           Grana Padano cheese
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Francesco Miragoli, Vania Patrone, Francesco Romaniello, Annalisa Rebecchi, Maria Luisa CallegariAbstractMonitoring L. helveticus strain dynamics in natural whey starters is of great interest at the industrial level due to the key role that this bacterial population plays in Grana Padano cheese production. In this study, we aimed to develop a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) assay based on the slpH locus, in parallel with performing culture-dependent analysis of whey samples using optimized media to maximize the number of isolated strains. We designed new primers targeting the slpH locus to amplify a gene region that would be suitable for PCR-DGGE analysis and discriminating strains. Our results confirmed that the developed PCR-DGGE method was rapid and reliable for monitoring the L. helveticus population in whey starter cultures. All sequences of bands detected in the PCR-DGGE profiles from whey samples showed high similarity to S-layer genes of L. helveticus, and perfectly matched with the slpH locus sequences of dominant strains. Overall, our findings indicated that the target region of the slpH locus was sufficiently heterologous to discriminate L. helveticus strains, and that our PCR-DGGE analysis provided a more accurate picture of the population composition of whey starters compared to culture-dependent techniques that often fail to isolate the most abundant strains.
       
  • Content of xylose, trehalose and L-citrulline in cucumber fermentations
           and utilization of such compounds by certain lactic acid bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Redife Aslihan Ucar, Ilenys M. Pérez-Díaz, Lisa L. DeanAbstractThis research determined the concentration of trehalose, xylose and L-citrulline in fresh and fermented cucumbers and their utilization by Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus buchneri. Targeted compounds were measured by HPLC and the ability of certain LAB to utilize them was scrutinized in fermented cucumber juice. Fresh cucumber juice was supplemented with trehalose, xylose and L-citrulline to observed mixed culture fermentations. Changes in the biochemistry, pH and colony counts during fermentations were monitored. Trehalose, xylose and L-citrulline were detected in fermentations to15.51 ± 1.68 mM, a fresh cucumber sample at 36.05 mM and in fresh and fermented cucumber samples at 1.05 ± 0.63 mM, respectively. Most of the LAB tested utilized trehalose and xylose in FCJM at pH 4.7. L-citrulline was utilized by L. buchneri and produced by other LAB. L-citrulline (12.43 ± 2.3 mM) was converted to ammonia (14.54 ± 3.60 mM) and the biogenic amine ornithine (14.19 ± 1.07 mM) by L. buchneri at pH 4.7 in the presence of 0.5 ± 0.2 mM glucose enhancing growth by 0.5 log CFU/mL. The use of a mixed starter culture containing L. buchneri aided in the removal of L-citrulline and enhanced the fermentation stability. The utilization of L-citrulline by L. buchneri may be a cause of concern for the stability of cucumber fermentations at pH 3.7 or above. This study identifies the use of a tripartite starter culture as an enhancer of microbial stability for fermented cucumbers.
       
  • Production of aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Aspergillus flavus in inoculated
           wheat using typical craft beer malting conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Danieli Cristina Schabo, Ligia Manoel Martins, Janeeyre Ferreira Maciel, Beatriz Thie Iamanaka, Marta Hiromi Taniwaki, Donald William Schaffner, Marciane MagnaniAbstractThe production of aflatoxin (AF) B1 and B2 was determined during malting of wheat grains artificially contaminated with a toxigenic A. flavus strain (CCDCA 11553) isolated from craft beer raw material. Malting was performed in three steps (steeping, germination and kilning) following standard Central European Commission for Brewing Analysis procedures. AFB1 and AFB2 were quantified in eleven samples collected during the three malting steps and in malted wheat. Both, AFB1 and AFB2 were produced at the beginning of steeping and detected in all samples. The levels of AFB1 ranged from 229.35 to 455.66 μg/kg, and from 5.65 to 13.05 μg/kg for AFB2. The AFB2 increased during steeping, while no changes were observed in AFB1. Otherwise, AFB1 decreased during germination and AFB2 did not change. AFB1 and AFB2 increased after 16 h of kilning at 50 °C and decreased at the end of kilning, when the temperature reached 80 °C. The levels of AFB1 wheat malt were lower than those detected in wheat grains during steeping; however, levels of both AFB1 (240.46 μg/kg) and AFB2 (6.36 μg/kg) in Aspergillus flavus inoculated wheat malt exceeded the limits imposed by the regulatory agencies for cereals and derived products.
       
  • Amplicon sequencing reveals the bacterial diversity in milk, dairy
           premises and Serra da Canastra artisanal cheeses produced by three
           different farms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Bruna A. Kamimura, Lucélia Cabral, Melline F. Noronha, Rafaela C. Baptista, Henry M. Nascimento, Anderson S. Sant’AnaIn this work, the amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was employed to investigate the bacterial diversity in ingredients, processing environment, and ripened cheeses collected from three farms producing Serra da Canastra artisanal cheese. The data obtained indicated a remarkable variability in the bacteria consortia of the milk, whey, and environmental samples collected in farms 1, 2, and 3, despite their location in the same city. On the other hand, the starter culture and final product (ripened cheese) presented more constant and similar microbiota no matter the farm. The findings suggest that Streptococcus and Lactococcus have competitive advantages throughout Serra da Canastra cheese-making/ripening, which is crucial for their high relative abundance in the final products. An exploratory assessment based on sequencing data available in the literature showed that the Serra da Canastra cheeses sequences clustered with specific cheese varieties that are also made from raw milk but ripened for very different periods. The findings of this study highlight that despite the variability of milk and whey microbiota among the three farms, the starter culture ("pingo") has strong relevance in shaping the microbiota of the final product.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Evaluation of real-time nanopore sequencing for Salmonella
           serotype prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Feng Xu, Chongtao Ge, Hao Luo, Shaoting Li, Martin Wiedmann, Xiangyu Deng, Guangtao Zhang, Abigail Stevenson, Robert C.s Baker, Silin TangAbstractThe use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data generated by short-read sequencing technologies such as the Illumina sequencing platforms has been shown to provide reliable results for Salmonella serotype prediction. Emerging long-read sequencing platforms developed by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) provide an alternative WGS method to meet the needs of industry for rapid and accurate Salmonella confirmation and serotype classification. Advantages of the ONT sequencing platforms include portability, real-time base-calling and long-read sequencing. To explore whether WGS data generated by an ONT sequencing platform could accurately predict Salmonella serotypes, 38 Salmonella strains representing 34 serotypes were sequenced using R9.4 flow cells on an ONT sequencer for up to two hours. The downstream bioinformatics analysis was performed using pipelines with different assemblers including Canu, Wdbtg2 combined with Racon, or Miniasm combined with Racon. In silico serotype prediction programs were carried out using both SeqSero2 (raw reads and genome assemblies) and SISTR (genome assemblies). The WGS data of the same strains were also obtained from Illumina Hiseq (200 coverage) as a benchmark of accurate serotype prediction. Predictions using WGS data generated after 30 minutes, 45 minutes, one hour, and two hours of ONT sequencing time all matched the prediction results from Illumina WGS data. This study demonstrated the comparable accuracy of WGS-based serotype prediction between ONT and Illumina sequencing platforms. This study also sets a start point for future validation of ONT WGS as a rapid Salmonella confirmation and serotype classification tool for the food industry.
       
  • Investigating the effects of Aureobasidium pullulans on grape juice
           composition and fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Cristobal A. Onetto, Anthony R. Borneman, Simon A. SchmidtAbstractAureobasidium pullulans has been observed as one of the most abundant species in freshly pressed grape juice. Despite this, little is known about the consequences for the wine-making process associated with the presence and proliferation of this fungus, including its interaction with other ferment-derived microorganisms and impact on the composition of the resulting wine.In this study, the physiology of abundant A. pullulans grape juice isolates was investigated through lab scale fermentation trials, demonstrating the ability of this species to survive in grape juice while producing polysaccharides, polymers of malic acid (poly β-malic acid) and enzymes with pectinase, β - glucosidase and tannase activity. A possible antagonistic effect against yeast through competition for metals including Fe and Zn was also observed. Overall, the data suggests this abundant species could have important implications for wine production and quality.
       
  • Fates of pathogenic bacteria in time-temperature-abused and
           Holder-pasteurized human donor-, infant formula-, and full cream cow’s
           milk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Alonzo A. Gabriel, Cecile Leah T. Bayaga, Eiric A. Magallanes, Richard Paolo M. Aba, Karen May N. TanguiligAbstractThis study was conducted to address the dearth in works that simultaneously compare the growth and inactivation behaviors of selected pathogens in different milk products. In worst-case scenarios where hygienic practices are absent and heavy microbiological contaminations occur, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus multiplied in all samples at room temperature (27 °C). Most organisms readily proliferated with growth lag (tlag) values ranging from 0.00 to 5.95 h. Growth rates (KG) ranged from 0.16 to 0.67 log CFU/h. Sanitary risk times (SRTs) for a 1-log population increase ranged from 1.85 to 6.27 h, while 3.69 to 12.55 h were the SRTs determined for 2-log population increase. Final populations (Popfin) ranged from 7.11 to 9.36 log CFU/mL. Inactivation in heavily contaminated milk during Holder pasteurization revealed biphasic inactivation behavior with total log reduction (TLR) after exposure to 62.5 °C for 30 min ranging from 1.91 (90.8%) to 6.00 (99.9999%). These results emphasize the importance food safety systems in the handling of milk and milk products during manufacture and preparation.
       
  • Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus fermentum suggests a free-living
           lifestyle of this lactic acid bacterial species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Marko Verce, Marko Verce, Luc De Vuyst, Luc De Vuyst, Stefan WeckxABSTRACTLactobacillus fermentum is a lactic acid bacterium frequently isolated from mammal tissues, milk, and plant material fermentations, such as sourdough. A comparative genomics analysis of 28 L. fermentum strains enabled the investigation of the core and accessory genes of this species. The core protein phylogenomic tree of the strains examined, consisting of five clades, did not exhibit clear clustering of strains based on isolation source, suggesting a free-living lifestyle. Based on the presence/absence of orthogroups, the largest clade, containing most of the human-related strains, was separated from the rest. The extended core genome included genes necessary for the heterolactic fermentation. Many traits were found to be strain-dependent, for instance utilisation of xylose and arabinose. Compared to other strains, the genome of L. fermentum IMDO 130101, a candidate starter culture strain capable of dominating sourdough fermentations, contained unique genes related to the metabolism of starch degradation products, which could be advantageous for growth in sourdough matrices. This study explained the traits that were previously demonstrated for L. fermentum IMDO 130101 at the genetic level and provided future avenues of research regarding L. fermentum strains isolated from sourdough.
       
  • Volatile organic compounds from Starmerella bacillaris to control gray
           mold on apples and modulate cider aroma profile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Wilson José Fernandes Lemos Junior, Renato L. Binati, Giovanna E. Felis, Davide Slaghenaufi, Maurizio Ugliano, Sandra TorrianiAbstractGray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a fungal disease that can determine significant economic losses of apple during the storage phase. An alternative to reduce the use of traditional synthetic fungicides is to employ the yeast Starmerella bacillaris as biological control agent (BCA), also with positive effect on apple juice fermentation for the production of cider. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the safety of 16 S. bacillaris strains and their ability to control B. cinerea. In addition, the fermentation performances in apple juice and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile were assessed, both in single-strain and in sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The in vitro assays showed that all S. bacillaris strains can be considered safe from the analyzed virulence factors, and were able to significantly constrain the growth of B. cinerea, reducing mycelial growth of 50% in dual-culture and of 90% through VOCs. Moreover, in vivo antagonistic assays revealed a visible decrease of gray mold rot symptoms on apples confirming the potential of S. bacillaris as BCA. GC-MS analysis of the ciders obtained showed increased concentrations in the sequential fermentation of some higher alcohols and terpenes, positively correlated with the cider aromatic quality, and suggested the involvement of benzyl alcohol, known for its antimicrobial action, in the biocontrol efficacy.
       
  • Comparative evaluation of UNEX-based DNA extraction for molecular
           detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, and
           Cryptosporidium parvum as contaminants of berries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Tamirat Tefera Temesgen, Alessandra Barlaam, Kristoffer R. Tysnes, Lucy J. RobertsonAbstractThe potential public health impact of foodborne parasites transmitted via contaminated fresh produces indicates the necessity for robust and reliable laboratory methods for their detection and identification on this infection vehicle. Standardization of methods for detection of common FBP in fresh produce is to be expected and ensuring that the DNA extraction approach is most appropriate for the FBP of interest and for the matrix being analyzed is also important. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two commercially available DNA extraction procedures, the UNEX-based method and DNeasy PowerSoil kit in the detection of three protozoan parasites, C. cayetanensis, C. parvum, and T. gondii, on contaminated berries. Oocysts of each parasite were spiked into the pellets of raspberry and blueberry washes. The spiked pellets were then randomly assigned to DNA extraction using either the PowerSoil or UNEX method, with DNA extraction with both methods performed by two independent analysts. The detection rate when berry washes were spiked with 20 oocysts of C. cayetanensis, T. gondii, and C. parvum was 95%, 85%, and 40%, respectively, when using the PowerSoil kit; whereas the equivalent results using the UNEX method were 55%, 60%, and 5%, respectively. In addition, significantly lower Cq values were achieved for each parasite in the samples spiked with 500 oocysts when the PowerSoil kit was used. Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and include the composition of both the beads and the buffers in each method.
       
  • Addition of volatile sulfur compounds to yeast at the early stages of
           fermentation reveals distinct biological and chemical pathways for aroma
           formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Matias I. Kinzurik, Rebecca C. Deed, Mandy Herbst-Johnstone, Davide Slaghenaufi, Raffaele Guzzon, Richard C. Gardner, Roberto Larcher, Bruno FedrizziAbstractVolatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) greatly influence the sensory properties and quality of wine and arise via both biological and chemical mechanisms. VSCs formed can also act as precursors for further downstream VSCs, thus elucidating the pathways leading to their formation is paramount. Short-term additions of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ethanethiol (EtSH), S-ethylthio acetate (ETA), methanethiol (MeSH) and S-methylthio acetate (MTA) were made to exponentially growing fermentations of synthetic grape medium. The VSC profiles produced from live yeast cells were compared with those from dead cells and no cells. Interestingly, this experiment allowed the identification of specific biochemical and/or chemical pathways; e.g. most of the conversion of H2S to EtSH, and the further step from EtSH to ETA, required the presence of live yeast cells, as did the conversion of MeSH to MTA. In contrast, the reaction from MTA to MeSH and ETA to EtSH was due primarily to chemical degradation. Ultimately, this research unravelled some of the complex interactions and interconversions between VSCs, pinpointing the key biochemical and chemical nodes. These pathways are highly interconnected and showcase the complexity of both the sulfur pathways in yeast and the reactive chemistry of sulfur-containing compounds.
       
  • Prevalence and Genetic characteristics of Cronobacter spp. from Food and
           Human Clinical Stool Samples in Wenzhou, China 2008-2018
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Yi Li, Leyi Zhang, Yuqin Hu, Chengji Hong, Airong Xie, Yuejin Wu, Zhihui, Shangguan, Lingling Mei, Biao Zhou, Yanjun Zhang, Lei FangAbstractPathogenic Cronobacter species are responsible for life-threatening illness in neonates. A ten-year comprehensive survey was conducted to examine the population structure and antimicrobial resistant patterns of Cronobacter isolates from food (n=78) and clinical (n=12) sources in Wenzhou, China. A total of 90 (4.4%) isolates were recovered from 2051 collected samples. The occurrence of Cronobacter spp. was highest in spices with a rate of 22% (26/119), whereas the lowest contamination rate of 1% was found in powered infant and toddler formula (7/494), special medical infant formula (1/95) and human stool samples (12/1024). Cronobacter strains revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among the isolates tested. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) distinguished 75 clonal groups, and the biggest cluster consisted of four strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method displayed 43 sequence types (STs), of which ST1, ST4, ST8, ST64, ST148 and ST201 were most frequently identified. Meanwhile, two new sequence types were discovered and added to the PubMLST international database. Resistance to ceftriaxone, cefotaxiv, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, tetracycline, streptomycin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, as well as multidrug resistance, was noted. Taken together, this large-scale surveillance study highlights the wide dissemination and diverse molecular features of Cronobacter spp. in Wenzhou China.
       
  • Raw meat quality and salt levels affect the bacterial species diversity
           and community dynamics during the fermentation of pork mince
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Christina Charmpi, David Van der Veken, Emiel Van Reckem, Luc De Vuyst, Frédéric LeroyAbstractAcidification level and temperature modulate the beneficial consortia of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) during meat fermentation. Less is known about the impact of other factors, such as raw meat quality and salting. These could for instance affect the growth of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus or of Enterobacterales species, potentially indicative of poor fermentation practice. Therefore, pork batters from either normal or borderline quality (dark-firm-dry, DFD) were compared at various salt concentrations (0-4%) in meat fermentation models. Microbial ecology of the samples was investigated with culture-dependent techniques and (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting of genomic DNA. Whilst Lactobacillus sakei governed the fermentation of normal meat, Lactobacillus curvatus was more prominent in the fermentation of the DFD meat variant. CNS were favoured during fermentation at rising salt concentrations without much effects on species diversity, consisting mostly of Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus xylosus. During fermentation of DFD meat, S. saprophyticus was less manifest than during that of normal meat. Enterobacterales mainly emerged in DFD meat during fermentation at low salt concentrations. The salt hurdle was insufficient to prevent Enterobacterales when acidification and initial pH were favourable for their growth.
       
  • Effect of endogenous CO2 overpressure on the yeast “stressome” during
           the “prise de mousse” of sparkling wine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Juan A. Porras-Agüera, Juan J. Román-Camacho, Jaime Moreno-García, Juan C. Mauricio, Juan Moreno, Teresa García-MartínezSparkling wines elaboration by the “Champenoise” method involves a second fermentation of a base wine in hermetically sealed bottles and a subsequent aging period. The whole process is known as “prise de mousse”. The endogenous CO2 pressure produced during the second fermentation by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae could modify the sub-proteome involved in the response to different stresses, or “stressome”, and cell viability thus affecting the wine organoleptic properties. This study focuses on the stressome evolution along the prise de mousse under CO2 overpressure conditions in an industrial S. cerevisiae strain. The results reveal an important effect of endogenous CO2 overpressure on the stress sub-proteome, cell viability and metabolites such as glycerol, reducing sugars and ethanol. Whereas the content of glycerol biosynthesis-related proteins increased in sealed bottle, those involved in the response to toxic metabolites like ROS, ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid, decreased in content. Proteomic profile obtained in this study may be used to select suitable wine yeast strains for sparkling wine elaboration and improve their stress tolerance.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Proteomic study of Enterococcus durans LAB18S growing on
           prebiotic oligosaccharides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Carolina Baldisserotto Comerlato, Ana Carolina Ritter, Kendi Nishino Miyamoto, Adriano BrandelliAbstractThis study evaluates the influence of prebiotic carbohydrates, namely fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS), on the protein expression of Enterococcus durans LAB18S. The strain was cultivated in 10 g L-1 FOS, GOS or glucose (control) and cellular proteins were extracted for mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 771 proteins were identified and 135 E. durans proteins were validated by the Scaffold algorithm. The proteins were functionally categorized according to Gene Ontology terms. Both FOS and GOS were used as carbon source by E. durans LAB18S, upregulating the production of proteins that may be associated with intestinal mucosa adhesion, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, and stress response. Cells grown with GOS showed an increased expression of the cell division protein divIVA, EF-Tu and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase that have been associated with epithelial cell adhesion. The use of FOS stimulated the production of proteins related to amino acid metabolism and energy conversion, and ClpX protein, which plays an important role in protein turnover. The results of this study indicate that FOS and GOS can be metabolized by E. durans and stimulate the microorganism to produce proteins related to some desirable characteristics for a probiotic strain.
       
  • Phenotype and genomic background of Arcobacter butzleri strains and
           taxogenomic assessment of the species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Francesca Fanelli, Daniele Chieffi, Angela Di Pinto, Anna Mottola, Federico Baruzzi, Vincenzina FuscoAbstractIn this study the phenotypic and genomic characterization of two Arcobacter butzleri (Ab) strains (Ab 34_O and Ab 39_O) isolated from pre-cut ready-to-eat vegetables was performed. Results provided useful data about their taxonomy and their overall virulence potential with particular reference to the antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibility. These features were moreover compared with those of two Ab strains isolated from shellfish and a genotaxonomic assessment of the Ab species was performed.The two Ab isolated from vegetables were confirmed to belong to the Aliarcobacter butzleri species by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, MLST and genomic analyses. The genome-based taxonomic assessment of the Ab species brought to the light the possibility to define different subspecies reflecting the source of isolation, even though further genomes from different sources should be available to support this hypothesis. The strains isolated from vegetables in the same geographic area shared the same distribution of COGs with a prevalence of the cluster “inorganic ion transport and metabolism”, consistent with the lithotrophic nature of Arcobacter spp.. None of the Ab strains (from shellfish and from vegetables) metabolized carbohydrates but utilized organic acids and amino acids as carbon sources. The metabolic fingerprinting of Ab resulted less discriminatory than the genome-based approach. The Ab strains isolated from vegetables and those isolated from shellfish endowed multiple resistance to several antibiotics and heavy metals.
       
  • Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in echinoderms: first report of sea urchin
           (Paracentrotus lividus) contamination
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Nânci Santos-Ferreira, João Rodrigo Mesquita, Enrique Rivadulla, Ângela S. Inácio, Paulo Martins da Costa, Jesus L. Romalde, Maria São José NascimentoAbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) deriving from manure application runoffs and faecal waste spill over of swine and human origin bypass wastewater treatment plants and contaminate coastal waters. Shellfish bioaccumulate enteric viruses such as HEV from fecally contaminated coastal waters and under current European Regulations, shellfish sanitary status surveillance is mandatory but only by means of bacterial faecal indicators. The sea urchins are under the same regulations and their vulnerability to fecal contamination has been pointed out. Since they are consumed raw and with no steps to control/reduce hazards, sea urchin contamination with enteric viruses can represent a food safety risk. Hence, the aim of the present study was to screen sea urchin gonads destined for human consumption for the presence of HEV.HEV was detected and quantified in gonads of sea urchins collected in north Portugal by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay targeting the ORF3 region, followed by genotyping by a nested RT-PCR targeting the ORF2 region. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis clustered the HEV sequence within genotype 3, subgenotype e.This the first study reporting HEV contamination of sea urchins. We hypothesize that like shellfish, sea urchins can also be a food vehicle for HEV transmission to humans.
       
  • Characterization of the microbial community composition in Italian Cinta
           Senese sausages dry-fermented with natural extracts as alternatives to
           sodium nitrite
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Francesco Pini, Chiara Aquilani, Luciana Giovannetti, Carlo Viti, Carolina PuglieseAbstractNitrite is widely used in meat products as a multifunctional additive, combining flavour and colour properties with antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. However, nitrite may form reaction products (i.e., nitrosamine) that are potentially carcinogenic to humans. The meat industry, in response to consumers’ demands for nitrite-free products, is seeking natural alternatives to nitrite, such as plant-based extracts.Three types of dry-fermented sausages were manufactured: NIT, containing 30 ppm of sodium nitrite; GSE, containing grape seed extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol; and CHE, containing chestnut extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to analyse microbial consortia, which were correlated with physical and chemical parameters.The prokaryotic community composition was similar among treatments, with a high relative abundance of Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactobacillus sakei, collectively accounting for 87% of the total community. However, significant differences were observed in both operational taxonomic unit (OTU) presence/absence and relative abundance. Ten genera (5 lactic acid bacteria) varied in abundance between treatments. The increase in Lactobacillaceae in CHE may explain the reduced pH levels detected in these samples.In conclusion, NGS analysis showed that the prokaryotic community composition was similar in GSE and NIT, while CHE varied in both the composition and relative abundance of different taxa.
       
  • Effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water on natural Salmonella
           reduction and seed germination in the production of alfalfa sprouts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Chunling Zhang, Zhiyi Zhao, Gaoji Yang, Yiqi Shi, Yuyu Zhang, Xiaodong Xia, Chao ShiAbstractMicrobial contamination of sprouts occurs easily because of the pathogens present on and in the seeds and the optimal conditions for bacteria growth provided during the germination and sprouting processes. This study examined the effect of using slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), a ‘generally recognized as safe’ (GRAS) disinfectant, in place of regular water in the production process of alfalfa sprouts. In the experiment, SAEW with various available chlorine concentrations (ACC, 25, 35, 45 mg/L) and different pH levels (5.0, 5.7 and 6.4) was used to soak seeds for different length of time (0.5 and 6 h), after which the variations in natural Salmonella, water absorption and seed germination (germination rate, weight and length of sprouts) were determined. The results showed that when the seeds were soaked with SAEW, albeit with different ACC (25, 35 and 45 mg/L) and pH levels (5.0, 5.7 and 6.4), a significant reduction of Salmonella and no negative effect on sprout quality was observed. The water absorption and germination rates were also not significantly adversely affected by SAEW soaking. These findings suggest that SAEW could be used to decontaminate natural Salmonella in the production of alfalfa sprouts, with no negative side effects on the alfalfa seeds.
       
  • Evaluation of a Hybrid In-field Sampling Method for the Detection of
           Pathogenic Bacteria through Consideration of a priori Knowledge of Factors
           Related to Non-random Contamination
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Aixia Xu, Robert L. BuchananAbstractPre-harvest testing is increasingly used to enhance the microbial safety of fresh produce. Traditional sampling assumes that sample collectors have no information on potential contamination sources. Knowledge of such factors could potentially increase the effectiveness of pre-harvest sampling programs. Simulation modeling and field validation trials were used to evaluate a hybrid “Samples of Opportunity” (SOO) sampling method that included a portion of the samples based on the sampler’s knowledge of risk factors in pre-harvest produce fields. Relative effectiveness of SOO sampling was compared with three traditional sampling methods. These evaluations were based on three non-random contamination scenarios. The mean detection probability of SOO is 96% higher than traditional sampling methods (p
       
  • Diversity of the metabolic profiles of a broad range of lactic acid
           bacteria in soy juice fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Olivier Harlé, Hélène Falentin, Jérôme Niay, Florence Valence, Céline Courselaud, Victoria Chuat, Marie-Bernadette Maillard, Éric Guédon, Stéphanie-Marie Deutsch, Anne ThierryAbstractThis study explores the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to ferment soy juice. The ability of 276 LAB strains from 25 species to ferment the principal soy carbohydrates, sucrose, raffinose or stachyose was tested in synthetic media and a soy juice. Fermented soy juices (FSJs) were characterized for their odor. Selected FSJs were characterized by targeted metabolomics. All Streptococcus, 83% of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus and 41% of Lactococcus strains were sucrose-positive, while only 36% of all the LAB strains tested were raffinose-positive and 6% stachyose-positive. Nearly all (97%) the sucrose-positive strains fermented soy juice, indicating that an ability to use sucrose is a good criterion to select strains for soy juice fermentation. Among the most efficient acidifying strains, 46 FSJs had an odor deemed to be acceptable. FSJ composition was dependent on both species and strains: 17/46 strains deglycosylated soy juice isoflavones, the 27 S. thermophilus strains converted a mean 4.4 ± 0.1 g/L of sucrose into 3.0 ± 0.1 g/L of lactic acid versus 5.2 ± 0.1 g/L into 2.2 ± 0.1 g/L for the 18 Lactobacillus and one Lactococcus strains. This study highlights the diversity of the metabolic profiles of LAB strains in soy juice fermentation.
       
  • Effect of Combination of Oxyrase and Sodium Thioglycolate on Growth of
           Clostridium perfringens from Spores under Aerobic Incubation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Zhen Jia, Yanhong Liu, Chang-An Hwang, Lihan HuangAbstractClostridium perfringens is a strictly anaerobic pathogen that requires absence of oxygen for its growth in laboratory experiments, which is usually attained by using an anaerobic chamber or anaerobic jars. However, it has been demonstrated that C. perfringens may survive for short periods of times due to its adaptive response to O2. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the application of Oxyrase (OX) and sodium thioglycolate (ST) as oxygen scavengers, used alone or in combination, for observation of the growth of C. perfringens under aerobic incubation.The growth of C. perfringens from spores in Schaedler Anaerobe Agar containing different levels and combinations of OX and ST was observed at temperatures between 20 and 50°C under aerobic incubation. The kinetic parameters, including lag time, specific growth rate, and maximum cell concentrations in the stationary phase, were determined.The results indicated that ST at concentrations of 0.025 and 0.05% (w/w), although allowing eventual growth of C. perfringens, prolonged its lag times, while OX at 1.5% only allowed for a lower growth rate. OX at 3% enhanced the growth of C. perfringens at temperatures between 30 and 50°C, while higher levels of OX were needed in the medium to support the growth of C. perfringens during storage at 25°C (>6% OX) and 20°C (>9% OX), due to the effect of temperature on enzyme activity. No significant difference was found in the kinetic parameters of C. perfringens incubated aerobically with OX and the control (without OX or ST) in an anaerobic chamber. Therefore, OX at appropriate concentrations may allow the observation of the growth of C. perfringens under aerobic incubation conditions without the need of an anaerobic device.
       
  • Large genetic diversity of Arcobacter butzleri isolated from raw
           milk in Southern Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Caruso Marta, Normanno Giovanni, Miccolupo Angela, Capozzi Loredana, Bonerba Elisabetta, Difato Laura, Mottola Anna, Di Pinto Angela, Santagada Gianfranco, Parisi AntonioAbstractArcobacter butzleri is a zoonotic foodborne pathogen able to cause enteric and extraintestinal diseases. Its occurrence in foodstuff is well recognized worldwide but data on its presence in foods from Southern Italy are scarce. In this study the results on the occurrence and genotyping of Arcobacter spp. in bulk milk samples collected in Southern Italy are reported. Out of 484 samples, 64 (13.2%) resulted positive for the presence of Arcobacter spp. using Real Time PCR but as few as 31.2% of these samples turned out as positive by using the cultural method, showing an overall prevalence of 4.1%. All isolates were identified as A. cryaerophilus using the biochemical identification whilst the sequencing of the atpA gene revealed that all the isolates were A. butzleri. Among the confirmed isolates, 16 different Sequence Types (ST) were identified using the Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), 14 (87.5 %) of which were previously unreported. Our survey reveals the presence of A. butzleri in bulk tank milk from Southern Italy and highlights the discrepancy between the two approaches used both for the detection (i.e., real time PCR vs cultural method) and the identification (i.e., biochemical test vs aptA sequencing) of Arcobacter spp In addition, a large genetic diversity among the isolates was detected and this makes the identification of source of the infections very challenging in outbreaks investigation.
       
  • Exploring core functional microbiota related with flavor compounds
           involved in the fermentation of a natural fermented plain sufu (Chinese
           fermented soybean curd)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Wenmeng He, Hau Yin ChungThis study aimed to explore the core functional microbiotas related to flavor compounds involving in a naturally fermented soybean curd (plain sufu). Properties such as physicochemical parameters, flavor compounds (17 free amino acids, 21 fatty acids, and 14 aroma volatiles) and microbiota profiles were investigated, and their correlations were explored at 8 stages during production. Results from principal component analysis, multiple factor analysis, and partial least squares-discrimination analysis showed that these properties varied significantly in the eight stages. Furthermore, based on Pearson correlation coefficients and Variable importance for predictive components values between the microbiota profiles and flavor compounds, nine bacterial (Bacillus, Enterobacter, Lactobacillus, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Tetragenococcus, Trabulsiella, Unclassified, and Weissella) and six fungal (Alternaria, Sterigmatomyces, Actinomucor, Fusarium, Debaryomyces, Candida) genera were identified as core functional microbiotas significantly affecting the production of flavor compounds during the natural production. Overall, this study provided a comprehensive description of the dynamic changes of physicochemical parameters, flavor compounds, and microbiota profiles throughout the natural production of plain sufu. The similarities and variations among different stages, as well as correlation between flavor compounds and microbiotas would help to understand the mechanism of plain sufu production, and further to enhance the quality control of plain sufu.
       
  • Effect of temperature on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in
           ready-to-eat cooked rice with pork floss
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Food MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Kuan-Hung Lu, Yi-Jyun Sheen, Tsui-Ping Huang, Shu-Hui Kao, Chun-Lung Cheng, Cheng-An Hwang, Shiowshuh Sheen, Lihan Huang, Lee-Yan SheenAbstractCooked rice with pork floss (CRPF) wrapped in dried seaweed is one of the most popular ready-to-eat (RTE) foods in many Asian countries, particularly in Taiwan. The products are susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus contamination and temperature abuse during manufacturing, distribution, and storage. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of temperature on its growth in RTE CRPF for use in risk assessment and prevention of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP). Inoculated CRPF samples were stored at 4, 12, 18, 25, and 35°C, and the change in the populations of S. aureus during storage were analyzed using three primary models to determine specific growth rate (μmax), lag-phase duration (λ), and maximum population density (ymax). The Ratkowsky square-root and Huang square-root (HSR) models were used as the secondary models to describe the effect of temperature on μmax, and a linear and an exponential regression models were used to describe the effect of temperature on λ and ymax, respectively. The model performance was evaluated by the root mean square error (RMSE), bias factor (Bf), and accuracy factor (Af) when appropriate. Results showed that three primary models were suitable for describing the growth curves, with RMSE ≤ 0.7 (log MPN/g). Using μmax obtained from the Huang model, the minimum growth temperature (Tmin) estimated by the HSR model was 7.0 °C, well in agreement with the reported Tmin. The combination of primary and secondary models for predicting S. aureus growth was validated by additional growth curves at 30°C, which showed that the RMSE was 0.6 (log MPN/g). Therefore, the developed models were acceptable for predicting the growth of S. aureus in CRPF under likely temperature abuse conditions and can be applied to assess the risk of S. aureus in CRPF and design temperature controls to reduce the risk of SFP.
       
 
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