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PHYSICS (574 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Acta Acustica united with Acustica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advanced Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging     Open Access  
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annales Henri PoincarĂ©     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales UMCS, Physica     Open Access  
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Physics     Open Access  
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Applied Physics Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Applied Radiation and Isotopes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Remote Sensing Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Applied Spectroscopy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access  
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Astrophysical Journal Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Atoms     Open Access  
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Axioms     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biophysical Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biophysical Reviews and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Boson Journal of Modern Physics     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de FĂ­sica     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Physics B     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Physics C     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Physics Letters     Full-text available via subscription  
Cogent Physics     Open Access  
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Colloid Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Theoretical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access  
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access  
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access  
Computational Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Computer Physics Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Science     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover   Colloid Journal
  [SJR: 0.31]   [H-I: 19]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1608-3067 - ISSN (Online) 1061-933X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2276 journals]
  • Formation of copper(I) oxide nanoparticles at an early stage of copper sol
           synthesis in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone)
    • Abstract: Abstract The initial stage of the reduction of Cu2+ ions with tert-butylamine borane in aqueous poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) solutions has been investigated by electronic spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and measurements of pH. It has been shown that a yellow-orange sol of Cu2O with nanoparticle sizes of 2–10 nm is formed at this stage, which is accompanied by a significant decrease in the pH of the reaction system. With a lack of a reducing agent, Cu2O sols remain transparent for 24 h or more, thereby indicating an interaction between oxide nanoparticles and polymer macromolecules. In the presence of excess reducing agent, the formation of a copper metal sol begins after Cu2+ ions have been exhausted. The introduction of an additional portion of Cu2+ ions into the reaction system at this stage leads to the oxidation of copper nanoparticles with the formation of Cu2O particles. Based on the data obtained, it has been concluded that the oxidation of copper metal particles with Cu2+ ions to the univalent state hinders the formation of the copper sol at the initial stage of the reduction. Thus, in the investigated system, Cu2O nanoparticles play the role of a precursor for copper metal particles.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • The effects of a solvent and a ligand shell on interaction of CdSe quantum
           dots: Molecular dynamics simulation
    • Abstract: Abstract Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed for the interaction of CdSe quantum dots both uncovered and covered with shells composed of trioctylphosphine oxide molecules in solvents of different polarities (chloroform and methanol). A detailed model that takes into account the real structure of the crystalline core, ligands, and solvent molecules has been used. It has been found that an increase in the lyophobicity of the particles with respect to a solvent promotes aggregation thereof, while an increase in the lyophilicity leads, on the contrary, to dispersion of the particles in a colloidal solution. It has been shown that the influence of the ligand shell is not reduced to a change in the interaction of the quantum dot surface with a solvent. The transition from a soft organic shell to a rigid crystalline surface enables one to observe oscillating potential of mean force in a highly solvating environment due to the formation of a layered structure of a solvent in the gap between the facets of nanocrystals being approached.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Deformation of AUK microporous carbon adsorbent induced by xenon
    • Abstract: Abstract The pressure dependences of the relative linear deformation of AUK microporous carbon adsorbent obtained from silicon carbide have been measured upon xenon adsorption in a range of pressures p from 1 Pa to 6 MPa at 178, 216, 243, 273, 313, 353, and 393 K. The adsorption-induced deformation increases with pressure and decreases with a rise in temperature, except for the initial pressure range (p < 0.05 MPa). At low temperatures, the deformation curves show that the adsorbent contracts in the initial pressure range, with the contraction region narrowing upon increasing temperature. At temperatures higher than 353 K, the initial contraction is absent and the adsorbent expands with a rise in xenon pressure in the entire pressure range. The description of the deformation versus adsorption value dependences by the equation based on the generalized 6-n intermolecular interaction potential has shown good agreement between the calculated and experimental data in the region of moderate and high fillings of micropores throughout the studied temperature range.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Efficiency of filtration through fibrous materials with nonuniform charge
           distribution on fibers
    • Abstract: Abstract Formulas have been derived for electric fields generated by charges arbitrarily distributed over the surface of cylindrical fibers with circular cross sections. The Monte Carlo method has been used to determine the efficiency of aerosol filtration for a cell model implying a three-dimensional character of the motion of particles being captured. The collection efficiency for weakly charged particles has been studied as depending on particle diameter and charge density distribution on fibers for several modes. It has been shown that there is a range of sizes of charged aerosol particles for which a nonuniform distribution of charges over fibers increases the filtration efficiency as compared with the uniform distribution in a filter, which is, on average, neutral. A model has been proposed for Hansen filters, and the dependences of penetration of particles on their diameters and charges generated on resin particles deposited onto wool fibers have been plotted.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Osmotic pressure or decompression?
    • Abstract: Abstract The mechanism for the development of osmotic pressure has been discussed. A simple method has been proposed for deriving an expression for osmotic pressure based on molecular-kinetic considerations. The invalidity of frequently used ideas of osmotic pressure as an additional contribution to the pressure of low-molecular-mass solutes, colloidal particles, or polymer molecules has been noted. It has also been indicated that, in some cases, it is more correct to speak about an osmotic reduction rather than an increase in the pressure. In particular, the Raoult law has been shown to be a direct consequence of the Van’t Hoff law for osmotic pressure.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Bactericidal sodium alginate films containing nanosized silver particles
    • Abstract: Abstract Optimal conditions have been determined for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles via reduction of Ag+ cations with sodium borohydride in the presence of a polysaccharide, sodium alginate, as a stabilizer. The optical properties of nanoparticles have been characterized with the use of absorption spectroscopy in UV and visible regions, while their shapes, sizes, and crystallinity have been studied by transmission electron microscopy. Cross linking of alginate macromolecules with calcium cations has been used to obtain hydrogels and, then, films containing silver nanoparticles. The films thus prepared have exhibited a high bactericidal activity with respect to a number of model pathogenic microorganisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and yeast.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Colloido-chemical characteristics of nanoporous glasses with different
           compositions in solutions of simple and organic electrolytes. 1.
           Structural and transport characteristics of membranes
    • Abstract: Abstract The regularities of variations in the structural (bulk porosity, structural resistance coefficient, and average pore radius) and transport (specific electrical conductivity and ion transport numbers) characteristics of nanoporous glass membranes with different compositions have been studied as depending on their preparation conditions and the type of electrolyte (sodium, potassium, ammonium, tetramethylammonium, and tetraethylammonium chlorides). An additional alkaline treatment of the porous glasses, which increases the average pore radius and modifies the morphology of pore channels, leads to variations in the electrotransport characteristics of the glasses. In solutions containing inorganic counterions, the dependences of the transport characteristics of the porous glasses on the solution concentration and pore size have a classic character. The high specificity of tetraalkylammonium ions in relation to the surface gives rise to a region of negative values of the specific surface conductivity and complex dependences of efficiency coefficients and transport numbers on electrolyte concentration and pore channel size. The duration of the thermal treatment of initial sodium-borosilicate glass containing small amounts of phosphorus oxide and fluoride ions, as well as the conditions of its leaching, has almost no effect on the properties of the membranes in tetraethylammonium chloride solutions.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Three scenarios of evaporation of microliter droplets of dispersions and
           structure of formed ring-shaped deposits
    • Abstract: Abstract Experiments have been performed on the formation of ring-shaped deposits by evaporating droplets of dispersions using the coffee ring effect. The experiments have been carried out with aqueous dispersions of polystyrene and silica submicron particles, as well as SiO2 particles of the Levasil brand with a size of 50 nm. It has been shown that there are three different scenarios of deposit formation and droplet meniscus displacement. The deposits may be formed as rings and disks. When ring-shaped deposits are formed, the displacement of the meniscus may be essentially different (from the periphery to the center of the droplet and vice versa) depending on the nature of particles. The mechanisms responsible for the realization of different scenarios have been considered at the qualitative level.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Initial contact angles of dispersion droplets and structure of ring-shaped
           deposits resulting from capillary self-assembling of particles
    • Abstract: Abstract Initial contact angles have been measured for sessile droplets of dispersions, from which ring-shaped deposits are being formed. Factors that affect the initial contact angles, i.e., the regime of droplet application; droplet volume; method of substrate surface treatment; and the concentration, charge, and nature of dispersion particles, have been analyzed. It has been found that, depending on the method of substrate cleaning, the contact angle may be changed by 47°. At the same time, the regime of droplet application may change the contact angle by 13°. The presence of particles may either increase or decrease the contact angle by 5°, depending on their nature. The structure of a formed deposit has been shown to depend on the contact angle and the degree of chemical homogeneity of a substrate surface.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • The effect of water-structuring magnesium ions on the state of
           quasi-liquid ice film
    • Abstract: Abstract Sorption of molybdate anions from aqueous solutions on the surface of dispersed ice is studied as depending on initial concentration of magnesium chloride. KCl is used as a background electrolyte. The results obtained are interpreted within the concept of the impact of water-structuring additives on the properties of the quasi-liquid ice films.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Electrosurface properties of kaolin and bentonite particles in solutions
           of electrolytes and surfactants
    • Abstract: Abstract The influence of pH and KCl, CaCl2, AlCl3, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) concentrations on electrokinetic potential ζ of particles and the electrical conductivity of aqueous kaolin and bentonite suspensions has been studied. At “natural” pH values of the suspensions (7.2–7.4), the ζ potential of bentonite is much higher (–45 mV) than that of kaolin (–20 mV), and this difference takes place in a wide pH range (2–11). In both cases, a rise in pH leads to an increase in the absolute values of ζ due to the enhanced dissociation of surface OH groups. Charge reversal is observed at pH of approximately 2 and pH 2.5 for kaolin and bentonite, respectively. The dependence of the ζ potential of the particles on KCl concentration passes through a maximum, while the addition of CaCl2 and AlCl3 causes a substantial reduction in ζ and particle charge reversal, respectively. An increase in CTAB concentration C in a suspension leads to a decrease in the negative ζ values followed by particle charge reversal, with the ζ(C) curve tending to reach a plateau. It has been shown that the initial regions of the dependences of the relative electrical conductivities of the suspensions on the volume fraction of the solid phase are almost linear, with their slopes decreasing with a rise in electrolyte concentration. Hence, the contribution of the surface conductivity to the total suspension conductivity decreases with a rise in the ionic strength of a solution. The values of the electrokinetic charge calculated from the data on the ζ potential, i.e., the charge of the slipping plane, have appeared to be one to two orders of magnitude lower than the surface charges of the minerals. This finding suggests that counterions are predominantly located in the hydrodynamically motionless part of the electrical double layer.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Regularities of phenol adsorption from aqueous solutions on
           carbon–mineral materials obtained from bentonite clay
    • Abstract: Abstract Carbon-mineral materials are obtained by impregnation of bentonite clay with an organic modifier (sucrose) solution under the action of ultrasonic vibration followed by carbonization in water vapor atmosphere. It is shown that the ultrasonic treatment of the clay suspension yields carbon-mineral materials with higher specific surface area and affinity for phenol than those of the starting clay and the material obtained without ultrasonic impact. The adsorption capacity of this sample with respect to phenol is 110 mg/g, which is higher than that of active brown coals. The main parameters affecting phenol adsorption by carbon-mineral materials are pH, sorbent content, phenol concentration, and temperature. The kinetics of phenol adsorption from an aqueous solution on the carbon-mineral sorbent corresponds to a psevdo-first-order reaction with a correlation coefficient of 0.9977.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Asymptotics of pressure tensor in fluid-filled finite slits
    • Abstract: Abstract Asymptotic formulas have been derived for pressure tensor in a liquid- or gas-filled circular slit between the faces of two identical cylinders. The problem has being solved based on the asymptotic principle of interbody dispersion interactions in liquid media, while the calculations have been performed in terms of the Irving–Kirkwood pressure tensor. The final result has the form of normal pressure as a function of slit radius and width and the location inside the slit, with the location being specified by a radial coordinate and the distances from the slit walls. The contribution of edge effects at equal width and radius of a slit has been estimated to be as high as 70%.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Preparation of stable sols of silver nanoparticles in aqueous pectin
           solutions and properties of the sols
    • Abstract: Abstract Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by reducing AgNO3 in an alkaline medium under the action of a natural polysaccharide, pectin. The influences of the type of pectin used and the reagent mixing order during the synthesis on the sizes and plasmon resonance properties of nanoparticles have been studied by optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The conditions that make it possible to obtain silver hydrosols having predetermined particle sizes of 8 ± 2 to 22 ± 6 nm and stable to aggregation for at least 3 months have been determined.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Formation kinetics of silver nanoparticles in reverse micelles. 3.
           Reductant concentration and temperature as factors controlling synthesis
           of nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Abstract Data on the evolution of optical absorption spectra during the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in reverse micelles at different temperatures and reductant concentrations have been presented. Analysis of the bands in the optical absorption spectra with the use of controlled-growth models (logistic and Gompertz models) has resulted in the determination of the parameters of the models and domains of their applicability. Characteristic times of silver nanoparticle synthesis have been found under different conditions. A temperature-scaling factor, which allows one to transform the optical absorption spectra into a comparable form, has been introduced. Based on the scaling of corresponding parameters with respect to the characteristic reaction time and the limiting optical absorption, consistent kinetic dependences have been obtained for different concentrations. This makes it possible to use the obtained parameters for controlling the process of nanoparticle synthesis.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Amphiphilic alginate as a drug release vehicle for water-insoluble drugs
    • Abstract: Abstract A preliminary study on the hydrophobic modified alginate (HM-alginate) as the drug delivery system for the model water-insoluble drugs, clofazimine and Amphotericin B was performed. It was found that HM-alginate can significantly increase the solubilities of these two drugs. The apparent water solubilities of clofazimine and Amphotericin B increased up to 1100 and 160 times, respectively, in aqueous solutions containing HM-alginate. The presence of sodium chloride in polymer solution decreased the solubilities of the drugs, compared to the salt-free solutions. HM-alginate also exhibited excellent sustained release effect, which increased with concentration. The type of HM-alginate, which we used herein, might have potential applications as water-insoluble drug delivery carrier.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast computed tomography study on
           self-assembly of polystyrene colloidal crystals via solvent evaporation
    • Abstract: Abstract The colloidal crystals of polystyrene (PS) spheres were assembled from the emulsion of PS by an in situ solvent evaporation method. The local internal 3D structure of the fabricated colloidal crystals was noninvasively characterized with synchrotron radiation phase-contrast computed tomography. The satisfactory contrast difference was obtained and the shapes of the spheres were clearly reconstructed. Based on the slice images, the two-stage mechanism of crystallization process for in situ evaporation was suggested. In the initial stage, stable nucleation and growth result in formation of an ordered face-centered cubic structure with the sphere volume fraction 70.2%, which is very close to the maximum sphere packing volume fraction 74%. In the second stage, the sphere concentration in suspension decreased too much to support an adequate sphere transfer through the solvent flux to the growth front. The transformation from square to hexagonal lattice did not therefore complete under the same evaporation rate. This incompleteness results in formation of local ordered structure with randomly arranged hexagonal and square packing with a slightly low volume fraction of 68.41%.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Equilibrium studies on the removal of cadmium ion on amberlite IR-120
    • Abstract: Abstract Adsorption kinetics and isotherms for Cd(II) ions on Amberlite IR-120 in a batch process have been studied under different conditions. The influence of various experimental parameters such as the pH, amount of adsorbent material, initial Cd(II) concentration, contact time and solution temperature, on the removal of cadmium ions has been investigated. The experimental isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The results suggest that the adsorption of Cd(II) ions on Amberlite IR-120 follows the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacities amounted for 250.63, 258.39 and 259.74 mg/g adsorbent at 28, 50 and 70°C, respectively. Two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental kinetic data. The best fit was obtained with pseudo-second order model. The thermodynamic parameters were also determined. The activation energy calculated from the rate coefficients at different temperatures was 37.45 kJ/mol. The value of the heat of adsorption suggests the endothermic nature of the cation exchange process.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01
  • Fast coagulation of gold sols. the formation of interparticle contacts at
           early stages
    • Abstract: Abstract The fast coagulation of gold sols with concentrations of 46-nm particles equal to (0.8–30) × 1010 cm–3 initiated by an indifferent electrolyte has been studied by spectrophotometry. Variations arising in two absorption bands upon the formation of asymmetric clusters in the sols of plasmonic nanoparticles have been analyzed. Analysis of the kinetic data on variations in the high-energy mode, the intensity of which is governed by the contributions of both individual nanoparticles and their aggregates, has shown that, at early stages, the coagulation has the character of a bimolecular reaction. Extinction spectra of dimers, in which gold nanoparticles are located at different distances from each other, have been calculated with the use of the generalized Mie theory. A “plasmon ruler,” which represents the shift of the longitudinal plasmon resonance band of dimers relative to that of individual particles as depending on the distances between the surfaces of the particles in the dimer, has been constructed based on the calculated data. Using the plasmon ruler and experimental data, the distance between nanoparticles in dimers formed during coagulation has, for the first time, been determined. It has been found that, at the initial stages of gold sol fast coagulation, when the process develops as a bimolecular reaction, nanoparticles that have formed dimers are not in the direct contact.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Synthesis of copper–polymer nanocomposite on steel surface and
           composite-based catalyst for steel nitriding
    • Abstract: Abstract Contact between a steel surface and a mixed solution of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) and copper sulfate leads to the reduction of copper(2+) ions and the formation of a nanocomposite consisting of copper nanoparticles and the polymer. Ultrasonic treatment of the reaction mixture yields a sol of the nanocomposite, the particles of which contain metal nanoparticles and their aggregates with sizes of 10–100 nm shielded by the polymer. The nanocomposite has been used as a precursor of a catalyst for steel nitriding, i.e., copper oxide, which is formed at high temperature via degradation of the nanocomposite and oxidation of copper nanoparticles. Owing to the small particle sizes, this catalyst is substantially more active than an analogous catalyst obtained by reducing copper ions in the absence of the polymer.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
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