Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 387 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (15 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (99 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access  
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Technology, Siam University     Open Access  
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Travel     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Food Control
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.502
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0956-7135 - ISSN (Online) 0956-7135
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • A 2-D imaging-assisted geometrical transformation method for
           non-destructive evaluation of the volume and surface area of avian eggs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Valeriy G. Narushin, Gang Lu, James Cugley, Michael N. Romanov, Darren K. GriffinAbstractEgg volume and surface area are reliable predictors of quality traits for both table and hatching chicken eggs. A new non-destructive technique for the fast and accurate evaluation of these two egg variables is addressed in the present study. The proposed method is based on the geometrical transformation of actual egg contour into a well-known geometrical figure which shape most of all resembles the examined egg. The volume and surface area of an examined egg were recomputed using the formulae appropriate for three figures including sphere, ellipsoid, and egg-shape ovoid. The method of the geometrical transformation includes the measurements of the egg length and the area of the examined eggs. These variables were determined using two-dimensional (2-D) digital imaging and image processing techniques. The geometrical transformation approach is proven to be reliable to turn the studied chicken eggs into the three chosen ovoid models, with the best prediction being shown for the ellipsoid and egg-shape ovoid, whilst the former was slightly more preferable. Depending on the avian species studied, we hypothesise that it would be more suitable to use the sphere model for more round shaped eggs and the egg-shaped ovoid model if the examined eggs are more conical. The choice of the proposed transformation technique would be applicable not only for the needs of poultry industry but also in ornithological, basically zoological studies when handling the varieties of eggs of different shapes. The experimental results show that the method proposed is accurate, reliable, robust and fast when coupled and assisted with the digital imaging and image processing techniques, and can serve as a basis for developing an appropriate instrumental technology and bringing it into the practice of poultry enterprises and hatcheries.
       
  • Dietary exposure and health risk characterization of aflatoxin B1,
           ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone in food from different
           provinces in Northern Vietnam
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Tuan Huu Do, Son Cao Tran, Chi Dinh Le, Binh Thi Ha Nguyen, Thao Thi Phuong Le, Hao Thi Hong Le, Tuyen Danh Le, Thu Hung Thai-NguyenAbstractA dietary exposure and health risk assessment of mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone was conducted in 3 provinces in Northern Vietnam namely Hanoi, Thanh Hoa, and Ha Giang. Results of the analysis of samples of maize, rice, peanut, and sesame revealed the presence of these mycotoxins in all samples and sampling locations. Aflatoxin B1 was the most frequently detected (19.1%) and widely distributed among different types of samples, whereas the percentage occurrence of fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone were 11.2, 5.9 and 6.3, respectively. The later three mycotoxins were detected mostly in maize. The exposure to aflatoxin B1 at detected levels could lead to 0.23, 0.65 and 21.0 cases of liver cancer per 100,000 adult people per year in Hanoi, Thanh Hoa and Ha Giang, respectively. The risk assessment also showed the unsafe exposure to ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 in the highland region where the people consume a large amount of foods derived from maize. In Ha Giang, the mean exposures to fumonisin B1 were lower than its PMTDI (Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake), however, the 95th percentile values were 1.1–1.9 times of the PMTDI. The mean exposures to ochratoxin A in Ha Giang were about 2.4–3.6 times higher than its PMTWI (Provisional Maximum Tolerable Weekly Intake). There was no risk of fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A in Hanoi and Thanh Hoa. The dietary exposure to zearalenone was within its PMTDI in all locations. The results pointed out the need for further improvement of the control of these mycotoxins in Vietnam, especially in some highland provinces.
       
  • Exploring the potential of NIR hyperspectral imaging for automated
           quantification of rind amount in grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 112Author(s): R. Calvini, S. Michelini, V. Pizzamiglio, G. Foca, A. UlriciAbstractParmigiano Reggiano (P-R) is one of the most important Italian food products labelled with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). The PDO denomination is applied also to grated P-R cheese products meeting the requirements regulated by the Specifications of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese. Different quality parameters are monitored, including the percentage of rind, which is edible and should not exceed the limit of 18% (w/w). The present study aims at evaluating the possibility of using near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) to quantify the rind percentage in grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese samples in a fast and non-destructive manner. Indeed, NIR-HSI allows the simultaneous acquisition of both spatial and spectral information from a sample, which is more suitable than classical single-point spectroscopy for the analysis of heterogeneous samples like grated cheese. Hyperspectral images of grated P-R cheese samples containing increasing levels of rind were acquired in the 900–1700 nm spectral range. Each hyperspectral image was firstly converted into a one-dimensional signal, named hyperspectrogram, which codifies the relevant information contained in the image. Then, the matrix of hyperspectrograms was used to calculate a calibration model for the prediction of the rind percentage using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. The calibration model was validated considering two external test sets of samples, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
       
  • Advances in antimicrobial peptides-based biosensing methods for detection
           of foodborne pathogens: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Zhaohui Qiao, Yingchun Fu, Chunyang Lei, Yanbin LiAbstractFoodborne diseases caused by pathogens are great threats to human health. Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens at an early stage is imperative for preventing the outbreak of diseases. The identification and detection of foodborne pathogens by biosensors have attracted great attention due to their high sensitivity, nearly real-time quantification without enrichment and the possibility of on-site detection with easy-to-use format. As a promising alternative recognition element of biosensors, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with high stability and low cost have been widely studied in the detection of bacteria. In this review, we retrospect the advances on AMPs-based detection methods for foodborne pathogens including electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric methods as well as their integrations with nanomaterials. Considering the important roles of AMPs affinity in detection, the factors influencing AMPs affinity are introduced before the review of various AMPs-based methods. In addition, as a new promising technology, the microfluidics has been integrated with AMPs-based methods to detect foodborne pathogens. Finally, future perspectives and challenges in developing reliable and sensitive AMPs-based platforms are discussed.
       
  • Effect of partial replacement of polyphosphate with alkaline electrolyzed
           water (AEW) on the quality of catfish fillets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Hui-Min Lin, Yen-Con Hung, Shang-Gui DengAbstractEffect of partial replacement of polyphosphate (50%) with alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) on the water retention capacity, color, textural properties and lipid oxidation of catfish fillets was investigated. Catfish fillet samples were divided into five soaking group: Group 1 (AEW: pH=11.6), Group 2 (EOA: AEW with 1.25g/L sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.3g/L sodium metapolyphosphate, 0.4g/L sodium polyphosphate , pH=11.4), Group 3 (NEO: water with 2.5 g/L sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.6g/L sodium metapolyphosphate, 0.8g/L sodium polyphosphate, pH=9.0), Group 4 (WAT: tap water) and Group 5 (NOT: no soaking treatment). The results showed that AEW and EOA can improve catfish fillets weight gain and enhance water retention capacity similar to the phosphate enhancement treatment (NEO), but had no effect on product L* value and hardness and elasticity. For the total color difference (ΔE) and oxidation resistance, EOA treatment was better than AEW and NEO. Therefore, AEW alone or AEW with phosphate used in the traditional phosphate enhancement solutions can be used to enhance the quality of catfish fillets.
       
  • NMR-based metabolic profiling discriminates the geographical origin of raw
           sesame seeds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Seok-Young Kim, EunBi Kim, Byeung Kon Shin, Jeong-Ah Seo, Young-Suk Kim, Do Yup Lee, Hyung-Kyoon ChoiAbstractSesame seeds are an oil crop mainly cultivated in Asian and African countries. Identification of the geographical origin of sesame seeds is an important issue for preventing adulteration and for quality assurance. This study was performed to establish a discrimination model and investigate potential biomarkers for differentiating the geographical origin of sesame seeds from Korea, China, and other countries (India, Nigeria, and Ethiopia) by nuclear magnetic resonance -spectroscopy based metabolic profiling. A total of 24 polar metabolites in sesame seeds from 10, 6, and 4 samples of Korea, China, and other countries, respectively, were identified, and an orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis model was established applying a total normalization and unit variance scaling method. Leave-one-out cross validation showed an accuracy of 97.5, 90.0, and 100.0% in differentiating the sesame seed geographical origin. Acetate, phenylalanine, and tryptophan were suggested as potential biomarkers by variable influence on projection value (over 1.0) and area under the curve value (over 0.75). This study demonstrated that 1H NMR analysis with multivariate and univariate statistical analyses of the polar metabolites in sesame seeds could be successfully applied to discriminate the geographical origin of sesame seeds. These results could be applied to develop a standard analytical process to verify seed origin and halt the global distribution of falsely labeled sesame seeds.
       
  • The effect of Lean Six Sigma practices on food industry performance:
           Implications of the Sector's experience and typical characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Luana Bonome Message Costa, Moacir Godinho Filho, Lawrence D. Fredendall, Gilberto Miller Devós GangaAbstractLean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma initiatives (L&SSi) have been adopted by different industry and service sectors to improve companies' performance and competitiveness; however, adoption in the food industry is still very low. The sector lacks familiarity with the L&SSi initiatives; it views “quality” as a safety and hygiene factor, which is one characteristic that differentiates it from other sectors. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the food industry sector's characteristics affects its adoption of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) practices and performance improvement. A survey of 145 food industry firms was conducted and then analyzed using structural equation modeling to test the research framework. Our findings suggest that LSS is relevant and effective in this sector. Food industry performance is positively affected by the adoption of LSS practices. Moreover the adoption of LSS practices in the food industry is greatly affected by the level of experience of the individual company. The level of experience moderates two performance indicators very valued by the sector (financial gains and product quality). The food industry is to a certain extent affected by the sector's characteristics. The compulsory cleaning practices restrict adoption of LSS practices such as set-up time reduction. Six Sigma role structure and Statistical Process Control dimensions are among the sector's least adopted practices. These practices require financial resources for training, which can be a challenge in a sector with low margins that primarily focuses on cost reduction, and they require statistical techniques and knowledge that is generally considered complex and too advanced in the food industry. These findings suggest that as managerial awareness of the relevance of LSS practices to food industry performance improvement increases, that managers will encourage employees to gain experience using the tools.
       
  • Prevalence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with
           strong biofilm formation ability among animal-based food in Shanghai
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Chujun Ou, Daiqi Shang, Jingxian Yang, Bo Chen, Jiang Chang, Fangning Jin, Chunlei ShiAbstractAntimicrobial resistance has gradually become a serious problem threatening public health and food safety throughout the world. Biofilm is one of the important factors affecting the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus usually has strong biofilm formation ability, and it is widely found in animal-based food. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation of S. aureus in animal-based food. Total 959 samples representing eight types of animal-based foods were collected from randomly selected locations (21 supermarkets and 18 wet markets) throughout the Shanghai city. The overall isolation rate of S. aureus was 17.2% (165/959). For each food category, the isolation rate was 21.8% for chicken (45/206), 21.5% for pork (71/331), 15.2% for beef (16/105), 13.8% for duck (9/65), 12.1% for aquatic products (17/141), 8.6% for egg (5/58), and 7.1% for lamb (2/28), respectively. No isolate was found from pasteurized milk (n = 25). Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that among all the S. aureus isolates, 90.3% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 39.4% were multi-drug resistant, and 23 isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Comparing the resistance rates to different antimicrobials, S. aureus had the highest resistance rate to penicillin, up to 82.4% (136/165); followed by erythromycin (57.6%, 95/165) and tetracycline (27.9%, 46/165). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin. With the microtiter plate and crystal violet staining assay, 64.8% of all the 165 isolates had strong biofilm formation ability and 20.0% were moderate producers. Remarkably, significant difference was found in biofilm formation ability between those isolates from supermarkets and wet markets (p 
       
  • One-step kinetic analysis of competitive growth of Salmonella spp. and
           background flora in ground chicken
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Zhen Jia, Yabo Peng, Xiaotong Yan, Ziye Zhang, Ting Fang, Changcheng LiAbstractThe present study was aimed at developing a mathematical model to predict the growth of Salmonella in ground chicken in the presence of the background microflora. Ground chicken was inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis and incubated at various isothermal temperatures (8-33 °C). Salmonella grew at all temperatures, except at 8 °C, while the background microflora could grow under all conditions. The observed growth data of both Salmonella and background microflora at temperatures between 12 and 33 °C were analyzed simultaneously to develop the predictive growth models. The Huang-Jameson effect (HJE) model and Huang-Lotka-Volterra (HLV) model were used to describe the growth and interaction between Salmonella and background microflora. The Huang square-root model was used to evaluate the effect of temperature on the growth rates and lag times of Salmonella and background microflora. A one-step analysis method was used to directly build the tertiary models and to determine the kinetic parameters from the growth curves.The minimum growth temperature (Tmin) for Salmonella estimated by both the HJE and HLV models was 7.2 °C. The Tmin for background flora determined by HJE and HLV model was 1.3 and 1.8 °C, respectively. Under competition, the growth rate of Salmonella could be lower or higher than that of the native microbiota, depending on the storage temperature. Above 16.8 °C, Salmonella grew faster than the background microflora.With relatively low value of RMSE (0.3 log CFU/g), the HJE and HLV models could both successfully describe the growth of Salmonella and native microflora and the interaction between the two. Although the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) value of the HJE model (−349.1) was slightly smaller than that of the HLV model (−339.4), both models were practically equal in accuracy for predicting the competitive growth of Salmonella and background flora in ground chicken. The HJE model and kinetic parameters were validated using separate isothermal and dynamic growth data. The validation results indicated the competition model was accurate. The RMSE of the predictions was only 0.3 log CFU/g. Overall, the residual errors of predictions followed a normal distribution, with more than 86% of them were within ±0.5 log CFU/g. The results from this study may be useful for microbial risk assessments of Salmonella and shelf-life prediction of ground chicken.
       
  • One-stop rapid detection of fumonisin B1, dexyonivalenol and
           zearalenone in grains
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Silu Hou, Jingjiao Ma, Yuqiang Cheng, Hengan Wang, Jianhe Sun, Yaxian YanAbstractMycotoxins are a class of secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that are harmful to humans and animals. Here, a multiplex immunochromatographic assay was reported, which is based on 25 nm colloidal gold for simultaneous qualitative detection of fumonisin B1 (FB1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in wheat and corn samples. After conditions optimization, the immunochromatographic strip has high sensitivity. The visual detection limits of the immunochromatographic test strips for FB1, DON and ZEN reached 60, 12.5 and 6 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, the immunochromatographic strip has high specificity, no reaction to each other, or no cross-reactivity with ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Furthermore, eighteen samples (including corn and wheat) were tested using the test strips and verified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results of strips were found to be consistent with those of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In short, this work demonstrates that the spherical colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic test strip we developed can be used to quickly and simultaneously monitor the existence of multiple mycotoxins in agricultural food samples.
       
  • Effect of pecan variety and the method of extraction on the antimicrobial
           activity of pecan shell extracts against different foodborne pathogens and
           their efficacy on food matrices
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 112Author(s): Veerachandra K. Yemmireddy, Cameron Cason, Juan Moreira, Achyut AdhikariAbstractThe shells of pecans are a rich source of bioactive compounds with potential inhibitory activity against various pathogenic microorganisms. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of pecan shell extracts as effected by the type of cultivar and the method of extraction against various foodborne bacterial pathogens. Defatted shell powders of 19 different pecan cultivars were subjected to aqueous and ethanolic extraction (1:20 w/v) procedures, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of lyophilized pecan shell extracts dissolved in deionized water containing 5% DMSO (v/v) were determined against multiple strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The antimicrobial activity of pecan shell extracts was found to be pathogen specific and strain dependent. Overall, L. monocytogenes was found to be least resistant to treatment with pecan shell extracts with an MIC and/or MBC values ranging from 1.25 to 5 mg/mL followed by Salmonella enterica (2.5 to ≥5 mg/mL) and E. coli O157:H7 (≥5 mg/mL). Type of cultivar and the method of extraction found to have a variable effect on the antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, the challenge studies on fresh-cut cantaloupes and thawed catfish fillets treated with 5 mg/mL pecan shell extracts and stored at 4 °C for up to 5 days showed a
       
  • Antimicrobial bio-nanocomposites and their potential applications in food
           packaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 112Author(s): Ruchi Sharma, Seid Mahdi Jafari, Somesh SharmaAbstractBio-nanocomposites are bio-based polymers made up of two major components in which one acts as a matrix called biopolymer (continuous phase) and second called as reinforcement agent (dispersed phase) with dimensions in the range of 1–100 nm. These exhibit typical characteristics such as flexibility, biocompatibility, biodegradability, eco-friendliness, and cost-effectiveness which can be further enhanced by the reinforcement components. Bio-nanocomposites can be modified by fusion of nanofillers such as MMT (montmorillonite), AgO, TiO2, SiO2, ZnO and biodegradable polymers including polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), polybutylene succinate (PBS), polylactic acid (PLA) and poly-caprolactone (PCL), along with natural biopolymers such as starch and chitosan. Incorporation of antimicrobial agents into the food packaging materials inhibits the growth of microorganisms on food surfaces and thus increases their shelf life. The various experimentally designed antimicrobial nanocomposites are PLA/halloysite, PLA/Ag nanoparticles, hydroxyapatite/titania, layered silicate, and cellulose nanofibers which could inhibit the growth of different pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and B. subtilis. These advantageous properties of antimicrobial bio-nanocomposites suggest their practical use in the food packaging industry.
       
  • Online monitoring of enzymatic hydrolysis of marine by-products using
           benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 112Author(s): Kathryn E. Anderssen, Evan R. McCarneyAbstractEnzymatic hydrolysis is becoming a more commonly used method to create high value products from traditionally low value marine by-products. However, improvement to processing is hampered by a lack of ways to characterize the reaction in real time. Current methods of analysis rely on taking offline samples, deactivating the enzymes, and performing analysis on the products afterwards. Nuclear magnetic resonance benchtop spectroscopy was investigated as a method for online process monitoring of enzymatic hydrolysis. Online and offline NMR measurements were performed for enzymatic hydrolysis reactions on red cod, salmon and shrimp. Both the online and offline measurements were able to follow the reaction process and showed good agreement in their calculated reaction rate. Application of the methodology to several types of raw materials indicates the technique is robust with regards to sample type. Advantages and disadvantages of low-field versus high-field NMR spectroscopy are discussed as well as practical considerations needed in order to apply the method industrially.
       
  • Evaluation of chemical treatment combined with vacuum and ultrasonication
           with a water resonance system for reducing Campylobacter on naturally
           contaminated chicken carcasses
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 112Author(s): Torrung Vetchapitak, Taisuke Shinki, Satomi Sasaki, Takako Taniguchi, Taradon Luangtongkum, Naoaki MisawaAbstractThe present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a new technique for removal of campylobacters from naturally contaminated free-range and broiler chicken carcasses. The carcasses, obtained from commercial processing plants after evisceration, were immersed in 0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or 0.01% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and exposed to a vacuum of −0.02 MPa to remove air from feather. The carcasses were then immersed in a disinfectant solution in a steel container and subjected to ultrasonication with a water resonance system (WRS) at 130 kHz. Tap water was also used instead of the disinfectant, and other carcasses were immersed in each chemical alone. The Campylobacter count on breast and back skin was determined by the most-probable-number (MPN) method. This new treatment using CPC and NaOCl significantly reduced the Campylobacter count on back and breast skin. Treatment with 0.1% CPC combined with vacuum and ultrasonication with the WRS was the most effective, achieving a Campylobacter reduction of 1.36–1.64 log10 MPN/10 g and 0.94–1.16 log10 MPN/10 g on free-range and broiler chicken carcasses, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that this treatment successfully removed debris from breast skin in comparison to untreated skin. These results suggest that the use of sanitizers employing a combination of vacuum and ultrasonication with a WRS is highly effective for reducing the count of campylobacters on chicken carcasses.
       
  • Effect of UVC light-emitting diodes on apple juice: Inactivation of
           Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and determination of quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Qisen Xiang, Liumin Fan, Rong Zhang, Yunfang Ma, Shengnan Liu, Yanhong BaiAbstractThe effects of ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes (UVC-LEDs) irradiation on Zygosaccharomyces rouxii levels and physicochemical properties of apple juice were determined. The populations of Z. rouxii in apple juice were reduced by 4.86- and 5.46-log values after UVC-LEDs irradiation at 800 and 1200 mJ/cm2 (p  0.05). Nonetheless, the UVC-LEDs irradiation caused reduction in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of apple juice. Additionally, UVC-LEDs treatment caused significant changes in the color attributes (a*, b*, chroma, hue angle, and total color difference) and browning index of apple juice. These results suggest that UVC-LEDs irradiation may be an effective alternative to conventional thermal treatments in fruit and vegetable juices processing.
       
  • Lactolisterin BU-producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGBU1-4:
           Bio-control of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylocococcus aureus in fresh
           soft cheese and effect on immunological response of rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Nemanja Mirkovic, Jelena Kulas, Zorana Miloradovic, Marija Miljkovic, Dina Tucovic, Jelena Miocionovic, Branko Jovcic, Ivana Mirkov, Milan KojicAbstractIn last two decades, there has been a strong trend in the application of lactic acid bacteria as adjunctive cultures to control growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in food. One of the most important properties that contribute to the application of these bacteria is the production of antimicrobial molecules. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGBU1-4, isolated from traditional brined cheese, produces thermostable bacteriocin named lactolisterin BU, with broad spectrum of activity against spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens.In this study, effect of strain BGBU1-4, as adjunct culture, on the numbers of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19111 and Staphylococcus aureus LMM322 in artificially contaminated Quark-type, soft acid coagulated cheese, was examined. In addition, we analyzed influence of BGBU1-4 on chemical and sensory properties of the cheese, as well as immunological response of Albino oxford rats fed with Quark-type of cheese made using BGBU1-4 as adjunct culture.Results of this study revealed antibacterial potential of strain BGBU1-4 against L. monocytogenes ATCC19111 and S. aureus LMM322 in Quark-type cheese during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Also, it was noticed the ability of BGBU1-4 to control the spontaneously grown yeasts and molds. Chemical composition and pH values of cheese containing BGBU1-4 were unchanged in comparison to control. The sensory quality scores showed that there was difference between cheese with and without adjunct culture in terms of flavor and oral texture, while for the odor and appearance no differences between two cheese variants were scored. Results of the immunological response of Albino rats fed with Quark-type cheese containing BGBU1-4 indicate absence of systematic inflammation. However, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines content (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17) in intestine of rats fed with cheese containing BGBU1-4, concomitantly with unchanged anti-inflammatory cytokines suggests disruption of gut homeostasis and inflammation in this tissue. The changes caused by BGBU1-4 are reversible, system returns into homeostasis seven days after cessation of feeding with cheese containing BGBU1-4.
       
  • A customized assessment tool to differentiate safety and hygiene control
           practices in emerging dairy chains
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): James Ledo, Kasper A. Hettinga, Pieternel A. LuningAbstractIn emerging dairy chains, inconsistent product quality and safety are recurring issues. The need for improvement in hygiene and safety control practices to meet rapidly growing demands for dairy products quality and safety is imperative. However, existing assessment tools do not consider specific situations in emerging dairy chains, where practices are often performed below standard requirements, which presents an inaccurate picture when these tools would be used. This study presents the development of a customized tool to assess and differentiate levels of safety and hygiene control practices in emerging dairy chains. The tool consists of indicators to analyse control practices and four corresponding grids to assess and differentiate the levels of the safety and hygiene control practices at the farm, during transportation, milk collection, and at local retail points crucial for microbial and chemical (i.e. aflatoxin) safety. The customized tool was piloted in Tanzania to assess on-farm practices, as an example of an emerging dairy chain, using interviews, farm visits and audio-visual assisted observations. Thirty-eight small and three large-scale farmers were interviewed, and their control practices observed. The responses were scored based on the grids and the scores were used for data analysis to identify patterns among the farmers. Overall, the customized assessment tool was able to accurately differentiate safety and hygiene practices of the farmers into three distinct clusters. The majority of the small-scale dairy farmers were performing practices at poor to basic level with very few practices at an intermediate level. The large-scale farmers were operating mainly at intermediate to standard level but with basic level performance on milk safety monitoring method, udder and teat care, and personal hygiene practices. Overall, incremental changes are required for on-farm practices to adequately mitigate microbial and aflatoxin contamination of fresh milk. Furthermore, the obtained profiles on farmers safety and hygiene control practices provide input for the development of training programs tailored to the knowledge and skills needs of groups of farmers with similar performance levels. Further research is needed to provide insight into the relationship between the level of control practices and milk safety outcomes.
       
  • Chlorous acid is a more potent antibacterial agent than sodium
           hypochlorite against Campylobacter
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Noritoshi Hatanaka, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Hisataka Goda, Hiroyuki Kawata, Yuzuru Uchino, Takahiro Kubo, Shigeru Aoki, Atsushi Hinenoya, Shinji YamasakiAbstractFoodborne disease caused by campylobacters is one of the major global problems for food safety. Infection source of Campylobacter to human is mainly through contaminated meat particularly chicken. Contamination of meat with Campylobacter usually occurs during processing at slaughterhouse and to prevent such contaminations, sodium hypochlorite is commonly used. However, it is well known that bactericidal activity of sodium hypochlorite becomes weak under organic matter rich conditions. In this study, we compared the strength of bactericidal activity of chlorous acid and sodium hypochlorite against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains under organic matter rich conditions. Bactericidal activity against 5 representative C. jejuni and C. coli strains in chicken juice (an organic matter rich condition) showed that minimum concentration of chlorous acid required for complete killing of C. jejuni and C. coli cells is 200–400 ppm while that of sodium hypochlorite is 2,000 to 4,000 ppm. Similar results were obtained by using Bolton broth. Furthermore, it was observed that 400 ppm of chlorous acid but not 400 ppm of sodium hypochlorite is highly effective in killing of 25 different Campylobacter strains (12 C. jejuni and 13 C. coli strains) under the same conditions. To determine whether 400 ppm of chlorous acid treatment had killed bacterial cells or induced them into viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, live and dead cell assay using DAPI and propidium iodide fluorescent dyes was done. Such assay clearly indicated that Campylobacter cells were indeed killed and not induced to VBNC state. Moreover, SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell lysates of campylobacters indicated distinct effects in protein profiles of chlorous acid but not sodium hypochlorite treated cells. The results strongly suggest that chlorous acid could efficiently kill C. jejuni and C. coli cells with much lower concentration than sodium hypochlorite and the bactericidal mechanisms of chlorous acid may be due to damages of bacterial proteins. Thus, chlorous acid could be a better disinfectant in chicken slaughtering and processing to kill campylobacters and prevent contamination.
       
  • Colour analysis in sausages stuffed in modified casings with different
           storage days using hyperspectral imaging – A feasibility study
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Chao-Hui Feng, Yoshio MakinoAbstractColour evolution for sausage stuffed in casings modified by different concentrations of surfactant solution and slush salt with lactic acid was for the first time investigated during 68 days with 4 °C storage using a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380–1000 nm. Pre-treatments (normalization, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivative) were conducted and performance after the pre-treatments was improved. No interactive effects between casing treatments and storage days were observed in accordance with two-way ANOVA. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed from spectra with reflectance and absorbance modes and important wavelengths were selected with regard to each colour parameters. When predicted redness (a*), PLSR model derived from absorbance pre-treated by MSC for modified casing with treatment 1 showed the prediction coefficient of determination (Rp2) up to 0.78 while 0.61 for control casing using reflectance. This study innovatively showed a great potential in a cylinder shape sausage for real-time inspection and is competent to quantify and visualise the colour dynamic change of the sausages stuffed in modified casings.
       
  • Authentication of roasted and ground coffee samples containing multiple
           adulterants using NMR and a chemometric approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Maria Izabel Milani, Eduardo Luiz Rossini, Tiago Augusto Catelani, Leonardo Pezza, Aline Theodoro Toci, Helena Redigolo PezzaAbstractBrazil is still the world's largest producer and exporter of coffee. In order to maximize profits, some producers may add lower cost materials (such as corn, barley, or even coffee husks) to commercial coffee. In view of the growing market for coffee products and the importance of coffee for the Brazilian economy, it is necessary to have a rapid, simple, and reliable methodology to identify and quantify coffee adulterants. NMR has proved to be a versatile and robust tool for the identification of adulterants in foods and beverages. Here, we explore the versatility of 1H NMR assisted with chemometric tools, avoiding laborious data analysis, for the quantification of coffee adulteration. Six different adulterants were considered: barley, corn, coffee husks, soybean, rice, and wheat. The NMR-based methodology described here provided satisfactory LOD values (0.31–0.86%) for adulterants in medium and dark roast coffees. The statistical techniques PCA and SIMCA were employed for pattern recognition and the identification of pure and adulterated samples. Use of the SIMCA model enabled 100% correct classification for both training and prediction sets, ensuring the accuracy, traceability, and reliability of the results.
       
  • A Meta-Analytic Review Of Food Safety Risk Perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Vinicius A.M. Nardi, Rafael Teixeira, Wagner Junior Ladeira, Fernando de Oliveira SantiniAbstractStudies investigating food safety risk perception (FSRP) have substantially increased in recent years, particularly because of recent cases of food contamination. Most studies analysed the effects of FSRP antecedents and their consequences but reported heterogeneous effects. To consolidate these results and provide a more robust and parsimonious picture of FSRP, we conducted a meta-analysis of 128 empirical studies that investigated the key drivers and outcomes of FRSP and potential moderator variables. Our findings reveal the key drivers (trust, knowledge, subjective characteristics, and socio-demographic characteristics) of FSRP and a robust negative consequent effect on the willingness to buy (WTB). Also, we reveal the moderation role of the food origin, risk type, healthiness, shelf life and pleasure in the consequent effect. Our results contribute to the growing literature related to FSRP by consolidating previous results and help establish a foundation for further advancement in this topic. More importantly, our findings provide a more comprehensive picture of the FSRP phenomenon to help in the design of guidelines and rules that shape supplier behaviour to enhance food safety along the food supply chain.
       
  • Temperature fluctuations in processing and distribution: Effect on the
           shelf life of fresh cod fillets (Gadus morhua L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Grete Lorentzen, Tatiana N. Ageeva, Morten Heide, Margrethe EsaiassenAbstractLow temperature is essential in keeping quality of fresh cod products, and maintaining low temperature is challenging during processing, distribution and storage. In the first step of this study, temperature fluctuations of fresh cod fillets were logged in a commercial cold chain. Short-term temperature rise was observed in the fillets during processing, but in the following distribution, the temperature of the product was approximately 0 °C. In supermarkets, however, fillet temperatures up to 7.0 °C were registered. In the second step, a controlled storage experiment was performed copying time and temperature conditions mapped in the first step. The fillet quality was evaluated with respect to odour and TVB-N at day 7, 10 and 12 after catch. Even a minor rise in temperature by 2 °C reduced the shelf life significantly after 12 days (5 days in ice followed by 7 days at elevated temperature) (p 
       
  • Vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics tools for authenticity and
           improvement the safety control in goat milk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): José Luan da Paixão Teixeira, Elem Tamirys dos Santos Caramês, Débora Parra Baptista, Mirna Lúcia Gigante, Juliana Azevedo Lima PalloneAbstractGoat milk has a potential target of fraud. In this sense, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) have been successfully used to detect food fraud. This study aimed to develop multivariate classification models using NIRS to detect adulterants in goat milk. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), control chart, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Part Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) were used to detect the adulterants: water, urea, bovine whey and cow's milk in goat's milk samples with concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, resulting in 300 control samples and 300 adulterated samples. The control chart discriminated authentic and adulterated samples with 95% confidence. The PLS-DA results were better compared to those obtained by k-NN and SIMCA; presenting 100% sensitivity and specificity in calibration, cross validation, and prediction. Therefore, NIRS combined with PLS-DA was adequate to detect goat milk safety control associated with adulteration.
       
  • Assessment of foodborne illness awareness and preferred information
           sources among students in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Mohammed AL-Mohaithef, Bijaya K. Padhi, Mohammed Shameel, Ahmed M.E. Elkhalifa, Mohammed Tahash, Sriram Chandramohan, Ahmed HazaziAbstractBackgroundFoodborne diseases (FBD) is becoming a significant public health concern in both developed and developing countries. Young adults are the most vulnerable demographic of food poisoning. While research has indicated that young adults are undereducated in food poisoning knowledge, studies examining the knowledge of young Arabian, as well as approaches to improve their education, have not been conducted. The study objective was to assess foodborne illness and preferred information sources among students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).MethodsWe designed a cross-sectional study among Saudi Electronic University students (N = 429) located across major geographic locations in KSA. A questionnaire pertaining to knowledge on food poisoning was administered to registered students. A score of 1 was given to the right answer, and 0 to the wrong answer. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to predict the relationship between the dependent variable (overall knowledge score) and the independent variables (demographic, the field of study, education level, and geography).ResultsRespondents were, on average, 24.2 ± 4.5 years old. The majority of the students belongs to Riyadh (30.2%), Abha (27.5%), Dammam (22.6%), and Jeddah (15.9%) campus. About half of the students were female. Most of the students (78.6%) were from the bachelor level of education. Students field of study varies across domains; the majority of them belongs to the health sciences field. Of the 429 respondents, 85.5% of students know the causes of food poisoning. However, half of them don't know the difference between food infection and food intoxication. 27.3% of students don't recognize the source of food that is more likely associated with foodborne disease. Multivariate analyses indicates that the field of study category was associated with the poor knowledge of the causes of foodborne illnesses among the study participants. Compared with health sciences, students belonging to the computer science field were relatively low knowledge on the cause of food poisoning (Odds Ratio: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.15–7.51), and they are also less likely to differentiate between food infection and food intoxication (Odds Ratio: 3.95; 95% CI: 1.81–8.60). 42.9% of students visit a doctor to seek information about food poisoning, and 39.9% visit government website followed by social media (39.6%) for information on food poisoning.ConclusionStudents in this survey were fairly knowledgeable about foodborne diseases, and most of them used an authentic source of information for their knowledge. Our study is consistent with other similar studies, and educational institutions can play an essential role in food safety education while targeting health education and promotion. These results warrant the need for a health education program in creating greater awareness of foodborne diseases among students.
       
  • Rapid and Sensitive Screening and Identification of CRISPR/Cas9 Edited
           Rice Plants Using Quantitative Real-time PCR Coupled with High Resolution
           Melting Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Rong Li, Yan Ba, Yu Song, Jinjie Cui, Xiujie Zhang, Dabing Zhang, Zheng Yuan, Litao YangGene-editing techniques, such as TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, have been widely used for target DNA editing in many research fields. However, how to rapidly screen and identify the expected gene-edited products with high efficiency and low cost is still a difficult task. Here, we report the development and optimization of one such method that combines quantitative PCR with high-resolution melting analysis (qPCR-HRM) to screen and identify CRISPR/Cas9-edited rice plants. The results showed that gene-edited rice plants with small target DNA in/dels or even single base pair insertion/deletions could be successfully identified. The sensitivity of the qPCR-HRM method is as low as 1%, which is satisfying to be used for quantitative evaluation of gene-editing efficiency. Sanger sequencing results confirmed that the qPCR-HRM method also has high accuracy. It is concluded that the developed qPCR-HRM method is reproducible, accurate, and efficient for quick screening and identification of gene-edited rice plants.Graphical abstractImage 102
       
  • Aflatoxin detoxification in tortillas using an infrared radiation
           thermo-alkaline process: cytotoxic and genotoxic evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Zavala-Franco Anai, Arámbula-Villa Gerónimo, Ramírez-Noguera Patricia, Salazar Ana María, Sordo Monserrat, Marroquín-Cardona Alicia, Figueroa-Cárdenas Juan de Dios, Méndez-Albores AbrahamAbstractAflatoxins are secondary metabolites with mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive capacity in humans, the occurrence of which in maize grain is widespread. Nixtamalization, a process based on alkaline cooking, including infrared radiation, may be a suitable method for detoxification of this toxin. In this work, we carried out a cytotoxic and genotoxic evaluation of the extracts from maize (ME), tortilla from an infrared nixtamalization process (TEIR) and tortilla from a traditional nixtamalization process (TET) using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde production), oxidative damage (glutathione modulation), Ames test (mutagenic response), and Comet assay (DNA damage). The formation capacity of the AFB1-Lysine (AFB1-Lys) adduct using maize and tortilla extracts was also tested. The infrared nixtamalization process showed a reduction of up to 93% of aflatoxins in tortillas, with a decrease in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in all the tests performed. However, with TEIR and TET, AFB1-Lys adduct was not formed. We concluded that the process of nixtamalization with infrared radiation can be used for the detoxification of aflatoxins in tortillas.
       
  • Optical detection of aflatoxins B in grained almonds using fluorescence
           spectroscopy and machine learning algorithms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): F.R. Bertani, L. Businaro, L. Gambacorta, A. Mencattini, D. Brenda, D. Di Giuseppe, A. De Ninno, M. Solfrizzo, E. Martinelli, A. GerardinoAbstractAflatoxins are fungal metabolites extensively produced by many different fungal species that may contaminate a wide range of agricultural food products. They have been studied extensively because of being associated with various chronic and acute diseases, especially immunosuppression and cancer, and their presence in food is strictly monitored and regulated worldwide.Aflatoxin detection and measurement relies mainly on chemical methods usually based on chromatography approaches, and recently developed immunochemical based assays that have advantages but also limitations, since these are expensive and destructive techniques. Nondestructive, optical approaches are recently being developed to assess presence of contamination in a cost and time effective way, maintaining acceptable accuracy and reproducibility. In this paper are presented the results obtained with a simple portable device for nondestructive detection of aflatoxins in almonds. The presented approach is based on the analysis of fluorescence spectra of slurried almonds under 375 nm wavelength excitation. Experiments were conducted with almonds contaminated in the range of 2.7–320.2 ng/g total aflatoxins B (AFB1 + AFB2) as determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection (HPLC/FLD). After applying pre-processing steps, spectral analysis was carried out using a binary classification model based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. A majority vote procedure was then performed on the classification results. In this way we could achieve, as best result, a classification accuracy of 94% (and false negative rate 5%) with a threshold set at 6.4 ng/g. These results illustrate the feasibility of such approach in the great challenge of aflatoxin detection for food and feed safety.
       
  • Development of a pasteurization method based on radio frequency heating to
           ensure microbiological safety of liquid egg
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Jinyu Zhu, Daofeng Zhang, Xiujuan Zhou, Yan Cui, Shunshan Jiao, Xianming ShiAbstractRadio frequency (RF) heating is considered to be a promising pasteurization technology to control microorganisms in various types of foods without damaging product quality. In this study, liquid whole egg (LWE), liquid egg white (LEW) and liquid egg yolk (LEY) were artificially contaminated by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and treated by RF heating. A 5.62 log reduction of S. Enteritidis was achieved in LWE by RF heating for 220 s at an electrode gap size of 120 mm. Similarly, the population of S. Enteritidis was reduced by 4.36 log in LEW and 5.31 log in LEY after 285 s and 180 s of RF heating with a 125 mm electrode gap size, respectively. In comparison, conventional pasteurization reduced the pathogen by 5.86, 2.47 and 2.20 log in LWE (64.5 °C, 3.5 min), LEW (55 °C, 3 min) and LEY (64 °C, 3.5 min), respectively. Importantly, the RF treatment did not cause apparent change in color value, emulsibility and foamability of liquid egg products. The quality of liquid egg products was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between conventionally pasteurized and RF heating treated samples. These results suggest that RF heating is an effective way to control S. Enteritidis in liquid egg products while maintaining acceptable quality of the products.
       
  • Impact of freeze-drying and subsequent storage on milk metabolites based
           on 1H NMR and UHPLC-QToF/MS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Dan Zhu, Biniam Kebede, Gang Chen, Kiri McComb, Russell FrewAbstractThis study is the first to investigate the effect of freeze-drying on raw milk metabolites using untargeted metabolomics. To detect as many metabolites as possible in the liquid fractions, a multiplatform metabolomics approach was implemented using both NMR and MS-based techniques. The chemical fingerprint of freeze-dried milk powder was monitored during storage at three temperatures (room temperature, 4 °C, −20 °C) for up to 224 days. This study demonstrated that freeze-drying was an efficient means of drying milk resulting in only minor changes to the metabolites. With respect to storage, freeze-dried milk powders stored at 4 °C and −20 °C exhibited a stable metabolome while samples stored at 20 °C resulted in a clear change. During ambient storage, the concentrations of orotic acid, riboflavin and acetyl-carbohydrate reduced while those of fatty acids, threonic acid and uridine increased. The results from this study provide the foundation for experiment design and marker selection for further studies on milk metabolomics.
       
  • Biosafety assessment of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis AD011 used
           for human consumption as a probiotic microorganism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Seockmo Ku, Suyoung Yang, Hyun Ha Lee, Deokyeong Choe, Tony V. Johnston, Geun Eog Ji, Myeong Soo ParkAbstractIn this work, the previously identified Bifidobacterium strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis AD011 (obtained from an infant fecal sample), intended as a potential probiotic microorganism, is assessed for its safety using multiple in vitro virulence assays (ammonia and biogenic amine synthesis, hemolytic and mucin degradation activities, antimicrobial susceptibility and conjugal transferability of antibiotic resistance genes to other microorganisms) and comparative genomic analysis. The genome data of B. lactis AD011 was compared with genome sequences of two commercially available probiotic microorganisms (Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04) which are designated as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The results of these experiments showed no significant potential vulnerabilities and no side effects. B. lactis AD011 showed higher resistance to tetracycline than the European Food Safety Authority cut-off. However, the measured susceptibility is similar to or lower than that of other previously certified GRAS Bifidobacterium strains. Tetracycline resistance of B. lactis AD011 was not conveyed via conjugation with L. fermentum AGBG1, which is susceptible to tetracycline. Complete DNA sequencing of B. lactis AD011 showed the absence of transferable drug resistance plasmids. The three B. lactis strains (AD011, BB12 and Bl-14) compared in this study were found to share very close genomic sequence homology (>99.8 %). Therefore, based on this study, B. lactis AD011 appears to be a safe, bioactive, bifidobacterial food ingredient, starter culture, and/or probiotic microorganism for human health.
       
  • The inhibitory effects of spice essential oils and rapidly prediction on
           the growth of Clostridium perfringens in cooked chicken breast
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Yaodi Zhu, Yangyang Ma, Jiaye Zhang, Miaoyun Li, Longgang Yan, Gaiming Zhao, Yanxia Liu, Yanyan ZhangAbstractIn this study, the effects of spices essential oils on the growth of C. perfringens were investigated. The in vitro inhibitory activities and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of different essential oils on C. perfringens were determined using the Oxford cup and two-fold dilution method. And two models (the parameter-adjusted Gompertz kinetic model, and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) model) were used to rapidly predict the relative growth/survival of C. perfringens in cooked chicken breast under different essential oil concentrations. The results indicated that cinnamon essential oil exhibited a notable inhibitory effect on C. perfringens in vitro. Moreover, cinnamon essential oil had the lowest inhibitory concentration, and the growth of C. perfringens ceased completely at 19.12 mg/mL and 22.72 mg/mL, respectively. By comparing, the LS-SVM model is the optimum model. The prediction accuracy of the LS-SVM model was greater than 0.99, and the degree of fitting is higher than adjusted Gompertz kinetic model. The results present illustrate that the model using LS-SVM has high prediction accuracy and can be employed to predict the number of C. perfringens under different essential oils. This work could contribute to control and rapid assessment of food safety hazards of C. perfringens during meat processing.
       
  • Effectiveness of a novel UV light emitting diode based technology for the
           microbial inactivation of Bacillus subtilis in model food systems.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Laura M. Hinds, Clémentine M.G. Charoux, Mahbub Akhter, Colm P. O’Donnell, Brijesh K. TiwariAbstractThe objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a novel UV multiwavelength light emitting diode (LED) based technology for the inactivation of B. subtilis in two model food systems. The LED based system was used to treat B. subtilis bacterial cultures using various combinations of UV wavelengths (285, 365, 405, 285/365, 285/405, 365/405, 285/365/405 nm) for different treatment durations (5 & 10 min). Bacterial enumerations, post-treatment analysis and SEM imaging were carried out. UV treatment at 285 nm was found to be the most efficient individual wavelength for inactivation resulting in> 6 log10 reductions. Treatments at other wavelengths investigated also resulted in bacteriostatic effects. Synergistic effects were observed for treatment at a 285/405 nm combination in one model system. Growth kinetics were carried out using a modified Gompertz model and model fit was assessed by root mean squared error, accuracy factor and bias factor. Experimental data showed good fit with model employed with RMSE values ranging from 0.01 x 10-2 to 1.367 x 10-2 for 5 min treatment, and 0.01 x 10-2 to 0.210 x 10-2 for 10 min treatment. Multivariate analysis was also carried out using principal component analysis and explained 100% of the variation observed for 3 principal components. This study shows that UV-LED technology is effective as bactericidal and bacteriostatic technology, depending on wavelength used.
       
  • Letter to editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Aziz Homayouni Rad, Neda Hajipour
       
  • Using tactile cold perceptions as an indicator of food safety-a hazardous
           choice
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Daniela Borda, Octavian Augustin Mihalache, Anca Ioana Nicolau, Paula Teixeira, Solveig Langsrud, Loredana DumitrascuAbstractThe safety of many foods is dependent on ensuring the cold chain until the time of consumption. A weak link is the consumer part of the chain as the temperatures of domestic refrigerators are often too high and the users have limited possibilities to monitor and adjust the temperatures. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether common consumer practices for monitoring that food is kept cold are valid. Consumers demonstrated limited ability to assess food and surface temperature by tactile sense with lower precision at 8 °C compared to 4 °C. Almost 20% of the consumers were able to detect the exact food and surface temperature kept at 4 °C, while at 8 °C only 13% detected the exact temperature. A web-based survey mapping consumer practices showed that more than 40% of consumers never checked the temperature in their refrigerators, 38% rely on food coldness to evaluate if the refrigerator is running at adequate temperature and 65% lack knowledge on how to correctly asses temperature in the fridge. Most of the comments emphasized the situations where consumers could be at risk due to misevaluation of refrigerated food and surfaces real temperature indicating the necessity for better monitorization of cold food chain at domestic level.
       
  • Characterization of yateí (Tetragonisca fiebrigi) honey and preservation
           treatments: Dehumidification, pasteurization and refrigeration
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Natasha Schvezov, Amada B. Pucciarelli, Belen Valdes, Andrea M. DallagnolAbstractA complete study on the microbiological and physico-chemical properties of yateí honey (Tetragonisca fiebrigi) was carried out, focusing on the quality standards that are necessary for its commercialization. The results showed that physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of T. fiebrigi honey differed from standard values of Apis mellifera, but not from other stingless bees honey from South America. Yateí honey showed the presence of fecal contamination (Escherichia coli), and a seasonal influence in microbiological parameters, acidity, pH, sucrose and diastase activity. On the other hand, three preservation treatments were carried out and evaluated for 90 days in T. fiebrigi honey: refrigeration, pasteurization and dehumidification. Pasteurization and dehumidification of yateí honey eliminated fecal contamination while in refrigerated honey E. coli survived in time (8–90 days), unlike the samples kept at room temperature (
       
  • An intercontinental analysis of food safety culture in view of food safety
           governance and national values
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Shingai P. Nyarugwe, Anita R. Linnemann, Yingxue Ren, Evert-Jan Bakker, Jamal B. Kussaga, Derek Watson, Vincenzo Fogliano, Pieternel A. LuningAbstractTaking food safety culture into account is a promising way to improve food safety performance in the food industry. Food safety culture (FS-culture) research is expanding from an organisational perspective to include characteristics of the internal and external company environment. In this study, the prevailing food safety culture in 17 food companies from four countries on three continents (Africa, Asia and Europe) was assessed in view of food safety governance and national values. The internal environment characteristics, i.e. food safety vision, food safety program and food production system vulnerability, were also assessed. Statistical analysis revealed little variation in FS-culture scores between the companies within the same country. Overall the FS-culture for Greek and Zambian companies was scored proactive, while for Chinese and Tanzanian companies an active score was achieved. Both the internal and external company environment seemed to influence the prevailing FS-culture. Cluster analysis showed that Tanzanian and Zambian companies exhibited similarities in the implementation of food safety programs, and in their national values and food safety governance as compared to Greece and China. Food safety governance was reflected in the food safety programs and supportiveness of the organisation to food safety and hygiene. All cultural dimensions were correlated with risk perceptions, with masculinity and long-term orientation also significantly correlated with the enabling conditions and attitude. Understanding how national values and food safety governance approaches differently influence food safety culture is expected to enable formulation of best approaches tailored for companies operating in countries with different company environments, to improve food safety performance.
       
  • Is visual motivation for cleaning surfaces in the kitchen consistent with
           a hygienically clean environment'
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Trond Møretrø, Lydia Martens, Paula Teixeira, Vânia B. Ferreira, Rui Maia, Tove Maugesten, Solveig LangsrudAbstractCleaning is a method at the disposal of domestic cooks for curtailing the dispersal of foodborne pathogens in the process of preparing food. The observation of visible dirt/soil ‘in the wrong place’ operates as one of the stimuli for action. This paper makes a transdisciplinary contribution to understandings of cleaning as a practice for ensuring safety in the kitchen, and it is mainly focused on the (in)visibility of soil or dirt. The social science research included analysis of a consumer survey in 10 European countries where 9966 respondents were asked about motivations for cleaning in the kitchen. This paper draws also on three microbiological tests. First, Portuguese (n = 7) and Norwegian (6) consumers evaluated the visible cleanliness of 10 surface areas in their kitchens, directly and through the visible residue and total bacterial numbers accumulated on a white cotton swab after swabbing the surface areas. Secondly, 15 Norwegian consumers tested if they could visually detect different types of food soils, as these dried on kitchen surfaces. Finally, the survival of Campylobacter and Salmonella in the same soil types was tested under lab conditions as the soil dried out. Cleaning food preparation surfaces “after food preparation” (73%), “before preparing food” (53%) and “when they are dirty” (43%) were the three most common self-reported behaviours. Routine was the most common motivation to clean, but this was age dependent. There was low correlation between visual detection of dirt/soil and bacterial enumeration. Visual detection of soils was dependent on type and concentration of food soils and material of the surface; the soils were more easily detected on laminate surfaces than plastic and wood. Campylobacter died rapidly, while Salmonella survived for at least one week in food soils drying on a countertop laminate surface. Presence of food soils in concentrations that can be detected visually, protected Salmonella against drying. In conclusion, selecting materials where soil/dirt can easily be detected visually in the kitchen surfaces, may motivate consumers to clean and will reduce risk, but establishing a habit to clean surfaces soon after food preparation is also important from a food safety perspective.
       
  • Food fraud: Assessing fraud vulnerability in the extra virgin olive oil
           supply chain
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Jing Yan, Sara W. Erasmus, Miguel Aguilera Toro, Haixin Huang, Saskia M. van RuthAbstractAs a high value commodity on the market, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a suitable target for fraudsters. To understand differences in perceived fraud vulnerability between tier groups across the EVOO supply chain and to disclose underlying factors, the perceived fraud vulnerability of 28 companies was examined using the SSAFE food fraud vulnerability assessment tool. Amongst these companies were seven olive oil producers, seven business-to-business (B2B) companies, seven food manufacturers and seven retailers. The similarities and differences in perceived fraud vulnerabilities according to group characteristics (the role, the scale and the location of the company) were evaluated. Non-parametric tests and multiple correspondence analysis were applied for data exploration. An in-depth fraud vulnerability assessment of the EVOO supply chain was provided. Eight fraud factors related to opportunities and motivations scored high in the supply chain indicating their importance as fraud drivers and enablers. Four factors related to control measures are perceived as greatest vulnerability in the EVOO supply chain. Then, the vulnerability to fraud in the EVOO supply chain across all actors is perceived as high level on average. In decreasing contribution to the overall perceived fraud vulnerability, the fraud factor categories were ranked as follow: technical opportunities, a lack of managerial controls, a lack of technical controls, economic drivers, cultural and behavioural drivers, and opportunities in time and place. Among the tier groups, the retailers and B2B companies experienced higher levels of perceived vulnerability than olive oil producers and food manufacturers due to the additional vulnerability related to the opportunities in time and place, and greatest lack of control measures. Furthermore, the perceived fraud vulnerability of the company was not only determined by the tier group, but also impacted by the scale and location of the company.
       
  • Procedure for microbiological baseline surveys conducted by US Department
           of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Hans D. Allender, Stephanie Buchanan, Naser Abdelmajid, Ilene Arnold, Jeanetta Tankson, John Mark CarterAbstractThis article describes the procedures and statistical techniques that the US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) utilizes when performing a microbiological baseline survey. A baseline is a statistical survey of a specific product regulated by FSIS. It is used to learn about the microbiological profile associated with the commodity. The survey generates data that are used for calculation of national prevalence, performing risk assessments, providing support for guidance to industry, and answers for other data-specific projects. The knowledge gained through baseline surveys is used to accomplish the FSIS mission, which is “Protecting the public's health by ensuring the safety of meat, poultry, and processed egg products.”
       
  • Influence of storage conditions on quality and safety of eggs collected
           from Lebanese farms
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Ghenwa Saleh, Nada El Darra, Samer Kharroubi, Mohammad T. FarranAbstractEgg is considered a nutritionally complete food and an excellent source of protein. However, storing eggs for a prolonged period of time under uncontrolled temperature results in egg quality deterioration. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of storage conditions (time & temperature) on the egg's internal and external quality parameters as well as the microbiological load of eggs. For that purpose, a total of 2160 (white, brown vaccinated and brown non-vaccinated for salmonella) eggs were collected from Lebanese egg farmers in Bekaa valley and stored at 7 °C, 18 °C, 24 °C and 33 °C/20 °C (cyclic) for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. At each time point and temperature setting, 30 eggs were analysed for external and internal quality traits as well microbiological testing. Results showed that brown eggs had significantly higher weight (P 
       
  • Inactivation of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli suspended in ground
           chicken meat by high pressure processing and identification of virulence
           factors which may affect resistance to high pressure
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Aixia Xu, O.J. Scullen, Shiowshuh Sheen, Yanhong Liu, James R. Johnson, Christopher H. SommersAbstractExtraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are responsible for urinary tract infections, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis and meningitis. Retail poultry meat has been identified as the main reservoir for ExPEC in food. Information regarding ExPEC virulence factor (VF) or antibiotic resistance (AR) involvement with resistance to high-pressure inactivation in food is lacking. In this study we inoculated ground chicken meat with 22 individual isolates of clinical uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and newborn meningitis causing E. coli (NMEC), and isolates from retail chicken meat. We then determined their high-pressure inactivation kinetics (D10-value). The mean D10-value for all isolates (n = 22) was 3.26 min at 400 MPa. The mean D10-value for the UPEC, NMEC, chicken isolates were 5.0, 1.3, 2.23 and 4.98 min at 400 MPa, respectively. The D10 varied widely between the 22 isolates. The mean D10-value for the clinical isolates was 3.33 vs. 3.15 for the non-clinical isolates. The NMEC strains were more sensitive to HPP. ExPEC lacking chuA, cnf1, sinH, papG, hlyA, vat, yncD were more resistant to HPP, indicating ExPEC VF could play a role in high pressure resistance. HPP at 600 MPa for 3 min resulted in>6 log10 reductions for UPEC, NMEC, and retail chicken product isolates.
       
  • Development of a high-efficient concentrated pretreatment method for
           noroviruses detection in independent oysters:An extension of the ISO/TS
           15216-2:2013 standard method
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Le Zhang, Liang Xue, Junshan Gao, Weicheng Cai, Yueting Jiang, Yueting Zuo, Yingyin Liao, Zhiwei Qin, Haoming Wu, Tong Cheng, Xueting Luo, Qingping Wu, Kegang Wu, Jumei ZhangAbstractNoroviruses are the primary cause of gastroenteritis and foodborne diseases, affecting millions of individuals annually worldwide. Oysters are frequently associated with norovirus outbreaks. Hence, inexpensive and simple norovirus detection methods are important to detect and contain foodborne illness outbreaks. The objective of this study is to develop a high-efficient concentrated pretreatment method for reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) detection. Based on the existing ISO/TS 15216-2:2013 standard (ISO/TS 15216-2., 2013), four methods are compared for recovery of norovirus from spiked digestive tissue of oysters. A method is found to be the most efficient based on protease K method of increasing buffer volume and PEG precipitation method. The recovery rate and amplification efficiency approached 11.07 ± 0.09% and 124.12 ± 5.99%, respectively, being 7-fold that of the original ISO/TS 15216-2:2013 method. This method serves as a rapid (1.5h) sample concentration tool with a limit of detection as low as 7.05 × 103 copies. Thirty-eight oyster samples from an aquatic products market in Guangzhou are tested using this method, and noroviruses are detected in 13 samples. This method is an effective extension of the existing ISO/TS 15216-2:2013 standard and it is potentially applicable for detecting norovirus contamination in oysters.
       
  • Probiotic potential and amylolytic properties of lactic acid bacteria
           isolated from Chinese fermented cereal foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Yihan Xu, Tao Zhou, Huiqin Tang, Xiqiang Li, Yujing Chen, Limin Zhang, Jianhua ZhangAbstractThis study investigated the probiotic potential and amylase properties of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) isolated from fermented cereal-based foods in China. Of 132 LAB isolates screened for amylase production, three (430, 445, and 472) were found to have high amylase activities (8.15, 9.23, and 8.06 U/mL in MRS-1% starch broth, respectively). These three strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by 16 S rRNA sequencing. Optimization of the starch content in the culture broth, pH, and temperature during fermentation revealed that the highest amylase activity (15.89 ± 0.51 U/mL) was found in L. plantarum 445. Moreover, the three ALAB isolates were assessed for their probiotic properties, tolerance to low pH, bile salt resistance, and antimicrobial and aggregation activities. All three ALAB isolates showed good survival at pH 2.0 and 3.0 and were resistant to 0.3% and 0.6% bile salts after 48 h of incubation. They also had different antimicrobial activities against five food-borne pathogens and similar intrinsic and non-transmissible antibiotic susceptibilities. The isolates had higher auto-aggregation ability but weaker co-aggregation ability than the reference strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103. These data demonstrate that the three ALAB isolates possess potential probiotic characteristics, suggesting that they are suitable candidates for cereal-based probiotic products and starter cultures for improving the cereal fermentation process.
       
  • Generic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (O157:H7) contamination
           of lettuce and radish microgreens grown in peat moss and perlite
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Hasan Işık, Zeynal Topalcengiz, Senem Güner, Aziz AksoyAbstractPathogens can be transferred to microgreens from seeds, irrigation water and growth media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contamination of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157:H7) and generic E. coli to lettuce and radish microgreens grown in spray and bottom irrigated peat moss and perlite. Lettuce and radish seeds were grown in nalidixic acid resistant E. coli strains inoculated peat moss and perlite. Populations of cells were enumerated on edible and inedible part of plants. Survival of E. coli strains were also examined in growth media for 28 days. Type of irrigation did not affect the population of cells transferred to edible part of plants (P > 0.05). Populations of E. coli contaminating the inedible part of plant were higher in perlite than those in peat moss (P 
       
  • Protein-based halochromic electrospun nanosensor for monitoring trout fish
           freshness
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Zahra Aghaei, Behrouz Ghorani, Bahareh Emadzadeh, Rassoul Kadkhodaee, Nick TuckerIn the present study, a protein-based halochromic nanosensor was designed to assess the quality of rainbow trout fillets. Zein nanofibers containing alizarin as the indicator dye were electrospun. The sensors were characterised using SEM, FT-IR, DSC, XRD, dye leaching, response time experiments and colorimetric analysis. TVB-N, TVC and pH of fish fillets were also measured over 12 days of storage at 4°C. FT-IR results showed that the alizarin was incorporated in the zein matrix by intermolecular hydrogen bonding. DSC graphs of zein based samples showed that the temperature of dehydration, glass transition and protein unfolding in the halochromic nanofibers were lower than in powdered zein. The amorphous structure of the zein samples was confirmed by XRD analysis. No color changes were occurred in the first 4 days of storage, but later, a light purple color could be observed in the sensor by the naked eye. The color of sensor became magenta by the 10th and 12th day of cold storage indicating spoilage. This fabricated halochromic nanosensor can monitor fish freshness in real time through color changes. The colorimetric results correlated well with microbial and chemical changes in the fish.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Time-temperature profiles and Listeria monocytogenes presence in
           refrigerators from households with vulnerable consumers
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Loredana Dumitrașcu, Anca Ioana Nicolau, Corina Neagu, Pierrine Didier, Isabelle Maître, Christophe Nguyen-The, Silje Elisabeth Skuland, Trond Møretrø, Solveig Langsrud, Monica Truninger, Paula Teixeira, Vânia Ferreira, Lydia Martens, Daniela BordaAbstractA transdisciplinary observational study, coupled with a web-based survey, was conducted to investigate refrigerated storage of food, in five European countries. The investigated consumer groups in this study were: young families with small children and/or pregnant women, elderly people, persons with an immunodeficient system, and young single men. The refrigerator temperature was monitored for approximately two weeks using a temperature data logger. Variables such as country, income, age of refrigerators, education, living area, refrigerator loading practices had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the overall average fridge temperature, whereas consumers' practices showed a significant influence (p
       
  • Bactericidal activity of copper-ascorbic acid mixture against
           Staphylococcus aureus spp.
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Rabin Gyawali, Tahl Zimmerman, Sulaiman O. Aljaloud, Salam A. IbrahimThe purpose of this study was to investigate the bactericidal activity of copper (Cu, 10 ppm) and ascorbic acid (AA, 0.3% v/v) mixture against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC 25923 (methicillin-susceptible) and ATCC 700698 (methicillin-resistant) strains. Approximately 5.5 log10 CFU/ml of each strain was individually inoculated into brain heart infusion (BHI) broth containing Cu, AA, and a Cu-AA mixture, and a time-kill assay was conducted to assess the bactericidal activity. In order to determine the efficacy of Cu-AA mixture as a surface decontaminating solution, the cells were first attached to glass slides (~6.5–7.5 log10 CFU per slide) and treated with a Cu-AA mixture for 1 min. The inner membrane permeability of the S. aureus strains was determined by measuring β-Galactosidase activity. Similarly, changes in the protein profile of treated bacterial cells were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The time-kill study revealed>3.0 log10 CFU/ml reduction in both strains within 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. Attached cells on glass slides were also reduced by > 3.0 log10 CFU per slide after 1 min of exposure to the Cu-AA mixture. The results indicate that the Cu-AA mixture was bactericidal against S. aureus strains and the damage to the inner cell membrane could be attributed to this effect.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Residues determination and dietary exposure to ethoxyquin and ethoxyquin
           dimer in farmed aquatic animals in South Korea
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Soo Yeon Choi, Nam ji Kwon, Hui-Seung Kang, Joohye Kim, Byung-Hoon Cho, Jae-Ho OhAbstractWe aimed to estimate the dietary exposure level of ethoxyquin (EQ) and its main metabolite ethoxyquin dimer (EQDM) in 6 kinds of farmed aquatic animals based on the residues and aquatic animal consumption data from Korea. The residues were measured in 143 aquatic animal samples by LC-MS/MS. The dietary exposure level was estimated under four scenarios based on the WHO guidelines. The residue concentrations of EQ and EQDM were in the ranges of 0.14–24.2 and 0.1–315 μg/kg, respectively. The sum of aquatic animal consumption for six aquatic animals was 6.38 g/day (whole group) and 372 g/day (consumer only) in the national food consumption survey. Based on our results, there is no significant risk resulting from EQ and EQDM exposure of humans under all scenarios. This is the first study to present the residue concentrations and exposure levels of EQ and EQDM in farmed aquatic animals in Korea.
       
  • Microbial challenge study and quality evaluation of cumin seeds
           pasteurized by continuous radio frequency processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Long Chen, Sibel Irmak, Byron D. Chaves, Jeyamkondan SubbiahAbstractThe objective of this study was to validate the continuous radio frequency pasteurization of cumin seeds and evaluate cumin quality after treatment. In the present study, microbial validation of continuous radiofrequency (RF) pasteurization of cumin seeds was investigated. The specific heat capacity was measured for three batches of cumin samples with two replicates. Specific heat capacity values of batch 2 and 3 were similar, while the values showed variation when compared to that of batch 1. Overall, no significant differences were found in color, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and relative compositions of volatile compounds in cumin seeds before and after continuous RF pasteurization. However, when individual peak areas of volatiles were compared, the treated samples of all three batches were significantly different from their corresponding control samples. This continuous RF microbial validation study can be used for scaling-up RF pasteurization technology to an industrial scale. This study shows that RF holds a great potential for the industrial pasteurization of cumin seeds.
       
  • Standardisation of near infrared hyperspectral imaging for quantification
           and classification of DON contaminated wheat samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Antoni Femenias, Ferran Gatius, Antonio J. Ramos, Vicente Sanchis, Sonia MarínAbstractNear infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI-NIR) is considered a promising technique able to replace time-consuming, costly and destructive classic methods to predict and classify deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated wheat kernels or samples by its concentration and level of contamination, respectively. The main objective of the present study was to standardise the HSI-NIR image acquisition method in naturally contaminated whole wheat kernels to obtain a high accuracy method to quantify and classify samples according to DON levels. To confirm the results, wheat samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography as the reference method to determine their DON levels. Hyperspectral images for single kernels and whole samples were obtained and spectral data were processed by multivariate analysis software. The initial work revealed that HSI-NIR was able to overcome kernel orientation, position and pixel selection. The subsequent developed Partial Least Squares (PLS) prediction achieved a RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of Prediction) of 405 μg/kg and 1174 μg/kg for a cross-validated model and an independent set validated model, respectively. Moreover, the classification accuracy obtained by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was 62.7% for two categories depending on the EU maximum level (1250 μg/kg). Despite of the results are not accurate enough for DON quantification and sample classification, they can be considered a starting point for further improved protocols for DON management.
       
  • Milk substrates influence proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas
           fluorescens
    strains
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Antonio Colantuono, Paolo D'Incecco, M. Grazia Fortina, Veronica Rosi, Giovanni Ricci, Luisa PellegrinoAbstractPseudomonas fluorescens spoiling raw milk produces a heat-stable protease, namely AprX, that may degrade k-casein with a chymosin-like activity thus causing gelation of commercial milk during storage. Four strains of P. fluorescens were selected for both the presence of aprX gene and proteolytic activity in milk agar plate (a negative control was included) and were incubated in various milk substrates, i.e. pasteurized milk, UHT milk and reconstituted milk powder, differing for heat-treatment and presence of fat, in order to evaluate whether the type of milk substrates could affect their growth and proteolytic activity. While bacterial growth was mainly influenced by temperature (4 or 25 °C) for all strains, HPLC and CZE patterns of incubated milk samples showed that the extent and trend of proteolysis were highly heterogeneous and not exclusively strain-dependent. Indeed, pasteurized milk was the only substrate where aprX-positive strains led to gelation onset whereas other milk types underwent different destabilization. Ultrastructural features observed by transmission electron microscopy for casein micelles, whey proteins and fat globules, where present, explained how the processing conditions, sometimes including repeated heat-treatments, may have influenced the extent of proteolysis operated by P. fluorescens strains in the tested milk substrates. This study has highlighted that different milk substrates may bring to different conclusions when used in experiments aiming to elucidate the mechanisms of bacterial proteolysis since both ultrastructural and compositional properties may impact on accessibility of cleavage sites to proteases.
       
  • Quality of lipid fraction during Spanish-style table olives processing of
           Sigoise and Azzeradj cultivars
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Fadila Ait Chabane, Pierangella Rovellini, Saliha Boucheffa, Eduardo Medina, Abderezak TamendjariAbstractThis work aimed to study the effect of different steps of Spanish-style processing (raw olives, lye treatment, washing, and fermentation) on the oil quality index (Acidity, peroxide value (PV) and extinction coefficient UV at 232 nm and 270), fatty acids, phenols, tocopherols, hexanal and nonanal compounds, and antioxidant activity of the lipid fraction of green Sigoise and Azzeradj cultivar. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to discriminate the samples according to cultivars and elaboration phases. Most of the variance of the quality parameters and fatty acids was due to cultivars and less for processing.After processing, a substantial loss in the total and individual phenolic compounds was recorded (79.25% and 67.58% for Azzeradj and Sigoise, respectively), but the most significant reduction occurred at lye treatment and washing step rather than the fermentation. Tocopherols were less affected than the phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of the total lipid fraction of olives was less affected than that of its methanolic extract alone.
       
  • High-humidity hot air impingement blanching (HHAIB) efficiently
           inactivates enzymes, enhances extraction of phytochemicals and mitigates
           brown actions of chili pepper
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Hui Wang, Qian Zhang, A.S. Mujumdar, Xiao-Ming Fang, Jun Wang, Yu-Peng Pei, Wei Wu, Magdalena Zielinska, Hong-Wei XiaoAbstractIn current work, high-humidity hot air impingement blanching (HHAIB) was employed to inactivate peroxidase enzymes (POD) of chili pepper under three independent variables, namely blanching temperature (105, 110, and 115 °C), relative humidity (20%, 30%, and 40%), and blanching time (30, 60, and 90 s). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the blanching conditions based on product POD residual activity and browning index. Results indicated that blanching temperature of 110 °C, relative humidity of 40% and blanching time of 38 s were the optimum blanching conditions, which resulted in the minimum POD residual activity (0.52%) and browning index difference (7.09). Validation test showed that the predicted data had good agreement with the experimental data. Results also indicated that compared with the non-blanched samples, the extraction content of ascorbic acid and red pigment from blanched pepper under optimal blanching conditions increased by 42.85% and 8.20%, respectively. Ultrastructural observations explained why moderate blanching can promote the extraction of phytochemicals. The findings in current work indicate that HHAIB can efficiently inactivate enzymes, enhance extraction of phytochemicals and at the meantime mitigate brown actions under optimal conditions.
       
  • Geographical origin identification of garlic cultivated in Korea using
           isotopic and multi-elemental analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Seung-Hyun Choi, Yeon-Sik Bong, Jin Hee Park, Kwang-Sik LeeAbstractAuthentication of geographical origin is important in protecting agricultural products with registered trademarks. This study determined the geographical origin of garlic cultivated in the Republic of Korea using stable isotope ratios and multi-element concentrations. The isotope ratio reflected cultivation practice and environmental conditions. The major (Ca, Mg, P, S, Al, and Sr) and trace (As and Se) element concentrations were influenced by the bedrock in the garlic cultivation regions. Discriminant analysis (DA) using selected variables for garlic from different cultivation regions showed that 89% of the garlic was correctly classified according to the region of geographical cultivation with different lithological and climatic conditions. Stable isotopic compositions coupled to element concentrations showed better discriminating power than DA only with stable isotopic compositions or element concentrations. Therefore, the combination of a stable isotope ratio and multi-elemental concentrations is a useful tool for identifying garlic from different geographical origins.
       
  • Combined use of natural antimicrobial based nanoemulsions and ultra high
           pressure homogenization to increase safety and shelf-life of apple juice
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Francesca Patrignani, Lorenzo Siroli, Giacomo Braschi, Rosalba LanciottiThe present research was aimed to investigate the potentialities of ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) to produce stable natural antimicrobial based nanoemulsions. Initially, the nanoemulsions were characterized for their size, stability over time and antimicrobial properties against several pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. After that nanoemulsions were tested to increase the safety and shelf-life of apple juice deliberately inoculated with pathogenic (Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Staph. aureus SR231, Escherichia coli 555) and spoilage microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPA, Lactobacillus plantarum 82) and treated with different high pressure homogenization treatments. The analyses performed by dynamic laser light scattering showed that the hexanal and trans-2-hexenal based nanoemulsions were characterized by an average size of 86 and 100 nm, respectively while they were characterized by a stability, over time, of 14 months without separation. Moreover, the nanoemulsions resulted, after the UHPH treatment, colourless. The pathogenic species deliberately inoculated in apple juice decreased their cell loads with different kinetics in relation to the use of hexanal and trans-2-hexenal and high pressure homogenization treatment applied. Regarding spoilage microorganisms, S. cerevisiae cell loads decreased under detection limit (1 log CFU/mL) in juice containing nanoemulsions and treated at 200 MPa for 2 cycles. The data of the present research contribute to support the application of natural antimicrobial based nanoemulsions into complex food system, enlarging the experimental evidence for their use in food sector. In particular, the obtained hexanal and tran-2-hexenal based nanoemulsions have demonstrated great application, due also to their organoleptic compatibility, to the fruit juice sector, promoting also an increase of quality of apple juice.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of processing on microbial safety of wild pepper (Piper borbonense)
           from Reunion Island
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Mathieu Weil, Fabienne Remize, Noel Durand, Pascaline Alter, Mathilde Hoarau, Jean Christophe MeileAbstractThe management of microbial contamination is an important issue in spice trade. For common domesticated black pepper (Piper spp.), the control relies mainly on post-process decontamination. The aim of the present study was to examine microbial contamination of wild pepper (Piper borbonense) from Reunion Island and investigate the effects of different processing paths on microbiological quality and fungal ecology. The fresh pepper microbial counts ranged from 4.6 to 6.8 log CFUg−1. Blanching had a positive significant impact on the microbiological quality of pepper whereas sweating led to microbial growth up to 5 log CFUg−1 and, therefore, should be avoided. Microbial counts for dried pepper were 1.33 log CFUg−1; 3.37 log CFUg−1; 1.67 log CFUg−1 and 1.3 log CFUg−1 for coliforms, TAMB, Staphylococcus, yeast and moulds, respectively. Potential mycotoxin producers were identified from pepper samples but aflatoxins and ochratoxin A levels detected were far below the regulation limits. The initial diversity of fungal contamination is prominent for the final quality of pepper in contrast to the impact of processes. The revisited wet process (blanching then drying), which positively affected all microbial loads, could be a good option for pepper transformation.
       
  • Real-time assessing the lipid oxidation of prawn (Litopenaeus vannamei)
           during air-frying by iKnife coupling rapid evaporative ionization mass
           spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Gongshuai Song, Linqiu Li, Haixing Wang, Mengna Zhang, Xina Yu, Jie Wang, Jing Xue, Qing ShenAbstractAir-frying is a novel way of preparing fried food but easily induces lipid oxidation because of the direct contact between the raw product and circulated hot air in the fryer chamber. In this study, a lipidomics approach for real-time monitoring and assessing the dynamic oxidation characteristics of lipids in prawn was explored by an iKnife coupled to rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) method. The effect of air-frying on the lipid oxidation in prawn at different temperatures was investigated. The obtained profiling data were statistically analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis, including principle component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-square analysis (OPLS-DA), which showed that the difference in fatty acid (FA) and phospholipid molecular species (PMS) was statistically significant (p  0.8. Based on the shared and unique structures plot, the ions of m/z 255.23, 764.52, 766.53, and 816.55 were regarded as the major contributors for the discrimination of various processed prawn samples, and their effectiveness was further verified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The results indicated that the proposed iKnife-REIMS could serve as an in-situ and real-time method for monitoring and assessing the lipids, and be employed as a front-line fast detection mean to ensure the fried product quality.
       
  • Camel milk whey hydrolysate inhibits growth and biofilm formation of
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
           aureus
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Mahmoud Abdel-Hamid, Ehab Romeih, Paola Saporito, Ali Osman, Ramona Valentina Mateiu, Biljana Mojsoska, Håvard JenssenAbstractPseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are amongst the most virulent pathogens, causing chronic and life-threatening human infections. Thus, novel natural compounds able to inhibit these pathogens, reduce and/or eradicate their biofilms are in high demand. Camel milk has been demonstrated to contain many functional and bioactive molecules and has consequently been considered in various therapeutic applications. This study aimed to assess the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the camel milk whey proteins after hydrolysis by papain, and the obtained fractions from size exclusion chromatography (SEC) against PAO1 and MRSA. Antibacterial activity of camel milk whey against PAO1 and MRSA was enhanced by hydrolysis with papain. Size-exclusion fraction 2 (SEC-F2) had significantly (P ˂ 0.01) the highest antibacterial activity against PAO1 and MRSA with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.156 and 0.3125 mg/mL, respectively. Additionally, SEC-F2 significantly (P ˂ 0.01) decreased the biofilm biomass by 60.45% and 85.48% for PAO1 and MRSA, respectively. Moreover, SEC-F2 potentially reduced the PAO1 and MRSA biofilms depending on its concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 fraction caused potential morphological changes in both PAO1 and MRSA, mostly represented in cell elongation and leakage of cytoplasmic content. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of camel milk whey with papain generates robust antibacterial and antibiofilm small-peptides against PAO1 and MRSA.
       
  • Traceability: Perceptions and attitudes of Brazilian non-bovine dairy
           processors
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Leo O. Lopes, Ramon Silva, Jonas T. Guimarães, Nathalia M. Coutinho, Tatiana C. Pimentel, Maria Carmela K.H. Duarte, Mônica Q. Freitas, Marcia C. Silva, Erick A. Esmerino, Denise R.P. Azeredo, Adriano G. CruzAbstractThe perception of Brazilian non-bovine dairy processors (goat, sheep and buffalo, n = 32) located in eight states of Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Parana, Goiás, Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, and Ceará), regarding the implementation of traceability was investigated. A questionnaire consisting of 16 statements using a 5-point Likert Scale was applied and the data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and factor analysis. It was agreed that the implementation of a traceability system allows a quick recall of products, and reduces the negative impact, the number of consumer complaints and the loss of products. In addition, it can result in increased supplier control and process safety, protecting consumer's health and increasing their confidence. However, the relationship between the traceability system and the cost savings in the process and/or price of the final product was not a consensus. Although dairy companies agreed that traceability is highly relevant to the company, many are unwilling to invest in implementation of the system. Therefore, non-bovine milk-producing units in Brazil are aware of the impact of implementing traceability, but still have doubts about the costs involved, which restrict investments in the system.
       
  • Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw, pasteurized, UHT cows’ milk, and
           dairy products in Lebanon
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Rouaa Daou, Charbel Afif, Karine Joubrane, Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz, Richard Maroun, Ali Ismail, André El KhouryAbstractIn this study, a total amount of 868 samples of raw cows' milk, pasteurized and UHT cows’ milk, and dairy products were analyzed for their AFM1 content. Milk and dairy consumption in Lebanon was evaluated through a food frequency questionnaire, and accordingly the exposure to AFM1 and its association with liver cancer risk in Lebanese population were evaluated. Results showed contamination in raw milk, pasteurized and UHT milk, and dairy products at a range of 0.011–0.440 μg/l, 0.013–0.219 μg/L, and 0.015–7.350 μg/L respectively; with 28%, 54.5%, and 45.5% respectively of samples with AFM1 above maximum tolerable limit (MTL) set by the European Commission. AFM1 consumption was shown to be associated with 0.0041 additional cancer cases per 100,000 persons per year. Based on these results, milk and dairy consumption in Lebanon can be considered hazardous and may present a significant risk on the health of the Lebanese population especially children.
       
  • Effect of door opening frequency and duration of an enclosed refrigerated
           display case on product temperatures and energy consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): J. Atilio de Frias, Yaguang Luo, Bin Zhou, Boce Zhang, David. T. Ingram, Keith Vorst, Jeffrey K. Brecht, John StommelAbstractRetail display of highly perishable foods behind glass doors ensures uniform product temperatures below the FDA Food Code threshold of 5 °C, resulting in better-preserved foods while reducing energy costs. However, only a handful of studies have evaluated the effect of repeated door openings on product temperatures and energy consumption with contrasting reports. In this paper, we evaluated the effects of two frequencies (doors opened every 5 or 15 min) and four durations (doors held ajar for 5, 15, 30 or 60 s) on product simulator temperatures in a display case installed in our research supermarket. At ambient conditions (19.6–20.9 °C, 63% RH), with a case thermostat setting of 0.6 °C and a daily 30-min defrost cycle, the only statistically significant fluctuation in product simulator temperatures was found for the most aggressive opening schedule where the door was opened every 5 min for 60 s at each opening. Pairwise comparisons demonstrated that this treatment resulted in product simulator temperatures (up to 6.6 °C during defrost cycle) that were significantly higher (p 
       
  • Antimicrobial effects and membrane damage mechanism of blueberry
           (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extract against Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Xiao-hong Sun, Li-ran Hao, Qing-chao Xie, Wei-qing Lan, Yong Zhao, Ying-jie Pan, Vivian C.H. WuAbstractThis study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effect and membrane damage mechanism of blueberry extract against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of blueberry extract against three strains of V. parahaemolyticus were determined. The antimicrobial activity of blueberry extract on V. parahaemolyticus inoculated in salmon was evaluated. The effect of blueberry extract on V. parahaemolyticus cell membrane was visualized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We examined the antimicrobial mechanism of blueberry extract in the regulation of the seven membrane genes expression. The MIC for V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802, ATCC 33847 and F 13 was 25, 25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively, whereas the MBC was 50, 50 and 25 mg/mL, respectively. The blueberry extract has antimicrobial effect on V. parahaemolyticus in salmon samples. The V. parahaemolyticus exposed to 1 × MIC showed distorted membrane morphology and leakage of cellular contents. The cytoplasmic constituents were aggregated, causing a wide range of hollow areas in the cells. The expression of seven membrane genes in V. parahaemolyticus treated with blueberry extract was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to that in the control, the gene expression of fadL and nusA was upregulated by 1.1-, 2.1-, 4.1-fold and 7.4-, 4.3-, 3.6-fold in V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802, ATCC 33847 and F 13, respectively. The gene expression of ef-Tu was downregulated by 1.1-, 2.7-, 3.3-fold in the three strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Findings from this study revealed that blueberry extract had strong antibacterial effect and inhibited gene transcription to disrupt cell membrane structure and energy transport. Further studies investigating potential antimicrobial applications of blueberry extract are necessary to provide a basis for the development and utilization of blueberries as an antimicrobial agent.
       
  • Identification of the geographical origins of sea cucumbers in China: The
           application of stable isotope ratios and compositions of C, N, O and H
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Xuming Kang, Yanfang Zhao, Derong Shang, Yuxiu Zhai, Jinsong Ning, Haiyan Ding, Xiaofeng ShengAbstractThe determination of the geographical origins of seafood is significant for food safety and health of consumers. It is necessary to develop a feasible method of identifying the geographical origins of sea cucumbers in China. In this study, 76 sea cucumbers collected from five different regions in China were analyzed for the stable isotope ratios and compositions of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H). One way analysis of variance was adopted for the study of the differences in the stable isotope ratios and compositions of C, N, O and H in these sea cucumbers. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used as exploratory techniques and classification procedures, respectively. The one way analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference (p 
       
  • Unfiltered beer based marinades reduced exposure to carcinogens and
           suppressed conjugated fatty acid oxidation in grilled meats
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Charles F. Manful, Natalia P. Vidal, Thu H. Pham, Muhammad Nadeem, Evan Wheeler, Melissa C. Hamilton, Karen M. Doody, Raymond H. ThomasAbstractGrilled meat consumption is associated with exposure to carcinogenic compounds and increased risk factors for cancers. We investigated the efficacy of novel formulations of unfiltered India session ale and Wheat ale based-marinades enhanced with antioxidant-rich herbs and spices to suppress formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) while protecting anticarcinogenic conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) from lipid oxidation in grilled ruminant meats. Both formulations significantly enhanced the polyphenolic content of grilled beef by 54–71% and moose meat by 178–314% compared to their unmarinated controls. The antioxidant activities increased by 57–96% and 58–139% with concomitant suppression of total conjugated linoleic acid oxidation by 30–37% and 432% in grilled beef and moose meats respectively compared to their unmarinated counterparts. Furthermore, 88–97% of HCA suppression and 61–71% of CLAs retention came from phenolics in the marinades. This system could be useful for reducing the risk factors associated with red meat consumption while promoting health.
       
  • Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in youtiao and exposure
           assessment from Shandong Province, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Food Control, Volume 111Author(s): Xiaolin Wang, Shufan Wang, Fenghua Li, Renpeng Li, Jing Zhu, Jindong Chen, Wei Li, Dafeng JiangAbstractThis study analyzed 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 170 youtiao (Chinese dough sticks) samples collected from Shandong Province of China, which were determined using high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The results indicated that the incidence rate of PAHs compounds was 89.4% and the mean concentration of 15 PAHs was 65.8 μg/kg. Naphthalene (Nap) was detected with the highest concentration and the largest incidence rate. One sample exceeded the maximum level of 1 μg/kg for the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in cereals and cereal-based products set by European Union (EU), while 47 samples exceeded the maximum level of 1 μg/kg for PAH4 set by EU. The dietary exposure of PAHs and the potential human health risk assessment were assessed using estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for each class of contaminant. The THQ values were below the safe standard of 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due to individual PAH was low. The ILCR results for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all lower than the priority level (1 × 10−4), implying no significant cancer risk related to youtiao consumption for local population. Further data are still needed for proper management of the risks associated with PAHs in youtiao samples.
       
 
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