Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 387 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access  
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access  
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access  
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Technology, Siam University     Open Access  
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Travel     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Food and Chemical Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.144
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 23  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-6915
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Immune Th17 lymphocytes play a critical role in the multiple beneficial
           properties of resveratrol
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 137Author(s): Dominique Delmas, Emeric Limagne, François Ghiringhelli, Virginie AiresModulation of the inflammatory response is one of the major issues of the 21st century due to its importance in the occurrence of various pathologies (cancer, autoimmune diseases, degenerative diseases) and their progression over time. Whether acute or chronic, the inflammatory response is directly related to the immune response through different subtypes of T lymphocytes. In addition, among the compounds capable of modulating the cells of the immune system, resveratrol, a polyphenol with pleiotropic biological properties, seems to be a good candidate. Indeed, resveratrol is able to alter the immune response by modulating the process of lymphocyte differentiation and subsequently diminishing the inflammatory-associated response. More specifically, thanks to its ability to act as a sirtuin-1 agonist, it can deacetylate the transcription factor STAT3 and alter nuclear factors essential to the process of lymphocyte differentiation. We present and discuss these different aspects in relation to various pathologies and how the alteration of the ratios between the different lymphocyte subtypes by resveratrol is an important element to take into account when studying its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Bisphenol A exposure is involved in the development of Parkinson like
           disease in Drosophila melanogaster
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Elize Aparecida Santos Musachio, Stífani Machado Araujo, Vandreza Cardoso Bortolotto, Shanda de Freitas Couto, Mustafa Munir Mustafa Dahleh, Marcia Rósula Poetini, Eliana Fernandes Jardim, Luana Barreto Meichtry, Bruna Piaia Ramborger, Rafael Roehrs, Gustavo Petri Guerra, Marina PrigolThe pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease has not been fully clarified yet but its cause is known to be multifactorial. One of these factors is oxidative stress induced by exposure to environmental toxifiers. We studied the effect of Bisphenol A (BPA) at concentrations of 0.5 mM and 1 mM, the concentration of 1 mM corresponding to Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) for humans in adult Drosophila melanogaster. The BPA induced oxidative stress was established by increased levels of malondialdehyde, reactive species, and decreased activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and detoxificant enzyme glutathione-S-transferase. Associated with oxidative stress, there was a reduction of acetylcholinesterase activity and a reduction of dopamine levels, which are related to the decreased locomotion activity as observed in negative geotaxis, open field and equilibrium behaviors in group exposed to 1 mM of BPA. Oxidative stress also impaired mitochondrial and cellular metabolic activity in the head causing an increase in the mortality of flies exposed to both BPA concentrations. Therefore, BPA induced Parkinsonian-like changes in flies and it is possible that the oxidative stress is closely related to this effect, providing new insights for future studies.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of doxycycline for
           predicting tissue residues and withdrawal intervals in grass carp
           (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Ning Xu, Miao Li, Wei-Chun Chou, Zhoumeng LinThe extensive use of doxycycline in aquaculture results in drug residue violations that negatively impact human food safety. This study aimed to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for doxycycline to predict drug residues and withdrawal times (WTs) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after daily oral administration for 3 days. Physiological parameters including cardiac output and organ weights were measured experimentally. Chemical-specific parameters were obtained from the literature or estimated by fitting to the observed data. The model properly captured the observed kinetic profiles of doxycycline in tissues (i.e., liver, kidney, muscle + skin and gill). The predicted WT in muscle + skin by Monte Carlo analysis based on sensitive parameters identified at 24 h after drug administration was 41 d, which was similar to 43 d calculated using the tolerance limit method. Sensitivity analysis identified two additional sensitive parameters at 6 weeks: intestinal transit rate constant and urinary elimination rate constant. The predicted WT in muscle + skin based on sensitive parameters identified at 6 weeks was 54 d. This model provides a useful tool to estimate tissue residues and withdrawal times for doxycycline in grass carp and also serves a foundation for extrapolation to other fish species and other tetracyclines.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • A method to assess lifetime dietary risk: Example of cadmium exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Manon Pruvost-Couvreur, Bruno Le Bizec, Camille Béchaux, Gilles RivièreAbstractUsually health risk related to food contaminants is assessed based on consumption data collected on a few days. Consequently, this approach considers neither the evolution of exposures over time nor the potential accumulation of the substance.The aim of the present study was to develop a method to assess lifetime dietary risk due to cadmium exposure.Three methods were compared, respectively based on age, dietary pattern and sociodemographic characteristics. Additionally, exposure trajectories were converted into cadmium body burden trajectories using a PBTK-TD model ultimately predicting the occurrence of renal effects.It was shown that dietary exposures to cadmium, as well as exceedances of health based guidance values, greatly vary with age and individual profiles.The developed methods allowed identifying parameters affecting dietary exposure to cadmium and distinguishing at-risk subpopulations. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that it is necessary to consider individual changes through life and kinetic of the substance to assess risk properly.
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 10-dodecen-3-one,
           5-hydroxy-7,11-dimethyl-, CAS registry number 68922-12-3
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • Hazard assessment of small-size plastic particles: is the conceptual
           framework of particle toxicology useful'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Frederikke Emilie Heddagaard, Peter MøllerAbstractHumans are exposed to plastic particles, but there are no studies on environmental plastics in cell cultures or animals. The toxicological understanding arises from model particles like polystyrene, polyethylene or non-plastic particles like food-grade titanium dioxide. The majority of studies on polystyrene particles show toxicological effects on measures of oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, lysosomal dysfunction and apoptosis. The toxic effects in cell cultures mainly occur at high concentrations. Polyethylene particles seem to generate inflammatory reactions, whereas other toxicological effects have not been assessed. There are very few studies on effects of polystyrene particles in animal models and these have not demonstrated overt indices of toxicity. Studies in animals are the likely way for hazard assessment of micro- or nanoplastics. However, co-culture systems that mimic the complex architecture of mammalian tissues can cost-efficiently determine the hazards of micro- and nanoplastics. Future studies should include low doses of micro- and nanoplastic particles, which are more relevant in the assessment of health risk than the extrapolation of effects from high doses to realistic doses. Based on studies on model particles, environmental exposure to micro- and nanoplastic particles may be a hazard to human health.
       
  • Egr1/p300/ACE signal mediates postnatal osteopenia in female rat offspring
           induced by prenatal ethanol exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Zhixin Wu, Zhengqi Pan, Yinxian Wen, Hao Xiao, Yangfan Shangguan, Liaobin Chen, Hui WangPrenatal ethanol exposure induces developmental toxicities of multiple organs in offspring. Here, we investigate the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on bone mass in postnatal offspring and explore its intrauterine programming mechanism. We found that prenatal ethanol exposure could induce bone dysplasia in fetuses and postnatal osteopenia in female offspring, accompanied by the sustained activation of the local renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) and inhibition of bone formation. Additionally, we also found that histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) and H3K27ac levels in the promoter region of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were increased in female offspring exposed to ethanol during pregnancy. In vitro, ethanol suppressed the formation of mineralized nodules and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), which was blocked by enalapril. Furthermore, ethanol promoted the expression and nuclear translocation of early growth response factor 1 (Egr1), which participated in the promotion of histone acetylation of ACE and subsequent RAS activation, by recruiting p300 and binding to the ACE promoter region directly. These findings indicate that the sustained activation of the local RAS might participate in bone dysplasia in fetus and postnatal osteopenia in the female offspring, while the Egr1/p300/ACE signal might be a key promoter of the sustained activation of the local RAS of the long bone.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic
           acid, 2,6,6-trimethyl-, methyl ester, CAS registry number 815580-59-7
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • A comparison of the effects of apigenin and seven of its derivatives on
           selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and coagulation in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Iwona Kowalska, Weronika Adach, Anna Stochmal, Beata OlasApigenin is a phenolic compound widely present in many fruits, vegetables and herbs. Its name originates from Apium: a genus of the Apiaceae. The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant or pro-oxidant properties of apigenin and seven of its derivatives, isolated from the aerial parts of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum), in human plasma treated with a hydroxyl radical donor (OH•) in vitro. It also examines their influence on the parameters of coagulation. The compounds were found to demonstrate different effects on oxidative stress and coagulation which may be related to differences in their structure. In particular, apigenin 7-O-{2′-O-feruloyl-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1 → 3)]-β-D- glucuronopyranosyl(1 → 2)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside} demonstrates both antioxidant and anticoagulant activities, and may offer the most promise for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders of all the phenolic compounds tested so far.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Cryptotanshinone enhances neurite outgrowth and memory via extracellular
           signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Huiyoung Kwon, Eunbi Cho, Jieun Jeon, Kyung Sook Kim, Ye Lim Jin, Young Choon Lee, Jeanho Yun, Se Jin Park, Jee Hyun Yi, Dong Hyun KimAbstractNeurite outgrowth is important process in synaptic formation and neuronal development. Many previous studies reported that natural compounds as well as neurotrophins induce neurite outgrowth through various signaling pathways. In this study, we tested the effect of cryptotanshinone (CPT), a constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on neurite outgrowth using neuro2a cell line, a mouse neuroblastoma cell line. And then, we examined the effect of CPT on learning and memory. We first found that CPT facilitated neurite outgrowth in a concentration-dependent manner. Although CPT induced MTT reduction, CPT did not induce LDH release. Moreover, CPT suppressed cell proliferation. CPT increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and ERK1/2 inhibitor blocked CPT-facilitated neurite outgrowth. CPT also enhanced learning and memory without affecting basal sensory conditions and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that CPT facilitates neurite outgrowth and enhances learning and memory, which may be mediated by facilitating ERK1/2 signal.
       
  • LC-MS/MS methodology for simultaneous determination of patulin and
           citrinin in urine and plasma applied to a pilot study in colorectal cancer
           patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Salma Ouhibi, Arnau Vidal, Carla Martins, Ridha Gali, Abderrazzek Hedhili, Sarah De Saeger, Marthe De BoevreAbstractBiomarker-driven research has been proposed as a successful method to assess the exposure of individuals to xenobiotics, including mycotoxins, through estimation of their metabolites in biological fluids. A methodology to determine patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CIT) in human urine and plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated in the present study. Selectivity/specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, apparent recovery, intraday- and interday-precision and measurement uncertainty were investigated for validation purposes. Finally, the method was used to analyze human urine (n = 100) and plasma (n = 100) case-control samples, where 50 samples originated from colorectal cancer patients and 50 from age/sex-matched controls. This case-control study revealed that PAT was not detected in urine samples, however occurred in 25% of the analysed plasma samples with an average concentration of 11.62 ± 6.67 ng/mL in the positive samples. CIT was found in urine samples (74%) and plasma samples (36%) with average concentrations in the positive samples of 0.45 ± 0.24 ng/mL and 0.49 ± 0.2 ng/mL respectively. No statistically significant difference of PAT and CIT concentration among colorectal cancer and control patients (p > 0.05) was observed.
       
  • Protective effect of Pedro-Ximénez must against p,p'-DDE-induced liver
           damages in aged Mus spretus mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Noelia Morales-Prieto, Nieves López de Lerma, Isabel L. Pacheco, Paula V. Huertas-Abril, José Pérez, Rafael Peinado, Nieves AbrilAging is characterized by deterioration of biomolecules and impaired stress responses that make the elderly especially vulnerable to environmental pollutants. The pesticide p,p'-DDE is a DDT derivative that generates great concern because of its wide distribution and its harmful effects on both human health and the environment. We analyzed here the biological responses elicited by p,p'-DDE exposure in the liver of aged Mus spretus mice. Data demonstrate that the elderly constitute a population especially sensitive to this noxious environmental pollutant. We also demonstrated here that the daily consumption of sun-dried Pedro Ximénez (PX) white-grape must (PXM) protects the liver of aged mice from both the age and the damages caused by p,p'-DDE exposure. The PXM activity was exerted through the restoration of the hepatic metabolisms of lipids and carbohydrates and, probably, is a consequence of the ability of this polyphenol-rich mixture to avoid oxidative stress. Nutritional interventions including PXM, which ameliorates the effects of unavoidable exposure to pesticides in our food, are helpful tools that can help elderly populations to enjoy a healthy and expanded lifetime.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Genotoxicity and biocompatibility of superparamagnetic iron oxide
           nanoparticles: Influence of surface modification on biodistribution,
           retention, DNA damage and oxidative stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Swarupa Ghosh, Ilika Ghosh, Manoswini Chakrabarti, Anita MukherjeeSuperparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) require stable surface modifications to render safe nanocapsules for biomedical applications. Herein, two types of surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-encapsulated SPION were synthesized using either α-tocopheryl-polyetheleneglycol-succinate (TPGS) or didodecyl-dimethyl-ammonium-bromide (DMAB) as surfactants by emulsification. SPION-TPGS (180 nm) was larger than SPION-DMAB (25 nm) and uncoated SPION (10 nm). Both formulations were positively charged and induced lower cyto-genotoxicity and ROS generation than uncoated SPION in human lymphocytes. SPION-DMAB was least cyto-genotoxic among the three. Based on these results, mice were gavaged with the formulations for 5 consecutive days and biocompatibility studies were performed on the 7th and 21st days. ICP-AES and Prussian blue staining revealed the internalization of SPION-DMAB in brain and spleen, and SPION-TPGS in liver and kidney on day 7. This was correlated with high DNA damage and oxidative stress in the same organs. Substantial clearance of Fe was accompanied by reduced genotoxicity and oxidative stress on day 21. Therefore, SPION-DMAB can be further studied for oral drug delivery to the brain and imaging of cerebral tissue without any functional ligand or external magnetic field.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Concentrations of nine bisphenol analogues in food purchased from
           Catalonia (Spain): Comparison of canned and non-canned foodstuffs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Neus González, Sara C. Cunha, Ricardo Ferreira, José O. Fernandes, Montse Marquès, Martí Nadal, José L. DomingoThe present study was aimed at assessing the exposure of an adult population to nine BPs analogues (BPA, BPS, BPF, BPB, BPAF, BPZ, BPE, BPAP and BPP) through a duplicate diet study. Up to 40 canned and non-canned food samples were purchased from Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) and further analyzed. Three of the nine BPs - BPA, BPB and BPE - were detected in the food samples. BPA was found in 93% and 36% of canned and non-canned samples, respectively, with a mean concentration of 22.49 and 4.73 μg/kg, respectively. Only one sample of canned asparagus (88.66 μg/kg) exceeded the new threshold set by the European Commission (50 μg/kg). BPB was found in canned and non-canned chicken and olive oil samples, with lower levels for canned chicken and non-canned olive oil. Finally, BPE was detected in non-canned mushrooms and nuts (2.40 and 12.35 μg/kg, respectively). Based on the current results, dietary intake for BPA was estimated to be 24.9 and 3.11 μg/day for canned and non-canned groups, respectively. The unexpected occurrence of BPs in non-canned products highlights the ubiquity of these compounds along the food production chain, beyond to the packaging.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 is a molecular target for the protective
           activity of mood stabilizers against mania-like behavior induced by
           d-amphetamine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Hai-Quyen Tran, Eun-Joo Shin, Kuniaki Saito, The-Vinh Tran, Dieu-Hien Phan, Naveen Sharma, Dae-Won Kim, Soo Young Choi, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Jae Hoon Cheong, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun KimIt is recognized that d-amphetamine (AMPH)-induced hyperactivity is thought to be a valid animal model of mania. In the present study, we investigated whether a proinflammatory oxidative gene indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is involved in AMPH-induced mitochondrial burden, and whether mood stabilizers (i.e., lithium and valproate) modulate IDO to protect against AMPH-induced mania-like behaviors. AMPH-induced IDO-1 expression was significantly greater than IDO-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex of wild type mice. IDO-1 expression was more pronounced in the mitochondria than in the cytosol. AMPH treatment activated intra-mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation and mitochondrial oxidative burden, while inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of the mitochondrial complex (I > II), mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, indicating that mitochondrial burden might be contributable to mania-like behaviors induced by AMPH. The behaviors were significantly attenuated by lithium, valproate, or IDO-1 knockout, but not in IDO-2 knockout mice. Lithium, valproate administration, or IDO-1 knockout significantly attenuated mitochondrial burden. Neither lithium nor valproate produced additive effects above the protective effects observed in IDO-1 KO in mice. Collectively, our results suggest that mood stabilizers attenuate AMPH-induced mania-like behaviors via attenuation of IDO-1-dependent mitochondrial stress, highlighting IDO-1 as a novel molecular target for the protective potential of mood stabilizers.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Inhalation exposure to cigarette smoke induces endothelial nitric oxide
           synthase uncoupling and enhances vascular collagen deposition in
           streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Van Quan Do, Kwang-Hoon Park, Yoon-Seok Seo, Jung-Min Park, Bumseok Kim, Sang-Kyum Kim, Jae Hyuck Sung, Moo-Yeol LeeAbstractSmoking is an acknowledged risk factor for vascular disorders, and vascular complication is a main outcome of diabetes. Hence, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke on blood vessels in diabetes, postulating that smoking might aggravate diabetic vascular impairment. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, cigarette smoke-exposed, diabetic, and cigarette smoke-exposed diabetic groups. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were exposed to cigarette smoke by inhalation at total particulate matter concentration of 200 μg/L for 4 h/day, 5 day/week for a total of 4 weeks. Diabetes caused structural change of aorta, but additional cigarette smoke exposure did not induce further alteration. Collagen, a marker for fibrosis, was increased in media of diabetic aorta, and this increase was augmented by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the diabetic group. Malondialdehyde was increased and glutathione was decreased in blood from diabetes, but these effects were not exaggerated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke caused NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 expression in diabetic aorta and enhanced diabetes-induced NOX4 expression in aorta. Taken together, cigarette smoke exposure can aggravate vascular fibrosis and induce eNOS uncoupling in diabetes under experimental condition, suggesting that smoking might exacerbate diabetic vascular impairments.
       
  • The relationship of obesity with lifestyle and dietary exposure to
           endocrine-disrupting chemicals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): L. Heras-González, J.A. Latorre, M. Martinez-Bebia, D. Espino, F. Olea-Serrano, M. Mariscal-ArcasAbstractPhytoestrogens are natural components of plants, including numerous foods that form part of the habitual diet of humans and animals. They have similar estrogenic effects to those of synthetic endocrine disrupters such as monomers of plastic materials, e.g., polycarbonates and epoxy resins. The most frequently used monomer is bisphenol A (BPA), which has been found to migrate from drink and food packaging, plastic baby bottles, and the coating of cans. Numerous studies have associated exposure to endocrine disrupters with obesity, classifying them as obesogens. The objectives of this study were to estimate the dietary exposure to phytoestrogens and BPA in a group of Spanish schoolchildren and to estimate their potential obesogenic effects. The diet of this population of healthy Spanish children was estimated to have a mean total estrogenic capacity of 5.10−12 M eq.E2 (5 pmol/day). The effects of this additional estrogenic burden are highly controversial, and no definitive conclusion has been reached. Thus, some authors consider exposure to these substances with estrogenic activity to be positive at certain stages of life, whereas others regard it as posing a risk at any age. In the present population of children, the likelihood of normal weight versus obesity was significantly related to the total proliferative effect (OR = 0.51, p = 0.026) as well as to the energy expenditure on physical activity, with lesser activity implying a greater risk of obesity (OR = 13.54, p = 0.001). Further research is warranted on the obesogenic effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors present in foods.
       
  • Part I. polyphenols composition and antioxidant potential during
           ‘Blaufränkisch’ grape maceration and red wine maturation, and the
           effects of trans-resveratrol addition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Nataša Poklar Ulrih, Rok Opara, Mihaela Skrt, Tatjana Košmerl, Mojmir Wondra, Veronika AbramThe effects of extended maceration (13 days) were investigated for extraction of trans-resveratrol and other phenolics from grapes of cultivar ‘Blaufränkisch’, and then during the subsequent maturation of the wine (250 days). Total phenolics and three subgroups of phenolics were followed. The concentrations of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total anthocyanins, but not of total nonflavonoids, increased with extended maceration, and then decreased after 250 days of maturation. Trans- and cis-resveratrol concentrations increased following extended maceration and maturation (6.5, 2.9 mg/L, respectively). The maximum polydatin concentration was reached after only 6 days of maceration (10.9 mg/L). The antioxidant potential of the must increased following extended maceration (12.3 mmol DPPH2/L), and then remained unchanged for the red wine after maturation. Addition of trans-resveratrol to the red wine and into model solutions showed increased solubility and stability of trans-resveratrol in the red wines over the model solutions. Minor increases in antioxidant potential and better stability of malvidin-3-glucoside were also seen.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Subchronic feeding toxicity studies of drought-tolerant transgenic wheat
           MGX11-10 in Wistar Han RCC rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Yinghua Liu, Shujing Zhang, Qinghong Zhou, Shufei Li, Jing Zhang, Li Zhang, Shuqing Jiang, Qian Zhang, Xiaoli Zhou, Chao Wu, Qing Gu, Zhi Yong QianAbstractA subchronic toxicity study were conducted in Wistar Han RCC rats to evaluate the potential health effects of genetically modified (GM), drought-tolerant wheat MGX11-10. Rats were fed a rodent diet formulated with MGX11-10 and were compared with rats fed a diet formulated with its corresponding non-transgenic control Jimai22 and rats fed a basal diet. MGX11-10 and Jimai22 were ground into flour and formulated into diets at concentrations of 16.25, 32.5, or 65%, w/w% and fed to rats (10/sex/group) for 13 weeks. Compared with rats fed Jimai22 and the basal-diet group, no biologically relevant differences were observed in rats fed the GM diet with respect to body weight/gain, food consumption/efficiency, clinical signs, mortality, ophthalmology, clinical pathology (hematology, prothrombin time, urinalysis, clinical chemistry), organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology. Under the conditions of this study, the MGX11-10 diets did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats following at least 90 days of dietary administration as compared with rats fed diets with the corresponding non-transgenic control diet and the basal-diet group. The MGX11-10 diets are considered equivalent to the diets prepared from conventional comparators. The results demonstrated that MGX11-10 wheat is as safe and wholesome as the corresponding non-transgenic control wheat.
       
  • Part II. Influence of trans-resveratrol addition on the sensory properties
           of ‘Blaufränkisch’ red wine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Nataša Poklar Ulrih, Rok Opara, Mojca Korošec, Mojmir Wondra, Veronika AbramTrans-resveratrol was added to ‘Blaufränkisch’ red wine to determine the changes in total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant potential. The results of this first investigation were presented in Part I; the results of the sensory analyses are included here, in Part II. Addition of increasing concentrations of trans-resveratrol to the ‘Blaufränkisch’ red wine improved the intensity of color by ∼7%. and also the stability of malvidin-3-glucoside. Surprisingly, these additions of trans-resveratrol affected the odor of the red wine. Correlations among the sensory attributes showed Pearson's coefficients for positive correlations among these parameters. The higher additions of trans-resveratrol to the red wine (150, 200 mg/L) showed significantly improved sensory scores for color and odor, compared to the no-addition control (p ≤ 0.05). The highest positive correlation was between flavor and overall acceptance (0.876), which reached statistical significance (p ≤ 0.01); the lowest Pearson's coefficient was between clarity and flavor (0.061). This study shows that trans-resveratrol increases the stability of the enriched ‘Blaufränkisch’ red wine, and improves the sensory acceptance.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Molecular modelling methods in food safety: Bisphenols as case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Francesca Cavaliere, Stefano Lorenzetti, Pietro CozziniBisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic compound widely used as a building block for polycarbonate plastics, has been declared in the European Union (EU) as a substance of very high concern (SVHC). A series of BPA alternatives and derivatives (bisphenols/BPs) with similar physical-chemical properties have been produced and used by companies for substituting it. To evaluate the estrogenic and androgenic binding activity of 26 BPs, a non-statistical in silico approach has been applied. The results of molecular docking analyses applied on six different nuclear receptors (NRs) have revealed that: i) some BPA metabolites could lower the harmful effects of BPA exposure; ii) BPS is a lower interactor for all NRs, but it does not appear safer at all for androgen receptor (AR), for which its binding activity is found similar to a pharmacological anti-androgen; iii) only a BP has been found as a safer compound for all NRs considered. Moreover, molecular dynamic simulation of three BPs on ERα have revealed that the presence of negative hydrophobic interactions could induce a decrease in receptor activity. Overall, the present results demonstrate that in silico methods could be a valid approach to screen estrogenic and androgenic activity of food contact materials (FCMs).Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Alternative toxicological methods for establishing residue definitions
           applied for dietary risk assessment of pesticides in the European Union
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Katarzyna Czaja, Paweł Struciński, Wojciech Korcz, Maria Minorczyk, Agnieszka Hernik, Bożena WiadrowskaConsumers are constantly exposed to trace levels of residues present in food commodities, arising from the use of pesticides. For this reason, assessing the risk caused by pesticide residues present in food requires not only identification and toxicological properties assessment of the active substance, but also of its metabolites, isomers, and degradates. This requires the use of many laboratory animals. On the other hand, currently there is an emphasis on minimizing the use of animals in toxicological research. This review article presents current activities of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) aiming to replace at least a part of toxicological tests on substances of unknown toxicity with the alternative methods. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) and Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) can be used for this purpose in procedure of establishing residue definitions applied for dietary risk assessment.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Assessment of Tetrabromobisphenol and Hexabromocyclododecanes exposure and
           risk characterization using occurrence data in foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Joon-Goo Lee, Youngjin Jeong, Dongsul Kim, Gil-Jin Kang, Youngwon KangAbstractTetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are two of the most used BFRs and they have cumulated in the environment. TBBPA and HBCDs in food were determined and their risks were assessed. The analytical method used was validated in different food categories, and the performance parameters were acceptable based on the criteria of AOAC. Fish and cephalopods were contaminated with TBBPA higher than other foods, and fish contained higher levels of HBCDs than other foods. α-HBCD was the predominant diastereomer in fish and meat and had strong correlations with HBCDs in fish and cephalopods. HBCDs accumulated easier than TBBPA in food. People were exposed to TBBPA from 0.125 ng kg−1 b.w. day−1 to 0.284 ng kg−1 b.w. day−1 and HBCDs from 0.353 ng kg−1 b.w. day−1 to 1.006 ng kg−1 b.w. day−1 via food and air. Food mainly contributed to exposure to TBBPA and HBCDs and vegetables were the main contributors for exposure to TBBPA and HBCDs in food. MOEs for the whole population were over 100, and the risks of exposure to TBBPA and HBCDs from food and the environment were of low concern to public health.
       
  • Dose addition in chemical mixtures inducing craniofacial malformations in
           zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Maria Zoupa, Edwin P. Zwart, Eric R. Gremmer, Ananditya Nugraha, Sharon Compeer, Wout Slob, Leo T.M. van der VenAbstractA challenge in cumulative risk assessment is to model hazard of mixtures. EFSA proposed to only combine chemicals linked to a defined endpoint, in so-called cumulative assessment groups, and use the dose-addition model as a default to predict combined effects. We investigated the effect of binary mixtures of compounds known to cause craniofacial malformations, by assessing the effect in the head skeleton (M-PQ angle) in 120hpf zebrafish embryos. We combined chemicals with similar mode of action (MOA), i.e. the triazoles cyproconazole, triadimefon and flusilazole; next, reference compounds cyproconazole or triadimefon were combined with dissimilar acting compounds, TCDD, thiram, VPA, prochloraz, fenpropimorph, PFOS, or endosulfan. These mixtures were designed as (near) equipotent combinations of the contributing compounds, in a range of cumulative concentrations. Dose-addition was assessed by evaluation of the overlap of responses of each of the 14 tested binary mixtures with those of the single compounds. All 10 test compounds induced an increase of the M-PQ angle, with varying potency and specificity. Mixture responses as predicted by dose-addition did not deviate from the observed responses, supporting dose-addition as a valid assumption for mixture risk assessment. Importantly, dose-addition was found irrespective of MOA of contributing chemicals.
       
  • Rapid determination of the free and total hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol
           content in extra virgin olive oil by stable isotope dilution analysis and
           paper spray tandem mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Lucia Bartella, Fabio Mazzotti, Giovanni Sindona, Anna Napoli, Leonardo Di DonnaAbstractA rapid analytical method for the determination of phenylethanoids content in extra virgin olive oil has been developed. The method intends to address the European regulation EU 432/2012 on health claims, which allows to report on the front label of olive oil, the positive health effects due to the consumption of this food. The innovative method is based on paper spray tandem mass spectrometry using deuterated standards. It relies on a two-step analysis, needed to assess the free form of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol and their ester conjugates after hydrolysis treatment. Different olive oil samples have been analyzed and the classical analytical parameters such as accuracy, LOQ and LOD were calculated from fortified samples. The good values of the latters show the reliability of the new approach, that limits the time of analysis and sample preparation to few minutes.
       
  • Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of Annona coriacea (Mart.) and
           caffeic acid in mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Álefe Brito Monteiro, Cristina Kelly de Souza Rodrigues, Emmily Petícia do Nascimento, Valterlúcio dos Santos Sales, Gyllyandeson de Araújo Delmondes, Maria Haiele Nogueira da Costa, Victor Afonso Pereira de Oliveira, Luis Pereira de Morais, Aline Augusti Boligon, Roseli Barbosa, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Cícero Francisco Bezerra Felipe, Marta Regina KerntopfAbstractThis research evaluated the anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of a hydroethanolic extract from the leaves of Annona coriacea (EHFAC) and caffeic acid (CA). Mice were intraperitoneally treated with saline, EHFAC (1, 10, 20 mg/kg) or CA (0.15 mg/kg) and subject to the elevated plus-maze, open field, rota-rod, forced swimming and reserpine-induced akinesia tests. Pro-convulsant and anticholinergic effects were also evaluated. EHFAC presented anxiolytic-like effect on the elevated plus-maze, which was partially reversed by flumazenil. A similar effect was observed with CA. In the forced swimming test, EHFAC and CA reduced the immobility time of mice; such effect was potentiated when EHFAC or CA were associated with imipramine, bupropion and fluoxetine. The antidepressant-like effect was reinforced as EHFAC partially reversed the reserpine-induced akinesia. In addition, a pre-treatment with EHFAC and CA did not decrease the latency to 1st seizure of animals that received a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ, nor reduced the intensity of oxotremorine-induced tremors. Taken together, the results indicate that EHFAC and CA have anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, which involve important neurotransmitter systems, such as GABAergic and monoaminergic ones, being devoid of side effects, commonly associated with classical psychotropic drugs.
       
  • pH sensitive doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticle based on Radix
           pseudostellariae protein-polysaccharide conjugate and its improvement on
           HepG2 cellular uptake of doxorubicin
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Xixi Cai, Qian Yang, Qingxia Weng, Shaoyun WangNanoparticles based on Radix pseudostellariae protein-polysaccharide conjugates were self-assembled via pH adjustment and thermal treatment. The fabricated nanoparticles (CP3) were spherical with narrow size distribution of 125.0 nm in diameter. The doxorubicin (DOX) -loaded CP3 nanoparticles exhibited pH-sensitive release behavior and accelerated the release of DOX under the acidic pH simulating tumor microenvironment and endosomal pH. In HepG2 uptake studies, CP3-DOX nanoparticles notably improved the internalization of DOX, which was 1.56-fold compared with free DOX. CP3-DOX nanoparticles could serve as P-glycoprotein efflux pump inhibitor and be internalized into HepG2 cells via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Moreover, the cytotoxicity effect of DOX on HepG2 cells was elevated after the encapsulation by CP3, with a lower IC50 value of 0.25 μg/mL. The findings suggested that the pH-sensitive CP3-DOX nanoparticles has a great potential in facilitating the efficacy of DOX in cancer cells, and the obtained CP3 could be a good candidate as nanocarrier for the encapsulation and delivery of functional compounds.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, cis-3-nonen-1-ol, CAS
           Registry Number 10340-23-5
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • Application of novel technologies and mechanistic data for risk assessment
           under the real-life risk simulation (RLRS) approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Antonio F. Hernández, Anca O. Docea, Marina Goumenou, Dimosthenis Sarigiannis, Michael Aschner, Aristidis Tsatsakis
       
  • Katja Parschat: Conceptualization, Project administration, Writing -
           Review & Editing, Anne Oehme: Data curation, Writing - original draft,
           Jost Leuschner: Methodology, Investigation, Stefan Jennewein:
           Conceptualization, Supervision, Julia Parkot: Conceptualization, Project
           administration, Writing - review & editing, SupervisionA safety evaluation
           of mixed human milk oligosaccharides in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Katja Parschat, Anne Oehme, Jost Leuschner, Stefan Jennewein, Julia ParkotAbstractHuman milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are indigestible carbohydrates representing the third largest fraction of solutes in human breastmilk. They provide valuable prebiotic and anti-pathogenic functions in breastfed infants, but are not yet included in most infant formula products. Recent biotechnological advances now facilitate large-scale production of HMOs, providing infant formula manufacturers with the ability to supplement their products with HMOs to mimic human breastmilk. Although the safety of individual HMOs has been confirmed in preclinical toxicological studies, the safety of HMO mixtures has not been tested. We therefore performed bacterial reverse mutation and in vitro micronucleus tests and conducted a repeated-dose oral toxicity study in rats with a mixture of five HMOs (HMO MIX I), containing 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL), 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), 3′-sialyllactose (3′-SL) and 6′-sialyllactose (6′-SL). HMO MIX I was not genotoxic and did not induce adverse effects in the repeated dose study. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for HMO MIX I in this study is 10% in the diet (equivalent to 5.67 g HMO MIX I/kg bw/day for males and 6.97 g HMO MIX I/kg bw/day for females). Our results provide strong evidence for the safety of HMO MIX I in infant products and general foods.
       
  • Role of autophagy in alcohol and drug-induced liver injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Jessica A. Williams, Wen-Xing DingAlcohol-related liver disease (ALD) and drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are common causes of severe liver disease, and successful treatments are lacking. Autophagy plays a protective role in both ALD and DILI by selectively removing damaged mitochondria (mitophagy), lipid droplets (lipophagy), protein aggregates and adducts in hepatocytes. Autophagy also protects against ALD by degrading interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and damaged mitochondria in hepatic macrophages. Specifically, we will discuss selective autophagy for removal of damaged mitochondria and lipid droplets in hepatocytes and autophagy-mediated degradation of IRF1 in hepatic macrophages as protective mechanisms against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. In addition, selective autophagy for removal of damaged mitochondria and protein adducts for protection against DILI is discussed in this review. Development of new therapeutics for ALD and DILI is greatly needed, and selective autophagy pathways may provide promising targets. Drug and alcohol effects on autophagy regulation as well as protective mechanisms of autophagy against DILI and ALD are highlighted in this review.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Involvement of PERK-CHOP pathway in fumonisin B1- induced cytotoxicity in
           human gastric epithelial cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Song Yu, Bingxuan Jia, Yunxia Yang, Na Liu, Aibo WuAbstractFumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin, produced by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, and a common fungal contaminant of maize worldwide. Its potential health hazard as a natural toxin is well documented in human and domestic animals. However, the molecular mechanism and the key factors responsible for FB1-induced cytotoxicity have not been elucidated. In this study, we first examined the cytotoxicity induced by FB1 in human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). We found that FB1 notably decreased cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, the levels of ER stress markers were significantly increased after FB1 exposure and the ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid strongly suppressed FB1-induced cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the inhibition of PERK activity by GSK2606414 or shPERK3 blocked FB1-induced apoptotic cell death and cell proliferation suppression, which indicated that the cytotoxicity induced by FB1 was dependent on this signalling pathway. Moreover, myriocin could relieve FB1-induced ER stress and prevent cell death, which implied that the disruption of sphingolipid metabolism is an apical event for FB1-induced cytotoxicity. In the present study, we demonstrated that the ER stress-related PERK-CHOP signalling pathway is a novel mechanism for FB1-induced cytotoxicity and the gastrointestinal injury caused by FB1 should be concerned in the future.
       
  • Detection of zearalenone in an aptamer assay using attenuated internal
           reflection ellipsometry and it's cereal sample applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Mustafa Oguzhan Caglayan, Zafer ÜstündağMycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by the metabolism of certain fungi that threaten the food and agricultural industry. Over hundreds of mycotoxins, one of the most common toxins, zearalenone (ZEN), has toxic effects on human and animal health due to its mutagenicity, treatogenicity, carcinogenicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and genotoxicity. In this work, attenuated internal reflection spectroscopic ellipsometry (AIR-SE) combined with the signal amplification via surface plasmon resonance conditions that were proved to be a highly sensitive analytical tool in bio-sensing was developed for the sensitive and selective ZEN detection in cereal products such as corn, wheat, rice, and oat. Combined with the oligonucleotide aptamer for ZEN recognition, our proposed method showed good performance with yielding 0.08 ng/mL LOD and 0.01–1000 ng/mL detection range. A mini-review was also introduced in, to compare various methods for ZEN detection.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Chemoprotective and antiobesity effects of tocols from seed oil of
           Maqui-berry: Their antioxidative and digestive enzyme inhibition potential
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): José Miguel Bastías-Montes, Karen Monterrosa, Ociel Muñoz-Fariña, Olga García, Sergio M. Acuña-Nelson, Carla Vidal-San Martín, Roberto Quevedo-Leon, Isao Kubo, Jose G. Avila-Acevedo, Mariana Domiguez-Lopez, Zhao-Jun Wei, Kiran Thakur, Carlos L. Cespedes-AcuñaAbstractMaqui-berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is the emerging Chilean superfruit with high nutraceutical value. Until now, the research on this commodity was focused on the formulations enriched with polyphenols from the pulp. Herein, contents of tocols were compared in the seed oil of Maqui-berry obtained through three different extraction methods followed by determining their antioxidative and enzyme inhibitions in-vitro. Firstly, oilseed was extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method), chloroform/methanol/water (Bligh and Dyer method) and pressing (industrial). These samples were used to access their effects against DPPH, HORAC, ORAC, FRAP, Lipid-peroxidation (TBARS), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase. All the isomers of tocopherol and tocotrienol were identified, and β-sitosterol was the only sterol found in higher amounts than other vegetable oils. The Bligh and Dyer method could lead to the highest antioxidative capacity compared to Soxhlet and press methods likely because the latter have a higher amount of tocopherols. Further, seed oil from Maqui berry and their tocols (α, β, γ, δ-tocopherols, tocotrienols, and β-sitosterol) warrant clinical investigation for their antioxidative and antiobesity potential. Taken together, these findings provide relevant and suitable conditions for the industrial processing of Maqui-berry.
       
  • Profiling the interaction of Al(III)-GFLX complex, a potential pollution
           risk, with bovine serum albumin
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Hua Chen, Chunlei Zhu, Feng Chen, Jingjing Xu, Xiuting Jiang, Zeyu Wu, Xiaowei Ding, Gao-Chao Fan, Yizhong Shen, Yingwang YeAbstractFluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs), a new class of pollutants that seriously threaten human health through environmental and food residues, have aroused wide public concern. However, little attention has been paid to the potential toxicity of FQs' metal complex. Here, we firstly explore the proof-of-concept study of FQs' metal complex to bind bovine serum albumin (BSA) using systematical spectroscopic approaches. In detail, we have found that the complex of Al3+ with gatifloxacin (Al(III)-GFLX complex) can effectively bind to BSA via electrostatic interaction in PBS buffer (pH = 7.4, 1×), resulting in the formation of Al(III)-GFLX-BSA complex. The negative value of ΔG shows that the binding of Al(III)-GFLX complex to BSA is a spontaneous process. Circular dichroism spectra verify that Al(III)-GFLX complex effectively triggers the conformation changes of BSA's secondary structure. It has been proved that the interaction of small molecule with serum albumin has a significant effect on their in vivo biological effects such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and etc. Therefore, the results of this paper may offer a valuable theoretical basis for establishing safety standards of FQs' metal complex to ensure food and environmental health.
       
  • Effects of gelatin-based antifreeze peptides on cell viability and oxidant
           stress of Streptococcus thermophilus during cold stage
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Xu Chen, Ling Li, Fujia Yang, Jinhong Wu, Shaoyun WangCold stage adversely affects cell proliferation and cell viability of probiotics such as Streptococcus thermophilus in food industry, new type of cryoprotectants continues to be needed. Gelatin-based antifreeze peptide becomes a popular topic because of its cryoprotective effects on cold-stressed probiotics. In this study the effects of tilapia scales antifreeze peptides (TSAPP) on cell viability and oxidant stress of S. thermophilus during cold stage were investigated. The results showed that the percentage of viable cells was increased 10.85 folds compared with control groups. Addition of TSAPP activated the activities of ATPases, relieved the hyperpolarization of cell membrane potential and regulated the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Furthermore, TSAPP significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species level and malonaldehyde content in cells. Under cryopreservation with TSAPP, cells of S. thermophilus maintained higher activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity. These findings indicate that TSAPP likely offered its cellular protection by maintaining membrane integrity and alleviation of oxidative stress.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • CYPs-mediated drug-drug interactions on psoralidin, isobavachalcone,
           neobavaisoflavone and daidzein in rats liver microsomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Mengjun Shi, Yiping Cui, Cunyu Liu, Changqin Li, Zhenhua Liu, Wen-yi KangAbstractThe incubation system of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 enzymes in rat liver microsomes was established to investigate the effects of psoralidin, isobavachalcone, neobavaisoflavone and daidzein from Fructus Psoraleae in vitro. The relevant metabolites were measured by the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol, testosterone and the drugs at different concentrations were added to the incubation systems. In addition, real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the effect of psoralidin, neobavaisoflavone and daidzein on the mRNA expression of CYP3A4 in rat liver. The results suggested that psoralidin, isobavachalcone and neobavaisoflavone were Medium-intensity inhibitors of CYP2E1 with Ki values of 2.58, 1.28 and 19.07 μM, respectively, which could inhibit the increase of CYP2E1 and reduce diseases caused by lipid peroxidation. Isobavachalcone (Ki = 37.52 μM) showed a weak competitive inhibition on CYP3A4. Psoralidin and neobavaisoflavone showed obvious induction effects on CYP3A4 in the expression level of mRNA, which could accelerate the effects of drug metabolism and lead to the risk of inducing DDIs and serious adverse reactions. The results could be used for guideline of Fructus Psoraleae in clinic, which aimed to calculate the drug toxicity by studying the drug-drug interactions caused by the induction and inhibition of CYP450.
       
  • GC-MS-FID characterization and antibacterial activity of the Mikania
           cordifolia essential oil and limonene against MDR strains
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Ana Carolina Justino de Araújo, Priscilla Ramos Freitas, Cristina Rodrigues dos Santos Barbosa, Débora Feitosa Muniz, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Ana Cristina Albuquerque da Silva, Cícera Datiane de Morais Oliveira-Tintino, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Luiz Everson da Silva, Camila Confortin, Wanderlei do Amaral, Cícero Deschamps, José Maria Barbosa-Filho, Natanael Teles Ramos de Lima, Saulo Relison Tintino, Henrique Douglas Melo CoutinhoAbstractThe present study evaluated the effect of the essential oil of Mikania cordifolia (EOMc) and its major constituent limonene alone or associated with antibacterial drugs against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria (MDR). To evaluate the antibacterial activity, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oil and limonene against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. The antibiotic-modulating activity was assessed using subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8) of these substances in combination with conventional antibacterial drugs. Although no relevant antibacterial activity of the natural products was detected, both substances modulated the action of antibiotics against resistant bacteria. The EOMc demonstrated the best modulating effect against P. aeruginosa, presenting synergistic effects when associated with gentamicin and norfloxacin. In addition, the oil reduced the MIC of norfloxacin against E. coli as well as reduced the MIC of gentamicin against S. aureus. On the other hand, the best effect of limonene was obtained against S. aureus. Thus, it is concluded that the essential oil Mikania cordifolia and the isolated compound limonene do not have clinically significant antibacterial effect, but modulate the action of antibiotics against MDR bacteria.
       
  • Extraction and characterization of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and
           antimicrobial activities from pickled radish
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Jian Li, Shi-Ying Huang, Qianying Deng, Guiling Li, Guocheng Su, Jingwen Liu, Hui-Min David WangThe pickled radish can be kept at room temperature for years without spoilage. 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (HBA), and 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol (4-HPEA) were first found from the pickled radish. The structures of three phenolic compounds were elucidated by analysis of their nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry data. All these phenolic compounds showed good free radical scavenging capacity except HBA. Both DHAP and 4-HPEA also showed high ferric reducing ability. DHAP showed good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Canidia albicans. HBA demonstrated antimicrobial activity against E. coli and C. albicans but not B. subtilis. Based on the results of MTT assay, these compounds did not show cytotoxicity to LO2 cell line. All results indicated the pickled radish had antioxidant and antimicrobial phenolic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to answer partially the question of why pickled foods can be kept at room temperature for years without spoilage based on the evidence of three phenolic compounds.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • NDAT suppresses pro-inflammatory gene expression to enhance
           resveratrol-induced anti-proliferation in oral cancer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Yih Ho, Chien-Yi Wu, Yu-Tang Chin, Zi-Lin Li, Yi-shin Pan, Tung-Yung Huang, Po-Yu Su, Sheng-Yang Lee, Dana R. Crawford, Kuan-Wei Su, Hsien-Chung Chiu, Ya-Jung Shih, Chun A. Changou, Yu-Chen S.H. Yang, Jaqulene Whang-Peng, Yi-Ru Chen, Hung-Yun Lin, Shaker A. Mousa, Paul J. Davis, Kuan WangAbstractNano-diamino-tetrac (NDAT), a tetraiodothyroxine deaminated nano-particulated analog, has shown to inhibit expression of pro-inflammatory genes. NDAT inhibits expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). On the other hand, in addition to inhibiting inflammatory effect, the stilbene, resveratrol induces expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its accumulation. Sequentially, inducible COX-2 complexes with p53 and induces p53-dependent anti-proliferation. In current study, we investigated mechanisms involved in combined treatment of NDAT and resveratrol on anti-proliferation in human oral cancer cells. Both resveratrol and NDAT inhibited expression of pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α. They also inhibited expression of CCND1 and PD-L1. Both resveratrol and NDAT induced BAD expression but only resveratrol induced COX-2 expression in both OEC-M1 and SCC-25 cells. Combined treatment attenuated gene expression significantly compared with resveratrol treatment in both cancer cell lines. Resveratrol reduced nuclear PD-L1 accumulation which was enhanced by a STAT3 inhibitor, S31-201 or NDAT suggesting that NDAT may inactivate STAT3 to inhibit PD-L1 accumulation. In the presence of T4, NDAT further enhanced resveratrol-induced anti-proliferation in both cancer cell lines. These findings provide a novel understanding of the inhibition of NDAT in thyroxine-induced pro-inflammatory effect on resveratrol-induced anticancer properties.
       
  • Outstanding insecticidal activity and sublethal effects of Carlina acaulis
           root essential oil on the housefly, Musca domestica, with insights on its
           toxicity on human cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Roman Pavela, Filippo Maggi, Riccardo Petrelli, Loredana Cappellacci, Michela Buccioni, Alessandro Palmieri, Angelo Canale, Giovanni BenelliCarlina acaulis (Compositae) is traditionally used for food and medicinal purposes in central and southern Europe. Its root essential oil (EO), mainly composed by carlina oxide, is included in the BELFRIT botanical list of food supplements. It is also recognized as a potent mosquito larvicide. It is matter of concern whether this EO could be endowed with intrinsic toxicity to limit its use on a food level. Focusing on the insecticidal activity of this EO, we investigated the acute toxicity and sublethal effects on Musca domestica. In topical assays, the EO was extremely effective (LD50 = 2.74 and 5.96 μg fly−1, on males and females, respectively). The exposure to a sublethal dose (LD30) led to significant reductions of female longevity (LT50 = 6.7–9.0 days vs. control LT50 = 12.9–13.7 days). Treated females laid 2.5 times fewer eggs over control ones. F1 vitality decreased: F1 larvae and pupae showed high mortality, 2-4-fold higher over the control. The EO also showed high cytotoxicity on normal human fibroblasts (NHF-A12, IC50 = 9.4–14.2 μg mL−1 after 6–48 h). Overall, our findings support the employ of this EO for developing botanical insecticides. At the same time, they encourage food safety authorities to perform a full toxicological assessment for possible restrictions at food level.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Occurrence and potential health risks assessment of polycyclic aromatic
           hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different tissues of bivalves from Hainan Island,
           China
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Haihua Wang, Wei Huang, Ying Gong, Chienmin Chen, Tengyun Zhang, Xiaoping DiaoAbstractThe levels of 16 PAHs were determined in the adductor, gills, gonads, hepatopancreas and mantles of the pearl oyster (Pinctada martensii) and the mussel (Perna viridis) collected from coasts of Li'an and Xincun Bays. The levels of ΣPAHs ranged from 597.1 to 2332 ng g−1 d w in the various tissues of bivalves. The pyrolytic source played an important role in the local coastal environment. Significantly higher levels of M-PAHs and H-PAHs were observed in Pinctada martensii than in Perna viridis. The ΣPAHs at different tissues showed the following order from high to low: mantles > hepatopancreas > gonads > gills > adductor. When levels of individual PAHs in the five bivalve tissues have been compared with each other, high correlations have been found (r2 = 0.793–0.975). A general trend was observed that log transformed BSAFs declined with increase of Kow values. The estimated amount of ΣPAHs via ingestion of oyster and mussel varied from 1.35 × 10−2-1.70 × 10−1 and 2.15 × 10−2-1.91 × 10−1 μg kg−1 body weight day−1, respectively. The THQs and CRs calculated for regular consumption of raw bivalves were in the acceptable ranges and may not pose health risk concerns. But for certain population with higher consumption rate for PAHs contaminated bivalves, cautions should be taken for their higher cancer risk.
       
  • Sonchus oleraceus Linn extract enhanced glucose homeostasis through the
           AMPK/Akt/ GSK-3β signaling pathway in diabetic liver and HepG2 cell
           culture
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Lei Chen, Xiujun Lin, Xiaoyun Fan, Yuewei Qian, Qiyan Lv, Hui TengThe extracts of S. oleraceus Linn (SOL) and its main phenolic compounds have shown anti-diabetic effects, but their underlying mechanisms for glucose homeostasis remain unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-diabetic mechanism of SOL by using the streptozocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat model. When diabetic rats were fed with SOL at a dose of 400 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks, the concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced by 43%, 22%, and 16%, respectively. Meanwhile, it was also found that daily feeding of SOL to diabetic rats led to a decrease in plasma glucose level by approximately 23%. Positive effects were observed on glucose homeostasis due to the down-regulation of AMPK/Akt/GSK-3β pathway, as indicated by the suppressions of adenosine 5‘-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β), and the hepatic insulin resistance. In HepG2 cells, AMPK, Akt and GSK-3β showed a consistent transcript regulation. SOL at dose of 400 mg/kg/day feeding for 6 weeks showed a positive effect comparable to metformin.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • A multiple endpoint approach reveals potential in vitro anticancer
           properties of thymoquinone in human renal carcinoma cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): J.G. Costa, V. Keser, C. Jackson, N. Saraiva, Í. Guerreiro, N. Almeida, S.P. Camões, R. Manguinhas, M. Castro, J.P. Miranda, A.S. Fernandes, N.G. OliveiraAbstractThymoquinone (TQ) is a monoterpene isolated from the oil of Nigella sativa seeds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects induced by TQ and its impact on the migration and invasion potential of 786-O human renal cancer cells. These cells were exposed to TQ (1–100 μM) for 24 and 48 h and cell viability assessed using the Crystal Violet and MTS assays. TQ treatment clearly decreased cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. TQ exposure moderately increased intracellular ROS levels and co-incubation with reduced glutathione markedly increased cell viability. Moreover, the effect of TQ in the cell cycle distribution was evaluated using flow cytometry, and an increase in the sub-G1 population was observed, especially at 30 μM, along with an increase in the % of apoptotic cells. TQ did not show genotoxic effects at a non-cytotoxic concentration (1.0 μM). At this concentration level, TQ significantly decreased the collective migration of 786-O cells, whereas it had no effect in chemotactic migration. TQ also decreased the invasiveness potential of 786-O cells, as evaluated by the transwell invasion assay. Overall, these results suggest that TQ presents an anticancer potential in the context of renal cancer, warranting further investigation.
       
  • T-2 toxin-induced DRP-1-dependent mitophagy leads to the apoptosis of mice
           Leydig cells (TM3)
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Jing Wu, Jia-xin Chen, Jian-hua HeAbstractT-2 toxin, one member of the type A trichothecene family, induces the apoptosis of human hepatocytes (L02) and murine Leydig cells (TM3), as well as mitochondrial dysfunctions. In the present study, we attempted to investigate whether T-2 toxin toxicity is related to mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy. We found that T-2 toxin might induce autophagy and mitophagy in TM3 cells (TM3) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, T-2 toxin could induce mitochondrial dysfunction, depolarization, and fission concentration-dependently. The inducible effects of T-2 toxin on mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell apoptosis could all be significantly reversed by autophagy inhibitor, 3 MA. Finally, DRP-1 participated in the inducible effects of T-2 toxin on TM3 cell mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell apoptosis. In summary, mitophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction are essential mechanisms of the toxicity induced by T-2 toxin. Thus, our findings provide a rationale for further studies on selectively targeting mitophagy to improve mitochondrial dysfunction and to protect cells from T-2 toxin-induced toxicity.
       
  • Terminalia bellirica extract induces anticancer activity through
           modulation of apoptosis and autophagy in oral squamous cell carcinoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Srimanta Patra, Prashanta Kumar Panda, Debasna Pritimanjari Panigrahi, Prakash Priyadarshi Praharaj, Chandra Sekhar Bhol, Kewal Kumar Mahapatra, Priyadarshini Padhi, Mrutyunjay Jena, Shankargouda Patil, Samir Kumar Patra, Sujit Kumar BhutiaTerminalia bellirica (TB) has been used in traditional Indian medical system, Ayurveda. However, the mechanism underlying the efficacy of the TB extract against oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is yet to be explored. The present study established a connecting link between the TB extract induced apoptosis and autophagy in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our study revealed, that gallic acid in the TB extract possess a strong free radical scavenging capacity contributing towards the selective anti-proliferative activity. Furthermore, TB extract markedly enhanced the accumulation of ROS that facilitated mitochondrial apoptosis through DNA damage, indicating ROS as the vital component in regulation of apoptosis. This effect was effectively reversed by the use of a ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Moreover, it was observed to induce autophagy; however, it attenuated the autophagosome-lysosome fusion in Cal33 cells without altering the lysosomal activity. Pharmacological inhibitors of autophagy, namely, 3-methyladenine and chloroquine, were demonstarated to regulate the stage-specific progression of autophagy post treatment with the TB extract, favouring subsequent activation of apoptosis. These findings revealed, presence of gallic acid in TB extract below NOAEL value causes oxidative upset in oral cancer cells and promote programmed cell death which has a potential therapeutic value against oral squamous cell carcinoma.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Acyl moiety and temperature affects thermo-oxidative degradation of steryl
           esters. Cytotoxicity of the degradation products
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Maria Kasprzak, Magdalena Rudzińska, Dominik Kmiecik, Roman Przybylski, Anna OlejnikPhytosterols and their esters are often used as functional ingredients in food products due to its lowering blood cholesterol properties. Products containing phytosterols and its esters are recommended for direct consumption, cooking, baking and frying, however during food preparation it is possible thermo-oxidative degradation is possible. Unsaturation of fatty acid present in steryl ester may further stimulates degradation.Free stigmasterol degraded faster than its esters, even with linoleic acid attached. The highest amount of degradation products was observed for free stigmasterol, followed by esters with linoleic and oleic acids. Polar dimers were fund in all heated samples, although for free stigmasterol heated at 60 °C were not detected. Whereas non-polar dimers were observed only in heated stigmasterol. Degradation of esterified stigmasterol generated degradation products with lower cytotoxicity.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The toxicity of the methylimidazolium ionic liquids, with a focus on M8OI
           and hepatic effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Alistair C. Leitch, Tarek M. Abdelghany, Philip M. Probert, Michael P. Dunn, Stephanie K. Meyer, Jeremy M. Palmer, Martin P. Cooke, Lynsay I. Blake, Katie Morse, Anna K. Rosenmai, Agneta Oskarsson, Lucy Bates, Rodrigo S. Figueiredo, Ibrahim Ibrahim, Colin Wilson, Noha F. Abdelkader, David E. Jones, Peter G. Blain, Matthew C. WrightAbstractIonic liquids are a diverse range of charged chemicals with low volatility and often liquids at ambient temperatures. This characteristic has in part lead to them being considered environmentally-friendly replacements for existing volatile solvents. However, methylimidazolium ionic liquids are slow to break down in the environment and a recent study at Newcastle detected 1 octyl 3 methylimidazolium (M8OI) – an 8 carbon variant methylimidazolium ionic liquid - in soils in close proximity to a landfill site. The current M8OI toxicity database in cultured mammalian cells, in experimental animal studies and in model indicators of environmental impact are reviewed. Selected analytical data from the Newcastle study suggest the soils in close proximity to the landfill site, an urban soil lacking overt contamination, had variable levels of M8OI. The potential for M8OI - or a structurally related ionic liquid – to trigger primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), an autoimmune liver disease thought to be triggered by an unknown agent(s) in the environment, is reviewed.
       
  • Transcriptome and DNA methylation changes modulated by sulforaphane induce
           cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, DNA damage, and suppression of proliferation
           in human liver cancer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Patrick Wellington da Silva dos Santos, Ana Rita Thomazela Machado, Rone Aparecido De Grandis, Diego Luis Ribeiro, Katiuska Tuttis, Marco Morselli, Alexandre Ferro Aissa, Matteo Pellegrini, Lusânia Maria Greggi AntunesAbstractAbnormal epigenetic alterations are one of the keystones of cancer development. Epigenetic targeting drugs have become a promising and effective cancer therapy strategy. However, due to the high toxicity and unclear mechanisms of action of these drugs, natural compounds that cause epigenetic modulation have also been studied. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a promising bioactive compound for epigenetic targeting therapy. In this study, we investigate the effects of SFN on gene expression and DNA methylation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Using high throughput technologies in combination with cell-based assays, we find SFN is a potent anticancer agent, as it induces DNA damage, mitotic spindle abnormalities followed by apoptosis and proliferation inhibition in HepG2 cells. Our results show the upregulation of DNA damage response and cell cycle checkpoint genes. Also, we find the downregulation of cellular pathways frequently overexpressed in human cancer. As expected, SFN exerts epigenetic modulation effects by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs). SFN might affect the activity of oncogenic transcription factors through methylation of its binding sites motifs. Our findings offer insights into SFN chemopreventive molecular effects in HepG2 cells and highlight SFN as a valuable natural approach to cancer therapy for future investigation.
       
  • Exploring the phytochemical profile of Cytinus hypocistis (L.) L. as a
           source of health-promoting biomolecules behind its in vitro bioactive and
           enzyme inhibitory properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Ana Rita Silva, José Pinela, Maria Inês Dias, Ricardo C. Calhelha, Maria José Alves, Andrei Mocan, Pablo A. García, Lillian Barros, Isabel C.F.R. FerreiraCytinus hypocistis whole plant and its three different parts (petals, stalks, and nectar) were chemically characterised and their biological properties evaluated. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified, being galloyl-bis-HHDP-glucose the most abundant. All the tested extracts showed high antioxidant capacity, with the petals exhibiting the most promising results both in the OxHLIA (IC50 = 0.279 ng/mL) and TBARS (IC50 = 0.342 ng/mL) assays. For the antidiabetic and anti-tyrosinase enzyme inhibitory assays, the stalk extract presented the lowest IC50 values, 0.039 mg/mL and 0.09 mg/mL, respectively. Regarding antibacterial activity, all tested extracts displayed broad-spectrum microbial inhibition against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, all extracts displayed effective anti-proliferation activity against four tested tumour cell lines (NCI–H460, HeLa, HepG2, and MCF-7), with no toxicity observed for a non-tumour cell line. Considering the anti-inflammatory activity, the petals showed the highest nitric oxide inhibition (IC50 = 127 μg/mL). These results point C. hypocistis as a promising source of health-promoting biomolecules.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Developmental exposure to diacetoxyscirpenol reversibly disrupts
           hippocampal neurogenesis by inducing oxidative cellular injury and
           suppressed differentiation of granule cell lineages in mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Kota Nakajima, Yuko Ito, Satomi Kikuchi, Hiromu Okano, Kazumi Takashima, Gye-Hyeong Woo, Toshinori Yoshida, Tomoya Yoshinari, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi, Makoto ShibutaniAbstractTo investigate the developmental exposure effect of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, pregnant ICR mice were provided a diet containing DAS at 0, 0.6, 2.0, or 6.0 ppm from gestational day 6 to day 21 on weaning after delivery. Offspring were maintained through postnatal day (PND) 77 without DAS exposure. On PND 21, neural stem cells (NSCs) and all subpopulations of proliferating progenitor cells were suggested to decrease in number in the subgranular zone (SGZ) at ≥ 2.0 ppm. At 6.0 ppm, increases of SGZ cells showing TUNEL+, metallothionein-I/II+, γ-H2AX+ or malondialdehyde+, and transcript downregulation of Ogg1, Parp1 and Kit without changing the level of double-stranded DNA break-related genes were observed in the dentate gyrus. This suggested induction of oxidative DNA damage of NSCs and early-stage progenitor cells, which led to their apoptosis. Cdkn2a, Rb1 and Trp53 downregulated transcripts, which suggested an increased vulnerability to DNA damage. Hilar PVALB+ GABAergic interneurons decreased and Grin2a and Chrna7 were downregulated, which suggested suppression of type-2-progenitor cell differentiation. On PND 77, hilar RELN+ interneurons increased at ≥ 2.0 ppm; at 6.0 ppm, RELN-related Itsn1 transcripts were upregulated and ARC+ granule cells decreased. Increased RELN signals may ameliorate the response to the decreases of NSCs and ARC-mediated synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that DAS reversibly disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis by inducing oxidative cellular injury and suppressed differentiation of granule cell lineages. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of DAS for offspring neurogenesis was determined to be 0.6 ppm (0.09–0.29 mg/kg body weight/day).
       
  • Overview of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, and the
           protective agents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Neife Aparecida Guinaim dos Santos, Rafaela Scalco Ferreira, Antonio Cardozo dos SantosAbstractCisplatin has dramatically improved the survival rate of cancer patients, but it has also increased the prevalence of hearing and neurological deficits in this population. Cisplatin induces ototoxicity, peripheral (most prevalent) and central (rare) neurotoxicity. This review addresses the ototoxicity and the neurotoxicity associated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, providing an integrated view of the potential protective agents that have been evaluated in vitro, in vivo and in clinical trials, their targets and mechanisms of protection and their effects on the antitumor activity of cisplatin. So far, the findings are insufficient to support the use of any oto- or neuroprotective agent before, during or after cisplatin chemotherapy. Despite their promising effects in vitro and in animal studies, many agents have not been evaluated in clinical trials. Additionally, the clinical trials have limitations concerning the sample size, controls, measurement, heterogeneous groups, several arms of treatment, short follow-up or no blinding. Besides that, for most agents, the effects on the antitumor activity of cisplatin have not been evaluated in tumor-bearing animals, which discourages clinical trials. Further well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary to definitely demonstrate the effectiveness of the oto- or neuroprotective agents proposed by animal and in vitro studies.
       
  • Hepatic injury and inflammation alter ethanol metabolism and drinking
           behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 136Author(s): Tianyi Ren, Bryan Mackowiak, Yuhong Lin, Yanhang Gao, Junqi Niu, Bin GaoAbstractWhile liver injury is commonly associated with excessive alcohol consumption, how liver injury affects alcohol metabolism and drinking preference remains unclear. To answer these questions, we measured the expression and activity of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzymes, ethanol and acetaldehyde levels in vivo, and binge-like and preferential drinking behaviors with drinking in the dark and two-bottle choice in animal models with liver injury. Acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and acute LPS-induced liver injury repressed hepatic ALDH2 activity and expression and consequently, blood and liver acetaldehyde concentrations were increased in these models. In addition, chronic CCl4 and acute LPS treatment inhibited hepatic ADH1 expression and activity, leading to increases in blood and liver ethanol concentrations. Consistent with the increase in acetaldehyde levels, alcohol drinking behaviors were reduced in mice with acute or chronic liver injury. Furthermore, oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide attenuated ADH1 and ALDH2 activity post-transcriptionally, while proinflammatory cytokines led to transcriptional repression of ADH1 and ALDH2 in cultured hepatocytes, which correlated with the repression of transcription factor HNF4α. Collectively, our data suggest that alcohol metabolism is suppressed by inflammation and oxidative stress, which is correlated with decreased drinking behavior.
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment,
           α-methyl-cyclohexanepropanol, CAS Registry Number 10528-67-3
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler, M. Na
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, methyl cyclohexadiene
           (mixture of isomers), CAS Registry Number 30640-46-1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • Physicochemical properties and hepatoprotective effects of glycated
           Snapper fish scale peptides conjugated with xylose via maillard reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Xu Chen, Fei Fang, Shaoyun WangThe physicochemical properties and hepatoprotective effects of fish scales peptides (FSP) and the glycated peptides conjugated with xylose via Maillard reaction (FSP-MRPs) were investigated. Results showed that the FSP was rich in oligopeptides within 2–10 amino acids, the degree of grafting of FSP-MRPs was 52.97 ± 1.58% and the antioxidant activities in vitro of FSP were improved through Maillard reaction. In order to investigate the antioxidant activities of FSP-MRPs after digestion, the simulated gastrointestinal digestion experiments of FSP and FSP-MRPs in vitro were conducted. Results indicated that the antioxidant activities of FSP and FSP-MRPs remained as stronger as before even under the digestive conditions. Furthermore, FSP-MRPs could significantly reduce the elevated activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, decrease the elevated the levels of hepatic malondialdehyde and triglyceride, and inhibit the decrease of hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase caused by alcohol-induced liver damage. These findings suggest that the glycated peptides formed by FSP and xylose via Maillard reaction may be potential to be exploited as a potential functional ingredient in food industry.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, levulinic acid, CAS Registry
           Number 123-76-2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • Immunotoxicity and allergenic potential induced by topical application of
           perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a murine model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Hillary L. Shane, Rachel Baur, Ewa Lukomska, Lisa Weatherly, Stacey E. AndersonAbstractPerfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) once used as a surfactant in the polymerization of chemicals. Because of its ubiquitous nature and long half-life, PFOA is commonly detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans. While skin exposure to PFOA is of concern, studies evaluating the immunotoxicity of dermal exposure are lacking. These studies evaluated the immunotoxicity of PFOA (0.5–2% w/v, or 12.5–50 mg/kg/dose) following dermal exposure using a murine model. PFOA (0.5–2%) was not identified to be an irritant or sensitizer using the local lymph node assay. The IgM antibody response to sheep red blood cell. was significantly reduced in the spleen following 4-days of dermal exposure (2%). PFOA exposure produced a significant decrease in thymus (1 and 2%) and spleen (0.5–2%) weight along with an increase in liver weight (0.5–2%). Immune cell phenotyping identified a reduction in the frequency (1 and 2%) and number (0.5–2%) of splenic B-cells. To further define the mechanism of immunotoxicity, gene expression was also evaluated in the skin. The findings support a potential involvement of the nuclear receptor PPARα. These results demonstrate that dermal exposure to PFOA is immunotoxic and raise concern about potential adverse effects from dermal exposure.
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, (±) 3-methyl-γ-decalactone,
           CAS Registry Number 67663-01-8
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, benzenemethanol,
           α-methylene-, acetate, CAS Registry Number 2206-94-2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • Mitochondrial transcriptional study of the effect of aflatoxins, enniatins
           and carotenoids in vitro in a blood brain barrier model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): M. Alonso-Garrido, P. Tedeschi, A. Maietti, G. Font, N. Marchetti, L. ManyesAbstractC. maxima (var. Delica), a variety of pumpkin, is well known for its high concentration on carotenoids, possessing dietary benefits and antioxidant properties. Aflatoxins and enniatins are common mycotoxins present in food and feed with an extended toxicity profile in humans and animals. Both types of substances reach a wide range of tissues and organs and have the capability to penetrate the blood brain barrier. Since carotenoids and mycotoxins have been reported to modify diverse mitochondrial processes individually, transcriptional in vitro studies on human epithelial cells ECV 304 were conducted to analyze the relative expression of 13 mitochondria related genes. ECV 304 cells were differentiated for 9 days and treated for 2 h with: a) pumpkin (500 nM); b) aflatoxins (100 nM); c) enniatins (100 nM); d) aflatoxins (100 nM) and pumpkin (500 nM); e) enniatins (100 nM) and pumpkin (500 nM). Even at low concentrations, dietary carotenoids activity on mitochondrial genes expression reported a beneficial effect and, for most of the genes studied across the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), developed a protective effect when mixed with aflatoxins (AFs) or enniatins (ENs).
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, caryophyllene oxide, CAS
           Registry Number 1139-30-6
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment,2-acetylpyridine, CAS Registry
           Number 1122-62-9
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • Parameters for discrimination between organic and conventional production:
           A case study for chicory plants (Cichorium intybus L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Lovro Sinkovič, Marijan Nečemer, Nives Ogrinc, Dragan Žnidarčič, David Stopar, Rajko Vidrih, Vladimir MegličAbstractOrganic crop production has become a highly attractive way of production over the world and thus the need for robust analytical techniques for their authentication. The main aim of this study is to identify appropriate biomarkers to discriminate between organic and conventionally grown chicory. Chicory is an appreciated leafy vegetable among producers and consumers, especially due to its undemanding cultivation and content of bioactive substances. Six different fertility management practices (control, two organic, two mineral, and a combination of organic and mineral fertilizers) were used to produce five chicory cultivars in a glasshouse pot experiment. Analysis of bioactive compounds, nitrogen assimilation, multi-elemental profiling and stable isotope ratio determination of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) were performed to differentiate between organic and conventional production. In this study, nitrogen isotopes are found to be an excellent way of identifying organically produced chicory of a different variety with the highest δ15N values. Conversely, the same samples had the lowest δ34S values indicating that also stable isotopes of S could be used as a marker for the authentication of organic production.
       
  • RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, γ-undecalactone, CAS
           Registry Number 104-67-6
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): A.M. Api, F. Belmonte, D. Belsito, S. Biserta, D. Botelho, M. Bruze, G.A. Burton, J. Buschmann, M.A. Cancellieri, M.L. Dagli, M. Date, W. Dekant, C. Deodhar, A.D. Fryer, S. Gadhia, L. Jones, K. Joshi, A. Lapczynski, M. Lavelle, D.C. Liebler
       
  • (±)-Equol does not interact with genistein on estrogen-dependent
           breast tumor growth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Food and Chemical ToxicologyAuthor(s): Hauxin Song, Jennifer R. Hughes, Russell T. Turner, Urszula T. Iwaniec, Daniel R. Doerge, William G. HelferichAbstractEquol (EQ) is a prominent microbial metabolite of the soy isoflavone, daidzein, with estrogen-like properties. The major soy isoflavone, genistein (GEN), stimulated growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer (EDBC) cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo but EQ did not. To understand possible interactions of EQ and GEN on EDBC, EQ was used with GEN in combination in vitro and in vivo. Effects of EQ, GEN and EQ + GEN were evaluated using MCF-7 and T47D EDBC. Ovariectomized athymic mice were used as a model for in vivo tumor growth. Dietary EQ had no effect on MCF-7 tumor growth and the absence of effect was confirmed using a T47D EDBC in vivo model. EQ alone or in combination with GEN increased EDBC cell proliferation in vitro. EQ alone neither stimulated EDBC tumor growth in vivo at various doses nor suppressed tumor growth induced by dietary GEN. In summary, EQ has similar estrogenic effect as GEN in vitro but does not interact with GEN on EDBC tumor growth. Based on the evidence presented here, dietary EQ is unlikely to have estrogenic effects in vivo.
       
 
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