Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 410 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (289 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (289 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Modelling Journal     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grain & Oil Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JKI Datenblätter : Obstsorten     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Chemistry & Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Beverages     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.071
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1021-9498
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3207 journals]
  • Comparative quality of the forms of decoction pieces evaluated by
           multidimensional chemical analysis and chemometrics: Poria cocos, a pilot
           study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Li-Xia Zhu, Jun Xu, Yun Wu, Li-Fei Su, Kelly Yin Ching Lam, Elizabeth R. Qi, Xiao-Ping Dong, Hu-Biao Chen, Yu-De Liu, Zhong-Zhen ZhaoMany Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) are parts of plants or fungi that have been processed into different physical forms, termed decoction pieces, that are typically boiled in water for consumption. One CMM may have several decoction pieces forms, e.g., slices, small cubes (dice), or grains. The specifications that have different morphological parameters (shape, size and thickness) for these various decoction pieces have been developed over, in some cases, centuries of practice. Nevertheless, whether and how the form of decoction pieces affects the extraction (decoction) dynamics, and quality stability during storage has not been studied. Here, we investigated Poria cocos (PC) as a pilot study; we explore how the form of PC decoction pieces affects its chemistry using multidimensional chemical evaluation such as Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS), Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) and high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (HPGPC-CAD), combined with analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The results indicated that different specifications had significant differences, and these specifications could be divided into four groups. The comprehensive results of the chemical analyses undertaken here indicate that the highest potentially available quality of PC decoction pieces was in the forms of curl, ultra-small grains and small grains, followed by thin slices. This information not only is conducive to promoting the standardization of the specification/form of PC decoction pieces and maximizing the benefits from its utilization, but also provide a promising strategy for assessing other CMM decoction pieces in different forms.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Determination of phenylenediamines in hair colors derivatizated with 5-(4,
           6-dichlorotriazinyl)aminofluorescein via micellar electrokinetic
           chromatography

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Hung-Yu Ko, Yi-Hui Lin, Chi-Jen Shih, Yen-Ling ChenPhenylenediamines (PDs), which are reported to cause allergic dermatitis and possess genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, are the ingredients used in permanent hair dyes. The fluorescent derivatization strategy coupled with micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) were established to analyze four PDs, including o-phenylenediamine (OPD), m-phenylenediamine (MPD), p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD). Additionally, 5-(4, 6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (DTAF) was used as a fluorescent reagent derived at amino groups of PDs and underwent nucleophilic substitution reaction to improve the detection sensitivity. The derivatization condition reacted at 90 °C for 10 min in alkaline conditions. The optimized separation conditions were 20 mM borate (pH 8.0) containing 10 mM Brij 35 and 35% (v/v) methanol. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) for MPD, PTD, PPD and OPD were 25, 25, 50 and 100 nM, respectively. Compared to MEKC-UV, the sensitivity enhancements were 30- to 81-fold when PDs were derived with DTAF. The high-sensitivity MEKC-LIF method was successfully established and applied to determine PDs in commercial hair colors for quality control and in real hair samples for evaluating the location of PDs in dyed hair samples, as well as in percutaneous absorption samples for evaluating the ability of PDs to penetrate skin.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Proanthocyanidins from the stem bark of Rhus tripartita ameliorate
           methylgloxal-induced endothelial cell apoptosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Ali S. Alqahtani, Wael M. Abdel-mageed, Abdelaaty A. Shahat, Mohammad K. Parvez, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari, Ajamaluddin Malik, Maged S. Abdel-Kader, Mansour S. AlsaidIn traditional Arabian medicine, the Rhus tripartita plant (family Anacardiaceae) has been used to treat inflammatory conditions. Although Rhus extracts have been reported for their cardioprotective effects, information regarding their active principle compounds remains insufficient. The present investigation was aimed at determining the antioxidant chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of R. tripartita stem bark and evaluating their ability to ameliorate methylglyoxal-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Ten flavonoid compounds (1–10) were isolated and identified using DPPH radical scavenging bioassay-guided chromatographic separation. A new proanthocyanidin (rhuspartin) (1) was isolated and identified as 3,5,13,14-flavantetrol-(4β→8)-catechin, using extensive spectroscopic data and high resolution-mass spectrometry. Among the compounds (1, 5, 7–10) tested for toxicity toward cultured endothelial cells (HUVECs), the non-cytotoxic compounds 1 and 7 evinced cytoprotective potential that reversed the methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis (by 62% and 64%, respectively) through downregulation of caspase 3/7.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Multi-residue analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass
           spectrometry for detection of 20 coccidiostats in poultry, livestock, and
           aquatic tissues

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Shun-Hsien Chang, Yu-Hsun Lai, Chih-Neng Huang, Guan-Jhih Peng, Chia-Ding Liao, Ya-Min Kao, Su-Hsiang Tseng, Der-Yuan WangIn this study, we developed a novel analysis method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) to allow the simultaneous identification of 20 coccidiostats in eight matrix categories, including the muscles of chicken, swine, cow, and fish as well as chicken eggs, bovine milk, and porcine viscera. In the pretreatment procedure, acetonitrile/methanol (95:5, v/v) containing 1% formic acid, 5 g of sodium acetate, and 6.0 g of anhydrous magnesium sulfate was used for extraction, followed by a clean-up procedure using n-hexane saturated with ACN to facilitate the elimination of analytes from high lipid samples. Chromatographic separations were achieved using a Poroshell 120SB C18 column and operated with a gradient mobile phase system consisting of methanol (with 0.1% formic acid) and 5 mM ammonium formate, and the MS detection was monitored simultaneously. The method was validated in accordance with the Guidelines for the Validation of Food Chemical Methods by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration. The limit of quantitation among 8 matrices were 0.5–2 ng g−1. The proposed method proved highly effective in detecting the presence of targeted veterinary drugs, providing a high degree of precision and accuracy over a broad range of matrices.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Potential prebiotics and their transmission mechanisms: Recent approaches

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Ishu Khangwal, Pratyoosh ShuklaPrebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which can be used as prime source of energy for gut microflora. These can be naturally occurring in fruit and vegetables or can be made synthetically by enzymatic digestions. New versatile sources of prebiotics had been found nowadays for economic commercialization. This review will decipher on highlighting the importance of prebiotics in immunomodulation and nutrient absorption abilities of gut, as it is important for the anti-effective capacity of the organism especially in the neonatal period. Moreover, new prebiotics transmission strategies with higher penetrating capacity such as microencapsulation and immobilization have been discussed. In addition to this, literature had shown the modulation of gut microflora by the continuous use of prebiotics in many disorders so here, the role of prebiotics in health-related issues such as diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease (IBS) have been explained.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • An ultra-rapid drug screening method for acetaminophen in blood serum
           based on probe electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Kiyotaka Usui, Haruka Kobayashi, Yuji Fujita, Eito Kubota, Tomoki Hanazawa, Tomohiro Yoshizawa, Yoshito Kamijo, Masato FunayamaPoisoning incidents caused by drugs, accidental ingestion of poisons, attempted suicide, homicide, and exposure to toxic compounds occur frequently every year across the globe. This raises the need to rapidly identify toxic agents in poisoned patients in a clinical emergency setting. In addition, determining drug/poison concentration is undoubtedly necessary to arrive at a toxicological treatment plan. The purpose of this study was to develop an ultra-rapid drug screening method for the clinical treatment of poisoning. Probe electrospray ionization (PESI), one of the ambient ionization techniques, is able to detect compounds from various biological materials almost directly. We applied the PESI technique to the rapid detection of acetaminophen (APAP). Blood serum samples were diluted 100-fold with 10 mM ammonium formate/ethanol (1:1 v/v) solution including deuterium-labeled internal standards (IS; APAP-d4). Only 10 μL of the diluted sample was used for measurement. The tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) equipped with a PESI was used in selected reaction monitoring mode for the quantitation of APAP; the measurement time was only 18 s. Transitions were set at 152 > 110 for quantitation, 152 > 65 for qualifier, and 156 > 114 for IS (APAP-d4). All measurements were conducted in positive mode. The calibration curve (1/x2) was linear over the range of 1.56–200 μg/mL (r2 = 0.998), and the limit of detection and quantitation were 0.37 μg/mL and 1.56 μg/mL, respectively. The accuracy (bias) and precision (RSD%) of the method were within an acceptable range (−0.15–2.8% and 2.3–6.1%, respectively) and matrix effect at 3 concentrations (95.1–104%) indicated that PESI-MS/MS is only slightly affected by matrices. In real forensic cases, quantitative values of APAP determined by the PESI-MS/MS were almost identical to those determined by the liquid chromatography-MS/MS method. Since PESI-MS/MS is a simple, reliable, and rapid determination method for toxic agents with virtually no need for blood serum pre-treatment, it would be highly suitable for poisoning cases in clinical emergency settings. In the future, a method for simultaneous rapid determination of multiple toxic agents will be developed.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cosmetic
           products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): S.W. Wang, K.H. Hsu, S.C. Huang, S.S. Tseng, D.Y. Wang, H.F. ChengA gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method is developed to determine 18 representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cosmetics, including Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and others. The method offers high sensitivity and selectivity under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to satisfy the requirements of both quantitation and qualitation. The extraction solvent system used in this study is acetone/hexane 1:1 (v/v) and other purification procedure is unnecessary. The linearities of 18 PAHs are validated in different concentration in the range of 0.25–20 ng/mL individually with coefficient correlation (r) higher than 0.996. The recoveries for spiking 3 different concentrations are from 87.40% to 120.44% for 18 PAHs and the coefficient of variation (CV) are below 12.32%. Limit of quantification (LOQ) of 18 PAHs is in the range of 0.05–0.2 mg/kg. A matrix enhancement effect is observed and can be compensated with deuterated internal standard. The method has been successfully applied to 73 samples, over 40 of them are lipsticks. The results show none of the samples detect Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), both are classified as the most carcinogenic. 8 PAHs are detected and the average value between 0.08 and 0.27 mg/kg. This study offers a sensitive and simple method to analyze 18 representative PAHs successfully and can be applied to cosmetic products and raw materials.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Psychobiotics in mental health, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental
           disorders

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Li-Hao Cheng, Yen-Wenn Liu, Chien-Chen Wu, Sabrina Wang, Ying-Chieh TsaiPsychobiotics are a group of probiotics that affect the central nervous system (CNS) related functions and behaviors mediated by the gut-brain-axis (GBA) via immune, humoral, neural, and metabolic pathways to improve not only the gastrointestinal (GI) function but also the antidepressant and anxiolytic capacity. As a novel class of probiotics, the application of psychobiotics has led researchers to focus on a new area in neuroscience. In the past five years, some psychobiotics strains were reported to inhibit inflammation and decreased cortisol levels, resulting in an amelioration of the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Psychobiotics are efficacious in improving neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Use of psychobiotics can improve GI function, ASD symptoms, motor functions of patients with PD and cognition in patients with AD. However, the evidence for the effects of psychobiotics on mental and neurological conditions/disorders remains limited. Further studies of psychobiotics are needed in order to determine into their effectiveness and mechanism as treatments for various psychiatric disorders in the future.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Next generation probiotics in disease amelioration

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Chih-Jung Chang, Tzu-Lung Lin, Yu-Ling Tsai, Tsung-Ru Wu, Wei-Fan Lai, Chia-Chen Lu, Hsin-Chih LaiStudies on the role of gut commensal bacteria in health development have rapidly attracted much more attention beyond the classical pathogens over the last decade. Many important reports have highlighted the changes in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) are closely related to development of intra- and extra-intestinal, chronic inflammation related diseases such as colitis, obesity/metabolic syndromes, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases and also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. To circumvent these difficulties, the strategy of modulating the structure of the gut microbiota has been under intensive study and shed more light on amelioration of these inflammation related diseases. While traditional probiotics generally show marginal ameliorative effects, emerging next generation probiotics start to reveal as new preventive and therapeutic tools. Recent studies have unraveled many potential next generation probiotics (NGP). These include Prevotella copri and Christensenella minuta that control insulin resistance, Parabacteroides goldsteinii, Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that reverse obesity and insulin resistance, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii that protects mice against intestinal diseases, and Bacteroides fragilis that reduces inflammation and shows anticancer effect. New agents will soon be revealed for targeted therapy on specific inflammation related diseases. The important roles of next generation probiotics and gut microbiota normobiosis on the maintenance of intestinal integrity and homeostasis are emphasized.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Revisit gut microbiota and its impact on human health and disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Rui-xue Ding, Wei-Rui Goh, Ri-na Wu, Xi-qing Yue, Xue Luo, Wei Wei Thwe Khine, Jun-rui Wu, Yuan-Kun LeeTrillions of microbes have evolved with and continue to live on human beings. With the rapid advances in tools and technology in recent years, new knowledge and insight in cross-talk between the microbes and their hosts have gained. It is the aim of this work to critically review and summarize recent literature reports on the role of microbiota and mechanisms involved in the progress and development of major human diseases, which include obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), gout, depression and arthritis, as well as infant health and longevity.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Current status of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in clinical microbiology

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Tsung-Yun Hou, Chuan Chiang-Ni, Shih-Hua TengMass spectrometry (MS) is a type of analysis used to determine what molecules make up a sample, based on the mass spectrum that are created by the ions. Mass spectrometers are able to perform traditional target analyte identification and quantitation; however, they may also be used within a clinical setting for the rapid identification of bacteria. The causative agent in sepsis is changed over time, and clinical decisions affecting the management of infections are often based on the outcomes of bacterial identification. Therefore, it is essential that such identifications are performed quickly and interpreted correctly. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer is one of the most popular MS instruments used in biology, due to its rapid and precise identification of genus and species of an extensive range of Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Microorganism identification by Mass spectrometry is based on identifying a characteristic spectrum of each species and then matched with a large database within the instrument. The present review gives a contemporary perspective on the challenges and opportunities for bacterial identification as well as a written report of how technological innovation has advanced MS. Future clinical applications will also be addressed, particularly the use of MALDI-TOF MS in the field of microbiology for the identification and the analysis of antibiotic resistance.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Direct injection high performance liquid chromatography coupled to data
           independent acquisition mass spectrometry for the screening of antibiotics
           in honey

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Annie von Eyken, Daniel Furlong, Samareh Arooni, Fred Butterworth, Jean-François Roy, Jerry Zweigenbaum, Stéphane BayenThe targeted analysis of veterinary drug residues in honey traditionally involves a series of extraction and purification steps prior to quantification with high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution or tandem mass spectrometry. These steps, designed to separate the target analytes from interferences, are generally time-consuming and costly. In addition, traditional cleanup steps are likely to eliminate other compounds whose analysis could prove decisive in current or future assessment of the honey sample. Alternatively, direct injection without complex sample preparation steps has been introduced for the fast analysis of trace compounds in environmental and food matrices. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method for the targeted analysis of 7 key veterinary drug residues in honey based on direct injection high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight, while simultaneously recording data-independent MS/MS (e.g. All Ions MS/MS data) for future re-examination of the data for other purposes. The new method allowed for the detection of the target residues at levels approximately 20–100 times lower than current regulatory limits, for a total analysis time of about 45 min. The recoveries (103–119%), the linearity (R ≥ 0.996) and the repeatability (RSD ≤ 7%) were satisfactory. The method was then applied to 35 honey samples from the Canadian market. Residues of tylosin A, tylosin B, sulfamethazine and sulfadimethoxine were detected in 6, 9, 6 and 23% of the samples respectively, at levels below the regulatory limits in Canada. The possibility of adding a hydrolysis step to study sulfonamides in honey was tested, which provided good results for this family of compounds but lead to degradation of some of the other analytes. Finally, the non-targeted identification of several compounds was demonstrated as a proof of concept of future re-examination of All Ions MS/MS data. This paper illustrates the capacity of this novel method to combine targeted and non-targeted screening of chemical residues in honey.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • A nutraceutical extract from Inula viscosa leaves: UHPLC-HR-MS/MS based
           polyphenol profile, and antioxidant and cytotoxic activities

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Nabila Brahmi-Chendouh, Simona Piccolella, Giuseppina Crescente, Francesca Pacifico, Lila Boulekbache, Sabrina Hamri-Zeghichi, Salah Akkal, Khodir Madani, Severina PacificoNowadays, advanced extraction techniques and highly sensitive metabolic profiling methods are effectively employed to get new information on plant chemical constituents. Among them wild medicinal plants or their parts, with large and ancient use in folk medicine, are investigated for their potential functional use and cultivation. In this context, Inula viscosa leaves engaged our attention. A simple experimental design, based on Soxhlet extraction and chromatographic fractionation, allowed us to obtain the investigated polyphenol fraction (IvE). UHPLC-HRMS analyses revealed shikimoyl depsides of caffeic acid and unusual dihydrobenzofuran lignans as main secondary metabolites. These compounds, together with cinchonain-type phenols, and hydroxycinnamoyl flavonol glycosides, are reported for the first time in inula. Overall, forty-three secondary metabolites were identified. The extract exerted a remarkable antiradical activity towards DPPH• and ABTS+•. Furthermore, it was able to inhibit cell viability and mitochondrial redox activity of neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma and colon carcinoma cells, whereas it did not affect cell density of HaCaT cells immortalized human keratinocytes. As detected by the oxidant-sensing probe 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the inhibitory responses seemed to be related to IvE-induced increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The obtained results highlighted that inula leaves, nowadays even undervalued and unexplored, could be considered a renewable source of nutraceutical compounds.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Reduction of aluminum ion neurotoxicity through a small peptide
           application – NAP treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Ming-Hui Yang, Shih-Cheng Chen, Yu-Fen Lin, Yi-Chia Lee, Ming-Yii Huang, Ko-Chin Chen, Hsin-Yi Wu, Po-Chiao Lin, Illana Gozes, Yu-Chang TyanAlzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in late life. It is difficult to precisely diagnose AD at early stages, making biomarker search essential for further developments. The objective of this study was to identify protein biomarkers associated with aluminum ions toxicity (AD-like toxicity) in a human neuroblastoma cell model, SH-SY5Y and assess potential prevention by NAP (NAPVSIPQ). Complete proteomic techniques were implemented. Four proteins were identified as up-regulated with aluminum ion treatment, CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor (CTIF), Early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), Leucine-rich repeat neuronal protein 4 (LRRN4) and Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta (PI3KR2). Of these four proteins, EEA1 and PI3KR2 were down-regulated after NAP-induced neuroprotective activity in neuroblastoma cells. Thus, aluminum ions may increase the risk for neurotoxicity in AD, and the use of NAP is suggested as a treatment to provide additional protection against the effects of aluminum ions, via EEA1 and PI3KR2, associated with sorting and processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP) through the endosomal system.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract attenuate the pathological progression of
           diabetic nephropathy in high-fat diet-fed and streptozotocin-induced
           diabetic rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Huan-Wei Chen, Mon-Yuan Yang, Tung-Wei Hung, Yun-Ching Chang, Chau-Jong WangDiabetic nephropathy is not only a common and severe microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus but also the leading cause of renal failure. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) possesses antioxidative and anticancer properties. The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of N. nucifera leaf extract (NLE) in a rat model of type 2 diabetic mellitus. Male Sprague–Dawley rats with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with NLE at dosages of 0.5% and 1% (w/w) daily for 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body weight, serum glucose levels, insulin levels, and kidney function were assessed. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney, and histopathological examination was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid Schiff staining, and Masson trichrome staining. To shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying the functioning of NLE, mouse glomerular mesangial cells (MES-13) treated with high glucose (HG, 25 mM glucose) were chosen as a model for an examination of the signal transduction pathway of NLE. The results revealed that NLE improved diabetic kidney injury by reducing blood glucose, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities in kidney tissue. Treatment with NLE significantly reduced the malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels and increased serum insulin levels; expression of renal superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities; and glutathione content. Histological studies have also demonstrated that NLE treatment inhibited the dilation of Bowman's capsule, which confirmed its renoprotective action in diabetes. In addition, treatment with NLE and its major component quercetin 3-glucuronide attenuated 25 mM HG-induced suppressed nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and antioxidant enzyme expression in MES-13 cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that NLE may have antidiabetic and renoprotective effects against HFD/STZ-induced diabetes, at least in part, through antioxidative pathways.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Glycoproteomic identification of novel plasma biomarkers for oral cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Shu-Chieh Chang, Wei-Ling Lin, Yin-Fan Chang, Chih-Ting Lee, Jin-Shang Wu, Pang-Hung Hsu, Chuan-Fa ChangOral cancer with high incidence rates is occurring in many countries including in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Taiwan. Smoking, alcoholism, and betel nut chewing are considered to be the main risk factors for oral cancer. Further, deaths from oral cancer have increased year by year. Although several oral cancer-associated biomarkers have been reported, very few useful biomarkers have been applied for early diagnosis. Therefore, the investigation of oral cancer-specific biomarkers is urgently needed. We previously investigated N-glycomes of oral cancer cells and patient plasma. We found that both mRNA levels of FUT8 and core-fucosylated glycoproteins increase in cases of oral cancer relative to normal cases. In this study we aim to discover novel core-fucosylated glycoprotein biomarkers for oral cancer diagnosis with glycoproteomic approaches. First, forty plasma samples obtained from the Human Bioinformation Bank of NCKUH were subjected to AAL (Aleuria aurantia lectin) affinity chromatography. Core-fucosylated proteins were collected and applied for LC-MS/MS followed by electrophoresis. Fourteen proteins were identified, and expression levels of proteins in plasma were verified by western blot. Expression levels of some glycoproteins were elevated in the oral cancer group, including ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and leucin-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1). However, levels of some glycoproteins decreased in the cancer group, including apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV). Via ELISA analysis, we found that apo A-IV and apo A-IV/total protein ratios were decreased in plasma accompanied with cancer stages. The LRG1/total protein ratio was found to increase while plasma levels of LRG1 were not found to differ between the oral cancer plasma and normal groups. An ROC curve analysis reveals strong diagnosis performance when combining apo A-IV levels and LRG1/total protein ratios. Taken together, apo A-IV and LRG1, given their strong performance in detecting oral cancer, can serve as useful biomarkers and may be used as a useful tool for oral cancer screening and early diagnosis.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to determine
           25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for clinical assessment of vitamin D deficiency
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Ming-Yeh Yang, Ching-Yuan Huang, Tina H.T. Chiu, Kai-Chih Chang, Ming-Nan Lin, Liang-Yü Chen, Anren HuVitamin D is responsible for multiple metabolic functions in humans. Rickets are the most common disease caused by vitamin D deficiency. It is caused by poor calcium intake resulting in poor serum-ionized calcium. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid, sensitive, and feasible method to determine the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels in blood samples for clinical assessment. In this study, gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry with trimethylsilyl derivatization (TMS-GC-MS) is the most suitable protocol for quantitative analyses of 25(OH)D3. Performance of method was evaluated and compared with liquid chromatography and immunoassay. Method validation has been carried out with plasma specimens. The limit of quantitation of TMS-GC-MS method is 1.5 ppb with good linear correlation. Furthermore, the dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and non-vegetarians in Taiwan were assessed by our validated method. As a result, this vitamin D nutrition survey demonstrates that most Taiwanese people have insufficient vitamin D. Due to dietary habits; the male vegans may have the highest risk of vitamin D deficiency.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Utilizing proteomic approach to identify nuclear translocation related
           serine kinase phosphorylation site of GNMT as downstream effector for
           benzo[a]pyrene

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Ming-Hui Yang, Chen-Chung Liao, Jung-Hsien Hung, Xiu-Ting Lai, Chia-Hung Yen, Yi-Ming Arthur ChenGlycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) protein is highly expressed in certain tissues, such as liver, pancreas, and prostate. GNMT serves multiple roles which include a methyl group transfer enzyme and a liver tumor suppressor. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a family member of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a known environmental carcinogen found in coal tar, tobacco smoke, barbecued food and incomplete combustion of auto fuel. BaP recruits cytochrome P450 to transform itself into benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (B(a)PDE), which covalently interacts with DNA causing tumorigenesis. BaP can be detoxified through GNMT and induces GNMT translocation into the cellular nucleus. GNMT translocation is accompanied by phosphorylation, but the role of phosphorylation in GNMT remains to be explored. Using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, this study identified serine 9 of GNMT as the phosphorylation site upon BaP treatment. When serine 9 was mutated and lost the capability to be phosphorylated, the occurrence of BaP-induced GNMT nuclear translocation was dramatically decreased. Also, this mutant from of GNMT lost the ability of phosphorylation and increased cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1a) expression upon BaP treatment. In addition, protein kinase C (PKC) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) may be required for such phosphorylation. Further characterization of phosphorylated GNMT for its link to BaP may bring new insights into chemical detoxification.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Direct and rapid characterization of illicit drugs in adulterated samples
           using thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Sy-Chyi Cheng, You-Da Tsai, Chi-Wei Lee, Bai-Hsiun Chen, Jentaie ShieaFoods and drinks have been adulterated with illicit drugs to facilitate criminal activities. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods are incapable of rapidly characterizing these drugs in samples, as serious interferences from sample matrices must be removed through tedious and time-consuming pretreatment. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry (AMS) generally does not require sample pretreatment and is thus a suitable tool for directly and rapidly detecting illicit drugs in samples in different physical states. In this study, thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD-ESI/MS), an AMS technique, was utilized to efficiently characterize illicit drugs spiked in samples including drinks, powders, and jelly candies. To perform sensitive analysis, the mass analyzer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode to monitor the molecular and fragment ions of the target analytes. The time required to complete a typical TD-ESI/MS analysis was less than 30 s. The limits of detection (LODs) for illicit drugs were found to be 100 ppb in drinks, 100–1000 ppb in instant powders, and 1.3–6.5 ng/mm2 on stamp surfaces. FM2 and nitrazepam laced in the inner layer of a jelly candy were detected by TD-ESI/MS, showcasing the advantage of the technique for direct and rapid analysis as opposed to conventional methods.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Risk of adverse cardiovascular events with use of inhaled long-acting
           bronchodilators in management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Meng-Ting Wang, Jyun-Heng Lai, Chen-Liang Tsai, Jun-Ting LiouInhaled long-acting bronchodilators, including long-acting β2 agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are the mainstay therapy in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease that poses a heavy burden on morbidity and mortality worldwide. Use of LABAs and LAMAs in patients with COPD, however, has been concerned about an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, despite inconsistent findings reported from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. In this review, we detailed the relevant evidence generated from RCTs and observational studies with respect to the risk of cardiovascular disease with use of LABAs and LAMAs in management of COPD, and analyzed the contradictory findings in the literature, as well as recommended future research directions to clear the air regarding the cardiovascular safety of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Targeting amine- and phenol-containing metabolites in urine by dansylation
           isotope labeling and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for
           evaluation of bladder cancer biomarkers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Yi-Ting Chen, Hsin-Chien Huang, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Shu-Hsuan Fu, Liang Li, Chien-Lun Chen, Lichieh Julie Chu, Jau-Song YuMetabolomics is considered an effective approach for understanding metabolic responses in complex biological systems. Accordingly, it has attracted increasing attention for biomarker discovery, especially in cancer. In this study, we used a non-invasive method to evaluate four urine metabolite biomarker candidates—o-phosphoethanolamine, 3-amio-2-piperidone, uridine and 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid—for their potential as bladder cancer diagnostic biomarkers. To analyze these targeted amine- and phenol-containing metabolites, we used differential 12C2-/13C2-dansylation labeling coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, which has previously been demonstrated to exhibit high sensitivity and reproducibility. Specifically, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with high-resolution Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance MS system (LC-FT/MS) and an ion trap MS with MRM function (LC-HCT/MS) for targeted quantification. The urinary metabolites of interest were well separated and quantified using this approach. To apply this approach to clinical urine specimens, we spiked samples with 13C2-dansylatedsynthetic compounds, which served as standards for targeted quantification of 12C2-dansylated urinary endogenous metabolites using LC-FT/MS as well as LC-HCT/MS with MRM mode. These analyses revealed significant differences in two of the four metabolites of interest—o-phosphoethanolamine and uridine—between bladder cancer and non-cancer groups. O-phosphoethanolamine was the most promising single biomarker, with an area-under-the-curve (AUC) value of 0.709 for bladder cancer diagnosis. Diagnostic performance was improved by combining uridine and o-phosphoethanolamine in a marker panel, yielding an AUC value of 0.726. This study confirmed discovery-phase features of the urine metabolome of bladder cancer patients and verified their importance for further study.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Rapid identification of herbal toxins using electrospray laser desorption
           ionization mass spectrometry for emergency care

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Hung Su, Kuan-Ting Liu, Bai-Hsiun Chen, Yen-Ping Lin, Yu-Min Jiang, Yi-Hong Tsai, Fang-Rong Chang, Jentaie Shiea, Chi-Wei LeeThe unintentional ingestion of toxic compounds in herbs is not uncommon in many parts of the world. To provide timely and life-saving care in the emergency department, it is essential to develop a point-of-care analytical method that can rapidly identify these toxins in herbs. Since electrospray laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (ELDI/MS) has been successfully used to characterize non-volatile chemical compounds without sample preparation, it was used to identify toxic herbal compounds in this study. The herbal toxins were collected either by sweeping a metallic probe across the surface of a freshly cut herb section or by directly sampling extracts of ground herbal powder. The analytes on the probe were then desorbed, ionized and detected using ELDI/MS, wherein analysis of the herbal toxins was completed within 30 s. This approach allows for the rapid morphological recognition of herbs and early point-of-care identification of herbal toxins for emergency management and is promising in providing important toxicological information to ensure appropriate medical treatment.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Complete mapping of disulfide linkages for etanercept products by
           multi-enzyme digestion coupled with LC-MS/MS using multi-fragmentations
           including CID and ETD

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Li-Juan Huang, Chia-Wang Chiang, Shun-Li Chen, Shih-Yao Wei, Shu-Hui ChenThe disulfide linkages of two etanercept products, Enbrel® (innovator drug) and TuNEX®, were characterized and compared using a multi-fragmentation approach consisting of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision induced dissociation (CID) in combination with multi-enzyme digestion protocols (from Lys-C, trypsin, Glu-C, and PNGase F). Multi-fragmentation approach allowed multi-disulfide linkages contained in a peptide to be un-ambiguously assigned based on the cleavage of both the disulfide and the backbone linkages in a MS3 schedule. New insights gained using this approach were discussed. A total of 29 disulfides, Cys18-Cys31, Cys32-Cys45, Cys35-Cys53, Cys56-Cys71, Cys74-Cys88, Cys78-Cys-96, Cys98-Cys104, Cys112-Cys121, Cys115-Cys139, Cys-142-Cys157, Cys163-Cys178 in TNFR portion and Cys240-Cys240, Cys246-Cys246, Cys249-Cys249, Cys281-Cys341, Cys387-Cys445 in IgG1 Fc domain, were completely assigned with the demonstration of the same disulfide linkages between the Enbrel® and TuNEX® products. The data showed the higher order structure was preserved throughout the recombinant manufacturing processes and consistent between the two products.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Rapid screening of sulfonamides in dietary supplements based on extracted
           common ion chromatogram and neutral loss scan by LC-Q/TOF-mass
           spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Nam-Yong Ki, Jisu Hur, Beom Hee Kim, Kyung Ho Kim, Bong Jin Moon, Han Bin Oh, Jongki HongThere is an increasing amount of dietary supplements that are adulterated with diuretics and anti-diabetic drugs; this has become a global problem due to the wide distribution of dietary supplements and the serious negative health effects of the adulterants. In this study, a rapid screening method was developed for detection and confirmation of 35 sulfonamides in supplements by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry. For effective extraction of sulfonamides from dietary supplements, four extraction protocols including HLB and WAX solid-phase extraction, Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe method, and pH-controlled liquid–liquid extraction were evaluated, and pH-controlled liquid–liquid extraction method was shown to be the most effective with high recovery efficiency and low matrix effect. Rapid separation of 35 sulfonamides was achieved with the UHPLC C18 column (150 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 um) within 7 min using ammonium acetate aqueous solution (pH 8) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. From the MS/MS spectra of sulfonamides, common ions (m/z 77.9650 [SO2N]- and m/z 79.9812 [SO2NH2]-) and neutral molecule loss fragments (HCl and SO2) were observed according to their structural characteristics. Extracted common ion chromatograms and neutral loss scan of these characteristic fragments could effectively apply for rapid screening of sulfonamides in various types of supplements. A reduced mass tolerance window of ±5 ppm was useful for detecting targeted and untargeted sulfonamides and could avoid false positive and false negative results. Overall calibration curves within dynamic range for all targets were shown to be linear with a correlation coefficient R2 > 0.995 and limits of detection ranged from 0.04 to 11.18 ng/g for all sulfonamides. The established method was successfully applied for screening and confirmation of sulfonamides in various supplements. The developed method will be helpful for the identification of sulfonamide diuretics and anti-diabetics in dietary supplements, promoting public health and consumer safety.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The rapid and sensitive detection of edible bird's nest (Aerodramus
           fuciphagus) in processed food by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification
           (LAMP) assay

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Meng-Shiou Lee, Jhong-Yong Huang, Yi-Yang Lien, Shyang-Chwen SheuEdible bird's nest (EBN) is a well-known and precious traditional Chinese herbal material (CHM). Because of this, preventing the adulteration of EBN efficiently and precisely is crucial to protect consumers' interests and health. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of EBN using specifically designed LAMP primers. The results demonstrated that the identification of EBN by LAMP assay was specific and rapid (within 1 h). It had no cross-reaction with EBN adulterants, including white fungus, egg white and pig skin, in different ratios. The relative detection limit was 0.01% EBN in the adulterants. Moreover, the sensitivity of LAMP in authenticating EBN was 10−8 μg, it showed higher sensitivity than that of conventional PCR with 105 fold. When genomic DNAs extracted from boiled or steamed EBN samples were used as templates, LAMP for EBN detection was not affected and was reproducible after heat processing. In conclusion, the LAMP assay established herein could be applicable for authenticating EBN and for identifying commercial EBN products in herbal markets.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • rGO-NS SERS-based coupled chemometric prediction of acetamiprid residue in
           green tea

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Md Mehedi Hassan, Quansheng Chen, Felix Y.H. Kutsanedzie, Huanhuan Li, Muhammad Zareef, Yi Xu, Mingxiu Yang, Akwasi A. AgyekumPesticide residue in food is of grave concern in recent years. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive, SERS (Surface-enhanced Raman scattering) active reduced-graphene-oxide-gold-nano-star (rGO-NS) nano-composite nanosensor was developed for the detection of acetamiprid (AC) residue in green tea. Different concentrations of AC combined with rGO-NS nano-composite electro-statically, yielded a strong SERS signal linearly with increasing concentration of AC ranging from 1.0 × 10−4 to 1.0 × 103 μg/mL indicating the potential of rGO-NS nano-composite to detect AC in green tea. Genetic algorithm-partial least squares regression (GA-PLS) algorithm was used to develop a quantitative model for AC residue prediction. The GA-PLS model achieved a correlation coefficient (Rc) of 0.9772 and recovery of the real sample of 97.06%–115.88% and RSD of 5.98% using the developed method. The overall results demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy combined with SERS active rGO-NS nano-composite could be utilized to determine AC residue in green tea to achieve quality and safety.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Abelmoschus esculentus subfractions improved nephropathy with regulating
           dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and type 1 glucagon-like peptide receptor in type 2
           diabetic rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Chiung-Huei Peng, Hsing-Chun Lin, Chih-Li Lin, Chau-Jong Wang, Chien-Ning HuangAbelmoschus esculentus (AE) has been used in traditional medicine to ameliorate hyperglycemia, but its mucilage increased bioassay difficulties. We have obtained a series of AE subfractions. Among them F1 and F2 regulated dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and type 1 glucagon-like peptide receptor (GLP-1R), the treatment targets for type 2 diabetes. F1, F2 and fraction residues (FR) showed advantage on different aspects, which attenuates insulin resistance and metabolic disorder in vivo, and prevents renal-tubular change in vitro. In the present study, using type 2 diabetes model induced by high fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ), we aim to investigate whether AE prevent diabetic nephropathy by regulating the putative markers. The results showed that all the subfractions ameliorated albuminuria and renal hyperfiltration (measured by creatinine clearance rate; CCr) accompanied with diabetes, while F2 acted most promptly and consistently. Histologically AE reduced renal tubular change, fibrosis and fat deposition. F2 and FR exerted significant effects to decrease DPP-4 while increase GLP-1R. Although all the subfractions were effective to reduce oxidative stress, only F2 acted on kidneys specifically. In conclusion, we have demonstrated AE has benefits to regulate DPP-4 and GLP-1R, to reduce oxidative stress and renal fibrosis, with resultant to improve renal function and prevent diabetic renal damage. Taken together, F2 could be more promising to be developed as adjuvant for diabetic nephropathy.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Multiclass analysis of antimicrobial drugs in shrimp muscle by ultra high
           performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Saksit Susakate, Saranya Poapolathep, Chanat Chokejaroenrat, Phanwimol Tanhan, Jana Hajslova, Mario Giorgi, Kanista Saimek, Zhaowei Zhang, Amnart PoapolathepA reliable, selective and rapid multiclass method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 55 antibacterial drug residues in shrimp muscle samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The investigated compounds comprise of eight different classes, namely fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides and synergistic agents, tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides, penicillins, nitroimidazole and amphenicols. A simple liquid extraction procedure was developed consisting of extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), followed by a defatting step with n-hexane. Chromatographic conditions were optimized, obtaining a running time
       
  • Isoprenyl phenolic ethers from the termite nest-derived medicinal fungus
           Xylaria fimbriata

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Mei-Chuan Chen, Guei-Jane Wang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Yin-Ru Chiang, Ting-Yu Cho, Yu-Ming Ju, Tzong-Huei LeeSeven new isoprenyl phenolic ethers, namely fimbriethers A‒G (1‒7), were isolated from the fermented broth of the termite nest-derived medicinal fungus Xylaria fimbriata YMJ491. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analysis and compared with those reported. The effects of all the isolates at a concentration of 100 μM on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated, and all of them exhibited NO production inhibitory activity with Emax values ranging from 4.6 ± 2.0% to 49.7 ± 0.5% without significant cytotoxicity. In addition, these seven compounds did not alter phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction in isolated intact thoracic aortic rings from C57BL/6J mouse, indicating 1‒7 were not involved in the regulation of endothelial NOS-mediated NO production.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Raman spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods for the discrimination
           of foreign fats and oils in cream and yogurt

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Nazife Nur Yazgan Karacaglar, Tugba Bulat, Ismail Hakki Boyaci, Ali TopcuThe adulteration of milk fat in dairy products with cheaper non-milk based fats or oils is frequently encountered in the dairy industry. In this study, Raman spectroscopy with chemometric was used for the discrimination of foreign fats and oils in milk cream and yogurt. Firstly, binary mixtures of cream and oils (corn and sunflower oil), and vegetable fat blends which are potentially or currently used by the dairy industry were prepared. All fat or oil samples and their binary mixtures were examined by using Raman spectroscopy. Then, fat content of skim milk was adjusted to 3% (w/w) by the milk fat, external oils or fats, and binary mixtures, and was used in yogurt production. The lipid fraction of yogurt was extracted and characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The spectral data were then pre-processed and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Raman spectral data showed successful discrimination for about the source of the fats or oils. Temperature effect was also studied at six different temperatures (25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) in order to obtain the best spectral information. Raman spectra collected at higher temperatures were more intense. Obtained results showed that the performance of Raman spectroscopy with PCA was very promising and can be expected to provide a simple and quick way for the discrimination of foreign fats and oils in both milk cream and yogurt. Fermentation and yogurt processing affected clustering of fat samples by PCA, probably depending on some lipolysis or production of new products that can affect the Raman scattering. However, those changes did not affect differentiation of samples by Raman spectroscopy.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Down-regulation of partial substitution for staple food by oat noodles on
           blood lipid levels: A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Miao-Yu Liao, You-Cheng Shen, Hui-Fang Chiu, Siew-Moi Ten, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Shun-Fa Yang, Chin-Kun WangThis clinical trial was conducted to assess the lipid-lowering activity of oat noodles by replacing partial staple food (wheat or rice noodle) in normal and mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Totally 84 healthy and mild hypercholesterolemic subjects were recruited and divided into 2 groups as experimental (oat noodles) and placebo (wheat noodles) and instructed to consume 100 g of oat noodles or wheat noodles (replacing one or two meals/day) for 10 weeks and followed by 2 weeks of follow up (without noodle consumption). Various anthropometric measurements and biochemical analysis were carried out during initial (baseline), 2nd, 6th, 10th and 12th week (follow-up). Consumption of oat noodles by replacing staple food for 10 weeks significantly reduced (**p 
       
  • Therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101
           powder on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Chien-Li Chen, Pei-Yu Hsu, Tzu-Ming PanUlcerative colitis (UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whose exact cause is still unclear. Disruption of the intestinal microflora is considered one of the main causes of the disease. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (NTU 101) is a multifunctional strain that has been shown in previous studies to possess anti-inflammatory properties and to exert a modulatory effect on intestinal bacteria associated with certain pathogenic mechanisms of IBD. In the current study, we investigated the effects of NTU 101 on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice (total number n = 60) via dissolved DSS in drinking water on days 15–21 of the experiment. The effects of continuous 25 d feeding (days 0–25) of either a half or a full dose [2.3 × 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg body weight (BW)/d and 4.5 × 109 CFU/kg BW/d, respectively] of NTU 101 was evaluated. Lactobacillus rhamnosus BCRC 16000 (BCRC 16000) and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei BCRC 14023 (BCRC 14023) strains were given to control groups. The results indicated that NTU 101 powder improved anti-oxidant capacity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, and slightly ameliorated body weight loss in DSS-treated mice during the final days of the study. This indicated that NTU 101 powder can relieve the clinical symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in mice.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Comparative study on amount of nutraceuticals in by-products from solvent
           and cold pressing methods of rice bran oil processing

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Donporn Wongwaiwech, Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Somsak Tharatha, Chi-Tang HoRice bran oil (RBO) has become a popular oil globally. However, the RBO extraction process leaves various residue products, which contain bioactive substances of varying potency which could be significant sources of functional ingredients for both food production and pharmaceutical manufacture. The objective of our study was to compare the bioactive substances in various by-products derived from the two rice bran oil processing methods; solvent extraction and cold pressing. The residues from solvent extraction processing contained up to 97.37 mg/100 g of γ-aminobutyric acid in defatted rice bran, and the rice acid oil contained high levels of vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), up to 120.59 mg/100 g, as well as γ-oryzanol (3829.65 mg/100 g), phytosterol (599.40 mg/100 g), and policosanol compounds (332.79 mg/100 g). All of these values are higher than in the residues derived from cold pressing. Importantly, high amounts of total nutraceuticals (8.3 kg/100 kg) were found in residues from both processing methods, indicating the commercial potential of these residues as a source of functional ingredients for food production, as dietary supplements, and in pharmaceutical manufacture.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Encapsulation of babchi essential oil into microsponges: Physicochemical
           properties, cytotoxic evaluation and anti-microbial activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Geetika Wadhwa, Sunil Kumar, Vineet Mittal, Rekha RaoBabchi essential oil (BEO) is a valuable essential oil reported to possess a variety of biological activities such as antitumor, anti inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial properties. Due to its anti-microbial properties, this oil possesses an immense potential for the treatment of dermatological disorders. Further, it has minimal tendency to develop resistance, a common issue with most of the antibiotics. However, its highly viscous nature and poor stability in the presence of light, air and high temperature, limits its practical applications. To surmount these issues, this research aims to encapsulate BEO in ethyl cellulose (EC) microsponges for enhanced stability, antibacterial effect and decreased dermal toxicity. The quasi emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for fabrication of the BEO microsponges employing EC as polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as stabilizer and dichloro methane (DCM) as solvent. The effect of formulation variables such as the amount of EC and PVA were also investigated. The prepared microformulations were evaluated for production yield, encapsulation efficiency, particle size and in vitro release. In vitro cytotoxicity was also checked to assess dermal safety of BEO microsponges. Results revealed that all the dispersions were in micro size range (20.44 ± 3.13 μm to 41.75 ± 3.65 μm), with good encapsulation efficiency (87.70 ± 1.20% of F2) and controlled release profile (cumulative drug release 73.34 ± 1.76%). Field emission scanning electron microscopy results showed that the microsponges possessed a spherical uniform shape with a spongy structure. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated that the prepared microsponges were safer on dermal cells in comparison to pure BEO. The optimized formulation was also evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial assay against dermal bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, which confirmed their enhanced antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the results of photostability and stability analysis indicated improved stability of BEO loaded microsponges. Hence, encapsulation of BEO in microsponges resulted in efficacious carrier system in terms of stability as well as safety of this essential oil alongwith handling benefits.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters by
           inflammation: Evidences in inflammatory diseases and age-related disorders
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Kuo-Chen Wu, Chun-Jung LinDrug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and membrane transporters play important roles in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion processes that determine the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Inflammation has been shown to regulate the expression and function of these drug-processing proteins. Given that inflammation is a common feature of many diseases, in this review, the general mechanisms for inflammation-mediated regulation of DMEs and transporters are described. Also, evidences regarding the aberrant expression of these drug-processing proteins in several inflammatory diseases and age-related disorders are provided.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Applications of cyclic peptide nanotubes (cPNTs)

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Wei-Hsien Hsieh, Jiahorng LiawSelf-assembled cyclic peptide nanotubes (cPNTs) have recently drawn particular attention as one of the most intriguing nanostructures in the field of nanotechnology. Given their unique features including high surface area, increased drug loading, environmental stability, enhanced permeation, and modifiable drug release, these hollow tubular structures can be constructed with cyclic di-, tri-, tetra-, hexa-, octa-, and decapeptides with various amino acid sequences, enantiomers, and functionalized side chains and can be applied for antiviral and antibacterial drugs, drug delivery and gene delivery vectors, organic electronic devices, and ionic or molecular channels. Recent publications have presented promising results regarding the use of cPNTs as drugs or biomedical devices. However, there is an urgent need for the further in vivo nanotoxicity and safety testing of these nanotubes to evaluate their suitability in different fields.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Novel technologies in detection, treatment and prevention of substance use
           disorders

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Hichem Moulahoum, Figen Zihnioglu, Suna Timur, Hakan CoskunolSubstance use disorders are a widely recognized problem, which affects various levels of communities and influenced the world socioeconomically. Its source is deeply embedded in the global population. In order to fight against such an adversary, governments have spared no efforts in implementing substance abuse treatment centers and funding research to develop treatments and prevention procedures. In this review, we will discuss the use of immunological-based treatments and detection kit technologies. We will be detailing the steps followed to produce performant antibodies (antigens, carriers, and adjuvants) focusing on cocaine and methamphetamine as examples. Furthermore, part of this review is dedicated to substance use detection. Owing to novel technologies such as bio-functional polymeric surfaces and biosensors manufacturing, detection has become a more convenient method with the fast and on-site developed devices. Commercially available devices are able to test substance use disorders in urine, saliva, hair, and sweat. This improvement has had a tremendous impact on the prevention of driving under influence and other illicit behaviors. Lastly, substance abuse became a major issue involving the cooperation of experts on all levels to devise better treatment programs and prevent abuse-based accidents, injury and death.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The current application of nanotechnology in food and agriculture

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Xiaojia He, Hua Deng, Huey-min HwangAbstractThe rapid development of nanotechnology has been facilitating the transformations of traditional food and agriculture sectors, particularly the invention of smart and active packaging, nanosensors, nanopesticides and nanofertilizers. Numerous novel nanomaterials have been developed for improving food quality and safety, crop growth, and monitoring environmental conditions. In this review the most recent trends in nanotechnology are discussed and the most challenging tasks and promising opportunities in the food and agriculture sectors from selected recent studies are addressed. The toxicological fundamentals and risk assessment of nanomaterials in these new food and agriculture products are also discussed. We highlighted the potential application of bio-synthesized and bio-inspired nanomaterial for sustainable development. However, fundamental questions with regard to high performance, low toxic nanomaterials need to be addressed to fuel active development and application of nanotechnology. Regulation and legislation are also paramount to regulating the manufacturing, processing, application, as well as disposal of nanomaterials. Efforts are still needed to strengthen public awareness and acceptance of the novel nano-enabled food and agriculture products. We conclude that nanotechnology offers a plethora of opportunities, by providing a novel and sustainable alternative in the food and agriculture sectors.
       
  • Instructions to Authors

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • Checklist

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • Corrigendum to “Investigation of borneols sold in Taiwan by chiral gas
           chromatography” [J Food Drug Anal 26 (2018) 348–352]

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Tsung-Jung Ho, Chien-Che Hung, Tzenge-Lien Shih, Lih-Ming Yiin, Hao-Ping Chen
       
  • Comparative investigation for raw and processed Aconiti Lateralis Radix
           using chemical UPLC-MS profiling and multivariate classification
           techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Lili Sun, Guangjiao You, Xuexiao Cao, Meng Wang, Xiaoliang RenA strategy combining chemical UPLC-MS profiling and multivariate classification techniques has been used for the comparison of raw and processed Aconiti Lateralis Radix. UPLC-MS was used to identify 18 characteristic compounds, which were selected for discrimination of the raw and two processed products (Heishunpian and Baifupian). Chemometric analyses, including the combination of a heat map and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to visualize the discrimination of raw and two processed products. HCA and PCA provided a clear discrimination of raw Aconiti Lateralis Radix, Heishunpian and Baifupian. Finally, the counter-propagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) was applied to confirm the results of HCA, PCA and to explore the effect of 18 compounds on samples differentiation and the rationality of processing. The results showed that this strategy could be successfully used for comparison of raw and two processed products of Aconiti Lateralis Radix, which could be used as a general procedure to compare herbal medicines and related processed products to elaborate the rationality of processing from the perspective of chemical composition.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Ubiquitin-protein ligase E3a (UBE3A) as a new biomarker of cardiac
           hypertrophy in cell models

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Kai-Chun Cheng, Yingxiao Li, Wei-Ting Chang, Zhih-Cherng Chen, Juei-Tang Cheng, Cheng-Chia TsaiCardiac hypertrophy is widely diagnosed in clinical cardiac disorders. The pathophysiology of hypertrophy is complex and multifactorial, a series of molecular and cellular changes are participated, such as activation of different signaling pathways, a switch of fetal gene program in the myocardium, and apoptosis. Some biomarkers have been applied to assess cardiac hypertrophy including atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP), brain/B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP), and α- or β- Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) in addition to others. Recently, ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) has been observed to increase in cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, UBE3A as a new biomarker seems valuable in the clinic. The cardiac hypertrophy is induced in rat-derived heart cell line H9c2 cells by potassium bromate (KBrO3), high glucose (HG), or isoproterenol (Iso), respectively. As an oxidizing agent, KBrO3 increased cell size at concentrations less than 250 μM. Similarly, HG and Iso also induced cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. Interestingly, each kind of the cell models promoted the gene expression of the well-known biomarkers of cardiac hypertrophy including atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) and brain/B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP). Additionally, UBE3A is also raised with the signals involved in cardiac hypertrophy such as calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) determined using Western blots. KBrO3 increased the protein levels of these signals and the specific inhibitor, such as cyclosporine A and tacrolimus, attenuated the signaling in H9c2 cells at concentrations sufficient to inhibit calcineurin in addition to the reduction of mRNA levels of UBE3A, similar to ANP or BNP. Moreover, HG or Iso also significantly increased protein levels of UBE3A in H9c2 cells. Taken together, we provided a new view that UBE3A is markedly raised in cardiac hypertrophy using various cell models, mainly through the activation of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway in H9c2 cells. Therefore, UBE3A could be developed as a new biomarker in the diagnosis of cardiac hypertrophy.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Prioritization of pesticides in crops with a semi-quantitative risk
           ranking method for Taiwan postmarket monitoring program

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Wei-Chun Chou, Wei-Ren Tsai, Hsiu-Hui Chang, Shui-Yuan Lu, King-Fu Lin, Pinpin LinA risk-based prioritization of chemical hazards in monitoring programs allows regulatory agencies to focus on the most potentially concerned items involving human health risk. In this study, a risk-based matrix, with a scoring method using multiple factors for severity and probability of exposure, was employed to identify the pesticides presented in crops that may pose the greatest risk to human health. Both the probability of exposure and the severity were assessed for 91 pesticides detected in a Taiwanese postmarketing monitoring program. Probability of exposure was evaluated based on the probability of consumption and evidence of pesticide residues in crops. Severity was assessed based on the nature of the hazard (i.e., the description of toxic effects), and the acceptable daily intake (ADI) reported by available toxicological reports. This study showed that the nature of the hazard and probability of consumption had the strongest contribution to risk score. Dithiocarbamates, endosulfan, and carbofuran were identified as the pesticides with the highest concern for human health risks in Taiwan. These pesticides should be monitored more frequently than others in crops during the postmarketing monitoring program. However, some uncertainties shall be noted or improved when this methodology is applied for risk prioritization in the future.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Determination of sulfamonomethoxine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ×
           Oreochromis mossambicus) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
           and its application pharmacokinetics study

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Te-An Kung, Shu-Hui Lee, Wei-Hsien WangA precise and reliable analytical method to measure trace levels of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) and N4-acetyl metabolite in tilapia samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Optimized chromatographic separation was performed on C18 reversed-phase columns using gradient elution with methanol and 5 mmol/L of an ammonium acetate aqueous solution (adjusted to pH 3.5 using formic acid). This study investigated the pharmacokinetic properties and tissue distribution of SMM and its major metabolite N4-acetyl sulfamonomethoxine (AC-SMM) in tilapia after a single dose of 100 mg kg−1 body weight of orally administered SMM. Blood and tissues were collected between 0.5 and 192 h with 14 total sampling time points. SMM was rapidly absorbed, and extensively distributed in the bile and liver through systemic circulation. Enterohepatic circulation of SMM was observed in the tilapia body. Acetylation percentages were 45% (blood), 90% (liver), 62% (kidney), 98% (bile), and 52% (muscle). High concentrations of AC-SMM accumulated in the tilapia bile. At 192 h, AC-SMM concentration in the bile remained at 4710 μg kg−1. The ke value of AC-SMM (0.015 h−1) in the blood was lower than that of SMM (0.032 h−1). This study demonstrated effective residue monitoring and determined the pharmacokinetic properties of SMM and AC-SMM in tilapia.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of sinapic acid on aripiprazole pharmacokinetics in rats: Possible
           food drug interaction

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Abdul Ahad, Altaf Khan, Fahad I. Aljenobi, Naushad Ali, Abdullah M. Al-MohizeaDietary supplements and foods can interact with various drugs, leading to possible clinical concerns. This study aimed to investigate the effect of orally administered sinapic acid (SA) on the pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole (APZ) in rats and its possible modulatory effects on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP3A2 and CYP2D6) expression in the liver tissues. Single dose and multiple dose parallel groups of wistar rats were categorized into six groups (n = 6 each) which abstained from food for 12 h prior to the experiment, while water was allowed ad libitum. The investigation was carried out for single dose: Group I was treated with normal saline orally for 15 days (normal control). Group II was administered normal saline orally for 15 days and received APZ (3 mg/kg p.o.) on day 15. Group III received SA (20 mg/kg p.o.) for 15 days and received APZ (3 mg/kg p.o.) on day 15. Group IV was treated with SA (20 mg/kg p.o.) for 15 days. For the multiple dose study, Group I was treated with normal saline orally for 15 days (normal control); Group II received APZ (3 mg/kg p.o.) daily for 15 days; Group III was administered with SA (20 mg/kg p.o.) and APZ (3 mg/kg p.o.) for 15 days and Group IV received SA (20 mg/kg p.o.) for 15 days. The group I and IV were kept common in single and multiple dose groups. After last APZ dose, plasma samples were collected and APZ concentrations were determined using an UPLC-MS/MS technique. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental analysis. The concomitant administration of APZ with SA (as single or multiple dose) resulted in an increase in APZ absorption and a decrease on its systemic clearance. This was associated with a reduction in CYP3A2 and CYP2D6 protein expressions by 33–43% and -71–68% after the single and multiple co-administration, which are two enzymes responsible of the metabolism of APZ. Therefore, a reduction in the metabolic clearance appears to be the mechanism underlying the drug interaction of dietary supplement containing SA with APZ. Therefore, the concomitant administration of SA and APZ should be carefully viewed. Further investigations are required to assess the clinical significance of such observations in humans.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • A rapid LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of quetiapine and
           duloxetine in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic
           interaction study

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Xiujuan Chen, Chen Liang, Lijun Cui, Jian Le, Zheyuan Qian, Runsheng Zhang, Zhanying Hong, Yifeng ChaiCombinations of new antidepressants like duloxetine and second-generation antipsychotics like quetiapine are used in clinical treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as in forensic toxicology scenarios. The drug–drug interaction (DDI) between quetiapine and duloxetine is worthy of attention to avoid unnecessary adverse effects. However, no pharmacokinetic DDI studies of quetiapine and duloxetine have been reported. In the present study, a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of quetiapine and duloxetine in rat plasma. A one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile was applied for sample preparation. The analytes were eluted on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column using the mixture of acetonitrile and 2 mM ammonium formate containing 0.1% formic acid at a gradient elution within 6.0 min. Quantification was performed in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode with the ion transitions m/z 384.4 → 253.2 for quetiapine, m/z 298.1 → 154.1 for duloxetine and m/z 376.2 → 165.2 for IS (haloperidol), respectively. Good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.50–100 ng/mL for quetiapine (r2 = 0.9972) and 1.00–200 ng/mL for duloxetine (r2 = 0.9982) using 50 μL of rat plasma, respectively. The method was fully validated with accuracy, precision, matrix effects, recovery and stability. The validated data have met the acceptance criteria in FDA guideline. The method was applied to a pharmacokinetic interaction study and the results indicated that quetiapine had significant effect on the enhanced plasma exposure of duloxetine in rats under combination use. This study could be readily applied in therapeutic drug monitoring of major depressive disorder patients receiving such drug combinations.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Development and validation of a new analytical HPLC method for
           simultaneous determination of the antidiabetic drugs, metformin and
           gliclazide

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Ahmed Gedawy, Hani Al-Salami, Crispin R. DassAn efficient and simple HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of gliclazide and metformin hydrochloride in bulk and was applied on marketed metformin and gliclazide products. The mobile phase used for the chromatographic runs consisted of 20 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (45:55, v/v) The separation was achieved on an Alltima CN (250 mm × 4.6 mm x5μ) column using isocratic mode. Drug peaks were well separated and were detected by a UV detector at 227 nm. The method was linear at the concentration range 1.25–150 μg/ml for gliclazide and 2.5–150 μg/ml for metformin respectively. The method has been validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to system suitability, specificity, precision, accuracy and robustness. Metformin limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.8 μg/ml and 2.45 μg/ml respectively while LOD and LOQ for gliclazide were 0.97 μg/ml and 2.95 μg/ml respectively.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Multivariate optimization of mebeverine analysis using molecularly
           imprinted polymer electrochemical sensor based on silver nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Azizollah Nezhadali, Golnar Ahmadi BonakdarThin film of a moleculary imprinted polymer (MIP) based on electropolymerization method with sensitive and selective binding sites for mebeverine (MEB) was developed. This film was cast on pencil graphite electrode (PGE) by electrochemical polymerization in solution of pyrrole (PY) and template MEB via cyclic voltammetry scans and further electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Several parameters controlling the performance of the silver nano particles MIP pencil graphite electrode (AgNPs-MIP-PGE) including concentration of PY(mM) concentration of mebeverine (mM), number of cycles in electropolymerization, scan rate of CV process (mV. s−1), deposition time of AgNPs on to the MIP surface (s), stirring rate of loading solution (rpm), electrode loading time (min), pH of Britton–Robinson Buffer (BRB) solution were examined and optimized using multivariate optimization methods such as Plackett–Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD). Two dynamic linear ranges of concentration for the MIP sensor were obtained as. 1 × 10 −8 to 1 × 10 −6 and 1 × 10 −5 to1 × 10−3 M with the limit of detection (LOD) of 8.6 × 10 −9M (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully intended for the determination of MEB in real samples (serum, capsule). The sensor was showed highly reproducible response (RSD 1.1%) to MEB concentration.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Antcins, triterpenoids from Antrodia cinnamomea, as new agonists for
           peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Yu-Jen Wang, Shih-Chin Lee, Chun-Hua Hsu, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Chien-Chih Yang, Fu-Jung LinPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor that transcriptionally regulates lipid metabolism and inflammation; therefore, PPARα agonists are promising agents to treat dyslipidemia and metabolic disorders. PPARα full agonists, such as fibrates, are effective anti-hypertriglyceride agents, but their use is limited by adverse side effects. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify small molecules that can activate PPARα while minimizing the adverse effects. Antrodia cinnamomea, a rare medical mushroom, has been used widely in Asian countries for the treatment of various diseases, including liver diseases. Antcin B, H and K (antcins) and ergostatrien-3β-ol (EK100) are bioactive compounds isolated from A. cinnamomea with anti-inflammatory actions. Antcins, ergostane-type triterpenoids, contain the polar head with carboxylate group and the sterol-based body. Here, we showed at the first time that sterol-based compounds, antcins, but not EK100, activate PPARα in a cell-based transactivation study. The in silico docking studies presented several significant molecular interactions of antcins, including Tyr314, and His440 in the ligand-binding domain of PPARα, and these interactions are required for helix 12 (H12) stabilization. We propose that PPARα activation activity of antcins is related to their binding mode which requires conventional H12 stabilization, and that antcins can be developed as safe selective PPARα modulators.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Shenmai-Yin decreased the clearance of nifedipine in rats: The involvement
           of time-dependent inhibition of nifedipine oxidation

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Hong-Jaan Wang, Chung-Kuang Lu, Wei-Ching Chen, An-Chi Chen, Yune-Fang UengThe traditional Chinese herbal formula Shenmai-Yin (SY) and nifedipine have both been used to treat patients with cardiovascular disorders. Nifedipine is primarily oxidized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. The oxidation and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine were studied in rats in vitro and in vivo to illustrate the interaction of SY with nifedipine. Schisandrol A, schisandrin A and schisandrin B were identified as the main lignans in SY. In the study in vitro, the ethanolic extract of SY was used due to the solubility and the extract inhibited nifedipine oxidation (NFO) activity in a time-dependent manner. Among lignans, schisandrin B caused the most potent inhibition. According to the time-dependent inhibition behavior, rats were treated with SY 1 h before nifedipine administration. After oral treatment with 1.9 g/kg SY, nifedipine clearance decreased by 34% and half-life increased by 142%. SY treatment decreased hepatic NFO activity by 49%. Compared to the change caused by ketoconazole, the SY-mediated reduction of nifedipine clearance was moderate. These findings demonstrate that SY causes a time-dependent inhibition of NFO and schisandrin B contributes to the inhibition. The decreased nifedipine clearance by SY in rats warrants further human study to examine the clinical impact of this decrease.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Simultaneous quantification combined with multivariate statistical
           analysis of multiple chemical markers of Wu Ji Bai Feng Pill by
           UHPLC–MS/MS

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Sheng-Nan Duan, Wen Qi, Si-Wen Zhang, Kun-Kun Huang, Dan YuanWu Ji Bai Feng Pill (WJBFP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) complex formula, which has been widely used in the treatment of various gynecological disorders. However, the quality control of multiple components in WJBFP is challengeable by using the methods applicable to analysis of several phytochemicals in single herbs or simple herbal preparations. The purpose of this study is to establish an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of 20 bioactive compounds in WJBFP. The modified chromatographic conditions were achieved on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with a gradient elution consisted of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid (v/v). All analytes were determined using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in positive or negative ionization modes with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. An UHPLC–MS/MS method was optimized and validated for linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision, repeatability, stability and recovery. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of 20 compounds in 19 batches of commercial WJBFP products. principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were applied to evaluate intrinsic quality and to identify chemical markers most responsible for quality evaluation. In conclusion, the established method offered speedy and sensitive determination for 20 compounds and is helpful for chemical standardization of commercial WJBFP products.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Rubiscolin-6 activates opioid receptors to enhance glucose uptake in
           skeletal muscle

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Timothy Sean Kairupan, Kai-Chun Cheng, Akihiro Asakawa, Haruka Amitani, Takakazu Yagi, Koji Ataka, Natasya Trivena Rokot, Nova Hellen Kapantow, Ikuo Kato, Akio InuiRubiscolin-6 is an opioid peptide derived from plant ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). It has been demonstrated that opioid receptors could control glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle independent of insulin action. Therefore, Rubiscolin-6 may be involved in the control of glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the effect of rubiscolin-6 on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Rubiscolin-6-induced glucose uptake was measured using the fluorescent indicator 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) in L6 and C2C12 cell lines. The protein expressions of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in L6 cells were observed by Western blotting. The in vivo effects of rubiscolin-6 were characterized in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Rubiscolin-6 induced a concentration-dependent increase in glucose uptake levels. The increase of phospho-AMPK (pAMPK) and GLUT4 expressions were also observed in L6 and C2C12 cells. Effects of rubiscolin-6 were blocked by opioid receptor antagonists and/or associated signals inhibitors. Moreover, Rubiscolin-6 produced a dose-dependent reduction of blood glucose and increased GLUT4 expression in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In conclusion, rubiscolin-6 increases glucose uptake, potentially via an activation of AMPK to enhance GLUT4 translocation after binding to opioid receptors in skeletal muscle.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • In vivo pro-angiogenic effects of dracorhodin perchlorate in zebrafish
           embryos: A novel bioactivity evaluation platform for commercial dragon
           blood samples

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Preethi Krishnaraj, Yu Chang, Tsung-Jung Ho, Nai-Chen Lu, Ming-Der Lin, Hao-Ping ChenDragon blood has been used in wound treatment for many years and can be obtained from several distinct plant species. Dracorhodin, the active substituent of dragon blood, is a characteristic compound of the palm tree, Daemonorops draco. At present, the only method to evaluate the quality of commercial dragon blood samples is a HPLC method which determines the amount of dracorhodin in a dragon blood sample. In this study, we used zebrafish embryos as a platform to demonstrate the in vivo pro-angiogenic activity of dracorhodin perchlorate, the chemically synthesized analog of dracorhodin. By using this platform, three different commercial dragon blood samples were also examined. Our results clearly show that even though the commercial dragon blood samples had similar amounts of dracorhodin, they showed highly variable biological activity, such as pro-angiogenic effects and toxicity. In short, an in vivo activity assay platform for rapidly examining the biological activity of commercial dragon blood samples was successfully established here, which complements the current HPLC-based assay method.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • In vitro α-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of Cornus
           mas L. and Cornus alba L. fruit extracts

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Anita Świerczewska, Tina Buchholz, Matthias F. Melzig, Monika E. CzerwińskaLess-common fruits from Cornus spp. (Cornaceae), also named dogwoods, have shown antidiabetic, antibacterial and anti-allergic properties and are thus considered a source of phytochemicals that are beneficial to human health. The study aimed to compare the chemical compositions of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of lyophilized fresh-picked and commercially available dried fruits of Cornus mas (Cm, cornelian cherry) and Cornus alba (Ca) fruits using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method. Simultaneously, the α-amylase and pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities of the prepared extracts were compared by in vitro fluorescence assay based on the kinetic hydrolysis of starch or oleate ester of 4-methylumbelliferone (MUO), respectively. Additionally, a bio-assay guided identification of compounds potentially responsible for the inhibition of pancreatic enzymes was performed. Iridoids (loganic acid, cornuside) and anthocyanins (pelargonidin 3-O-galactoside) were identified in the Cm fruit extracts. Flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, were detected in the Ca fruit extracts. The chromatographic separation of the constituents of Ca fruit provided a fraction containing phenolic acids derivatives, which inhibited PL activity by 69.9 ± 4.5% at a concentration of 7.5 μg·mL−1. The IC50 of hydroxytyrosol glucoside, isolated from the most active Ca fraction, was 0.99 ± 0.10 mg·mL−1 indicating other constituents responsible for the fraction activity. The most active subfraction from Cm fruit (7.5 μg·mL−1), which inhibited PL activity by 28.3 ± 1.5%, contained pelargonidin 3-O-galactoside. Loganic acid and cornuside in highly pure form did not inhibit lipase activity. The phytochemical constituents of Cm, and particularly of Ca fruit extracts, can inhibit pancreatic enzymes and thus might be considered effective preparations in the prevention and control of hyperlipidemia related diseases.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Identification of baicalin from Bofutsushosan and Daisaikoto as a potent
           inducer of glucose uptake and modulator of insulin signaling-associated
           pathways

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Yu-Ting Kuo, Chih-Chan Lin, Hsiao-Tzu Kuo, Jui-Hsiang Hung, Ching-Hsuan Liu, Alagie Jassey, Ming-Hong Yen, Shu-Jing Wu, Liang-Tzung LinType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to long-term complications including heart diseases, stroke, retinopathy, and renal failure. Treatment strategies include stimulating glucose uptake and controlling blood glucose level. Bofutsushosan (BOF) and Daisaikoto (DAI) are two herb-based kampo medicines that have been demonstrated to improve metabolism-associated disorders including obesity, hyperlipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver. Given their bioactivities against metabolic syndromes, we explored in this study the effect of BOF and DAI extracts on glucose absorption and used them as source to identify phytochemical stimulator of glucose absorption. Glucose uptake and mechanistic studies were evaluated in differentiated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, and HPLC analysis was used to determine the molecular bioactive constituents. Our results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of BOF and DAI (BOFEE and DAIEE, respectively) enhanced the glucose uptake ratio in the differentiated C2C12 cells, and further analysis identified the flavone baicalin as a major constituent capable of efficiently stimulating glucose absorption. Mechanistic studies revealed that the effect from baicalin involved the activation of IRS-1 and GLUT-4, and implicated the AMPK, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK/ERK signaling cascades. Due to its potency, we suggest that baicalin merit further evaluation as a potential candidate anti-hyperglycemic agent for the treatment and management of T2DM.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • A steroidal derivative from Trigonella foenum graecum L. that induces
           apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Ruchi Singh Thakur, Bharti AhirwarTrigonella foenum graecum L. is a dietary herb used in traditional medicine system. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity, antitumor, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effect of the steroidal compound, ethyl iso-allocholate isolated from T. foenum graecum L. seeds against A549 lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Among all the isolated compounds, the ethyl iso-allocholate rendered the highest cytotoxicity potential. It showed least percentage cell viability in trypan blue assay and lowest nuclei count in hoechst staining. The caspase glo assay and western blot analysis showed the significant caspase 3 cleavage, indicating caspase dependent apoptosis. Consistent with the in vitro data, ethyl iso-allocholate showed highest percentage tumor growth inhibition i.e. 80 ± 5% in zebrafish, equivalent to doxorubicin. It significantly reduced angiogenesis to 5 ± 0.8% (**P 
       
  • Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of the proprietary Chinese medicine
           Shexiang Baoxin pill in mice with chronic unpredictable mild stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Xi-Dan Zhou, Dong-Dong Shi, Zhang-Jin ZhangDepression and anxiety often co-occur with cardiac diseases. The Shexiang Baoxin pill (SBP) is a proprietary Chinese medicine initially used to treat cardiac conditions. This study explored whether SBP has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in addition to hormonal and psychotropic mechanisms. Mice underwent 6 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to induce depression- and anxiety-like behavior. During the 6-week experiment, mice received SBP at intragastric doses of 20.25 mg/kg or 40.5 mg/kg daily. Animals were then tested for depression in sucrose preference, forced-swimming, and tail suspension paradigms, and for anxiety in open field and elevated plus maze tests. Both SBP doses significantly reduced anhedonic behavior in the sucrose preference test; the high SBP dose also increased the number of entries into the central zone of the open field. SBP-treated mice had markedly lower blood levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) than stressed mice treated with vehicle. Either low- or high-dose SBP reversed stress-induced reductions of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) metabolites and the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in related brain regions. These results suggest that SBP could prevent and alleviate prolonged stress-induced anhedonia and anxiety in association with its suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, modulation of brain monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism and neurotrophins. SBP may be particularly suitable for the management of depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with cardiac conditions.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Hantzsch pre-column derivatization for simultaneous determination of
           alendronate sodium and its pharmacopoeial related impurity: Comparative
           study with synchronous fluorometry using fluorescamine

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): Amira F. El-Yazbi, Eman I. El-Kimary, Rasha M. YoussefHigh performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with a pre-column derivatization based on Hantzsch condensation reaction was applied for simultaneous determination of alendronate sodium (ALN) and its main related impurity, 4-Aminobutanoic acid (ABA) at its pharmacopeial limit. The separation of colored condensation products of ALN and ABA were achieved on Agilent Zobrax Eclipse SB-C18 analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile–0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.0 (15:85, v/v). The flow rate was 1 mL min−1. The detection was carried out at 340 nm using photo-diode array detector. Peak areas were used for the linear regression line in the range of 10–500 and 0.2–40 μg mL−1 for ALN and ABA, respectively. Different conditions for the optimization of the derivatization reactions as well as for the HPLC measurement were studied. The proposed method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity and robustness. This method was used to check the purity of ALN in the presence of ABA (related impurity) at the pharmacopeial limit (0.5%). For comparison purpose, another method was proposed which involves synchronous fluorescence measurement after ALN reaction with fluorescamine. In this method, the third derivative synchronous spectra were estimated as peak to peak measurement from 339 to 370 nm for ALN determination with LOD and LOQ of 24 and 73 ng mL−1, respectively, showing very high sensitivity. Both methods have been applied for determination of the alendronate sodium (ALN) in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations without interference of additives in tablets or oral solution.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Catechin rich butanol fraction extracted from Acacia catechu L. (a thirst
           quencher) exhibits immunostimulatory potential

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): M.A. Sunil, V.S. Sunitha, A. Ashitha, Sahadevan Neethu, Sebastian J. Midhun, E.K. Radhakrishnan, Mathew JyothisAcacia catechu L., (Fabaceae) named as “catechu” is a plant, the decoction of heartwood of which is daily consumed as thirst quencher by a good percentage of the population in South India. The plant is mainly distributed in India and other Asian countries. It has been used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, colic, diarrhea, boils, skin afflictions, sores and stomatitis. The present investigation was aimed to study the immunomodulatory effects of different fractions of ethanol extract of A. catechu heartwood and HPLC analysis of the active fraction. Three fractions namely, butanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate were prepared from ethanol extract of A. catechu heartwood. Each of these fractions was assessed for its immunomodulatory activity. In vivo immunomodulatory activity was analyzed by sheep red blood cells (SRBC) specific hemagglutinating antibody titer, plaque-forming cell assay and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in Swiss albino mice. In vitro immunomodulating potential of the fractions was studied using murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes. Non-specific immune functions such as phagocytosis (nitroblue tetrazolium reduction assay and cellular lysosomal enzyme assay), nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokine release (TNF-α and IL-10) were studied in macrophages. In addition, splenocyte proliferation was also studied. In the in vivo experiments, butanol and chloroform fractions showed an increase in antibody titer dose-dependently. At higher dose (400 mg/kg b. w.) treatment the butanol fraction produced an enhancement in the number of plaque-forming cells (antibody producing cells) in the spleen. SRBC induced DTH reaction was significantly increased with butanol fraction in a dose-dependent manner. Peritoneal macrophages showed an increased phagocytic response on treatment with butanol fraction (100 μg/mL) as evidenced by its effect on nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and cellular lysosomal enzyme activity. All three fractions inhibited the production of NO and the release of TNF-α. Interleukin-10 production was significantly increased after treatment with butanol fraction. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the butanol fraction showed the presence of high concentration of catechin. The results suggested that butanol fraction of ethanol extract of A. catechu heartwood had immunomodulatory effects on non-specific, humoral, and cell-mediated immune functions. This study may be useful in validating the rationality of daily consumption of decoction of A. catechu and also its use in traditional medicine system. The study also suggests the possible use of A. catechu in the immunostimulatory herbal preparations.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • CCM111 prevents hepatic fibrosis via cooperative inhibition of TGF-β, Wnt
           and STAT3 signaling pathways

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27, Issue 1Author(s): In-Yu Lin, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Li-Ching Wu, Chen-Yu Tsai, Chiung-Tong Chen, Wu-Chang Chuang, Ming-Chung Lee, Ching-Che Lin, Ting-Ting Lin, Ssu-Ching Chen, Min-Hsiung Pan, Nianhan MaCCM111 is an aqueous extract of Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) that has exhibited anti-liver fibrosis functions. However, the detailed mechanisms of AC action against liver fibrosis have not been elucidated yet. The present research showed that CCM111 significantly lowered the levels of the hepatic enzyme markers glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), prevented liver damage and collagen deposition, and downregulated TGF-β/Smad signaling in a dose-dependent manner compared with CCl4 treatment alone. CCM111 markedly inhibited TGF-β, Wnt and STAT3 signaling pathway-regulated downstream genes in the liver by next-generation sequencing. The antifibrotic mechanisms of CCM111 were further demonstrated in HSC-T6 cells. Our data demonstrated for the first time that CCM111 can protect against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis by the cooperative inhibition of TGF-β-, Wnt- and STAT3-dependent proinflammatory and profibrotic mediators, suggesting that CCM111 might be a candidate for preventing and treating chronic fibrotic liver diseases.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Quantitation of serum 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations by liquid
           chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in patients with diabetes mellitus
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Yi-Ching Lin, Hei-Hwa Lee, Shing-Cheng Tseng, Kun-Der Lin, Li-Ping Tseng, Jong-Feng Lee, Yung-Hung Lee, Bai-Hsiun ChenVitamin D has been considered to regulate calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and to preserve skeletal integrity. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is the best indicator of vitamin D levels. The association of serum 25(OH)D deficiency with increased risk of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is controversial. We investigated serum 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 levels in diabetes patients by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 levels were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in electrospray ionization positive mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of methanol. The total 25(OH)D levels were calculated as the sum of 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 levels. A total of 56 patients with T1DM and 41 patients with T2DM were enrolled in this study. There were 42 and 28 non-diabetic, age-matched volunteers who participated as the T1DM controls and the T2DM controls, respectively. The total 25(OH)D levels were lowest in the 21–40 age group. The levels of both 25(OH)D3 and the total 25(OH)D were significantly higher in the T1DM and T2DM groups than in the controls (p 
       
  • Simultaneous quantification of six indicator compounds in Wen-Qing-Yin by
           high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Chi-Chen Yeh, Shih-Shan Huang, Po-Yu Liu, Bo-Cheng Wang, Chia-Fen Tsai, Der-Yuan Wang, Hwei-Fang ChengA simple gradient high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was used to simultaneously to analyze characteristics of six indicator compounds in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation Wen-Qing-Yin (WQY). Separate optimization was performed using a Cosmosil C18 column gradient method with 0.1% formic acid in both mobile phases of aqueous and acetonitrile (ACN), at a flow rate, detection wavelength, and sample volume of 1.8 mL/min, 268 nm, and 10 μL, respectively. The linear regression of six active compounds berberine (BER), baicalin (BAI), ferulic acid (FER), geniposide (GEN), hydorxymethoxylfurfural (HMF), and paeoniflorin (PAE) was produced at the concentration range of 10–2000 μg/mL. The method validation revealed an acceptable precision (intra- and inter-day precision 
       
  • Exposure marker discovery of di-2(propylheptyl) phthalate using
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Chia-Lung Shih, Jen-Yi Hsu, Chien-Ping Tien, Yi-Ning Chung, Victor G. Zgoda, Pao-Chi LiaoDi-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP) is a plasticizer and has been suggested to be a subchronic toxicant in rats. DPHP has been approved to be used in food containers and handling by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The use of DPHP is still increasing, and the risk of human exposure to DPHP via food may be high. Exposure markers measured in human samples are commonly used to monitor human exposure levels. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and a rat model were used to discover tentative DPHP exposure markers. DPHP and mono-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (MPHP) were used as the precursors for calculating metabolite candidates using biotransformation mass changes of known enzymatic reactions. A rat model was designed to validate these metabolite candidates as tentative exposure markers. A total of 28 signals show dose–response relationships and these signals contain a few isomers. The chemical structures of 15 tentative exposure marker signals were speculated based on the product ion mass spectra from MS/MS analysis. These 15 signals included 7 chemical structures and some of them may be isomers. The different arrangement of the atoms in space of these isomers should be validated by standard compounds in the future studies. Among the 7 speculated chemical structures, 2 structures were novel tentative DPHP metabolites, and 5 structures have been previously reported in the literature. The results indicate that using UPLC-MS and a rat model can be used to identify tentative toxicant exposure markers.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for
           investigating acute dietary effects of cow milk consumption on human urine
           metabolome

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Dorothea Mung, Liang LiBiomarker discovery has been increasingly important in the field of metabolomics for the detection and understanding of diseases. Of the many biofluids available for metabolomics, urine is a preferred option as it is non-invasive to collect and contains a wide range of metabolites reflective of the health status of the testing individual. However, urine also contains many exogenous metabolites which are introduced through various sources such as diet. This complicates the data interpretation when searching the metabolome for disease-related endogenous metabolites. Since diet is difficult to control, this work aims to study the acute effects of diet (particularly cow milk) consumption on the human urine amine/phenol submetabolome by utilizing differential chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). LC-MS analysis of 62 urine samples collected before and after (1 hour and 2 hours) milk intake resulted in the detection of 4985 metabolites with an average of 3815 ± 206 (n = 62) detected per sample. The work aims to differentiate the exogenous “food” metabolites from the endogenous metabolite pool and to determine any dietary effects from milk intake on the human urine metabolome.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Measuring serum total and free indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in
           chronic kidney disease using UPLC-MS/MS

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Chia-Ni Lin, I-Wen Wu, Yun-Fen Huang, Shu-Yu Peng, Ya-Ching Huang, Hsiao-Chen NingChronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disorder that affects multiple organs and increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. CKD affects approximately 12% of the population in Taiwan. Loss of kidney function leads to accumulation of potentially toxic compounds such as indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), two protein-bound uremic solutes that can stimulate the progression of CKD. The aim of this study was to assess whether IS and pCS levels were correlated with CKD stage. We developed and validated a method for quantitating total and free IS and pCS in serum by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Serum samples were pretreated using protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing stable isotope-labeled IS and pCS as internal standards. After centrifugation, the supernatant was diluted and injected into a UPLC-MS/MS system. Analyte concentrations were calculated from the calibration curve and ion ratios between the analyte and the internal standard. The calibration curves were linear with a correlation coefficient of>0.999; the analytical measurement range was 0.05–5 mg/L. The limit of quantitation of this assay was 0.05 mg/L for both analytes. The reference interval was ≤0.05–1.15 mg/L for total-form IS, ≤0.05–5.33 mg/L for total-form pCS, ≤0.05 mg/L for free-form IS, and ≤0.12 mg/L for free-form pCS. A positive correlation was observed between analyte concentration and CKD stage. Our sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantifying total and free-form IS and pCS in serum can be used to monitor the progression of CKD in clinical settings, identify patients at risk, and facilitate development of further therapies for this devastating disease.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Using ambient mass spectrometry and LC–MS/MS for the rapid detection and
           identification of multiple illicit street drugs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Chien-Hua Chiang, Hei-Hwa Lee, Bai-Hsiun Chen, Yi-Ching Lin, Yu-Ying Chao, Yeou-Lih HuangIn this study the recently developed technique of thermal desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (TD–ESI/MS) was applied to the rapid analysis of multiple controlled substances. With the reallocation of mass spectral resources [from a standard ESI source coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) to an ambient TD–ESI source], this direct-analysis technique allows the identification of a wider range of illicit drugs through a dual-working mode (pretreatment-free qualitative screening/conventional quantitative confirmation). Through 60-MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) analysis—in which the MS/MS process was programmed to sequentially scan 60 precursor ion/product ion transitions and, thereby, identify 30 compounds (two precursor/product ion transitions per compound)—of a four-component (drug) standard, the signal intensity ratios of each drug transition were comparable with those obtained through 8-MRM analysis, demonstrating the selectivity of TD–ESI/MS for the detection of multiple drugs. The consecutive analyses of tablets containing different active components occurred with no cross-contamination or interference from sample to sample, demonstrating the reliability of the TD–ESI/MS technique for rapid sampling (two samples min−1). The active ingredients in seized drug materials could be detected even when they represented less than 2 mg g−1 of the total sample weight, demonstrating the sensitivity of TD–ESI/MS. Combining the ability to rapidly identify multiple drugs with the “plug-and-play” design of the interchangeable ion source, TD–ESI/MS has great potential for use as a pretreatment-free qualitative screening tool for laboratories currently using LC–MS/MS techniques to analyze illicit drugs.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • PON-1 carbamylation is enhanced in HDL of uremia patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Chiz-Tzung Chang, Yun-Ping Lim, Chi-Wen Lee, Hsin-Yi Liao, Feng-Yu Chen, Chia-Ming Chang, Feng-Yao Tang, Chao-Yuh Yang, Chao-Jung ChenHigh-density lipoprotein (HDL) carbamylation has been known in uremia patients. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is an important HDL protein responsible for HDL anti-oxidant, arylesterase and lactonase activities. PON-1 carbamylation in uremic HDL has never been explored. We isolated HDL from uremia patients and control healthy subjects for study. Sandwich ELISA was used to estimate carbamylated PON-1 protein expression in HDL, and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) was applied to identify the amino acid in PON-1 carbamylated. PON-1 enzyme activities were estimated by substrates conversion method. HDL anti-oxidant activity was gauged by fluorescence changes of indicator dye in the presence of H2O2. Our study results proved that the degree of PON-1 carbamylation was higher in uremic HDL than in control HDL. Sandwich ELISA study showed that carbamylated PON-1 concentration in uremic HDL was 1.49 ± 0.08 fold higher than that in HDL from controls (p 
       
  • Development of biomarkers of genitourinary cancer using mass
           spectrometry-based clinical proteomics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Yi-Ting Chen, Cheng-Han Tsai, Chien-Lun Chen, Jau-Song Yu, Ying-Hsu ChangProstate, bladder and kidney cancer are the three most common types of genitourinary cancer in the world. Of these, prostate and bladder cancers are within the top 10 most common cancers in men. Notably, kidney cancer causes no obvious symptoms in the early stages. To satisfy clinical-management requirements, researchers have developed numerous biomarkers by applying proteomic approaches using clinical serum, urine and tissue specimens, as well as cell and animal models. Through application of biomarker pipeline protocols, including discovery, verification and validation phases, and mass-spectrometric based proteomic platforms coupled with multiplexed quantification assays, these studies have led to recent rapid progress in this area. With improvements in mass-spectrometric based proteomic techniques, numerous promising biomarker candidates and marker panels for various clinical purposes have been proposed. Verification of novel protein biomarker candidates is very resource demanding (e.g. on the clinical and laboratory sides). With the support of national consortia, it is now possible to investigate the future clinical use of such biomarker strategies and assess their cost-effectiveness in personalized medicine.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Stability of glyoxal- and methylglyoxal-modified hemoglobin on dried blood
           spot cards as analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography tandem mass
           spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Hauh-Jyun Candy Chen, Yi-Chun TengBlood sampling by the dried blood spot (DBS) technique has become commonly applied in newborn screening. It is often used for analysis of small molecules, such as metabolites. Recently, DBS sampling has been applied for quantification of post-translational protein modifications. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are two simple oxoaldehydes released from glycated proteins in the Maillard reaction. They are widely distributed in the environment (e.g. cigarette smoke) and found in foods and beverages. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are shown to react with biomolecules including DNA and proteins. In this laboratory, we previously identified the sites of modification by these two oxoaldehydes in human hemoglobin and found that the extents of modification at certain sites of lysine and arginine residues are significantly higher in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients than in nondiabetic individuals. In this study, we examine the stability of these modifications of hemoglobin stored on DBS cards at room temperature or 4 °C in the ambient air. After hemoglobin was extracted from the DBS cards, it was digested by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The results show that the extents of all these PTMs are stable within 14 and 21 days when stored on DBS at room temperature and at 4 °C, respectively. Extraction of globin from DBS cards is mostly advantageous for hemolytic blood samples. This assay is sensitive as only a quarter of a DBS card containing ca. 12 μL of blood is required. Thus, it is practically useful to measure the extents of glyoxal- and methylglyoxal-induced hemoglobin modifications from DBS cards.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Analysis of heterocyclic amines in meat products by liquid chromatography
           – Tandem mass spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Shi-Han Jian, Pei-Jou Yeh, Chung-Huang Wang, Hsin-Chang Chen, Sung-Fang ChenHeterocyclic amines (HCAs), a class made up of more than 25 compounds, are unintended hazardous substances that are generated by the heating or processing of proteinaceous foods at high temperatures. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified four such HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, and PhIP) as being probable or possible human carcinogens. In this study, two sample preparation strategies, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a rapid, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction (QuEChERS) method, were investigated for the determination of 11 types of HCAs in meat products by LC-MS/MS. The HCAs in the samples were first extracted with acetonitrile by LLE, and followed by SPE. In the case of QuEChERS extraction, acetonitrile is used as the LLME solvent, and PSA, C18EC and MgSO4 were used as the dSPE sorbent. Both methods showed good performance with respect to precision (RSD 0.993). The QuEChERS extraction strategy provided a better linear dynamic range and superior sensitivity in comparison with the LLE-SPE approach. HCAs were successfully quantified in real samples using the two proposed approaches by LC-MS/MS.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Method development of immunoglobulin G purification from micro-volumes of
           human serum for untargeted and targeted proteomics-based antibody
           repertoire studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Yu-Ting Chang, Ming-Chu Chang, Yun-Jung Tsai, Christine Ferng, Hsi-Chang Shih, Ya-Po Kuo, Chung-Hsuan Chen, I-Lin TsaiImmunoglobulins (Igs) are major serum proteins which play important roles in immunity. Both untargeted and targeted proteomic workflows can be applied to investigate antigen-binding sites and the glycosylation profiles of Igs. For a more-comprehensive picture of IgG from human serum, we developed an IgG purification process and coupled the standardized method to untargeted and targeted proteomic workflows for IgG investigations. Parameters such as the type of purification beads, volume of the bead slurry, incubation conditions, and binding capacities were evaluated in this study. Only 2 μL of human serum was required for each sample. The performance of coupling the purification process to untargeted proteomics in the IgG analysis was evaluated by comparing normalized abundances of IgG subclass-specific peptides with quantification results from an ELISA. Pearson's correlation values were all>0.82. Targeted proteomic workflow was applied to serum samples from patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and from healthy controls, and the results corresponded to clinical findings that IgG4-related peptides/glycopeptides showed higher abundances in the diseased group. The developed IgG purification process is simple and requires small sample volume, and it can be coupled to targeted and untargeted proteomic workflows for clinical investigations in the future.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Identification of bacteria in juice/lettuce using magnetic nanoparticles
           and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Cheng-Tung Chen, Je-Wei Yu, Yen-Peng HoEnsuring food safety requires a rapid and reliable method for detecting food-borne pathogens. Mass spectrometry has been demonstrated as a powerful tool to classify pure bacterial species. However, matrix interference from food backgrounds may lead to false results because of the suppression of microbial signals. It is useful to develop a method for bacterial enrichment and marker identification in food samples. Magnetic zirconia nanoparticles were used to concentrate spiked microorganisms from apple juice/lettuce under specific conditions (pH 4.5). Bacterial identification was achieved using nanoLC–MS. Selected reaction monitoring of bacteria-related peptides was applied for the first time to identify bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This study presents an accurate means for bacterial identification in food matrixes using MS. The analysis time is less than 90 min and the minimum concentration of E. coli detected was 5 × 103 CFU/mL. The interaction between bacteria and the magnetic nanoparticles was electrostatic and nonspecific, in contrast to immunoassays which require specific antibodies. The targeted peptide analysis focuses on the bacterial markers, thus significantly simplifying the analysis and leading to an accurate identification of bacteria.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Analytical methods for cholesterol quantification

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Li-Hua Li, Ewelina P. Dutkiewicz, Ying-Chen Huang, Hsin-Bai Zhou, Cheng-Chih HsuAbstractCholesterol is an important lipid molecule in cell membranes and lipoproteins. Cholesterol is also a precursors of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. Abnormal levels of cholesterol or its precursors have been observed in various human diseases, such as heart diseases, stroke, type II diabetes, brain diseases and many others. Therefore, accurate quantification of cholesterol is important for individuals who are at increased risk for these diseases. Multiple analytical methods have been developed for analysis of cholesterol, including classical chemical methods, enzymatic assays, gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and mass spectrometry (MS). Strategy known as ambient ionization mass spectrometry (AIMS), operating at atmospheric pressure, with only minimal sample pretreatments for real time, in situ, and rapid interrogation of the sample has also been employed for quantification of cholesterol. In this review, we summarize the most prevalent methods for cholesterol quantification in biological samples and foods. Nevertheless, we highlight several new technologies, such as AIMS, used as alternative methods to measure cholesterol that are potentially next-generation platforms. Representative examples of molecular imaging of cholesterol in tissue sections are also included in this review article.
       
  • Blotting paper as a disposable tool for sampling chemical residues from
           skin surface

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Pei-Chi Wu, Ewelina P. Dutkiewicz, Pei-Han Liao, Hsien-Yi Chiu, Pawel L. UrbanGraphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Prospects of using nanotechnology for food preservation, safety, and
           security

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Vivek K. Bajpai, Madhu Kamle, Shruti Shukla, Dipendra Kumar Mahato, Pranjal Chandra, Seung Kyu Hwang, Pradeep Kumar, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu HanThe rapid development of nanotechnology has transformed many domains of food science, especially those that involve the processing, packaging, storage, transportation, functionality, and other safety aspects of food. A wide range of nanostructured materials (NSMs), from inorganic metal, metal oxides, and their nanocomposites to nano-organic materials with bioactive agents, has been applied to the food industry. Despite the huge benefits nanotechnology has to offer, there are emerging concerns regarding the use of nanotechnology, as the accumulation of NSMs in human bodies and in the environment can cause several health and safety hazards. Therefore, safety and health concerns as well as regulatory policies must be considered while manufacturing, processing, intelligently and actively packaging, and consuming nano-processed food products. This review aims to provide a basic understanding regarding the applications of nanotechnology in the food packaging and processing industries and to identify the future prospects and potential risks associated with the use of NSMs.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s):
       
  • Checklist

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s):
       
  • Instructions to Authors

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s):
       
  • Title Index

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s):
       
  • Acknowledgment of Reviewers

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s):
       
  • A novel micro-extraction strategy for extraction of bisphosphonates from
           biological fluids using zirconia nanoparticles coupled with
           spectrofluorimetry and high performance liquid chromatography

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Nadereh Rahbar, Ladan Nazernezhad, Maryam Asadinezhad, Zahra Ramezani, Maryam KouchakExtraction of bisphosphonates from biological fluids is important and time consuming step in sample preparation procedure. This paper describes a simple and green sample preparation technique for dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) of alendronate sodium (ALS) from urine and serum samples prior to direct spectrofluorimetry (DSFL) and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), respectively. The DMSPE strategy is based on the selective chemisorption of ALS on zirconia nanoparticles (ZNPs) as an adsorbent followed by derivatization of the eluted analyte using o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) at basic medium to form fluorescent species. The chemical and instrumental influencing parameters on DMSPE and measuring methods were optimized for the efficient extraction and determination of ALS. The presented methods were capable of extracting ALS from human urine and serum samples and determining over the wide ranges of 5–1000 and 5–2500 μg L−1 with limits of detection (LOD) of 1.5 and 1.4 μg L−1 for DSFL and HPLC methods, respectively. The relative recoveries for the three spiked standard levels of ALS in urine and serum samples ranged from 89.0% to 107.0%, and the intra-day relative standard deviations (%RSDs) were in the range of 2.9–7.9%.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Antioxidant activity, neuroprotective properties and bioactive
           constituents analysis of varying polarity extracts from Eucalyptus
           globulus leaves

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Elena González-Burgos, Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Jonas Viškelis, Vaidotas Žvikas, Valdimaras Janulis, M. Pilar Gómez-SerranillosEucalyptus globulus is employed as herbal tea and therapeutical purposes. In this work, it is investigated for first time the neuroprotective activities, based on antioxidant properties, of varying polarity extracts (acetone, ethanol and methanol) from E. globulus leaves and elucidate their main bioactive constituents. Methanol and acetone extracts contained the highest phenolic compounds amount and chlorogenic acid was the major compound identified by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Moreover, the three tested extracts showed significant antioxidant properties, varying their potency depending on the in vitro technique used. Furthermore, E.globulus extracts were effective in ameliorating H2O2-induced oxidative stress by increasing cell viability, GSH levels and antioxidant enzymes activity and, by decreasing ROS production and lipid peroxidation levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, E.globulus leaves extracts could be used as raw material for food and pharmaceutical supplements for their high content in antioxidant compounds with health benefits properties against oxidative stress.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Development and validation of a Fast gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
           method for the determination of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Vladimiro Cardenia, Tullia Gallina Toschi, Simona Scappini, Rosamaria Cristina Rubino, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-EstradaA routine method for determining cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. inflorescence, based on Fast gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (Fast GC/MS), was developed and validated. To avoid the decarboxylation of carboxyl group of cannabinoids, different derivatization approaches, i.e. silylation and esterification (diazomethane-mediated), reagents and solvents (pyridine or ethyl acetate), were tested. The methylation significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of all carboxylic cannabinoids, except for cannabigerolic acid (CBGA). Since diazomethane is not commercially available, is considered a hazardous reactive and requires 1-day synthesis by specialized chemical staff, silylation was used along the whole validation of a routine method. The method gave a fast (total analysis time  1.1), with a good repeatability (intraday 
       
  • Comparison of anti-inflammatory effect and protein profile between the
           water extracts from Formosan sambar deer and red deer

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Ching-Yun Kuo, Yi-Ting Cheng, Shang-Tse Ho, Chih-Chun Yu, Ming-Ju ChenVelvet antler (VA), the unossified antler from members of the family Cervidae, has been used in traditional Chinese medicines and health foods for over 2000 years in enhancement of kidney function and treatment or prevention of cardiovascular, immunological and gynaecological disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of velvet antler water extracts from Formosan sambar deer (Rusa unicolor swinhoei, SVAE) and red deer (Cervus elaphus, RVAE). Results indicated that both SVAE and RVAE significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) productions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations above 200 μg mL−1. SVAE seems to demonstrate a better anti-inflammatory effect than that of RVAE in vitro. Both SVAE and RAVE also enhanced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The results of MTT assay indicated that SVAE and RVAE did not exhibit any cytotoxicity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the levels of 6 specific proteins were different between these two velvet antlers samples. Furthermore, the storage period was the major factor affecting the anti-inflammatory activity of SAVE. In this study, we demonstrated the difference of anti-inflammatory effect and the protein profile between SVAE and RVAE. SVAE showed better anti-inflammatory potential than RVAE. In the future, the anti-inflammatory active components and their related mechanisms should be further investigated.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Benefits of combination low-dose pioglitazone plus fish oil on aged type 2
           diabetes mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Yuzuru Iizuka, Hyounju Kim, Satoshi Hirako, Kanako Chiba, Masahiro Wada, Akiyo MatsumotoThe elderly patients with type 2 diabetes suffer more adverse drug events than young adults due to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes associated with aging. Reducing the risks of these medication-related problems are equally important for the clinical care of older type 2 diabetes patients. Pioglitazone is used for treating type 2 diabetes as an oral antidiabetic drug. Despite pioglitazone is used helpful insulin sensitizers, the accumulation of subcutaneous fat is considered a major adverse effect of pioglitazone therapy. We investigated to reduce the adverse effect of pioglitazone by combination with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in aged diabetic KK mice. The accumulation of subcutaneous fat associated with high-dose pioglitazone is reduced by fish oil, suppressing lipogenesis and stimulating fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver. Our data suggest that adding fish oil to low-dose pioglitazone results in antidiabetic efficacy similar to that of the high-dose without concomitant body weight gain.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Curculigoside and polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction of Molineria
           latifolia rhizome improved glucose uptake via potential mTOR/AKT activated
           GLUT4 translocation

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Der Jiun Ooi, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Mustapha Umar Imam, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Maznah IsmailAdipose tissue is one of the major organs responsible for rapid restoration of postprandial glucose fluxes. Being the major isoform of glucose transporter in adipose tissue, regulations of insulin-dependent GLUT4 trafficking have always been of research interest. The present study aimed to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying the efficacy of curculigoside and polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of Molineria latifolia rhizome in triggering glucose uptake. We assessed the adipogenic potential and glucose uptake stimulatory activity of curculigoside and EAF by employing a murine 3T3-L1 adipocyte model. The transcriptional and translational expressions of selected intermediates in the insulin signalling pathway were evaluated. While curculigoside neither promoted adipogenesis nor activated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, treatment with polyphenol-rich EAF resulted otherwise. However, both treatments enhanced insulin-stimulated uptake of glucose. This was coupled with increased availability of GLUT4 at the plasma membrane of the differentiated adipocytes although the total GLUT4 protein level was unaffected. In addition, the treatment increased the phosphorylation of both AKT and mTOR, which have been reported to be associated with GLUT4 translocation. The present findings proposed that curculigoside and EAF increased glucose transport activity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via GLUT4 translocation as a result of potential mTOR/AKT activation. The more potent efficacy observed with EAF suggested potential synergistic and multi-targeted action.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit on methionine and
           choline-deficiency diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Yu-Tang Tung, Cheng-Ze Huang, Jia-Hong Lin, Gow-Chin YenPhyllanthus emblica L. fruit contains abundant bioactive components and exhibits a variety of biological activities. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of water extract of P. emblica (WEPE) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was evaluated. C57BL/6 mice were fed methionine and choline-deficiency diet (MCD diet) for 4 or 8 weeks to induce NASH. Results showed that administration of WEPE could significantly reduce serum AST and ALT as compared to MCD diet-alone group. Administration of WEPE could significantly decrease lipid peroxidation and CYP2E1 mRNA expression, and elevate the antioxidant activities in mice livers. In addition, administration of WEPE after 8 weeks could significantly decrease the mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β in mice livers, but have less improving effect of hepatic steatosis and mononuclear cell infiltration. Taken together, MCD diet might cause serious hepatic steatosis and mild inflammation in mice livers, but administration of WEPE could ameliorate the rapid progression of NASH.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Profiles of commensal and opportunistic bacteria in human milk from
           healthy donors in Taiwan

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Po-Wen Chen, Yi-Ling Lin, Mao-Sheng HuangRecent studies indicate that milk from healthy mothers may harbor potential probiotics. Nonetheless, the distribution of bacterial profiles in human milk samples in Taiwan is not fully understood. Therefore, with the aim to address this question, in this study, milk samples were collected from 33 healthy mothers (D1 to D33) visiting our hospital during a 6-month period. The milk microbiota was analyzed by a molecular approach (Illumina MiSeq sequencing). The results indicate that the milk samples have a unique profile and patterns of bacterial abundance levels. Moreover, in colostrum and transitional-milk samples, we detected 154 and 127 bacterial species, respectively, and these sets shared 42.6% of the bacterial species. The most common bacterial species among all milk samples were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus lactarius, and Staphylococcus hominis, suggesting that the skin contamination route plays an important role in the composition of the milk microbiota. Nevertheless, four Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus zeae, and Lactobacillus gasseri, were present in only 7 samples (21% prevalence), and bifidobacterial species were quite rare taxa among the present samples. The Staphylococcus aureus was detected in a total of 15 samples (45% prevalence), suggesting that this species may be commonly present in milk samples. In conclusion, each milk sample revealed a unique profile and patterns of bacterial abundance levels, and our data do not support the idea that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are common and abundant in modern milk samples. Because none of the donors of the milk samples showed mastitis or any discomfort during the sampling process or at follow-up inspection, the microbiota of these milk samples is not likely to negatively affect its host. This study provides new information on the proportions of commensal bacteria in human milk in Taiwan.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleBacterial species composition in human milk samples from healthy donors in Taiwan are shown. The milk microbiota was measured using a molecular-based approach. Only four Lactobacillus species were detected in 7 samples, and bifidobacterial species were rare. However, the Staphylococcus aureus was commonly found in milk from healthy donors, and this species was detected in a total of 15 samples. Colostrum (C: C1 to C20) and transitional milk (T: T1 to T10) showed contrasting bacterial profiles. This confirms previous research showing that the human breast milk microbiota is unique to each mother.
       
  • Kinetics of lactose fermentation in milk with kombucha starter

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Katarina Gojko Kanurić, Spasenija Danilo Milanović, Bojana Branko Ikonić, Eva Stjepan Lončar, Mirela Dragoljub Iličić, Vladimir Radovan Vukić, Dajana Vukota VukićThe aim of this research was to investigate the effect of new, non-conventional starter culture on the kinetics of the lactose transformation during milk fermentation by kombucha, at pH 5.8; 5.4; 5.1; 4.8; and 4.6, at two different temperatures 37 °C and 42 °C. Milk fermentation at 42 °C lasted significantly shorter (about 5 h, 30 min) compared to the fermentation at 37 °C. Changes of lactose concentration at the both temperatures are consisting of two retaining stages and very steep decline in–between. The analysis of the rate curves showed that the reaction rate passes through the maximum after 9 h, 30 min at 37 °C and after 4 h at 42 °C. The sigmoidal saturation curve indicates a complex kinetics of lactose fermentation by kombucha starter.Graphical abstractReaction rate as a function of temperature: a) 37 °C and b) 42 °C (Lines show mathematical models, symbols present experimental values).Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Nanoparticle-based laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis
           of drugs and metabolites

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 26, Issue 4Author(s): Han-Wei Chu, Binesh Unnikrishnan, Anisha Anand, Ju-Yi Mao, Chih-Ching HuangNanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) is a powerful tool for the analysis of a wide range of molecules. Many of the drawbacks in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) can be avoided with the application of nanomaterials as matrices as well as substrates for the LDI-MS to achieve a low background noise in low m/z region and high reproducibility. Surface-assisted LDI (SALDI)-MS, especially the nanoparticle-based LDI-MS, has emerged as a promising technique for the analysis of trace amounts of substances in various biological samples due to their high surface area for analyte enrichment, efficient desorption/ionization, and homogeneous crystallization of sample. Therefore, it is highly useful in clinical, forensic, medical, food and drug analyses, disease diagnosis, and various other fields. In this review, we briefly discuss the application of various nanomaterials, which include metal-based, carbon-based, silicon-based nanomaterials and nanocomposites, as matrices and substrates for LDI-MS based drug and metabolite analyses and possible detection strategies. Also, we discuss the idea of using “mass tag” for signal amplification for drug and metabolite detection using nanoparticle assisted LDI-MS.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Rapid detection and quantitation of drugs-of-abuse by wooden-tip
           electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Tsz-Tsun Ng, Pui-Kin So, Bin Hu, Zhong-Ping YaoDetermination of drugs-of-abuse in body fluids of drug abusers is important for the law enforcement as well as the treatment and rehabilitation. In this study, wooden-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (WT-ESI-MS), a simple and cost-effective technique, was developed for rapid detection and quantitation of common drugs-of-abuse, including methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine, heroin and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in urine and oral fluid, following our previous successful demonstration for rapid and sensitive detection of ketamine and nor-ketamine in urine and oral fluid by this technique. It was found that the limit-of-detection for methamphetamine could fully fulfill the cut-off value requirements of the international standards, and those of MDMA and cocaine could fulfill some of the requirements. The linear range, accuracy and precision for quantitation of the drugs were generally satisfactory, except for THC for which the analytical performance still needs to be improved. Analysis of one sample could typically be completed within minutes. These results indicated that WT-ESI-MS could be used for rapid screening of drugs-of-abuse in urine, oral fluid as well as other body fluids.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • A highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem
           mass spectrometry method with in-source fragmentation for rapid
           quantification of raspberry ketone

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Journal of Food and Drug AnalysisAuthor(s): Bo Yuan, Danyue Zhao, Ruoyuan Du, Dushyant Kshatriya, Nicholas T. Bello, James E. Simon, Qingli WuRaspberry ketone (RK) is the characteristic aromatic compound in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) with wide applications as food additive and anti-obesity agent. However, quantification of RK has presented difficulties in MS detection and reliable LC-MS method for RK analysis in literature is in limit to date. In order to facilitate quality control of raspberry derived products and RK metabolomics study, this study aimed to develop a validated and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method. Strong in-source fragmentation was noted and the fragmental ion of 107 m/z produced was selected as the precursor ion for MRM detection, and as such the electrospray ionization performance was optimized by fractional factorial design to accommodate such ion-source dissociation behavior as well as its moderate volatility. A pathway involving the formation of quinone-like structure with strong conjugation was proposed to explain the intense in-source fragmentation. The MRM transition was optimized with product ion of 77 m/z selected as the quantifier ion. The method featured low limit of quantification of ∼2 ng/mL and allowed for rapid detection of RK in fresh raspberries following direct sample preparation. RK contents were found to be higher from locally grown and harvested farm sources compared to commercial products shipped into the state, and higher in those at late-stage compared with early-stage maturity. No correlations in RK content between organic and non-organic labels were noted.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
 
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