Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 387 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (15 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (99 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access  
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Technology, Siam University     Open Access  
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Travel     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Food Hydrocolloids
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.991
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0268-005X - ISSN (Online) 0268-005X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Elucidating the interaction mechanism of eriocitrin with β-casein by
           multi-spectroscopic and molecular simulation methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Xiangyu Cao, Yonglin He, Yuchi Kong, Xueying Mei, Yapeng Huo, Yin He, Jianli LiuEriocitrin is a flavanone glycoside which exists in lemon or lime citrus fruits. It exhibits antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-allergy activities. β-casein is important protein in bovine milk, under appropriate conditions, it can form stable micelle like structures in aqueous solution, which is beneficial to the nutritional ingredient transportation in body. In this work, the interaction mechanisms of eriocitrin with β-casein under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4) were investigated by utilizing multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular docking methods. The endogenous fluorescence of β-casein was quenched by the interaction with eriocitrin and the quenching mode was static quenching. The interaction of eriocitrin with β-casein was a spontaneous reaction principally driven by hydrophobic interaction. At 310 K, the binding constant was equal to 6.68 × 105 L mol−1 and the number of binding sites was approximately equal to 1. The changes of β-casein conformation were confirmed by FTIR, circular dichroism spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Moreover, molecular docking studies illustrated the most possible binding position of eriocitrin on β-casein.Graphical abstractThe binding interaction of eriocitrin with β-casein nanoparticles under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4) was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.Image 1
       
  • Effects of fish oil incorporation on the gelling properties of silver carp
           surimi gel subjected to microwave heating combined with conduction heating
           treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Xidong Jiao, Hongwei Cao, Daming Fan, Jianlian Huang, Jianxin Zhao, Bowen Yan, Wenguo Zhou, Wenhai Zhang, Weijian Ye, Hao ZhangTo understand the oil-protein interaction in silver carp surimi gel under microwave irradiation, the effects of fish oil (FO) incorporation on the gelling and microstructural properties of surimi gel subjected to microwave heating combined with conduction heating were investigated. Although FO incorporation into surimi gel disrupted the protein matrix, thereby decreasing (P 
       
  • Investigation of the structural and physical properties, antioxidant and
           antimicrobial activity of pectin-konjac glucomannan composite edible films
           incorporated with tea polyphenol
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Yanlin Lei, Hejun Wu, Chun Jiao, Yao Jiang, Rui Liu, Di Xiao, Junyu Lu, Zhiqing Zhang, Guanghui Shen, Shanshan LiComposite edible films of pectin (PEC) and konjac glucomannan (KGM) were incorporated with tea polyphenol (TP) to develop active food packaging. The effects of 1%–5% TP (w/w, on a dry basis of the weight of PEC and KGM) on the structural and physical properties, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the resultant PEC/KGM films were systematically evaluated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested the good compatibility of the components and the well-dispersion of TP in the matrix, due to the occurrence of hydrogen-bonding among them. The incorporation of TP significantly improved the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the films, while induced decreases in the transmittance, moisture content and elongation at break. In particular, addition of TP at appropriate levels remarkably increased the mechanical and water-resistant properties of the films. For example, the tensile strength and contact angle value of the films with 2% TP increased by 5.28 MPa and 18.93°, respectively. However, overloading of TP in the composite films might produce some aggregations and thus have negative effects on their performance. In sum, the developed PEC/KGM/TP films possessed the potential to be applied as bioactive materials in food packaging sectors.Graphical abstractImage 103690
       
  • Rheology of the sesame oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by cellulose
           nanofibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Yu Lu, Xiaoli Qian, Wenyuan Xie, Wenting Zhang, Jing Huang, Defeng WuThe sesame oil-in-water Pickering emulsions using cellulose nanofibers (CNF) as the emulsifier were prepared for the rheological study, aiming at establishing relationship between emulsion viscoelasticity and morphology. A droplet cluster structure forms in those systems due to multicomponent properties of sesame oil and fibrillar structure of CNF. Its deformation and relaxations result in weak strain overshoot behavior in large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flow, but not affect the scaling behavior of small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) responses. The relaxation time scales can be evaluated by creep of emulsions. This structure can evolve during ramp shear flow, rearranged and oriented at the higher flow rates, which has evident influence on the thixotropic behavior of emulsions. The mechanisms of evolution and relaxations of droplet cluster structure are traced through rheo-optical way. This work presents some interesting results and paves a possible way to control morphology and viscoelasticity of edible Pickering emulsions.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Microgel particle formation: Influence of mechanical properties of
           pectin-based gels on microgel particle size distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): G.I. Saavedra Isusi, H.P. Karbstein, U.S. van der SchaafMicrogel particle formation usually requires a dispersing/emulsifiying step of macrogel into pieces, or of direct-gelled droplets. Either liquid or solid-like, yields and fails under given critical conditions. In this work we studied the influence of a gel's mechanical properties on the resulting particle/droplet sizes. As the structure of the polymer influences its mechanical properties, the viscoelastic and mechanical response of pectin gels towards shear, compressive and tensile stress were analysed. Gels were prepared with different pectin types (amidated pectin and citrus pectin) and pectinic acid, at a constant stoichiometric molar ratio R = 2 x [Ca2+]/[COO−] = 1. A dependency of storage modulus G′, Young's modulus E, and critical breakup stresses and strains on the pectin type used for gelation was shown. Values of the storage modulus G′ were influenced by the degree of methyl-esterification (DM), indicating an increase on the cross-linking density of gels. Gels prepared with pectinic acid (DM = 2) showed overall the highest values of G’. Values of the Young's modulus E as well as fracture stresses and strains depended on the type of strain applied to the gel and the pectin type. Concordant with the G′ values, gels become stiffer and brittle with increasing DM, resulting in higher E values, lower fracture strains and higher fracture stresses. In addition, under compressive stress, gels investigated sustained lower stress values before structural failure. The findings of mechanical and rheological analyses were compared with the particle size distribution of microgels produced from the prepared gels at constant process conditions. Gels with high values for G′ and E, and low fracture stresses and strains were shown to be dense cross-linked gels of brittle material characteristics which resulted in smaller particles compared to more elastic gels.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effects of anthocyanin-rich purple and black eggplant extracts on the
           physical, antioxidant and pH-sensitive properties of chitosan film
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Huimin Yong, Xingchi Wang, Xin Zhang, Yunpeng Liu, Yan Qin, Jun LiuActive and intelligent food packaging films were developed by mixing chitosan (CS) with anthocyanin-rich purple eggplant extract (PEE) or black eggplant extract (BEE). Results showed the anthocyanin contents in PEE and BEE were 93.10 and 173.17 mg/g, respectively. Besides, the anthocyanin compositions of PEE and BEE were totally different. PEE and BEE increased the blueness, thickness, UV–vis light barrier and mechanical properties of CS film. Nevertheless, PEE did not change the moisture content of CS film and BEE did not change the water vapor permeability of CS film. Microstructure observation showed low contents (1 and 2 wt%) of PEE and BEE were well distributed in CS matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of intermolecular interactions between CS and extracts. X-ray diffraction indicated PEE and BEE somewhat increased the crystallinity of CS film. The antioxidant ability of CS film was remarkably enhanced by PEE and BEE. Moreover, CS-PEE and CS-BEE films were pH-sensitive and showed remarkable color changes in different buffer solutions, which could be used to monitor milk spoilage. Our results suggested CS-PEE and CS-BEE films could be applied as active and intelligent food packaging materials.Graphical abstractImage 10001
       
  • Development of multifunctional food packaging films based on chitosan,
           TiO2 nanoparticles and anthocyanin-rich black plum peel extract
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Xin Zhang, Yunpeng Liu, Huimin Yong, Yan Qin, Jing Liu, Jun LiuMultifunctional food packaging films were developed based on chitosan (CS), nanosized TiO2 and black plum peel extract (BPPE). Effects of TiO2 and/or BPPE on the physical and functional properties of CS film were investigated. Results showed BPPE contained nine phenolic compounds with 23.29% of anthocyanins. The physical property of CS film could be significantly altered by incorporating TiO2 and/or BPPE. Notably, CSTiO2, CS-BPPE and CSTiO2-BPPE films all possessed higher barrier properties against water vapor and UV–vis light, and better mechanical strength than CS film. Scanning electron microscopy showed CS-BPPE film had a denser and smoother cross-section as compared to CS film. In addition, several white particles were clearly observed in the cross-section of CS-TO2 and CSTiO2-BPPE films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction further revealed that CS could interact with TiO2 and BPPE through non-covalent bonds. Antioxidant assay showed CS-BPPE and CSTiO2-BPPE films both possessed strong free radical scavenging activity. Notably, CSTiO2-BPPE film exhibited the highest ethylene scavenging ability and antimicrobial activity among all films tested. Due to abundant anthocyanins in BPPE, the colors of CS-BPPE and CSTiO2-BPPE films were pH-sensitive. Our results suggest CSTiO2-BPPE film can be used as antioxidant, ethylene scavenging, antimicrobial and pH-sensitive food packing material.Graphical abstractImage 1067
       
  • Formation of whey protein isolate nanofibrils by endoproteinase GluC and
           their emulsifying properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Zhibiao Feng, Lele Li, Yu Zhang, Xuan Li, Chunhong Liu, Bin Jiang, Jing Xu, Zhigang SunNanofibrils have favorable functional properties that facilitate their applications in the food industry. Whey protein isolate (WPI) is widely used to prepare nanofibrils via acid hydrolysis. In this research, the effect of hydrolysis by endoproteinase GluC (GluC) on WPI nanofibrils (WPNFs) was evaluated based on their structural and emulsifying properties. Following the hydrolysis of WPI by GluC at 37 °C and pH 8.0, the peptides self-assembled into WPNFs at 37 °C and pH 2.0. WPNFs with several micrometric length and nanometric (1–10 nm) diameter exhibited high aspect ratio (length/diameter). Based on microscopic images, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy, we concluded that β-sheets played an important role in the formation and stability of WPNFs. The main factor affecting WPNF formation was found to be hydrolysis by GluC for 10 h followed by aggregation at pH 2.0. Whey protein hydrolysates with glutamic acid or aspartic acid residues, obtained from WPI hydrolysis by GluC for 10 h, might be positively charged in an acidic environment, thereby favoring the formation of ordered aggregates instead of random ones. WPNFs prepared under such conditions have a strong ability of improving the oxidative stability, activity and stability of emulsions. This new strategy for producing WPNFs will potentially expand their application in the food industry.Graphical abstractImage 1075969
       
  • Rheological behavior, microstructure characterization and formation
           mechanism of Mesona blumes polysaccharide gels induced by calcium ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Wenjie Wang, Mingyue Shen, Lian Jiang, Qianqian Song, Suchen Liu, Mingyong Xie, Jianhua XieThe effect of calcium ions (Ca2+) on the rheological behavior, gel properties, and microstructure of Ca2+–Mesona blumes polysaccharide (MBP) gels was evaluated by using rheological, X-ray diffraction, and microstructure analysis. Ca2+ caused significant changes in the viscosity, elasticity, thixotropy, and thermal properties of MBP. Ca2+ increased the crystallinity of the Ca2+–MBP gel system, and induced new diffraction peaks appeared at approximately 12.4°. Microstructure analysis of Ca2+-MBP gels showed that Ca2+ could promote the formation of gel networks. The gel network became dense, and the surface became smooth. In the presence of Ca2+, electrostatic interactions played an important role in promoting gel formation and maintaining the three–dimensional structure of the gels. Based on the observed rheology–structure relationship, a general “egg box” gelling mechanism for Ca2+/MBP aqueous mixtures was proposed.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Ca2+-induced whey protein emulgels for the encapsulation of crystalline
           nobiletin: Effect of nobiletin crystals on the viscoelasticity
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Yan Hu, Qiao Shu, Fei Liu, Lingling Lei, Bin Li, Yanping Cao, Yan LiDue to the high crystallization, nobiletin was encapsulated by Ca2+-induced whey protein concentrate (WPC)-stabilized emulgels. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used to regulate the interfacial properties of emulsions and viscoelasticity of emulgels. The formation of nobiletin crystals were monitored in emulgels and after digestion. Micro-rheometer was used to characterize the viscoelasticity of emulgels. Bioaccessibility of nobiletin was determined by an in vitro digestion model. Ca2+ crosslinking increased the particle size of WPC-stabilized emulsion, while HPMC/WPC-stabilized emulsions kept smaller particle size. WPC-stabilized emulgels were more apt to syneresis, which could be prevented in the presence of HPMC. Nobiletin crystallization process in emulgels was delayed by HPMC. In the gelation process, HPMC addition increased the viscosity, but decreased the elasticity of emulgels. HPMC interrupted the crosslinking process of WPC and Ca2+. After destruction, emulgels had lower viscosity and elasticity, which became lower in the presence of HPMC. The fluctuation of mean square displacement profiles could indicate the formation of nobiletin crystals, which reduced the viscosity and elasticity of emulgels. HPMC increased the bioaccessibility of nobiletin. Higher Ca2+ concentration was undesirable to enhance the nobiletin bioaccessibility, depending on the structure of emulgels.Graphical abstractHydroxypropyl methylcellulose addition as the second emulsifier made the WPC-stabilized emulgels more homogenous and more stable against sysneresis. The formation of nobiletin crystals destructed the structure of emulgels, leading to lower viscosity and elasticity.Image 1020
       
  • Effect of steam explosion on dietary fiber, polysaccharide, protein and
           physicochemical properties of okara
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Bo Li, Wei Yang, Yuanyang Nie, Fangfang Kang, H. Douglas Goff, Steve W. CuiOkara is the byproduct of tofu and soymilk industries. A large amount of okara is produced annually in the world, but only a small amount is fully utilized. The effect of steam explosion (SE) treatment on dietary fiber, protein and physiochemical properties of okara was investigated in this paper. The results showed that untreated okara contained 76.38% total dietary fiber (TDF) and 18.10% protein, but the content of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was only 1.34%. After SE treatment, SDF content increased significantly. When the SE strength was 1.5 MPa for 30s, SDF content increased to 36.28%, higher by 26 times compared to the control okara. However, the contents of TDF and SDF both decreased when the SE strength enhanced further. Gel filtration chromatography showed that molecular weight of okara polysaccharides were distributed from 55 KDa to 2087 KDa. With the increase of SE strength, the ratio of low molecular weight polysaccharides increased and the molecular weight range of polysaccharides became narrower. Okara protein showed two molecular weight peaks. After SE treatment, the area of high molecular weight peak decreased and low molecular weight peak increased. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that okara protein appeared in five bands: 73.7 KDa, 55 KDa, 41.1 KDa, 32.7 KDa and 20.2 KDa. After SE treatment, the bands of 73.7 KDa, 55 KDa and 41.1 KDa weakened markedly, indicating high SE strength can dissociate macromolecular protein aggregates. Water solubility of okara increased significantly, while swelling capacity, oil and water holding capacities decreased after SE treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the loose sheet structure of okara surface was destroyed into small fragments after SE treatment and the internal nucleated structure was disintegrated into small particles at high SE strength. The change in morphological structure also produced important influences on physiochemical properties of okara. This study suggested that SE treatment is an effective method for improving SDF content and quality of okara, so as to expand its development and utilization.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Electrospinning of bilayer emulsions: The role of gum Arabic as a coating
           layer in the gelatin-stabilized emulsions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Cen Zhang, Yang Li, Peng Wang, Aiping Zhang, Fengqin Feng, Hui ZhangIn this work, the uniform core-shell nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning of bilayer emulsions, which were formed by the addition of gum arabic with opposite charges into the gelatin-stabilized emulsions. The increased weight ratios of gum arabic enhanced the emulsion stability by progressively increasing the viscosity of bilayer emulsions, which contributed to the formation of bead-free and smooth electrospun fibers with the increasing diameters. Transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that corn oil was evenly distributed in the bilayer emulsion-based fibers. These fibers with various amounts of gum arabic showed a high thermal decomposition stability upon heating to 250 °C, as hydrogen bonds played an important role in the binding of gum arabic to gelatin. The fiber mats showed high oil encapsulation efficiency and good storage stability during 5 days. These results may provide a new strategy to develop bilayer emulsion-based electrospun fibers for bioactive encapsulation in food applications.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Food emulsifiers based on milk fat globule membranes and their
           interactions with calcium and casein phosphoproteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Annamari Jukkola, Riitta Partanen, Wenchao Xiang, Antti Heino, Orlando J. RojasNatural food surfactants were produced from membrane-derived fragments of milk fat globules (MFGM) obtained from cream and buttermilk by microfiltration with diafiltration followed by churning. The obtained MFGM fragments were demonstrated for their emulsifying and functional properties and as substitute of commercial phospholipids (lecithin). Fine emulsions (droplet size ∼1.2 μm) were obtained by stabilization of the oil/water interface after low energy sonication. Stable emulsions were obtained with lecithin in the pH range between 5.8 and 7.8, whereas MFGM components enabled better stability above pH 6. Coalescence took place in the presence of calcium, owing to electrostatic screening. The stability of the emulsions increased with the addition of casein, which formed droplet flocs. The calcium-binding ability of MFGM is proposed to inhibit protein (casein) flocculation, leading to a highly interacting network that prevents phase separation and stable MFGM-based food emulsions.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Complexation between flaxseed protein isolate and phenolic compounds:
           Effects on interfacial, emulsifying and antioxidant properties of
           emulsions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Loc B. Pham, Bo Wang, Bogdan Zisu, Benu AdhikariInterfacial and emulsifying properties of flaxseed protein isolate (FPI) and its phenolic complexes were studied, aiming to develop plant-based natural emulsifiers with improved interfacial and oxidative activity and adding value to the by-product of flaxseed oil production. Flaxseed polyphenols (FPP) and hydroxytyrosol (HT) were used as model phenolic compounds. The stability of emulsions produced using FPI, FPI-FPP and FPI-HT as emulsifiers was measured and correlated with their solubility and surface charge. The dynamic interfacial tension (DIT) and dilatational elasticity (E′) and viscosity (E”) were measured at flaxseed oil/water interface. The diffusion and penetration rate constants were calculated using DIT data. The complexation of FPI with FPP and HT significantly increased the diffusion rate constant at low FPI concentration (0.1 mg mL−1). At higher FPI concentration (from 1 to 10 mg mL−1), the DIT and penetration rate constant of FPI, FPI-FPP and FPI-HT were not different. The E’ of interfacial layer of FPI was lower than that of FPI-HT interfacial layer but was higher than that of FPI-FPP interfacial layer. The E” of FPI-FPP and FPI-HT complexes was lower than that of FPI. FPI-stabilised emulsion with higher charge density had higher physical stability compared to the emulsions stabilised by FPI-phenolic complexes which had lower charge density. The emulsions stabilised by FPI-FPP and FPI-HT complexes had higher antioxidative stability compared to that of FPI stabilised emulsion. The emulsions stabilised by FPI-FPP and FPI-HT complexes had higher red and yellow hue than the emulsion stabilised by FPI.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effects of tea polyphenol and Ca(OH)2 on the intermolecular forces and
           mechanical, rheological, and microstructural characteristics of duck egg
           white gel
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Minmin Ai, Quan Zhou, Shanguang Guo, Ziting Ling, Ledan Zhou, Hong Fan, Yuanyuan Cao, Aimin JiangThis study investigates the effects of tea polyphenol (TP) and Ca(OH)2 on the physicochemical, mechanical, rheological, and microstructural characteristics of alkali-induced duck egg white (EW) gels. The surface hydrophobicity increases significantly after adding TP, while decreases after adding Ca(OH)2. Secondary structural analysis indicates that the addition of TP and Ca(OH)2 reduces the β-sheets content and increases the ɑ-helical content. The addition of TP improves the interaction of nonspecific cross-linking but weakens other forces, and the interactions in EW gel are mainly supported by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions under the influence of Ca(OH)2. The results of electrophoresis show that crosslinked proteins are formed and the protection provided by TP reduces protein degradation. The addition of a high proportion of TP reduces the storage modulus (G′) of EW gel, decreasing its rigidity and mechanical properties, such as hardness and rupture strength. However, after adding Ca(OH)2, the storage modulus increases gradually and the mechanical strength of EW gel increases, which might be related to the formation of calcium bridges. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that three-dimensional network structures are formed when TP is added, while granular or clustered structures are generated by Ca(OH)2 addition. Correlation analysis shows that the physical properties of EW gel are related to changes in intermolecular forces and the microenvironment, especially pH and nonspecific cross-linking. These results suggest that the addition of TP and Ca(OH)2 affects the physicochemical properties of EW gel differently, which were mainly attributed to the effects of molecular interaction and micro-environment.Graphical abstractImage 1075
       
  • Extract from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Incorporating κ-carrageenan
           colorimetric film with a wide pH–sensing range for food freshness
           monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Jingrong Liu, Hualin Wang, Min Guo, Linlin Li, Minmin Chen, Suwei Jiang, Xingjiang Li, Shaotong JiangThis study was to design a novel wide pH–sensing colorimetric film of κ-carrageenan incorporated with extract from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (Car-LRM) for food freshness monitoring. The structure, basic properties (thermal stability, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant activity), and release kinetics of LRM from the films were investigated. Attentions were centered on colorimetric response of films and their applications for freshness monitoring of milk and shrimps. A low incorporation of LRM (no more than 2.5%) led to an enhancement in thermal stability and water vapor barrier of films to a certain extent. At above level of incorporation, LRM could be well-distributed in Car matrix by the interactions of hydrogen bonds. In addition to good antioxidant activity, the film displayed colorimetric response at a wide range of pH (2−10) and the color change was reversible. The release of LRM from films followed Fickian's law which was controlled by diffusion mechanism rather than swelling mechanism. The successful applications of Car-LRM2.5 for the freshness monitoring of milk and shrimps indicate that Car-LRM2.5 may have great potential for monitoring the freshness of milk and aquatic products.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Assembly of biopolymer particles after thermal conditioning of wheat bran
           proteins contained in a 21–43 kDa size exclusion chromatography
           fraction
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 94Author(s): Jesús G. Luna-Valdez, René R. Balandrán-Quintana, José A. Azamar-Barrios, Gabriela Ramos Clamont-Montfort, Ana M. Mendoza-Wilson, Tomás J. Madera-Santana, Agustín Rascón-Chu, Guadalupe Chaquilla-QuilcaAssembly of spherical nanoparticles after Ca2+-induced cold gelation of aqueous extracts of wheat bran was previously reported. Although nanospheres were suggested to be constituted by proteins and stabilized by calcium bridges, their exact origin was not fully demonstrated because of the complexity of wheat bran extracts. To deepen in this respect, by means of a bottom-up approach, the experiment was reproduced with fractions of wheat bran obtained by size exclusion chromatography. After thermal treatment and addition of CaCl2, fractions were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and electron microscopy. Instead of the expected nanospheres, spheroidal particles with diameters 210 – 330 nm were precipitated from a protein fraction of 21 – 43 kDa, even before the addition of CaCl2. Spectroscopic and SDS-PAGE characterization showed that particles were mainly constituted by proteins. Global evidence indicates that calcium did not participate in the assembly of the particles, but rather the driving force for protein aggregation was the denaturation caused by the heat treatment. According to their characteristics, spheroidal particles were classified as biopolymer particles.Graphical abstractImage 1021
       
  • Influence of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria on the
           spreadability of fat-reduced raw fermented sausages (Teewurst)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Jonas Hilbig, Julia Gisder, Roman M. Prechtl, Kurt Herrmann, Jochen Weiss, Myriam LoefflerThis study aims to reduce the high fat content of spreadable raw fermented sausages (Teewurst) through the application of in–situ exopolysaccharide (EPS)-forming lactic acid bacteria (LAB). For this reason, sausages with EPS-forming LAB and different fat contents (20–40% added belly fat) were produced and compared to control products without an EPS-forming culture (L. sakei TMW 1.2037). Microbial growth and pH were monitored during processing, the fat (Weibull-Stoldt method) and EPS content (HPLC) of the final products determined, and the products characterized using rheological and texture profile analysis. The fat content of the final products ranged between 17–20%, 25–27%, and 30–33%, respectively. The EPS content of the spreadable raw sausages ranged between 0.08 and 0.30 g/kg for the heteropolysaccharides-producing strain L. plantarum TMW 1.1478, and between 0.46 and 1.03 g/kg for the homopolysaccharide (HoPS)-producing strains L. sakei TMW 1.411 and L. curvatus TMW 1.1928. The latter ones significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the hardness of the fat-reduced products and showed lower loss and storage moduli. These results were also supported by the findings of the sensory evaluation where products containing HoPS-forming LAB were rated softer and better spreadable than the corresponding control samples. In addition, the taste of the products was not negatively influenced by the presence of the HoPS-forming LAB.This study clearly demonstrated that the application of HoPS-producing LAB is a promising approach to reduce the fat content of spreadable raw fermented sausages.Graphical abstractImage 10935
       
  • Structural characterization and rheological properties of the water
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Po-Yuan Hung, Lih-Shiuh LaiBasella alba is a succulent plant, and its stem and leaf contain significant amount of mucilage. However, researches about Basella alba mucilage are quite limited. Therefore, the objective of this study is to characterize the structural and rheological properties of the water extracted mucilage from the leaf and stem of Basella alba, including chemical compositions, monosaccharide compositions, intrinsic viscosity, molecular size distribution, and steady shear and dynamic shear rheological properties. Furthermore, rheological properties of starch/aqueous mucilage blends with various mixing ratio were also characterized. Results showed that the mucilage of Basella alba was comprised of 38–39 molar% of galactose, 28–36% of arabinose, 4–11% of galacturonic acid, and 3–5% rhamnose, with a weight average molecular weight of about 1.9-2.4 × 106. The intrinsic viscosity of leaf and stem mucilage solutions were found to be 2.48 and 9.20 dl/g, respectively. 2–6% of mucilage solutions showed slight shear thinning behavior, with a flow behavior index in the range of 0.58–0.85. Dynamic shear results revealed that 2–6% of mucilage solutions showed significant fluid properties, with a loss tangent value in the range of 1.1–3.4. However, as mixing with wheat starch under various proportions, significant synergistic effect was observed, particularly for the starch/aqueous mucilage ratio of 1.8/0.2 or 1.7/0.3, as evidenced by a significant increase in viscosity, storage modulus, and decrease in loss tangent to lower than one (0.2–0.3). On the contrary, no synergistic gelation occurred when adding mucilage to tapioca starch solutions. Gelation was even suppressed when adding mucilage to potato starch solutions. This discrepancy may be related to the differences in the nature of different starches. These information would be useful for future application.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Influence of purification on physicochemical and emulsifying properties of
           tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed gum
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): G. Crispín-Isidro, L. Hernández-Rodríguez, C. Ramírez-Santiago, O. Sandoval-Castilla, C. Lobato-Calleros, E.J. Vernon-CarterThe effects of different purification methods on the yield, chemical composition, physicochemical, and emulsifying properties of tamarind seed gum were investigated. Low purity gum (TSGLP) was extracted from whole tamarind seeds; medium purity gum (TSGMP) was extracted from defatted tamarind kernel, and high purity gum (TSGHP) was extracted as TSGMP and soluble protein was removed. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that characteristic peaks of the polysaccharide backbone did not change through purification, while deconvolution of the amide I region revealed that the protein was denatured. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography of TSGHP showed a main fraction (F3) containing protein strongly attached to the polysaccharide backbone. Yield and zeta (ζ)-potential values of the gums decreased as their purification increased. Flow behavior of TSG solutions (1.5 and 2.0% w/w) was described by Ellis model, where low shear limiting viscosity and time constant associated to the relaxation time of polymers in solution exhibited higher values as concentration and purification were increased. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions (E) prepared with 2% w/w TSG gum solutions showed initial oil droplets of 1.35 ± 0.15 μm for ELP, of 4.82 ± 0.10 μm for EMP, and of 9.45 ± 0.10 μm for EHP. ELP and EHP exhibited higher creaming stability (21 days) than EMP. It was concluded that emulsion stability was due to a complex interplay between several factors, including chemical composition, apparent viscosity, contact angle, interfacial tension dynamics, surface charge, all of which had bearing on the electrosteric repulsion terms and adsorbed layer mechanical properties around the oil droplets.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Acceptability of alginate enriched bread and its effect on fat digestion
           in humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): David Houghton, Matthew D. Wilcox, Iain A. Brownlee, Peter I. Chater, Chris J. Seal, Jeffrey P. PearsonLifestyle interventions and physical activity remain the cornerstone of obesity management, as pharmacological therapies (orlistat) are associated with gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. Combining orlistat with fibers can reduce side effects, improving compliance. Therefore, a fiber that inhibits lipase without side effects could help treat obesity.The aims of the present work were to assess whether alginate enriched bread could inhibit fat digestion, and assess the acceptability of alginate bread and its effect on GI wellbeing.A double-blind, randomised, controlled cross-over pilot study (NCT03350958) assessed the impact of an alginate bread meal on; lipid content in ileal effluent and circulating triacylglycerol levels. This was compared against the same meal with non-enriched (control) bread.GI wellbeing and acceptability of alginate bread was compared to control bread through daily wellbeing questionnaires and food diaries (NCT03477981). Control bread followed by alginate bread were consumed for two weeks respectively.Consumption of alginate bread reduced circulating triacylglycerol compared to control (2% reduction in AUC) and significantly increased lipid content in ileal effluent (3.8 g ± 1.6 after 210 min).There were no significant changes to GI wellbeing when comparing alginate bread to control bread. A significant increase in the feeling of fullness occurred with alginate bread compared to baseline and the first week of control bread consumption.This study showed that sustained consumption of alginate enriched bread does not alter GI wellbeing and can decrease lipolysis, increasing lipid leaving the small intestine.Further studies are required to demonstrate that reduced fat digestion through the action of alginate can reduce fat mass or body weight.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of field pea
           starch modified by physical, enzymatic, and acid treatments
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Dingting Zhou, Zhen Ma, Xiuxiu Yin, Xinzhong Hu, Joyce I. BoyeIn order to meet industrial demands, field pea starch was modified by autoclaving (ACP), microwave cooking (MCP), and combined treatments of autoclaving with ultrasonication (UP), acid hydrolysis (AHP), or pullulanase debranching (PDP). The influence of different processing treatments on the structural and physicochemical characteristics of pea starch was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and scanning electron microscope. Processing of pea starch tended to decrease the long-range structural order with relatively lower values of crystallinity observed from XRD, whereas the double helical structure which is arranged at short range scale was enhanced to certain extents after different treatments. Microwave cooking was shown to be less effective than other treatments in promoting the formation of stabilized double helical structure, with the lowest values of crystallinity, degree of order (DO), double helix content, and gelatinization enthalpy obtained for MCP based on XRD, FT-IR, 13CNMR, and DSC observations. The experimental results also suggested that autoclaving had a less pronounced effect than the combined treatments of autoclaving-debranching, acid hydrolysis-autoclaving, and ultrasound-autoclaving on facilitating the formation of short-range ordered structure, with significantly lower values of DO, and double helix content obtained for ACP compared with AHP, PDP, and UP. This study was expected to provide a theoretical basis for the better understanding of the structure-processing-functionality relationship of starch polymers and to help the food industry to design novel starch materials with desirable functional properties.Graphical abstractImage 101
       
  • Electrohydrodynamic atomization of Balangu (Lallemantia royleana) seed gum
           for the fast-release of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil:
           Characterization of nano-capsules and modeling the kinetics of release
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Hassan Rezaeinia, Behrouz Ghorani, Bahareh Emadzadeh, Nick TuckerThe aim of this study is to optimize encapsulation of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil into Balangu (Lallemantia royleana) seed gum nano-capsules, to increase their utility as flavoring and bioactive agents in foods and beverages. Essential oil emulsions with Balangu seed gum (0.25 and 0.5% w/w) and various polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2%) combined with Tween-20 (0.06, 0.08 and 0.1%) were electrosprayed. Increasing the concentration of PVA increased the emulsion viscosity and improved both loading capacity (77.56–84.68%) and encapsulation efficiency (81.54–87.82%) of the essential oil within the structure of the Balangu gum nano-capsules. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicated that by increasing the amount of the gum (from 0.25 to 0.5%) and PVA (from 1 to 2%), the process could be made to produce nanofibers. The Mentha longifolia L. essential oil was entrapped in nanostructures without any chemical interaction with encapsulant material; this was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The release mechanisms and kinetics of loaded Mentha longifolia L. essential oil were evaluated in different simulated food models (aqueous, acidic, alcoholic or alkalic and oily food models) and release profiles data were fitted to first order, Kopcha, Korsmeyer-Peppas, and Peppas-Sahlin models. The essential oil release profiles fitted well to the Peppas-Sahlin model for a range of simulated foods. The release mechanism of the essential oil from the nanostructure of the Balangu seed gum is mainly controlled by the Fickian diffusion phenomenon.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Extruded soy protein as a novel emulsifier: Structure, interfacial
           activity and emulsifying property
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Rassoul Mozafarpour, Arash Koocheki, Elnaz Milani, Mehdi VaridiNative soy protein has poor emulsifying property compared to relatively flexible proteins. In order to improve soy protein surface activity, protein was partially denatured under controlled heating and shearing condition to facilitate the formation of oil-water emulsions. For this purpose different feed moisture contents (18 and 25%) and extrusion temperatures (110, 130 and 160 °C) were used and their effect on structure and emulsifying properties of soy protein concentrate (SPC) were investigated. Results showed that extrusion treatment reduced the surface hydrophobicity (H0) and solubility of SPC. Protein solubility of extruded SPC increased with increasing the extrusion temperature. SDS-page represented the formation of polymer macromolecules with very large molecular weight during the extrusion process. The extruded protein had lower α-helix content compared to the native SPC. The proportion of β-turn structure for extruded SPC increased after the extrusion cooking. Results showed that protein aggregates were formed during the extrusion cooking. However, the mechanical forces during homogenization process disrupted the heat-induced aggregates. Disruption of aggregates during emulsification enabled SPC to adsorb rapidly at the oil/water interface. The proportion of random coil in extruded SPC structure substantially increased after the homogenization which improved the emulsifying activity (EAI) and stability indices (ESI) of SPC. Addition of extruded SPC significantly increased the surface charge of oil droplets during homogenization. Emulsions fabricated using extruded SPC at 25% feed moisture had smaller particle sizes than those extruded at 18% feed moisture content and consequently more emulsion stability was observed. The microstructural observations also showed that the oil droplets of emulsions prepared with native and extruded SPC had spherical shape. These results suggest that extruded SPC at 25% feed moisture and 110 °C can be considered as an effective emulsifier for food and other applications.Graphical abstractImage 10152320
       
  • Development of an aqueous two-phase emulsion using hydrophobized whey
           proteins and erythritol
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Ashkan Madadlou, Arnaud Saint-Jalmes, Fanny Guyomarc'h, Juliane Floury, Didier DupontFormation of aqueous two-phase (ATP) emulsions relies on the immiscibility of two (bio)polymeric phases. Herein, we report that hydrophobization of whey proteins via a pre-acetylation and succeeding acetylation/heating combined process makes solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI) immiscible with alginate solutions. Erythritol was also added at different concentrations (0, 52, 105, and 158 mg/g) into the hydrophobized WPI solution. Subsequently, emulsions at an alginate to WPI weight ratio of 0.1–0.9 were prepared. Erythritol supplementation facilitated emulsification and increased emulsion stability, so that at the erythritol concentration of 105 mg/g, the emulsion was stable for a minimum duration of 7 days. The droplet size evolved and reached to ≈5 μm during this period. The hydrophobized protein had a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 80 nm, ζ-potential of −39 mV, and intrinsic fluorescence emission peak of 335 nm. Erythritol addition did not influence any of the above-mentioned characteristics. However, the hydrophobized WPI solution changed from Newtonian to a more viscous and shear-thinning fluid by adding erythritol at concentrations ≥105 mg/g, due probably to the induction of interaction among protein particles. A diameter of 150 nm was calculated for the air-dried hydrophobized protein particles using atomic force microscopy images, supporting the assumption that exclusion of erythritol from the protein particles surface induced inter-particle interactions. Erythritol addition at 105 mg/g had a twofold larger influence on the surface tension of hydrophobized WPI compared to water. It decreased the surface tension of hydrophobized WPI to 45 mN/m after droplet ageing for 350 s.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Curcumin encapsulation in zein-rhamnolipid composite nanoparticles using a
           pH-driven method
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Lei Dai, Hualu Zhou, Yang Wei, Yanxiang Gao, David Julian McClementsZein is widely used to encapsulate non-polar bioactives due to its ability to form protein nanoparticles with hydrophobic interiors. In this study, a simple pH-driven method, which does not use organic solvents, was employed to fabricate zein-rhamnolipid composite nanoparticles. An alkaline zein solution (pH 12.0) was mixed with an acidic rhamnolipid solution (pH 2.0), which led to the spontaneous formation of composite nanoparticles (pH 7.0). The possibility of using these nanoparticles to encapsulate and deliver curcumin was then studied. Nanoparticle properties, such as size and charge, were mainly determined by the mass ratio of zein-to-rhamnolipid used. The nanoparticles formed were spherical and relatively small (d ≈ 100 nm) according to dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Nanoparticle suspensions remained stable from pH 5 to 9 but aggregated under more acidic conditions. At neutral pH, the nanoparticles were stable at low ionic strengths (
       
  • Study on foaming, rheological and thermal properties of gelatin-free
           marshmallow
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Marieh Mardani, Samira Yeganehzad, Nataliia Ptichkina, Yury Kodatsky, Oksana Kliukina, Nataliia Nepovinnykh, Sara Naji-TabasiMarshmallow is an aerated confectionery product, which consists mainly of gelatin, sugar solutions, glucose syrup and a foaming agent such as egg albumin. Gelatin is generally used as a foaming and gelling agent, but due to its limitations for consumption, many attempts have been made to use hydrocolloids as replacements. In this research, xanthan and guar gum, were added to formulations with the xanthan (x): guar (g) ratios of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 and a control sample containing only gelatin (G). Analysis of °Brix and moisture content, pH, water activity (aw), density, overrun, texture, thermal, rheological and sensory properties were carried out. According to the results, density, aw and moisture content of the sample containing x25/g75, revealed no significant difference with the sample containing gelatin (p > 0.05). Texture results showed that x25/g75 sample led to a hardness similar to the control. The formulation containing x25/g75, had thermal behavior closer to the control, which exhibited “melt in mouth” behavior, gel strength and functionality properties similar to the control. Positive correlation was also observed between the hardness, melting temperature, and enthalpy. The study of viscoelastic properties showed that the values of storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) were dependent on frequency and the G′ were always higher than G″ in all samples. Also, considering the desirable sensory properties of the samples, xanthan/guar with a ratio of 25:75 (x25/g75) having positive interaction with other ingredients can be suggested as good alternative for gelatin in production of gelatin-free marshmallow.Graphical abstractImage 1062
       
  • Effect of pH on emulsification performance of a new functional protein
           from jackfruit seeds
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Yanjun Zhang, Xin Zhou, Junzhen Zhong, Lehe Tan, Chengmei LiuAn important goal in the food industry is to search for new sources of functional protein, the particular interest of which in food systems are emulsification that is influenced by processing conditions. In this study, the effects of pH on emulsification performance of a protein extracted from a new source, namely, jackfruit seeds, were investigated. The molecular weights of most of jackfruit seed protein isolates (JSPI) polypeptides were approximately 10–26 kDa, and the presence of intermolecular disulfide bonds was observed. The solubility of JSPI first decreased with increasing pH, and a minimum solubility of JSPI reached at pH 4.0; then, the solubility increased as the pH increased further. Emulsions stabilized by JSPI under different pH values (3, 5, 7 and 9) were prepared. JSPI under neutral conditions displayed a higher emulsifying activity index value and the highest emulsifying stability index value, which are in line with the greater stability against creaming, lower particle size, higher moduli values under small strain, and higher flow properties. A schematic for the formation and destabilizing mechanism of the JSPI emulsion prepared at different pH values was hypothesized: 1) the JSPI emulsion was mainly stabilized by electrostatic repulsion; and 2) the destabilization of JSPI emulsion over time was related to three factors: the thermodynamic instability, the presence of competing proteins, and changes in protein conformation, which was affected by pH.Graphical abstractImage 1059
       
  • Development and characterization of pH-indicator films based on cassava
           starch and blueberry residue by thermocompression
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Rafaela Andretta, Cláudia Leites Luchese, Isabel Cristina Tessaro, Jordana Corralo SpadaDue to the concern about the inadequate disposal of synthetic and non-biodegradable plastic packaging, a great number of researches pointing at the substitution of these materials by natural and biodegradable sources have been growing in recent years. Another important category recognizes as intelligent packaging has also received more prominence. The study intended to achieve the matter aforementioned developing starch-based films by thermocompression without and with blueberry residue as pH change indicator. Moisture content, water solubility, water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, morphology, color, and mechanical properties of the films were analyzed. Moreover, analysis of color change and compounds migration were conduct in the films with blueberry. The residue insertion led to the formation of less compact films with high oxygen permeability. Despite the irregular dispersion of the blueberry residue on the polymer matrix identified by optical microscopy, the films showed equal values of water vapor permeability, hydrophilicity, and mechanical properties when compared to the samples without the residue. In addition, they exhibited visually perceptible color changes in the pH range between 2 and 12, which was confirmed by colorimetric analysis since the ΔE94∗ values between the samples were greater than 3. The compounds migration after film immersion in aqueous simulant solution (acetic acid) showed a higher intensity in comparison to the samples immersed in a fatty simulant solution (ethanol) due to the anthocyanins hydrophilicity. Therefore, the film with blueberry has potential as intelligent packaging. Besides that, it present potential as active packaging due to the migration of phenolic compounds in aqueous solutions.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Improved enzymatic accessibility of peanut protein isolate pre-treated
           using thermosonication
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Lin Chen, Rammile Ettelaie, Mahmood AkhtarThermosonication pre-treatment was used to enhance the pancreatin-induced proteolysis of peanut protein isolate (PPI). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the thermosonication conditions (including power-output and temperature), and the highest degree of hydrolysis (7.16%) was obtained at 475.0 W, 72 °C. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that at this optimized condition, the enzymatic accessibility of the major constitutive protein arachin in thermosonicated PPI (TS-PPI) was substantially improved compared to that in untreated PPI or sonicated PPI (475 W, 30 °C; S-PPI), resulting in a remarkable increase in protein solubility for the hydrolysates. Protein denaturation and conformation profiles of untreated PPI, S-PPI and TS-PPI were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, intrinsic fluorescence emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence assay. It was found that heat could present a markedly additive effect to ultrasound on denaturing peanut proteins, leading to significant changes in protein conformation. TS-PPI was characterized by the appearance of high proportion of parallel intermolecular β-sheets and a strong fluorescence enhancement upon binding to ThT, suggesting that the protein unfolding and aggregation induced by thermosonication probably resulted in the formation of fibril protein aggregates in TS-PPI rather than spherical protein aggregates formed in S-PPI. As a result, the protein conformation of TS-PPI appeared to be more unfolded and flexible than that of untreated PPI or S-PPI, and therefore was more easily accessible to protease. This study shows that thermosonication pre-treatment could be a highly effective and feasible technique to improve the enzymatic accessibility of globular proteins, producing prominent functional benefits for the protein hydrolysates.Graphical abstractImage 105257
       
  • Mechanism of fabrication and nano-mechanical properties of
           α-lactalbumin/chitosan and BSA/κ-carrageenan nanotubes through
           layer-by-layer assembly for curcumin encapsulation and determination of in
           vitro cytotoxicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): L. Maldonado, S. Chough, J. Bonilla, K.H. Kim, J. KokiniAn exciting technology which still has many unknowns is the fabrication of hollow cylindrical polyelectrolyte complexes that can function at different pHs. With two-open ends and hollow interior, bionanotubes can find application in nanodevices, pharmaceutics, and biology. This study focused on fabricating nanotubes using chitosan (CHI) with α-lactalbumin (LAC), and bovine serum albumine (BSA) with κ-carrageenan (CAR). The ζ-potential charge difference was largest and therefore optimum at pH 7.0 for CHI/LAC and pH 4.0 for BSA/CAR. Strong electrostatic interactions enable the formation of bilayers from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. ITC was able to show differences in the strength and spontaneity of electrostatic bonding interactions between both pairs of polyelectrolytes at these pHs. Nanotubes with 400, 600 and 800 nm diameter were achieved with a total of 5 bilayers for the 600 and 800 nm diameter nanotubes and 4 bilayers with the 400 nm diameter nanotubes using polycarbonate membranes. SEM images showed the formation of well-defined nanotubular structures that were affected by the type of polyelectrolytes used. The mechanical strength of the walls of the nanotubes was dependent on the polyelectrolytes used and the diameter of each nanotube, as shown by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Young's moduli, in the range of 25–55 MPa were obtained for LAC/CHI, and were significantly different from BSA/CAR nanotubes with values around 30–80 MPa. Both nanotubes systems proved to be potential candidates for the encapsulation and delivery of curcumin. These nanotubes achieved entrapment efficiencies around 40–45% with subsequent releasing in physiological conditions up to 300 μg/ml, with no significant cytotoxicity.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Removal of bound polyphenols and its effect on antioxidant and prebiotics
           properties of carrot dietary fiber
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Shuai Liu, Mengyun Jia, Jiajun Chen, Haisheng Wan, Ruihong Dong, Shaoping Nie, Mingyong Xie, Qiang YuThe present work was designed to investigate the effect of bound polyphenols on antioxidant and prebiotics properties of carrot dietary fiber (CDF). The polyphenols were removed from CDF by alkaline extraction to obtain dephenolized dietary fiber (CDF-DF). The optimized conditions of extracting polyphenols from CDF were solid-liquid ratio of 1:8.5, the treat temperature of α-amylase 66 °C, the addition of protease of 0.2% and the treat temperature of amyloglucosidase 60 °C, respectively. The FT-IR spectroscopy illustrated that the major functional group of CDF-DF and CDF shared most of the key features, despite changes in the amplitude of some functional groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was further performed demonstrating no significant structure differences between CDF-DF and CDF. Moreover, the antioxidant properties, including superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging activity, of CDF-DF were significantly lower than that of CDF. In addition, CDF was more conducive for the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus as compared with the CDF-DF. In summary, the above results concluded that there was no significant change of the dietary fiber after removal of bound polyphenols, and the bound polyphenols contributed significantly to the antioxidant and prebiotics properties of dietary fiber from carrot.Graphical abstractImage 10750
       
  • A simple method for improving the properties of the sago starch films
           prepared by using ultrasonication treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Hairul Abral, Azmi Basri, Faris Muhammad, Yuzalmi Fernando, Fadli Hafizulhaq, Melbi Mahardika, Eni Sugiarti, S.M. Sapuan, R.A. Ilyas, Ilfa StephaneStarch granules containing amylopectin-rich fractions like sago starch may remain insoluble and undamaged decreasing properties of the film. The aim of this study is to characterize native sago starch films prepared using ultrasonication. An ultrasonication probe was used during gelatinization for 2.5, 5, and 10 min respectively. Ultrasonication decreases the incomplete gelatinized granules resulting in a film with a more compact structure, and lower moisture vapor permeability than non-treated film. The longest duration resulted in a film with the highest transparency, and the highest thermal resistance. The duration for 5 min increased tensile strength of the film by 227%, and its moisture absorption decreased by 29.83% compared to non-sonicated film. After ultrasonication for 10 min, melting temperature increased by 7% in comparison to non-sonicated film. This work promotes a simple method to improve the tensile and physical properties of starch based film.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Lipophilization and molecular encapsulation of p-coumaric acid by
           amylose inclusion complex
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Siqi Wang, Lingyan Kong, Yu Zhao, Libo Tan, Jing Zhang, Zhongyao Du, Hao Zhangp-Coumaric acid (CA) is a natural phenolic compound with a wide range of bioactivities, but its tendency to degrade during food processing and storage limits its application in functional foods. Forming amylose-guest inclusion complex is a technique to molecularly encapsulate guest molecules of interest and protect them from adverse environmental challenges. However, CA cannot be encapsulated into the helical cavity of amylose so this study used a strategy of lipophilization of CA to synthesize hexadecyl p-coumarate (HC), which might complex with amylose. The formation of the amylose inclusion complex was studied by complementary techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. To test the photo-stability of CA in the complex, a direct UV irradiation was performed. The in vitro release behavior of CA in the complex was also studied in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The results showed that HC, but not CA, could form inclusion complex with amylose. Compared with CA, HC, and amylose-HC physical mixture, HC complexed with amylose showed a significant improvement in photo-stability (P 
       
  • Encapsulation of resveratrol in zein/pectin core-shell nanoparticles:
           Stability, bioaccessibility, and antioxidant capacity after simulated
           gastrointestinal digestion
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Xulin Huang, Ye Liu, Yan Zou, Xiao Liang, Yaqi Peng, David Julian McClements, Kun HuZein-pectin core/shell nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol were fabricated using a combination of the antisolvent precipitation and electrostatic deposition methods. These nanoparticles were stable to aggregation from pH 2 to 7 and had good heat stability (80 °C for 1 h). The nanoparticles were exposed to a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) containing stomach and small intestine phases, and their bioaccessibility and antioxidant capacity were then measured. The bioaccessibility of the encapsulated resveratrol was higher than that of free resveratrol. Moreover, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of resveratrol was greatly enhanced when it was encapsulated inside the biopolymer nanoparticles, as shown by more potent ABTS+· radical scavenging and ferric ion reducing power. The gastrointestinal fluids collected after digestion of the encapsulated resveratrol also exhibited strong intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity. Our results suggest that the biopolymer nanoparticles produced in this study may be an effective oral delivery system for resveratrol that could be used in functional foods or nutraceutical supplements.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Polymorphism and stability of nanostructures of three types of collagens
           from bovine flexor tendon, rat tail, and tilapia skin
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Cuiping Shi, Chunhuan Bi, Mengzhen Ding, Jun Xie, Changhua Xu, Ruirui Qiao, Xichang Wang, Jian ZhongMany types of collagens from different sources have been used in food, pharmaceutics, biomedicine, tissue engineering, etc. Their physicochemical properties have been widely investigated to understand their behaviors and functions. However, the polymorphism and stability of collagen nanostructures have not been systematically studied. In the current manuscript, polymorphism and stability of nanostructures of three types of collagens from bovine flexor tendon, rat tail, and tilapia skin are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry. SDS-PAGE results show loading volumes have no influence on the protein bands of three types of collagens except the intensity, whereas collagen concentrations have obvious effects. AFM results show all the three types of collagens have multiple nanostructures, which are concentration-dependent. AFM results also show collagen nanostructures change with incubation time at 37 °C. According to the ATR-FTIR results, the nanostructures changes are associated with the change of protein secondary structures. These results demonstrate three types of collagens have different nanostructures, stability, protein secondary structures, and SDS-PAGE behaviors. This work also indicates that the nanostructures and secondary structures of collagens can be controlled by adjusting concentration and incubation time for the three types of collagens, which provide simple ways to design and prepared desired nanostructures of collagen-based foods. It will be also beneficial to fundamental understanding of the collagen nanoscale structure formation in different collagen-based foods.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Self-assembled nanoparticles from heat treated ovalbumin as nanocarriers
           for polyunsaturated fatty acids
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Flavia F. Visentini, Adrián A. Perez, Liliana G. SantiagoThe objective of the present work was to obtain and characterize two heat induced (85 °C, 5 min) ovalbumin nanoparticles (OVAn1 formed at pH 11.35 and OVAn2 formed at pH 7.50). In addition, the impact of these OVA nanosized aggregates on the formation and characterization of inclusion nanocomplexes formed with two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): linoleic acid (LA) and its isomer, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was studied. The pH in which heat treatment was performed had a great impact on nanoparticles hydrodynamic diameter (dH). Nanoparticles dH values were 24.63 ± 0.04 nm for OVAn1 and 92.0 ± 0.2 nm for OVAn2, respectively, and no significant differences in ζ potential values (p > 0.05) were detected. Nanocomplexes colloidal characteristics were studied by particle size distribution (PSD) and ζ potential determinations. In all cases, size measurements showed that PUFAs binding promoted an increased nanoparticles size. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) examination for nanoparticles and nanocomplexes showed a rounded shape and an increase in dimensions of the nanocomplexes which was attributed to LA and CLA binding. On the other hand, nanocomplex formation was monitored by intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. Results highlighted that both nanoparticles bound LA and CLA in greater amount than OVA did. Besides, both nanoparticles were able to bind more amount of LA than CLA. Results suggested that knowledge of differences in OVA nanoparticles properties and PUFAs molecular structure is a relevant requisite for the design of inclusion nanocomplexes with especial colloidal properties.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of ripening on in vitro digestibility and structural
           characteristics of plantain (Musa ABB) starch
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Yu Bi, Yayuan Zhang, Zhengbiao Gu, Li Cheng, Zhaofeng Li, Caiming Li, Yan HongThis study focused on the effect of ripening on in vitro digestibility and the multi-scale structural characteristics of plantain starch. It was shown that the RS content of plantain starch gradually decreased during ripening process, while RDS and SDS contents increased. Scanning electron micrographs showed the layer-by-layer degradation of the surfaces of starch granules. The transformation from CB-type to CA-type crystalline structure of starch was revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction patterns. Relative crystallinity, IR ratio 1045/1022 and the apparent amylose content all decreased with increasing maturity. Meanwhile, branched chain length distributions of amylopectin indicated that the content of short chain increased and that of long chain decreased, leading to the changes of digestion performance. In addition, the serious damage to amorphous region in semi-crystalline lamellae and amorphous growth ring was caused. All above factors contributed to the decrease of plantain starch resistance to digestion with increasing maturity. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the changes that plantain starch undergoes during ripening.Graphical abstractImage 10947
       
  • Mechanistic investigation via QCM-D into the color stability imparted to
           betacyanins by the presence of food grade anionic polysaccharides
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Meghan Marchuk, Michael J. Selig, Giovana B. Celli, Peter Lawrence, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Alireza AbbaspourradThe known ability of select anionic polysaccharides (gum arabic, beet pectin, xanthan gum, and sodium alginate) to improve shelf and thermal color stabilities of beet betalains at mild (pH 5) and typical beverage acidity (pH 3.2) is highlighted and studied herein. Mechanisms imparting stability are investigated by in-solution particle size, zeta-potential, and auto-fluorescence measurements coupled with quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) binding studies. Sodium alginate and xanthan gum best preserved red hues in aqueous solutions through accelerated shelf storage (40 °C) at both pH. However, while alginate complexes improved thermal stability at pH 3.2, xanthan gum-pigment mixtures had the poorest of all polysaccharides at 55 °C. Beet pectin showed stabilizing effects at pH 5.0 only. The highly negative zeta potentials of alginate and xanthan pigment mixtures at both pH and beet pectin mixtures att pH 5.0 suggests a negative charge environment created by polysaccharide uronic acid substituents may aid color stabilization. Particle size data further suggest sodium alginate forms soluble complexes with beet extracts. QCM-D showed purified betacyanin binds irreversibly and most significantly to surfaces coated with the more negative and linear polysaccharides, alginate or xanthan gum. Pigment binding to heavily branched polysaccharides (gum arabic and beet pectin) was not significant and was reversible. Furthermore, dissipation changes plotted against frequency change suggest betacyanin binding to alginate and xanthan gum is more rigid at pH 3.2 than at pH 5.0, and suggests betalain stability at low pH may be imparted by strong irreversible association between these polysaccharides and the pigment.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Chitosan hydrochloride/carboxymethyl starch complex nanogels as novel
           Pickering stabilizers: Physical stability and rheological properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Xiao-Min Li, Qiu-Tao Xie, Jie Zhu, Yi Pan, Ran Meng, Bao Zhang, Han-Qing Chen, Zheng-Yu JinThe Pickering emulsions stabilized by chitosan hydrochloride - carboxymethyl starch (CHC-CMS) nanogels prepared through a facile covalent cross-linking method using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-1-carbodiimide) were investigated. The smallest mean size of CHC-CMS nanogels (378.2 nm) was obtained when the volume ratio of CHC: CMS was 2:1. The three-phase contract angle of CHC-CMS nanogels was 89.3°, which exhibited that the CHC-CMS nanogels could be used as effective Pickering emulsifiers. The effects of CHC-CMS nanogels concentration, oil phase fraction and environment factors viz, pH, ionic strength on the stability of emulsions were evaluated. An increase in CHC-CMS nanogels concentration led to a formation of smaller droplets, and the droplet size of Pickering emulsions was increased with the rise of oil phase fraction. The Pickering emulsions were highly stable at pH 6 and above. Increasing NaCl concentration was found to generate the aggregation of droplets. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the CHC-CMS nanogels could be adsorbed on the oil-water interface and form a densely packed layer at the surface of spherical oil droplets, which exhibited long-term stability for 3 months storage. Rheological results illustrated that all emulsions showed the typical pseudoplastic fluid characteristics and satisfied the Herschel-Bulkley model. The fact that the elastic modulus (G') was higher than the loss modulus (G″) in all the samples was indicative of the formation of an elastic gel-like structure. These results provided a potential way for Pickering emulsions preparations, which could be used as an effective delivery carrier of bioactives.Graphical abstractImage 1046
       
  • Electrospinning of whey and soy protein mixed with maltodextrin –
           Influence of protein type and ratio on the production and morphology of
           fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Ines Kutzli, Monika Gibis, Stefan K. Baier, Jochen WeissThe production of food-grade fibers from maltodextrin with either whey protein isolate or soy protein isolate was evaluated in a needleless electrospinning setup. The ratio of maltodextrin to protein was varied. Higher protein content generally led to a higher electrical conductivity and viscosity. Compared to WPI samples, the use of SPI decreased the surface tension of the spinning dispersions while at the same time increasing the electrical conductivity from 0.39 ± 0.00 mS/cm (WPI 80:5) to 0.64 ± 0.01 mS/cm (SPI 80:5) and the apparent viscosity (γ˙= 100 s−1) from 4.58 ± 0.14 Pa⋅s (WPI 80:5) to 5.14 ± 0.09 Pa⋅s (SPI 80:5). The high viscosity was identified to hinder electrospinning and the maltodextrin-SPI fibers had lower production rates of 0.50 ± 0.25 g/h (SPI 80:5) and higher diameters 4.74 ± 2.33 μm (SPI 80:5) compared to maltodextrin-WPI fibers (0.98 ± 0.13 g/h and 2.85 ± 0.95 μm for WPI 80:5). Removing the insoluble fraction of the SPI and only using the soluble soy protein (SSPI) with maltodextrin for electrospinning resulted in a lower viscosity (4.63 ± 0.05 Pa⋅s for SSPI 80:5) and better spinning results (0.5 g/h ± 0.06). FTIR analysis and protein measurement showed that the resulting fibers consisted of both the maltodextrin and the proteins. The protein content in the fibers was thereby linked to the spinnability and fiber appearance.Graphical abstractImage 10307
       
  • Caseinglycomacropeptide and polysorbate interactions allow the design of
           smart gelled emulsions
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): R. Morales, M.J. Martinez, A.M.R. PilosofThere is a growing interest in the development and use of smart materials. These materials are able to detect stimuli from their environment, for example, temperature, light, pH and to react in a useful, reliable and reproducible way. Caseinglycomacropeptide (CMP) is a valuable peptide for its bioactive and technological properties. One of the most relevant properties of this peptide is its ability to self-assemble in solution by lowering the pH below 4.5, which leads to the formation of a gel. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ability of Tween 80 (Tw) to stabilize CMP emulsions over time and upon pH-dependent gelation in order to design smart gelled emulsions that could protect bioactive compounds. The gelation of emulsions was performed by decreasing pH to 2 and 3, and the gel time was determined. After 24 h the gelled emulsions were diluted in buffer to pH 6.5 to reverse to the liquid state. The droplet size of the emulsions before and after the gel reversibility experiment was determined. Also, the stability of the emulsions was evaluated over time. The interfacial properties of CMP, Tw and CMP/Tw were determined in a drop tensiometer in order to elucidate the emulsions behavior. The combination of CMP and Tw promoted the formation of stable gelled emulsions which were able to keep the initial droplet size after the reversion of the gelation. The formation of a complex between CMP and Tw occurring in the bulk would adsorb at the oil/water interface leading to stable emulsions. A synergistic interaction between both emulsifiers appears as the basis of this improvement in which Tw would contribute to steric stabilization of oil droplets, hindering the coalescence when decreasing pH.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of steam explosion treatments on the functional properties and
           structure of camellia (Camellia oleifera Abel.) seed cake protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Shanying Zhang, Lili Zheng, Xiaoyan Zheng, Binling Ai, Yang Yang, Yonggui Pan, Zhanwu ShengThe effect of steam explosion on the functional properties of camellia seed protein (CSP) was investigated, and the structural properties after the modified treatment were evaluated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), near-UV circular dichroism (CD), thermogravimetric (TG), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), glycosylation fluorescence, zeta potential (ζ) measurement and particle size measurement. After the steam explosion treatment, the content of simple sugars and free amino acids in the camellia seed cake (CSC) decreased, and the lightness of the CSP was reduced. The result showed that the solubility of treated CSP was significantly higher than those of untreated CSP in different pHs. The foaming and emulsifying properties of the treated CSP were higher than that of native CSP. Moreover, FTIR and DSC indicated a small change in the protein secondary structure after steam explosion, with a decrease in α-helix, random coil, β-turn contents and an increase in β-sheet content, the change of CSP tertiary structure has been confirmed by near-UV CD. In addition, steam explosion reduced the particle size and the zeta potential. Changes in protein glycosylation indicated Maillard reaction has been activated during steam explosion. These results concluded that CSP can be treated by steam explosion to modify the functional properties.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Protein aggregates modulate the texture of emulsified and acidified acid
           milk gels
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Perrine Gélébart, Alain Riaublanc, Marie-Hélène Famelart, Camille Jonchère, Valérie Beaumal, Marc Anton, Catherine GarnierAcid milk gels with fat (3.5 or 10%) or without fat containing 0.2–1% of whey proteins (WP) or 0.2–1.5% of protein aggregates (fractal aggregates, microgels and mixed casein/WP aggregates with an 80/20 ratio) were investigated. The fat-containing systems were homogenized and the systems were preheated (90 °C, 11 min) and acidified to a pH of 4.6 by adding glucono-delta-lactone. The protein composition of the fat droplet interface was characterized by SDS-PAGE and the textural and rheological properties, microstructure, and whey separation of acid networks were determined. WP and fractal aggregates showed the best ability to improve the textural properties and microstructure of all acid milk gels and reduce whey separation. Increasing the concentrations in microgels and mixed aggregates did not lead to an increase in gel firmness or generate a strong impact on the protein network, but a high concentration in mixed aggregates could reduce whey separation. The fat droplet interface was made almost exclusively of caseins, even if the fractal aggregates could also be adsorbed when the interfacial surface was increased either through fat content or through an increase in homogenization pressure. Adding proteins changes the textural properties of the acid gels in all the systems, mainly due to their role in the continuous phase.Graphical abstractChange of the texture of acid milk gel (3.5% AMF) according to protein aggregate type and concentration linked to their ultra-structure determined by confocal microscopy.Image 1
       
  • Improvements in physicochemical and emulsifying properties of insoluble
           soybean fiber by physical-chemical treatments
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Bifen Chen, Yongjian Cai, Tongxun Liu, Lihua Huang, Xinlun Deng, Qiangzhong Zhao, Mouming ZhaoInitial structural, physicochemical and emulsifying properties of insoluble soybean fiber (ISF) obtained by alkaline treatment (AT), ultrasonic alkaline treatment (UAT), steam-cooking alkaline treatment (SAT), ultrasonic-assisted steam-cooking alkaline treatment (USAT) were investigated. The loose structure, porous and wrinkled surface was observed in ISF by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). USAT exerted a greatest influence on ISF micromorphology due to a strong combination of ultrasonic, steam-cooking and alkaline treatment. The rupture of polymer chains in ISF, which indicated release of free hydroxyl groups, was showed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Water holding capacity (WHC), swelling capacity (SWC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) of USAT-ISF were increased to 3.84, 9.04 and 4.19 folds of NT-ISF, respectively. It was because loose and porous structure of ISF enhanced its ability to capture water or oil, and free hydroxyl groups acted as water holding sites as well. SAT-ISF and USAT-ISF suspensions showed more pronounced shear thinning behavior and higher apparent viscosity, which was related to WHC, SWC and cluster structure. Good dispersion of oil droplets was observed in fresh AT-ISF and UAT-ISF emulsions with little flocculation. AT-ISF emulsion presented a relatively high storage stability over 35 days as a function of broken sheet structure, moderate apparent viscosity and high WHC, OHC. It could be seen from dynamic viscoelastic measurements that SAT-ISF and USAT-ISF emulsions presented weak gel behavior. Results demonstrated that physicochemical and emulsifying properties of ISF were effectively improved by physical-chemical treatments, thus showing promising prospect of ISF as an emulsifier in food industry.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Bioactive agar-based functional composite film incorporated with copper
           sulfide nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Swarup Roy, Jong-Whan Rhim, Lily JaiswalCopper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NP) were prepared using copper acetate and thiourea as a source of Cu2+ and S2−, respectively, cornstarch as a stabilizing agent and ammonia as a hydrolyzing agent under a mild condition of sulfidation (70 °C for 1 h). The present work describes the synthesis and preparation of bioactive agar/CuS NP nanocomposite film. CuS NP was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CuS NP was roughly spherical and irregular with a size in the range of 2–10 nm with an average of 4.6 ± 1.3 nm. Agar-based films with different concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 wt%) of CuS NP were prepared and characterized using SEM and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the film properties such as UV-barrier, mechanical, water vapor barrier, swelling ratio, water solubility, hydrophobicity, thermal stability, antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity were investigated. The CuS NP was well dispersed in the polymer matrix to form compatible nanocomposite films. The swelling ratio and moisture content of the composite films decreased while the water solubility increased slightly after the addition of CuS NP. The composite films showed significantly increased UV-barrier without much sacrifice of transparency, and they also showed increased mechanical strength and water vapor barrier properties. Also, in vitro analysis showed excellent biocompatibility of CuS NP and nanocomposite films on skin fibroblast L929 cell lines with cell viability above 90%. Also, they exhibited distinctive antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria, E. coli and some activity against L. monocytogenes.Graphical abstractImage 109422
       
  • Physiochemical, rheological and emulsifying properties of low methoxyl
           pectin prepared by high hydrostatic pressure-assisted enzymatic,
           conventional enzymatic, and alkaline de-esterification: A comparison study
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Li Wan, Qianqian Chen, Mengling Huang, Fengxia Liu, Siyi Pan:Low methoxyl pectin (LMP) was prepared by high hydrostatic pressure assisted enzymatic treatment (HHP-pectin). The physicochemical properties, rheological characteristics and emulsifying characteristics of LMP prepared in this manner were compared the characteristics of LMPs de-esterified using the conventional enzymatic (E-pectin) and alkaline (A-pectin) methods. The obtained results showed that under the optimal HHP conditions, the degree of methoxylation (DM) of pectin decreased from 79.91% to 37.02% within 12 min, whereas 120 min and 20 min, respectively, were required to obtain a similar DM value for the atmospheric enzymatic and alkaline treatments. Moreover, the de-esterification method had a strong influence on rheological and emulsifying properties. Compared to A-pectin, HHP-pectin and E-pectin exhibited higher viscosity, accompanied by larger average molecular weight, particle size, more negative zeta-potential and higher activation energy. All of the emulsions exhibited good stability at acidic conditions with pH 3. While the emulsion prepared using A-pectin showed the smallest particle mean diameters and better centrifugation stability, the emulsion prepared using HHP-pectin showed the best long-term emulsifying stability during 21-day storage. These results clearly demonstrated that HHP-assisted enzymatic method is a more efficient, rapid and eco-friendly alternative for pectin de-esterification, particularly for preparing LMPs with better thickening and stable emulsifying properties.Graphical abstractImage 102602
       
  • Effect of pH shifting on conformation and gelation properties of myosin
           from skeletal muscle of blue round scads(Decapterus maruadsi)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Le-Chang Sun, Yi-Chen Lin, Wei-Feng Liu, Xu-Jian Qiu, Kai-Yuan Cao, Guang-Ming Liu, Min-Jie CaoTo clarify the gel formation mechanism of isolated proteins recovered from blue round scads by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation, the physiochemical, conformational and gelation properties of the major protein myosin treated by acidic-(AM) or alkaline-(KM) pH-shifting were investigated and compared with native myosin (NM). The solubility in all myosin samples dropped significantly at 40 °C, with remarkable increases of particle size, turbidity and surface hydrophobicity. Among the samples, AM exhibited the lowest solubility and highest turbidity than NM and KM as the temperature was higher than 40 °C, indicating that AM is easily to be denatured and aggregated. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that both acidic and alkaline pH treatments led to conformational changes of myosin, together with α-helix content variations. When pH was readjusted to neutral, KM recovered its structure similar to NM, while AM failed to refold to its native state. NM exhibited the highest storage modulus (G′) at 90 °C, while AM revealed the lowest G′ value. Furthermore, AM did not change obviously during heating, especially at the gelling temperature range (60–90 °C). These results strongly suggested that acidic treatment led to an irreversible conformational change in myosin, consequently induced a fierce denaturation and aggregation at the initial stage of heating, and eventually led to a complete loss of gel-forming ability. Alkaline pH-shifting, on the other hand is thus more feasible for protein recovery from blue round scads.Graphical abstractImage 108
       
  • Antioxidant ultrafine fibers developed with microalga compounds using a
           free surface electrospinning
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Juliana Botelho Moreira, Loong-Tak Lim, Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa, Michele Greque de MoraisFree surface electrospinning is a method for high throughput production of nonwovens using electrostatic charge. The Spirulina microalga is known for its high protein content and it presents in its biomass antioxidants of commercial importance such as phycocyanin. The objective of this study was to develop antioxidant ultrafine fibers based on protein concentrate from Spirulina sp. LEB 18/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and phycocyanin, using a free surface electrospinning method. Uniform ultrafine fibers of protein concentrate of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 containing 2% (w w−1) of phycocyanin were developed with diameters of 269, 314 and 542 nm, at 5, 7.5 and 10% (w w−1) protein concentrations, respectively. The electrospun fibers increased the thermal stability of phycocyanin. Overall, the Spirulina sp. LEB 18/PEO electrospun fibers loaded with phycocyanin showed antioxidant properties. Thus, microalgal biocompounds such as phycocyanin are innovative alternatives for the development of bioactive ultrafine fibers for potential application in food preservation.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Protection of native lactoferrin under gastric conditions through
           complexation with pectin and chitosan
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Zhigao Niu, Simon M. Loveday, Vincent Barbe, Ilonka Thielen, Yang He, Harjinder SinghThe aim of this work was to encapsulate native bioactive lactoferrin (Lf) in pectin-based colloidal delivery systems with and without a chitosan (CS) coating, and to explore their fate under digestive conditions. We compared the abilities of low methoxyl (LM) pectin and high methoxyl (HM) pectin to form complexes with Lf at different mass ratios. LM pectin led to a smaller particle size (256 nm) and a higher Lf encapsulation efficiency (>72%) than HM pectin because of its greater negative charge (−43.6 versus −16.4 mV). After validating the retention of the bioactivity of native Lf (antimicrobial activity) in these complexes, we coated the Lf‒LM pectin complex with a layer of CS, which had no significant effect on the Lf encapsulation but improved the colloidal stability under gastric conditions. Both Lf‒pectin complexes and chitosanCS-coated complexes retained>90% of the Lf from release in simulated gastric fluid. This resulted in gastric protection of Lf against pepsin-mediated hydrolysis for at least 60 min, relative to free Lf solution. CS-coated complexes also delayed the degradation of released Lf, possibly because of the interaction between this cationic biopolymer and pepsin.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Emulsification properties of garlic aqueous extract
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Ángela Bravo-Núñez, Matt Golding, Tony K. McGhie, Manuel Gómez, Lara Matía-MerinoThe aim of this study was to evaluate the emulsification properties of garlic water-soluble compounds, currently non-existing in the literature. Compositional analysis along with surface tension measurements were carried out on the garlic aqueous extract, followed by the evaluation of 10% oil-in-water emulsions made with this extract at various concentrations. Microstructural analysis—droplet size by static light scattering, and light, confocal and transmission electron microscopy—along with phase separation measurements of the emulsions under storage, were also investigated. Whereas surface tension decreased with increasing garlic extract concentration, the lowest concentration (0.48% wt/wt) produced the smallest oil droplet size (d32 = 0.36 μm) increasing up to d32 = 6.55  μm at the highest extract content (6.55% wt/wt). Microstructural analysis also indicated the occurrence of depletion and bridging flocculation phenomena with increasing garlic extract concentrations, apart from obtaining bigger initial droplet sizes. Compositional analysis revealed that the ratio of saponins:fructans:proteins could be playing a key role in the droplet size distributions obtained, as confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy also indicated differences at the interface when changing concentrations. Creaming was observed over time in all the emulsions but it was more evident with increasing garlic concentration. Beside flocculation, coalescence also took place after one-day storage at low and high concentrations. The underpinning reason of these phenomena can be related to the coexistence of compounds of different surface-active nature (i.e. a combination of saponins, proteins/peptides and fructans), and their interactions. This research brings valuable insights on the study of novel natural food emulsifiers from plant sources.Graphical abstractImage 10292
       
  • Fabricating multilayer emulsions by using OSA starch and chitosan suitable
           for spray drying: Application in the encapsulation of β-carotene
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Sheng Fang, Xiaojian Zhao, Yanmei Liu, Xianrui Liang, Yuexi YangThe aim of the present study was to investigate the application of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch and chitosan to form multilayer nanoemulsions in the spray-drying microencapsulation of β-carotene in oil. Initially, the single and bilayer nanoemulsions were prepared and optimized by varying their compositions with the characterization of mean particle diameter (MPD), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta-potential (ZP). The optimized composition of the bilayer emulsion was 9 wt% medium chain triglycerides (MCT) oil phase, 4.6 wt% OSA starch and 0.3 wt% chitosan. The MPD, PDI and ZP of the bilayer emulsion were 183.6 ± 0.7 nm, 0.17 ± 0.03 and 24.9 ± 1.9 mV, respectively. The stability of single and bilayer emulsions against acidic pH was evaluated. In the spray-drying process, the effects of OSA starch/maltodextrin as wall materials on the bilayer emulsion were investigated. Another complex interfacial layer with adjustable surface positive charges could be formed by mixing the bilayer emulsion with these wall materials. The spray-dried microencapsulated particles were characterized and the degradation of β-carotene at different temperatures was studied. The stability of encapsulated β-carotene was influenced by the different constituents at the oil in water interface and the multilayer interface was demonstrated to provide the best protection during storage. These results have important implications for the spray-drying microencapsulation of functional additives with OSA starch as both emulsifier and wall materials.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Novel multi-phase nano-emulsion preparation for co-loading hydrophilic
           arbutin and hydrophobic coumaric acid using hydrocolloids
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Hao Huang, Tarun Belwal, Songbai Liu, Zhenhua Duan, Zisheng LuoThis study was designed to co-load hydrophilic arbutin and hydrophobic coumaric acid in nano-sized multi-phase emulsion (W/O/W) using hydrocolloids and examined for its various stability and bioaccessibility parameters. The creaming stability and sensory evaluation of emulsion in Lactobacillus beverage and its release kinetics in simulated oral and gastrointestinal conditions were also studied. Results revealed that multi-phase emulsion exhibited small particle size and low polydispersity index with high zeta potential. Higher encapsulation efficiency was also observed. Moreover, the multi-phase emulsion showed good storage stability under different conditions. The multi-phase emulsion also showed controlled release of arbutin and coumaric acid in simulated conditions with increasing bioaccessibility. Stability of these compounds under unfavorable conditions was also found to be increased. Moreover, high creaming stability and sensory evaluation score of the multi-phase emulsion suggested that the formulation was capable of retaining arbutin and coumaric acid in Lactobacillus beverage without affecting its sensory properties. These results indicated that the multi-phase nano-emulsion (W/O/W) could effectively co-deliver hydrophilic arbutin and hydrophobic coumaric acid and thus could be a novel delivery method for increasing bioaccessibility of these nutraceutically important phenolic compounds.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of modified tapioca starches on the gelling properties of whey
           protein isolate
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Fei Ren, Shujun WangThe objective of the present work was to investigate the rheological, thermal and microstructural properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)-modified tapioca starch (acetylated tapioca starch (ATS), hydroxypropylated tapioca starch (HPTS) and cross-linked tapioca starch (CLTS)) gels. The rheological results showed that the WPI-modified starch gels had higher storage modulus (Gʹ) values than the pure WPI and WPI-native starch gels. During heating, the WPI-modified starch systems exhibited a continuous increase in Gʹ. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that WPI-modified starch mixtures presented higher thermal transition temperatures than did modified starches. The results of light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that WPI-ATS, HPTS and CLTS systems presented a better gel morphology than WPI-native starch system. This study showed that the gelling properties of WPI can be modulated by the addition of modified starches, with WPI-CLTS system displaying better gel properties than other WPI-modified starch systems.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Comparison of starch physicochemical properties of wheat cultivars
           differing in bread- and noodle-making quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Yan Zi, Hao Shen, Shuang Dai, Xiao Ma, Wei Ju, Canguo Wang, Jun Guo, Aifeng Liu, Dungong Cheng, Haosheng Li, Jianjun Liu, Zhendong Zhao, Shijie Zhao, Jianmin SongWheat cultivars that produce good-quality bread and noodles are important for the food industry and starch physicochemical properties greatly influence the reprocessing quality. In this study, six types of cultivars differing in bread and noodle quality were compared for starch characteristics and for future quality improvement. All six types exhibited significantly different starch physicochemical properties including starch components, amylopectin chain length distribution, granule size and distribution, pasting, swelling, and gelatinization. Most parameters investigated were significantly correlated with bread- and noodle-making performance, confirming significant effects of starch properties on wheat end-use quality. The ratio of amylopectin/amylose contents, proportion of amylopectin short chains (2 ≤ DP ≤ 10), amount of C-type starch granules, pasting peak viscosity and gelatinization conclusion temperature (Tc) were effective indicators for improvement of wheat processing quality, and cultivars with those parameters in ranges of 2.1–2.6, 47.8–51.0%, 36.2–46.7%, 2890–3450 cP, and 68.5–69.6 °C, respectively, would yield superior bread- and/or noodle-making quality.Graphical abstractImage 10530494
       
  • Developing organogel-based Pickering emulsions with improved freeze-thaw
           stability and hesperidin bioaccessibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Zihao Wei, Qingrong HuangSoybean oil-based organogel was structured using monostearin, and the organogel had a gel-sol melting temperature of 44.0 °C. Loading amount of hesperidin in soybean oil-based organogels could be about twice as much as metastable solubility of hesperidin in soybean oil. Organogel-in-water Pickering emulsion was formed using the soybean oil-based organogel as the oil phase and ovotransferrin (OVT) fibrils as the emulsifier. Visual observation indicated that organogel-based Pickering emulsions stabilized by OVT fibrils (40 mg/mL) at oil fractions of 0.50–0.85 had excellent storage stability and could withstand three cycles of freeze-thaw treatments. Conventional oil-in-water Pickering emulsion was prepared as control to better understand impact of organogel incorporation on freeze-thaw stability, and conventional Pickering emulsion was formed using soybean oil as the oil phase and OVT fibrils as the emulsifier. Freeze-thaw stability of organogel-based Pickering emulsions was better than that of conventional Pickering emulsions (without organogel) stabilized by OVT fibrils. In vitro digestion study revealed that organogel-based Pickering emulsion could improve both the extent of lipolysis and hesperidin bioaccessibility when compared with organogel. This study demonstrates the feasibility of formulating novel food-grade organogel-based Pickering emulsions with high nutraceutical loading, excellent freeze-thaw stability and improved nutraceutical bioaccessibility.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Juice related water-soluble pectin characteristics and bioaccessibility of
           bioactive compounds in oil and emulsion incorporated mixed juice processed
           by high pressure homogenization
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Chandi Kanchana Deepali Wellala, Jinfeng Bi, Xuan Liu, Jianing Liu, Jian Lyu, Xinye WuAim of this study was to investigate the juice related water-soluble pectin (WSP) characteristics, total carotenoid bioaccessibility (TCB) and total polyphenolic bioaccessibility (TPB) in oil and emulsion incorporated high pressure homogenized mixed juices. Five mixed juices were prepared with carrot puree, clear apple juice and peach juice at ratios of 50:30:20, 40:40:20, 30:50:20, 40:30:30 and 30:40:30, and subjected to homogenization at 140 MPa and 25 °C for 1 pass. Galacturonic acid (GalA) content, degree of methylesterification (DM), neutral sugars and molecular weight (Mw) were analyzed. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids and polyphenolics was evaluated by using either corn oil or corn oil emulsion. As the results indicated, distinct particle and WSP characteristics were observed among different juice ratios of homogenized mixed juices. Small intestinal digesta showed varied particle and rheological properties. Besides, TCB was significantly higher when added with oil or emulsion than no oil added. Nevertheless, the ratio at 30:40:30 of carrot, apple and peach exhibited the highest TCB, WSP content and DM value, while the ratio at 30:50:20 showed the highest TPB. Results highlighted the potential of manipulating juice ratio to enhance TCB and TPB. Moreover, bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds exhibited significant correlations with particle properties and WSP characteristics respectively. TCB showed upward polynomial correlations with volume-mean and area-mean diameters of digesta respectively, while exhibited downward polynomial correlations with WSP content and DM, respectively. Meanwhile, TPB showed upward polynomial correlations with WSP content and DM, respectively.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Hemp globulin heat aggregation is inhibited by the chaperone-like action
           of caseins
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Chih-Chieh Chuang, Teresa F. Wegrzyn, Skelte G. Anema, Simon M. LovedayGraphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Fabrication and characterization of Pickering High Internal Phase
           Emulsions (HIPEs) stabilized by chitosan-caseinophosphopeptides
           nanocomplexes as oral delivery vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Xiao-Nan Huang, Fu-Zhen Zhou, Tao Yang, Shou-Wei Yin, Chuan-He Tang, Xiao-Quan YangPickering High Internal Phase Emulsions (HIPEs) stabilized by food-grade particles have received considerable attention. In this work, we first demonstrated the use of chitosan-caseinophosphopeptides (CS-CPP) nanocomplexes as particulate emulsifiers to stabilize the interface of natural oils and water. For this purpose, we developed the CS-CPP nanocomplexes through electrostatic interactions and demonstrated their application in the formation of stable Pickering HIPEs. The microstructures, e.g., interfacial frameworks, of the CS-CPP nanocomplexes partition between the continuous phase and interfacial region, and the states of the droplets of Pickering HIPEs were visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and an optical microscope. The compressed droplets in Pickering HIPEs formed a percolating 3D-network framework that endowed emulsions with viscoelastic, self-supporting, and ideal thixotropic features. In addition, the gelatinous state of Pickering HIPEs combined with robust and compact CS-CPP nanocomplexes formed an interfacial layer around the droplets, thus depressing the oxidation of linseed oil. The contents of primary and secondary oxidation products in HIPEs were lower than that in bulk oil and emulsions stabilized by surfactants. An in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) model was constructed to characterize the lipid oxidation, lipid digestion and curcumin bioaccessibility of Pickering HIPEs. Interestingly, this route enhanced the bioaccessibility of curcumin from 20.49% (bulk oil) to 49.21% (Pickering HIPEs). This work offers a facile method to develop Pickering HIPEs by food-grade particles, which help to fill the gap between the performance of CS-CPP nanocomplexes-stabilized Pickering HIPEs and potential applications as oral delivery systems of nutraceuticals.Graphical abstractSchematic representation of the CS-CPP nanocomplexes stabilized Pickering HIPEs proposed to relate physical performance and digestion fate of emulsions to their microstructure.Image 108971
       
  • Influence of ionic strength on the thermostability and flavor (allyl
           methyl disulfide) release profiles of calcium alginate microgels
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Minqi Wang, Takahiko Doi, Xiaoyan Hu, David Julian McClementsCalcium alginate microgels are commonly used for encapsulation of biologically active agents intended for oral ingestion in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the current study, the impact of ionic strength on the physical stability and flavor retention profile of a model hydrophobic flavor (allyl methyl disulfide, AMDS) loaded into calcium alginate microgels was investigated during simulated cooking and long-term storage. The influence of ionic strength was examined because many foods contain relatively high levels of salt, which may weaken the electrostatic interactions holding the calcium alginate microgels together. Our results showed that addition of NaCl (0–500 mM) promoted disintegration of the alginate microgels during simulated cooking from room temperature to boiling for 30 min, as well as during storage under wet conditions at ambient temperature for 7 days. Lipid droplets leaked from the microgels after heating or storage as indicated by turbidity, light scattering, and microscopy measurements with the effects becoming more pronounced at higher NaCl levels. Interestingly, the physical instability of the microgels had little impact on flavor retention during cooking. The insights gained from this study may be useful for designing and selecting appropriate microgels for different commercial applications.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Solvent retention capacity of oat flour: Relationship with oat β-glucan
           content and molecular weight
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Kailong Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Zhen Ma, Xinzhong HuOat β-glucan has been known as a healthy food ingredient due to its cholesterol and glucose lowing effects. The physical properties which consequently induce its bioactivities are generally impacted by its quantity and quality. In this research, the relationship between content and molecular weight of β-glucan and solvent retention capacity (SRC) values of oat flours from 30 varieties were investigated. The β-glucan content was significantly (p 
       
  • Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose modulates the stability of
           cinnamaldehyde-loaded liposomes at high ionic strength
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Xuejiao Wang, Li Liu, Shuqin Xia, Bertrand Muhoza, Jibao Cai, Xiaoming Zhang, Emmanuel Duhoranimana, Jiakun SuIn present study, three kinds of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCNa) were used to modulate the stability of cinnamaldehyde-loaded liposomes at high ionic strength (0.66 mol/L). The effects of different types and concentrations of CMCNa on the physical properties of liposomes were characterized by rheological properties, appearance, distribution, microstructure, particle size and dispersion. Rheology measurements showed that CMCNa endowed viscoelasticity to liposomes. The molecular mass (Mw) and concentration of CMCNa were positively correlated to liposome stability. CMCNa with Mw 1,185,955 was the most effective for liposomes stability at concentrations of 0.8% and 1.0% (w/v). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that CMCNa-П formed an associated layer around liposomes. Steric hindrance between particles was attributed to the improvement of stability of liposomes. Dispersion analysis demonstrated 0.8% and 1.0% CMCNa-П had the better stability. These results may contribute to the development of stable liposomes with potential applications for bioactive molecules encapsulation and delivery.Graphical abstractImage 10
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of lysozyme-nisin co-encapsulated in liposomes
           coated with polysaccharides
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 93Author(s): Nathalie Almeida Lopes, Cristian Mauricio Barreto Pinilla, Adriano BrandelliNatural antimicrobials are an innovative alternative for food safety and encapsulation can improve their controlled release and stability. In the present work, lysozyme and its combination with nisin were encapsulated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes coated with pectin or polygalacturonic acid. The mean particle sizes of liposomes encapsulating lysozyme were 92, 116, and 97 nm for PC, PC-pectin and PC-polygalacutronic acid, respectively. Co-encapsulation of lysozyme and nisin resulted in particle sizes of 86, 77, and 80 nm, respectively. The formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency (77–87%), zeta potential around −30 mV, and spherical structures were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Liposomes encapsulating lysozyme inhibited Listeria monocytogens, but not Salmonella Enteritidis, while liposomes co-encapsulating the mixture nisin/lysozyme inhibited both bacteria. The PC-pectin liposomes were more efficient in inhibiting Listeria spp. when compared to the other liposomes tested. The antimicrobial activity was assessed at 37 °C using milk as model, showing that PC-pectin liposomes reduced the population of L. monocytogenes by 2 log CFU/mL in whole milk and 5 log CFU/mL in skim milk. Under refrigeration temperature, PC-pectin liposomes reduced the population of L. monocytogenes to below detection limit for up to 25 days in skim milk, indicating that liposomes containing polysaccharides can be a promising technology for the controlled release of lysozyme and nisin in foods.Graphical abstractImage 106408
       
  • Exopolysaccharides produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria:
           Structures, Physiochemical Functions and Applications in the Food Industry
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Yuanmei Xu, Yanlong Cui, Fangfang Yue, Lihua Liu, Yuanyuan Shan, Bianfang Liu, Yuan Zhou, Xin LüExopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacteria are widely used as starter cultures to make fermented food products due to their technological benefits. Moreover, LAB-EPSs and bifido-EPSs have been demonstrated to possess various physiological functions such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and immunological activities, among which the immunoregulatory activity has attracted a lot of scientific interests in recent years. Generally, these functions are closely related to the chemical compositions and configurations of EPSs. This review sheds light on structures and functions of LAB-EPSs and bifido-EPSs. Among them, in vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the immune effects of EPSs are summarized in detail, with particular emphasis on the structure-immunity relationship of EPSs. Furthermore, the applications of EPSs in the food industry, especially the different roles EPSs played in the yogurt texture, are discussed carefully in this review. Finally, some strategies of EPSs production are also proposed to provide some information about the enhancement of EPSs yield.Graphical abstractImage 10167
       
  • Rheological characterization of a pectin extracted from ponkan (Citrus
           reticulata blanco cv. ponkan) peel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Cristiane Colodel, Lucia Cristina Vriesmann, Carmen Lucia de Oliveira PetkowiczThe rheological properties of the optimized high-methoxyl pectin (PPOP), obtained from ponkan peel using nitric acid extraction (pH 1.6, 100 min, 36 ml/g liquid:solid ratio) were characterized. The flow behavior of aqueous and 0.1 M NaCl solutions at concentrations of 1%, 3% and 5% (w/w) was evaluated. The apparent viscosity of the solutions was directly related to the concentration. At the same concentrations and low shear rates the apparent viscosity values were close to those of a commercial citrus pectin. However, at higher shear rates, PPOP had a more shear thinning behavior. For both pectins, the presence of 0.1 M NaCl did not affect the apparent viscosity. The influence of pH, pectin and sucrose concentration on the gelling behavior of PPOP was investigated. Gelation occurred at pH 
       
  • Structure and functional properties of waxy starches
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Chao-Feng Hsieh, Weichang Liu, Judith K. Whaley, Yong-Cheng ShiA comprehensive study was conducted to elucidate structural and functional properties of waxy starches. The specific objectives were to examine the relationship between gelatinization/pasting properties and morphology of starch cooks, determine how the retrogradation properties are affected by chain-length distribution, and use a novel sensory approach to assess freeze-thaw stability of starch pastes. Waxy potato starch had a greater degree of granule swelling, higher paste viscosities, and better paste clarity than waxy starches from maize, wheat, rice, and tapioca. Waxy starches typically had greater paste viscosities than their normal counterparts, but the exception was potato starches. Waxy potato starch, which had no amylose, had lower paste viscosity than normal potato starch. Both waxy rice and waxy tapioca starches had less retrogradation tendency, which was closely related to the higher proportion of chains with DP 6–11 and the lower proportion of chains with DP 12–24. The sensory evaluation in this study allowed for an easier assessment of water separation as compared to the conventional centrifuge methods. Waxy maize and waxy potato starches had noticeable water separation from the paste after 1–2 freeze-thaw cycles, whereas both waxy rice and waxy tapioca starches could survive 6 freeze-thaw cycles without apparent syneresis. Waxy wheat, waxy rice and waxy tapioca starches are potential starting materials from which clean-label functional starches may be produced.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Physical modification of potato starch using mild heating and freezing
           with minor addition of gums
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Chen Zhang, Seung-Taik Lim, Hyun-Jung ChungAn aqueous dispersion of potato starch with or without gums (0.3%, based on starch, total solids was 40%) was subjected to mild heating and cooling (HC, 1 h at onset gelatinization temperature, and 12 h at 4 °C), freezing and thawing (FT, 12 h at −20 °C for 12 h, and 1 h at 25 °C), and a combination of both treatments (HCFT) for physical modification of the starch. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the FT disrupted the structure of starch granules, whereas the HCFT left the granules intact. The HC caused leaching of soluble starch chains, which induced the formation of outer layers on the surface of starch granules. The minor addition of various gums (xanthan gum, carboxymethyl cellulose, gum arabic, and guar gum) facilitated the formation of the outer layers, possibly through the interaction with soluble starch. Such starch–gum composite layers remained tightly attached to the granule surface, increasing the shear stability of the starch during pasting and thereby the final viscosity (up to ∼ 4500 mPa s form ∼2900). Moreover, the HCFT treatment accelerated the gelling of starch, with improvements in gel texture and freeze–thaw stability.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The effect of pH and high-pressure processing (HPP) on the rheological
           properties of egg white albumin and basil seed gum mixtures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Saeed Mirarab Razi, Ali Motamedzadegan, Lara Matia-Merino, Seyed-Ahmad Shahidi, Ali RashidinejadIn this study, the effect of two different pH’s (5.0 and 7.0) and three different levels of high-pressure processing (HPP; 0, 200, and 400 MPa) on the rheological properties of the mixture solutions of egg white albumin (4% w/v EWA) and basil seed gum (0.3% w/v BSG) was investigated. A shear thinning behavior was observed in all of the EWA-BSG mixtures. Herschel-Bulkley and Carreau were selected as the best models for describing the flow behavior data in the mixtures made at pH 7.0 and 5.0, respectively. All of the viscoelastic parameters (i.e. G′LVE, G″LVE, tan (δ)LVE, and τf) indicated a stronger structure at the highest pressure (400 MPa) and the lower pH (5.0). The value of material stiff parameters (Aα) indicated that pH 5.0 resulted in a higher amount of molecular binding between EWA and BSG. Relaxation function (α) decreased with increase in pressure level, meaning that a greater degree of the possible interactions happened at the higher pressure. None of the EWA-BSG solutions followed Cox-Merz rule. The temperature of reinforcement of the gel network (Tr) in the EWA-BSG mixtures decreased from ~66 °C at pH 7.0 to ~55 °C at pH 5.0, and the storage modulus of the mixtures varied depending on the pH. The highest complex viscosity (after heating step) belonged to the sample prepared at pH 5.0 and treated with 400 MPa. Overall, it was found that HPP, alone or combined with pH treatment, could improve the structure of the egg white albumin and basil seed gum mixtures.Graphical abstractImage 10277
       
  • Enhanced stability, structural characterization and simulated
           gastrointestinal digestion of coenzyme Q10 loaded ternary nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Yang Wei, Liang Zhang, Zhongping Yu, Kangsen Lin, Shufang Yang, Lei Dai, Jingfang Liu, Like Mao, Fang Yuan, Yanxiang GaoCoenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential enogenous antioxidant existing in almost all of human somatic cells. However, the self-synthetic ability of CoQ10 is reducing with age until it fails to meet the physiological need. In present study, zein-propylene glycol alginate (PGA)-rhamnolipid (Rha) ternary composite nanoparticles were fabricated using the emulsification-evaporation co-precipitation method for the delivery of CoQ10. The results showed that the addition of rhamnolipid improved the encapsulation efficiency, physicochemical stability and bioaccessibility of CoQ10. Fluorescence spectrum and circular dichroism analyses revealed that the incorporation of CoQ10 and rhamnolipid changed the micro-environment of hydrophobic residues and secondary structure of the protein. Hydrophobic effects, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding were involved in the self-assembly of CoQ10 loaded ternary composite nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction patterns manifested that the nature of CoQ10 encapsulated was amorphous. Atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) demonstrated an spherical shape of composite nanoparticles with a diameter from 82.7 nm to 344.2 nm. Besides, observations of the composite nanoparticles after gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with FE-SEM predicted the potential of ternary composite nanoparticles as a promising vehicle of CoQ10 to be enriched in functional foods.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Time-dependent evolution of properties of fish gelatin edible films
           enriched with carvacrol during storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Laura M. Neira, Josefa F. Martucci, Nadia Stejskal, Roxana A. RuseckaiteThe temporal stability of the physicochemical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of fish gelatin (FG) films plasticized by glycerol (20% w/w) and supplemented with carvacrol (CRV) obtained by casting and stored at 65% RH and 25 °C, was investigated over 15 days. The level of CRV incorporated into FG film was determined from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against E. coli and S. aureus. The incorporation of 0.6% w/v CRV reduced the moisture content (MC), and water vapor permeability (WVP) while kept invariable the tensile and light barrier properties, compared to the control. Additionally, CRV increased the in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant effectiveness of films. Upon storage, the sustained loss of moisture and glycerol provoked the drop of MC and WVP values of both films. Control film became stiffer and less stretchable while the active film remained mechanically time-stable. Such difference was ascribed to the increased contribution of triple helical structures in the control, as revealed by ATR-FTIR and XRD. Antibacterial effectiveness (based on disc diffusion assay) decayed from 3.1 ± 0.1 and 2.7 ± 0.3 cm for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, to undetectable levels for both pathogens. Antioxidant power in terms of radical scavenging activity (RSA) declined to about 1.96% of the initial value, in line with the decline of CRV level up to 13% of its initial concentration. Overall this study proves the significance of assessing the stability of the properties of edible films before proposing any technical application.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Characterization of the properties of amphiphilic, alkaline soluble
           polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Chao Ai, Xiaoming Guo, Jiawei Lin, Tao Zhang, Hecheng MengThis work characterized the physicochemical properties of two carbohydrate fractions, ASP1 and ASP2, that were sequentially extracted using NaOH and then NaOH/H2O2 from the pulp remained from the extraction of sugar beet pectin (SBP). It has been shown that ASP1 and ASP2 differed from SBP in terms of chemical and macromolecular features. The ability of the ASPs to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions containing 10% w/w oil was compared using SBP and gum arabic (GA) as reference emulsifiers. The volume weighted droplet size (d4,3 value) decreased as the concentration of SBP, ASP1, ASP2 and GA, increased in series 1.25, 1.5, 1.5, and 9% w/w and after which it remained constant except for ASP2 where the d4,3 increased at concentrations above 2.5%. At concentrations of 1.25, 1.5, 1.5, and 9% of SBP, ASP1, ASP2 and GA, critical d4,3 values of 0.55, 0.52, 2.14 and 0.55 μm were obtained, and droplet size for ASP2 was about 4 times greater compared with the other polysaccharides. The effects of pH (2–5) and ionic strength (Na+ or Ca2+, 0–100 mM) on the emulsifying activity at the critical concentration of the polysaccharide were studied. Emulsions stabilized by either ASP1 or 2 were unstable in the presence of Ca2+ due to the occurrence of bridge flocculation between oil droplets. It is concluded that ASP1 and ASP2 possess relatively inferior emulsification properties and, thus, are potential emulsifiers for use in low-calcium systems.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Plasma technology as a tool to decrease the sensitivity to water of fish
           protein films for food packaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Viviane Patrícia Romani, Bradley Olsen, Magno Pinto Collares, Juan Rodrigo Meireles Oliveira, Carlos Prentice, Vilásia Guimarães MartinsProteins films have been developed for use in food packaging materials in order to replace synthetic polymers because of environment pollution. Despite their advantages, the use of protein films in a wide range of food products is still limited due to their hydrophilic behavior. Thus, this study aimed to decrease the sensitivity of fish protein films to water through the application of glow discharge plasma. Plasma parameters (power, pressure and time of exposure) were studied according to a 23 factorial design, and the physicochemical properties of the films including moisture content, water vapor permeability, and solubility in water were evaluated. The microstructure and thermal properties of the films were also characterized. In general, glow discharge plasma caused different effects in films properties, such as cleaning and etching which were responsible for the changes observed in physicochemical properties. Power and time of exposure, as well as their interaction, were the most influent parameters. Decrease in water vapor permeability and solubility were observed in some treatments, which are important characteristics for a material to be used as food packaging. Then, the plasma setting might be changed through the adjustment of parameters of exposure according to the specificity of the application intended.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Multiple steps and critical behaviors of the binding of tannic acid to
           wheat starch: Effect of the concentration of wheat starch and the mass
           ratio of tannic acid to wheat starch
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Xianling Wei, Jing Li, Bin LiThe objective of this study was to investigate the effect of concentration of wheat starch (WS) and mass ratio of tannic acid (TA) to WS on interaction between TA and WS, using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), UV–vis spectrophotometer and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The interaction process and structural properties of complexes formed with different mass ratios of TA to WS ranged from 0.8 to 2.4 were also investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and rheological measurements. The results of turbidity, particle size and ITC revealed that TA added into WS could spontaneously form complexes through three steps with the increasing of TA/WS ratio. They were assigned to (i) interaction of TA with WS forming soluble complexes; (ii) propagation and formation of insoluble complexes via cross-linking these soluble complexes; and (iii) lateral association of soluble/insoluble complexes, generating larger aggregates even precipitation. The interaction process would be delayed with decreasing the WS concentration. The results of SEM further revealed the three-step interaction process and showed that the TA/WS complexes appearance was approximately spherical. The results of dynamic rheological, TA loading amount and XPS showed that the complexes had highly intermolecular cross-linked gel-like network structures and contained lower TA inside and higher TA outside.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Emulsion filled polysaccharide gels: Filler particle effects on material
           properties, oral processing, and sensory texture
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Hicran Koç, MaryAnne Drake, Christopher J. Vinyard, Gregory Essick, Fred van de Velde, E. Allen FoegedingAddition of filler particles is a common approach to alter food structure and thereby change sensory properties. The goal of this investigation was to determine how filler particles alter oral processing patterns and sensory texture perception of two model food gels with distinct mechanical properties. Agar gels (brittle) and κ-carrageenan-locust bean gum gels (ductile) were formulated to have similar strength (fracture stress) but different deformability (fracture strain). Increasing the phase volume of oil droplets decreased fracture stress and stress intensity factor of both filled gels, while the main effect on fracture strain and fracture surface energy was observed for the highly deformable κ-carrageenan-locust bean. Adding oil had general effects of decreasing sensory hardness and particle size and increasing the rate of breakdown. Furthermore, agar gel texture was more sensitive to adding oil, with changes observed in several textural properties of agar gels with no corresponding change in κ-carrageenan-locust bean gels. Adding oil did not change the oral processing pattern based on distance and velocity of jaw movement, along with temporal aspects of each chewing cycle. However, jaw velocity and movement were adjusted for differences in gel type. κ-carrageenan-locust bean gels generally required more muscle activity to prepare for swallowing, and increasing oil content decreased overall muscle activity for both gels. These results imply that gel structure, rather than the amount of oil filler, determined the oral processing pattern.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Behaviors of starches evaluated at high heating temperatures using a new
           model of Rapid Visco Analyzer ‒ RVA 4800
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Siyuan Liu, Tommy Z. Yuan, Xinya Wang, Michael Reimer, Carly Isaak, Yongfeng AiRapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) is a reliable viscometer that is commonly utilized to measure the pasting properties of starch. The conventional model of RVA can only determine starch pasting properties at heating temperatures up to 95 °C, which thus cannot evaluate the performance of starch related to high-temperature processing, such as retorting, jet-cooking and extrusion. In this study, RVA 4800 ‒ the latest model of the viscometer having high-temperature capability ‒ was deployed to determine the pasting properties of representative waxy, normal and high-amylose starches of 1.8–69.7% amylose contents at heating temperatures of 95–140 °C. As the temperatures increased from 95 to 140 °C, the pasting temperatures and peak viscosities of most waxy and normal starches remained unchanged, but their holding strengths and final viscosities decreased, which could be attributed to thixotropic breakdown and thermal degradation of starch molecules. Consequently, the paste adhesiveness or gel hardness of most waxy and normal starches was reduced at higher temperatures. By contrast, heating at temperatures above 120 °C completely gelatinized wrinkled pea and high-amylose maize starches, allowing the starch granules to swell for viscosity development and subsequent gel formation. Matrix structures of the freeze-dried starch pastes and gels were observed under scanning electron microscope to elucidate how the changes at granular and molecular levels at the tested cooking temperatures influenced the pasting and gelling properties of different starches. This research offered new insights into the relationships between the thermal properties, pasting properties and gelling ability of various starches at heating temperatures of 95–140 °C by using RVA 4800.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of pigskin-originated gelatin on properties of wheat flour dough
           and bread
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Wenjie Yu, Dan Xu, Dandan Li, Lunan Guo, Xueqian Su, Yao Zhang, Fengfeng Wu, Xueming XuEffect of pigskin-originated gelatin on dough properties and bread characteristics, especially on bread staling was investigated in terms of starch retrogradation and water migration in the present study. Results showed that gelatin significantly improved bread qualities during storage. Compared with the control, 7-day staling rate of bread containing 0.5% and 1.0% gelatin decreased by 6.56% and 20.83% respectively, indicating gelatin retarded the staling process of bread. This retardation effect was related to starch retrogradation and water migration. The relative crystallinity decreased from 15.12%, 11.60%–10.75%, which demonstrated the alleviation effect of amylopectin crystallization. Bread samples containing 1.0% gelatin had the lowest retrogradation enthalpy of 2.93 ± 0.24 J/g followed by 0.5% gelatin bread and the control group, further indicating that gelatin may induce less water available to form crystal lattice and restrict the migration of starch molecules. The 5-day moisture loss rate for the control group was highest with the values of 12.39%, which was 1.43% and 1.83% higher than that of bread with 0.5% gelatin and 1.0% gelatin, respectively. Water activity and T2 relaxation results provided the information that gelatin inhibited water migration upon storage and gelatin interacted with bread components. However, the effect of gelatin on improving bread quality and retarding staling could not be reflected by the dough properties measured through farinograph, extensograph and rheometer. This study suggested gelatin from pigskin had great potential to be served as an effective bread improver.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Sweetness perception in protein-polysaccharide beverages is not explained
           by viscosity or critical overlap concentration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Ty B. Wagoner, Esra Çakır-Fuller, MaryAnne Drake, E. Allen FoegedingIt is generally reported that in random coil polysaccharide solutions, increasing polymer concentration above the critical overlap concentration (c*) results in decreased taste perception due to a high degree of polymer entanglement and resultant poor mixing efficiency with saliva in the mouth. However, these reports are commonly based on aqueous solutions of polymers and it is unknown if this phenomenon applies to more complex fluids containing protein and fat, or if taste suppression can be explained on the basis of an altered temporal profile of taste. In this study, the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) concentration (0.15–1.50% w/w) on sensory texture and sweet taste perception (6.0% w/w sucrose) were evaluated. Zero-shear viscosity of CMC solutions ranged from 5.5 to 133 mPa s, and c* was experimentally determined to be 0.67% w/w. Three concentrations above c* were tested and only the highest (1.5% CMC) caused a significant (p 
       
  • Impact of pectin-rich orange fibre on gel characteristics and sensory
           properties in lactic acid fermented yoghurt
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Kenneth Kieserling, Tuyet M. Vu, Stephan Drusch, Sebastian SchalowDietary fibre yields an additional benefit in terms of nutritional value, but may variously alter techno-functional and sensory properties in fibre-enriched foods. This study aims to investigate the impact of pectin-rich orange fibre on rheological, sensory and tribological properties of yoghurt gels. Specifically, the effect of the fibre particle size (coarse and fine) and fibre concentration (0.1 and 1.0%) is evaluated. Both coarse and fine fibre accelerate structure formation during lactic acid fermentation. At low concentration fibre-enriched yoghurts exhibit rheological properties similar to the plain yoghurt and syneresis is decreased. At high concentration coarse fibre considerably reduces gel firmness whereas fine fibre additionally stabilises the casein network as a filler. This effect might be favoured by pectin, leached from orange fibre during mechanical and thermal pre-treatment and supporting the bridging of casein micelles due to its calcium sensitivity. Depending on the intensity of deformation in oscillatory rheology, fibre-enriched yoghurts show strong or weak gel properties. Fibre addition causes alterations in sensory perception. A slight decrease in overall acceptance compared to the plain yoghurt is mainly related to a more compact texture and an increased particulate mouthfeel. Tribological data reveal that increased friction is mainly related to a reduced ability of coarse fibre yoghurt to immobilise water at high strain and that the protein (casein) network dominates lubrication properties in plain yoghurt.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Microstructure of indica and japonica rice influences their starch
           digestibility: A study using a human digestion simulator
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Jorge Tiago Schwanz Goebel, Lovedeep Kaur, Rosana Colussi, Moacir Cardoso Elias, Jaspreet SinghThe aim of this study was to monitor the release of glucose and structural changes in Brazilian indica and Thai japonica rice during digestion in a human digestion simulator capable of simulating both mechanical and chemical food digestion. Chemical composition, cooking time, hardness, thermal properties and morphology of the grains were also investigated. The oral and gastro-small intestinal digestion led to the creation of open structures in the cooked rice endosperm due to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes and subsequent leaching of digested components. Indica cooked rice maintained its compact microstructure until the mid-small intestinal digestion phase, which agrees well with its slower starch hydrolysis. However, both types of rice had similar starch hydrolysis (%) at the end of the digestion period. Higher levels of amylose-lipid complexation and protein content in indica rice may have played a role in slowing down the release of glucose during digestion. The slower release of glucose during digestion of indica rice may reflect prolongation of satiety or the feeling of fullness after its consumption.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effects of soy proteins and hydrolysates on fat globule coalescence and
           meltdown properties of ice cream
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Wenpu Chen, Guijiang Liang, Xiang Li, Zhiyong He, Maomao Zen, Daming Gao, Fang Qin, H. Douglas Goff, Jie ChenThe effect of soy protein isolate and its hydrolysates on ice cream mix stability and melt-down properties of ice cream were investigated. Ice creams were made with 10% milk fat, 3.5% protein and 34.3% total solids, and all contained 0.15% added monoglycerides. The proteins used were native soy protein isolate (NSPI), commercial soy proteins isolate (CSPI), soy protein hydrolyzed by pepsin (SPHPe), soy protein hydrolyzed by papain (SPHPa) and skim milk powder (SMP). Ice cream with SPHPe containing the highest relative composition of β-subunit showed good mix emulsion stability and rapid melting rate because β-subunit cannot be displaced by the monoglycerides, leading to lack of fat partial coalescence in the ice cream. SPHPa ice cream exhibited comparable functionality to SMP in rheological and meltdown properties. SDS-PAGE results indicated that α subunit, α′ subunit, acidic subunit, basic subunit and small molecule polypeptide were displaced by monoglycerides during ice cream aging. Selective hydrolysis of soy protein can be used for ice cream with sufficient fat partial coalescence and good melt-down rates.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Encapsulation of curcumin in zein/ caseinate/sodium alginate nanoparticles
           with improved physicochemical and controlled release properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Qingguan Liu, Yuequn Jing, Cuiping Han, Han Zhang, Yumeng TianCurcumin-loaded zein nanoparticles that have a stabilized dual coating shell structure in combination with sodium caseinate (SC) and sodium alginate (SA) were fabricated and characterized. The mass ratio of each component, including the zein final concentration, the mass ratio of zein to SC, and the mass ratio of SC to SA influence the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles. The fluorescence spectrum confirmed that curcumin was encapsulated in the composite nanoparticles with an increase in the mass ratio of curcumin to zein, and the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin decreased. When coated with SA, there was a significantly improved encapsulation efficiency. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface hydrophobicity measurements indicated that hydrophilic SC and SA adsorbed on the surface of curcumin-loaded zein nanoparticles via electrostatic interactions to improve their water solubility. Encapsulation of curcumin in the composite nanoparticles not only significantly improved the photochemical stability and made it more effective in scavenging the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH●) compared with vitamin C but also provided controlled release under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Therefore, SC-SA-stabilized zein nanoparticles are effective for improving the water solubility, photochemical stability and antioxidant activity of curcumin, and the prepared composite nanoparticles are expected to be used as a delivery carrier for chemically unstable hydrophobic active compounds in food and pharmaceutical industries.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Structural characterization and conformational properties of a
           polysaccharide isolated from Dendrobium nobile Lindl.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Yi Zhang, Hongxin Wang, Qingbin Guo, Junqiao Wang, Steve W. CuiA water-soluble polysaccharide (JCP-40) from Dendrobium nobile Lindl. was extracted and purified. It was demonstrated as a single symmetrical peak based on HPSEC analysis and had an average molecular weight of 67.5 kDa. Combined with monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation analysis, 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy, the structural features of JCP-40 was proposed as follows: the major sugar residues of JCP-40 consisted of →4)-β-ᴅ-Manp-(1→ and →4)-β-ᴅ-Glcp-(1 → . Acetyl groups were found attached to the O-2 or O-3 positions on mannosyl residues based on NMR spectrum results. Rotational isomeric state (RIS)-Metropolis Monte Carlo method indicated that repeating unit increased from 30 to 120, the influence of Mw in this range affected chain flexibility. The conformational parameters (derived from Rg vs Mw and [η] vs Mw) from HPSEC suggested a random coil conformation for JCP-40.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Dispersion Characteristics of Pregelatinized Waxy Rice Starch and its
           Performance as an Emulsifier for Oil-in-Water Emulsions: Effect of
           Gelatinization Temperature and Starch Concentration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Yulianingsih Rini, Gohtani ShoichiThe dispersion characteristics and the emulsifier performance of pregelatinized waxy rice starch gelatinized at different temperatures (65, 75, and 85°C abbreviated as PWRS 65, 75, and 85, respectively) and various concentrations (3, 5, 7, and 9 wt%) were studied. The varying degree of gelatinization resulted in different characteristics for both PWRS dispersions and emulsions. The rheological parameters of the PWRS 65 dispersion and emulsions were strongly affected by concentration; the yield stress, consistency coefficient, pseudoplasticity, and apparent viscosity increased with an increase in PWRS 65 concentration. The remaining granules resulting from an incomplete gelatinization process were able to prevent creaming at PWRS 65 concentrations of more than 5 wt% but were unable to protect against oil droplet coalescence. Consequently, a change in droplet size distribution occurred in the emulsions with PWRS 65, even at high concentrations. The higher gelatinization temperature generates a higher density polymer network, created by expanded starch during gelatinization, in the dispersion. Gelatinization at 75 and 85°C produced a dispersion structure that was sensitive to shear stress and generated shear-thinning behavior in the emulsions with unnoticed yield stress. The better ability of PWRS in maintaining droplet size resulting from a higher temperature indicates the melted starch polymer during gelatinization provides better protection against droplet coalescence than the starch polymer in a crystalline state. PWRS 85 can be considered for further development as a food grade emulsifier because it can produce a stable emulsion.Graphical abstractImage 1033
       
  • Physicochemical and rheological properties of cross-linked inulin with
           different degree of polymerization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Yao Li, Xiaohan Ma, Xiong LiuLong-chain inulin (L-In) and short-chain inulin (S-In) from native inulin was separated through the method of alcohol precipitation. Cross-linked inulin with two different degree of polymerization (average DP = 6.88 and 15.10) were prepared in aqueous solutions by using the L-In and S-In respectively as raw material and sodium hexametaphosphate as cross-linker. Structural characteristics of cross-linked inulin were determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Compared with native L-In and S-In, cross-linked inulin had a higher intrinsic viscosity, stronger stability and moisture absorption capability, but lower water solubility. Only 1% reducing sugar produced when cross-linked inulin was heated within 100 °C, and inulin hydrolysis occurred in acidic environment (pH 
       
  • Impact of wheat bran dietary fiber on gluten and gluten-starch
           microstructure formation in dough
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Wen Han, Sen Ma, Li Li, Xueling Zheng, Xiaoxi WangVisualization of the gluten network microstructure of dough is crucial to gain knowledge about the interactions of its various ingredients. In this study, various techniques, including mainly microscopy imaging, were applied to examine the effect of wheat bran dietary fiber (WBDF) on gluten (G) and gluten-starch (G+S) microstructure. The results revealed that doughs containing WBDF particles have a looser gluten structure and a larger number of large gas cells. This should be attributed to the thinning and breakage of protein fibrils caused by the WBDF, which lead to premature rupture of gas cells. In addition, light microscopy micrographs clearly showed that the WBDF particles settled around the gas cells and created a physical barrier, which might impose restrictions on gas cell expansion during proofing. These findings indicated impairment of the dough structure upon addition of the WBDF, implying the possible deterioration of the quality of wheat bran-fortified products.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Preparation of modified whey protein isolate with gum acacia by ultrasound
           maillard reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Weijun Chen, Xiaobin Ma, Wenjun Wang, Ruiling Lv, Mingming Guo, Tian Ding, Xingqian Ye, Song Miao, Donghong LiuEffect of ultrasound treatment on whey protein isolate (WPI)-gum Acacia (GA) conjugation via Maillard reaction was investigated. And the physicochemical properties of the conjugates obtained by ultrasound treatment were compared with those obtained by classical heating. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high-performance size exclusion chromatography and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided evidence on the formation of the Maillard type conjugation. Compared with classical heating, ultrasound treatment could accelerate the glycation reaction between WPI and GA. A degree of graft of 11.20% was reached by classical heating for 48 h, whereas only 20 min was required by ultrasound treatment. Structural analyses suggested that the conjugates obtained by ultrasound treatment had less α-helix content, higher surface hydrophobicity and fluorescence intensity than those obtained by classical heating. Significantly lower level of browning intensity and significantly higher (p 
       
  • Fast preparation of rhamnogalacturonan I enriched low molecular weight
           pectic polysaccharide by ultrasonically accelerated metal-free Fenton
           reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2018Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Junhui Li, Shan Li, Yangfan Zheng, Hua Zhang, Jianle Chen, Lufeng Yan, Tian Ding, Robert J. Linhardt, Caroline Orfila, Donghong Liu, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo ChenThe recovery of pectic polysaccharides with high rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) branches from citrus canning processing water was achieved in a previous study aimed at reducing chemical oxygen demand and benefiting both process economics and the environment. However, the large molecular size and poor in vivo bioavailability of these polysaccharides limit the application of these pectic polysaccharides in functional foods. We report the development of an ultrafast and green approach to depolymerize pectic polysaccharides using an ultrasound-accelerated metal-free Fenton chemistry, relying on H2O2/ascorbic acid. The results show that ultrasound enhances the efficiency of H2O2/ascorbic acid system to degrade pectin into 7.9 kDa pectic fragments within 30 min through both chemical effects (increasing the amount of hydroxyl radicals and lowering activation energy of H2O2 decomposition) and mechanical effects (disaggregating polysaccharide clusters). The backbones of the resulting fragments mainly correspond to RG-I patterns (molar ratio galacturonic acid (GalA): rhamnose (Rha) ∼ 1.06:1) with a high degree of rhamnose branching. Free radicals preferentially act on the GalA backbone in the HG region and maintain the RG-I region. Antitumor activities, assessed using human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), suggest that the resulting fragments significantly inhibit cancer cell growth and that activity increases with decreasing molecular weight. The resulting ultralow molecular weight pectic fragments have potential application for the development of functional foods and antitumor drugs.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Preparation and characterization of pectin/chitosan beads containing
           porous starch embedded with doxorubicin hydrochloride: A novel and simple
           colon targeted drug delivery system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Jianzhong Zhu, Li Zhong, Wenxue Chen, Yizhe Song, Zhengming Qian, Xianying Cao, Qiang Huang, Bin Zhang, Haiming Chen, Weijun ChenThe objective of this study was to design a simple, colon targeted drug delivery system by using porous starch (PS), pectin and chitosan. Porous maize starch was prepared by hydrolysis with a combination of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase, and it was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, revealing the formation of porous structures in the starch granules. A Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis indicated that the specific surface area of the PS (0.8768–0.9448 m2/g) was 19.88–21.42 times larger than that of native maize starch (0.0441 m2/g). The average pore diameter of the PS granules, as calculated by the Barrett-Joiner-Halenda (BJH) method, was 40.52–62.42 nm. A favorable adsorptive potential of the PS granules was verified by water and soybean oil tests. Doxorubicin was loaded into PS granules, which were then coated with a pectin/chitosan complex solution. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrated that doxorubicin was successfully absorbed into the PS granules. In addition, an in vitro simulated digestion method demonstrated the effectiveness of this delivery design, as only a 13.80% release rate of doxorubicin was observed in the upper gastrointestinal tract, whereas release rates of 17.56% and 67.04% were observed for pectin/PS/doxorubicin and pectin/doxorubicin beads, respectively. It was concluded that the use of PS and a pectin/chitosan coating is an effective method for colon targeted drug delivery compared with the simple polysaccharide system.Graphical abstractImage
       
  • Physicochemical properties and conformations of water-soluble peach gums
           via different preparation methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Chaoyang Wei, Yu Zhang, Hua Zhang, Junhui Li, Wenyang Tao, Robert J. Linhardt, Shiguo Chen, Xingqian YePhysicochemical properties and conformations of WEPG (water extracted peach gum), AEPG2.0 (alkali extracted peach gum, 2 M NaOH) and HPPG8 (H2O2 extracted peach gum, 8 h), prepared from the gum of Prunus persica Batsch, were investigated. The yields of WEPG, AEPG2.0 and HPPG8 were 77.25%, 82.60% and 83.34%, respectively. All of the three peach gums were arabinogalactan-type polysaccharides with similar chemical composition. Conformational analysis revealed that WEPG, AEPG2.0 and HPPG8 were macromolecules with compacted coil structures and their molecular weights of 1.34 × 107 g/mol, 1.64 × 107 g/mol and 5.17 × 106 g/mol, respectively. Rheological test showed that WEPG, AEPG2.0 and HPPG8 exhibited non-Newtonian behavior, and their apparent viscosities followed the order of AEPG2.0 > WEPG > HPPG8. Results also indicated that all of the three peach gums significantly (P 
       
  • Rheological and physical properties of O/W protein emulsions stabilized by
           isoelectric solubilization/precipitation isolated protein: The underlying
           effects of varying protein concentrations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): Xue Zhao, Tao Wu, Tong Xing, Xing-lian Xu, Guanghong ZhouTo better understand the potential of using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP)-isolated protein on emulsion-type meat products, the influences of protein concentration on the physical and rheological properties of protein emulsions were investigated. An oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion containing 20% soybean oil was stabilized by pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like muscle protein (CON) and ISP-isolated PSE-like muscle protein (ISP) at the concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/ml. Morphologically, the ISP-isolated protein demonstrated better emulsion capacity compared to the CON group, which formed uniform, long-lasting emulsions and dispersed smaller emulsified oil droplets. The apparent viscosity of all emulsion samples was fitted well by the Ostwald-de-Waele model (R2 > 0.9). All emulsions exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviors with the fitting parameters being highly dependent on both protein type and concentration. In the frequency sweep, all emulsion systems were classified as a “strong gel” because G’’>> G’, especially when concentrations were 100 or 150 mg/ml. Based on a temperature sweep oscillatory curve, the heat-induced gelation behaviors of PSE-like protein emulsions were modified by ISP processing. In addition, the elasticity of the final emulsion gel was higher in the ISP group when compared to the CON group. The thermal gelling properties of ISP-isolated protein emulsions appeared to be impaired when the concentrations reached 150 mg/ml. It was concluded that ISP processing could effectively improve the emulsion properties of PSE-like meat protein.Graphical abstractImage
       
 
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