Abstract: Abstract
An Eulerian formulation has been developed for the constitutive response of a group of materials that includes anisotropic elastic and viscoelastic solids and viscous fluids. The material is considered to be a composite of an elastic solid and a viscous fluid. Evolution equations are proposed for a triad of vectors m
i
that represent the stretches and orientations of material line elements in the solid component. Evolution equations for an orthonormal triad of vectors s
i
are also proposed to characterize anisotropy of the fluid component. In particular, for an elastic solid it is shown that the material response is totally characterized by the functional form of the strain energy and by the current values of m
i
, which are measurable in the current state of the material. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed Eulerian formulation removes unphysical arbitrariness of the choice of the reference configuration in the standard formulation of constitutive equations for anisotropic elastic solids. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
We discuss a pure hyperbolic alternative to the Navier–Stokes equations, which are of parabolic type. As a result of the substitution of the concept of the viscosity coefficient by a microphysics-based temporal characteristic, particle settled life (PSL) time, it becomes possible to formulate a model for viscous fluids in a form of first-order hyperbolic partial differential equations. Moreover, the concept of PSL time allows the use of the same model for flows of viscous fluids (Newtonian or non-Newtonian) as well as irreversible deformation of solids. In the theory presented, a continuum is interpreted as a system of material particles connected by bonds; the internal resistance to flow is interpreted as elastic stretching of the particle bonds; and a flow is a result of bond destructions and rearrangements of particles. Finally, we examine the model for simple shear flows, arbitrary incompressible and compressible flows of Newtonian fluids and demonstrate that Newton’s viscous law can be obtained in the framework of the developed hyperbolic theory as a steady-state limit. A basic relation between the viscosity coefficient, PSL time, and the shear sound velocity is also obtained. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
This paper presents an analytical approach for pre-buckling and buckling analyses of thin-walled members implemented within the framework of the Generalised Beam Theory (GBT). With the proposed GBT cross-sectional analysis, the set of deformation modes used in the analysis is represented by the dynamic modes obtained for an unrestrained frame representing the cross-section. In this manner, it is possible to account for the deformability of the cross-section in both pre-buckling and buckling analyses. Different loading conditions, including both axial and transverse arrangements, are considered in the applications to highlight under which circumstances the use of the GBT deformation modes is required for an adequate representation of the pre-buckling and buckling response. The numerical results have been validated against those determined using a shell element model developed in the finite element software ABAQUS. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
An isotropic three-dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic model is developed to simulate the time-dependent behavior of passive skeletal muscle. The development of the model is stimulated by experimental data that characterize the response during simple uniaxial stress cyclic loading and unloading. Of particular interest is the rate-dependent response, the recovery of muscle properties from the preconditioned to the unconditioned state and stress relaxation at constant stretch during loading and unloading. The model considers the material to be a composite of a nonlinear hyperelastic component in parallel with a nonlinear dissipative component. The strain energy and the corresponding stress measures are separated additively into hyperelastic and dissipative parts. In contrast to standard nonlinear inelastic models, here the dissipative component is modeled using an evolution equation that combines rate-independent and rate-dependent responses smoothly with no finite elastic range. Large deformation evolution equations for the distortional deformations in the elastic and in the dissipative component are presented. A robust, strongly objective numerical integration algorithm is used to model rate-dependent and rate-independent inelastic responses. The constitutive formulation is specialized to simulate the experimental data. The nonlinear viscoelastic model accurately represents the time-dependent passive response of skeletal muscle. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
Granular materials are typically characterized by complex structure and composition. Continuum modeling, therefore, remains the mainstay for describing properties of these material systems. In this paper, we extend the granular micromechanics approach by considering enhanced kinematic analysis. In this analysis, a decomposition of the relative movements of interacting grain pairs into parts arising from macro-scale strain as well as micro-scale strain measures is introduced. The decomposition is then used to formulate grain-scale deformation energy functions and derive inter-granular constitutive laws. The macro-scale deformation energy density is defined as a summation of micro-scale deformation energy defined for each interacting grain pair. As a result, a micromorphic continuum model for elasticity of granular media is derived and applied to investigate the wave propagation behavior. Dispersion graphs for different cases and different ratios between the microscopic stiffness parameters have been presented. It is seen that the model has the capability to present band gaps over a large range of wave numbers. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
In this paper, we provide a new example of the solution of a finite deformation boundary-value problem for a residually stressed elastic body. Specifically, we analyse the problem of the combined extension, inflation and torsion of a circular cylindrical tube subject to radial and circumferential residual stresses and governed by a residual-stress dependent nonlinear elastic constitutive law. The problem is first of all formulated for a general elastic strain-energy function, and compact expressions in the form of integrals are obtained for the pressure, axial load and torsional moment required to maintain the given deformation. For two specific simple prototype strain-energy functions that include residual stress, the integrals are evaluated to give explicit closed-form expressions for the pressure, axial load and torsional moment. The dependence of these quantities on a measure of the radial strain is illustrated graphically for different values of the parameters (in dimensionless form) involved, in particular the tube thickness, the amount of torsion and the strength of the residual stress. The results for the two strain-energy functions are compared and also compared with results when there is no residual stress. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
The coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations for momentum, diffusion and energy is examined in terms of Hadamard instability, which in a unified way provides the conditions of both “negative creep” and “spinodal decomposition” (loss of convexity of thermodynamic functions) (Markenscoff in Quart Appl Math 59:147–151, 2001; Quart Appl Math 59:471–477, 2001) by balancing terms of different orders in the eigenvalue equation. It is shown here that instabilities of “negative creep” occur in both infinite and finite domains. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
In the following analysis, we present a rigorous solution for the problem of a circular elastic inclusion surrounded by an infinite elastic matrix in finite plane elastostatics. The inclusion and matrix are separated by a circumferentially inhomogeneous imperfect interface characterized by the linear spring-type imperfect interface model where the interface is such that the same degree of imperfection is realized in both the normal and tangential directions. Through the use of analytic continuation, a set of first-order coupled ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients are developed for two analytic potential functions. The unknown coefficients of the potential functions are determined from their analyticity requirements and some additional problem-specific constraints. An example is then presented for a specific class of interface where the inclusion mean stress is contrasted between the homogeneous interface and inhomogeneous interface models. It is shown that, for circumstances where a homogeneously imperfect interface may not be warranted, the inhomogeneous model has a pronounced effect on the mean stress within the inclusion. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
The existence theorem of Fichera for the minimum problem of semicoercive quadratic functions in a Hilbert space is extended to a more general class of convex and lower semicontinuous functions. For unbounded domains, the behavior at infinity is controlled by a lemma which states that every unbounded sequence with bounded energy has a subsequence whose directions converge to a direction of recession of the function. Thanks to this result, semicoerciveness plus the assumption that the effective domain is boundedly generated, that is, admits a Motzkin decomposition, become sufficient conditions for existence. In particular, for functions with a smooth quadratic part, a generalization of the existence condition given by Fichera’s theorem is proved. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
Interaction between the bilayer shape and surface flow is important for capturing the flow of lipids in many biological membranes. Recent microscopy evidence has shown that minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids) occur often in cellular membranes. In this study, we explore lipid flow in these geometries using a ‘stream function’ formulation for viscoelastic lipid bilayers. Using this formulation, we derive two-dimensional lipid flow equations for the commonly occurring minimal surfaces in lipid bilayers. We show that for three minimal surfaces (planes, catenoids, and helicoids), the surface flow equations satisfy Stokes flow equations. In helicoids and catenoids, we show that the tangential velocity field is a Killing vector field. Thus, our analysis provides fundamental insight into the flow patterns of lipids on intracellular organelle membranes that are characterized by fixed shapes reminiscent of minimal surfaces. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
Recently, there has been an interest in the development of implicit constitutive relations between the stress and the deformation gradient, to describe the response of elastic bodies as such constitutive relations are capable of describing physically observed phenomena, in which classical models within the construct of Cauchy elasticity are unable to explain. In this paper, we study the consequences of the constraint of incompressibility in a subclass of such implicit constitutive relations. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
A strain-consistent elastic plate model is formulated in which both initial surface tension and the induced residual stress are treated as finite values, and the exactly same strain expressions are consistently employed for both the surface and the bulk plate. Different than most of previous related models which follow the original Gurtin–Murdoch model and include some non-strain displacement gradient terms (which cannot be expressed in terms of the surface infinitesimal strains or the von Karman-type strains) in the surface stress–strain relations, the present model does not include any non-strain displacement gradient terms in the surface stress–strain relations. For a free elastic plate with in-plane movable edges, the present model predicts that initial surface tension exactly cancels out the induced residual compressive stress. On the other hand, if all edges are in-plane immovable, residual stress cannot develop in the plate and the initial surface tension causes a tensile net membrane force. In addition, the present model predicts that initial surface tension reduces the effective bending rigidity of the plate, while this reduction does not depend on Poisson ratio. In particular, self-buckling of a free elastic plate under tensile surface tension cannot occur unless the effective bending rigidity of plate vanishes or becomes negative. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
Boundaries and junctions (both internal and external) can contribute significantly to the plastic deformation of metallic solids, especially when the average size of the grains (phases) is less than hundred nanometres or when the size of the solid itself is of the order of microns. The overall permanent deformation of the solid is a result of a coupling between bulk plasticity with moving interfaces/junctions/edges and intrinsic plasticity of internal and external surfaces. We use a novel continuum thermodynamic theory of plastic evolution, with incoherent interfaces and non-splitting junctions, to derive flow rules for bulk and surface plasticity in addition to kinetic relations for interface, edge, and junction motion, all coupled to each other. We assume rate-independent associative isotropic plastic response with bulk flow stress dependent on accumulated plastic strain and an appropriate measure of inhomogeneity. The resulting theory has two internal length scales: one given by the average grain size and another associated with the material inhomogeneity. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
We illustrate a numerical tool for analyzing plane arches such as those frequently used in historical masonry heritage. It is based on a refined elastic mechanical model derived from the isogeometric approach. In particular, geometry and displacements are modeled by means of non-uniform rational B-splines. After a brief introduction, outlining the basic assumptions of this approach and the corresponding modeling choices, several numerical applications to arches, which are typical of masonry structures, show the performance of this novel technique. These are discussed in detail to emphasize the advantage and potential developments of isogeometric analysis in the field of structural analysis of historical masonry buildings with complex geometries. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
In poroelasticity, the effective stress law relates the external stress applied to the medium to the macroscopic strain of the solid phase and the interstitial pressure of the fluid saturating the mixture. Such relationship has been formerly introduced by Terzaghi in form of a principle. To date, no poroelastic theory is capable of recovering a stress partitioning law in agreement with Terzaghi’s postulated one in the absence of ad hoc constitutive assumptions on the medium. We recently proposed a variational macroscopic continuum description of two-phase poroelasticity to derive a general biphasic formulation at finite deformations, termed variational macroscopic theory of porous media (VMTPM). Such approach proceeds from the inclusion of the intrinsic volumetric strain among the kinematic descriptors aside to macroscopic displacements, and as a variational theory, uses the Hamilton least-action principle as the unique primitive concept of mechanics invoked to derive momentum balance equations. In a previous related work it was shown that, for the subclass of undrained problems, VMTPM predicts that stress is partitioned in the two phases in strict compliance with Terzaghi’s law, irrespective of the microstructural and constitutive features of a given medium. In the present contribution, we further develop the linearized framework of VMTPM to arrive at a general operative formula that allows the quantitative determination of stress partitioning in a jacketed test over a generic isotropic biphasic specimen. This formula is quantitative and general, in that it relates the partial phase stresses to the externally applied stress as function of partitioning coefficients that are all derived by strictly following a purely variational and purely macroscopic approach, and in the absence of any specific hypothesis on the microstructural or constitutive features of a given medium. To achieve this result, the stiffness coefficients of the theory are derived by using exclusively variational arguments. We derive the boundary conditions attained across the boundary of a poroelastic saturated medium in contact with an impermeable surface also based on purely variational arguments. A technique to retrieve bounds for the resulting elastic moduli, based on Hashin’s composite spheres assemblage method, is also reported. Notably, in spite of the minimal mechanical hypotheses introduced, a rich mechanical behavior is observed. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
The theory of linear micropolar elasticity is used in conjunction with a new representation of micropolar surface mechanics to develop a comprehensive model for the deformations of a linearly micropolar elastic solid subjected to anti-plane shear loading. The proposed model represents the surface effect as a thin micropolar film of separate elasticity, perfectly bonded to the bulk. This model captures not only the micro-mechanical behavior of the bulk which is known to be considerable in many real materials but also the contribution of the surface effect which has been experimentally well observed for bodies with significant size-dependency and large surface area to volume ratios. The contribution of the surface mechanics to the ensuing boundary-value problem gives rise to a highly nonstandard boundary condition not accommodated by classical studies in this area. Nevertheless, the corresponding interior and exterior mixed boundary-value problems are formulated and reduced to systems of singular integro-differential equations using a representation of solutions in the form of modified single-layer potentials. Analysis of these systems demonstrates that the classical Noether theorems reduce to Fredholms theorems leading to results on well-posedness of the corresponding mathematical model. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
Mathematical questions pertaining to linear problems of equilibrium dynamics and vibrations of elastic bodies with surface stresses are studied. We extend our earlier results on existence of weak solutions within the Gurtin–Murdoch model to the Steigmann–Ogden model of surface elasticity using techniques from the theory of Sobolev’s spaces and methods of functional analysis. The Steigmann–Ogden model accounts for the bending stiffness of the surface film; it is a generalization of the Gurtin–Murdoch model. Weak setups of the problems, based on variational principles formulated, are employed. Some uniqueness-existence theorems for weak solutions of static and dynamic problems are proved in energy spaces via functional analytic methods. On the boundary surface, solutions to the problems under consideration are smoother than those for the corresponding problems of classical linear elasticity and those described by the Gurtin–Murdoch model. The weak setups of eigenvalue problems for elastic bodies with surface stresses are based on the Rayleigh and Courant variational principles. For the problems based on the Steigmann–Ogden model, certain spectral properties are established. In particular, bounds are placed on the eigenfrequencies of an elastic body with surface stresses; these demonstrate the increase in the body rigidity and the eigenfrequencies compared with the situation where the surface stresses are neglected. PubDate: 2016-03-01

Abstract: Abstract
This paper examines the indentation of an elastic body by a rigid spherical inclusion. In contrast to conventional treatments where the contact between a rigid inclusion and the elastic medium is regarded as being perfectly bonded, we examine the influence of non-classical interface conditions including frictionless bilateral contact, separation and Coulomb friction on the load–displacement behaviour of the spherical rigid inclusion. Both analytical methods and boundary element techniques are used to examine the inclusion/elastic medium interaction problems. This paper also provides a comprehensive review of non-classical interface conditions between inclusions and the surrounding elastic media. PubDate: 2015-11-25