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  Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 734 journals)
    - ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (7 journals)
    - MECHANICS (18 journals)
    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (44 journals)
    - OPTICS (84 journals)
    - PHYSICS (536 journals)
    - SOUND (17 journals)
    - THERMODYNAMICS (28 journals)

PHYSICS (536 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Energy Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Engineering Fracture Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics     Open Access  
EPJ Web of Conferences     Open Access  
European Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Physics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Physical Journal - Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Physical Journal C     Hybrid Journal  
Europhysics News     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Few-Body Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Fire and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fluctuation and Noise Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fortschritte der Physik/Progress of Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fusion Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Granular Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Graphs and Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Handbook of Geophysical Exploration: Seismic Exploration     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Metal Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry     Full-text available via subscription  
Haptics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Heat Transfer - Asian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
High Energy Density Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
High Pressure Research: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
IET Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Il Colle di Galileo     Open Access  
Imaging Science Journal, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Indian Journal of Radio & Space Physics (IJRSP)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Infinite Dimensional Analysis, Quantum Probability and Related Topics     Hybrid Journal  
InfraMatics     Open Access  
Infrared Physics & Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Heat Treatment & Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access  
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Damage Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Low Radiation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Material Forming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Micro-Nano Scale Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Modern Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Modern Physics B     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Modern Physics C     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Modern Physics D     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Modern Physics E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Physical Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of PIXE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal
   [4 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1936-6582 - ISSN (Online) 1936-6590
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.671]   [H-I: 25]
  • Review of research on closed loop supply chain management in the process
           industry
    • Abstract: Abstract Closed loop supply chain (CLSC) management is a major enabler for sustainability in value creating networks. This contribution aims to describe and analyze the main characteristics of CLSC planning in the process industry and the related publications, in order to determine the evolution and gaps of this current research over time and improve our understanding of this issue. We built up a database with the articles on CLSC in different sectors of the process industry and identified the most relevant journals within this field. Furthermore, we derive and identify the requirements for CLSC considerations in the process industry for verifying whether these requirements are met in the literature so far. In addition, we have explored the topic, the methodology and the techniques of analysis, as well as other relevant aspects of the research in this field. We mainly focus on general and specific quantitative approaches, observing what has been done and how, where and by whom it has been carried out. The result is an extensive review of the research work itself and their limitations having an influence on CLSC concepts for the process industry. We conclude with some suggestions to those who begin to research on this apparently disregarded topic.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Assessing and improving the green performance using a compound approach
    • Abstract: Abstract This study presents a compound approach with a five-phase process to assess and improve the green performance. Based on the Six Sigma approach, the five-phase process consists of definition, measurement, analysis, improvement and control (DMAIC) phases. During the first three phases, an evaluation the assessment model is developed based on the analytical hierarchy process. Particle swarm optimization is also performed to search for the sequence of actions in order to improve the green performance based on the output of the assessment model. Managers can monitor the progress of the improvement plan during the control phase. A case study involving two global footwear manufacturers demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Sustainable reverse logistics network design for household plastic waste
    • Abstract: Abstract Plastic recycling is a legal requirement and can yield environmental benefits. In the Netherlands, there is a complex network of various collection methods, separation centers, sorting centers and reprocessors. The first step of the recycling system, separating plastics from other waste, can occur within households (source-separation) or in separation centers (post-separation), making a difference in collection channel choice and technology requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide decision support on choosing the most suitable combination of separation methods in the Netherlands. Decision support is given through optimized reverse logistics network design which makes the overall recycling system more efficient and sustainable, while taking into account the interests of various stakeholders (municipalities, households, etc.). A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which minimizes both transportation cost and environmental impact, is used in this network design. The research follows the approach of scenario study; the baseline scenario is the current situation and other scenarios are designed with various strategic alternatives. Modeling is conducted by using a graphical optimization tool IBM LogicNet Plus 7.1. Comparing these scenarios, the results show that the current network settings of the baseline situation is efficient in logistics terms but has a potential to adapt to strategic changes, depending on the assumptions regarding availability of the required processing facilities to treat plastic waste. In some of the tested scenarios, a separate collection channel for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles is cost efficient and saves carbon emission. Although the figures differ depending on the separation method choices of municipalities, our modeling result of all the tested scenarios shows a saving of more than 25 % carbon emission compared to the current network.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Sustainable development of global supply chains—part 1:
           sustainability optimization framework
    • Abstract: Abstract In global industry supply chains, environmental sustainability optimization addresses the overall consumption of resources and energy, the reduction of carbon emissions and generated waste to name a few. In this paper, we propose a holistic sustainability optimization framework for strategic network design of industry supply chains under consideration of economic, social as well as ecologic objectives. The framework is flexible to incorporate multiple sustainability indicators, alternative sustainability optimization strategies as well as a variety of internal and external industry-specific factors which impact the sustainability of the entire industry supply chain in the long-term. The core of the framework is an end-to-end closed-loop value chain model consisting of process, transport and product-in-use modules. For the first time, the product-in-use impact (“use” vs. “make”) is integrated in one network design approach. In addition, the model fully closes the loop from sourcing of raw materials via manufacturing towards reverse value chain steps such as disposal and recycling. Finally, we propose the minimize-time-to-sustainability approach as new optimization strategy for long-term network design problems focusing on minimizing the time, industry supply chain structures need to transform into sustainability steady states for all defined sustainability indicators such as CO2e emissions, costs or social indicators based on defined target values. In part 2 of this paper the application of the optimization framework to the European automotive industry is shown.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Incorporating environmental aspects in an inventory routing problem. A
           case study from the petrochemical industry
    • Abstract: Abstract Carbon emissions from transport activities in a supply chain are extensively contributing to global warming. However, the focus of literature in the field of sustainable supply chain management is mainly on production processes or network design decisions, considering transportation as a “necessary evil”. Consequently, transport activities are often accounted for in a rather simplified way in the analyses and are rarely analyzed on a high level of detail. Thereby the actual impacts transport processes have on the economic and environmental performance of a company are distorted. Our work focuses solely on the analysis of transport processes and shows the economic and environmental effects of routing decisions in a supply chain with vertical collaboration, for instance through vendor-managed inventory. We propose an Inventory Routing Model and apply it to a case study from the petrochemical industry. The outcome from this detailed transport analysis is then compared with results from former studies, where the main focus was on facility location decisions rather than on transportation decisions. The results point out the importance of detailed transport process analyses in order to get accurate results and suggest a potential for achieving pareto-improvements by reducing at the same time both costs and carbon emissions in a supply chain with vertical collaboration.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions of a heterogeneous vehicle fleet
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent research on the vehicle routing problem attempts to integrate so-called “green” aspects into classical planning models. The minimization of transport-related emissions (especially CO2) instead of driving distances is an important integration approach. Within this paper, we propose an approach which is focusing on the reduction of CO2 emissions caused by transportation. Based on the observation that vehicles with different maximal payload values have different payload-dependent fuel consumption characteristics, we integrate into Dantzig’s classical vehicle routing model the option of choosing vehicles of different size for route fulfillment. Then, the Emission Minimization Vehicle Routing Problem with Vehicle Categories (EVRP-VC) is introduced. It aims at minimizing the fuel consumption, respectively CO2 emissions instead of the driving distances. Comprehensive computational experiments with CPLEX are conducted to evaluate the EVRP-VC. A major finding is that the quantity of fuel needed to serve a given request portfolio can be reduced tremendously by using an inhomogeneous fleet with vehicles of different size.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • The train fueling cost minimization problem with fuzzy fuel prices
    • Abstract: Abstract The train fueling cost minimization problem is to find a scheduling and fueling strategy such that the fueling cost is minimized and no train runs out of fuel. Since fuel prices vary by location and time from month to month, we estimate them by fuzzy variables in this paper. Furthermore, we propose a fuzzy fueling cost minimization model by minimizing the expected fueling cost under the traversing time constraint, maximal allowable speed constraint, tank capacity constraint, and so on. In order to solve the model, we decompose it into a nonlinear scheduling strategy model and a linear fueling strategy model. Based on the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions, we design an iterative algorithm to solve the scheduling strategy model, and furthermore design a numerical algorithm to solve the fuzzy fueling cost minimization model. Finally, some numerical examples are presented for showing the efficiency of the proposed approach on saving fueling cost.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Environmental and economic issues arising from the pooling of SMEs’
           supply chains: case study of the food industry in western France
    • Abstract: Abstract Supply chains pooling is an emergent strategy for improving logistical performance. The pooling concept consists in transferring the effort of coordination for consolidating independent operators’ flows towards an ad hoc pooled system. This organisation results from a design of a pooled logistics network by merging different supply chains to share transport and logistics resources in order to improve logistics performance. In this case study, the pooling concept is applied to a collection of small and medium-sized western France food suppliers serving the same retail chain. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the pooling, the existing transport organisation was compared to various pooling scenarios. The methodology consisted in accessing a current situation through a survey of the flow of goods at one of the main distribution centre of the studied supply network, then comparing this situation with three other pooling scenarios. Using supply network optimisation models, these scenarios were assessed considering cost and CO2 emission levels. This study demonstrates the interest of transport pooling in the case independent shipping networks of Small and Medium Enterprises compared to the partially know existing strategies adopted by logistics service providers for less than truckload shipments. Moreover, it suggests that there is no dominant supply organisation and that transport pooling is a new stimulus for network design. These results also bring new research perspectives for generalisation of pooling and gain sharing within large coalitions.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Supply chain surplus: comparing conventional and sustainable supply chains
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we first define sustainable supply chain, and its value, as a paradigm which pursues the maximization of supply chain profitability while taking its environmental and societal responsibilities. Secondly, we compare the supply chain surplus between the conventional and sustainable supply chains by means of adopting the basic economic analysis based on the concept of externality and social surplus in welfare economics. Through the proposed analysis, we show the possibility of sustainable supply chains which can provide more supply chain surplus to the companies. Finally, some limitations of this paper and future research directions are also presented.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Effect of carbon emission regulations on transport mode selection under
           stochastic demand
    • Abstract: Abstract More and more companies are paying attention to their carbon footprint beyond production emissions. In this work we consider a ‘carbon-aware’ company (either by choice or enforced by regulation) that is reconsidering the transport mode selection decision. Traditionally the trade-off has been between lead time (and corresponding inventory costs) and transportation costs but now emission costs come into the equation. We use a carbon emission measurement methodology based on real-life data and incorporate it into an inventory model. We consider the results for different types of emission regulation (including voluntary targets). We find that even though large emission reductions can be obtained by switching to a different mode, the actual decision depends on the regulation and non-monetary considerations, such as lead time variability.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • The impact of carbon footprinting aggregation on realizing emission
           reduction targets
    • Abstract: Abstract A variety of activity-based methods exist for estimating the carbon footprint in transportation. For instance, the greenhouse gas protocol suggests a more aggregate estimation method than the Network for Transport and Environment (NTM) method. In this study, we implement a detailed estimation method based on NTM and different aggregate approaches for transportation carbon emissions in the dynamic lot sizing model. Analytical results show the limitations of aggregate models for both accurate estimation of real emissions and risks of compliance with carbon constraints (e.g., carbon caps). Extensive numerical experimentation shows that the magnitude of errors can be substantial. We provide insights under which limited conditions aggregate estimations can be used safely and when more detailed estimates are appropriate.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Sustainable development of global supply chains—part 2:
           investigation of the European automotive industry
    • Abstract: Abstract In global industry supply chains, environmental sustainability optimization addresses the overall consumption of resources and energy, the reduction of carbon emissions and generated waste to name a few. In the second part of this paper, we apply the sustainability optimization framework developed in part 1 to the European automotive industry supply chain. Numerical experiments based on empirical industry data show the impact of optimization strategies on overall costs and emissions in the industry and the possible long-term development of the industry supply chain including the relocation of production capacities, the choice of transportation modes and the potential change towards lower emission products such as electric vehicles. In addition we demonstrate how the novel optimization strategy of minimizing the time-to-sustainability is applied and how it creates transparency of the feasibility of different sustainability targets, e.g. reduction targets for greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, the minimum time is determined the industry would need to achieve the pre-defined targets. Related optimization results create new insights and provide decision support for policymakers and industry in developing sustainability strategies and specific targets.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Revenue management methods for the liner shipping industry
    • Abstract: Abstract Due to changes in the industry which have led to opportunities for new market segmentations, revenue management (RM) methods have gained in importance for liner shipping companies in the recent past. Therefore, possible market segmentations of the liner shipping market and suitable RM methods are discussed in this work. Based on a slot allocation model for container bookings, three different booking acceptance strategies are studied and compared with respect to their applicability in liner shipping and their performance regarding profit and capacity utilization. Especially, a new bid-price (BP) strategy is developed and compared to previously presented booking limit strategies. A simulation approach is used to evaluate the strategies for different scenarios. The simulation study reveals large differences in the impact the strategies can have, e.g. depending on the booking forecast quality. As the new BP strategy shows very promising results for many different realistic scenarios, it can be highly recommended for application in liner shipping.
      PubDate: 2014-05-06
       
  • Yard storage planning for minimizing handling time of export containers
    • Abstract: Abstract We consider multiple factors of allocating yard storage space to export containers in a terminal under heavy workloads and with a limited yard storage capacity. We aim at expediting container handling in yards and thus we attempt to balance workloads, shorten yard-to-berth transport distances and minimize the number of sub-blocks with handling jobs. To tackle various objectives in this yard storage allocation, we introduce a hierarchical analytical method that decomposes the planning procedure into two stages. We first optimize workload distribution across the whole yard. Thereafter, we propose a flexible yard allocation strategy and attempt to stack export containers into a minimum number of sub-blocks in the yard so as to facilitate yard crane operation and increase yard space utilization. We present integer programming formulations for these two sub-problems and then solve these two models iteratively by introducing additional parameters and constraints into the formulations. Experimental results indicate that this method is efficient and effective in obtaining good storage templates in the yard by achieving minimum handling time for export containers. Further discussions explore the results of yard space utilization and busy rate in yard blocks when providing different sizes of sub-blocks that contributes to the setting up of suitable sub-blocks in a terminal according to the capacity of its storage space and container handling devices.
      PubDate: 2014-05-04
       
  • Erratum to: Crane scheduling for opportunistic remarshaling of containers
           in an automated stacking yard
    • PubDate: 2014-04-12
       
  • Local container drayage problem with tractor and trailer operating in
           separable mode
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, the Local Container Drayage Problem (LCDP) has received lots of studies in research as part of container transportation. This paper examines the LCDP under a special operation mode in which tractors and trailers can be separated, i.e., tractors can be assigned to a new task at another location while trailers are waiting for packing or unpacking. The problem is formulated as a vehicle routing and scheduling problem with temporal constraints. The resulting formulation can be used to solve small-scale problems. For large-scale problems, we develop a max–min Ant colony optimization algorithm to reduce the computation time. Numerical experiments with randomly generated instances are performed to demonstrate the performance of the algorithm.
      PubDate: 2014-01-29
       
  • Optimized allocation of straddle carriers to reduce overall delays at
           multimodal container terminals
    • Abstract: Abstract Increased global container trade and strong competition are boosting the need for efficient container terminals. Using internal transport resources efficiently reduces transfer times and operating costs. This article addresses the allocation of straddle carriers at a tactical level at intermodal container terminals via optimization and simulation. Our objective is to reduce overall delays at the terminal—with special focus on delays of inland transport modes (rail, road and waterway). We introduce a notation to describe different service strategies and delay criteria and analyze the complexity of different service strategies. A generic mixed integer linear program—that can be easily adapted to different service strategies—models the allocation problem based on a network flow representation of the terminal. We conduct a case study for a container terminal at the Grand Port Maritime de Marseille to evaluate the proposed allocation: we adapt the optimization model to the specific terminal, implement a discrete event simulation model and conduct experiments on actual data. Results show that the allocation proposed by the optimization model reduces delays at the terminal and performs well in a stochastic environment.
      PubDate: 2013-12-20
       
  • Environmental sustainability in supply chains
    • PubDate: 2013-12-18
       
  • An iterative optimization framework for delay management and train
           scheduling
    • Abstract: Abstract Delay management determines which connections should be maintained in case of a delayed feeder train. Recent delay management models incorporate the limited capacity of the railway infrastructure. These models introduce headway constraints to make sure that safety regulations are satisfied. Unfortunately, these headway constraints cannot capture the full details of the railway infrastructure, especially within the stations. We therefore propose an optimization approach that iteratively solves a macroscopic delay management model on the one hand, and a microscopic train scheduling model on the other hand. The macroscopic model determines which connections to maintain and proposes a disposition timetable. This disposition timetable is then validated microscopically for a bottleneck station of the network, proposing a feasible schedule of railway operations. We evaluate our iterative optimization framework using real-world instances around Utrecht in the Netherlands.
      PubDate: 2013-12-18
       
  • Crane scheduling for opportunistic remarshaling of containers in an
           automated stacking yard
    • Abstract: Abstract Loading of containers onto a vessel can be delayed if the containers are inappropriately stacked at the yard. Remarshaling is the preparatory task of rearranging the containers ahead of loading time to minimize the delay at the time of loading. Previous works on remarshaling derive a remarshaling plan assuming that a certain amount of continuous period of time is available for the remarshaling jobs to be done in a batch; remarshaling jobs cannot be mixed together with the current main jobs in the crane schedule. In contrast, the method proposed in this paper allows remarshaling jobs to be scheduled together with the current jobs under the framework of iterative rescheduling, in which scheduling and execution of the jobs within a predetermined fixed-length look-ahead horizon are repeated in a regular interval. The remarshaling jobs selected for the mix are those that contribute the most to the reduction of future loading delay. The number of remarshaling jobs and their temporal positions within the mixed schedule for a look-ahead horizon are determined appropriately to best utilize the idle time of the automated cranes, which is enforced by an objective function to minimize the delay of the current main jobs as well as the makespan of all the jobs in the horizon.
      PubDate: 2013-12-05
       
 
 
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