Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 898 journals)
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PHYSICS (659 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 741 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Acustica united with Acustica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 374)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Nonlinear Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Physics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anales (Asociación Física Argentina)     Open Access  
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Applied Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Applied Physics Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Radiation and Isotopes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Applied Spectroscopy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Astrophysical Journal Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Atoms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Axioms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Berkala Fisika Indonesia     Open Access  
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biophysical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biophysical Reviews and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BJR|Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Boson Journal of Modern Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Fisika     Open Access  
Bulletin of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de Física     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Physics B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Physics C     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Physics Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Colloid Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Theoretical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Communications Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Physics     Open Access  
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access  
Computational Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Physics Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Condensed Matter     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Contemporary Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
COSPAR Colloquia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cryogenics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 105)
Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging     Full-text available via subscription  
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dynamical Properties of Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
e-Boletim da Física     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East European Journal of Physics     Open Access  
ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Edufisika : Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
EJNMMI Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrospinning     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Engineering Fracture Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Research Communications     Open Access  
EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics     Open Access  
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
EPJ Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Physics and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
European Physical Journal - Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
European Physical Journal C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Europhysics News     Open Access  
Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal  
Experimental Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Few-Body Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fire and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fluctuation and Noise Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Fortschritte der Physik/Progress of Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fusion Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A : Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 184)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Granular Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Graphs and Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gravitation and Cosmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Handbook of Geophysical Exploration: Seismic Exploration     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Metal Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Heat Transfer - Asian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
High Energy Density Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
High Pressure Research: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Journal on Multiscale and Multiphysics Computational Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 87)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cryogenics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.526
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 58  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0011-2275 - ISSN (Online) 0011-2275
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3204 journals]
  • Comparative Study of Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide MOSFETs as Power
           Switching Applications under Cryogenic Conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): S.M. Abd El-Azeem, S.M. El-Ghanam
       
  • Electromagnetic behaviour and thermal stability of a conduction-cooled,
           no-insulated 2G-HTS coil at intermediate temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): A. Cubero, A.B. Núñez-Chico, R. Navarro, L.A. Angurel, E. Martínez
       
  • Compact Si JFET Model for Cryogenic Temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Konstantin O. Petrosyants, Mamed R. Ismail-zade, Lev M. Sambursky
       
  • Effects of Silver Doping on Magnetic Levitation Performance of
           MgB2 Superconductors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Sait Barış Güner
       
  • Theoretical Limits of Vapor Cooling Large Cylindrical Structures using
           Boil-Off
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): R. Balasubramaniam, Wesley L. Johnson
       
  • Design and dynamic behaviour investigation of a novel VOC recovery system
           based on a deep condensation process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Xin Li, Jie Ma, Xiang Ling
       
  • A method for calculating low-temperature stress-strain curves of
           austenitic stainless steels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Huiming Ding, Yingzhe Wu, Qunjie Lu, Jinyang Zheng
       
  • Thermohydraulic analysis of Tore Supra/WEST TF coil quench: Associated
           smooth quench occurrence in tokamak
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Cryogenics, Volume 106Author(s): S. Nicollet, A. Torre, S. Girard, B. Lacroix, C. Reux, P. Prochet, WEST Team
       
  • Influence of pre-strain on cryogenic tensile properties of 316LN
           austenitic stainless steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Hengcheng Zhang, Chuanjun Huang, Rongjin Huang, Laifeng Li In the present work, influences of room temperature tensile pre-strain on cryogenic tensile properties of 316LN austenitic stainless steel (SS) were investigated. The tensile properties of the 316LN SS with various tensile pre-straining amounts of 15%, 25% and 35% were measured at both room temperature (RT) and liquid helium temperature (4.2 K). Results indicated that both 0.2% proof strength (Rp0.2) and ultimate tensile strength (Rm) at both RT and 4.2 K of the pre-strained 316LN SS significantly increased compared to those of the as-received material. The Rp0.2 and Rm at 4.2 K for 35 % pre-strained specimens increased around 86% and 18%, respectively, compared to those of the as-received material. However, the elongation at fracture (A) at both RT and 4.2 K decreased for the pre-strained 316LN SS compared to those of the as-received material. The fractured morphologies of the pre-strained 316LN SS were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dimples in the surface fractured at both RT and 4.2 K of the as-received and pre-strained 316LN exhibited a ductile fracture mode. Moreover, fractographic results indicated that the pre-strain treatment considerably decreased the ductility at both RT and 4.2 K. TEM analyses revealed that pre-strain treatment at RT led to dislocation accumulation and stress-induced martensite phase occurred at 4.2 K, which interpreted the cryogenic tensile properties of the pre-strained 316LN SS.
       
  • Trailing edge loss analysis of high-speed cryogenic microturbines used in
           helium applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Cryogenics, Volume 106Author(s): Ashish Alex Sam, Parthasarathi Ghosh The trailing edge flow characteristics have significant impact on the turbine performance. To improve the performance of the turbine, a detailed analysis of the turbine flow field and the loss generation mechanisms associated with trailing edge is called for. This is of much importance in cryogenic helium turbines as the flow characteristics would be different from other turbines due to its characteristics like higher speed and smaller dimensions. In this paper, the trailing edge loss mechanism and the effect of trailing edge profile on the performance of a cryogenic helium turbine was analysed using CFD. The effect of flow separation, base pressure and trailing edge blockage were analysed. The study observed that the trailing edge loss became significant only when its thickness was increased beyond 3% of the blade pitch. This will provide some leeway for the manufactures to have thicker trailing edges without compromising on the turbine performance.
       
  • Cumulative damage of hollow glass microsphere weight fraction in
           polyurethane foam in response to cryogenic temperatures and repeated
           impact loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Jin-Ho Bae, Byeong-Kwan Hwang, Jeong-Hyeon Kim, Seul-Kee Kim, Jae-Myung Lee The sloshing impact load of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers is an important issue that can cause failure of the insulation system of LNG cargo containment systems, leading to cryogenic leakage from the hull of the ship and generation of boil-off gas. Thus, insulation systems should be designed by considering the repeated impact loading based on the design life as well as the cryogenic temperature. Polyurethane foam (PUF), epoxy resin, and plywood are acceptable materials that can be used to fabricate a typical insulation system to protect the load from the environment. In this study, we investigated the effect of adding hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) to the epoxy resin on the reinforcement of the insulation material. Specimens were fabricated using PUF, plywood, and an HGM/epoxy composite matrix with varying weight fractions of embedded HGM (0, 10, and 20 wt.%). The sloshing impact loads were estimated by the statistical method of the Weibull model, and the top 2% level of the Weibull distribution was selected. The calculated sloshing impact load was 3 J as calculated from the experimental results, and then repeated impact loadings under ambient (290 K) and cryogenic temperature (110 K) were realized in a drop tower facility. To obtain details of the dynamic behavior, microstructural analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy (to detect the agglomeration of HGM embedded in the epoxy resin). Experimental results show that 10 wt.% HGM showed the best performance in absorption and dynamic behavior. The 10 wt.% HGM specimen also exhibited superior thermal conductivity.
       
  • On the Mechanical Behavior of a Nb3Sn Superconducting Coil During a
           Quench: Two-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of a Quench Heater
           Protected Magnet
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): J. Ferradas Troitino, G. Ambrosio, H. Bajas, L. Brouwer, P. Ferracin, S. Izquierdo Bermudez, J.V. Lorenzo Gomez, F.J. Mangiarotti, J.C. Perez, E. Ravaioli, E. Tapani Taakala, G. Vallone, C. Senatore New high-field accelerator magnets based on Nb3Sn superconductors are pushing the boundaries of magnet design and quench protection towards new limits. While their large stored energies and current densities result in a very challenging scenario for magnet protection, their great electromagnetic forces create also new requirements in terms of magnet design and stress management techniques. Furthermore, the strain sensitivity of Nb3Sn cables turns the electro-mechanical limits of the conductor into a parameter of the highest importance, where conductor degradation becomes a critical aspect in magnet operation. The coupling of all the above-mentioned considerations during a quench is a case of special interest that adds further complexity to the design of Nb3Sn magnets. The objective of this paper is to provide a complete two-dimensional investigation of the coil and magnet structure mechanics during a quench event. The analysis is performed using a combination of finite element codes that provide the necessary input for the mechanical study. The core of the modelling strategy relies on a thermal-electric model, whose results are directly used as loads in the mechanical simulation. In doing so, the stress evolution during and after a quench is obtained. We focus for this time in the analysis of a quench heater protected magnet, where electro-magnetic dynamic effects are of less importance in contrast to other protection systems like CLIQ.
       
  • 38 mm diameter cold bore metal-as-insulation HTS insert reached 32.5 T in
           a background magnetic field generated by resistive magnet
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Philippe Fazilleau, Xavier Chaud, François Debray, Thibault Lécrevisse, Jung-Bin Song A 38 mm diameter cold bore High Temperature Superconducting solenoidal insert was designed, constructed and tested by a collaborative team of CEA-CNRS researchers. With a design based on the Metal-as-Insulation (MI) winding technique, the HTS magnet is made of 9 double pancakes of a 6 mm wide tape and intended to operate at a central magnetic field of 30 T, generating 10T by itself. Its overall diameter and height are 125 mm and 255 mm respectively, making it very compact.In liquid helium at 4.2 K, the magnet operated twice at the central magnetic field target of 30 T, of which 12T were generated by the insert alone. It also set a new record for the operation of HTS insert with a 38 mm useful diameter, operating in a central magnetic field of 32.5 T, of which 14.5 T were generated by the insert alone.These results demonstrate the strong potential of MI-HTS magnets for the production of very intense magnetic fields.
       
  • Cooling behaviors of a novel flow channel in mechanical seals of extreme
           high-speed rotation for cryogenic rockets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Fushou Xie, Yanzhong Li, Yuan Ma, Siqi Xia, Jianhua Ren Mechanical seals usually require a special cooling system to control the high temperature generated by friction heating of rotating rings under the condition of extreme high-speed rotation. The working fluid is often in direct contact with the friction surface, and there is a risk of leakage. In the present paper, a novel cooling scheme driven by centrifugal force is proposed to cool the mating face in mechanical seals of turbopump in cryogenic rockets, which could achieve the absolute zero leakage of cooling fluid. To verify the flow feasibility and cooling effect of the new cooling structure, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed to predict the high-speed rotational flow and fluid-solid coupled heat transfer for liquid oxygen. The results show that the novel cooling scheme to cool the rotating ring II in the mechanical seal of cryogenic engines is reasonable and feasible, which could run itself relying on the radial centrifugal force, and could effectively control the temperature of the rotating ring II within the allowable range of the materials. This paper provides a new idea for cooling structure of mechanical seals in cryogenic rockets and numerical experience for ultra-high speed rotating flow and heat transfer with phase change.
       
  • Development of a capillary tube orifice for high pressure and a low flow
           rate in a launch vehicle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Jisung Lee, Junghan Kim, Hayoung Lim, Sangyeop Han The purpose of an orifice is to reduce the flow rate and the pressure. A tiny hole with a 0.1 mm diameter is necessary when the up-stream pressure is very high at 22 MPa, and the required flow rate is very low at 1 g/s. The machining of such a tiny hole with a 0.1 mm diameter as the orifice has a poor processability, and the flow passage is easily clogged by particles when the orifice size is too small. A new capillary tube orifice was developed to resolve the above mentioned problems. The fabricated capillary tube orifices were tested at room and cryogenic temperatures to measure its performance with helium gas. The effective cross sectional area of the tested orifices was constant in various test conditions. The cross sectional area of the fabricated capillary orifices was observed with a microscope, and the friction factor was analyzed.
       
  • Numerical modelling of a coaxial Stirling pulse tube cryocooler with an
           active displacer for space applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Hannah Rana, Mohammad Amin Abolghasemi, Richard Stone, Mike Dadd, Paul Bailey A numerical model for a coaxial Stirling pulse tube cryocooler with an active displacer has been developed. An active displacer, in place of an inertance tube, has already demonstrated good efficiency in an in-line pulse tube, but incorporating this design into a coaxial configuration permits better access to the cold head. A model of the coaxial cold head was developed to include the radial flow and cooling in this region. The sub-assembly models were validated with flow testing of the physical sub-units of the cryocooler. The performance has been predicted for the cryocooler as a function of: fill pressure, operating frequency, and phase angle between the position of the linear compressor and displacer. The projected difference in performance and efficiency of the coaxial configuration was compared to the in-line design. The coaxial cryocooler numerically simulates 6 W of cooling at 80 K with an input power of 85 W, at a fill pressure of 28 bar, an operating frequency of 60 Hz, and a compressor-displacer phase angle of 41°. Overall, the coaxial cryocooler outperforms the in-line design in terms of cooling power, but not in terms of efficiency.
       
  • Design and Experimental Research of Superconducting Magnetic Bearing for
           Helium Cold Compressor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Yincai Zou, Jin Shang, Xiang Guan, Xing Bian, Jihao Wu, Qing Li In the large-scale superfluid helium cryogenic refrigeration system, the helium cold compressor faces the complex operating conditions of low temperature, high speed and sub-atmospheric pressure. The radial type high temperature superconducting (HTS) bearing of inner rotor and outer superconducting stator has the advantages and characteristics that they are suitable for being used in the helium cold compressor. Combining with the structure and operating parameters of a successful application of centrifugal active magnetic bearings in helium cold compressor, the design of radial HTS magnetic bearings considering bearing levitation performance and rotor dynamic performance was carried out. In order to ensure the accurate measurement of the rotor load and the rotor offset displacement, a performance measurement platform for the HTS magnetic bearing is built, and accurately weighed load rings and differential measurement method are used. The measured axial levitation force is 77 N when the offset displacement is 0.1 mm. And the axial stiffness is 771 N/mm and radial stiffness is about 385.5 N/mm in the measuring range. The first bending mode critical speed of the rotor system can reach 74108 rpm. The designed HTS magnetic bearing system can provide sufficient levitation force and support stiffness for the practical application of helium cold compressor system. The research work provides a guiding for the application of HTS magnetic bearings in helium cold compressor.
       
  • Effect of Joule-Thomson Pressure Drop on a Cryogenic Three Fluid Heat
           Exchanger with Two Communications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): AVL. Chodankar Vishnudas, Aswatha, V. Krishna, K.N. Seetharamu In most cryogenic heat exchangers pressure drop effects are neglected during the design stage. However, if the heat exchanger requirements are stringent the pressure loss should be considered. The present paper investigates the thermal aspect of pressure drop, which is totally different from the previous researches which only focused on the hydraulic aspect of the pressure drop. Here the finite element method is used to study the effect of Joule-Thomson pressure drop on three stream cryogenic heat exchanger. This study is conducted considering six dimensionless parameters, of which one to account for Joule-Thomson pressure drop. The effects of these dimensionless parameters on the behavior of hot fluid is studied, presenting valuable information towards better understanding of hot fluid behavior.
       
  • One Year Stability of CernoxTM and DT-670-SD Silicon Diode Cryogenic
           Temperature Sensors Operated at 77 K
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): S Courts Cryogenic temperature sensors are commonly used in space applications where long-term operation, stability, and reliability/survivability are critical. For temperature sensors, these criteria are most often evaluated by either performing a high number of thermal shocks between temperature extremes or performing an accelerated life test at an elevated temperature. Neither of these tests addresses the situation of continued operation at a cold temperature. This work examines the stability of cryogenic temperature sensors stored and monitored in an open liquid nitrogen dewar for a period of one year. Three models were tested in this work, CernoxTM resistance temperature sensors models CX-1080-SD and CX-1070-SD, and the silicon diode temperature sensor model DT-670-SD. All three models are manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. and are commonly used in aerospace applications due to their robustness. Both CernoxTM models were stable at a level with a standard deviation varying from 5 mK to 19 mK and overall range of offsets varying from ±10 mK to ±54 mK. The model DT-670-SDs were stable at a level with a standard deviation of 10 mK and overall range of offsets of ±24 mK. Recalibration comparisons show the CX-1080-SDs to be within ±10 mK of the original calibration from 20 K to 325 K, the model CX-1070-SDs to be within ±5 mK below 10 K and within ±25 mK up to 325 K of the original calibration, and the model DT-670-SDs to be within ±20 mK of the original calibration from 2 K to 325 K. Experimental details and lessons learned are detailed.
       
  • Numerical investigation of modified cavitation model with thermodynamic
           effect in water and liquid nitrogen
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Bin Xu, Jian Feng, Fulai Wan, Desheng Zhang, Xi Shen, Weibin Zhang In this paper, three different cavitation models were employed and coupled with thermodynamic effect to simulate the cavitation flow in water and liquid nitrogen. The water cavitating flows around a NACA0015 hydrofoil and liquid nitrogen cavitating flows around a tapered hydrofoil were investigated numerically. The three-dimensional computations were compared and validated with the cavitation experiments. The applicability of the numerical solutions of cavitating regarding to the cavitation model was studied. The change of saturated vapor pressure caused by latent heat of vaporization and the change of local vaporization pressure caused by turbulent kinetic energy were taken into consideration. The numerical result of the modified Merkle cavitation model shows good agreement with the experimental result, indicating that the modified Merkle cavitation model could be employed to simulation the cavitation flows in water and liquid nitrogen. Additionally, corresponding of the thermodynamic effect in water and liquid nitrogen cavitation were discussed.
       
  • Numerical Simulation of the Thermal and Fluid-Dynamic Behavior of a
           Cryogenic Capillary Tube
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Maria Barba, Romain Bruce, Bertrand Baudouy A 2D numerical model based on an axisymmetric geometry has been developed to simulate the behavior of the two-phase working fluid in a horizontal capillary tube. Numerical results have been compared with experimental results to validate the model. Fluid flow characteristics related to the liquid film and the bubbles shape have been reproduced and evaporation and condensation processes in the liquid film have been simulated. Furthermore, the heat transfer from the evaporator to the condenser through fluid oscillations has been verified and specific thermodynamic instabilities of the working fluid in pulsating heat pipes have been reproduced. Conversely, it appears that only thermal instabilities are not sufficient to maintain an oscillating two-phase flow in horizontal capillary tubes. Nevertheless, the model represents accurately the overall heat transfer phenomena and constitutes a first step for future 2D numerical simulations of horizontal pulsating heat pipes.
       
  • A single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler achieving 1080 W at 77
           K with four cold fingers driven by one linear compressor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Haizheng Dang, Jiaqi Li, Rui Zha, Jun Tan, Tao Zhang, Bangjian Zhao, Yongjiang Zhao, Ning Li, Han Tan, Renjun Xue This paper presents the design, optimization and experimental verification of a high-capacity single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) with four cold fingers driven by only one linear compressor. The flow characteristics in both pulse tubes and regenerators are studied with the aid of CFD, and the effects of flow straighteners and operating parameters on the cooling performance analyzed in detail. The interactions and performance controlling among the four cold fingers are emphasized. The developed SPTC can experimentally achieve a cooling capacity of 1080 W at 77 K with a relative Carnot efficiency of 16%, which suggests a good alternative for cooling large-scale high-Tc superconducting (HTS) facilities such as HTS cables.
       
  • Artificial Neural Network Interpolation for Magnetic Field Mapping in an
           Air-Core HTS Quadruple Magnet
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Geonwoo Baek, Junseong Kim, Tae Kuk Ko, Sangjin Lee An air-core high-temperature superconducting (HTS) quadruple magnet is currently being designed and fabricated at the Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Yonsei University, in collaboration with Uiduk University. It is composed of eight double-pancake racetrack coils, each wound with 4-mm REBCO tapes manufactured by SuNAM Co., Inc. The Metal-as-Insulation technique will be used to reduce no-insulation charging delays. The gradient, uniformity and effective length of the initially-designed air-core quadruple magnet are 3.1 Tm-1, below 0.5%, and 209.0 mm, respectively. However, the magnet to be fabricated will be different from the designed magnet owing to manufacturing uncertainties. Therefore, magnetic field measurements must be performed in the volume of interest of the magnet. As it is impossible to measure the magnetic field at all points, it is crucial to obtain a mapping algorithm that can calculate the magnetic field in the volume of interest based on the measured field at several points. Herein, a mapping method using the discrete Fourier transform and artificial neural network interpolation was presented. To verify the mapping method, a mapping simulation of the designed magnet was performed and analyzed.
       
  • FEM modeling of multilayer Canted Cosine Theta (CCT) magnets with
           orthotropic material properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): R. Ortwein, J. Blocki, P. Wachal, G. Kirby, J. van NugterenAbstractCCT magnets are becoming more popular, especially as they provide support for each separate turn of a coils, thus significantly lowering the coil stresses and deformations. A four layer CCT nested orbit corrector magnet– MCBXFB was designed at CERN as a backup option to the baseline cosine-theta design. Two pairs of layers produce dipole magnetic fields at 90⁰ angles, allowing a 360⁰ control over the resulting dipole field vector. In order to validate the design in terms of the mechanical strength and the allowed deformations, mechanical FEM models are needed. Three models, having different levels of geometrical details have been developed in the APDL language in the ANSYS software: a 3D model with periodic symmetry and two 2D models, one assuming very simplified geometry of the coils and the formers and the second one with real geometry of the coils and the formers. Realistic coils properties were accounted for via homogenization technique used to obtain average properties of the Nb-Ti strands and the cured resin. Orthotropic behavior of the coil was accounted for via rotations of the element coordinate systems in the 3D periodic model, and via anisotropic material properties for the detailed 2D model.The electromagnetic (EM) analysis was done for the full 3D model of 1.4 m long MCBXFB magnet. The EM forces were mapped to the 3D periodic models and the 2D models The mechanical analysis consisted of the cool-down to 1.9 K in the first step and subsequent application of the Lorentz forces. In addition, behavior at 1.9 K without thermal strains but only EM forces was studied to compute the maximum coil deformations – important to be kept low for good field quality.All three FEM models have been successfully solved providing three estimations of the resulting deformations and stresses. The most loaded part was the interlayer insulation – due to the large torque between the layers, shear stresses above the safe level of 10 MPa were found. Another design was proposed to remove the possibility of the failure of the interlayer insulations via castellations in the formers. Further studies will include the full 3D model and a comparison to the periodic model, in order to find the most suitable boundary conditions for the periodic model. The detailed 2D model requires further developments in terms of electromagnetic force import. As the 2D model requires much less computational power w.r.t. the periodic 3D model, it shows a potential for more realistic geometrical modeling including the Nb-Ti strands and their Kapton insulation, to study the behavior of the interface between the strands, the cured resin and the former.
       
  • Cryocooler based helium liquefier using an active thermosiphon process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Anup Choudhury, Santosh Sahu, D. KanjilalAbstractA helium liquefier with a production capacity of 17.4 litres per day at standard temperature and pressure has been developed using a 1.5 watt @4.2K Gifford McMahon cryocooler to study the heat transfer dynamics between the cryocooler cold stages and flowing helium gas. Heat transfer studies are normally long drawn processes which require use of a large quantity of helium gas in the conventional mode of such liquefier. To minimise the usage of the precious helium gas, a thermosiphon loop connecting the liquid helium zone to the room temperature helium inlet line has been added to the system. A heater is used to evaporate liquid helium in the thermosiphon collection bottle and to re-circulate the evaporated helium gas from liquid to warm inlet gas on a continuous basis. A large number of temperature sensors were placed on the wall of the cryocooler and the liquefier to measure the thermal response of the system. In the 2nd stage regenerator region of the cryocooler, natural convection has been proposed to be the dominant mode of heat transfer between the cryocooler wall and the helium gas. Finite element analysis was carried out to understand the heat transfer process in this region. The result was validated against the observed thermal response. In this paper we present our studies on the liquefier, based on temperature response during the cool down time, system characterisation under various heat loads in the thermo-siphon region, and an FEA analysis of the heat transfer process in the 2nd stage regenerator zone.
       
  • Prediction of vapour-liquid equilibria of binary refrigerant mixtures of
           neon-nitrogen, neon-oxygen and neon-argon used in j-t refrigerators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Vineed Narayanan, G. VenkatarathnamAbstractNeon is one of the main components of the mixture used in J-T refrigerators operating below 70 K along with nitrogen, argon and oxygen. The properties of mixtures of these fluids need to be estimated accurately for designing optimum mixture compositions for these refrigerators. However, the binary interaction parameters of neon and other cryogens are not readily available in the literature for the widely used cubic equations of state. The binary interaction parameters of neon-nitrogen, neon-argon and neon-oxygen mixtures for the Peng-Robinson equation of state and that of neon-oxygen mixture for the Helmholtz energy equation of state have been regressed in this work. The vapour-liquid equilibria of neon-nitrogen, neon-argon, neon-oxygen mixtures estimated with the Helmholtz energy and the Peng-Robinson equations of states are compared with experimental data.
       
  • NASA Glenn Research Center Creek Road Cryogenic Complex: Testing between
           2005 – 2019
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Jason Hartwig, Wesley Johnson, Helmut Bamberger, Michael Meyer, Jason Wendell, Jim Mullins, R. Craig Robinson, Lori ArnettAbstractCreek Road Cryogenic Complex (CRCC) is the principle cryogenic fluids technology test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center. CRCC consists of the Small Multipurpose Research Facility (SMiRF), Cryogenic Component Lab-7 (CCL-7), a calorimeter, a superconducting motor testbed, and a shop area building. It is capable of simulating many extreme environments including transients during launch and ascent from Earth, Low Earth Orbit, and Lunar, Martian, and Titan atmosphere and surface conditions. The facility can handle liquid helium, liquid hydrogen, liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, liquid oxygen, liquid methane, and liquefied natural gas. It also provides gaseous nitrogen and helium. This paper presents a summary of CRCC’s test capabilities, available test tanks, as well as a brief summary and history of recent testing from 2005 – 2019.
       
  • Modelling quench of a 50 kA REBCO conductor with
           soldered-twisted-stacked-tape-cable strands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Rui Kang, Davide Uglietti, Yuntao SongAbstractA 50 kA REBCO conductor based on the Twisted-Stacked-Tape-cable concept is being developed at Swiss Plasma Center (SPC) for EU-DEMO central solenoid. The conductor contains 12 strands and each one is made of twisted REBCO tape stack soldered in round copper profile with rectangular slot. In this paper, first it is verified if the strands could be modelled as monolithic elements for quench simulation, which means instantaneous heat propagation within the domain and homogeneous current density, by studying the influence of the inter-tape and stack-profile resistance on their heat and current transfer. Then a local disturbance induced quench on the 50 kA REBCO conductor is studied in detail considering various inter-strand electrical resistance.
       
  • Heat-triggered two-phase flow maldistribution in a micromachined cryogenic
           cooler
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): H.S. Cao, S. Vanapalli, H.J. Holland, C.H. Vermeer, H.J.M. ter BrakeAbstractCounter flow heat exchangers (CFHXs) are essential elements of micromachined Joule-Thomson (JT) cryogenic coolers. The performance of CFHXs has a crucial influence on the overall behavior of JT microcoolers. Flow maldistribution, especially those with phase change, can adversely affect the performance of JT microcoolers. However, the underlying mechanisms of flow maldistribution for two-phase flow in JT microcoolers remain unexplored. Here we report the heat triggered switching of two-phase flow maldistribution in the heat exchanger of JT microcoolers by both microscopic observations and temperature measurements. A measure against flow maldistribution is proposed.
       
  • A Cable-Scale Experiment to Explore New Materials for Optimizing
           Superconductor Accelerator Magnets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): C.J. Kovacs, E.Z. Barzi, D. Turrioni, A.V. Zlobin, M. MarchevskyAbstractA previously commissioned system for exploring critical current pressure sensitivity in superconducting cables, the Transverse Pressure Insert, was modified to examine signals resulting from strand motion and insulation/impregnation cracking in a fully-excited Nb3Sn single strand embedded in an insulation wrapped and impregnated Cu dummy Rutherford cable stack. Measurements were performed in LHe with cyclic transverse pressures up to 68.5 MPa and transverse applied fields up to 13 T. Pressure was applied and removed to simulate stresses seen during magnet operation. Voltage and acoustic signal traces from a CTD-101K impregnated cable stack were compared to those of a sample impregnated with NHMFL Mix–61. The experiments in this document were in the pursuit of developing a smaller scale, lower cost, and shorter turn around time experiment for exploring materials and processes to decrease training in next-generation Nb3Sn accelerator magnets.
       
  • Performance characteristics map using exergy analysis of reverse Brayton
           cryocooler for HTS applications: Selection, Optimization, Design and
           Operational guidelines
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Aman Kumar Dhillon, Parthasarathi GhoshAbstractIn this paper, investigation has been carried out to find a guideline for selection of optimum process parameters such as the operating pressure and pressure ratio of an RBC for given loads at different temperature for HTS cables. Grid search method-based optimisation technique has been adopted where the exergetic efficiency has been considered as the objective function and the operating pressure and pressure ratio have been adopted as the primary variables. The effects of the change in the primary variables on the other process parameters such as mass flow rate, turbine power output, compressor power input, heat exchangers UA etc. have been investigated. Studies have been made to find out the effects of the design variables such as compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency, heat exchanger minimum approach etc. on the optimum values of the pressure ratio and operating pressure. The applications of the above findings have been elucidated with an example of selection of the process parameters of RBC for a given load conditions for HTS cables and utilized to develop a new simple and effective optimization approach. The findings and methodology may be adopted for RBC used in various other applications by researcher, process designer and operational engineer.
       
  • Numerical investigation of supercritical methane in helically coiled tube
           on regenerative cooling of liquid rocket electromechanical actuator
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Zhigang Gao, Junhua Bai, Jun Zhou, Chaoran Wang, Peng LiAbstractA numerical model employing the SST k-ω turbulent model is built to predict the turbulent flow and heat transfer of supercritical methane in helically coiled tube for the heat dissipation of high-power electromechanical actuator. The heat transfer mechanism and the crucial influence factors viz. pressure and heat flux are discussed, and the comparison between the semi-empirical heat transfer correlations and the simulation results are performed. The calculation results indicate that: (1) before the pseudo-critical point of supercritical methane in helically tube, the effect of the buoyancy caused by the thermophysical properties cannot be neglected; (2) the domination of the centrifugal force on the heat transfer after the pseudo-critical point of supercritical methane can be confirmed obviously, contributed to the non-uniform distribution of flow and heat transfer coefficient in cross sections; (3) pressure and heat flux both exhibit significant effects on heat transfer of supercritical methane in helically coiled tube; (4) the semi-empirical heat transfer correlation from Zhang et al. shows the best agreement against the simulation result in the present paper.
       
  • Simulation of heat-mass transportation characteristics for removal of CO
           in a liquid nitrogen wash sieve plate column
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: CryogenicsAuthor(s): Zhang Haonan, Zhang Cunquan, Zhang Meng, Song Peng-chengAbstractThe liquid nitrogen wash process and sieve plate columns have been popular for removal of deleterious impurities (primarily including carbon monoxide) in chemical raw gas. It is of great guiding significance for precise description of distribution of components in column plates and phase variation rules, and prediction of column plate efficiency for optimization of operating conditions and geometric structure dimensions. A mathematical model of velocity field of gas and liquid in an industrial grade distillation sieve plate column was established and the corresponding CFD model was also presented to study flow characteristics of gas and liquid and the separation efficiency; those simulation results such as CO flow field, concentration variation and single plate separation efficiency were discussed; in addition, comparative analysis was carried out with reference to those classic experimental results. Our ASPEN PLUS simulation is carried out for effective removal of primary impurities (CO, CH4 and Ar), which can be removed to below 1ppm, 1ppm and 18ppm through extraction and distillation of 50 plates, respectively. Thus, the requirements of the process standard may be satisfied. Results indicate that the important advantage of the simulation is that those influence factors may be automatically taken into account. It is investigated our simulation results are realistic and reliable to a certain degree to provide powerful technical support for practical engineering design.
       
 
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