Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 387 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (273 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alimentos e Nutrição     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access  
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access  
Cerâmica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Food Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food     Hybrid Journal  
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access  
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access  
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food In     Open Access  
Food Manufacturing Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Science and Technology (Campinas)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastronomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gıda Dergisi     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal  
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Habitat     Open Access  
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access  
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Engineering Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Latest Trends in Agriculture and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Acupuncture and Herbs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access  
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Berry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food and Dairy Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access  
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Technology, Siam University     Open Access  
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Travel     Open Access  

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African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.115
Number of Followers: 23  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1684-5358
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [264 journals]
  • An overview use and impact of organic and synthetic farm inputs in
           developed and developing countries

    • Authors: K. Tsion, W. Steven
      Abstract: This review assesses the general view of conventional and organic farming. Many studies have revealed that the continuous use of synthetic farm inputs has a negative effect on the soil, producers, products and the ecosystem. The lack of knowledge, capital and information has affected farmers’ actions and decisions regarding synthetic and organic farm inputs. In developed countries, farmers have been selective in applying only limited amounts of synthetic fertilizer and pesticides to reduce the concentrations of heavy metal and harmful chemicals in the farming environment. Literature shows that soil samples taken after cultivation had higher concentrations of Lead, Cadmium and Arsenic, when compared to the concentrations of these heavy metals in soil before cultivation. There is a clear evidence that undesirable levels of heavy metals develops in soils subjected to different farm inputs. This indicates that farm input can have adverse effects on soil ecosystem. The pesticides use in Africa generally increased by about 6% from 2002 to 2014. Therefore, there is a need to create awareness on the use of synthetic farm inputs. In developing countries, farmers are exposed to banned and harmful farm inputs, which could affect human health and the ecosystem. Intensified knowledge, access to correct information and alternative organic farm inputs are required to transform the existing conventional farming to organic farming practices. Developing countries should extend their knowledge and information of the farming system to decrease the impact of synthetic farming inputs on the environment, the soil ecosystem and public health. Governmental organizations (GOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should develop a willingness to take the proper measures to facilitate and implement proper mechanisms; to intensify alternative natural farm inputs to obtain relevant knowledge and capital to sustain organic farming practices and to contribute to the security of the food supply, human health and the environment.

      Keywords: Organic agriculture, conventional agriculture, environment, harmful farm inputs, heavy metals

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14517-14540
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Caregivers’ perceptions of household hunger and adequacy of dietary
           intake in a resource limited community in the Bronkhorstspruit district
           (Gauteng)

    • Authors: R. Mathye, G. Gerickle
      Abstract: This paper describes households’ perceptions of hunger and adequacy of dietary intake by caregivers. A descriptive cross-sectional study in the quantitative research paradigm was conducted to collect data from caregivers (N=50) who were responsible for buying and preparing food for school aged children, residing in different households in Bronkhorstspruit in the Gauteng Province South Africa. Caregivers were individually interviewed using structured questionnaires (socio-demographic, Hunger Scale and the 24 hour-recall questionnaires, respectively). The majority (68%) of the caregivers had good nutrition knowledge but they did not know how to apply the knowledge in their dietary lifestyle. The socio-economic status and nutrition knowledge and attitudes of the caregivers were found to be possible factors that influenced dietary intakes of the households. The mean Household Food Variety Score (FVS) was 4.38 (± 1.0) and the Household Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) was 4.28 (±1.0). The results indicated an average of eight food items were consumed in the households during the 24-hour period of the maximum of 24 food items, identified by the 24-hour recalls. It was concluded that there is a need to eradicate the problem of low food diversity and there is a need to increase micronutrient intakes of children. The DDS of households showed that the food groups that were consumed by the households were ranging from an average of three (food items which incorporated a number of food groups from one) to seven groups. It can also be concluded that the households had a limited variety and diversity of diet since the food items and food groups were limited. This study showed that there is a limited food access by the households due to low incomes. Caregivers should be encouraged to get involved in food production activities; such as greenery projects, brick making projects, etc. that they can use the money they get from the projects to buy food for their families. This would help the caregivers in improving the dietary diversity and variety of their households.

      Keywords: Household hunger, dietary adequacy, food accessibility, Hidden hunger, Nutrition education

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14541-14554
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Assessment of dietary diversity, antenatal care, food taboos, meal
           frequency, and nutritional status of pregnant adolescents in rural Malawi:
           a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Christine Walters, P. Bendulo, B.J. Stoecker
      Abstract: High rates of pregnancy during adolescence in Malawi compromise the nutritional status of adolescent mothers and their infants. When a pregnant adolescent is malnourished, she is at risk for health complications. Research focusing on the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents in Malawi is minimal. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary diversity, antenatal care, food taboos, meal frequency, and nutritional status of pregnant adolescents in rural Malawi. The study included sixty-two pregnant adolescents between 15-19 years old. Data collection included the use of a pre-tested questionnaire, standardized dietary diversity survey and measurements of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), height, and hemoglobin. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, linear and logistic regression. Mean (SD) age was 17.7 (1.2) years. Mean MUAC was 25.9 (2.0) cm; 31% had MUAC <25 cm. The occurrence of stunting was 19% and 21% were ≤150 cm tall. The mean hemoglobin was 10.37 (1.93) g/dL and 66% were anemic. The mean dietary diversity score was 4.06 (1.18) and 69% did not achieve minimum dietary diversity (score ≥ five.) No participants consumed dairy and only 7% consumed eggs. Eating meat and poultry or dark green leafy vegetables predicted a 1.31g/dL (pvalue = 0.0306) or 1.08 g/dL (p-value =0.0331) increase in hemoglobin levels, respectively (R2=0.15). Food taboos during pregnancy were common (35%). Compared to the Malawi National Nutrition Guidelines, 87% were not eating daily from each of the six food groups and 74% were not meeting the recommended meal frequency during pregnancy (three meals and at least one snack/day). Less than 50% consumed foods from legumes/nuts and animal food groups. The majority (63%) did not take antenatal supplements and only 37% consumed ferrous sulfate. Only 52% received advice about nutrition during pregnancy and few (8%) received advice about infant and young child feeding. Girls who received nutrition advice were more likely to take an iron supplement [OR=4.19 (1.82-9.68), p=0.0008] compared to those who did not. As the number of antenatal visits increased, the participants were more likely to take a supplement [OR=11.88 (3.40-41.49) p=0.001]. Interventions for pregnant adolescents in rural Malawi should occur early in pregnancy and include education on dietary diversity, increasing hemoglobin levels, meal frequency, food taboos, antenatal supplements and infant and young child feeding.

      Keywords: Adolescent nutrition, Pregnant adolescents, Dietary diversity, Food taboos, Hemoglobin

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14555-14570
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Determinants of adoption and use-intensity of soil and water conservation
           practices among smallholder farmers in Nigeria

    • Authors: S.O. Olawuyi, A. Mushunje
      Abstract: Smallholder farmers are faced with myriads of soil and water related issues in production, which makes them vulnerable to land degradation and low productivity. Land resource degradation remains a major threat to food security leading to persistent poverty among the agrarian and urban populace. Therefore, there is need for appropriate interventions such as improved soil and ground water conservation (SWC) practice. This study examined the dynamics influencing the use and extent of use of SWC practices among smallholder farmers in Nigeria with particular reference to Osun State. The sampling technique used involved random selection in many stages to select the representative sample of 240 respondents. Data collected through primary source included: farmers’ socio-economic attributes, farm level characteristics as well as the use of SWC practices in the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, binary probit and negative binomial regression models. Findings from the count of SWC practices revealed that on the average, most farmers use at least one SWC practice. The results also indicated that fairly aged farmers were the set of people in the study area who adopted between 2 to 3 different SWC practices. Estimation of binary probit and its marginal effects at the means (MEMs) revealed that age of the farmers (p<0.01), gender (p<0.01), years of formal education (p<0.01) and farm size under cultivation (p<0.1) were significant determinants of SWC practices adoption. Similarly, the count model estimates revealed that age of the farmer (p<0.01), gender (p<0.01) and the size of farmland put under cultivation (p<0.05) significantly determined the log counts of SWC practices adopted by smallholder farmers in the study area. However, the test of overdispersion parameter showed that the model fits well. Therefore, there is need for massive campaign by the institutional establishments saddled with agricultural development policies on the need for SWC farming practices, so that the resource-poor farmers can have remunerative livelihoods in Nigeria.

      Keywords: Adoption, binary probit, conservation, negative binomial model, smallholders, Nigeria

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14571-14586
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • The relative contributions of cereal production, imports, and aid to
           somali food security

    • Authors: R. Gavin, H. Haji, P. Porter
      Abstract: Somalia is among the poorest countries on the planet. Since the fall of Siad Barre’s regime in 1991, the country has been in a near-constant state of food insecurity and suffered two officially declared famines. In order to address the issue of food insecurity in Somalia, a greater understanding of each of the components that contribute to the Somali food supply is merited. Cereal crops make up a third to half of the Somali diet by calories and are among the most important food crops produced by the country. This study investigated the historic trends in domestic cereal production, cereal imports, and food aid (reported in cereal equivalents) in Somalia by exploring secondary data publicly available from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and the World Food Programme. These data were related to World Bank population data in Microsoft Excel and average per capita production, import, and aid figures were calculated. Median changes over time and their associated interquartile ranges were reported. The data demonstrated that Somali cereal production levels have not improved since the 1960’s, and since that time, they have been characterized by an extreme amount of year-to-year volatility. Moreover, maize and sorghum are the only meaningful fractions of Somalia’s domestic cereal production, and recent total production of each crop is well below the levels observed in the 1980’s. When combined, per capita production of maize and sorghum has decreased precipitously over time (falling from a high of 91 kg per capita in 1972 to just 30 kg per capita in 2012). This is likely due to a combination of stagnant production and rapidly increasing Somali population (up over 350% since 1961). This has increased the importance of cereal imports and aid to Somalia and has made the country vulnerable to disruptions in international cereal markets and foreign government policies. Improving domestic cereal production in Somalia should be part of any future food security strategy for the country. Recent agricultural research in Somalia suggests that the implementation of simple agricultural best management practices can increase cereal production in the country.

      Keywords: Somalia, Population Growth, Cereal Production, Cereal Imports, Food Aid

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14587-14601
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Rural livelihood vulnerabilities, coping strategies and outcomes: a case
           study in central rift valley of Ethiopia

    • Authors: G. Sime, J.B. Aune
      Abstract: Extensively vulnerable mixed rain-fed farming system is the underlying mainstay of livelihoods of farmers in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess determinants of farmers’ livelihood vulnerabilities to shocks, their coping strategies and outcomes. Cross-sectional data were collected from farmers, agricultural experts, and other development workers through formal and informal focus group discussions, key informant interviews and complemented by field observations. Results showed that natural, institutional, and physical factors are the overriding determinants triggering rural livelihood vulnerabilities to frequent food shocks. Particularly, unpredictable rainfall timing and severity, and ineffective early warning system had practically escalated livelihood vulnerabilities to food shocks. Farmers varied in their assets and socioeconomic capabilities, including wealth status, livestock and poultry holding size, farm size and its soil fertility status, participation in local social networks, and financial capital and access to credit facilities. Farmers also varied in their vulnerability to encountering food shocks and capability to coping. Strategies practiced by households to increase livelihood resilience to rainfall variability include selection of appropriate crop variety, selection of appropriate calendar for planting, intercropping, crop rotation and indigenous in situ rainwater harvesting. Sharing grains among households themselves, selling small ruminants, engaging in off-farm activities and migration were key ameliorative strategies to handle small-scale and temporary food shocks. While, institutional interventions with Food Aid and Safety Net programs were commonly used as the underlying coping strategies for severe and large-scale food shocks. The livelihood outcomes were characterized by continued endeavors to avert the inappropriate land management system, to adapt to the recurrent drought and dry spells, and to improve the inadequate early warnings condition for seasonal agro-meteorology. Therefore, authors suggest concerted efforts of stakeholder institutions and local communities to improve the livelihood outcomes that should enhance household capabilities, activities, assets and accesses; reduce vulnerabilities to shocks; and ensure sustainable agricultural production system in central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.

      Keywords: sustainable livelihood approach, asset, rainfall variability, food shock, outcome, semi-arid Ethiopia

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14602-14621
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • A comparative study of the household food access by farmers in farmer
           field and life schools in gatanga constituency, Murang’a county, Kenya

    • Authors: A.M. Kimani, G.M. Were, S.K. Ndege
      Abstract: Many programs have been initiated to assist farmers diversify food production. The Farmer  Field and Life Schools (FFLS), an agricultural extension methodology, is an example. Dietary assessment methods are used for nutrition assessments. This study compared household food consumption patterns, by using the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) of households who participated in the FFLS at baseline and after intervention and Non-FFLS households in the Gatanga Constituency in Murang’a County. The study was based on a United Nations Joint Program implemented from 2009 to 2013. A comparative cross-sectional design was used in this study to compare FFLS at baseline, after intervention and Non-FFLS households. 112 households (56 for cases and 56 for comparative group) participated in this study. The baseline survey with 390 households was in 2009. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. Paired and independent T-Tests were used to determine the difference in the household dietary diversity score between FFLS at baseline and after intervention, and post intervention FFLS and Non-FFLS, respectively. Results show that 42.8% (n=56) of the FFLS households and 28.5% of non-FFLS household respondents were over 50 years of age. 49% of FLS and 11% non FFLS households have incomes ranging from 0-5,000 Ksh. per month, with 41% of FFLS and 32% non FFLS having incomes ranging from Ksh. 5,001- 10,0001. Mean for Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) at baseline was 8.16 and Non-FFLS was 8.45. Minimum food groups consumed across all groups were cereals, milk and milk products, oils and fats. Comparing FFLSat baseline and post intervention, the percentage of households consuming all food groups increased with exception of fruits and meat. There was a significant difference (p=0.007 against p<0.0005) in the HDDS when FFLS groups post intervention were compared with their baseline. There was no significant difference (p=0.176, against p<0.0005) in the HDDS between FFLS post intervention and non-FFLS households. Compared with the baseline information, FFLS participants who were of low economic status improved their HDDS. Targeting of vulnerable households to participate in such programs has the potential of improving their HDDS compared with the regular HDDS population. Integration of nutrition in agricultural programs with strong extension systems like the - has great potential to improve access and consumption of diversified foods for vulnerable households.

      Keywords: Agriculture, Nutrition, Farmer Field and Life Schools (FFLS), Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS)

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14622-14637
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • An assessment of nutrition knowledge levels and behaviour among classes
           one to four pupils in the nestlé healthy kids program in selected
           counties of Kenya

    • Authors: C.M. Wambo, J.O. Otieno
      Abstract: Nearly 30% of Kenya’s children are currently classified as undernourished. One of the policy objectives of the Government of Kenya is to improve nutrition for optimum health for all Kenyans. Concerning school nutrition, the policy focuses on improved nutrition education in schools with an emphasis on developing good nutrition practices and positive food eating habits among pupils. Most Governments in Africa, however, have not acknowledged the importance of nutrition education in children. Healthy Kids Program (HKP) is Nestlé’s global initiative that focuses on raising awareness on nutrition among school-age children in primary schools around the world. The objective of this study was to assess and compare nutrition knowledge levels and behavioural indicators among pupils in classes one to four in HKP-intervention and non-intervention schools in five counties of Kenya using a cross-sectional comparative design. Structured questionnaires were used to assess pupils’ nutrition knowledge levels and behaviour. Study results indicated significant differences in nutrition knowledge levels among pupils in HKP schools compared to those in non-HKP schools (p<0.05) with higher percentages of pupils in HKP schools recording high nutrition knowledge scores of more than 70% compared to those in non-program schools. In class one, program schools had a higher percentage of pupils with high levels of knowledge (75.4%) compared to those in non-program schools (58.9%). Class two HKP schools had a higher percentage of pupils (84%) with high knowledge levels compared to non-program schools (81%) while in class three a higher percentage of pupils in HKP schools had high (13.8%) and average (67.9%) nutrition knowledge levels compared to those in non-HKP schools (high, 4.5% and average, 58%). In class four a higher percentage of pupils in HKP schools (68.9%) had high nutrition knowledge levels compared to 47.7% in non-program schools. The program improved pupils’ attitudes around some aspects of nutrition-related hygiene practices like washing hands before and after eating food, cleaning utensils before and after using them to cook and eat food, good eating behaviour, portion management and eating balanced diets. However, the program did not appear to impact dietary practices as this is a long-term goal that the program will hopefully achieve on a longitudinal basis. The results will hopefully inform Nestlé and other stakeholders on the role of the program in raising nutrition awareness levels of pupils and helping them grow into healthy and productive adults.

      Keywords: Healthy Kids Program, Nutrition knowledge levels, Behavioural indicators

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14638-14653
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • The nutrient content of two folia morphotypes of Centella asiatica
           (L) grown in Madagascar

    • Authors: Z. Ranovona, C. Mertz, C. Dhuique-Mayer, A. Servent, M. Dornier, P. Danthu, C. Ralison
      Abstract: Centella asiatica is a herbal plant generally used for its curative properties. Two foliar morphotypes were recently identified in Madagascar: a reniform tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) in the Center and the East of the island and a round diploid (2n = 2x = 18) in the West. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional properties of these two morphotypes and to compare them with other green leafy vegetables. Reniform leaves were collected in Antananarivo and Moramanga and round leaves were collected in Tsiroanomandidy and Analavory. Macronutrient content was determined by standard methods, mineral contents were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Ascorbic acid and carotenoids were quantified by HPLC. Food composition showed significant differences between the morphotypes. Reniform leaves have higher protein content (19–22 % dry weight (DW)) than round leaves (17–21 % DW). Lipid content are from 2.5 to 6.0 % DW. Reniform leaves have higher iron content than round leaves. Iron content of C. asiatica’s leaves range from 3.8 to 12.5 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Reniform leaves from Moramanga have the highest protein, lipid and iron content. Round leaves from Analavory have the highest calcium and magnesium content, which can cover 41 % and 17 % of the Recommended Dietary Allowances(RDA), respectively. Leaves of C. asiatica have low vitamin C content (1.3 to 7.7 mg/100 g FW). Consumption of 100 g of C. asiatica leaves could cover 10 to 21 % of vitamin A daily requirements of women for reniform leaves and 21 to 37 % of vitamin A requirement of women for round leaves. Round leaves from Analavory have the highest β-carotene content. It is hoped that from these findings, the people of Madagascar will be encouraged to include C. asiatica in their diets for its nutritional benefits.

      Keywords: Centella asiatica, reniform leaves, round leaves, protein, lipid, vitamin A, minerals, amino acids

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14654-14673
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Protein quality of commonly consumed edible insects in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: D.T. Chagwena, G.T. Matanhire, T.Z. Jombo, C.C. Maponga
      Abstract: Consumption of edible insects as alternative animal protein-source is a potential longterm solution to curb protein deficiency in resource-limited communities where diets lacking in protein are predominant. Entomophagy has been expressed in both developed and developing countries, and previous studies have proven that edible insects are high in protein. However, there is paucity of information on protein quality of edible insects to adequately guide populations on their utilization as good alternative protein sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein quality of three edible insects commonly consumed in most regions of Zimbabwe, namely Imbrasia belina (mopane worms), Locusta migratoria (locust) and Encosternum delegorguei (stinkbug). Kjeldahl method was used to evaluate crude protein of edible insects and a 20-day mice-feeding trial was conducted to evaluate protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility in comparison to a control protein (casein). Crude protein was higher in Locusta migratoria (71.2%) compared to Imbrasia belina (57.7%) and Encosternum delegorguei (31.3%). Protein efficiency ratio was lower in insect samples L. migratoria (2.3), I Belina (1.96), E. delegorguei (2.0) compared to control casein (2.5). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in protein efficiency ratio between the three edible insects and casein. Protein digestibility of the three insects (I. belina-92%, L. migratoria-90%, E. delegorguei-92%) was high and comparable to that of casein (96%). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in protein digestibility between the three insect protein sources and casein. The results showed high protein quality of three edible insects commonly consumed in Zimbabwe comparable to casein, a high quality animal protein. High protein digestibility of edible insects indicated ease in absorption and improved utilisation in the body. The lower PER values for I. Belina and E. delegorguei could possibly indicate that these edible insects may be limiting in the amino acids that support body tissue building and growth. Edible insects are a good source of quality protein that could meet protein requirements in resource-limited populations to curb protein deficiency. There is a strong need to further promote edible insects as a good alternative animal protein source.

      Keywords: Protein Efficiency Ratio, Digestibility, Protein quality, Edible Insects

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14674-14689
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Etude des performances techniques d’un filtre-presse pour la filtration
           du jus de pomme d’anacarde (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    • Authors: J. Dossou, R.H. Ahouansou, C.A.K. Sanya, V. Ahyi
      Abstract: La présente étude participe à la mécanisation de la filtration du jus de pommes d’anacarde au Bénin. Elle vise à évaluer l’efficacité technique d’un filtre-presse pour l’amélioration de la filtrabilité et de la qualité du jus de pomme de cajou. Quatre traitements ont été réalisés en filtrant deux types de jus (brut et clarifié) avec deux toiles filtrantes (en nylon et en coton) disponibles sur le marché. Le débit brut de filtration, le taux d’humidité résiduelle des gâteaux de filtration, le rendement en filtrat, la teneur en particules du filtrat et la capacité horaire du filtre-presse ont été évalués. Les caractéristiques physicochimiques, microbiologiques et sensorielles des jus issus des différents traitements ont également été déterminées. La filtration du jus clarifié avec la toile en coton a montré les meilleures performances quant au rendement moyen obtenu qui est de 56,77%, avec une teneur en particules de 1,046 g/l de jus clarifié et une capacité de l’équipement de 212,157 kg/h. Le jus issu de ce traitement a en moyenne une teneur en sucres solubles égale à 11°Brix, une teneur en vitamine C de 73,225 mg/100g et 2,05 mg/100ml de tanins, avec des valeurs moyennes en magnésium et potassium respectives de 90,8 et 1174,9 mg/l. L’absence de la flore aérobie mésophile totale, des levures et moisissures, montre que tous les jus filtrés bruts ou clarifiés sont sains. Le jus clarifié et filtré avec la toile en coton a obtenu les meilleurs scores sensoriels avec sa clarté et sa couleur très acceptées. L’étude a permis de conclure que la filtration du jus de pomme de cajou clarifié à l’amidon de riz avec la toile en coton est le meilleur traitement de filtration par le filtrepresse expérimenté, parce qu’il permet de traiter plus de jus par heure et d’obtenir un jus clair de très faible teneur en particules (1,046 g/l), avec un rendement en filtrat moyen. Le filtre-presse devra être perfectionné et mis à la disposition des unités de transformation du Bénin, pour l’amélioration de la qualité du jus de pomme de cajou.

      Mots clés: pomme de cajou, jus, mécanisation, filtration, clarification, amidon de riz, filtre-presse, toiles, qualité

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14690-14707
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Effect of cooking methods on time and nutrient retention of pigeon pea
           (Cajanus cajan)

    • Authors: O.T. Adepoju, B.I. Dudulewa, A.Y. Bamigboye
      Abstract: Protein malnutrition is widespread among the rural poor in developing countries and legumes serve as a major source of dietary protein where animal protein is very expensive. Pigeon pea is an important legume with high amount of protein, but its consumption is limited due to its hardness and time-consuming process of cooking. This study was carried out to determine effect of cooking methods on time and nutrient retention of pigeon pea as a means of promoting dietary diversity. Pigeon pea seeds were purchased from Oja Oba market in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, cleaned, sorted, and divided into five portions. One portion was labelled as raw sample. The second portion was washed and cooked with distilled water on an electric cooker at 300ºC for 2 hours and labelled as Sample 2. The third portion was washed and cooked at 3000C for two hours, with decanting and replenishing the water, and labelled as sample 3. The fourth portion was washed and pressure-cooked with distilled water at 300ºC for 1hour and labelled as Sample 4; while the fifth portion was pressure-cooked at 300ºC for 45 minutes, decanting and replenishing the water, cooked for 15 minutes, then labelled as sample 5. The five samples were analysed in triplicates for proximate, minerals and selected vitamins composition using standard methods of AOAC. Raw pigeon pea contained 11.9g moisture, 22.1g crude protein, 3.4g fat, 3.4g ash, 59.0g carbohydrates, 47.76mg sodium, 1025.63mg potassium, 100.25mg calcium, 377.87mg phosphorus, 13.01mg iron, 11.95mg zinc, and yielded 315.8kcal energy/100g sample. Boiling, and decanting the boiling water, and pressure cooking led to significant reduction in all macronutrients (p<0.05), the reduction being most pronounced in samples with cooking water decanted. Pressure-cooked samples retained more macronutrients with highest retention recorded in pressure-cooked sample without decanting the water (p<0.05). Boiling without decanting the water had highest retention of minerals, followed by pressure-cooked sample without decanting the water, while boiled sample with decanted water retained least minerals. Pressure cooking the pigeon pea significantly reduced cooking time (p<0.05), thereby reducing cost of electricity. Pigeon pea is a good source of protein, energy, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron and zinc, and can contribute significantly to meeting nutrient needs of consumers; hence, its consumption should be encouraged as a means of dietary diversity among the populace where it is available.

      Keywords: Protein malnutrition, Pigeon pea, Cooking methods, Nutrient retention, Micronutrient potential

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14708-14725
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • The effect of ageing temperature on the sensory qualities of Hibiscus
           sabdariffa (roselle) wine

    • Authors: I. Idolo, L.J. Marshall
      Abstract: Wine, unlike most other food items can be stored for a very long time as ageing is positively correlated with wines of peak quality. However, as important as ageing is to wine quality, the temperature at which the wine is stored is even more critical as this factor alone can make or compromise the ageing process, thereby impacting the final organoleptic quality of the product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ageing temperature (6, 15 and 30 °C) for a period of 12 months on the sensorial attributes of roselle wine (Hibiscus sabdariffa wine). To achieve this, a sixty (60) sensory member panel (male and female) consisting of both experts and non-experts wine drinkers were recruited for the analysis. A balanced incomplete block (BIB) design was used for the study and the rating of the wine samples was based on a modified University of California Davis quality assessment rating of red wines. The data collected from the sensory evaluation was processed using the R.3.30 agricolae software package. The least square differences (LSD) was used to compare the mean ratings of the sensory attributes and significant differences between sample sensory attributes was established at p-value =0.05. The sensory data showed that in terms of colour rating on a scale of zero to three (where 0= poor; 3= excellent), wines aged at 6, 15 °C and 30 °C scored 2.31, 2.24 and 2.06, respectively. Although, there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between samples at 6 and 15 °C in aroma and bouquet attributes, wines aged at 30 °C were significantly different (p < 0.05) from wines stored at 6 °C. With regards to the overall rating or final impressions of the wine samples, the data showed that wines aged at 6 and 15 °C had better scores those aged at 30 °C. The outcome of this study suggests that low temperature storage might enhance roselle wine organoleptic properties.

      Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, roselle wine, ageing temperature, sensory analysis, quality attribute

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14726-14738
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from ready-to -eat
           fast foods in Al-Quwayiyah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Samir A. Alharbi, Mamdouh H. Abdel-Ghaffar, Nivas R. Kadher
      Abstract: Food-borne pathogens are becoming a globally formidable health problem and perceived as a major health concern in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Contamination ensued through unclean raw food materials and particles, use of polluted water, unhygienic preparation processes and use of contaminated containers. Herein, the prevalence of food-borne pathogens in ready-to-eat (RTE) fast foods from fifteen different food eateries such as 7 restaurants, 6 cafeterias and 2 two college canteens in Al-Quwayiyah, Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia was studied. Microbiological analysis of 155 fast food samples which included, Vegetable salad, Falafel, Kibtha and Shawarma. The isolates were detected using biochemical tests and API 20E and slide agglutination test were conducted for Salmonella spp. detection. Bacterial growth was found in all food samples tested. Moreover, the test also showed high levels of total aerobic count: vegetable salad 6.34+0.03, falafel 5.79 + 0.18, kibtha 5.06 +0.02 and shawarma 3.54 + 0.13. Organisms isolated include Salmonella spp. (15%), Escherichia coli (18%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7%). Salmonella is one of the most virulent pathogen implicated in food-borne disease outbreaks. There are numerous transmission routes for Salmonellosis, but the majority of the human infections are derived from consumption of contaminated poultry products. Consistently, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Heidelberg are the three most frequent serotypes recovered from humans each year. Serologically identified Salmonella serotypes from RTE fast food samples were Salmonella Typhimurium with 65%, the most predominant one compared to Salmonella Enteritidis that was 35%. The bacterial count of vegetable salad, falahfel, kibtha was statistically significant when compared with Shawarma (p < 0.05). This result indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in the study did not meet any bacteriological quality standard as recommended by The New South Wales (NSW) Food Authority to be <5.0 log10 CFU g−1 and, therefore, it poses potential risks to consumers. Ready- to- eat fast foods must be cooked and served to the consumers with all hygienic measures.

      Keywords: foodborne pathogen, microbial quality, Ready- to- eat fast foods, Al-Quwayiyah

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14739-14751
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards genetically modified foods in
           Zimbabwe

    • Authors: D.T. Chagwena, B. Sithole, R. Masendu, V. Chikwasha, C.C. Maponga
      Abstract: Controversy regarding use of genetically modified (GM) foods still persists in both developing and developed worlds. Proponents of genetically engineered foods argue this is a sustainable solution to resource-limited settings where food insecurity continues to increase. However, in this pertinent debate, there is deficiency of knowledge on the opinion of the general public from resource-limited African communities. The aim of this paper is to describe the general public’s level of knowledge and perceptions towards use of GM foods in Zimbabwe. A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted among 301 participants attending a country-wide Traditional and Organic Foods Festival in Harare. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Poor level of knowledge on GM foods was demonstrated among most respondents (60%) and associated with level of education (p<0.05). More than a third of respondents (36%) believed that GM chicken was being sold on Zimbabwean local markets. Lack of understanding on the genetic engineering process in food production was common among respondents. Attitude towards GM foods was negative and intention to consume GM foods was low (38%). Genetic engineering on food production was viewed as driven by a few companies for profit maximization (72%) with consequences for GM foods complex and too risky for humans (70%). Consumers believed a total of 44 GM foods were available on the Zimbabwean market with chicken, maize and fruits being common foods reported as GM foods. More than half (54%) of respondents reported to have consumed GM foods in the past even though GM foods are not permitted in the country. People with increased knowledge on genetic engineering and GM foods were more receptive of GM foods in their diets. Although intention to consume GM foods was high among individuals with increased knowledge and positive perceptions towards GMOs, knowledge and understanding on GM foods among study participants was limited. Positive perceptions, increased knowledge on genetic engineering and GM foods makes people more receptive of GM foods in their diets. There is need to improve consumer awareness on genetic engineering in food production to empower consumers to make informed choices regarding GM food. Consumers in resource-limited settings are sceptical of genetic modification in food and should be consulted during policy formulations on GM foods. Mandatory labelling of GM foods could also improve confidence among consumers on the foods they consume.

      Keywords: Genetically-modified Foods, Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, Publicperceptions,
      Acceptance, Resource-limited Communities, Zimbabwe

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14752-14768
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Nutritional quality, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of
           selected african indigenous leafy vegetables as influenced by maturity and
           minimal processing

    • Authors: G. Cheptoo, W. Owino, G. Kenji
      Abstract: The African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) are excellent sources of β-carotene, vitamin C, iron as well as protein, minerals, fiber and bioactive compounds. In the recent past, AIVs have gained commercial importance as a result of increased awareness of their nutritional and health benefits and are now produce in both formal and informal marketing channels. One of the challenges in production, marketing and consumption of AIVs is that they are highly perishable and there is inadequate capacity for their storage in fresh state. This is because most storage techniques require low temperatures, which are nonexistent for AIVs in Kenya. Minimal processing can enable AIVs produced in far flung locations to be stabilized and transported to the markets in the urban centres. However, this can affect the color, texture, flavor, and nutritional quality of AIVs. This study aimed at examining the influence of harvest maturity and minimal processing techniques on the nutritional, phytochemical and anti-oxidant capacity in stinging nettle, amaranth and black nightshade. The results indicated significant differences between treatments and stages of maturity. Results further show that the highest contents of β-carotene in fresh state, at young stage was 47.82 mg/100g in amaranth and mature stage was 71.22 mg/100g in black night shade. For vitamin C, the highest content was 142.06 mg/100g in stinging nettle at young stage while amaranth had the highest content of vitamin C at mature stage as 193.52 mg/100g. The highest phenol content in fresh state was in black night shade at 1.09 g/100g and 1.29 g/100g at young stage and mature stage respectively. Among the processed, the highest content of vitamin C was seen in Freeze-Dried Unsliced Unblanched black nightshade at both young and mature stage as 86.64mg/100g and 111.14mg/100g respectively. For β-carotene, the highest content was reported on Freeze-Dried Unsliced Blanched in amaranth as 30.24mg/100g at young stage and mature stage had 57.12mg/100g in black nightshade.

      Keywords: Minimal processing, blanching, drying, African indigenous vegetable, maturity

      Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2019; 19(3): 14769-14789
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019)
       
 
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