Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 387 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access  
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access  
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access  
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Technology, Siam University     Open Access  
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Travel     Open Access  

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Food and Waterborne Parasitology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.747
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2405-6766
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Validation of PCR-based protocols for the detection of Echinococcus
           multilocularis DNA in the final host using the Intestinal Scraping
           Technique as a reference

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Food and Waterborne Parasitology, Volume 15Author(s): P. Maksimov, M. Isaksson, G. Schares, T. Romig, F.J. ConrathsAbstractOral uptake of infectious Echinococcus multilocularis eggs shed by canids with their faeces may lead to development of alveolar echinococcosis in humans, which is clinically similar to a malignant infiltrative tumor and may be fatal if left untreated. E. multilocularis is therefore regarded as one of the most important and neglected metazoan parasites in the Northern hemisphere. The diagnosis of this tapeworm in the final host plays a key role in the epidemiology of E. multilocularis.The diagnostic performance of a magnetic-capture (MC) DNA extraction protocol in combination with a minor groove-binder real time PCR (MC-MGBqPCR) for the detection of E. multilocularis eggs was determined relative to a highly sensitive variant of the Intestinal Scraping Technique (IST) using faecal samples of foxes. In addition, we compared results obtained by MC-MGBqPCR with those of a previously validated protocol (QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (QT) combined with a TaqMan qPCR). Furthermore, a workflow using the NucleoMagVet DNA extraction kit (NM) in combination with MGBqPCR and TaqMan-qPCR was also included in the comparisons.To estimate the analytical sensitivity, phosphate-buffered saline and fox faecal samples were spiked with different numbers of eggs and tested in defined combinations of DNA extraction and PCR protocols. To assess the diagnostic sensitivity of the different workflows, samples were used that had been collected from the ampulla recti or the rectum of 120 foxes hunted in Brandenburg, Germany. The samples represented five IST categories formed according to the E. multilocularis worm burden of the foxes. For DNA extraction by MC or using two other commercial extraction kits, the supernatants obtained from 3 g of bead-beaten faecal samples were used. The extracted DNAs were then processed in the respective PCR protocols.The MC-MGBqPCR showed the highest diagnostic sensitivity (93%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 86–97%) relative to IST. The QT extraction protocol in combination with TaqMan-qPCR had the second highest sensitivity (89%; 95% CI: 80–94%), followed by NM with MGBqPCR (86%; 95% CI: 77–93%) in comparison to IST. The lowest diagnostic sensitivity was found for the NM combined with the TaqMan-qPCR protocol (72%; 95% CI: 62–82%).In conclusion, the MC-MGBqPCR seems to represent a suitable alternative to IST. However, applied to 3 g faecal samples, the less costly QT-TaqMan-qPCR workflow yielded a similar diagnostic sensitivity relative to IST. However, differences between these two workflows were not statistically significant.
       
  • The importance of being parasiticidal… an update on drug development for
           the treatment of alveolar echinococcosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Food and Waterborne Parasitology, Volume 15Author(s): Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Reto Rufener, Dominic Ritler, Raphael Zurbriggen, Andrew HemphillAbstractThe lethal disease alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the metacestode stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Current chemotherapeutical treatment of AE relies on albendazole and mebendazole, with the caveat that these compounds are not parasiticidal. Drugs have to be taken for a prolonged period of time, often life-long, which can cause adverse effects and reduces the patients' quality of life. In some individuals, benzimidazoles are inactive or cause toxicity, leading to treatment discontinuation. Alternatives to benzimidazoles are urgently needed. Over the recent years, in vivo and in vitro models for low-to-medium throughput drug discovery against AE have been set in place. In vitro drug tests include the phosphoglucose-isomerase (PGI) assay to measure physical damage induced to metacestodes, and viability assays to assess parasiticidal activity against metacestodes and stem cells. In vitro models are also employed for studies on mechanisms of action. In vivo models are thus far based on rodents, mainly mice, and benefits could be gained in future by comparative approaches in naturally infected dogs or captive monkeys.For the identification of novel drugs against AE, a rare disease with a low expected market return, drug-repurposing is the most promising strategy. A variety of chemically synthesized compounds as well as natural products have been analyzed with respect to in vitro and/or in vivo activities against AE. We here review and discuss the most active of these compounds including anti-infective compounds (benzimidazoles, nitazoxanide, amphotericin B, itraconazole, clarithromycin, DB1127, and buparvaquone), the anti-infective anti-malarials (artemisinin, ozonids, mefloquine, and MMV665807) and anti-cancer drugs (isoflavones, 2-methoxyestradiol, methotrexate, navelbine, vincristine, kinase inhibitors, metallo-organic ruthenium complexes, bortezomib, and taxanes). Taking into account the efficacy as well as the potential availability for patients, the most promising candidates are new formulations of benzimidazoles and mefloquine. Future drug-repurposing approaches should also target the energy metabolism of E. multilocularis, in particular the understudied malate dismutation pathway, as this offers an essential target in the parasite, which is not present in mammals.
       
  • Low salt exposure results in inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoites
           during formulation of dry cured ready-to-eat pork sausage

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Food and Waterborne Parasitology, Volume 15Author(s): J. Fredericks, D.S. Hawkins-Cooper, D.E. Hill, J. Luchansky, A. Porto-Fett, H.R. Gamble, V.M. Fournet, J.F. Urban, R. Holley, J.P. DubeyAbstractThe production of safe and healthy food products represents one of the main objectives of the food industry. The presence of microorganisms in meat and products containing meat can result in a range of human health problems, as well as economic losses to producers of these products. However, contaminated meat products continue to initiate serious and large-scale outbreaks of disease in consumers. In addition to outbreaks of diseases caused by bacteria and viruses, parasitic organisms, such as Toxoplasma gondii, are responsible for foodborne infections worldwide, and in the case of T. gondii, is considered the 2nd leading cause of death from foodborne illness in the U.S. Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii has historically been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked meat products, including pork. Specific concerns with respect to pork products are ready-to-eat (RTE) pork meals. These are pork or products containing pork that are prepared by curing or drying, and are not intended to be cooked before being consumed.Previous studies have demonstrated that T. gondii is inactivated during dry cured sausage preparation, apparently in the batter during fermentation. In this study, we have analyzed timing of inactivation of T. gondii in freshly prepared pepperoni batter to confirm our previous findings, to determine how quickly inactivation occurs during fermentation, and to confirm what parameters of the sausage preparation are involved in inactivation of the parasite. Results from the current and previous study indicate that rapid inactivation of T. gondii bradyzoites occurs in low salt batter for dry cured sausage within 4 h of initiation of fermentation.
       
  • Recommendations for genotyping Trichinella muscle stage larvae

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Food and Waterborne Parasitology, Volume 15Author(s): Edoardo Pozio, Dante ZarlengaAbstractBeing able to identify the species or genotype of Trichinella is of paramount importance not only for epidemiological studies but to better ascertain the source of outbreaks that still occur worldwide. This has become more critical in recent years given the increase in imported meat products and the relationship that wild animals play in the domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In contrast to a time when the genus Trichinella was considered monospecific, research in recent years has revealed that the genus consists of 9 species and at least 3 additional genotypes which have yet to be named. Except for a non-encapsulated clade consisting of Trichinella pseudospiralis, Trichinella zimbabwensis, and Trichinella papuae, all members of this genus are morphologically indistinguishable. Thus, identification has been relegated to using PCR and in special cases, DNA sequencing or restriction enzyme digestion. Rather than using a collection of PCR primers specific for each genotype, a single multiplex PCR previously developed for differentiating the major encapsulated and non-encapsulated genotypes has been adopted by the International Commission on Trichinellosis. Since the assay was first developed, other species have been named. Thus, DNA sequencing has been used to validate closely related genotypes. The ICT recommends genotyping be performed as described herein during all outbreaks and whenever Trichinella has been found in consumable foods.
       
  • International Commission on Trichinellosis: Recommendations on pre-harvest
           control of Trichinella in food animals

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Food and Waterborne ParasitologyAuthor(s): H. Ray Gamble, Lis Alban, Dolores Hill, Dave Pyburn, Brad ScandrettAbstractTransmission of Trichinella to domestic livestock, notably pigs, is limited to certain risk factors including feeding of raw meat-containing waste products or animal carcasses and exposure to infected rodents and wildlife. Prevention of infection in food animals is dependent on eliminating risk of exposure to these potential sources of Trichinella. By implementing conditions of controlled management, pig herds can be considered to pose a negligible risk for Trichinella, and groups of herds which follow these same conditions can be considered to be a compartment with negligible risk for Trichinella. Pork from pigs originating from a negligible risk herd or compartment would not require further testing or processing to protect consumers from this parasite. Verifying the status of pigs from a controlled management negligible risk herd or compartment can be accomplished by a program of regular audits or by implementing surveillance testing of a statistical sample of pigs from the herd or compartment.
       
  • Comparison of tissues (heart vs. brain) and serological tests (MAT, ELISA
           and IFAT) for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected
           wolverines (Gulo gulo) from the Yukon, Canada

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Food and Waterborne ParasitologyAuthor(s): Rajnish Sharma, Sarah Parker, Batol Al-Adhami, Nicholas Bachand, Emily JenkinsToxoplasmosis is an important parasitic zoonosis worldwide. Many human and animal surveys use serological assays based on Toxoplasma gondii antibody detection in serum, a matrix that is not routinely available from wildlife. Commonly used serological assays have rarely been validated for use with fluids other than serum, nor validated for their performance in wildlife species. New molecular assays, such as magnetic capture DNA extraction and real-time PCR (MC-qPCR), offer high sensitivity for detection of T. gondii DNA in tissues. The aims of this study were to (1) assess prevalence of T. gondii DNA based on MC-qPCR detection in brain and heart of naturally infected wolverines (Gulo gulo) from the Yukon, Canada (2) compare two matrices [heart fluid (collected from thawed heart) and filter eluate (eluted from blood soaked filter paper)] for antibody detection in the same species, and (3) evaluate the performance of three serological tests [modified agglutination test (MAT), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT)] to detect naturally infected wolverines as determined by MC-qPCR. DNA of T. gondii was detected in heart and/or brain in 16 of 68 wolverines (24%, 95% CI: 15.0–34.8). Tissue prevalence and infection intensity was higher in heart [16 positives, mediantachyzoites equivalents per gram (TEG) =1221] compared to brain (10 positives, median TEG = 347). Heart fluid (HF) and filter eluates (FE) performed equally well in ELISA and IFAT in terms of relative sensitivity, but HF performed better with MAT. ELISA and IFAT had higher relative sensitivity (94%) and relative specificity (100%) compared to MAT (relative sensitivity 75% and relative specificity 92%). Overall, our findings indicate that the parasite burden in naturally infected wolverines was higher in heart compared to brain, heart fluid performed better than filter paper eluate for serological testing using MAT, and both IFAT and ELISA had higher relative sensitivity, relative specificity, and accuracy compared to MAT.Graphical abstractSerological tests for detection of Toxoplasma gondii exposure in naturally infected wolverines Wolverine picture supplied by Emilie Bouchard (University of Saskatchewan).Unlabelled Image
       
  • International Commission on Trichinellosis: Recommendations on the use of
           serological tests for the detection of Trichinella infection in animals
           and humans

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Food and Waterborne Parasitology, Volume 14Author(s): Fabrizio Bruschi, Maria Angeles Gómez-Morales, Dolores E. HillAbstractSerological methods are widely used for detection of infections in animals and humans. The recommendations provided here take into account the best current methods for the serological detection of Trichinella infection. They are based on current scientific information including unpublished data from laboratories with relevant expertise in this field. These recommendations represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) regarding acceptable methods for the use and interpretation of serology testing for Trichinella infection in animals and humans.The ICT does not recommend use of serological methods for testing individual carcasses of animals at slaughter for assuring food safety. For detection of human infections, for epidemiological studies in animals and humans, and for monitoring Trichinella infection in swine, the ICT recommends ELISA using excretory/secretory (ES) antigens. These antigens are obtained from the in-vitro maintenance of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and are recognized by sera from hosts infected by all Trichinella species and genotypes identified thus far. In most situations, positive results obtained by ELISA should be confirmed by western blot. Serological assays should be properly standardized and validated for their intended purpose. The components of the test that are critical for maintaining suitable performance should be identified and appropriately checked. Users of commercial tests should verify that the test has been adequately evaluated by an independent body. Serology is useful for detecting Trichinella in animals and humans but its limitations need to be taken into account when interpreting the results.
       
  • Performance of three molecular methods for detection of Toxoplasma
           gondii
    in pork

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Food and Waterborne Parasitology, Volume 14Author(s): Nadja S. Bier, Gereon Schares, Annette Johne, Annett Martin, Karsten Nöckler, Anne Mayer-SchollAbstractComparison of epidemiological data on the occurrence of Toxoplasma (T.) gondii tissue cysts in meat is hampered by the lack of standardization and a great variety of methods for molecular detection. Therefore, this study aimed to compare and validate three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for detection of T. gondii DNA in pork. Analytical performance characteristics of two real time PCRs (qPCRs; Tg-qPCR1, Tg-qPCR2) and one conventional endpoint PCR (cPCR), all targeting the 529 repeated element, were assessed using genomic DNA of three clonal T. gondii types prevailing in Europe and North America. qPCR efficiencies for all three clonal types ranged between 93.8 and 94.4% (Tg-qPCR1) and 94.3–95.6% (Tg-qPCR2). Tg-qPCR1 and Tg-qPCR2 showed an overall PCR performance score of 85% and displayed a similar 95% detection limit of 1.067 and 1.561 genome equivalents per PCR reaction (GE/PCR), respectively. However, T. gondii DNA could be detected at concentrations as low as 0.1 GE/PCR. Reliable quantification is possible over 4 log ranges from 105 to 100 GE/PCR with mean repeatability relative standard deviations of ≤11% and reproducibility relative standard deviations of ≤12.7%. Presumably, both qPCRs are similarly suitable for sensitive and specific detection of T. gondii DNA in pork. In contrast, the cPCR using primer pair TOX5/Tox-8 proved to be highly sensitive with a detection limit of 1.41 GE/PCR, but not suitable for detection of T. gondii DNA in pork as unspecific amplification of porcine DNA was observed resulting in bands with similar size to the desired T. gondii-specific PCR product.
       
  • International Commission on Trichinellosis: Recommendations on
           post-harvest control of Trichinella in food animals

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Food and Waterborne Parasitology, Volume 14Author(s): Karsten Noeckler, Edoardo Pozio, Joke van der Giessen, Dolores E. Hill, H. Ray GambleAbstractDomestic and wild animals which consume meat are at risk of becoming infected with Trichinella and therefore may pose a public health risk. Among domestic livestock, pigs are most commonly associated with Trichinella infection, but human outbreaks have also resulted from consumption of horsemeat, wild boar, bear, walrus and other wild animals. For animals that are not produced under controlled management conditions and for wild animals, specific steps should be taken to prevent human exposure to Trichinella. These steps include appropriate testing of individual carcasses to identify those that pose a public health risk, post-slaughter processing to inactivate Trichinella in meat that might be infected, and education of consumers regarding the need for proper preparation methods for meat that might contain Trichinella larvae. The International Commission on Trichinellosis recognizes three (3) acceptable means of treatment to render potentially Trichinella-infected meats safe for consumption: 1) cooking, 2) freezing (for meat from domestic pigs), and 3) irradiation. Proper use of these methods is described here, along with specific cautions on use of other methods, including curing and heating with microwaves.
       
  • Genetic diversity of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes from two
           Scandinavian countries: Denmark and Sweden

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Food and Waterborne Parasitology, Volume 14Author(s): Jenny Knapp, Gérald Umhang, Helene Wahlström, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman Al-Sabi, Erik O. Ågren, Heidi Larsen EnemarkAbstractEchinococcus multilocularis is an endemic parasite of red foxes in several European countries. This parasite has been present for decades in central Europe i.e. Switzerland, Eastern France, Southern Germany and Austria, which constitute the core endemic area of Europe. In the Scandinavian countries Sweden and Denmark, several recent findings were made in foxes. To better understand the dynamics and geographic spread of E. multilocularis in Europe, genetic studies have been undertaken using the DNA microsatellite marker EmsB. In Europe, the parasite spread in hitherto non-endemic areas was suspected to take place after founder events, in which the core endemic area presents a wider genetic diversity in comparison to newly endemic areas. However, identical parasite profiles can be shared between them, highlighting the parasite spreading in a mainland-island system. In this study, Swedish (27 adult worms from seven red foxes) and Danish (38 adult worms from nine red foxes) isolates were examined using fragment size analyses of the tandemly repeated microsatellite EmsB in order to compare the genetic profiles of the Scandinavian worms with a reference collection of European worm isolates from seven countries. Six EmsB profiles were detected in the Scandinavian panel. Three profiles were described in Denmark and four in Sweden. Only one of these profiles was detected in both countries. All profiles identified in the present study have previously been found in other European countries, suggesting an epidemiological link. Due to the relatively low number of Scandinavian E. multilocularis isolates analysed so far, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the true genetic diversity. Nevertheless, the low genetic variation detected in Sweden and Denmark in this study is similar to the values obtained from peripheral areas of the main European endemic focus, which were more recently colonized by E. multilocularis; and continuous surveillance of this parasite is warranted to provide further insight into its epidemiology in Scandinavia.
       
  • Molecular detection and epidemiological risk factors associated with
           Cryptosporidium infection among cattle in Peninsular Malaysia

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Food and Waterborne Parasitology, Volume 14Author(s): D.A. Abdullah, S.D. Ola-Fadunsin, K. Ruviniyia, F.I. Gimba, P. Chandrawathani, Y.A.L. Lim, F.F.A. Jesse, R.S.K. SharmaAbstractEnteric protozoa infection among cattle may pose a threat to productivity and survival leading to negative impacts on the livestock industry. A number of these pathogens are also known to be zoonotic and are of public health concern. Despite the importance of these enteric protozoa to both animal and human health, there remains a paucity of published information on the epidemiological risk factors that may be associated with bovine cryptosporidiosis in Southeast Asia. The present study was undertaken to determine the molecular prevalence and associated risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection among beef and dairy cattle in Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 824 cattle in 39 farms (526 beef and 298 dairy) situated in 33 locations throughout the country, and subjected to PCR detection for Cryptosporidium using primers targeting the 18S SSUrRNA gene. Epidemiological variables including host, environment and management factors were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the potential risk factors for infection. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium among the cattle was 12.5%, with significant difference in the infection rate among the various breeds. There was no significant effect of gender, and both the beef and dairy cattle were at similar odds for infection. The younger cattle had a significantly higher infection rate compared to the older animals. Multivariate analysis revealed that deworming practice, distance to human settlement, geographical location (zone) and farm management system were significant risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection. The cattle that were reared on farms located in the northeast of the country, closest (≤200 m) to human settlements, reared extensively, and dewormed every four months were at highest risk of infection. The present study constitutes the first attempt to analyze the multivariable epidemiological risk factors involved in bovine cryptosporidiosis in Malaysia and in Southeast Asia. It is envisaged that the data obtained will facilitate better control and prevention measures for Cryptosporidium infection among cattle in the region. Due to the potential zoonotic nature of the infection, serious steps should be instituted for animal treatment and biohazard waste management on local cattle farms.
       
 
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