Abstract: Abstract
Flow and heat transfer in a bottom-heated square cavity in a moderately rarefied gas is investigated using the R13 equations and the Navier–Stokes–Fourier equations. The results obtained are compared with those from the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method with emphasis on understanding thermal flow characteristics from the slip flow to the early transition regime. The R13 theory gives satisfying results—including flow patterns in fair agreement with DSMC—in the transition regime, which the conventional Navier–Stokes–Fourier equations are not able to capture. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
During stress-free thermal analysis with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nickel titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys show a thermal hysteresis which is affected by cooling/heating rates. Moreover, the Ni content of near equiatomic alloys governs the phase transition temperatures. This contribution aims at establishing a constitutive equation which can account for these effects, building on earlier work by Müller, Achenbach and Seelecke (MAS). To be specific, we discuss our new method with a focus on NiTi alloys. As in the original MAS model, our approach is rooted in a non-convex free energy representation and rate equations are utilized to incorporate history dependence during non-equilibrium processes. The relaxation times of these rate equations are determined by characteristic transformation probabilities which in turn are governed by the free energy landscape of our system. We show how the model can be parameterized to rationalize experimental DSC data observed for NiTi samples of variable composition and measured at variable cooling/heating rates. The good agreement between model predictions and experimental results suggests that thermal hystereses are not only related to interfacial strain energy effects but also affected by the transient character of the transformation process incorporating specific thermal relaxation times. Our analysis shows that we observe strong hysteretic effects when the cooling/heating rates exceed these characteristic relaxation rates. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
The paper presents rate constitutive theories for finite deformation of homogeneous, isotropic, compressible, and incompressible thermoviscoelastic solids without memory in Lagrangian description derived using the second law of thermodynamics expressed in terms of Gibbs potential Ψ. To ensure thermodynamic equilibrium during evolution, the rate constitutive theories must be derived using entropy inequality [as other three conservation and balance laws are do not provide a mechanism for deriving constitutive theories for the deforming matter (Surana in Advanced mechanics of continuua. in preparation, 2014)]. The two forms of the entropy inequality in Ψ derived using conjugate pairs
\({\mathbf{\sigma}^*}\)
,
\({[\dot{J}]}\)
: first Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensor and material derivative of the Jacobian of deformation and
\({\mathbf{\sigma}^{[0]}}\)
,
\({\dot{\mathbf{\varepsilon}}_{[0]}}\)
; second Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensor and material derivative of Green’s strain tensor are precisely equivalent as the conjugate pairs
\({\mathbf{\sigma}^*}\)
,
\({[\dot{J}]}\)
and
\({\mathbf{\sigma}^{[0]}}\)
,
\({\dot{\mathbf{\varepsilon}}_{[0]}}\)
are transformable from each other. In the present work, we use
\({\mathbf{\sigma}^{[0]}}\)
,
\({\dot{\mathbf{\varepsilon}}_{[0]}}\)
as conjugate pair. Two possible choices of dependent variables in the constitutive theories: Ψ, η,
\({\mathbf{\sigma}^{[0]}}\)
,
\({\mathbf{q}}\)
and Ψ, η,
\({\mathbf{\varepsilon}_{[0]}}\)
,
\({\mathbf{q}}\)
(in which η is entropy density and
\({\mathbf{q}}\)
is heat vector) are explored based on conservation and balance laws. It is shown that the choice of Ψ, η,
\({\mathbf{\varepsilon}_{[0]}}\)
,
\({\mathbf{q}}\)
is essential when the entropy inequality is expressed in terms of Ψ. The arguments of these dependent variables are decided based on desired physics. Viscoelastic behavior requires considerations of at least
\({\mathbf{\varepsilon}_{[0]}}\)
and
\({\dot{\mathbf{\varepsilon}}_{[0]}}\)
(or
\({\mathbf{\varepsilon}_{[1]}}\)
) in the constitutive theories. We generalize and consider strain rates
\({\mathbf{\varepsilon}_{[i]}}\)
; i = 0, 1, …, n−1 as arguments of the dependent variables in the derivations of the ordered rate theories of up to orders n. At the onset, PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
The paper provides the spatial formulation of the enhanced concept of rheological models (Bröcker and Matzenmiller in Cont Mech Thermodyn 25(6):749–778, 2013) for small deformations and the graphical representation of the rheological network for three-dimensionalmaterial behavior. The rheological components are redefined as tensor-valued elements, and afterward, they are assembled into a network of thermoviscoplasticity with volumetric–deviatoric split. The related constitutive equations are derived analogously as in the uniaxial model in Bröcker and Matzenmiller (Cont Mech Thermodyn 25(6):749–778, 2013), providing the von-Mises yield function of metal plasticity and the associated flow rule in a natural way. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
In this paper, a thermodynamical model of a porous media made of one or two solid phases α and β (depending on the hydrogen concentration) and one gas phase H2 is presented. As an extension of previous works performed by Gondor and Lexcellent (Int J Hydrog Energy 34(14):5716–5725, doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.05.070, 2009), our attention is paid to the identification of the vectorial displacement and by consequence to the stress and strain states in every point of the tank. This study allows a safe design of the reservoir. In front of the complexity of the problem to solve, a synthesis and a table of unknowns, constants, and parameters will ease the reader understanding. The problem is restricted to the isotropic elastic behavior of the solid phases. A great ingredient of the investigation is the phase transformation between the two phases α and β. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
In this letter, we address the problem of the integrability of a continuum model for granular media at equilibrium. By the means of a formal integrability analysis, we show that the equilibrium limit of such models can be cast into a gradient equation with zero right-hand side. In turn, this implies that the model of interest is inherently Frobenius integrable, in the absence of additional compatibility conditions. Moreover, the quantity inside the gradient is identified with the granular material’s Gibbs free energy. Consequently, the integrability for the model at hand is equivalent to setting the Gibbs free energy of the granular material constant throughout the domain. In other words, integrability is equivalent to the definition of equilibrium employed in statistical physics. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
A thermodynamic model of Korteweg fluids undergoing phase transition and/or phase separation is developed within the framework of weakly nonlocal thermodynamics. Compatibility with second law of thermodynamics is investigated by applying a generalized Liu procedure recently introduced in the literature. Possible forms of the free energy and of the stress tensor, which generalize some earlier ones proposed by several authors in the last decades, are carried out. Owing to the new procedure applied for exploiting the entropy principle, the thermodynamic potentials are allowed to depend on the whole set of variables spanning the state space, including the gradients of the unknown fields, without postulating neither the presence of an energy or entropy extra-flux, nor an additional balance law for microforce. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
In this paper, we consider the longitudinal and transversal vibrations of the masonry beams and arches. The basic motivation is the seismic vulnerability analysis of masonry structures that can be modeled as monodimensional elements. The Euler–Bernoulli hypothesis is employed for the system of forces in the beam. The axial force and the bending moment are assumed to consist of the elastic and viscous parts. The elastic part is described by the no-tension material, i.e., the material with no resistance to tension and which accounts for the cases of limitless, as well as bounded compressive strength. The adaptation of this material to beams has been developed in Orlandi (Analisi non lineare di strutture ad arco in muratura. Thesis, 1999) and Zani (Eur J Mech A/Solids 23:467–484, 2004). The viscous part amounts to the Kelvin–Voigt damping depending linearly on the time derivatives of the linearized strain and curvature. The dynamical equations are formulated, and a mathematical analysis of them is presented. Specifically, following Gajewski et al. (Nichtlineare Operatorgleichungen und Operatordifferentialgleichungen. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1974), the theorems of existence, uniqueness and regularity of the solution of the dynamical equations are recapitulated and specialized for our purposes, to support the numerical analysis applied previously in Lucchesi and Pintucchi (Eur J Mech A/Solids 26:88–105, 2007 ). As usual, for that the Galerkin method has been used. As an illustration, two numerical examples (slender masonry tower and masonry arch) are presented in this paper with the applied forces corresponding to the acceleration in the earthquake in Emilia Romagna in May 29, 2012. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
The previous paper by the authors (Siriwat and Meleshko in Contin Mech Thermodyn 24:115–148, 2012) was devoted to group analysis of one-dimensional nonisentropic equations of fluids with internal inertia. A direct approach was employed for finding the admitted Lie group. This approach allowed to perform a partial group classification of the considered equations with respect to a potential function. The present paper completes this group classification by an efficient algebraic method. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
Exact solutions of elastic Kirchhoff plates are available only for special geometries, loadings and kinematic boundary constraints. An effective solution procedure, based on an analogy between functionally graded orthotropic Saint-Venant beams under torsion and inhomogeneous isotropic Kirchhoff plates, with no kinematic boundary constraints, is proposed. The result extends the one contributed in Barretta (Acta Mech 224(12):2955–2964, 2013) for the special case of homogeneous Saint-Venant beams under torsion. Closed-form solutions for displacement, bending–twisting moment and curvature fields of an elliptic plate, corresponding to a functionally graded orthotropic beam, are evaluated. A new benchmark for computational mechanics is thus provided. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
Though targeting at different scales, the theory of objective structures and the theory of materially uniform bodies have some issues in common. We highlight those aspects of the two theories that share similar ideas, as well as delineate areas where they are inherently different. Prompt by the fact that materially uniform but inhomogeneous bodies ultimately describe dislocations into solids, we propose a way for defining continuous distribution of dislocations for objective structures. In the course of doing, so we draw upon combined theories of algebraic topology and discrete exterior calculus to model crystal elasticity. We also need a generalization of the theory of materially uniform bodies suitable for a class of micromorphic bodies. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
A semi-analytic solution for the elastic/plastic distribution of stress and strain in a spherical shell subject to pressure over its inner and outer radii and subsequent unloading is presented. The Bauschinger effect is taken into account. The flow theory of plasticity is adopted in conjunction with quite an arbitrary yield criterion and its associated flow rule. The yield stress is an arbitrary function of the equivalent strain. It is shown that the boundary value problem is significantly simplified if the equivalent strain is used as an independent variable instead of the radial coordinate. In particular, numerical methods are only necessary to evaluate ordinary integrals and solve simple transcendental equations. An illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the distribution of residual stresses and strains. PubDate: 2015-05-01

Abstract: Abstract
We develop a complete analytical solution predicting the deformation of rectangular lipid membranes resulting from boundary forces acting on the perimeter of the membrane. The shape equation describing the equilibrium state of a lipid membrane is taken from the classical Helfrich model. A linearized version of the shape equation describing membrane morphology (within the Monge representation) is obtained via a limit of superposed incremental deformations. We obtain a complete analytical solution by reducing the corresponding problem to a single partial differential equation and by using Fourier series representations for various types of boundary forces. The solution obtained predicts smooth morphological transition over the domain of interest. Finally, we note that the methods used in our analysis are not restricted to the particular type of boundary conditions considered here and can accommodate a wide class of practical and important edge conditions. PubDate: 2015-04-23

Abstract: Abstract
Recently, there has been an interest in the development of implicit constitutive relations between the stress and the deformation gradient, to describe the response of elastic bodies as such constitutive relations are capable of describing physically observed phenomena, in which classical models within the construct of Cauchy elasticity are unable to explain. In this paper, we study the consequences of the constraint of incompressibility in a subclass of such implicit constitutive relations. PubDate: 2015-04-21

Abstract: Abstract
We consider a classical derivation of a continuum theory, based on the fundamental balance laws of mass and momenta, for a body with internal corner and surface contact interactions. The balances of mass and linear and angular momentum are applied to the arbitrary parts of a continuum which supports non-classical internal corner and surface contact interactions. The form of the specific corner contact interaction force measured per unit length of the corner is derived. A generalized form of Cauchy’s stress theorem is obtained, which shows that the surface traction on an oriented surface depends in a specific way on both the oriented unit normal as well as the curvature of the surface. An explicit form of the surface-couple traction which acts on every oriented surface is obtained. Two fields in the continuum, which are denoted as stress and hyperstress fields, are shown to exist, and their role in representing the surface traction and the surface-couple traction is identified. Finally, the field equations for this theory are determined, and a fundamental power theorem is derived. In the absence of internal corner and surface-couple traction interactions, the equations of classical continuum mechanics are recovered. There is no appeal to any ‘principle of virtual power’ in this work. PubDate: 2015-04-07

Abstract: Abstract
A strain-consistent elastic plate model is formulated in which both initial surface tension and the induced residual stress are treated as finite values, and the exactly same strain expressions are consistently employed for both the surface and the bulk plate. Different than most of previous related models which follow the original Gurtin–Murdoch model and include some non-strain displacement gradient terms (which cannot be expressed in terms of the surface infinitesimal strains or the von Karman-type strains) in the surface stress–strain relations, the present model does not include any non-strain displacement gradient terms in the surface stress–strain relations. For a free elastic plate with in-plane movable edges, the present model predicts that initial surface tension exactly cancels out the induced residual compressive stress. On the other hand, if all edges are in-plane immovable, residual stress cannot develop in the plate and the initial surface tension causes a tensile net membrane force. In addition, the present model predicts that initial surface tension reduces the effective bending rigidity of the plate, while this reduction does not depend on Poisson ratio. In particular, self-buckling of a free elastic plate under tensile surface tension cannot occur unless the effective bending rigidity of plate vanishes or becomes negative. PubDate: 2015-03-31

Abstract: Abstract
Granular materials are typically characterized by complex structure and composition. Continuum modeling, therefore, remains the mainstay for describing properties of these material systems. In this paper, we extend the granular micromechanics approach by considering enhanced kinematic analysis. In this analysis, a decomposition of the relative movements of interacting grain pairs into parts arising from macro-scale strain as well as micro-scale strain measures is introduced. The decomposition is then used to formulate grain-scale deformation energy functions and derive inter-granular constitutive laws. The macro-scale deformation energy density is defined as a summation of micro-scale deformation energy defined for each interacting grain pair. As a result, a micromorphic continuum model for elasticity of granular media is derived and applied to investigate the wave propagation behavior. Dispersion graphs for different cases and different ratios between the microscopic stiffness parameters have been presented. It is seen that the model has the capability to present band gaps over a large range of wave numbers. PubDate: 2015-03-31

Abstract: Abstract
In poroelasticity, the effective stress law relates the external stress applied to the medium to the macroscopic strain of the solid phase and the interstitial pressure of the fluid saturating the mixture. Such relationship has been formerly introduced by Terzaghi in form of a principle. To date, no poroelastic theory is capable of recovering a stress partitioning law in agreement with Terzaghi’s postulated one in the absence of ad hoc constitutive assumptions on the medium. We recently proposed a variational macroscopic continuum description of two-phase poroelasticity to derive a general biphasic formulation at finite deformations, termed variational macroscopic theory of porous media (VMTPM). Such approach proceeds from the inclusion of the intrinsic volumetric strain among the kinematic descriptors aside to macroscopic displacements, and as a variational theory, uses the Hamilton least-action principle as the unique primitive concept of mechanics invoked to derive momentum balance equations. In a previous related work it was shown that, for the subclass of undrained problems, VMTPM predicts that stress is partitioned in the two phases in strict compliance with Terzaghi’s law, irrespective of the microstructural and constitutive features of a given medium. In the present contribution, we further develop the linearized framework of VMTPM to arrive at a general operative formula that allows the quantitative determination of stress partitioning in a jacketed test over a generic isotropic biphasic specimen. This formula is quantitative and general, in that it relates the partial phase stresses to the externally applied stress as function of partitioning coefficients that are all derived by strictly following a purely variational and purely macroscopic approach, and in the absence of any specific hypothesis on the microstructural or constitutive features of a given medium. To achieve this result, the stiffness coefficients of the theory are derived by using exclusively variational arguments. We derive the boundary conditions attained across the boundary of a poroelastic saturated medium in contact with an impermeable surface also based on purely variational arguments. A technique to retrieve bounds for the resulting elastic moduli, based on Hashin’s composite spheres assemblage method, is also reported. Notably, in spite of the minimal mechanical hypotheses introduced, a rich mechanical behavior is observed. PubDate: 2015-03-22

Abstract: Abstract
In Bertram (Continuum Mech Thermodyn. doi:10.1007/s00161-014-0387-0, 2015), a mechanical framework for finite gradient elasticity and plasticity has been given. In the present paper, this is extended to thermodynamics. The mechanical theory is only briefly repeated here. A format for a rather general constitutive theory including all thermodynamic fields is given in a Euclidian invariant setting. The plasticity theory is rate-independent and unconstrained. The Clausius–Duhem inequality is exploited to find necessary and sufficient conditions for thermodynamic consistency. The residual dissipation inequality restricts the flow and hardening rules in combination with the yield criterion. PubDate: 2015-03-13

Abstract: Abstract
In this article, an alternative to the classical dynamic equation formulation is presented. To achieve this goal, we need to derive the reciprocal theorem in rates and the principle of virtual work in rates, in a small deformation regime, with which we will be able to obtain an expression for damping force. In this new formulation, some terms that are not commonly considered in the classical formulation appear, e.g., the term that is function of jerk (the rate of change of acceleration). Moreover, in this formulation the term that characterizes material nonlinearity, in dynamic analysis, appears naturally. PubDate: 2015-03-06