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  Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 364 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (15 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (93 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (256 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (256 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
British Food Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access  
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access  
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Travel     Open Access  
Journal of Halal Product and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Maize Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nuts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Plant Stress Physiology     Open Access  
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.326
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1881-8366
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Automated quality assessment of cocoons using a smart camera based system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): P.P. Prasobhkumar, C.R. Francis, Sai Siva Gorthi In this paper, the development of a novel quality assessment system for Bombyx mori L. cocoons is presented, which offers significant advantages over the conventional manual method (subjective, tests only few sample cocoons, involves health hazards) in terms of labor friendliness, accuracy, speed and running cost. This system consisted of a conditioned illumination unit, image acquisition and processing unit realized with a smart camera. The camera acquired the images of cocoons and by image processing algorithms (morphological operation, image enhancement, and ellipse fitting), quantitative measurements of size, shape and stain color were accomplished and automatically classified each cocoon into four defective categories and good cocoons. The system not only highlighted each category on camera screen but also displayed statistical information such as counts of cocoons in each category and overall defect percentage. In addition to that, the system was programmed to alert the user when the defect percentage exceeded a particular threshold value. The results showed that the system was capable of assessing 96 cocoons per second acquired within a single frame. It showed 100% accuracy on a sample size of 137 cocoons. To expose whole cocoon surface, they were rolled over a slope at a speed of eight rotations per second, while the system captured and processed the video of the whole surface. This process enabled in meeting the same level of quality assessment standard and counting accuracy as that of manually exposing the defective areas to the field of view when acquired in a single image.
       
  • Design and assessment of an automated sweet pepper seed sorting machine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Kiattisin Kanjanawanishkul, Prarin Chupawa, Thanaphat Nuantoon Each year, large volumes of sweet pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) are exported from Thailand to many countries. As a result, seed quality is very important. Sweet pepper seeds are very small, both in dimension and mass, therefore they are very difficult to inspect manually. Thus, we designed and constructed an automated sweet pepper seed sorting machine. It consists of three main stations: 1) seed feeder, 2) seed inspector using a camera and 3) seed sorter using a vacuum suction system. To transport seeds through each station, we designed a circular rotating plate with radial rows of blind holes. This allows all three stations to process a row of seeds in parallel. To identify discolored seeds, images were captured and processed to detect dark areas on the surface of the seeds. Our machine accurately sorted 90.9% of input seeds. The maximum potential capacity (in terms of seed processing rate) was 16,500 seeds per hour and we achieved actual rates of approximately 12,700 seeds per hour or roughly twice as fast as an experienced operator. Thus, this machine is faster and more accurate than human operators and can replace them.
       
  • Respiration rate model and modified atmosphere packaging of bhimkol banana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Tabli Ghosh, Kshirod Kumar Dash This area of study gives the consequence of respiration rate of bhimkol (Musa balbisiana) at different storage temperatures (15–35 °C). The relationship between O₂ step down rate and CO₂ step up rate was ascertained using gas measuring data set collected by enclosing bhimkol in respirometer and measuring head space O₂ and CO₂ concentration over time. A mathematical method was used to predict the influence of storage temperature and time on respiration rate of bhimkol and the best fitted model was subsequently implemented to design modified atmospheric packaging for bhimkol. The experimental data set were used to acquire two different models namely regression function model and enzyme kinetics model and among both the models the enzyme kinetics model was found to be the better fitted model to predict the respiration rate of bhimkol banana. Modified atmospheric packaging reckons the adaptation of gas surroundings within the package by means of normal interchange involving the respiration rate of bhimkol and gas diffusion through the package material. Based on the respiration rate and permeability of the packaging materials, the best suitable packaging films obtained for the modified atmospheric packaging of bhimkol was found to be polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride film. The explicated model furnishes an efficient technique for selection and design of suitable packaging material for bhimkol banana.
       
  • Cradle to farm gate life cycle assessment of oilseed crops production in
           Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Majid Dekamin, Morteza Barmaki, Amin Kanooni, Seyed Reza Mosavi Meshkini The goal of this research was to evaluate the environmental effects of the production of soybean (Glycine max), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and canola (Brassica napus) oilseed crops in Ardabil in Iran. Lifecycle assessment was conducted to compare environmental burdens, water demand, and land use of these three crops. Four categories of environmental impacts were used to define in this method. The categories are eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidation. Additional categories were water dependence and land use. These environmental effects followed the same pattern for the three oilseed crops. The results showed that sunflower demonstrated a higher environmental load in five of the six categories because of its lower seed yield and higher water and energy demands. The results indicate that production of 1 T of soybean and canola requires 370 and 471 m2 of land, respectively. Production of same quantity of sunflower required 426 m2 of land. Sunflower required 1.59 and 1.25 times more water than the canola and soybean respectively, to produce the same quantity of oilseed. It was found that the effects from the three crops comes generally from manufactured fertilizer, manure, diesel combustion, agricultural practices, and electricity for irrigation. It can be said that the indirect effects associated with these inputs are related to producing and processing, which had higher impacts than those of the direct effects.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Near infrared imaging to detect Aspergillus flavus infection in
           three varieties of dates
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): M. Teena, A. Manickavasagan, A.M. Al-Sadi, R. Al-Yahyai, M.L. Deadman, A. Al-Ismaily The present manual sorting technique is not effective to detect fungal infection in dates; especially at the early stage. The potential of near infrared (NIR) area scan imaging (900–1700 nm together as one image) to detect fungal contamination in three popular varieties of dates (Fard, Khalas and Naghal) was investigated. Date samples were treated as three groups: untreated control (UC), sterile control (SC) (surface sterilized, rinsed and dried) and infested samples (IS) (surface sterilized, rinsed, dried and fungal inoculated). The IS was then incubated for 10 days and imaged every 48hr to obtain 5 infection stages namely IS Day2, IS Day4, IS Day6, IS Day8 and IS Day10. In total, 3150 NIR images (UC + SC + five fungal infection stages × 150 images × three date varieties) were acquired and analyzed. The overall highest classification accuracy was 97, 96 and 100% for two-class, six-class and pair-wise models, respectively while comparing IS with UC. Similarly, it was 94, 89 and 94% for two-class, six-class and pair-wise models, respectively while comparing IS with SC. However, when the developed algorithm was tested on pooled dates images (all three varieties combined), the two class model yielded a higher classification accuracy of 83 and 86% for UC and IS, respectively; and 71 and 85% for SC and IS, respectively. Thus, NIR area-scan imaging has the potential to be used as a fast and cheaper technique to detect fungal infection in food industries.
       
  • Supplemented feed with biological silage of fish-processing wastes
           improved health parameters and weight gain of mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Hernán G. Góngora, Alejandro A. Maldonado, Ana E. Ruiz, Javier D. Breccia Wastes from Merluccius hubbsi processing were used for biological silage elaborated with Lactobacillus arizonensis and for chemical silage performed with 0.18M sulfuric acid and 0.22M formic acid. Mice BALB/c were fed with isoenergetic diets, EFBS and EFCS, containing 36.3% (wt/wt) biological fish silage and 36.3% (wt/wt) chemical fish silage respectively. Promisingly, after 30 day consumption both additives did not provoke lesions in the gut, thinner wall, distension or abnormal vascularization. The higher concentration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the gut of mice fed with EFBS (2.51 × 104 cfu LAB/g EFBS vs. 3.98 × 103 cfu LAB/g EFCS), together with the weight gain (23.8 ± 3.8 g vs. 16.7 ± 3.7 g), feed conversion ratio (4.12 vs. 6.71), protein efficiency rate (0.69 vs. 0.63), villi height (455 μm vs. 418 μm) for EFBS and EFCS respectively, support the probiotic effect of L. arizonensis. Nevertheless, both preparations are interesting options to envisage a promising outcome for recycling fish wastes.
       
  • Cattle manure composting in a packed-bed reactor with forced aeration
           strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Naoto Shimizu, Joko Nugroho Wahyu Karyadi, Michio Harano, Kazunori Iwabuchi, Toshinori Kimura The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate strategy for cattle manure composting with forced aeration. The composting of cattle manure was conducted using an 18.8 L reactor with three different amounts of total air supplied (1080, 3240 and 10,800 L/kg dry mass) during 360 h of composting using continuous and on/off sequencing (20 min/h) aeration methods and three turning patterns (no turning, full turning and turning with position change). The degradation of organic matter in three-stage systems (the compost was turned every 120 h over the 360 h period) was significantly affected by total air supply volume and was large in the case of on/off sequence aeration. The pattern of moisture change was more affected by turning than by aeration modes. The optimal composting conditions for organic matter degradation (maximum of 37.7%) were aeration rate: 0.45 L/min kg dm, aeration mode: on/off sequencing process and full turning. The total accumulated weight losses and heat generated during composting indicated significant effects of the total air supplied and were large in the case of the continuous process.
       
  • Description of furrow shaping created by single standard tines
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Amer Khalid Ahmed AL-Neama, Thomas Herlitzius Designoptimization and online evaluation of work quality of tillage tools help to find optimal balance between effort and result in tillage operation. Currently, usage of laser scanner has become widespread to examine the soil profile after tillage. However, the results are significantly affected by external circumstances in the field such as sunlight, weeds, residual of plant, etc. Therefore, a soil bin test was carried out by using a laser scanner to evaluate the width and the area of the furrow (shape of furrow) created by using four standard chisel plow tines heavy duty, double heart, double heart with wing and duck foot with widths of cut 0.065, 0.135, 0.450, and 0.400 m, respectively at different speeds and depths. MATLAB based computer program was used to estimate soil profile parameters. Lab results were verified in a field test. The field results were evaluated based on geometric shape of the furrow obtained from the soil bin and a model based on Willatt and Willis's approach in predicting the furrow shape. Results show that the width of the furrow increases linearly with depth while the area of the furrow increases quadratically with depth for all tines. An excellent geometric shape of the furrow was obtained from the soil bin for every tine. The furrow shape is triangle for heavy duty and double heart tines, while it is triangle plus trapezoidal shape for double heart with wings and duck foot tines. Willatt and Willis's equation related to the width of the furrow shows a good agreement for heavy duty and double heart tines at shallow depth.
       
  • Development of a dual action planting and mulching machine for vegetable
           seedlings
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Z.M. Khazimov, G.C. Bora, K.M. Khazimov, M.Z. Khazimov, I.B. Ultanova, A.K. Niyazbayev A mechanical mulching of soils during planting seedlings is becoming popular due to the shortage of labor. Evaluation of the dual action equipment for mulching soils along with planting of vegetable seedlings has been undertaken for qualitative performance of operations and productivity. The device was evaluated in production conditions for receiving its operational indicators. The deviation from a longitudinal axis line of planting seedlings was 5 cm and depth of planting seedling was 12 cm. The average field capacity of the combined machine in planting seedlings of vegetables was about 0.405 ha/hr. The average forward speed of machine was 2.03 km/h and thus average quantity of the planted seedlings was 271 seedlings/min.
       
  • Observation and analysis of internal structure of cucumber fruit during
           storage using X-ray computed tomography
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Fumihiko Tanaka, Kohei Nashiro, Wako Obatake, Fumina Tanaka, Toshitaka Uchino In this study, X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used as a non-destructive technique to characterize and quantify the internal structure of cucumber fruit during storage. The physical properties of cucumber fruit were also measured destructively and related to X-ray absorptivity, and also changes in three-dimensional heterogeneous internal structure were visualized during storage at 15 °C and 25 °C and 90% RH for 7 days. As a result, the average gray scale (GS) value calculated from X-ray CT scanned tissue images indicated good correlations with the density, porosity, and elastic modulus of cucumber fruit. The peak height of the GS value related to the density and porosity. Standard deviation of the GS value was also related to the moisture content of the fruit. These results indicated that X-ray CT can be used to estimate physical properties related fruit quality. It was also revealed that the radiodensity of cucumber fruit changed in the mesocarp tissue but not change in the placenta tissue. GS level in the mesocarp tissue changed from white to dark from the fruit pedicel towards the apex at 25 °C. This result is useful to understand the expansion of low density part in fruit during storage.
       
  • Influence of drying-related operations on microbiological, structural and
           physicochemical aspects for processing of bee-pollen
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Carlos Zuluaga-Domínguez, Juan Serrato-Bermudez, Marta Quicazán Bee-pollen is an important source of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Given its high moisture content, bee-pollen is dried before commercialization; however, there are some drawbacks in the microbiological quality, which have a remarkable effect on the physicochemical stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying on bee-pollen at temperatures between 40 °C and 60 °C based on microbiological, structural and physical-chemical characteristics. The obtained results showed that bee-pollen dried at 40 and 50 °C had a significant increase in acidity after treatment, possibly due to the remain microbiological load. In contrast, a significant increase in flavonoids, phenolics and antioxidant activity was found for all thermal treatments; nonetheless, a loss of carotenoids by the effect of temperature was also obtained. Microscopy images showed a slight degradation in the bee-pollen structure, which may have caused the release of bioactive compounds, increasing the antioxidant capacity. A total ranking technique suggested the most adequate temperature for drying bee-pollen at 60 °C.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Effect of vibration stress on quality of packaged grapes during
           transportation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Hyun Mo Jung, Sangdae Lee, Wang-Hee Lee, Byoung-Kwan Cho, Seung Hyun Lee This study was conducted to determine vibration characteristics of packaged grapes during truck transportation and mechanical injury by such vibration stress. Vibration impact generated during a major freight distribution route of packaged grapes in Korea was measured in terms of the power spectral density (PSD). By using the PSD profile measured at the rear side of truck, a simulated transportation experiment was carried out to investigate how vibration stress influenced quality deterioration in grapes. The quality degradation of grapes under vibration stress and grapes without vibration stress was determined by measuring quality index indicators such as weight loss, soluble solids content (SSC), and ethylene production. Both grape groups were stored at refrigeration condition (1–2 °C, 65–75% RH) for 30 consecutive days. As compared to the control grape group, the decrement of weight loss and SSC in grape group suffered from vibration was 6% and 1.3° Brix, respectively; while ethylene production was increased by 7 nL/g․hr. The results clearly showed that vibration stress could result in the degradation and rapid ripening of packaged grapes.
       
  • Performance analysis of clustering method based on crop pest spectrum
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Ji’An Xia, YuWang Yang, HongXin Cao, YaQi Ke, DaoKuo Ge, WenYu Zhang, SiJun Ge, GuangWei Chen In China, the crop diseases and insect pests are the main causes of output reduction and quality decline of crops. Through inspection of crop insects, we can prevent the pests in a timely and effective manner. The visible-near infrared (VNIR) spectral reflectance can intuitively reflect the growth, disease and insect pests information of crops, and through analysis of the crop's reflectance spectrum, we can detect and identify the crop pests. Clustering analysis is an important multivariable statistic and analysis method, and with the unsupervised learning method, we can effectively detect and classify the spectra of crop pests. In this paper, by using the spectral acquisition device designed by us, we collected three types of pests spectra on fresh broad bean leaves in a laboratory environment. We propose a scheme to analyze the clustering performance of crop pests spectra with the K-Means and the FCM clustering methods, and Matlab 2012b was used to realize the two clustering algorithms and analyze these clustering results. The experiment results show that the FCM clustering method has a better rate of identification, while the K-means clustering method has higher execution efficiency.
       
  • Kinetic evaluation on cell growth and biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate
           (PHB) by Bacillus safensis EBT1 from sugarcane bagasse
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Punniavan Sakthiselvan, Ramasamy Madhumathi Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer (an intracellular product) was produced using Bacillus safensis EBT1. A kinetic model that describes microbial growth, biopolymer production and substrate consumption was used to predict the performance of batch fermentation of Bacillus safensis EBT1. The experimental data were fitted with modified logistic equation. The specific growth rate (μmax) and half saturation constant (Ks) values for the models such as Monod, Contois and Herbert were found to be 0.16, 0.15, 0.13 h−1 and 79.51, 68.19, 43.39 g/L respectively. Leudeking-Piret kinetics indicated that PHB formation in this study as growth associated. The recovered polymer was characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetry analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The PHB produced was used to synthesize nanoparticles using modified nano-precipitation method.
       
  • Effect of metering device arrangement to discharge consistency of
           sugarcane billet planter
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Khwantri Saengprachatanarug, Choochart Chaloemthoi, Khanita Kamwilaisak, Pornnapa Kasemsiri, Somchai Chaun-Udom, Eizo Taira At present, farmers who own a sugarcane harvester are becoming more interested in purchasing a sugarcane billet planter. However, the planting consistency of this type of planter is still low. Thus, its metering device should be improved. The objective of this study is to develop the shape and arrangement of the metering device of the billet planter and study its effect to the discharge consistency. The original billet metering device consists of a rubber conveyor belt with flat steel cleats that have a length equal to the conveyor width, while the developed metering device uses 20-degree inclined-edge cleats. The cleats were shortened to ⅔ of the conveyor width and aligned in left-right alternation. The developed metering device was evaluated compared with the original device, considering the precision of billet discharging during the stationary tests. The linear speed of the conveyor was controlled at 0.189 m/s. The test results showed that developed metering devices gave a precision index of 50.67%, which is 9.66% higher compared with that of the original. The developed metering device had higher torque than the first metering device and higher fluctuation.
       
  • Detecting greenhouse strawberries (mature and immature), using deep
           convolutional neural network
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Harshana Habaragamuwa, Yuichi Ogawa, Tetsuhito Suzuki, Tomoo Shiigi, Masanori Ono, Naoshi Kondo Existing agricultural detection algorithms mainly detect a single object category (class) under specific conditions which restricts the farmer's ability to utilize them in different conditions and for different classes. What is needed are generic algorithms that can learn to detect objects from examples, thereby reducing the technical burden required to adapt to local circumstances. Among generic algorithms, deep learning methods recently are beginning to outperform other generic algorithms. In this study, we investigate the possibility of using a deep learning algorithm for recognition of two classes (mature and immature strawberry) of agricultural product using a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) and greenhouse images taken under natural lighting conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of deep learning to the detection of mature and immature strawberries as two classes. We evaluated the results using the following parameters: average precision (AP), a parameter that combines detection success and confidence of detection; and bounding box overlap (BBOL) which measures localization accuracy. The developed deep learning model achieved an AP of 88.03% and 77.21%, and a BBOL of 0.7394 and 0.7045 respectively for mature and immature classes.
       
  • A simple rubber crawler model for studying fluctuation in crawler tension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Takashi Fukushima, Eiji Inoue, Muneshi Mitsuoka, Kunio Sato, Takefumi Oguri A half-tracked tractor equipped with an oscillating crawler system has better stability on uneven ground than wheel type tractors, which respond directly to a concavo-convex surface. However, the crawler tension fluctuates according to the variation in the perimeter of the crawler unit, since the hitch point of the oscillating frame is set separately from the drive axis of the drive sprocket. It is suggested that this fluctuation of the crawler tension would influence the driving performance. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the crawler tension and the driving performance of the oscillating crawler unit using kinematics simulation. The ultimate objective is to achieve traveling control with fluctuation in the crawler tension. This paper introduces a rubber crawler model that is able to simulate the fluctuation in the crawler tension. In the driving simulation, the effect of the elastic parameters of the crawler and support spring on the driving performance of the oscillating crawler unit was examined. It was observed that the driving performance of the oscillating crawler unit is affected by the parameters of the rubber crawler and the support spring of the idle roller.
       
  • 3D reconstruction of apple fruits using consumer-grade RGB-depth sensor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Satoshi Yamamoto, Manoj Karkee, Yuichi Kobayashi, Natsuki Nakayama, Shogo Tsubota, Loan Nguyen Thi Thanh, Tomoko Konya Three-dimensional reconstruction has great potential to improve not only the post-harvest quality control but also the breeding efficiency in horticulture. The depth information of the consumer-grade RGB-depth sensor was unreliable compared to that obtained from industrial sensors. To cope with this disadvantage, the generated point cloud was corrected within a region of interest of the target fruit, which was extracted from the color image of the sensor. Evaluating more than a hundred apple fruits, the root-mean-square error of the volume and the largest diameter were less than 6 cm3 and 1 mm, respectively. Reconstruction of various kinds of fruits and vegetables were demonstrated. The proposed method can be applied to accelerate the quantification of three-dimensional features of agricultural products.
       
  • Computer simulation of three-point linkage parameters for virtual hitch
           point and optimum depth of operation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Avinash Kumar, P.K. Pranav, Sonu Kumar A computer program is developed in Visual Basic 6.0 to locate the virtual hitch point of tractor with respect to depth of operation and to optimize the three-point linkage parameters for matching the virtual hitch point with the line of pull. The concept of Cartesian coordinate geometry was used in the program development. The virtual hitch point was calculated by solving the straight line equations of lower and upper link of three-point hitching system at particular depth of operation. For determining the line of pull, draft was calculated from ASAE equation and coordinate of centre of resistance was assumed to the 2/3 of depth of operation in the line of centre of gravity of implement. The optimum depth of operation is the depth for which line of pull passes above and near to VHP which was calculated in the program through the iteration process. The locus of virtual hitch point with respect to depth of operation was observed as parabolic. The distance of virtual hitch point from the rear axle centre increases with increase in depth of operation in all cases. The optimum depth of operation for a test tractor was observed as 269 mm using the developed program. This depth depends substantially on lower link (length and link position) and implements parameters (weight and height of hitch point). Therefore, this program may be very useful in simulating the three-point linkage and implement parameters as per the requirement of depth of operation.
       
  • Energy inputs - Yield relationship and cost analysis of melon production
           in Khorasan Razavi province of Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Mohammad Sharifi This paper studies the energy consumption and finding relationship between energy inputs and yield, per hectare production of melon farms in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. To this end, the data were collected from 94 farmers which were selected based on random sampling method. Total energy inputs in all stages of melon production was estimated as 1069332.26 MJ ha−1. Fuel (81.79%) was the most contributor to the energy consumption followed by Farmyard manure (13.34%). Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were gained 0.18 and 0.23 kg MJ−1, respectively. 84.95% of the total energy input was non-renewable while 15.05% was renewable. The shares of direct and indirect energy inputs were 83.03% and 16.97%. Econometric estimation results revealed that diesel fuel (0.90) had the highest impact among the inputs in melon production. The contribution of machinery, fertilizers, farmyard manure and water for irrigation was significant at the 1% level.
       
  • Analysis of energy consumption and end-use application of rapeseed in an
           agricultural production system in Izeh-Khuzestan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Bahram Hosseinzadeh Samani, Somayeh Choobin, Mahdi Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Asghar Abedi Nowadays, due to the shortage of oil-based storages and environmental problems, the tendency toward the use of alternative fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol has been increased. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the energy cycle of biodiesel production from rapeseed oil using transesterification method. The energy consumption in the purification stage of rapeseed oil for edible purposes was analyzed, and the results were then compared with those of biodiesel production. According to the Life Cycle Analysis model, it was found that the input and output energy in biodiesel production from rapeseed oil were 28293.28 MJ/ha and 54727.07 MJ/ha, respectively. Energy indexes involving specific energy, energy efficiency and pure energy were also calculated for biodiesel production (equal to 16.002 MJ/kg, 0.06 kg/MJ and 7986.89 MJ, respectively). The emission of greenhouse gasses was calculated in the cycle of biodiesel production. It was revealed that the maximum pollutant factor was related to diesel fuel in transferring stage of the product to the oil-extraction company followed by agricultural production stage having the shares of 100% and 40%, respectively. Results of the study indicated that the ANFIS model could predict the yield of the product with a high accuracy (R = 0.99, RMSE = 3.94).Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Milling characteristics of cutting type rice milling machine (I) –
           Characteristics of milling in accordance with blowing velocity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Taehwan Kang, Byeonghyo Cho, Jinho Won, Shinhyeong Kang, Chungsu Han, Dongil Lee, Heesook Lee This study was to identify proper blowing velocity conditions to remove rice bran during milling. The milling characteristics were measured at four levels of blowing velocity 20, 25, 30, 35 m/s.The rise of grain temperature of milled rice was the lowest, 16.9 °C at 35 m/s. The differences of cracked ratio and broken rice occurrence ratio between before and after milling were found to be slightly lower at 35 m/s than other blowing velocities. Turbidity was decreased at high blowing velocity, and showed the lowest value at 35 m/s.
       
  • Freshness related fluorescent compound changes in Japanese dace fish
           (Tribolodon hakonensis) eye fluid during storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and FoodAuthor(s): Qiuhong Liao, Tetsuhito Suzuki, Yuri Shirataki, Makoto Kuramoto, Naoshi Kondo The main fluorescent compounds in Japanese dace fish (Tribolodon hakonensis) eye fluid associated with freshness were distinguished and their time-dependent changes with storage were observed. For this experiment 95 fish were stored at 20 °C for 36 h, meat from the dorsal part was sampled at different storage times and used to measure K value, a standard freshness index. At the same time eye fluid was collected from the fish for fluorescence spectra acquisition and biochemical analysis. K value results showed the fish remained fresh up until 18 h of storage, and then deteriorated quickly thereafter. While aromatic proteins and amino acids were confirmed to be the main fluorescent compounds in eye fluid, they showed a complicated change during storage. Fluorescent compounds of uric acid, closely associated with freshness, had low intensity values at the start of storage, with values raising sharply later in storage; showing an exponential increase during storage. Dityrosine was found to be present only at a very late stage of storage. These results indicate the connection between specific fluorescent compound changes and the progression of storage could be employed as a meaningful predictor of fish freshness.
       
  • Model development for shelled corn drying in a plug flow fluidized bed
           dryer
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Majid Khanali, Asgar Khakpour Giglou, Shahin Rafiee In the present study, a differential model of the plug flow fluidized bed dryer for shelled corn was presented. The model was developed by using the mass balance of moisture content inside a control volume of the bed based on the axial dispersion phenomenon and an appropriate drying rate equation. The differential equation resulted from the model was solved numerically by finite difference method. To validate the model, several experiments for shelled corn drying in a plug flow fluidized bed dryer under steady state conditions were performed at three inlet dry solid mass flow rates (245, 420 and 565 g/min), six drying air temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C) and two weir heights (0.025 and 0.05 m). The model was capable to predict correctly the moisture content of the grains at any locations along the dryer length. Based on the simulation results, the solid moisture content decreased discontinuously at the solid inlet boundary of the bed and then decreased continuously along the dryer length. The simulation results were also analyzed to investigate the effects of inlet gas temperature, weir height and inlet dry solid mass flow rate on the solid moisture content. The solid moisture content decreased by increasing inlet gas temperature and weir height, whereas it increased by increasing the inlet dry solid mass flow rate.
       
  • Alternative method to model an agricultural vehicle's tire parameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Ricardo Ospina, Noboru Noguchi This paper introduces an alternative method to model the tire dynamic parameters of an agricultural vehicle from experimental data sets without the use of conventional test equipment. A Global Positioning System implementing a Real Time Kinematic scheme (RTK-GPS) and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) are used to estimate the vehicle's body sideslip angle and to establish the relation between the tire's lateral forces and slip angles for different soil conditions; in terms of soil moisture content and cone index. To validate the method introduced in this paper, the results obtained from the experimental data sets were compared with an empirical modeling method; which uses a particular form of the relationship between lateral force, normal force and slip angle expressed as an exponential function. Results show that the method introduced in this paper can give a more accurate description of the relation between the tire's lateral forces and slip angles. This knowledge can be applied to improve automatic steering controller systems.
       
  • Effects of hot-water blanching on the biological and physicochemical
           properties of sweet potato slices
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Chinda Chhe, Teppei Imaizumi, Fumihiko Tanaka, Toshitaka Uchino Changes in the enzymatic and physicochemical properties of sweet potatoes processed by a combination of pre-heating and high-temperature blanching were investigated. First, the characteristics of the inactivation of peroxidase and pectin methylesterase were analyzed, showing that 112.7 and 119.6 kJ mol−1 of activation energy were required for inactivation, respectively. The result also suggested that a temperature of over 94 °C was better to inactivate peroxidase effectively. Second, the optimum conditions for pre-heating treatment were selected through the consideration of quality attributes. Pre-heating at 60 °C and 65 °C produced a stronger effect of enhancing firmness. However, some adverse effects on nutrients and appearance were noted at temperatures over 65 °C. Eventually, pre-heating at 60 °C for 40 min was selected as the best condition for sweet potato slices.
       
  • ANN modeling of extraction kinetics of essential oil from tarragon using
           ultrasound pre-treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Leila Bahmani, Mohammad Aboonajmi, Akbar Arabhosseini, Hossein Mirsaeedghazi In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) modeling is utilized to predict kinetics of essential oils extraction from tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) using Ultrasound pre-treatment with Clevenger. A three-layer perceptron artificial neural network was created to predict the extract model with an error back-propagation algorithm. To design the ANN model, ultrasound power, sonication time, extraction time and their interactions were considered as input vectors while the extraction yield of essential oils was considered the model output. The performance of the network was optimized by varying the number of nodes in the hidden layer to achieve the best ANN architecture for output prediction. The performance of different ANN architectures was obtained as error (mean squared errors: MSE) and goodness of fit (determination coefficient: R2) parameters. The results showed that the best prediction performance belonged to 3-7-1 ANN architecture (0.0008 normalized MSE and 0.99 R2) which means that it is possible to predict the extraction yield of essential oils with an acceptable error having the three input parameters. The main extracted compounds by two methods at different conditions were estragole (76.6–83.0%), (Z)-β-ocimen (5.7–8.7%), (E)-β-ocimen (5.2–7.9%).
       
  • Comparative energy study of the air-stream loading systems of air-seeders
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Andrii Yatskul, Jean-Pierre Lemière, Frédéric Cointault The air-seeder became a solution, when the working width increasing of conventional mechanical seed drills having the storage hopper across the all working width had reached its limits. The single storage hopper of a modern air-seeder can supply the working widths up to 24 m, over many operating hours. However, it should be noted that to ensure the accurate loading of metered material into the air delivery system, we are faced by the problem of pressure difference between the storage hopper and the air stream. Most modern air-seeders are equipped with a Venturi-injector or a pressurized hopper (called also: pressurized tank). Even if both loading systems are largely used, there are no theoretical and scientific justifications in favour of these systems, since few evaluation reports based only on practical observations are available. Thus, this paper deals with a study on the influence of an air-stream loading system type on the total energy consumption and seeds-metering precision. Moreover, this paper proposes an explanatory model of the functioning conditions of each system. Experimental demonstrations show that pressurized systems are more convenient from an energetic efficiency point of view.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Determination of optical coefficients of tofu using spatially resolved
           diffuse reflectance at 633 nm
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018Source: Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, Volume 11, Issue 1Author(s): Yoshito Saito, Keiji Konagaya, Tetsuhito Suzuki, Naoshi Kondo The absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient of tofu were determined at 633 nm by spatially resolved diffuse reflectance at different soymilk coagulation temperatures. Added absorber method, in which ink is added to a sub-sample, was used to determine the two optical coefficients separately. The two coefficients were compared with viscosity. The reduced scattering coefficient increased with coagulation temperature, while the absorption coefficient showed no significant change. Since the order of the absorption coefficient was much smaller than that of the reduced scattering coefficient, scattering was more dominant than absorption in tofu. Also since the correlation between the reduced scattering coefficient and viscosity was observed, it can be used to evaluate the quality of tofu.
       
 
 
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